WorldWideScience

Sample records for astronaut-rover exploration strategies

  1. The development of a virtual camera system for astronaut-rover planetary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Donald W; Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    A virtual assistant is being developed for use by astronauts as they use rovers to explore the surface of other planets. This interactive database, called the Virtual Camera (VC), is an interactive database that allows the user to have better situational awareness for exploration. It can be used for training, data analysis and augmentation of actual surface exploration. This paper describes the development efforts and Human-Computer Interaction considerations for implementing a first-generation VC on a tablet mobile computer device. Scenarios for use will be presented. Evaluation and success criteria such as efficiency in terms of processing time and precision situational awareness, learnability, usability, and robustness will also be presented. Initial testing and the impact of HCI design considerations of manipulation and improvement in situational awareness using a prototype VC will be discussed.

  2. Uranium exploration planning and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.Y.; Tauchid, M.

    1991-01-01

    A country may decide to begin uranium exploration for any of the following three reasons: 1. To meet the needs of a domestic nuclear power programme; 2. To supply uranium as a commodity to the world market in order to earn foreign exchange; 3. To acquire national information on the country's mineral resource planning. In any of these cases, a country must make some basic decisions regarding the means and modes whereby the uranium exploration will be carried out - by national organizations exclusively; by state organizations in joint venture with outside interests by foreign interests under the control of national regulations. Most uranium exploration is carried out following an exploration strategy in which the programme is divided into a series of steps or stages. Each of the phases is designed to eliminate areas of low potential to contain uranium deposits, while focusing attention on areas of higher potential that will be explored in greater detail at higher cost in the subsequent phase. The methods used in each phase are selected to provide the maximum information at the minimum cost so that at the end of each phase a decision can be made whether to continue to the next phase of stop. Because uranium exploration is a high cost high risk activity, governments must make decisions at the outset whether they wish to carry our the work alone and whether they can support the costs involved, or whether they wish to attract foreign investors to help absorb the costs and therefore the risks. In either case, major policy decisions are required to be made to establish the legal and fiscal environment in which the programm will be carried out. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  3. Exploring recruitment strategies to hire occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Susan; Derdall, Michele

    2005-02-01

    Recruitment issues in occupational therapy have been a long-standing concern for the profession. This descriptive study explored the strategies currently being used by employers to recruit occupational therapists for employment purposes. An 18-item survey was mailed to 251 sites where occupational therapists work in Alberta and Saskatchewan. There was a 64% response rate and data from 130 surveys were analyzed. The results indicate that employers continue to rely on a wide variety of strategies for advertising and recruiting, the most prevalent being word of mouth, postings at universities, and providing student fieldwork placements. In turn, the most effective recruitment strategies were listed as word of mouth, advertising in the general media, and providing student fieldwork placements. Various examples of financial incentives offered by employers were also listed. Many participants identified recent changes in recruitment strategies such as making a move towards web site job postings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The results suggest strategies for employers to target for recruiting occupational therapists and illustrate to both employers and students the importance of fieldwork in recruitment and hiring.

  4. Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies of Nurses at ... explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used ... of staff and materials, facing death and dying, dissatisfaction with the work ...

  5. Strategy for the Explorer program for solar and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents include: executive summary; the Explorer program - background and current status; strategy - level of activity; solar-terrestrial research (solar physics, space plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics)

  6. Mineral exploration in Austria, possibilities and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the present situation in Austria for mineral exploration. He considers the geological chances of finding new resources, presents a short description of commodities and finally gives proposals for a natural resources inventory. (Auth.)

  7. Exploring new strategies for cellulosic biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Langan; S. Gnankaran; Kirk D. Rector; Norma Pawley; David T. Fox; Dae Won Cho; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2011-01-01

    A research program has been initiated to formulate new strategies for efficient low-cost lignocellulosic biomass processing technologies for the production of biofuels. This article reviews results from initial research into lignocellulosic biomass structure, recalcitrance, and pretreatment. In addition to contributing towards a comprehensive understanding of...

  8. Exploring alternative assessment strategies in science classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Stears

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge children bring to the classroom or construct in the classroom may find expression in a variety of activities and is often not measurable with the traditional assessment instruments used in science classrooms. Different approaches to assessment are required to accommodate the various ways in which learners construct knowledge in social settings. In our research we attempted to determine the types of outcomes achieved in a Grade 6 classroom where alternative strategies such as interactive assessments were implemented. Analyses of these outcomes show that the learners learned much more than the tests indicate, although what they learnt was not necessarily science. The implications for assessment are clear: strategies that assess knowledge of science concepts, as well as assessment of outcomes other than science outcomes, are required if we wish to gain a holistic understanding of the learning that occurs in science classrooms.

  9. Exploring Metacognitive Strategies and Hypermedia Annotations on Foreign Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The effective use of reading strategies has been recognized as an important way to increase reading comprehension in hypermedia environments. The purpose of the study was to explore whether metacognitive strategy use and access to hypermedia annotations facilitated reading comprehension based on English as a foreign language students' proficiency…

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  11. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiation and regulation of employee work identity.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data.Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance.Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work. 

  12. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology was founded in 1827 and it is the largest technical university in Sweden with five campuses and Around 15,000 students. KTH-dESA combines an outstanding knowledge in the field of energy systems analysis. This is demonstrated by the successful collaborations with many (UN) organizations. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa include Assessing renewable energy potentials; Analysing investment strategies; ) Assessing climate resilience; Comparing electrification options; Providing web-based decision support; and Quantifying energy access. It is conclude that Strategies required to ensure a robust and flexible energy system (-> no-regret choices); Capacity investments should be in line with national & regional strategies; Climate change important to consider, as it may strongly influence the energy flows in a region; Long-term models can help identify robust energy investment strategies and pathways that Can help assess future markets and profitability of individual projects

  13. Exploring Parental Involvement Strategies Utilized by Middle School Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chris; Searby, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents present a unique collection of characteristics and challenges which middle school interdisciplinary teams were designed to address. This article describes a research study which explored parental involvement strategies employed by interdisciplinary teaching teams from three very different middle schools: an affluent suburban school, a…

  14. A space exploration strategy that promotes international and commercial participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Chai, Patrick R.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has created a plan to implement the Flexible Path strategy, which utilizes a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver crew and cargo to orbit. In this plan, NASA would develop much of the transportation architecture (launch vehicle, crew capsule, and in-space propulsion), leaving the other in-space elements open to commercial and international partnerships. This paper presents a space exploration strategy that reverses that philosophy, where commercial and international launch vehicles provide launch services. Utilizing a propellant depot to aggregate propellant on orbit, smaller launch vehicles are capable of delivering all of the mass necessary for space exploration. This strategy has benefits to the architecture in terms of cost, schedule, and reliability.

  15. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work. Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data. Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance. Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity. Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work.

  16. Exploring Business Strategy in Health Information Exchange Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James R; Champagne, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Unlike consumer goods industries, healthcare has been slow to implement technolo gies that support exchange of data in patients' health records. This results in avoid able medication errors, avoidable hospital readmissions, unnecessary duplicate testing, and other inefficient or wasteful practices. Community-based regional health information exchange (HIE) organizations have evolved in response to federal aims to encourage interoperability, yet little is known about their strategic approach. We use the lens of institutional and strategic management theories to empirically explore the differences in business strategies deployed in HIEs that are, to date, financially sustainable versus those that are not. We developed a 20-question survey targeted to CEOs to assess HIE business strategies. Our sample consisted of 60 community-based exchanges distributed throughout the United States, and we achieved a 58% response rate. Questions centered on competitive strategy and financial sustainability. We relied on logistic regression methods to explore relationships between variables. Our regression identified characteristics common to sustainable organizations. We defined sustainability as revenues exceeding operational costs. Seventeen of the 35 organizations (49%) defined themselves as currently sustainable. Focus and cost leadership strategies were significantly associated with sustainability. Growth strate gies, which were much more common than other strategies, were not associated with sustainability. We saw little evidence of a differentiation strategy (i.e., the basis of competition whereby the attributes of a product or service are unmatched by rivals). Most CEOs had a relatively optimistic outlook, with 60% stating they were confident of surviving over the next 5 years; however, nearly 9% of the organizations were in some phase of divestiture or exit from the market. HIEs are evolving differently based on local leadership decisions, yet their strategic approach is

  17. Exploring coping strategies of business leaders during an economic downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise van Zyl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As a large part of South Africa’s economy is based on the mining industry, this research focused on exploring the coping strategies of business leaders in the mining industry during an economic downturn. Using qualitative research within a constructivist-interpretive paradigm, the researchers sought a deeper understanding of how mining leaders cope during an economic downturn. A purposive sample of seven executive mining leaders of different mining houses was interviewed and data was analysed using Atlas.ti. A conceptual framework for understanding coping strategies at the individual, group and organisational levels for business leaders during an economic downturn was developed and is discussed here. This study contributed to theory and practice by focusing on coping responses to specific situations within a specific context instead of on general coping strategies.

  18. Aircrew Discourse: Exploring Strategies of Information and Action Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Cheryl M.; Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores methodology issues encountered in the analysis of flightcrew communications in aviation simulation research. Examples are provided by two recent studies which are compared on three issues: level of analysis, data definition, and interpretation of the results. The data discussed were collected in a study comparing two levels of aircraft automation. The first example is an investigation of how pilots' information transfer strategies differed as a function of automation during low and high-workload flight phases. The second study focuses on how crews managed actions in the two aircraft during a ten minute, high-workload flight segment. Results indicated that crews in the two aircraft differed in their strategies of information and action management. The differences are discussed in terms of their operational and research significance.

  19. Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

    2009-01-01

    Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

  20. Synergy in spreading processes: from exploitative to explorative foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Ludlam, Jonathan J; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-05-27

    An epidemiological model which incorporates synergistic effects that allow the infectivity and/or susceptibility of hosts to be dependent on the number of infected neighbors is proposed. Constructive synergy induces an exploitative behavior which results in a rapid invasion that infects a large number of hosts. Interfering synergy leads to a slower and sparser explorative foraging strategy that traverses larger distances by infecting fewer hosts. The model can be mapped to a dynamical bond percolation with spatial correlations that affect the mechanism of spread but do not influence the critical behavior of epidemics. © 2011 American Physical Society

  1. Strategy and perspective for uranium exploration in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.A.; Salman, A.B.; Assaf, H.S.; Mahdy, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium exploration started in Egypt about three decades ago. This was performed by applying integrated airborne and ground radiometric prospecting. The latter was conducted upon selected areas having rather favorable geological criteria. These activities resulted in the discovery of great numbers of radiometric anomalies, with several uranium occurrences in various geologic environments in granitic and sedimentary rocks. Some of these uranium occurrences show good potential for developing into workable uranium deposits. Small-scale exploratory tunnelling and drilling works have been carried out at some of these occurrences. Leaching studies and pilot experiments were carried out on technological samples to evaluate ore's suitability for uranium extraction. However, no assured reserves of uranium have been reached yet. The demands for uranium to satisfy the near future Egyptian nuclear power generation necessitates some development in the national strategy for uranium exploration. This will be achieved through intense programmes for ground geophysics and drilling from surface and underground mining works, in addition to radon emanometry and logging of oil and gas wells. Moreover, non conventional procedures for uranium extraction such as heap-leaching may be followed to exploit small-scale uranium deposits. In this developed strategy, the present uranium occurrences are modellized and categorized following the IAEA classification. The characteristics of the present uranium occurrences will be utilized in prospecting new areas. Subsidiary resources in phosphorites, black sands and rare metal deposits could supply additional quantities of uranium, in addition to thorium and rare earth elements. (author). 34 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Existential risks: exploring a robust risk reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously.

  3. An Overview of Uranium Exploration Strategy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, A., E-mail: director.amd@gov.in [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad (India)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium exploration in India dates back from 1949 and the first mineralized area was located in the early 1950s in Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), eastern India. Since then, a number of potential and promising uranium provinces have been established in India. The potential uranium provinces include SSZ, Dongargarh, Aravalli, Siwalik belt, Mahadek basin, south-western and northern parts of Cuddapah basin, North Delhi Fold Belt, Bhima and Kaladgi basins. The promising uranium provinces are Proterozoic Chhattisgarh, Indravati, Gwalior, Vindhyan, Shillong basins, Gondwana basins of Central India and semi-arid regions of western Rajasthan. With the establishment of large tonnage-high grade Lower-middle Proterozoic unconformity deposits in Canada and Australia, there was a paradigm shift in the exploration strategy towards the Proterozoic basins of India. The discovery of unconformity related uranium mineralisation in the northern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin in southern India in 1991 and discovery of few deposits in the province has opened the avenues for finding of similar deposits in Cuddapah and other 13 Proterozoic basins in India. As a sequel, Proterozoic Bhima basin in southern India has been recognized as a potential target for uranium mineralization, where a low tonnage medium grade deposit has been established and mine development works are in progress. Sustained exploration efforts in other Proterozoic basins have yielded success in a few basins such as Deshnur area in Kaladgi Basin of southern India. Considerable uranium resources have been established in Proterozoic Cuddapah and Bhima basins. Apart from northern parts of Cuddapah and Bhima basins, areas in the southwestern part of Cuddapah basin for stratabound type, where a mine is under construction; Proterozoic Kaladgi basin for vein type; Cretaceous Mahadek basin for sandstone type and the North Delhi Fold belt for vein type of mineralization have been prioritized as potential areas for exploration

  4. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  5. Abiogenic origin of petroleum hydrocarbons: Need to rethink exploration strategies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.

    -depletion of petroleum deposits since long. Considering these strong evidences, it is suggested to explore the onshore and offshore regions characterized by faults, gas escape features, mud diapirs and mud volcanoes for detailed abiogenic hydrocarbon exploration...

  6. Comparing Exploration Strategies for Q-learning in Random Stochastic Mazes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, Arryon; Drugan, Madalina; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Balancing the ratio between exploration and exploitation is an important problem in reinforcement learning. This paper evaluates four different exploration strategies combined with Q-learning using random stochastic mazes to investigate their performances. We will compare: UCB-1, softmax,

  7. Exploring Teacher Strategies in Teaching Descriptive Writing in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyanti, Sufatmi; Yaacob, Aizan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is the outcome of a study which examined teacher strategies in teaching descriptive writing to junior high school students in Delitua, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The study was based on two questions: 1) What are the teaching strategies used by EFL teachers in teaching descriptive writing? 2) To what extent did the descriptive…

  8. The impact of price reduction on exploration-production strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1994-01-01

    Six trends seem to be prevailing: a best ratio cost-efficiency in exploration-production; a certain geographical concentration; the impact of technological advance; the opening to exploration of areas closed in the past to the western companies; accent put on natural gas

  9. Exploring the link between strategy and decision criteria in NPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    process. Respondents with a prospector strategy use DC to a higher degree than analysers and respondents with the highest level of innovativeness use soft DC to a higher degree compared to those with low innovativeness who use financial criteria at all gates. The relationship between strategy and newness......Our major objective is to investigate the link between strategy and decision criteria (DC). An exploratory study was conducted by means of questionnaire-data and in-depth interviews with respondents involved in NPD. Results show extensive use of strategic DC, primarily early in the development...

  10. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  11. Exploration for uranium in Meghalaya and the environmental monitoring strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoda, S.Q.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium investigations in Meghalaya started way back in 1962 and as a result of the systematic and sustained efforts, not only uranium deposits were discovered but several thrust areas have been identified as targets for sub-surface exploration. Atomic minerals are one of the main sources of natural environmental radiation which are being explored by Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD). In view of the growing awareness in the common public, AMD has started generating baseline data on radiation, hydrology and soil chemistry early in the pre-project stage for Environmental Impact Assessment (IEA). Some of the important aspects related to environmental impacts of uranium exploration are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Relay communications strategies for Mars exploration through 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Arnold, B.; DePaula, R.; Kazz, G.; Lee, C.; Noreen, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will examine NASA's strategy for relay communications support of missions planned for this decade, and discuss options for longer-term relay network evolution in support of second-decade missions.

  13. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Safian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL at University Putra Malaysia.  There are five different categories of vocabulary leaning strategies determination, social, memory, cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Quantitative research design has been used in this study by providing a set of questionnaire of 58 items that was given out to 50 participants at the Faculty of Educational Studies in UPM. The findings of this research hope to help all educators to acknowledge the type of vocabulary strategies used by students in acquiring second language (L2.

  14. Uranium exploration in India: present status and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration for Uranium in India dates back to 1949, where surveys to locate atomic minerals were initiated in the well established Copper Thrust Belt (CTB) of Singhbhum, in the present day Jharkhand state. Based on the limited understanding on uranium geology, the thrust zones of Singhbhum which were popularly known for hosting Copper mineralization were targeted presuming sympathetic relation between Copper and Uranium. Exploration for uranium over the past six decades has resulted in identifying eleven major uranium deposits distributed in varied geological environs all over the country. Apart from conventional uranium mineralization, non-conventional resources like phosphorite, black shale etc. have immense potential. Even though their uranium grades will be of lower order, their uranium content will be huge due to their extensive size. In addition to intensifying uranium exploration in potential geological domains, AMD also plans to tap the non-conventional resources which will add substantially to the resource base

  15. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safian, Nur Hanisah; Malakar, Sharmila; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) at University Putra Malaysia. There are…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Listening Development and Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise; Vanderplank, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the development of the listening proficiency and strategic behaviour of 15 lower-intermediate learners of French in England. We consider whether listeners remain in the same listening proficiency group after six months, and whether changes in strategy use are related to movement or non-movement between…

  17. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  18. Exploring query execution strategies for JIT vectorization and SIMD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.K. Gubner (Tim); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper partially explores the design space for efficient query processors on future hardware that is rich in SIMD capabilities. It departs from two well-known approaches: (1) interpreted block-at-a-time execution (a.k.a. "vectorization") and (2) "data-centric" JIT compilation, as in

  19. ESA strategy for human exploration and the Lunar Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, B.

    As part of ESAs Aurora Exploration programme, the Agency has defined, since 2001, a road map for exploration in which, alongside robotic exploration missions, the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon play an essential role on the way to other destinations in the Solar System, ultimately to a human mission to Mars in a more distant future. In the frame of the Human Spaceflight programme the first European Lunar Lander Mission, with a launch date on 2018, has been defined, targeting the lunar South Pole region to capitalize on unique illumination conditions and provide the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations in a region of the Moon not explored so far. The Phase B1 industrial study, recently initiated, will consolidate the mission design and prepare the ground for the approval of the full mission development phase at the 2012 ESA Council at Ministerial. This paper describes the mission options which have been investigated in the past Phase A studies and presents the main activities foreseen in the Phase B1 to consolidate the mission design, including a robust bread-boards and technology development programme. In addition, the approach to overcoming the mission's major technical and environmental challenges and the activities to advance the definition of the payload elements will be described.

  20. Alternative search strategies to explore ATLAS diboson excess

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charanjit K Khosa

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... the mass range of W/Z boson) and also explore the possibility of three-particle BSM final state mimicking diboson excess. .... electron and muon and /ET > 350 GeV are removed. ..... Energy Phys.1510, 076 (2015), arXiv:1506.06767 [hep- ph] .... [15] A Belyaev, N D Christensen and A Pukhov, Comput. Phys.

  1. Exploring Animal-Assisted Therapy as a Reading Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymen, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This study is an examination of animal-assisted therapy in an attempt to explore the ways it may serve as reading intervention program for struggling readers. Due to the low rate of literacy in the U.S., children are often put into reading intervention programs where they are required to read to an adult; potentially creating anxiety that may act…

  2. Exploring Options to Address Chinas Strategy in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    india_news-article-52022.htm (accessed December 19, 2012). 82 M. V. Ramana and Zia Mian , “The Nuclear Confrontation in South Asia,” SIPRI Yearbook 2003...english.peopledaily.com.cn/90883/7839137.html (accessed December 17, 2012). 90 Bin Wang and Shen Li , “Education Tourism Market in China - an Explorative Study

  3. Evaluation of different frontier-based multi-robot exploration strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkrid Abdenour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the problem of exploring an unknown environment by a team of mobile robots. The main objective is to compare four different coordination strategies based on frontier concept (boundaries between unexplored and explored open areas and analyze their performance in term of assignment quality, overall exploration time and computational complexity. In order to provide a suitable qualitative study we used three optimization criteria. Each strategy has been implemented and tested extensively in computerized simulation.

  4. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.

  5. Exploring the experiences and coping strategies of international medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malau-Aduli Bunmi S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have addressed the challenges that international medical students face and there is a dearth of information on the behavioural strategies these students adopt to successfully progress through their academic program in the face of substantial difficulties of language barrier, curriculum overload, financial constraints and assessment tasks that require high proficiency in communication skills. Methods This study was designed primarily with the aim of enhancing understanding of the coping strategies, skill perceptions and knowledge of assessment expectations of international students as they progress through the third and fourth years of their medical degree at the School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Australia. Results Survey, focus group discussion and individual interviews revealed that language barriers, communication skills, cultural differences, financial burdens, heavy workloads and discriminatory bottlenecks were key factors that hindered their adaptation to the Australian culture. Quantitative analyses of their examination results showed that there were highly significant (p Conclusions Despite the challenges, these students have adopted commendable coping strategies and progressed through the course largely due to their high sense of responsibility towards their family, their focus on the goal of graduating as medical doctors and their support networks. It was concluded that faculty needs to provide both academic and moral support to their international medical students at three major intervention points, namely point of entry, mid way through the course and at the end of the course to enhance their coping skills and academic progression. Finally, appropriate recommendations were made.

  6. From ‘English-only’ to translanguaging strategies: Exploring possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwinda, Nangura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates English language proficiency development in a rural primary school in the Kavango region of Namibia. English is the language of instruction in most schools in Namibia from fourth grade onwards. In addition to other challenges, lack of adequate proficiency in English has been identified as one of the major barriers to learning. Current research on translanguaging demonstrates that purposeful use of translanguaging supports learning. The aim of this article is to argue that a contextual analysis and a test of learners’ proficiency in their dominant language and in English are essential when deciding on translanguaging strategies. This may lead to possible ways in which translanguaging can improve the English language proficiency of rural primary learners in an environment where the language is hardly heard or spoken outside the classroom. The paper argues that translation, and preview – view – review strategies are some of the translanguaging teaching strategies that could be used as resources for building English vocabulary.

  7. Life after Kyoto? Exploration of long term strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    The current international climate negotiations (including CoP-6,recently held in The Hague, Netherlands) are mainly concerned with short term actions and barriers, and are experiencing considerable difficulties, as was once again revealed in The Hague. But we should not forget that keeping climate risks under control also demands a long term perspective. Such a perspective demands an estimate of both possible consequences and risks of climate change, and the possible solutions, in terms of strategies, policy measures, consequences and costs. 2 refs

  8. Exploring Monte Carlo Simulation Strategies for Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J.; Grebenitcharsky, R.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Computer simulations are an increasingly important area of geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on [0, 1], can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN), quasi-random number (QRN) or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the expected error variances are generally of different orders for the same number of random numbers. A comparative analysis of these three strategies has been carried out for geodetic and related applications in planar and spherical contexts. Based on these computational experiments, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and error variances are included.

  9. Metal Organic Frameworks: Explorations and Design Strategies for MOF Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Rasha

    2016-11-27

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent an emerging new class of functional crystalline solid-state materials. In the early discovery of this now rapidly growing class of materials significant challenges were often encountered. However, MOFs today, with its vast structural modularity, reflected by the huge library of the available chemical building blocks, and exceptional controlled porosity, stand as the most promising candidate to address many of the overbearing societal challenges pertaining to energy and environmental sustainability. A variety of design strategies have been enumerated in the literature which rely on the use of predesigned building blocks paving the way towards potentially more predictable structures. The two major design strategies presented in this work are the molecular building block (MBB) and supermolecular building block (SBB) -based approaches for the rationale assembly of functional MOF materials with the desired structural features. In this context, we targeted two highly connected MOF platforms, namely rht-MOF and shp-MOF. These two MOF platforms are classified based on their topology, defined as the underlying connectivity of their respective net, as edge transitive binodal nets; shp being (4,12)-connected net and rht being (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets were deliberately targeted due to the limited number of possible nets for connecting their associated basic building units. Two highly porous materials were designed and successfully constructed; namely Y-shp-MOF-5 and rht-MOF-10. The Y-shp-MOF-5 features a phenomenal water stability with an exquisite behavior when exposed to water, positioning this microporous material as the best adsorbent for moisture control applications. The shp-MOF platform proved to be modular to ligand functionalization and thus imparting significant behavioral changes when hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalized ligands were introduced on the resultant MOF. On the other hand, rht

  10. Strategies for the sustained human exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Damon Frederick

    A variety of mission scenarios are compared in this thesis to assess the strengths and weaknesses of options for Mars exploration. The mission design space is modeled along two dimensions: trajectory architectures and propulsion system technologies. Direct, semi-direct, stop-over, semi-cycler, and cycler architectures are examined, and electric propulsion, nuclear thermal rockets, methane and oxygen production on Mars, Mars water excavation, aerocapture, and reusable propulsion systems are included in the technology assessment. The mission sensitivity to crew size, vehicle masses, and crew travel time is also examined. The primary figure of merit for a mission scenario is the injected mass to low-Earth orbit (IMLEO), though technology readiness levels (TRL) are also included. Several elements in the architecture dimension are explored in more detail. The Earth-Mars semi-cycler architecture is introduced and five families of Earth-Mars semi-cycler trajectories are presented along with optimized itineraries. Optimized cycler trajectories are also presented. In addition to Earth-Mars semi-cycler and cycler trajectories, conjunction-class, free-return, Mars-Earth semi-cycler, and low-thrust trajectories are calculated. Design parameters for optimal DeltaV trajectories are provided over a range of flight times (from 120 to 270 days) and launch years (between 2009 and 2022). Unlike impulsive transfers, the mass-optimal low-thrust trajectory depends strongly on the thrust and specific impulse of the propulsion system. A low-thrust version of the rocket equation is provided where the initial mass or thrust may be minimized by varying the initial acceleration and specific impulse. Planet-centered operations are also examined. A method to rotate a parking orbit about the line of apsides to achieve the proper orientation at departure is discussed, thus coupling the effects of parking-orbit orientation with the interplanetary trajectories. Also, a guidance algorithm for

  11. Exploring Different Strategies for Efficient Delivery of Colorectal Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. Currently available chemotherapy of CRC usually delivers the drug to both normal as well as cancerous tissues, thus leading to numerous undesirable effects. Much emphasis is being laid on the development of effective drug delivery systems for achieving selective delivery of the active moiety at the anticipated site of action with minimized unwanted side effects. Researchers have employed various techniques (dependent on pH, time, pressure and/or bacteria for targeting drugs directly to the colonic region. On the other hand, systemic drug delivery strategies to specific molecular targets (such as FGFR, EGFR, CD44, EpCAM, CA IX, PPARγ and COX-2 overexpressed by cancerous cells have also been shown to be effective. This review aims to put forth an overview of drug delivery technologies that have been, and may be developed, for the treatment of CRC.

  12. Exploring the Optimal Strategy to Predict Essential Genes in Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Lu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting essential genes is important in many aspects of biology, medicine and bioengineering. In previous research, we have developed a machine learning based integrative algorithm to predict essential genes in bacterial species. This algorithm lends itself to two approaches for predicting essential genes: learning the traits from known essential genes in the target organism, or transferring essential gene annotations from a closely related model organism. However, for an understudied microbe, each approach has its potential limitations. The first is constricted by the often small number of known essential genes. The second is limited by the availability of model organisms and by evolutionary distance. In this study, we aim to determine the optimal strategy for predicting essential genes by examining four microbes with well-characterized essential genes. Our results suggest that, unless the known essential genes are few, learning from the known essential genes in the target organism usually outperforms transferring essential gene annotations from a related model organism. In fact, the required number of known essential genes is surprisingly small to make accurate predictions. In prokaryotes, when the number of known essential genes is greater than 2% of total genes, this approach already comes close to its optimal performance. In eukaryotes, achieving the same best performance requires over 4% of total genes, reflecting the increased complexity of eukaryotic organisms. Combining the two approaches resulted in an increased performance when the known essential genes are few. Our investigation thus provides key information on accurately predicting essential genes and will greatly facilitate annotations of microbial genomes.

  13. Exploring Unanticipated Consequences of Strategy Amongst Stakeholder Segments: The Case of a European Revenue Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Money, K.G.; Hillenbrand, C.; Henseler, J.; Da Camara, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article applies FIMIX-PLS segmentation methodology to detect and explore unanticipated reactions to organisational strategy among stakeholder segments. For many large organisations today, the tendency to apply a “one-size-fits-all” strategy to members of a stakeholder population, commonly

  14. Exploring the Listening Process to Inform the Development of Strategy Awareness-Raising Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Maria; Guisado, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale qualitative study aimed at exploring the listening process in a group of Spanish beginners in a UK higher education context. The specific aim of the study was to inform the development of materials for listening strategy awareness-raising activities. The exploration was focused on identifying (a) strategies…

  15. Not all coping strategies are created equal: a mixed methods study exploring physicians' self reported coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Jean E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to physician wellness within a large health region in Western Canada. This paper focuses on the coping strategies that physicians use in response to work-related stress. The qualitative component explores physicians' self reported coping strategies through open ended interviews of 42 physicians representing diverse medical specialties and settings (91% response rate. The major themes extracted from the qualitative interviews were used to construct 12 survey items that were included in the comprehensive quantitative questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent to all eligible physicians in the health region with 1178 completed surveys (40% response rate. Questionnaire items were used to measure how often physicians draw on the various coping strategies. Feelings of burnout were also measured in the survey by 5 items from the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the revised Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Major themes identified from the interviews include coping strategies used at work (e.g., working through stress, talking with co-workers, taking a time out, using humor and after work (e.g., exercise, quiet time, spending time with family. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed three often used workplace coping strategies were positively correlated with feeling emotionally exhausted (i.e., keeping stress to oneself (r = .23, concentrating on what to do next (r = .16, and going on as if nothing happened (r = .07. Some less often used workplace coping strategies (e.g., taking a time out and all

  16. COMPARISON OF CLASSICAL AND INTERACTIVE MULTI-ROBOT EXPLORATION STRATEGIES IN POPULATED ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Kalde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot exploration consists in coordinating robots for mapping an unknown environment. It raises several issues concerning task allocation, robot control, path planning and communication. We study exploration in populated environments, in which pedestrian flows can severely impact performances. However, humans have adaptive skills for taking advantage of these flows while moving. Therefore, in order to exploit these human abilities, we propose a novel exploration strategy that explicitly allows for human-robot interactions. Our model for exploration in populated environments combines the classical frontier-based strategy with our interactive approach. We implement interactions where robots can locally choose a human guide to follow and define a parametric heuristic to balance interaction and frontier assignments. Finally, we evaluate to which extent human presence impacts our exploration model in terms of coverage ratio, travelled distance and elapsed time to completion.

  17. Human Exploration using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO): A space exploration strategy for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around Mars and other exploration targets of interest, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely-controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay or "latency" with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments. This in effect gives them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expands the scientific return at these destinations. HERRO mitigates several of the major issues that have hindered the progress of human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by: (1) broadening the range of destinations for near-term human missions; (2) reducing cost and risk through less complexity and fewer man-rated elements; (3) offering benefits of human-equivalent in-situ cognition, decision-making and field-work on planetary bodies; (4) providing a simpler approach to returning samples from Mars and planetary surfaces; and (5) facilitating opportunities for international collaboration through contribution of diverse robotic systems. HERRO provides a firm justification for human spaceflight—one that expands the near-term capabilities of scientific exploration while providing the space transportation infrastructure needed for eventual human landings in the future.

  18. Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharf, I; Kamynina, L; Malanina, V

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of ''Gazprom neft'' for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector

  19. Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I.; Malanina, V.; Kamynina, L.

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of "Gazprom neft" for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector.

  20. Strategy Implementation through Hierarchical Couplings in a Management Control Package: An Explorative Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore three hierarchical relations between MC elements, and examine how these couplings help to implement the organization’s strategy. We conducted a single case study in a medium-sized Dutch municipali...

  1. Strategy Implementation through Hierarchical Couplings in a Management Control Package : An Explorative Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore

  2. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health

  3. Life after abuse : an exploration of women's strategies for overcoming abuse

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt et Phil. The study explored strategies abused women use to overcome power and control in their intimate relationships, using their own self-agency. Data was collected through the technique of triangulation in which three women who were legally divorced, wrote their own stories, after which each was individually interviewed by the researcher to get information about the process of leaving and staying away from their abusive relationships, and clearing up and moving on with their live...

  4. DYNAMIC AND INCREMENTAL EXPLORATION STRATEGY IN FUSION ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY FOR ONLINE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhitama Subagdja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental challenges in reinforcement learning is to setup a proper balance between exploration and exploitation to obtain the maximum cummulative reward in the long run. Most protocols for exploration bound the overall values to a convergent level of performance. If new knowledge is inserted or the environment is suddenly changed, the issue becomes more intricate as the exploration must compromise the pre-existing knowledge. This paper presents a type of multi-channel adaptive resonance theory (ART neural network model called fusion ART which serves as a fuzzy approximator for reinforcement learning with inherent features that can regulate the exploration strategy. This intrinsic regulation is driven by the condition of the knowledge learnt so far by the agent. The model offers a stable but incremental reinforcement learning that can involve prior rules as bootstrap knowledge for guiding the agent to select the right action. Experiments in obstacle avoidance and navigation tasks demonstrate that in the configuration of learning wherein the agent learns from scratch, the inherent exploration model in fusion ART model is comparable to the basic E-greedy policy. On the other hand, the model is demonstrated to deal with prior knowledge and strike a balance between exploration and exploitation.

  5. Exploring self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nureeva, Liliya; Brunsø, Karen; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    – Focusing on improving adolescents’ self-regulatory skills in the domain of eating behaviour is a promising approach in developing future interventions. Originality/value – The present article explores self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in adolescence and discusses their relevance.......Purpose – Healthy eating behaviour in adolescence may be negatively affected by lack of self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies for regulating eating behaviour as formulated by adolescents themselves. Design/methodology/approach – Self-regulatory strategies were elicited...... with concept mapping, which is a group-based method. Three meetings were conducted with each of four school classes in Denmark. Participants in the 12-15-year age group were recruited for the study. At the first meeting, participants had to complete the phrase “Things I can do to ensure my healthy eating are...

  6. Exploring teacher's perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching strategy in science: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne

    In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept

  7. Discrete event simulation for exploring strategies: an urban water management case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Bin; Scholz, Roland W; Gujer, Willi; Chitwood, Derek E; Loukopoulos, Peter; Schertenleib, Roland; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a model structure aimed at offering an overview of the various elements of a strategy and exploring their multidimensional effects through time in an efficient way. It treats a strategy as a set of discrete events planned to achieve a certain strategic goal and develops a new form of causal networks as an interfacing component between decision makers and environment models, e.g., life cycle inventory and material flow models. The causal network receives a strategic plan as input in a discrete manner and then outputs the updated parameter sets to the subsequent environmental models. Accordingly, the potential dynamic evolution of environmental systems caused by various strategies can be stepwise simulated. It enables a way to incorporate discontinuous change in models for environmental strategy analysis, and enhances the interpretability and extendibility of a complex model by its cellular constructs. It is exemplified using an urban water management case in Kunming, a major city in Southwest China. By utilizing the presented method, the case study modeled the cross-scale interdependencies of the urban drainage system and regional water balance systems, and evaluated the effectiveness of various strategies for improving the situation of Dianchi Lake.

  8. Exploration of cystalline rocks for nuclear waste repositories: Some strategies for area characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trask, N.J.; Roseboom, E.H.; Watts, R.D.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A general strategy for the exploration of crystalline rock massed in the eastern United States for the identification of potential sites for high-level radioactive waste repositories has been generated by consideration of the Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines, available information on these crystalline rocks, and the capabilities and limitations of various exploration methods. The DOE has recently screened over 200 crystalline rock massed in 17 states by means of literature surveys and has recommended 12 rock masses for more intensive investigation including field investigations. The suggested strategy applies to the next stage of screen where the objective is to identify those potential sites that merit detailed site characterization including an exploratory shaft and underground study. This document discusses strategies for reconnaissance and field investigations, including the early phases of drilling, to provide geoscience information on the areas under construction. A complete Area Characterization Plan, to be developed by DOE with involvement of the states within which the areas to be studied are located, will outline all of the investigations to be carried out in the area phase including their cost and scheduling. Here, we provide input for the Area Characterization Plan by discussing what we believe to be the most important issues that need to be addressed in this phase and suggesting methods for their resolution. This report is not intended as a complete outline of area phase geoscience investigations, however. 79 refs., 4 figs

  9. Epistemological beliefs in introductory biology: Addressing measurement concerns and exploring the relationship with strategy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Jodi Lynn

    This study had two main purposes: to address measurement concerns about assessing students' epistemological beliefs and to explore the relationship between epistemological beliefs and deep and surface strategy use in an introductory biology classroom. The following research questions guided the study: (a) Are epistemological beliefs multidimensional? (b) Are the measures of epistemological beliefs correlated? (c) Are the measures of strategy use correlated? (d) Are epistemological beliefs correlated with deep and surface strategy use? (e) How much of the unique variance in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, grade point average (GPA), and course grade is accounted for by epistemological beliefs and strategy use? (f) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of mature epistemological beliefs? and (g) To what extent does the content analysis of the open-ended questionnaire data support or refute the role of deep strategies? Participants (N = 518) were recruited from two sections of an introductory biology course. All participants completed five assessments including the Epistemological Questionnaire, the Epistemological Scenario, the Self-Regulated Learning Inventory, two strategy checklists, and an open-ended questionnaire. The factor analysis, which was used to answer the first question, indicated no clear loading of the hypothesized dimensions underlying epistemological beliefs as measured by the Epistemological Questionnaire. However, the factor analysis of the Epistemological Scenario indicated four factors underlying epistemological beliefs (i.e., certain knowledge, innate ability, quick learning, and simple knowledge). In addition, the correlation analyses, which were used to answer the second, third, and fourth questions, indicated a significant relationship between epistemological beliefs and strategy use. The multiple regression commonality analysis, which was used to answer the fifth

  10. Strategy of uranium exploration in Indonesia facing uranium price decreacing trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyono, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium oversupply in the last decade has caused uranium price decline and given bad impact to uranium exploration activities all over the world. Such an impact also inclusively affected Nuclear Minerals Development Centre (NMDC). As a consequence, the Centre has to reassess its strategies in order survive. This paper introduces the use of the Strategic Management Process Model to formulate new strategies through strategic planning, implementation, and control. two critical environmental factors i.e, national and international, that directly affect NMDC's activities, are discussed. In addition, strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threat's(SWOT) analysis are utilized to assess and formulate NMDC's strategic obyectives. Finally, three new organization strategic, including program's to scope and obyectives, organization structure and performance improvement, and international U market monitoring and review, are offered. (author). 8 refs; 6 figs

  11. Paediatric death and dying: exploring coping strategies of health professionals and perceptions of support provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Elizabeth; Hafiz, Alaa

    2015-06-01

    Without question a child's death is a devastating event for parents and families. Health professionals working with the dying child and family draw upon their expertise and experience to engage with children, parents and families on this painful journey. This is a delicate and sensitive area of practice and has strong and penetrating effects on health professionals. They employ physical, emotional, spiritual and problem solving strategies to continue to perform this role effectively and to protect their continued sense of wellbeing. To explore health professionals' perceptions of bereavement support surrounding the loss of a child. The research was underpinned by social constructionism. Semi-structured interviews were held with 10 health professionals including doctors, nurses and social workers who were directly involved in the care of the dying child and family in 7 cases of paediatric death. Health professional narratives were analysed consistent with Charmarz's (2006) approach. For health professionals, constructions around coping emerged as peer support, personal coping strategies, family support, physical impact of support and spiritual beliefs. Analysis of the narratives also revealed health professionals' perceptions of their support provision. Health professionals involved in caring for dying children and their families use a variety of strategies to cope with the emotional and physical toll of providing support. They also engage in self-assessment to evaluate their support provision and this highlights the need for self-evaluation tools in paediatric palliative care.

  12. Exploring strategies to overcome extra-organisational challenges faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Boon Phiaw; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Lim, Ching Jou; Saleem, Fahad

    2018-03-15

    The aims of this research were to determine extra-organisational challenges (e.g. market competition, governing policies) faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, the coping strategies employed to deal with these challenges and explore potential legislative changes that can attenuate the intensity of these challenges. Survey questionnaires (n = 184) were posted to all eligible community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaire included sections on participants' demographic data, extra-organisational challenges faced, coping strategies employed and proposals to improve community pharmacy legislations. Items were constructed based on the findings of a prior qualitative research supplemented with relevant literature about these issues. High levels of homogeneity in responses were recorded on various extra-organisational challenges faced, particularly those economy-oriented. Strategic changes to counter these challenges were focused on pricing and product stocked, rather than services provision. Highly rated strategies included increasing discounts for customers (n = 54; 68%) and finding cheaper suppliers (n = 70; 88%). Legislative changes proposed that might increase their share of the pharmaceutical market were strongly supported by respondents, particularly about making it compulsory for general practitioners to provide patients the option to have their medicines dispensed in community pharmacies (n = 72; 90%). Current legislative conditions and Malaysian consumer mindset may have constrained the strategic choices of community pharmacies to deal with the strong extra-organisational challenges. A long-term multipronged approach to address these issues and increased involvement of community pharmacists themselves in this agenda are required to influence practice change. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. A Pilot Study Exploring Gender Differences in Residents’ Strategies for Establishing Mentoring Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C. McNamara, M.D., MSc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Mentoring is important throughout a physician’s career and has been noted to be particularly important during residency training. Other studies suggest that women may experience difficulty in finding mentors.Purpose This study explored gender-specific differences in residents’ mentoring experiences.Methods The authors conducted two focus groups at the University of Pittsburgh in July, 2004. One group was composed of 12 female residents; the other was composed of nine male residents. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed. Two investigators coded the transcripts and identified emerging themes.Results Residents of both genders cited multiple barriers to mentoring. Men´s strategies for findingmentors were more numerous than women´s and included identifying mentors through research,similar interests, friendship, and networking. Female strategies were limited and included identifying mentors through “word of mouth” and work experiences. Women described more passiveapproaches for finding a mentor than men.Conclusions Female residents may lack strategies and initiatives for finding mentors. Residency programs should create opportunities for residents to develop mentoring relationships, with special attention paid to gender differences

  14. A continuous latitudinal energy balance model to explore non-uniform climate engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, F.; McInnes, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Current concentrations of atmospheric CO2 exceed measured historical levels in modern times, largely attributed to anthropogenic forcing since the industrial revolution. The required decline in emissions rates has never been achieved leading to recent interest in climate engineering for future risk-mitigation strategies. Climate engineering aims to offset human-driven climate change. It involves techniques developed both to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) methods) and to counteract the radiative forcing that it generates (Solar Radiation Management (SRM) methods). In order to investigate effects of SRM technologies for climate engineering, an analytical model describing the main dynamics of the Earth's climate has been developed. The model is a time-dependent Energy Balance Model (EBM) with latitudinal resolution and allows for the evaluation of non-uniform climate engineering strategies. A significant disadvantage of climate engineering techniques involving the management of solar radiation is regional disparities in cooling. This model offers an analytical approach to design multi-objective strategies that counteract climate change on a regional basis: for example, to cool the Artic and restrict undesired impacts at mid-latitudes, or to control the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. Using the Green's function approach the resulting partial differential equation allows for the computation of the surface temperature as a function of time and latitude when a 1% per year increase in the CO2 concentration is considered. After the validation of the model through comparisons with high fidelity numerical models, it will be used to explore strategies for the injection of the aerosol precursors in the stratosphere. In particular, the model involves detailed description of the optical properties of the particles, the wash-out dynamics and the estimation of the radiative cooling they can generate.

  15. Evolvable Mars Campaign Long Duration Habitation Strategies: Architectural Approaches to Enable Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry; Howe, A. Scott; Wald, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) is the current NASA Mars mission planning effort which seeks to establish sustainable, realistic strategies to enable crewed Mars missions in the mid-2030s timeframe. The primary outcome of the Evolvable Mars Campaign is not to produce "The Plan" for sending humans to Mars, but instead its intent is to inform the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate near-term key decisions and investment priorities to prepare for those types of missions. The FY'15 EMC effort focused upon analysis of integrated mission architectures to identify technically appealing transportation strategies, logistics build-up strategies, and vehicle designs for reaching and exploring Mars moons and Mars surface. As part of the development of this campaign, long duration habitats are required which are capable of supporting crew with limited resupply and crew abort during the Mars transit, Mars moons, and Mars surface segments of EMC missions. In particular, the EMC design team sought to design a single, affordable habitation system whose manufactured units could be outfitted uniquely for each of these missions and reused for multiple crewed missions. This habitat system must provide all of the functionality to safely support 4 crew for long durations while meeting mass and volume constraints for each of the mission segments set by the chosen transportation architecture and propulsion technologies. This paper describes several proposed long-duration habitation strategies to enable the Evolvable Mars Campaign through improvements in mass, cost, and reusability, and presents results of analysis to compare the options and identify promising solutions. The concepts investigated include several monolithic concepts: monolithic clean sheet designs, and concepts which leverage the co-manifested payload capability of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) to deliver habitable elements within the Universal Payload Adaptor between the SLS upper stage and the Orion

  16. Cyberbullying in Germany – an exploration of prevalence, overlapping with real life bullying and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA RIEBEL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new phenomenon of violence among pupils has been spreading over Europe in the last few years: Cyberbullying, the repeated and intended hurting of weaker schoolmates via modern communication technologies. This study shows (based on a sample of 1987 pupils, that cyberbullying exists in Germany, although the number of incidents is still rather small. It could also be shown, that the pupils who act as cyberbullies are the same as those who bully others in real life. The same overlap was found to be true for the victims. Cyberbullying can therefore be considered a subcategory of ordinary bullying instead of being considered a whole new phenomenon. The exploration of coping strategies showed, that a common factor structure underlies physical, verbal and cyberbullying. Considering the fact that the findings of the study are based on an online questionnaire with restricted representativeness, the results should however be interpreted carefully.

  17. Exploration of Barriers in Achieving Proactive Environmental Strategies in a Natural Rubber Industry : A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifa Arum Kusumastuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the evolving of environmental issues over time, the development of environmental management approaches in industries began to shift to the prevention of pollution to reduce environmental impact. However, in practice, many obstacles encountered during the environmental management change to be more proactive. This study aims to explore the barriers of achieving the proactive environmental strategy in a rubber processing industry. Used a case study approach in a natural rubber processing factory, the data was collected through interviews with experts and sources as well as observation in the field. This study shows main barriers that faced by the company consist of financial issue, human resources, communities’ pressure, technological change and communication with environmental experts. The results of this study suggest conducting cooperation with research institutions or environmental experts especially for skills that cannot be controlled by the manager or employees in the company. 

  18. Exploring the dynamics of financial markets: from stock prices to strategy returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borland, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the dynamics of financial time-series is an exciting and interesting challenge because of the many truly complex interactions that underly the price formation process. In this contribution we describe some of the anomalous statistical features of such time-series and review models of the price dynamics both across time and across the universe of stocks. In particular we discuss a non-Gaussian statistical feedback process of stock returns which we have developed over the past years with the particular application of option pricing. We then discuss a cooperative model for the correlations of stock dynamics which has its roots in the field of synergetics, where numerical simulations and comparisons with real data are presented. Finally we present summarized results of an empirical analysis probing the dynamics of actual trading strategy return streams.

  19. NASA's strategy for Mars exploration in the 1990s and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, W. T.; Feeley, T. J.; Boyce, J. M.

    NASA's Office of Space Science is changing its approach to all its missions, both current and future. Budget realities are necessitating that we change the way we do business and the way we look at NASA's role in the U.S. Government. These challenges are being met by a new and innovative approach that focuses on achieving a balanced world-class space science program that requires less U.S. resources while providing an enhanced role for technology and education as integral components of our Research and Development (R&D) programs. Our Mars exploration plans, especially the Mars Surveyor program, are a key feature of this new NASA approach to space science. The Mars Surveyor program will be affordable, engaging to the public with global and close-up images of Mars, have high scientific value, employ a distributed risk strategy (two launches per opportunity), and will use significant advanced technologies.

  20. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth L. Melbye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (unhealthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1 child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2 child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents’ major driving forces behind reducing children’s consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents’ provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  1. Exploring Diversification as A Management Strategy in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dail; Riesenmy, Kelly; Roman, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) creates both environmental uncertainties and opportunities for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment providers. One managerial response to uncertainties and emergent opportunities is strategic diversification of various dimensions of organizational activity. This paper explored organizational outcomes related to diversification of funding sources, services offered, and referral sources in a national sample of 590 SUD treatment organizations. Funding diversification was related to higher average levels of census, organization size, and recent expansion of operations. Service diversification was related to higher average levels of use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT), organization size, and expansion. Referral source diversification was related only to greater average use of MAT. Overall, strategic diversification in the three areas explored was related to positive organizational outcomes. Considering alternative strategies of diversification may help position SUD treatment centers to deliver more innovative treatments such as MAT as well as enhance capacity to satisfy current unmet treatment needs of individuals with behavioral health coverage provided under the ACA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  3. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  4. Exploring complex miRNA-mRNA interactions with Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs regulate target gene expression by controlling their mRNAs post-transcriptionally. Increasing evidence demonstrates that miRNAs play important roles in various biological processes. However, the functions and precise regulatory mechanisms of most miRNAs remain elusive. Current research suggests that miRNA regulatory modules are complicated, including up-, down-, and mix-regulation for different physiological conditions. Previous computational approaches for discovering miRNA-mRNA interactions focus only on down-regulatory modules. In this work, we present a method to capture complex miRNA-mRNA interactions including all regulatory types between miRNAs and mRNAs. Results We present a method to capture complex miRNA-mRNA interactions using Bayesian network structure learning with splitting-averaging strategy. It is designed to explore all possible miRNA-mRNA interactions by integrating miRNA-targeting information, expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs, and sample categories. We also present an analysis of data sets for epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT. Our results show that the proposed method identified all possible types of miRNA-mRNA interactions from the data. Many interactions are of tremendous biological significance. Some discoveries have been validated by previous research, for example, the miR-200 family negatively regulates ZEB1 and ZEB2 for EMT. Some are consistent with the literature, such as LOX has wide interactions with the miR-200 family members for EMT. Furthermore, many novel interactions are statistically significant and worthy of validation in the near future. Conclusions This paper presents a new method to explore the complex miRNA-mRNA interactions for different physiological conditions using Bayesian network structure learning with splitting-averaging strategy. The method makes use of heterogeneous data including miRNA-targeting information, expression profiles of miRNAs and

  5. Carers' experiences of home enteral feeding: A survey exploring medicines administration challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaeed, D; Furniss, D; Blandford, A; Smith, F; Orlu, M

    2018-06-01

    The use of enteral tube feeding at home is becoming more widespread, with patients ranging in age and diseases. Dysphagia and swallowing difficulties can compromise nutritional intake and the administration of oral medications, affecting therapeutic outcomes negatively. Carers' experiences of medicines administration and medicines optimization have not been explored fully. The objectives of this study were to identify issues carers experience in medicines administration; the strategies they have developed to cope; and suggestions to improve the medicines administration process. An online survey was promoted nationally; 42 carers completed it. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied, as well as thematic analysis of open-ended responses. Results were compared against the 4 principles of medicines optimization. 93% of respondents administered medications with enteral feeding tubes, but only 62% had received advice from healthcare professionals and only 8% had received written information on how to do so. Responses identified 5 medicines administration issues experienced by carers; 4 strategies they developed to cope; and 3 main areas of suggestions to improve medicines administration via enteral feeding at home. The 4 principles of medicines optimization have not previously been applied to enteral feeding. We present a novel account of carers' experiences, for example coping with ill-suited formulations and a lack of training and support, which should inform better practice (Principle 1). Carers sometimes experience suboptimal choice of medicines (Principle 2). Carers' practices are not always well-informed and may affect therapeutic outcomes and safety (Principle 3). There is scope for improvement in carer training, education and support to better support medicines optimization (Principle 4). © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An efficient soil penetration strategy for explorative robots inspired by plant root circumnutation movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Dottore, Emanuela; Mondini, Alessio; Sadeghi, Ali; Mattoli, Virgilio; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2017-11-10

    This paper presents a comparative analysis in terms of energy required by an artificial probe to penetrate soil implementing two different strategies: a straight penetration movement; and a circumnutation, which is a peculiar root movement in plants. The role of circumnutations in plant roots is still reason of debate. We hypothesized that circumnutation movements can help roots in penetrating soil and we validated our assumption testing the probe at three distinct soil densities and using various combinations of circumnutation amplitude and period for each soil. The comparison was based on the total work done by the system while circumnutating at its tip level respect that showed by the same system in straight penetration. The total energy evaluation confirmed an improvement obtained by circumnutations up to 33%. We also proposed a fitting model for our experimental data that was used to estimate energy needed by the probe to penetrate soil at different dimensions and circumnutation amplitudes. Results show the existence of a trade-off among penetration velocity, circumnutation period and amplitude towards an energy consumption optimization, expressed by the lead angle of the helical path that should stay in the range between 46° and 65°. Moreover, circumnutations with appropriate amplitude (~10°) and period (~80 s) values are more efficient than straight penetration also at different probe tip dimensions up to a threshold diameter (from 2 mm to 55 mm). Based on the obtained results, we speculated that circumnutations can represent a strategy used by plant roots to reduce pressure and energy needed to penetrate soil. In perspective, the translation of this biological feature in robotic systems will allow improving their energetic efficiency in digging capabilities and thus opening new scenarios of use in search and rescue, environmental monitoring and soil exploration. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  7. Working with Persistent Pain: An Exploration of Strategies Utilised to Stay Productive at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Kinsman, Natasha; Briggs, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Maintaining productive employment for people with persistent pain conditions is challenging. This study aims to explore supports-work and non-work- used by employees to assist them in maintaining productive employment. Methods An exploratory, mixed-methods study comprising a questionnaire battery followed by semi-structured interviews to collect in-depth qualitative data was undertaken. The questionnaires measured descriptive variables used to select participants for interviews based on maximum heterogeneity sampling. Thirty-five semi-structured interviews were undertaken (14 males; 21 females). The interview schedule covered: employment situation, workplace challenges, workplace supports, coping strategies, motivations, future employment options and any other resources utilised. Inductive content analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory approach to systematically explore the data. Results Three key themes were identified: barriers to working productively, enablers to working productively, disclosing my condition at work. A key determinant of maintaining productive employment was a supportive employer. In addition, flexibility in the work organisation was also pivotal in maintaining sustainable, productive employment. An important issue emerged with regard to disclosure of one's condition to an employer. For some, this was a significant barrier to employment. Conclusions To ensure sustainable employment is attainable for those with persistent pain conditions, a good match is required between an employee and their work. Workplace accommodations may assist with improving job fit but this requires disclosure of a condition to an employer. Weighing up the risks and benefits of disclosure is difficult, and may be assisted by knowledge of available supports to assist with maintaining ongoing employment.

  8. Novel strategy for protein exploration: high-throughput screening assisted with fuzzy neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Nakano, Hideo; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Katsuya; Koga, Yuchi; Yamane, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2005-08-19

    To engineer proteins with desirable characteristics from a naturally occurring protein, high-throughput screening (HTS) combined with directed evolutional approach is the essential technology. However, most HTS techniques are simple positive screenings. The information obtained from the positive candidates is used only as results but rarely as clues for understanding the structural rules, which may explain the protein activity. In here, we have attempted to establish a novel strategy for exploring functional proteins associated with computational analysis. As a model case, we explored lipases with inverted enantioselectivity for a substrate p-nitrophenyl 3-phenylbutyrate from the wild-type lipase of Burkhorderia cepacia KWI-56, which is originally selective for (S)-configuration of the substrate. Data from our previous work on (R)-enantioselective lipase screening were applied to fuzzy neural network (FNN), bioinformatic algorithm, to extract guidelines for screening and engineering processes to be followed. FNN has an advantageous feature of extracting hidden rules that lie between sequences of variants and their enzyme activity to gain high prediction accuracy. Without any prior knowledge, FNN predicted a rule indicating that "size at position L167," among four positions (L17, F119, L167, and L266) in the substrate binding core region, is the most influential factor for obtaining lipase with inverted (R)-enantioselectivity. Based on the guidelines obtained, newly engineered novel variants, which were not found in the actual screening, were experimentally proven to gain high (R)-enantioselectivity by engineering the size at position L167. We also designed and assayed two novel variants, namely FIGV (L17F, F119I, L167G, and L266V) and FFGI (L17F, L167G, and L266I), which were compatible with the guideline obtained from FNN analysis, and confirmed that these designed lipases could acquire high inverted enantioselectivity. The results have shown that with the aid of

  9. An exploration for a feasible fusion energy research strategy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Park, Jong Kyun; Yang, Maeng Ho

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the fierce competition between European Union (EU) and Japan to host the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has aroused in Korea renewed interests in fusion research and its pros-pect for commercial fusion power generation. Korea has committed itself in 2003 to the construction and operation of ITER which spans three decades. This 30-years-long commitment to ITER surely is longer than any other scientific and/or technological venture that has ever been taken up after its birth in 1948. ITER poses both as a great opportunity for Korea, allegedly but not convincingly enough, and as a potential 'black hole' sucking in all resources for future energy researches, to the domestic technical communities and industries. However, ITER and fusion research is not just a technico-industrial issue but may as well be a politico-security issue, like many other apparent technology issues such as recent participation in the Galileo project. In this article, the authors will explore this situation with an emphasis on domestic and foreign constraints and propose a realistic and verifiable strategy to address these issues and to develop fusion energy in Korea

  10. Strategies for the exploration of free energy landscapes: Unity in diversity and challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pietrucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulations play an important role in the study of transformation processes of condensed matter, including phase transitions, chemical reactions, and conformational changes of biomolecules. In principle, atomic trajectories, such as those generated using the molecular dynamics approach, contain detailed structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic information about activated processes. In practice, due to free energy barriers, there is often a wide gap between the time scale of the transformation and the time scale accessible with simulations. This review offers a practical guide to the ingenious methods aimed to accelerate the exploration and reconstruction of free energy landscapes of complex systems. The focus is on basic unifying concepts, successful strategies, and pitfalls, illustrated with examples of application to scientific problems from different disciplines. The current challenges in the field consist mainly in the cumbersome identification of optimal reaction coordinates and in the extensive recourse to expert human supervision and fine tuning of the algorithms. The full achievement of wide-spectrum formulations and easy reproducibility of results would constitute the breakthrough necessary to enter the era of routine use of enhanced sampling simulations.

  11. Struggles, strengths, and strategies: an ethnographic study exploring the experiences of adolescents living with an ostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Swan, Sylvia R; Gerstle, Ted J; Allan, Theresa; Griffiths, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescents with IBD requiring ostomy surgery experience perioperative needs that may exceed those of patients experiencing other major abdominal surgery [1]. This procedure requires ongoing and vigilant daily care and management. Gastrointestinal symptoms and complications impose psychological and social stresses on young patients [2], and the procedure results in body image changes and daily regimens of self-care. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences and quality of life following ostomy surgery. Methods Ethnographic interviews and a subsequent focus group were conducted with 20 adolescents with an ostomy or j-pouch being treated at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to theme generation. Results Findings suggest that adolescents are profoundly affected by their ostomy. Adolescents convey strength as well as adjustment struggles. Identified impacts include body intrusion and body image changes, decreased independence, secrecy about the ostomy, adjustment over time, challenges for the family, and strategies for constructively moving forward. Conclusion Implications address the importance of ensuring meaningful opportunities to understand and reframe the stresses of illness. An ongoing clinical challenge involves the promotion of a healthy self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment for these adolescents and their families. Finding effective ways to minimize stress and embarrassment and reframe personal shame, constitute important clinical priorities. Opportunities for peer support and family dialogue may assist in clarifying worries and easing the burden carried by these young persons. Flexible and adequately funded resources are advocated in fostering quality of life. PMID:19091104

  12. Struggles, strengths, and strategies: an ethnographic study exploring the experiences of adolescents living with an ostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Theresa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with IBD requiring ostomy surgery experience perioperative needs that may exceed those of patients experiencing other major abdominal surgery 1. This procedure requires ongoing and vigilant daily care and management. Gastrointestinal symptoms and complications impose psychological and social stresses on young patients 2, and the procedure results in body image changes and daily regimens of self-care. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences and quality of life following ostomy surgery. Methods Ethnographic interviews and a subsequent focus group were conducted with 20 adolescents with an ostomy or j-pouch being treated at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to theme generation. Results Findings suggest that adolescents are profoundly affected by their ostomy. Adolescents convey strength as well as adjustment struggles. Identified impacts include body intrusion and body image changes, decreased independence, secrecy about the ostomy, adjustment over time, challenges for the family, and strategies for constructively moving forward. Conclusion Implications address the importance of ensuring meaningful opportunities to understand and reframe the stresses of illness. An ongoing clinical challenge involves the promotion of a healthy self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment for these adolescents and their families. Finding effective ways to minimize stress and embarrassment and reframe personal shame, constitute important clinical priorities. Opportunities for peer support and family dialogue may assist in clarifying worries and easing the burden carried by these young persons. Flexible and adequately funded resources are advocated in fostering quality of life.

  13. Oil Exploration and Production in Africa since 2014. Evolution of the Key Players and their Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    The fall in oil prices, which began in fall 2014, had a significant influence on the strategies of the key players in the oil industry in Africa. The continent's oil sector has experienced deep-reaching changes, ranging from a drop in exploration budgets, the disappearance or sale of weakened companies, the reorganization or pullback of the traditional oil majors, the establishment of new companies and the arrival of state-owned companies attracted by the crisis-induced windfall effects. Yet the crisis has not redefined the geography of African production, whose principal giants are and will continue to be Nigeria, Angola, Algeria and Libya, at least in terms of reserves. Nevertheless, new zones have emerged, in particular due to the risks taken by junior players backed by powerful investment funds that have had faith in the potential of geologists and technical teams formerly employed by the big companies. This is first of all the case in East Africa, for oil, in Uganda and Kenya, along with gas, with Tanzania and Mozambique. Several very significant oil and gas discoveries have been made in a new basin located between Mauritania and Guinea, contributing to its development. However, no single African model has taken shape, as each company has followed its own path in making decisions about acquisition and exploration. Whereas traditional players, such as the Western majors ENI and Total, have continued to invest on this continent that plays a central role in their global production and strategy, some big companies, such as ConocoPhilipps, have quite simply left the field, while others, such as BP and ExxonMobil, have made new high-risk acquisitions. As for the large Asian state-owned companies, China's investments in exploration and production have tended to stagnate (concerning CNPC and Sinopec in particular), while others, such as the Indonesian Pertamina or India's ONGC, have significantly bolstered their presence. The disengagement of the

  14. Development of a customer experience-based brand strategy for the Lenovo Group to explore the UK market

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Holland, Ray; Qin, Shengfeng; Wu, Weicheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a development of a customer experience-based brand strategy for Lenovo Group which is one of the biggest and most powerful PC producers in the world. After acquiring the IBM’s Personal Computing division, Lenovo focus on exploring the UK market. Due to differences in culture, user behaviour, market environment and so on, Lenovo have to develop a new product development brand strategy to transfer their successful brand strategy from China to the UK. The key question in thi...

  15. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  16. Motivation and mobile devices: exploring the role of appropriation and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Jones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been interest recently in how mobile devices may be motivating forces in the right contexts: for example, one of the themes for the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning in 2007 was ‘Affective Factors in Learning with Mobile Devices' (http://www.mlearningconf.org. The authors have previously proposed six aspects of learning with mobile devices in informal contexts that might be motivating: control over learners' goals, ownership, fun, communication, learning-in-context and continuity between contexts. How do these motivational features relate to theoretical accounts of what motivates people to use mobile devices and learn in technology- rich contexts? In this exploratory paper we consider two different candidates for such theoretical approaches. One is technology appropriation–the process by which technology or particular technological artefacts are adopted and shaped in use. Two different approaches to technology appropriation are discussed in order to explore the relationship between the different aspects of appropriation and motivation; that of Carroll et al. and that of Waycott. Both appropriation frameworks have been developed in the context of using mobile devices, but neither has a specific focus on learning. By contrast, the second theoretical approach is Järvelä et al.'s model of coping strategies, which is specifically concerned with learning with technologies, although not with mobile technologies in particular. The paper draws on case-study data in order to illustrate and discuss the extent to which these two approaches are helpful in informing our understanding of the motivating features of using mobile devices for informal learning.

  17. Making sense of the future: The information search strategies of construction practitioners in exploring the risk landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Maytorena-Sanchez, Eunice

    This paper explores the cognitive strategies that construction practitioners rely on when searching to identify risks in a simulated project. By using the active information search methodology in interviews with 45 industry practitioners, we were able to distinguish three stereotypical information...

  18. "Meatless days" or "less but better"? Exploring strategies to adapt Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Schösler, H.; Aiking, H.

    2014-01-01

    Adapting Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges requires an overall reduction of industrially produced animal proteins plus a partial replacement by plant proteins. Combining insights on food, environment, and consumers, this paper aims to explore change strategies that may

  19. Exploring Differences between Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High and Low Achievers in Open Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Open distance students differ in their preparedness for higher education studies. Students who are less self-regulated risk failure and drop out in the challenging milieu of open distance learning. In this study, the differences between the application of self-regulated learning strategies by low and high achievers were explored. A multi-method…

  20. The Role of Ambidexterity in Marketing Strategy Implementation: Resolving the Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Prange

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating consistent marketing strategies is a difficult task, but successfully implementing them is even more challenging. This is even more pertinent as marketing strategies quite often incorporate inherent conflicts between major breakthroughs and consolidation. Consequently, marketers need to balance exploratory and exploitative strategies. However, the literature lacks concrete insights for marketing managers as to how exploratory and exploitative strategies can be best combined. This paper addresses this issue by introducing a framework of multiple types of ambidexterity. Based on qualitative research, tools and procedures are identified to overcome marketing dilemmas and support strategy implementation by drawing on ambidextrous designs.

  1. Exploration strategy for high temperature geothermal resources in the Philippines - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrante, L.F.; Ferrer, H.P.; Barnett, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    After nearly two decades of geoscientific-exploration at 45 geothermal areas in the Philippines, the Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) has developed a multi-disciplinary approach for exploring country's geothermal resources. It suitability for crater-hosted magmatic geothermal systems is currently being evaluated in the light of new data from six recently drilled prospects. New techniques are under consideration for future exploration programmes. (auth.). 59 refs.; 5 figs

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this end, a TOEFL…

  3. Exploring Culturally Specific Drug Resistance Strategies of Hawaiian Youth in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the drug resistance strategies of Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities in Hawai'i. Forty seven youth participated in 14 focus groups which focused on the social and environmental context of drug use for these youth. The findings indicated that there were 47 references to resistance strategies used in drug…

  4. Exploring optimal fertigation strategies for orange production, using soil-crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Heinen, Marius; Assinck, Falentijn B.T.; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors in orange (Citrus sinensis) production. The amount and the timing of water and N application are critical, but optimal strategies have not yet been well established. This study presents an analysis of 47 fertigation strategies examined by a

  5. Using life strategies to explore the vulnerability of ecosystem services to invasion by alien plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente, J.; Pinro, A.; Araujo, M.; Lomba, A.; Randin, C.; Guisan, A.; Honrado, J.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plants can have different effects on ecosystem functioning and on the provision of ecosystem services, with the direction and magnitude of such effects depending on the service and ecosystem being considered, but also on the life strategies of the invaders. Strategies can influence

  6. Strategic threat management: an exploration of nursing strategies in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Kazi, Sadaf; Cunningham, Charlene; Ryan, Christina

    2015-03-01

    Part of the work of a critical care nurse is to manage the threats that arise that could impede efficient and effective job performance. Nurses manage threats by employing various strategies to keep performance high and workload manageable. We investigated strategic threat management by using the Threat-Strategy Interview. Threats frequently involved technology, staff, or organizational components. The threats were managed by a toolbox of multifaceted strategies, the most frequent of which involved staff-, treatment- (patient + technology), examination- (patient + clinician), and patient-oriented strategies. The profile of strategies for a particular threat often leveraged work facets similar to the work facet that characterized the threat. In such cases, the nurse's strategy was directed at eliminating the threat (not working around it). A description at both a domain invariant level - useful for understanding strategic threat management generally - and a description at an operational, specific level - useful for guiding interventions-- are presented. A structural description of the relationship among threats, strategies, and the cues that trigger them is presented in the form of an evidence accumulation framework of strategic threat management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategy-Driven Exploration for Rule-Based Models of Biochemical Systems with Porgy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei , Oana; Fernández , Maribel; Kirchner , Hélène; Pinaud , Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Porgy – an interactive visual environment for rule-based modelling of biochemical systems. We model molecules and molecule interactions as port graphs and port graph rewrite rules, respectively. We use rewriting strategies to control which rules to apply, and where and when to apply them. Our main contributions to rule-based modelling of biochemical systems lie in the strategy language and the associated visual and interactive features offered by Porgy. These features faci...

  8. Exploring new communication strategies for a global brand : transmedia storytelling and gamification

    OpenAIRE

    Brieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Marketing is changing and companies or brands try to find new ways to engage consumers and involve them in their advertising efforts. There are two new communication strategies that might be able to lead the way into a new area of advertising and marketing: transmedia storytelling and gamification. The research questions were how to use such strategies in the communication or branding environment and how to use them when a global brand wants to communicate across cultures while adapting the a...

  9. Exploring The Arm’s Length Transfer Pricing Strategy for Taxation Purpose: An Ethnographic Study in a Manufacturing Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmiati, Alfa; Sandi, Resti

    2016-01-01

    Practices of transfer pricing in among companies having “special relationship” (hubungan istimewa in Bahasa Indonesia, this study uses a term of ‘related party’) to others are very common nowadays. However, the complexity of transfer pricing strategy and practices in many companies made the use of individual level data become insufficient, therefore we conduct an ethnographic study to explore how taxpayer determines the reasonable transfer pricing based on five methods (i.e. Comparable uncont...

  10. Commentary on: "P&S Requirements for ePartner-supported Astronaut-Rover Teams during Planetary Surface Operations"

    OpenAIRE

    Cesta, Amedeo; Cortellessa, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    The article (Grant, Neerincx, and Wolff 2011) introduces some considerations taken from the experience of the authors participation in the ESA project called MECA (Mission Execution Crew Assistant). The idea of MECA is to form a network of agents (both human and software), in which each unit, called e-partner, is capable of detecting and influencing the physical, cognitive and affective state of its respective human users. The article describes the three stages along which the project evolves...

  11. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  12. Exploring men's preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18-47 years. Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used. Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives, ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies). Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploitation, Exploration or Continuous Innovation? Strategy: Focus, Fit and Performance in different business environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gröessler, Andreas; Laugen, Bjørge Timenes; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which continuous innovation is pursued as a strategy for manufacturing firms in different types of competitive environments, and whether continuous innovation firms perform better than focused firms in certain environments. Statistical...... analyses are used of data collected from an international sample of manufacturing firms through the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey. The main findings are that, while focused as well as continuous innovation firms exist in all three types of business environments identified in this paper...

  14. Exploring the Oral Communication Strategies Used by Turkish EFL Learners: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Yusuf; Mutlu, Gülçin; Sisman, Yavuz Selim

    2018-01-01

    This study set out with a threefold purpose: to examine (1) the oral communication strategies (CSs) employed by tertiary-level Turkish EFL learners, (2) the use of CSs based on exposure to English through audio-visual tools, university subject domain and gender differences, (3) the correlation between use of CSs and oral proficiency scores. To…

  15. Exploring the Benefits of Teacher-Modeling Strategies Integrated into Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathers, Thomas J., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined how career and technical education classes function using multiple instructional modeling strategies integrated into vocational and technical training environments. Seven New Jersey public school technical teachers received an introductory overview of the investigation and participated by responding to 10 open-end…

  16. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  17. Exploring Seven- to Eight-Year-Olds' Use of Self-Talk Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott Weng Fai

    2011-01-01

    Self-talk has been recognised as a tool used by children to regulate their thinking and behaviour. To support children's use of self-regulatory verbal strategies, educators need to understand the context, content and dynamics of children's self-talk. While a significant amount of empirical research had been carried out on self-talk, most was…

  18. Note-Taking with Computers: Exploring Alternative Strategies for Improved Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dung C.; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments examined note-taking strategies and their relation to recall. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed either to take organized lecture notes or to try and transcribe the lecture, and they either took their notes by hand or typed them into a computer. Those instructed to transcribe the lecture using a computer showed the…

  19. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  20. Exploring Strategies to Promote Middle School Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Deborah I.; Watson, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Providing a school breakfast to students may be a practical intervention that improves energy balance, nutrient intake, and school academic achievement variables. This purpose of this pilot study was to identify the ecological factors influencing middle school student school breakfast participation and possible strategies to…

  1. Exploring K-3 Teachers' Implementation of Comprehension Strategy Instruction (CSI) Using Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated factors that influence the implementation levels of evidence-based comprehension strategy instruction (CSI) among K-3 teachers. An explanatory design was chosen to gather and probe the data. Quantitative data were gathered via a mailed survey distributed through a representative sample of the 40 school districts (through…

  2. Fingerponds: seasonal integrated aquaculture in East African freshwater wetlands : exploring their potential for wise use strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipkemboi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was stimulated by the need for an integrated approach in wetland wise use. Sustainable management is critical for long-term ecosystem health and people's livelihoods. The potential for smallholder integrated agriculture-aquaculture as one of the possible wetland wise use strategies was

  3. "Meatless days" or "less but better"? Exploring strategies to adapt Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna; Aiking, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Adapting Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges requires an overall reduction of industrially produced animal proteins plus a partial replacement by plant proteins. Combining insights on food, environment, and consumers, this paper aims to explore change strategies that may help to meet these challenges, such as promoting smaller portions of meat ("less"), smaller portions using meat raised in a more sustainable manner ("less but better"), smaller portions and eating more vegetable protein ("less and more varied"), and meatless meals with or without meat substitutes ("veggie-days"). The underlying logic of the strategies was clarified by analyzing dietary choices. A nationwide sample of 1083 Dutch consumers provided information on current eating practices and potential changes. The results show that strategies to change meat eating frequencies and meat portion sizes will appeal to overlapping but partly different segments of consumers and that these strategies can be applied to address consumers in terms of their own preferences. The strategies appeared to have different strengths and weaknesses, making them complementary pathways to facilitate step-by-step changes in the amounts and the sources of protein consumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Information asymmetries, information externalities, oil companies strategies and oil exploration information efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyouki, E.

    1998-07-01

    Both for economics (in general) and energy economics matters, it is important to reach oil exploration efficiency. To achieve this aim, a pragmatic approach is to use the concept of information efficiency which means that the different tracts have to be drilled in the decreasing order of estimated profitabilities, estimations being made on the basis of the best (in the sense of reliability) available information. What does 'best available information' mean? It corresponds either to the information held by the most experienced oil companies (due to the existence of information asymmetries to the profit of these companies), or to information revealed by the drilling and which allows to revise probabilities of success on neighboring tracts with similar geological features (due to the existence of information externalities). In consideration of these information asymmetries and externalities, we will say that exploration is information efficient when. -- on the one hand, initial exploration choices are directed by the most experienced companies, - and, on the other hand, during the drilling phase, in the face of the information externality, companies adopt a sequential drilling, i.e. excluding both over-investment and strategic under-investment. The topic we deal with in this thesis is then to know if oil companies, when they are put in normal competition conditions, are likely to make emerge a state of information efficiency in exploration, the analysis being conducted theoretically and empirically. (author)

  5. Explorative and exploitative learning strategies in technology-based alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Beerkens, B.E.; Duysters, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of how exploitative and explorative learning of firms is enhanced through their social capital. Both types of learning differ considerably from each other and we argue that the distinction between them may be an important contingency factor in explaining

  6. Exploring a Resource Dependency Perspective as an Organizational Strategy for Building Resource Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kimberly K.; Rey, Melanie Powell

    2015-01-01

    Declining state revenue, increased expenditures and rising costs at public universities are critical issues that are further heightened by the current economic environment. In an effort to address the challenges associated with reduced revenue and rising costs, this theoretical paper will explore how public institutions can leverage the resource…

  7. Methodology to explore interactions between the water system and society in order to identify adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermans, A. G. E.; Haasnoot, M.

    2009-04-01

    Development of sustainable water management strategies involves analysing current and future vulnerability, identification of adaptation possibilities, effect analysis and evaluation of the strategies under different possible futures. Recent studies on water management often followed the pressure-effect chain and compared the state of social, economic and ecological functions of the water systems in one or two future situations with the current situation. The future is, however, more complex and dynamic. Water management faces major challenges to cope with future uncertainties in both the water system as well as the social system. Uncertainties in our water system relate to (changes in) drivers and pressures and their effects on the state, like the effects of climate change on discharges. Uncertainties in the social world relate to changing of perceptions, objectives and demands concerning water (management), which are often related with the aforementioned changes in the physical environment. The methodology presented here comprises the 'Perspectives method', derived from the Cultural Theory, a method on analyzing and classifying social response to social and natural states and pressures. The method will be used for scenario analysis and to identify social responses including changes in perspectives and management strategies. The scenarios and responses will be integrated within a rapid assessment tool. The purpose of the tool is to provide users with insight about the interaction of the social and physical system and to identify robust water management strategies by analysing the effectiveness under different possible futures on the physical, social and socio-economic system. This method allows for a mutual interaction between the physical and social system. We will present the theoretical background of the perspectives method as well as a historical overview of perspective changes in the Dutch Meuse area to show how social and physical systems interrelate. We

  8. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G

    2013-06-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed

  9. Reveal or Conceal? An Explorative Study of Signaling Strategies to Build Legitimacy in Cleantech Ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnåli, Ekaterina; Giones, Ferran; Billström, Anders

    perceived weaknesses. For cleantech entrepreneurs, having a focus on direct signaling on how the technology performs and its market potential seems to be a more fruitful strategy than signaling the environmental impact of technology in the early stage. While having an experienced board helps to issue...... environmentally friendly handling of waste. They represent an extreme case of technology entrepreneurship: combining a strong focus on capital-intensive technologies with complex industrial markets. Cleantech ventures face greater firm and industry-level legitimacy challenges while accessing external resources...... guide in the spring 2016, and collected secondary data on the firms. Results and Implications Our findings describe the motivations and distinctive characteristics of the signaling actions. Cleantech ventures pursue several parallel signaling strategies, shifting from resources to customers’ acquisition...

  10. Exploring EFL Students’ Reading Comprehension Process through Their Life Experiences and the Sight Word Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Camargo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the role language and literature play in the construction of social, economic and cultural systems, reading comprehension has become a growing challenge. This study examined how the relationship between English as a foreign language reading comprehension and life experiences while using the Sight Word Strategy could prove significant. Fifth graders at a public school in Bogotá participated in this study. Data were collected using tape recordings, field notes, archival data and students’ reflections. Analysis indicated that comprehension and construction of meaning were generated by sharing life experiences and through the interaction produced in each one of the Sight Word Strategy stages. The study suggested further research into a more encompassing definition of reading comprehension and life experiences correlation as an appropriate goal for English as a foreign language.

  11. Scaffolding and working together: a qualitative exploration of strategies for everyday life with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Louise; Robertson, Jane; Kelly, Fiona

    2018-03-01

    living with dementia has been described as a process of continual change and adjustment, with people with dementia and their families adopting informal strategies to help manage everyday life. As dementia progresses, families increasingly rely on help from the wider community and formal support. this article reports on a secondary analysis of qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews with people with dementia and their carers in the North of England. In total, 65 people with dementia and 82 carers took part in the research: 26 in interviews and 121 in focus groups. Focus group and interview audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. A qualitative, inductive, thematic approach was taken for data analysis. the article applies the metaphor of scaffolding to deepen understanding of the strategies used by families. Processes of scaffolding were evident across the data where families, communities, professionals and services worked together to support everyday life for people with dementia. Within this broad theme of scaffolding were three sub-themes characterising the experiences of families living with dementia: doing things together; evolving strategies; and fragility and fear of the future. families with dementia are resourceful but do need increasing support (scaffolding) to continue to live as well as possible as dementia progresses. More integrated, proactive work is required from services that recognises existing scaffolds and provides appropriate support before informal strategies become unsustainable; thus enabling people with dementia to live well for longer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Relationship between Marketing Strategies and Governance Mechanisms: A Study in Exploration Chain Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Quevedo-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between actors has been unspoilt by marketing through the bias of Transaction Costs Economics. Some authors suggest that a marketing strategy can directly impact the transactional characteristics and hence the governance mechanisms chosen to coordinate transactions. Studies suggest that future work in the field of marketing include, among other factors, aspects related to the relationship between the actors. In this context, this article aims to analyze how marketing strategies can affect the choice of governance mechanisms. The study object is the chain of beef, view their representation to the national economy. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with various actors in the chain. It was possible to verify the existence of the relationship between marketing strategy and governance structure. In one of the cases, product differentiation, translated into more specific assets, led the producer to perform a relational contract with the fridge and to distribute your product, make an integration with retailers, through the opening of a boutique of meat. Factor that was not observed in transactions involving producers on products without distinction, for which the transactions via spot market are prevalent.  

  13. Coping with examinations: exploring relationships between students' coping strategies, implicit theories of ability, and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.

  14. China's natural gas exploration and development strategies under the new normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China's natural gas industry has experienced a great leap-forward development in the past decade. Since the second half of 2014, however, international oil price has dropped sharply and global oil and gas markets have been sluggish. In China, economy growth rate slows down and resource environments tend to be more restricted. And energy production and consumption revolution speed up, and the development of natural gas industry experience profound changes internally and externally. Through review on the achievements in recent high-speed development and analysis on the future development of China's natural gas industry, it is believed that the growth rates of China's natural gas output and consumption will slow down and the supply and demand fundamentals present loose states. Low-permeability tight, deep–extra deep and unconventional reservoirs will be the principal targets of natural gas exploration and development and the tendency of resource deterioration is inevitable. The pressure to the decrease of gas price rises due to the sustained recession of oil price and the sharp decrease of alternative energy price. The normal means to increase benefits is to control investment strictly and reduce cost greatly. As for the new normal, five suggestions are proposed for natural gas exploration and development in China. Firstly, reinforce exploration continuously by guaranteeing work load and investment at the required level, and tamp the development basis. Secondly, pay much attention to early development evaluation, give prominence to plan implementation design and control productivity construction rhythm. Thirdly, pay attention to the top-level design of mature gas field development and adjustment, with fine description and management as the priority, and improve overall development level. Fourthly, strengthen the researches on exploration and development technologies, with the simplification and practicability of technologies as the focus, and

  15. Transgressive segregation in a behavioural trait? Explorative strategies in two house mouse subspecies and their hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiadlovská, Zuzana; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Mikula, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Macholán, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 225-235 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GAP506/11/1792; GA AV ČR KJB600930701 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : dispersion * exploration * hybridization * Mus musculus domesticus * Mus musculus musculus * open field test Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013

  16. Exploring options for managing strategies for pea-barley intercropping using a modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Satger, S.

    2009-01-01

    ) intercropping made better use of environmental resources as regards yield amount and stability than sole cropping, with a noticeable site effect, (2) pea growth in intercrops was strongly linked to soil moisture, and barley yield was determined by nitrogen uptake and light interception due to its height......, underlining the interspecific offset in the use of environmental growth resources which led to similar total grain yields whatever the pea–barley design, and (5) long-term strategies including mineralization management through organic residue supply and rotation management were very valuable, always favoring...

  17. Exploring Senior Residents' Intraoperative Error Management Strategies: A Potential Measure of Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Katherine E; Ray, Rebecca D; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Cohen, Elaine R; DiMarco, Shannon M; Linsmeier, Elyse; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Pugh, Carla M

    The study aim was to determine whether residents' error management strategies changed across 2 simulated laparoscopic ventral hernia (LVH) repair procedures after receiving feedback on their initial performance. We hypothesize that error detection and recovery strategies would improve during the second procedure without hands-on practice. Retrospective review of participant procedural performances of simulated laparoscopic ventral herniorrhaphy. A total of 3 investigators reviewed procedure videos to identify surgical errors. Errors were deconstructed. Error management events were noted, including error identification and recovery. Residents performed the simulated LVH procedures during a course on advanced laparoscopy. Participants had 30 minutes to complete a LVH procedure. After verbal and simulator feedback, residents returned 24 hours later to perform a different, more difficult simulated LVH repair. Senior (N = 7; postgraduate year 4-5) residents in attendance at the course participated in this study. In the first LVH procedure, residents committed 121 errors (M = 17.14, standard deviation = 4.38). Although the number of errors increased to 146 (M = 20.86, standard deviation = 6.15) during the second procedure, residents progressed further in the second procedure. There was no significant difference in the number of errors committed for both procedures, but errors shifted to the late stage of the second procedure. Residents changed the error types that they attempted to recover (χ 2 5 =24.96, perrors, but decreased for strategy errors. Residents also recovered the most errors in the late stage of the second procedure (p error management strategies changed between procedures following verbal feedback on their initial performance and feedback from the simulator. Errors and recovery attempts shifted to later steps during the second procedure. This may reflect residents' error management success in the earlier stages, which allowed further progression in the

  18. Exploring the implementation of a circular economy strategy: the case of a closed-loop supply of aluminum beverage cans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Raphaëlle Marie Marianne; Niero, Monia; Murdock, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The circular economy concept provides a key opportunity to address the challenge of resource scarcity for both policy makers and industries. Companies are urged to play their part and integrate circular economy in their business. However, little has been said about how implementation should occur...... and the consequences for the industry. This paper explores possibilities for the business implementation of a beverage producer’s circular economy strategy, which consists in setting up a closed-loop supply of aluminum beverage cans. For this purpose, we develop a business model-inspired framework derived from...

  19. Explore 2070: what use of a prospective exercise on climate change impacts at the national scale to define adaptation strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroget, Aurelie; Perrin, Charles; Sauquet, Eric; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Chazot, Sebastien; Chauveau, Mathilde; Rouchy, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Projected climate change could have important impacts on water availability in France by mid-21. century. The Explore 2070 prospective study, directed by the Ministry in charge of ecology, has thus highlighted the necessity to quantify and anticipate these changes, and to build adaptation strategies to limit their negative impacts on hydro-systems and human activities. This paper analyses how these works have contributed to the sensitization of water actors and to the reflection about climate change adaptation in France and to the reflection on adaptation to climate change in France

  20. The 3 faces of clinical reasoning: Epistemological explorations of disparate error reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sandra; Norman, Geoff; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2018-03-13

    There is general consensus that clinical reasoning involves 2 stages: a rapid stage where 1 or more diagnostic hypotheses are advanced and a slower stage where these hypotheses are tested or confirmed. The rapid hypothesis generation stage is considered inaccessible for analysis or observation. Consequently, recent research on clinical reasoning has focused specifically on improving the accuracy of the slower, hypothesis confirmation stage. Three perspectives have developed in this line of research, and each proposes different error reduction strategies for clinical reasoning. This paper considers these 3 perspectives and examines the underlying assumptions. Additionally, this paper reviews the evidence, or lack of, behind each class of error reduction strategies. The first perspective takes an epidemiological stance, appealing to the benefits of incorporating population data and evidence-based medicine in every day clinical reasoning. The second builds on the heuristic and bias research programme, appealing to a special class of dual process reasoning models that theorizes a rapid error prone cognitive process for problem solving with a slower more logical cognitive process capable of correcting those errors. Finally, the third perspective borrows from an exemplar model of categorization that explicitly relates clinical knowledge and experience to diagnostic accuracy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Thriving or just surviving? Exploring student strategies for a smoother transition to university. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Richardson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The first year of university study is one of the greatest transition periods in a student’s life. It is a time where they have to learn new academic skills as well as new social and independent living skills.  For many students, the struggle to balance the competing demands of study, work and personal commitments feels overwhelming and they report significant declines in their overall health and well-being.  However, some students appear to thrive in this new learning environment.  This presentation reports on the findings of a research project investigating the health and well-being of first year students in Australia.  It compares the experiences and coping strategies of “thriving” students with those who describe themselves as “just surviving.”  Forming close social relationships with peers, having good time management and organisational skills, together with effective coping strategies enable students to transition more successfully into university life.

  2. Strategies of Iranian nurses to overcome professional discrimination: An explorative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohani, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Discrimination is a situation in which individuals receive unequal social benefits in return for equal roles they play. They react to such a situation in different ways. This study aims at identifying the strategies used by Iranian nurses to overcome professional discrimination. This qualitative study was conducted with the participation of 23 nurses who worked in hospitals in the cities of Tehran, Tabriz, and Ilam. They were selected based on purposive sampling. Data were collected using deep and unstructured interviews in a period of time between May 2013 and June 2014. Interviews were simultaneously analyzed using conventional content analysis method after being transcribed. Ethical consideration: This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. Also, voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. "Presenting a positive image of oneself," "objection," and "expectation" were three themes extracted through data analysis. Organizational discrimination puts nurses under stress and pressure. Nurses react to unfair behavior in different ways. These reactions are harmful to an organization and lead to negative consequences. Professional discrimination has made nurses adopt strategies which would lead to such consequences, which in turn influences their performance as nurses.

  3. Social media as a recruitment strategy: using Twitter to explore young people's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhonda Lynne; Usher, Kim

    2017-12-18

    The development of a recruitment strategy requires nurse researchers to consider the avenues available to them to fully investigate a phenomenon. In many cases, this will mean that they invite members of the public to be participants in their research. Successfully advertising the research project to potential participants requires a targeted approach, so that the participants will contribute to a data set that is sufficiently representative and analysis will elicit answers to the research questions. Societal changes in communication patterns and in media consumption have led to a downturn in traditional forms of media, such as television, radio and printed newspapers, magazines and newsletters. Increasingly, the public is using social media instead of traditional media. This change has implications for the design of research and researchers will have to adapt their recruitment strategies to include social media, if they are to collect representative rich data that can be analysed and reliably inform the findings of research. To discuss the importance of rigorous research designs and to provide an example of a study that demonstrates how mental health researchers, investigating help and support for young people's mental health, can adapt their traditional recruitment practices and applied this new knowledge to recruitment using social media. A carefully designed social media recruitment process was particularly useful in attracting informative participant respondents who were able to provide meaningful and rich data relevant when responding to particular research questions. Engineering the participant user experience, such as using a minimum number of keyboard clicks to enter the online survey, mitigated the risk of drop out or incomplete responses. Recruitment to a research study requires a strategy that matches the dynamics of the communication media used by potential participants. Nurse researchers need to be adept in the use of social media applied to health

  4. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

  6. Scenarios Simulation of Spatio-Temporal Land Use Changes for Exploring Sustainable Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover change have received considerable attention from global researchers in recent decades. The conflicts between different development strategies for land uses have become a problem that urgently needs to be solved, especially in those regions with a fragile ecological environment. The development of scenario simulations is essential in order to highlight possible alternative pathways for the future under the backgrounds of urbanization, economic growth and ecological protection. This study simulated land use changes for Tekes in 2020 with the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S model under a ‘business as usual’ scenario, cropland protection scenario, ecological security scenario, and artificial modification scenario. The results indicated that the spatial patterns of the land use types were explained well by the environment variables, and the selected models had a satisfactory accuracy in this study. The requirements and the patterns were quite different owing to the variation of the major objectives of the four scenarios. In addition to the constraint rules of the land use transformation, the hot point for land use change was its spatial coherency. Areas near to an existing land use type were more likely to transform to that type than those farther away. The increased cropland and urban land were mainly located around the current cropland and urban land while forests and grassland were more likely to occur in places with flat terrain and good hydrological conditions. The results could contribute to better insight into the relationships between land use changes and their driving factors and provide a scientific basis for regional management strategies and sustainable land use development.

  7. Integration of first-principles methods and crystallographic database searches for new ferroelectrics: Strategies and explorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Joseph W.; Rabe, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    In this concept paper, the development of strategies for the integration of first-principles methods with crystallographic database mining for the discovery and design of novel ferroelectric materials is discussed, drawing on the results and experience derived from exploratory investigations on three different systems: (1) the double perovskite Sr(Sb 1/2 Mn 1/2 )O 3 as a candidate semiconducting ferroelectric; (2) polar derivatives of schafarzikite MSb 2 O 4 ; and (3) ferroelectric semiconductors with formula M 2 P 2 (S,Se) 6 . A variety of avenues for further research and investigation are suggested, including automated structure type classification, low-symmetry improper ferroelectrics, and high-throughput first-principles searches for additional representatives of structural families with desirable functional properties. - Graphical abstract: Integration of first-principles methods with crystallographic database mining, for the discovery and design of novel ferroelectric materials, could potentially lead to new classes of multifunctional materials. Highlights: ► Integration of first-principles methods and database mining. ► Minor structural families with desirable functional properties. ► Survey of polar entries in the Inorganic Crystal Structural Database.

  8. New, Efficient and Clean Strategies to Explore CP Violation Through Neutral B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We point out that decays of the kind $B_d\\to D_\\pm K_{S(L)}$ and $B_s\\to D_\\pm\\eta^{(')},D_\\pm\\phi, ...$, where $D_+$ and $D_-$ denote the CP-even and CP-odd eigenstates of the neutral D-meson system, respectively, provide very efficient, theoretically clean determinations of the angle $\\gamma$ of the unitarity triangle. In this new strategy, we use the $B^0_q$--$\\bar{B^0_q}$ ($q\\in\\{d,s\\}$) mixing phase $\\phi_q$ as an input, and employ only ``untagged'' and mixing-induced CP-violating observables, which satisfy a very simple relation, allowing us to determine $\\tan\\gamma$. Using a plausible dynamical assumption, $\\gamma$ can be fixed in an essentially unambiguous manner. The corresponding formalism can also be applied to $B_d\\to D_\\pm\\pi^0,D_\\pm\\rho^0, >...$ and $B_s\\to D_\\pm K_{S(L)}$ decays. Although these modes appear less attractive for the extraction of $\\gamma$, they provide interesting determinations of $\\sin\\phi_q$. In comparison with the conventional $B_d\\to J/\\psi K_{S(L)}$ and $B_s\\to J/\\psi\\phi$ ...

  9. Exploring strategies to improve the health promotion orientation of Flemish sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Jeroen; Seghers, Jan; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    Sports clubs are increasingly recognized as an innovative setting for health promotion, as exemplified by the health promoting sports club concept. This study aims to assess the health promotion orientation of both youth sports clubs (YSC) and adult sports clubs (ASC) in Flanders and to identify the motives and barriers as reported by their representatives as a basis for proposing intervention strategies to improve the health promotion orientation in sports clubs. A total of 253 Flemish sports clubs, consisting of 156 YSC and of 97 ASC, completed the online questionnaire, covering club characteristics (e.g. finances, human resources), perceived motives and barriers for health promotion and the health promoting sports club index. Even though YSC were more health promoting than ASC, the results indicated that all sports clubs could improve their health promotion orientation. The most consistent predictors of health promotion orientation are perceived motives index for YSC and perceived lack of resources for ASC. Based on these results, interventions to enhance the health promoting orientation need to tackle the lack of resources such as lack of expertise regarding health promotion. Interventions aimed specifically at YSC should emphasize the direct benefits, for example by demonstrating how health promotion helps clubs to improve the provision of high quality sports participation and by awarding a health promotion quality label. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Coupling Agent-Based and Groundwater Modeling to Explore Demand Management Strategies for Shared Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Municipal water demands in growing population centers in the arid southwest US are typically met through increased groundwater withdrawals. Hydro-climatic uncertainties attributed to climate change and land use conversions may also alter demands and impact the replenishment of groundwater supply. Groundwater aquifers are not necessarily confined within municipal and management boundaries, and multiple diverse agencies may manage a shared resource in a decentralized approach, based on individual concerns and resources. The interactions among water managers, consumers, and the environment influence the performance of local management strategies and regional groundwater resources. This research couples an agent-based modeling (ABM) framework and a groundwater model to analyze the effects of different management approaches on shared groundwater resources. The ABM captures the dynamic interactions between household-level consumers and policy makers to simulate water demands under climate change and population growth uncertainties. The groundwater model is used to analyze the relative effects of management approaches on reducing demands and replenishing groundwater resources. The framework is applied for municipalities located in the Verde River Basin, Arizona that withdraw groundwater from the Verde Formation-Basin Fill-Carbonate aquifer system. Insights gained through this simulation study can be used to guide groundwater policy-making under changing hydro-climatic scenarios for a long-term planning horizon.

  11. Healthy older adults balance pattern under dual task conditions: exploring the strategy and trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR participated in this analytic cross-sectional study. At USWR’s Motor Control Laboratory, the participants’ postural sway were assessed using force plate in 4 distinct double leg standing conditions with and without presence of visual input and Stroop dual task. Postural and Stroop variables were compared. Results: Findings indicated that when the elderly encountered with either dual task or absence of visual input, they can still manage the situation in a way that changes in sway parameter would not become significant. But, when these two conditions occurred simultaneously, the participant’s balance strategy fluctuated. Therefore, the mean velocity showed a significant difference between the "single quiet standing" condition and the condition of standing with eyes closed while the participants were answering Stroop dual task (Mean difference = -0.007, 95% CI = -0.012, -0.002. Conclusion: It appears that velocity parameter is sensitive to small changes, so it is recommended that researchers include this parameter in their future analyses. Balance in elderly can be manipulated by dual task and visual input deprivation.

  12. Exploring ischemia-induced vascular lesions and potential pharmacological intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, G; Obrenovich, M E; Seyidova, D; de la Torre, J C

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in vessels under the influence of ischemia play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, most important of which are stroke and myocardial infarction or myocardial insult. Over the years, information has been gathered, which implicate a role for ischemic vascular changes in the pathogenesis of crush-syndrome, atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. When blood vessels are damaged they become unresponsive to a stimulus, which normally elicits vasodilatation and can lead to intraluminal thrombosis and ischemic events. The aim of this review is to explore the structural changes seen in vessels affected by ischemia reperfusion injury. With ischemia, the development of observable changes to vascular structure is multifactorial. One key factor is reperfusion ischemic injury. Moreover, the duration of the ischemic event is an important factor when determining both the prognosis and the type of morphological change that is observable in affected vessel walls. In this regard, the deleterious progression of blood flow impairment and its severity depends on the specific organ involved and the type of tissue affected. Further, there are regional differences within affected tissues and the degree of microvascular injury is well correlated with differences in the nature and severity of the ischemic event. Any method aimed at preventing and treating ischemic reperfusion injuries in vessels, based on these investigations, should likewise be able to decrease the early signs of brain, cerebrovascular and heart injury and preserve normal cellular architecture.

  13. Exploring Coping Strategies Among Young Asian American Women Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Sudhakar, Anantha; Le, Mai Nhung; Levine, Ellen G

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, breast cancer rates among young Asian American women have been increasing. Despite increases in breast cancer among young Asian American women, little is known about how this population copes throughout diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. This study was a qualitative exploration of how young Asian American women cope with breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. In-depth interviews with 22 young (under the age of 50) Asian American women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were conducted. Through qualitative data analysis, three major themes emerged including moving from managing the emotions of others to expressing emotional vulnerability, moving from work and productivity to work-life balance, and moving beyond the family and reaching out to breast cancer survivors. At diagnosis, participants worked to maintain normalcy including caring for others and working during treatment. Once treatment was over, women worked to find ways to use their experience as a transformative one and also to develop more positive coping skills including expressing emotional vulnerability and reaching out to others. Further studies are needed to create and test culturally tailored supportive interventions that enhance positive coping tools among young Asian American women diagnosed by breast cancer.

  14. Exploring continuous and integrated strategies for the up- and downstream processing of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bárbara; Aguiar, Tiago; Silva, Marta M; Silva, Ricardo J S; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Pineda, Earl; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2015-11-10

    The integration of up- and downstream unit operations can result in the elimination of hold steps, thus decreasing the footprint, and ultimately can create robust closed system operations. This type of design is desirable for the bioprocess of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), where high numbers of pure cells, at low volumes, need to be delivered for therapy applications. This study reports a proof of concept of the integration of a continuous perfusion culture in bioreactors with a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system for the concentration and washing of hMSC. Moreover, we have also explored a continuous alternative for concentrating hMSC. Results show that expanding cells in a continuous perfusion operation mode provided a higher expansion ratio, and led to a shift in cells' metabolism. TFF operated either in continuous or discontinuous allowed to concentrate cells, with high cell recovery (>80%) and viability (>95%); furthermore, continuous TFF permitted to operate longer with higher cell concentrations. Continuous diafiltration led to higher protein clearance (98%) with lower cell death, when comparing to discontinuous diafiltration. Overall, an integrated process allowed for a shorter process time, recovering 70% of viable hMSC (>95%), with no changes in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring stakeholders’ perceptions of a task-shifting strategy for hypertension control in Ghana: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Iwelunmor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholders' perception of an on-going evidence-based task-shifting strategy for hypertension (TASSH in 32 community health centers and district hospitals in Ghana. Methods Using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, qualitative data were obtained from 81 key stakeholders including patients, nurses, and site directors of participating community health centers involved in the TASSH trial. Qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding techniques. Results Analysis of the qualitative data revealed three themes that illustrate stakeholders' perceptions of the ongoing task-shifting strategy for blood pressure control in Ghana and they include: 1 awareness and understanding of the TASSH program; 2 reasons for participation and non-participation in TASSH; and 3 the benefit and drawbacks to the TASSH program. Conclusion The findings support evidence that successful implementation of any task-shifting strategy must focus not only on individual patient characteristics, but also consider the role contextual factors such as organizational and leadership factors play. The findings also demonstrate the importance of understanding stakeholder's perceptions of evidence-based task-shifting interventions for hypertension control as it may ultimately influence the sustainable uptake of these interventions into "real world" settings.

  16. Exploring Instructional Strategies and Learning Theoretical Foundations of eHealth and mHealth Education Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamim, Suha R; Grant, Michael M

    2016-05-19

    This qualitative study aimed at exploring how health professionals use theories and models from the field of education to create ehealth and mhealth education interventions in an effort to provide insights for future research and practice on the development and implementation of health promotion initiatives. A purposeful sample of 12 participants was selected, using criterion and snowballing sampling strategies. Data were collected and analyzed from semistructured interviews, planning materials, and artifacts. The findings revealed that none of the participants used a specific learning theory or an instructional model in their interventions. However, based on participants' description, three themes emerged: (1) connections to behaviorist approaches to learning, (2) connections to cognitivist approaches to learning, and (3) connections to constructivist approaches to learning. Suggested implications for practice are (1) the design of a guidebook on the interplay of learning theories, instructional models, and health education and (2) the establishment of communities of practice. Further research can (1) investigate how learning theories and models intertwine with health behavior theories and models, (2) evaluate how the different instructional strategies presented in this study affect learning outcomes and health behavior change processes, and (3) investigate factors behind the instructional strategies choices made by health professionals. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. The evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care: an exploration of the potential of case study research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Complex, incrementally changing, context dependent and variable palliative care services are difficult to evaluate. Case study research strategies may have potential to contribute to evaluating such complex interventions, and to develop this field of evaluation research. This paper explores definitions of case study (as a unit of study, a process, and a product) and examines the features of case study research strategies which are thought to confer benefits for the evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care settings. Ten features of case study that are thought to be beneficial in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care are discussed, drawing from exemplars of research in this field. Important features are related to a longitudinal approach, triangulation, purposive instance selection, comprehensive approach, multiple data sources, flexibility, concurrent data collection and analysis, search for proving-disproving evidence, pattern matching techniques and an engaging narrative. The limitations of case study approaches are discussed including the potential for subjectivity and their complex, time consuming and potentially expensive nature. Case study research strategies have great potential in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care settings. Three key features need to be exploited to develop this field: case selection, longitudinal designs, and the use of rival hypotheses. In particular, case study should be used in situations where there is interplay and interdependency between the intervention and its context, such that it is difficult to define or find relevant comparisons.

  18. Tectonic resemblance of the Indian Platform, Pakistan with the Moesian Platform, Romania and strategy for exploration of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    There is a remarkable tectonic resemblance between the indian Platform (Pakistan) and the Moesian Platform (Romania). As viewed in global tectonic perspective Moeslan and Indian Plates have played important role in Alpine Himalayan Orogeny; Moesian and Indian Platforms are extension of these respective plates. Characteristics features of both the platforms are block faulting which has effected not only the general tectonic framework but has also played important role in oil accumulation. Main producing rocks in the Moesian platform are Jurassic sandstones and cretaceous limestones while in the indian platform cretaceous sandstones are important reservoirs. The average geothermal gradient in the indian platform is 2.45 C/100m with the higher gradients in the central gas producing region. Geothermal gradients in the Moesian platform have an average value of 3 C/100m with higher gradients in the northern in the northern part. Some of the producing structures in both the platforms are remarkably similar, traps associated with normal faults are very important. Extensive exploration carried in the Moesian Platform makes it very important oil producing region of Romania. After the discovery of oil lower Sindh, serious exploration is being carried in the Indian platform. The paper deals with the similarities between these two important platforms. In the light of the studies of the Moesian platform, strategies or exploration of oil and gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. (author)

  19. Digitization of uranium deposit information in basin. A new strategy of ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2006-01-01

    The discovered ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits in the entire world are mostly blind deposits, many of them occur in bleak desert, gobi desert, and semi-hilly land area. Exploration methods for these deposits mainly depend on great and systematic drilling. There are many large-medium size Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins in northern China, and over twenty of them are thick overburden basins which are mostly the virgin land for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit. Due to the comprehensive national power, geological background, uranium exploration ability, great and systematic drilling is not favorable for prospecting ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit in China. According to the exploration and prospecting experiences for mineral ore bodies at home and abroad, uranium information mapping based on geochemical survey of the basins is a new strategy for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is an economic, practical, fast and effective method, and has been manifested by the performing information digitization for oil and gas resources, gold mineral resources in China and the mapping of uranium information for whole Europe continent. (authors)

  20. Advocacy coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate: Exploring coalition structure, policy beliefs, resources, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Lewis, LaVonna B; Cousineau, Michael R; Nichol, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n = 87) and newspaper articles (n = 78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state's legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate-a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advocacy Coalitions involved in California’s Menu Labeling Policy Debate: Exploring Coalition Structure, Policy Beliefs, Resources, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D.; Lewis, LaVonna B.; Cousineau, Michael R.; Nichol, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California’s menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n=87) and newspaper articles (n=78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state’s legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate—a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. PMID:28161674

  2. Exploring the biophysical properties of phytosterols in the plasma membrane for novel cancer prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Omar; Sanver, Didem; Kane, David; Thorne, James L

    2018-05-03

    Cancer is a global problem with no sign that incidences are reducing. The great costs associated with curing cancer, through developing novel treatments and applying patented therapies, is an increasing burden to developed and developing nations alike. These financial and societal problems will be alleviated by research efforts into prevention, or treatments that utilise off-patent or repurposed agents. Phytosterols are natural components of the diet found in an array of seeds, nuts and vegetables and have been added to several consumer food products for the management of cardio-vascular disease through their ability to lower LDL-cholesterol levels. In this review, we provide a connected view between the fields of structural biophysics and cellular and molecular biology to evaluate the growing evidence that phytosterols impair oncogenic pathways in a range of cancer types. The current state of understanding of how phytosterols alter the biophysical properties of plasma membrane is described, and the potential for phytosterols to be repurposed from cardio-vascular to oncology therapeutics. Through an overview of the types of biophysical and molecular biology experiments that have been performed to date, this review informs the reader of the molecular and biophysical mechanisms through which phytosterols could have anti-cancer properties via their interactions with the plasma cell membrane. We also outline emerging and under-explored areas such as computational modelling, improved biomimetic membranes and ex vivo tissue evaluation. Focus of future research in these areas should improve understanding, not just of phytosterols in cancer cell biology but also to give insights into the interaction between the plasma membrane and the genome. These fields are increasingly providing meaningful biological and clinical data but iterative experiments between molecular biology assays, biosynthetic membrane studies and computational membrane modelling improve and refine our

  3. Exploring Pre-Service Science Teacher Methods and Strategies for the Driving Questions in Research Inquiry: From Consulting an Instructor to Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Miraç

    2016-01-01

    An important stage in any research inquiry is the development of research questions that need to be answered. The strategies to develop research questions should be defined and described, but few studies have considered this process in greater detail. This study explores pre-service science teachers' research questions and the strategies they can…

  4. Exploring the Managerial Dilemmas Encountered by Advanced Analytical Equipment Providers in Developing Service-led Growth Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Frandsen, Thomas; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the dilemmas encountered by manufacturers of advanced analytical equipment in developing service-led growth strategies to expand their business in pursuit of more attractive revenue models. It does so by adopting a case-based research approach. The findings detail the challenges...... faced in providing advanced services to customers’ R & D functions, while simultaneously attempting to scale up these services for a production context. The emergent complexities of operating in multiple arenas in order to explore and exploit technologies in different contexts—along the three...... trajectories of serviceability, scalability and solutions—with a view to expanding markets and developing solution-based business models, are discussed. It is argued that manufacturers of analytical equipment encounter certain dilemmas, as managing the different trajectories involves different needs...

  5. Screening novel candidates and exploring design strategies for organic dye sensitizers with rigid π-linker: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Kai-Li [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China); College of Chemistry and Life Science, Gansu Normal University for Nationalities, Hezuo, 747000 Gansu (China); Liu, Le-Yan [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Gansu Normal University for Nationalities, Hezuo, 747000 Gansu (China); Geng, Zhi-Yuan, E-mail: zhiyuangeng@126.com [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China); Yan, Pen-Ji; Lu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Rui-Rui [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China)

    2015-07-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations have been carried out to explore the underlying origin of merits for rigid π-spacer based on reference dyes C255 and C254. The results demonstrate that higher short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of C255 is primarily ascribed to the lower EBE, while the biggish short-circuit current density (V{sub OC}) mainly originates from the larger μ{sub normal} compared to C254. Besides, a novel index integral of overlap between hole and electron (S) is firstly introduced to quantitatively estimate the facility of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and preliminarily confirmed to be effective for the research target of this work. Furthermore, three series of dyes (C-series, A-series, AC-series) have been designed and characterized to screen promising sensitizer candidates and design strategies, while delightful results have been achieved including 6 promising candidates, design stratagem on efficiently reducing the charge recombination and combinational tactics on screening new dyes with excellent spectral properties or outstanding DSSC performance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Novel S index was introduced in and confirmed to be effective to estimate ICT. • The merits of rigid π bridge have been theoretically revealed. • Six promising candidates have been screened out. • New strategy on reduce charge recombination was reported. • Novel combinational tactics were acquired and justified to be feasible.

  6. Exploring organisational competences in Human Factors and UX project work: managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Dominic; Curzon, Paul; Blandford, Ann

    2018-06-01

    Organisational competence in Human Factors and UX (user experience) has not been looked at before despite its relevance to project success. We define organisational competence as the collective competence of the individuals, bringing together their complementary abilities to deliver an outcome that is typically more than the sum of its parts. Twenty-two UX and Human Factors practitioners were interviewed about their project work in two contrasting domains: web design and safety-critical systems to explore organisational competences. Through doing a FRAM analysis, 29 functions and 6 main areas of competences were identified: the central project process; the process of learning about the problem; maintaining and developing client relations; staff development; evolving practices; and the management of documentation for audit and quality control. These dynamic and situated competences form a web of interactions. Managing competences is essential for project success. Implications for managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Organisational competences impact how routine and non-routine project work is performed, but these have received little attention in the literature. Six key areas of competences in Human Factors and UX project work were identified from practitioner interviews. Managing combinations of adaptive competences is important for developing careers, project tactics and organisational strategies.

  7. Using technology for success - the practices of the leader companies in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin exploration and production strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyca, L.; Eynon, G.

    1997-04-01

    The success of oil and gas companies depends greatly on the effectiveness of their exploration and development programs. A study was conducted in which more than 75 companies, which account for over 80 per cent of industry production, were comparatively assessed. Data was obtained through questionnaires and interaction with participating companies. It was shown that leaders use only appropriate technologies and know when not to use those that are too costly. They make use of off-the-shelf technologies rather than develop new ones themselves. They provide effective dissemination of technology throughout their organizations. They require technology to help them do the `basics` well, but they also demand the application of some `art` in the process. Technologies considered most important to leaders include technologies related to stratigraphy and sedimentology, petrophysics and log analysis, seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation, drilling, mud and logging systems, production history data-bases, reservoir description and modelling, and production optimization. Examples of technology utilization that are considered critical to success in individual strategy areas, and indications of the importance placed on individual technologies by leaders, relative to the rest of industry in each strategy were also provided. 5 figs.

  8. Contextual Exploration of a New Family Caregiver Support Concept for Geriatric Settings Using a Participatory Health Research Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorant, Elisabeth; Krieger, Theresia

    2017-11-28

    Family caregivers are the backbone of the long-term care support system within the home environment. Comprehensive caregiver support programs require collaboration and coordination within the system. A new public health concept, Vade Mecum, aims to harmonize and professionalize family caregiver support initiatives in geriatric care settings in the Euregion Maas-Rhine. Exploration of the new concept recently started in Germany to gain in-depth insight into current support and the needs of the geriatric care team and family caregivers. Within the context of an exploratory qualitative study, a participatory health research (PHR) strategy was applied to make optimal use of experience and knowledge from the system. Care professionals, engaged as co-researchers, were responsible for decisions about the research question, data collection methods and procedures of engaging family caregivers. A research team representing all professions within the geriatric department was formed. Research objectives were formulated and an appropriate mix of qualitative data collection methods consisting of interviews, focus groups and story-telling was chosen. Needs and expectations of the new concept, and practical solutions for involving family caregivers were discussed. A PHR strategy resulted in initiating a qualitative study in a geriatric care setting carried out by care professionals from the department. Knowledge was generated in a co-creative manner, and co-researchers were empowered. A comprehensive understanding of the system serves as a starting point for advancement of the new family caregiver concept.

  9. Learning from professionals: Exploring cognitive rehabilitation strategies for the definition of the functional requirements of a telerehabilitation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Giovanni; Frisiello, Antonella; Trizio, Marco; Mosso, Cristina O; Bazzani, Marco

    2018-04-01

    In the past few years, the advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) led to the development of platforms and applications that aim to support cognitive rehabilitation therapy that contributes to extend patients' treatment at home. In our research we adopted the Human Centered Approach to design a cognitive rehabilitation platform that is able to provide tools and features tailored to the professional needs and strategies and also able to engage patients in their treatment process. In order to explore the clinicians' point of view on the neuropsychological intervention strategies, we applied two different techniques often used in human factors research: the Critical Decision Method to study professionals' strategies with a descriptive perspective, and the Hierarchical Task Analysis to analyze the processes with a normative view. The results of our research showed that the hybrid approach adopted allowed us to have a better focus on the cognitive rehabilitation process and on the professionals' decision making mechanism. This led to a better understanding of functional requirements for supporting clinician's strategic decision making, in terms of personalization of treatments, cognitive exercises settings and feedback customization. In conclusion, our research highlights the value of the CDM to focus deeply on which functionalities professionals require from a cognitive telerehabilitation system and allowed us to design more precisely clinician-patients interactions inside the system compared to prescriptive methods currently used. Our study offers contribution to the comprehension of the rehabilitation processes, suggesting the positive impacts of an "extended" clinic treatment by adopting a flexible and adaptable tool. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Religious belief as a coping strategy. An explorative trial in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Momm, F.; Xander, C.; Bartelt, S.; Henke, M.; Frommhold, H.; Zander-Heinz, A.; Budischewski, K.; Domin, C.; Adamietz, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: to explore the role of religious beliefs coping with disease symptoms and treatment-related side effects in patients with head-and-neck cancer under radiotherapy. Patients and methods: prospectively collected data were used with a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy and epoetin beta or placebo within a double-blind multicenter trial. All patients were divided into believers and nonbelievers. Answers to a quality of life questionnaire at four points in time during radiotherapy were analyzed according to both groups. Clinical parameters and therapy side effects were controlled regularly. Results: 62.1% of the patients (66/105) sent back a baseline questionnaire discriminating between believers and nonbelievers. For 34.2% (40/105) data of all four measures could be obtained. On average, believers felt better in all categories of side effects at all points of time before, during and directly after therapy. Conclusion: religious faith seems to play an important role in coping strategies of radiotherapy patients. More research in this area would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  11. Strategies for swimming: explorations of the behaviour of a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of the lamprey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma L. Williams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed on a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a lamprey, to explore the strategies for controlling swimming speed. The muscle component of the model was based on previous experiments on isolated lamprey muscle. The patterns of muscle activation were those found in EMG studies on swimming lampreys. The fluid mechanics were modelled with G.I. Taylor's simplification. Tail beat frequencies of 2–6 sec−1 were combined with muscle activation strengths of 0.1% to 20% of maximum tetanic isometric strength. The resulting forward swimming speed and changing body shape were recorded. From the changing body shape the speed of the backward-travelling wave of curvature was calculated, as well as the ratio between the speeds of the waves of activation and curvature. For any given activation strength there was a tail beat frequency that gave maximal forward speed. Furthermore, for all the combinations of activation strength and tail beat frequency that gave such maximum swimming speeds, the ratio of the speed of the wave of curvature to the wave of muscle activation was approximately 0.75. This is similar to the ratio found in swimming lampreys.

  12. Listening and Musical Engagement: An Exploration of the Effects of Different Listening Strategies on Attention, Emotion, and Peak Affective Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Music educators often use guided listening strategies as a means of enhancing engagement during music listening activities. Although previous research suggests that these strategies are indeed helpful in facilitating some form of cognitive and emotional engagement, little is known about how these strategies might function for music of differing…

  13. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management by small and medium enterprises (SMEs operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally family-owned businesses, and this study provides concrete insights into the mind-set of owners toward different functional strategies. The AHP implementation steps are performed using commercially available software “Expert Choice®.” Marketing strategy is considered to be the most important strategy, while manufacturing management strategy is the second most important strategy. There is little emphasis on the financial and human resource management which is a serious cause of concern. The study would help policy makers to understand the business behaviors of this sector and consequently formulate policies to enhance their performance.

  14. Using a Mixed Methods Approach to Explore Strategies, Metacognitive Awareness and the Effects of Task Design on Listening Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Anne; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Although research in the area of listening processes and strategies is increasing, it still remains the least understood and least researched of the four skills (Vandergrift, 2007). Based on research in listening comprehension, task design and strategies, this article uses a mixed methods approach to shed light on the development of four…

  15. Comparison of Rooting Strategies to Explore Rock Fractures for Shallow Soil-Adapted Tree Species with Contrasting Aboveground Growth Rates: A Greenhouse Microcosm Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunpeng; Chen, Hongsong; Ding, Yali; Yang, Jing; Wang, Kelin

    2017-01-01

    For tree species adapted to shallow soil environments, rooting strategies that efficiently explore rock fractures are important because soil water depletion occurs frequently. However, two questions: (a) to what extent shallow soil-adapted species rely on exploring rock fractures and (b) what outcomes result from drought stress, have rarely been tested. Therefore, based on the expectation that early development of roots into deep soil layers is at the cost of aboveground growth, seedlings of three tree species ( Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Delavaya toxocarpa , and Acer cinnamomifolium ) with distinct aboveground growth rates were selected from a typical shallow soil region. In a greenhouse experiment that mimics the basic features of shallow soil environments, 1-year-old seedlings were transplanted into simulated microcosms of shallow soil overlaying fractured bedrock. Root biomass allocation and leaf physiological activities, as well as leaf δ 13 C values were investigated and compared for two treatments: regular irrigation and repeated cycles of drought stress. Our results show that the three species differed in their rooting strategies in the context of encountering rock fractures, however, these strategies were not closely related to the aboveground growth rate. For the slowest-growing seedling, C. glauca , percentages of root mass in the fractures, as well as in the soil layer between soil and bedrock increased significantly under both treatments, indicating a specialized rooting strategy that facilitated the exploration of rock fractures. Early investment in deep root growth was likely critical to the establishment of this drought-vulnerable species. For the intermediate-growing, A. cinnamomifolium , percentages of root mass in the bedrock and interface soil layers were relatively low and exhibited no obvious change under either treatment. This limited need to explore rock fractures was compensated by a conservative water use strategy. For the fast-growing, D

  16. Comparison of Rooting Strategies to Explore Rock Fractures for Shallow Soil-Adapted Tree Species with Contrasting Aboveground Growth Rates: A Greenhouse Microcosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Nie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For tree species adapted to shallow soil environments, rooting strategies that efficiently explore rock fractures are important because soil water depletion occurs frequently. However, two questions: (a to what extent shallow soil-adapted species rely on exploring rock fractures and (b what outcomes result from drought stress, have rarely been tested. Therefore, based on the expectation that early development of roots into deep soil layers is at the cost of aboveground growth, seedlings of three tree species (Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Acer cinnamomifolium with distinct aboveground growth rates were selected from a typical shallow soil region. In a greenhouse experiment that mimics the basic features of shallow soil environments, 1-year-old seedlings were transplanted into simulated microcosms of shallow soil overlaying fractured bedrock. Root biomass allocation and leaf physiological activities, as well as leaf δ13C values were investigated and compared for two treatments: regular irrigation and repeated cycles of drought stress. Our results show that the three species differed in their rooting strategies in the context of encountering rock fractures, however, these strategies were not closely related to the aboveground growth rate. For the slowest-growing seedling, C. glauca, percentages of root mass in the fractures, as well as in the soil layer between soil and bedrock increased significantly under both treatments, indicating a specialized rooting strategy that facilitated the exploration of rock fractures. Early investment in deep root growth was likely critical to the establishment of this drought-vulnerable species. For the intermediate-growing, A. cinnamomifolium, percentages of root mass in the bedrock and interface soil layers were relatively low and exhibited no obvious change under either treatment. This limited need to explore rock fractures was compensated by a conservative water use strategy. For the fast

  17. Exploring the Effect of Teaching Test-Taking Strategies on Intermediate Level Learners on Reading Section of Ielts; Learners’ Attitude in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Language proficiency tests have become common instruments to judge people based on their performance. Thus, the scores on language proficiency tests, such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS or Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL, play a crucial role in the test-takers’ lives. Because of increasing demands on the part of students to get a good score on these tests, test preparatory courses have emerged. These preparatory courses, characteristically short and limited in terms of time, equip IELTS candidates with the skills required for passing the test, called test-taking strategies. The present study explored the effect of strategy teaching- namely wash-back effect on reading section of academic IELTS on intermediate learners in Iran. Besides, learners’ attitude toward the strategy teaching was investigated as well. According to the descriptive statistics and t-test results, those learners who received strategy teaching outperformed those who had not received strategy teaching in reading section of IELTS.According to t-test results, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups since the p value was lower than .05 (p < .001.  Furthermore, the learners had positive attitudes toward receiving strategy teaching since there was a significant difference between the obtained mean score and the presupposed average because the p value was lower than .05.

  18. A Preliminary Exploration on E-commerce Marketing Strategies%电子商务营销策略初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明霞

    2015-01-01

    本文通过对传统商业营销策略与电子商务营销策略的对比分析,总结出电子商务营销策略的六个特征。阐明在互联网时代,不能把传统的商业营销策略照搬到网上执行就说是在做电子商务,而是要用全新的电子商务营销策略指导电子商务。%Through a comparative analysis on traditional com-merce marketing strategies and e-commerce marketing strategies, this paper summarizes six features of e-commerce marketing strategies, points out that to put traditional commerce marketing strategies online mechanically is not to operate e-commerce in the Internet age, and brand new e-commerce marketing strategies should be used to guide e-commerce.

  19. Exploring the moderating effect of social intelligence on the relationship between entrepreneurial decision-making strategy and SME sustainable performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Yusuf Dayang Hasliza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals that causation, rather than effectuation, decision-making strategy is a more significant predictor of sustainable performance of SMEs. However, social intelligence was not found to be a significant moderator of entrepreneurial decision-making-sustainable performance relationship. The study uses data from a survey among 91 technology-based SMEs (TBS in Malaysia and employs structural equation modelling techniques for data analysis. A new instrument to measure all three variables of entrepreneurial decision-making strategy, social intelligence, and venture performance is proposed based on adoption and adaptation of existing validated scales available in literature.

  20. Developing an Instrument for Teacher Feedback : Using the Rasch Model to Explore Teachers' Development of Effective Teaching Strategies and Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, Rikkert; van de Grift, Wim; van Veen, Klaas

    This study connects descriptions of effective teaching with descriptions of teacher development to advance an initial understanding of how effective teaching may develop. The study's main premise is that descriptions of effective teaching develop cumulatively where more basic teaching strategies and

  1. Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, Cindy [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, Pat [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Schirber, Tom [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Yost, Peter [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Murry, Tessa [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  2. Exploration of Teaching Strategies That Stimulate the Growth of Academic Skills of Children with ASD in Special Education School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Eirini; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive growth of children with developmental disorders, like autism, can be seriously impaired due to the disorder. If so, in the Netherlands, these children can attend special schools where they are treated to ameliorate disorder symptoms and to stimulate cognitive growth. The aim of this paper was to identify teaching strategies that…

  3. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Ahmad; Danial Saeed Pirzada

    2014-01-01

    This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management) by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally famil...

  4. Exploring Effectiveness and Moderators of Language Learning Strategy Instruction on Second Language and Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola O.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized recent research on strategy instruction (SI) effectiveness to estimate SI effects and their moderators for two domains: second/foreign language and self-regulated learning. A total of 37 studies (47 independent samples) for language domain and 16 studies (17 independent samples) for self-regulated learning domain…

  5. Exploring the experiences and implementing strategies for physiotherapy students who perceive they have been bullied or harassed on clinical placements: participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Di; Patterson, David; Chapman, Hannah; Murray, Louise; Toner, Maeve; Hassenkamp, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-01

    To explore and empower physiotherapy students who reported being bullied or harassed on clinical placements by co-developing, implementing and evaluating strategies that could be adopted by the university. A participatory action research design was employed. Two focus groups were carried out involving 5 final year physiotherapy students. In the first focus group negative experiences were discussed and coping strategies suggested for their penultimate placement. A second focus group was held following the students' final placement when these strategies were evaluated and further ones proposed. A thematic analysis of the data was carried out. Four themes and sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The four themes were negative experiences on placement, coping strategies, the role of the visiting tutor and the assessment. The students' highlighted various degrees of threat to their efficacy and in most cases could draw upon a suggested 'tool box' of coping strategies. They all agreed that serious cases of harassment require wider support from the University senior management team which should be clearly documented. The role of the visiting tutor was deemed to be critical in these situations and recommendations were made regarding this role and the assessment of placements. Students understand that they are going to be assessed before achieving their professional qualification and in essence they will always find themselves in a hierarchical position but equally fairness must prevail and it is important and that there are clear avenues for them to seek support. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Dedicated Diversity Course or an Infusion Model? Exploring Which Strategy Is More Effective in Social Work Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Ronald O.; Priester, Mary Ann; Lackey, Richard; Duvall, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    The Council on Social Work Education requires schools of social work to meet diversity and social justice competencies. Many MSW programs meet these standards by having either a dedicated diversity and social justice course, or by using some form of diversity and social justice curricular infusion. The current study explored which of these…

  7. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds..

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Collado, D.; Diaz, D.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Gandini, G.

    2013-01-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors

  8. Progress Toward Electrostatic Radiation Shielding of Interplanetary Spacecraft: Strategies, Concepts and Technical Challenges of Human Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation problem is a serious obstacle to solar system exploration. Electrostatic shielding was previously dismissed as unworkable. This was based on the false assumption that radial symmetry is needed to provide isotropic protection. KSC recently demonstrated the feasibility of asymmetric, multipole electrostatic shielding. Combined with passive shielding it might solve the radiation problem

  9. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS): Psychometric Properties of the French Translation and Exploration of Its Relations with Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermann, Francoise; Billieux, Joel; Laroi, Frank; d'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bondolfi, Guido; Zermatten, Ariane; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, several questionnaires have been developed to measure mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was created to specifically capture attention and awareness in daily life (Brown & Ryan, 2003). In this article, we present a French adaptation of the MAAS. In the 1st study, we explored the psychometric…

  10. Highly diverse, massive organic data as explored by a composite QSPR strategy: an advanced study of boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A A; Ivanov, A A; Oliferenko, A A; Palyulin, V A; Zefirov, N S

    2005-06-01

    An improved strategy of quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of diverse and inhomogeneous organic datasets has been proposed. A molecular connectivity term was successively corrected for different structural features encoded in fragmental descriptors. The so-called solvation index 1chis (a weighted Randic index) was used as a "leading" variable and standardized molecular fragments were employed as "corrective" class-specific variables. Performance of the new approach was illustrated by modelling a dataset of experimental normal boiling points of 833 organic compounds belonging to 20 structural classes. Firstly, separate QSPR models were derived for each class and for eight groups of structurally similar classes. Finally, a general model formed by combining all the classes together was derived (r2=0.957, s=12.9degreesC). The strategy outlined can find application in QSPR analyses of massive, highly diverse databases of organic compounds.

  11. Exploring Consumer Behavior towards Product Placement Strategy through Television Programs: A Case Study of Q Mobile in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Ullah Khan; Rabna Nawaz Lodhi; Muhammad Faisal Saddique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The changing attitude of viewers in skipping conventional television advertisements is causing a serious concern for advertisers. To respond this, marketing professionals are using diverse and more dynamic advertising strategies for instance, product placement to attract prospective customer attention. The study uses case study approach and the respondents are asked about the product placement of a mobile phone company (Q mobile) that uses product placement in a famous TV play (Bulba...

  12. Exploring corporate culture and strategy: Sainsbury at home and abroad during the early to mid 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    R Shackleton

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the UK food retailer, J Sainsbury plc, is used as anexample to illustrate the intimate power relationship between corporate culture and corporate strategy, and it is argued that corporate culture plays a key role in determining the economic performance of firms. Specifically, it is shown how corporate culture can concurrently be advantageous and burdensome within the same firm. Indeed, it is argued that the strength of Sainsbury's corporate culture prevented it from reacting to ...

  13. Exploring multiple feature combination strategies with a recurrent neural network architecture for off-line handwriting recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioulet, L.; Bideault, G.; Chatelain, C.; Paquet, T.; Brunessaux, S.

    2015-01-01

    The BLSTM-CTC is a novel recurrent neural network architecture that has outperformed previous state of the art algorithms in tasks such as speech recognition or handwriting recognition. It has the ability to process long term dependencies in temporal signals in order to label unsegmented data. This paper describes different ways of combining features using a BLSTM-CTC architecture. Not only do we explore the low level combination (feature space combination) but we also explore high level combination (decoding combination) and mid-level (internal system representation combination). The results are compared on the RIMES word database. Our results show that the low level combination works best, thanks to the powerful data modeling of the LSTM neurons.

  14. Problems, solutions, and strategies reported by users of TENS for chronic musculoskeletal pain: A qualitative exploration using patient interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwell, P.; Badlan, K.; Cramp, F. A.; Palmer, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) could offer a non-drug form of pain relief, but there is no consensus regarding its effectiveness for chronic musculoskeletal pain or chronic low back pain. A recent review of previous trial methodology identified significant problems with low treatment fidelity. There is little information available to inform the development of a pragmatic implementation design for a TENS evaluation.\\ud OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of s...

  15. Exploring Post-Treatment Reversion of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacteria of Food Animals as a Resistance Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; KuKanich, Butch; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels. Furthermore, it is possible that a novel resistance mitigation strategy for microbiological food safety could be developed based on this resistance reversion phenomenon. The strategy would be conceptually similar to existing antimicrobial drug withdrawal periods, which is a well-established and accepted mitigation strategy for avoiding violative drug residues in the edible products from the treated animals. For developing resistance-relevant withdrawals, a mathematical framework can be used to join the necessary pharmacological, microbiological, and animal production components to project the distributions of the post-treatment resistance reversion periods in the production animal populations for major antimicrobial drug classes in use. The framework can also help guide design of empirical studies into the resistance-relevant withdrawal periods and development of mitigation approaches to reduce the treatment-associated elevation of resistance in animal enteric bacteria. We outline this framework, schematically and through exemplar equations, and how its components could be formulated.

  16. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  17. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  18. Successful diversification strategies of electricity companies: An explorative empirical study on the success of different diversification strategies of German electricity companies in the wake of the European market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Ralf; Steinert, Martin; Teufel, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the EC directive 96/92, the liberalization of electricity markets is forcing electricity companies, to rethink their product and market strategy. However, neither the level of the initiated diversification efforts of former monopolies, nor their direction or their success are known or have been analyzed before. Therefore, Mueller [2006. Diversifikationsstrategien von Stromversorgungsunternehmen: Handlungsempfehlungen fuer schweizerische Stromversorgungsunternehmen auf der Basis einer empirischen Analyse des liberalisierten deutschen Strommarktes. IIMT University Press, Fribourg] has quantitatively determined the extent and direction of the diversification efforts in the electricity sector. Additionally, based on an exploratory case study research, successful diversification strategies have been identified and incorporated into 73 observations which form the basis of a set of normative recommendations for diversifying electricity companies. Since the analyses are based on the German electricity market, which fully liberalized earlier than most of its continental European counterparts, the results may especially guide other European electricity companies in their strategic diversification decisions. This paper publishes both the quantitative analysis on the degree and extents of diversification (sample time frame 1995-2000) as well as the qualitative analysis on the success of diversification strategies (sample time frame 1995-2003). Additionally, based on the obtained explorative observations, the diversification strategy of an idealized-electricity company is firstly presented for practitioners as normative recommendation, and secondly for academics, as starting point for future quantitative analysis framework. (author)

  19. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  20. Exploring an educational assessment tool to measure registered nurses' knowledge of hearing impairment and effective communication strategies: A USA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesch, Amy L

    2018-01-01

    Poor communication between the Registered Nurse and a hearing impaired patient can affect quality of care and health outcomes. Communication skills training programs for healthcare providers are needed to improve patient centered care. A descriptive research study, using a knowledge assessment tool developed and validated by the researcher, was conducted on 339 Registered Nurses to identify knowledge deficits to be addressed in a communication skills training program being designed. The educational tool measured the Registered Nurses' knowledge across four areas - hearing impairment, hearing aids, communication strategies, and regulations regarding access to care for a person with a hearing disability. Knowledge deficits were detected in all four areas. Using this educational assessment tool may enable nurse educators to tailor communication skills training programs to specifically address the gaps identified regarding hearing impairment and how to effectively communicate with the hearing impaired patient. Post training program, nurse educators can use the tool to evaluate effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of cancer on employment: A qualitative study exploring employment changes and financial coping strategies following breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yek-Ching Kong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the impact of cancer diagnosis on employment among breast cancer patients. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the employment issues faced by breast cancer patients as well as their financial coping strategies in a multi-ethnic Asian setting. Methods: Six focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out with breast cancer patients, representing various ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds, who were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a public hospital, and University Malaya Medical Centre, a public academic hospital. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was carried out using the NVivo software. Results: Majority of breast cancer patients quitted their jobs upon diagnosis of breast cancer, with many describing that their bosses were not understanding in terms of their cancer diagnosis. Those who were self-employed meanwhile reported less productivity. Patterns of financial coping strategies due to employment changes were diverse. Some patients chose to do light weight part time jobs, while others described the important role of husbands and relatives in coping with income loss. There were mixed responses regarding return to work, in which money was the major reason to return to work, while stress was cited as a barrier to not return to work. However, many reported barriers in finding a job after cancer due to discrimination against their cancer and their age. Conclusion: It is evident that a breast cancer diagnosis brings about adverse impact on employment. Multidisciplinary interventions are urgently required in Malaysia to improve the employment status of our cancer survivors including legislative reforms to prevent discrimination. This study was funded by AIA Bhd. NMRR ID: NMRR-16-2054-32802 

  2. Exploring trophic strategies of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Comparison between habitat types and native vs introduced distribution ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Lacerda, Mariana Baptista; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Masunari, Setuko

    2014-02-01

    The trophic ecology of non-native species is a key aspect to understand their invasion success and the community effects. Despite the important role of caprellid amphipods as trophic intermediates between primary producers and higher levels of marine food webs, there is very little information on their feeding habits. This is the first comprehensive study on the trophic strategies of two co-occurring introduced caprellids in the Spanish coasts: Caprella scaura and Paracaprella pusilla. The diet of 446 specimens of C. scaura and 230 of P. pusilla was analyzed to investigate whether there were differences in the feeding habits in relation to habitat characteristics (natural vs artificial hard substrata), type of host substrata (bryozoans and hydroids) and native vs introduced distribution ranges (Brazil vs Spain). Results revealed differences in diet preferences of the two species that have important implications for their trophic behaviour and showed a limited food overlap, which may favour their coexistence in introduced areas. In general terms, P. pusilla is a predator species, showing preference by crustacean prey in all of its life stages, while C. scaura feeds mainly on detritus. Although no sex-related diet shifts were observed in either of the species, evidence of ontogenetic variation in diet of C. scaura was found, with juveniles feeding on more amount of prey than adults. No diet differences were found between native and introduced populations within the same habitat type. However, P. pusilla exhibited a shift in its diet when different habitats were compared in the same distribution area, and C. scaura showed a flexible feeding behaviour between different host substrata in the same habitat type. This study shows that habitat characteristics at different scales can have greater influence on the feeding ecology of exotic species than different distribution ranges, and support the hypothesis that a switch between feeding strategies depending on habitat

  3. Exploring mentorship as a strategy to build capacity for knowledge translation research and practice: protocol for a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research funders, educators, investigators and decision makers worldwide have identified the need to improve the quality of health care by building capacity for knowledge translation (KT research and practice. Peer-based mentorship represents a vehicle to foster KT capacity. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify mentoring models that could be used to build KT capacity, consult with putative mentee stakeholders to understand their KT mentorship needs and preferences, and generate recommendations for the content and format of KT mentorship strategies or programs, and how they could be tested through future research. Methods A conceptual framework was derived based on mentoring goals, processes and outcomes identified in the management and social sciences literature, and our research on barriers and facilitators of academic mentorship. These concepts will inform data collection and analysis. To identify useful models by which to design, implement and evaluate KT mentorship, we will review the social sciences, management, and nursing literature from 1990 to current, browse tables of contents of relevant journals, and scan the references of all eligible studies. Eligibility screening and data extraction will be performed independently by two investigators. Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect information about KT needs, views on mentorship as a knowledge sharing strategy, preferred KT mentoring program elements, and perceived barriers from clinician health services researchers representing different disciplines. Qualitative analysis of transcripts will be performed independently by two investigators, who will meet to compare findings and resolve differences through discussion. Data will be shared and discussed with the research team, and their feedback incorporated into final reports. Discussion These findings could be used by universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and professional

  4. Exploring mentorship as a strategy to build capacity for knowledge translation research and practice: protocol for a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Perrier, Laure; Webster, Fiona; Leslie, Karen; Bell, Mary; Levinson, Wendy; Rotstein, Ori; Tourangeau, Ann; Morrison, Laurie; Silver, Ivan L; Straus, Sharon E

    2009-08-19

    Research funders, educators, investigators and decision makers worldwide have identified the need to improve the quality of health care by building capacity for knowledge translation (KT) research and practice. Peer-based mentorship represents a vehicle to foster KT capacity. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify mentoring models that could be used to build KT capacity, consult with putative mentee stakeholders to understand their KT mentorship needs and preferences, and generate recommendations for the content and format of KT mentorship strategies or programs, and how they could be tested through future research. A conceptual framework was derived based on mentoring goals, processes and outcomes identified in the management and social sciences literature, and our research on barriers and facilitators of academic mentorship. These concepts will inform data collection and analysis. To identify useful models by which to design, implement and evaluate KT mentorship, we will review the social sciences, management, and nursing literature from 1990 to current, browse tables of contents of relevant journals, and scan the references of all eligible studies. Eligibility screening and data extraction will be performed independently by two investigators. Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect information about KT needs, views on mentorship as a knowledge sharing strategy, preferred KT mentoring program elements, and perceived barriers from clinician health services researchers representing different disciplines. Qualitative analysis of transcripts will be performed independently by two investigators, who will meet to compare findings and resolve differences through discussion. Data will be shared and discussed with the research team, and their feedback incorporated into final reports. These findings could be used by universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and professional organizations in Canada and elsewhere to develop, implement, and

  5. Exploration of Effective Persuasive Strategies Used in Resisting Product Advertising: A Case Study of Adult Health Check-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Han-Kuang; Chung, Wen

    2018-05-10

    This research addressed adults' health check-ups through the lens of Role Transportation Theory. This theory is applied to narrative advertising that lures adults into seeking health check-ups by causing audiences to empathize with the advertisement's character. This study explored the persuasive mechanism behind narrative advertising and reinforced the Protection Motivation Theory model. We added two key perturbation variables: optimistic bias and truth avoidance. To complete the verification hypothesis, we performed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we recruited 77 respondents online for testing. We used analyses of variance to verify the effectiveness of narrative and informative advertising. Then, in Experiment 2, we recruited 228 respondents to perform offline physical experiments and conducted a path analysis through structural equation modelling. The findings showed that narrative advertising positively impacted participants' disease prevention intentions. The use of Role Transportation Theory in advertising enables the audience to be emotionally connected with the character, which enhances persuasiveness. In Experiment 2, we found that the degree of role transference can interfere with optimistic bias, improve perceived health risk, and promote behavioral intentions for health check-ups. Furthermore, truth avoidance can interfere with perceived health risks, which, in turn, reduce behavioral intentions for health check-ups.

  6. A strategy for full interrogation of prognostic gene expression patterns: exploring the biology of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Rimsza

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling yields quantitative data on gene expression used to create prognostic models that accurately predict patient outcome in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Often, data are analyzed with genes classified by whether they fall above or below the median expression level. We sought to determine whether examining multiple cut-points might be a more powerful technique to investigate the association of gene expression with outcome.We explored gene expression profiling data using variable cut-point analysis for 36 genes with reported prognostic value in DLBCL. We plotted two-group survival logrank test statistics against corresponding cut-points of the gene expression levels and smooth estimates of the hazard ratio of death versus gene expression levels. To facilitate comparisons we also standardized the expression of each of the genes by the fraction of patients that would be identified by any cut-point. A multiple comparison adjusted permutation p-value identified 3 different patterns of significance: 1 genes with significant cut-point points below the median, whose loss is associated with poor outcome (e.g. HLA-DR; 2 genes with significant cut-points above the median, whose over-expression is associated with poor outcome (e.g. CCND2; and 3 genes with significant cut-points on either side of the median, (e.g. extracellular molecules such as FN1.Variable cut-point analysis with permutation p-value calculation can be used to identify significant genes that would not otherwise be identified with median cut-points and may suggest biological patterns of gene effects.

  7. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore potential strategies for minimising harms from non-recreational prescription medicine sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Kebede; Aspden, Trudi; Sheridan, Janie

    2018-04-05

    Non-recreational sharing of prescribed medicines can have positive outcomes under some circumstances, but can also result in negative health outcomes. This paper describes a theoretically underpinned and systematic approach to exploring potential interventions to reduce harm. Individual, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with purposively sampled pharmacists (n = 8), doctors (n = 4), nurses (n = 6) and patients (n = 17) from Auckland, New Zealand. Thematic analysis of suggested interventions was undertaken, and these were linked to relevant intervention functions of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW). Analysis of previously defined factors influencing sharing were mapped onto the "Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour" (COM-B) model of the BCW. COM-B analysis of the factors influencing sharing behaviour revealed: (i) 'Capability'-related factors, such as patient misconceptions about the safety of certain medicines, forgetting to refill or to carry around own medicines, and lack of knowledge about safe disposal of leftover/unused medicines; (ii) 'Opportunity'-related factors included lack of access to health facilities, lack of time to see a doctor, linguistic and cultural barriers, lack of information from healthcare providers about risks of sharing, and having leftover/unused medicines, and (iii) 'Motivation'-related factors included altruism, illness denial, embarrassment about seeing a doctor, not carrying around own medicines, habit, and fear of negative health consequences from missing a few doses of medicines. Five intervention functions of the BCW appear to be the most likely candidates for targeting the factors which relate to medicine sharing. These are education, persuasion, enablement, environmental restructuring and restriction. A variety of personal and external factors which influence sharing behaviours were identified, and the BCW provided a means by which theoretically underpinned interventions to reduce

  8. Exploring economically and environmentally viable northeastern US dairy farm strategies for coping with rising corn grain prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, L T; Veith, T L; Cerosaletti, P E; Dewing, D E; Rotz, C A

    2009-08-01

    the largest net profit were evaluated one at a time to better quantify their individual impacts, combinations of these strategies, such as no-till corn plus a minimum-till cover crop, are recommended whenever feasible.

  9. Evaluating the Effects of Medical Explorers a Case Study Curriculum on Critical Thinking, Attitude Toward Life Science, and Motivational Learning Strategies in Rural High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Lance G.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: to measure the ability of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve higher order thinking skills; to evaluate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to help students be self directed learners; and to investigate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve student attitudes of the life sciences. The target population for this study was secondary students enrolled in advanced life science programs. The resulting sample (n = 71) consisted of 36 students in the case-based experimental group and 35 students in the control group. Furthermore, this study employed an experimental, pretest-posttest control group research design. The treatment consisted of two instructional strategies: case-based learning and teacher-guided learning. Analysis of covariance indicated no treatment effect on critical thinking ability or Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning. However, the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum did show a treatment effect on student attitudes toward the life sciences. These results seem to indicate that case-based curriculum has a positive impact on students' perspectives and attitudes about the study of life science as well as their interest in life science based careers. Such outcomes are also a good indicator that students enjoy and perceive the value to use of case studies in science, and because they see value in the work that they do they open up their minds to true learning and integration. Of additional interest was the observationthat on average eleventh graders showed consistently stronger gains in critical thinking, motivation and self-regulation of learning strategies, and attitudes toward the life sciences as compared to twelfth grade students. In fact, twelfth grade students showed a pre to post loss on the Watson-Glaser and the MSLQ scores while eleventh grade students showed positive gains on each of these instruments. This decline in twelfth

  10. Exploring public sector physicians' resilience, reactions and coping strategies in times of economic crisis; findings from a survey in Portugal's capital city area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Pires, Carlos André; Perelman, Julian; Gonçalves, Luzia; Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-03-15

    Evidence is accumulating on the impact of the recent economic crisis on health and health systems across Europe. However, little is known about the effect this is having on physicians - a crucial resource for the delivery of healthcare services. This paper explores the adaptation to the crisis of public sector physicians and their ability to keep performing their functions, with the objective of gaining a better understanding of health workers' resilience under deteriorating conditions. We conducted a survey among 484 public primary care and hospital physicians in Portugal's capital city area and explored their perceptions of the crisis, adaptation and coping strategies. We used ordinal and logistic regression models to link changes in hours worked and intentions to migrate with physicians' characteristics and specific answers. We found little evidence of physicians changing their overall allocation of working time before and after the crisis, with their age, types of specialisation, valuation of job flexibility and independence significantly associated with changes in public sector hours between 2010 and 2015. Being divorced, not Portuguese, of younger age, and working a high number of hours per week, were found to increase the probability of physicians considering migration, the same as having a poor opinion of recent government health policies. On the other hand, enjoying their current working environment, not wanting to disrupt provision of service, and leisure time were found to protect against scaling down public sector hours or considering migration. Our work on Portuguese physicians contributes to the debate on health workers' resilience, showing the value of understanding the influence of personal characteristics and opinions on their adaptation to changing circumstances, before designing policies to improve their working conditions and retention.

  11. An exploration of counterfeit medicine surveillance strategies guided by geospatial analysis: lessons learned from counterfeit Avastin detection in the US drug supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K

    2014-12-02

    To explore healthcare policy and system improvements that would more proactively respond to future penetration of counterfeit cancer medications in the USA drug supply chain using geospatial analysis. A statistical and geospatial analysis of areas that received notices from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about the possibility of counterfeit Avastin penetrating the US drug supply chain. Data from FDA warning notices were compared to data from 44 demographic variables available from the US Census Bureau via correlation, means testing and geospatial visualisation. Results were interpreted in light of existing literature in order to recommend improvements to surveillance of counterfeit medicines. This study analysed 791 distinct healthcare provider addresses that received FDA warning notices across 30,431 zip codes in the USA. Statistical outputs were Pearson's correlation coefficients and t values. Geospatial outputs were cartographic visualisations. These data were used to generate the overarching study outcome, which was a recommendation for a strategy for drug safety surveillance congruent with existing literature on counterfeit medication. Zip codes with greater numbers of individuals age 65+ and greater numbers of ethnic white individuals were most correlated with receipt of a counterfeit Avastin notice. Geospatial visualisations designed in conjunction with statistical analysis of demographic variables appeared more capable of suggesting areas and populations that may be at risk for undetected counterfeit Avastin penetration. This study suggests that dual incorporation of statistical and geospatial analysis in surveillance of counterfeit medicine may be helpful in guiding efforts to prevent, detect and visualise counterfeit medicines penetrations in the US drug supply chain and other settings. Importantly, the information generated by these analyses could be utilised to identify at-risk populations associated with demographic characteristics

  12. Can I get me out of my head? Exploring strategies for controlling the self-referential aspects of the mind-wandering state during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jet G; Wang, Hao-Ting; Schooler, Jonathan; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Trying to focus on a piece of text and keep unrelated thoughts at bay can be a surprisingly futile experience. The current study explored the effects of different instructions on participants' capacity to control their mind-wandering and maximize reading comprehension, while reading. Participants were instructed to (a) enhance focus on what was read (external) or (b) enhance meta-awareness of mind-wandering (internal). To understand when these strategies were important, we induced a state of self-focus in half of our participants at the beginning of the experiment. Results replicated the negative association between mind-wandering and comprehension and demonstrated that both internal and external instructions impacted on the efficiency of reading following a period of induced self-focus. Techniques that foster meta-awareness improved task focus but did so at the detriment of reading comprehension, while promoting a deeper engagement while reading improved comprehension with no changes in reported mind-wandering. These data provide insight into how we can control mind-wandering and improve comprehension, and they underline that a state of self-focus is a condition under which they should be employed. Furthermore, these data support component process models that propose that the self-referent mental contents that arise during mind-wandering are distinguishable from those processes that interfere with comprehension.

  13. Exploring Alternative Radiolabeling Strategies for Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin 9 Peptide: [68Ga]Ga- and [18F]AlF-NOTA-Siglec-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Moisio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid residues 283–297 from sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9 form a cyclic peptide ligand targeting vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1. VAP-1 is associated with the transfer of leukocytes from blood to tissues upon inflammation. Therefore, analogs of Siglec-9 peptide are good candidates for visualizing inflammation non-invasively using positron emission tomography (PET. Gallium-68-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid (DOTA-conjugated Siglec-9 has been evaluated extensively for this purpose. Here, we explored two alternative strategies for radiolabeling Siglec-9 peptide using a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA-chelator to bind [68Ga]Ga or [18F]AlF. The radioligands were evaluated by in vivo PET imaging and ex vivo γ-counting of turpentine-induced sterile skin/muscle inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Both tracers showed clear accumulation in the inflamed tissues. The whole-body biodistribution patterns of the tracers were similar.

  14. Problems, Solutions, and Strategies Reported by Users of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Qualitative Exploration Using Patient Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Peter William; Badlan, Kathryn; Cramp, Fiona; Palmer, Shea

    2016-07-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) could offer a non-drug form of pain relief, but there is no consensus regarding its effectiveness for chronic musculoskeletal pain or chronic low back pain. A recent review of previous trial methods identified significant problems with low treatment fidelity. There is little information available to inform the development of a pragmatic implementation design for a TENS evaluation. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients who were receiving secondary care in a pain clinic and who had expertise in using TENS to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain. These key informants were selected because they had the potential to generate knowledge that could inform research design and clinical practice. A qualitative method using individual semistructured interviews with open questions was selected for its capacity to generate rich data. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 patients (6 women, 3 men). Thematic analysis was used as the primary data analysis method, and this analysis was enhanced by a case-level analysis of the context and processes of TENS use of each individual. Data analysis indicated that patients learned to address a range of problems in order to optimize TENS use. Patients may need to personalize the positioning of electrodes and the TENS settings and to readjust them over time. Patients learned to use TENS in a strategic manner, and the outcomes of each strategy varied. The findings indicated that a pragmatic TENS evaluation may need to incorporate a learning phase to allow patients to optimize this complex pattern of TENS usage, and evaluation may need to be sensitive to the outcomes of strategic use. These findings also have implications for clinical practice. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. Exploring strategies for PrEP adherence and dosing preferences in the context of sexualized recreational drug use among MSM: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Mitty, Jennifer A; Malone, Jowanna; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2018-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs while having sex is associated with increased HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Taking a daily antiretroviral pill, or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention to prevent HIV. However, the efficacy of PrEP is closely tied with high levels of adherence. While PrEP has the potential to reduce HIV acquisition, the use of recreational drugs may impede adherence. We explored perceptions of PrEP utilization and regimen preferences among 40 HIV-negative, MSM who reported concurrent recreational drug use and condomless anal sex with a man. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Participants perceived that it would be challenging to take PrEP while high on crystal meth, crack, powder cocaine, ecstasy and/or GHB. However, men identified strategies for using PrEP when they were not high on these drugs, including taking the pill when they started their day and integrating PrEP into an established routine, such as when taking other medications or preparing for sex. PrEP regimen preferences seemed to be shaped by the frequency in which participants used drugs and their ability to plan for sex. Taking PrEP everyday was appealing for those who regularly engaged in sexualized recreational drug use. Accounts depict these sexual interactions as frequent but unpredictable. A daily regimen would allow them to be prepared for sex without having to plan. An event-driven regimen was acceptable to men who occasionally used recreational drugs in the context of sex. For this group, sex usually occurred was generally prearranged. Patterns of sex and recreational drug use figured largely into participants' framings of how they would use PrEP. These behaviors will likely play a role in the uptake of and adherence to PrEP among this population.

  16. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  17. Exploration of Postoperative Follow-up Strategies for Early Staged NSCLC Patients on the Basis of Follow-up Result of 416 Stage I NSCLC Patients after Lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang DAI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Currently, there is no consensus on the follow-up strategy (follow-up time interval and content of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in the world, and the relevant clinical evidence is also very limited. In this study, we aimed to summarize the recurrence/metastasis sites and timings of stage I NSCLC patients based on their follow-up data, aiming to provide a basis of follow-up time interval and content for this group of patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the 416 stage I NSCLC patients that underwent continuous anatomic lobectomy between Jan. 2000 to Oct. 2013 in our prospective lung cancer database. According to the recurrence/metastasis sites and timings, the long term follow-up time interval and content were explored. Results The 5-yr disease free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS in the whole group were 82.4% and 85.4%, respectively. There were 76 cases (18.3% had recurrence/metastasis during follow-up, among which the most frequent site was pulmonary metastasis (21 cases, 5.0%, followed by brain metastasis (20 cases, 4.8%, bone metastasis (12 cases, 2.9%, and mediastinal lymph node metastasis (12 cases, 2.9%. Among the factors that could influence recurrence/metastasis, patients with pT2a suffered from a higher recurrence/metastasis rate compared to patients with pT1 (P=0.006, with 5-yr DFS being 73.8% and 87.3%, respectively (P=0.002, and the 5-yr OS being 77.7% and 90.3%, respectively (P=0.011. Conclusion The commonest recurrence/metastasis sites of stage I NSCLC after anatomic lobectomy are lung, brain and mediastinal lymph nodes, the risk of recurrence/metastasis within 2 years were equal to that between 3 years and 5 years. The follow-up frequencies and content within 2 years could be adjusted according to T stages.

  18. Exploring Entrepreneurial Network Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    explores four different strategies for dealing with network relations; the research oriented strategy, the incubator strategy, the industrial partnering strategy, and the policy-oriented strategy. The research-oriented strategy is narrowly focusing on how a biotechnology firm transforms their scientific...... treated as a contingent factor. However only little attention have been giving to a specific focus on the strategies that new business ventures have obtained to establish the fit between small firms, university research, and public policies such as regulatory policies and R&D policies. The emergence...... results into promising technologies, services or products. The incubator strategy is concerned with localization and how to come about specific types of managerial problem in the initial stage of forming a business venture. The industrial partnering strategy concerns how to overcome the problem...

  19. Meaningful coping with chronic pain: Exploring the interplay between goal violation, meaningful coping strategies and life satisfaction in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Dewitte, Laura; Thauvoye, Evalyne; Vanhooren, Siebrecht

    2017-02-01

    Trying to cope with chronic pain is a highly demanding and challenging task and pain patients often need to reformulate goals or aspirations due to their pain condition. This goal violation is often related with experienced distress and requires coping processes in order to decrease the distress and stimulate a healthy adaptation. Some scholars, however, argued that in so-called unsolvable or irreparable stressors such as chronic pain, conventional coping strategies like problem-focused coping might not be the most adaptive option. In these situations, meaningful coping strategies attempting to transform the meaning of the stressful experience would be more accurate. In this study, we aim to test if goal violation triggers meaningful coping strategies over time and whether engagement in these meaningful coping strategies result in improved life satisfaction, as an indicator of adaptation. A longitudinal three wave study in a sample of paint patients (n = 125) tests whether goal violation triggers positive reappraisal and downward comparison, two possible meaningful coping strategies. The study furthermore tests if engagement in these strategies results in a better adaptation to the pain condition, reflected in higher life satisfaction. Results partially supported our hypotheses by pointing to the benevolent role of downward comparison on life satisfaction via decreased goal violation of pain patients. Our findings however did also show that positive reappraisal predicted lower life satisfaction via increased levels of appraised goal violation which questions the role of positive reappraisal as a genuine meaningful coping strategy. Implications and limitations are discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Developing an Instrument for Teacher Feedback: Using the Rasch Model to Explore Teachers' Development of Effective Teaching Strategies and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J. C. M.; van Veen, K.

    2018-01-01

    This study connects descriptions of effective teaching with descriptions of teacher development to advance an initial understanding of how effective teaching may develop. The study's main premise is that descriptions of effective teaching develop cumulatively where more basic teaching strategies and behaviors are required before teachers may…

  1. Large-Scale Curriculum Reform in Finland--Exploring the Interrelation between Implementation Strategy, the Function of the Reform, and Curriculum Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to gain a better understanding of the national large-scale curriculum process in terms of the used implementation strategies, the function of the reform, and the curriculum coherence perceived by the stakeholders accountable in constructing the national core curriculum in Finland. A large body of school reform literature has shown…

  2. Exploring Strategies of Assessment and Results in the Spanish Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and the United Kingdom Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The strategies of student evaluation and the patterns of results are compared for The Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of The United Kingdom. Both universities operate a system of undergraduate subject credits leading to a degree, but the length of the courses of the two systems differ. UNED…

  3. Exploring Young Children's Performance on and Acceptance of an Educational Scenario-Based Digital Game for Teaching Route-Planning Strategies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2016-01-01

    Researchers suggest that game-based learning (GBL) can be used to facilitate mathematics learning. However, empirical GBL research that targets young children is still limited. The purposes of the study is to develop a scenario-based digital game to promote children's route-planning ability, to empirically explore children's learning performance…

  4. Teachers' Influence on Goal Orientation: Exploring the Relationship between Eighth Graders' Goal Orientation, Their Emotional Development, Their Perceptions of Learning, and Their Teachers' Instructional Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William Dee; Jones, Jeanneine P.; Hancock, Dawson R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how students' perceived learning relates to emotions, motivation, and goal orientation. Finds that students significantly reported more negative emotions than positive emotions, thus indicating that the emotions of the learner were more negative, the motivation was more extrinsic and the goal orientation of the learners could be…

  5. Exploring the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors: Motivators and strategies for achieving baccalaureate attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, Sandy C.

    Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.

  6. Exploring the roots of unintended safety threats associated with the introduction of hospital ePrescribing systems and candidate avoidance and/or mitigation strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Hajar; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Williams, Robin; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-09-01

    Hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems offer a wide range of patient safety benefits. Like other hospital health information technology interventions, however, they may also introduce new areas of risk. Despite recent advances in identifying these risks, the development and use of ePrescribing systems is still leading to numerous unintended consequences, which may undermine improvement and threaten patient safety. These negative consequences need to be analysed in the design, implementation and use of these systems. We therefore aimed to understand the roots of these reported threats and identify candidate avoidance/mitigation strategies. We analysed a longitudinal, qualitative study of the implementation and adoption of ePrescribing systems in six English hospitals, each being conceptualised as a case study. Data included semistructured interviews, observations of implementation meetings and system use, and a collection of relevant documents. We analysed data first within and then across the case studies. Our dataset included 214 interviews, 24 observations and 18 documents. We developed a taxonomy of factors underlying unintended safety threats in: (1) suboptimal system design, including lack of support for complex medication administration regimens, lack of effective integration between different systems, and lack of effective automated decision support tools; (2) inappropriate use of systems-in particular, too much reliance on the system and introduction of workarounds; and (3) suboptimal implementation strategies resulting from partial roll-outs/dual systems and lack of appropriate training. We have identified a number of system and organisational strategies that could potentially avoid or reduce these risks. Imperfections in the design, implementation and use of ePrescribing systems can give rise to unintended consequences, including safety threats. Hospitals and suppliers need to implement short- and long-term strategies in terms of the

  7. An open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study exploring two treatment strategies of rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment strategy in subjects with atrial fibrillation who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PIONEER AF-PCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C Michael; Mehran, Roxana; Bode, Christoph; Halperin, Johnathan; Verheugt, Freek; Wildgoose, Peter; van Eickels, Martin; Lip, Gregory Y H; Cohen, Marc; Husted, Steen; Peterson, Eric; Fox, Keith

    2015-04-01

    Guidelines recommendations regarding anticoagulant therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) rely on retrospective, nonrandomized observational data. Currently, patients are treated with triple-therapy (dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT] + oral anticoagulation therapy), but neither the duration of DAPT nor the level of anticoagulation has been studied in a randomized fashion. Recent studies also suggest dual pathway therapy with clopidogrel plus oral anticoagulation therapy may be superior, and other studies suggest that novel oral anticoagulants such as rivaroxaban may further improve patient outcomes. PIONEER AF-PCI (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01830543) is an exploratory, open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical study assessing the safety of 2 rivaroxaban treatment strategies and 1 vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment strategy in subjects who have paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent nonvalvular AF and have undergone PCI with stent placement. Approximately 2,100 subjects will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either rivaroxaban 15 mg once daily plus clopidogrel 75 mg daily for 12 months (a WOEST trial-like strategy), or rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (with stratification to a prespecified duration of DAPT 1, 6, or 12 months, an ATLAS trial-like strategy), or dose-adjusted VKA once daily (with stratification to a prespecified duration of DAPT 1, 6, or 12 months, traditional triple therapy). All patients will be followed up for 12 months for the primary composite end point of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding, bleeding requiring medical attention, and minor bleeding (collectively, clinically significant bleeding). The PIONEER AF-PCI study is the first randomized comparison of VKA vs novel oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with NVAF receiving antiplatelet therapy after PCI to assess the relative risks of bleeding complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using the D-DANP-mV Model to Explore the Continuous System Improvement Strategy for Sustainable Development of Creative Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lei; Teng, Cheng-Lein; Zhu, Bo-Wei; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Huang, Shan-Lin

    2017-10-27

    With globalization, the notion of "creative city" has become a core concept of many cities in the world development policies, with real properties being upgraded or used to change, renewal is being conducted, and creative industries are emerging. This trend has reached its peak in the past decade, with different forms and scales gathering global development momentum among the creative communities to promote the development of creative economies. In recent years, however, there was still skepticism about the sustainability of the current creative communities. Many scholars have pointed out that signs of unsustainability have begun to appear in many creative communities. To overcome these obstacles, the development of rational and highly effective improvement strategy requires a dynamic thinking process. Therefore, this study employs the DEMATEL-based ANP with modified VIKOR (D-DANP-mV) model in presenting an assessment framework for the sustainability of creative communities. This system is used to assess the sustainability of current creative communities and determine how to solve their problems. Thus, continuous and systemic improvement strategies can be developed to achieve the aim of sustainable development. Two creative communities in Taiwan, Taichung Cultural and Creative Industries Park (TCCIP), and Shen-Ji New Village (SJNV), are used as case studies in this study. Based on the concept of systematic improvement from fundamental issues, the results indicate that the improvement priorities can be determined by applying the D-DANP-mV model. This approach is different from those found by a conventional method with the hypothesis of independent criteria (e.g., diversification of creative talents in TCCIP), and cannot use for performance improvement (e.g., only can be used for ranking and selection among alternatives). Considering these points, unreasonable premises, biased errors, and lack of some real application functions in the process of resource allocation

  9. Using the D-DANP-mV Model to Explore the Continuous System Improvement Strategy for Sustainable Development of Creative Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lei; Teng, Cheng-Lein; Zhu, Bo-Wei; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Huang, Shan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    With globalization, the notion of “creative city” has become a core concept of many cities in the world development policies, with real properties being upgraded or used to change, renewal is being conducted, and creative industries are emerging. This trend has reached its peak in the past decade, with different forms and scales gathering global development momentum among the creative communities to promote the development of creative economies. In recent years, however, there was still skepticism about the sustainability of the current creative communities. Many scholars have pointed out that signs of unsustainability have begun to appear in many creative communities. To overcome these obstacles, the development of rational and highly effective improvement strategy requires a dynamic thinking process. Therefore, this study employs the DEMATEL-based ANP with modified VIKOR (D-DANP-mV) model in presenting an assessment framework for the sustainability of creative communities. This system is used to assess the sustainability of current creative communities and determine how to solve their problems. Thus, continuous and systemic improvement strategies can be developed to achieve the aim of sustainable development. Two creative communities in Taiwan, Taichung Cultural and Creative Industries Park (TCCIP), and Shen-Ji New Village (SJNV), are used as case studies in this study. Based on the concept of systematic improvement from fundamental issues, the results indicate that the improvement priorities can be determined by applying the D-DANP-mV model. This approach is different from those found by a conventional method with the hypothesis of independent criteria (e.g., diversification of creative talents in TCCIP), and cannot use for performance improvement (e.g., only can be used for ranking and selection among alternatives). Considering these points, unreasonable premises, biased errors, and lack of some real application functions in the process of resource

  10. Using the D-DANP-mV Model to Explore the Continuous System Improvement Strategy for Sustainable Development of Creative Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xiong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, the notion of “creative city” has become a core concept of many cities in the world development policies, with real properties being upgraded or used to change, renewal is being conducted, and creative industries are emerging. This trend has reached its peak in the past decade, with different forms and scales gathering global development momentum among the creative communities to promote the development of creative economies. In recent years, however, there was still skepticism about the sustainability of the current creative communities. Many scholars have pointed out that signs of unsustainability have begun to appear in many creative communities. To overcome these obstacles, the development of rational and highly effective improvement strategy requires a dynamic thinking process. Therefore, this study employs the DEMATEL-based ANP with modified VIKOR (D-DANP-mV model in presenting an assessment framework for the sustainability of creative communities. This system is used to assess the sustainability of current creative communities and determine how to solve their problems. Thus, continuous and systemic improvement strategies can be developed to achieve the aim of sustainable development. Two creative communities in Taiwan, Taichung Cultural and Creative Industries Park (TCCIP, and Shen-Ji New Village (SJNV, are used as case studies in this study. Based on the concept of systematic improvement from fundamental issues, the results indicate that the improvement priorities can be determined by applying the D-DANP-mV model. This approach is different from those found by a conventional method with the hypothesis of independent criteria (e.g., diversification of creative talents in TCCIP, and cannot use for performance improvement (e.g., only can be used for ranking and selection among alternatives. Considering these points, unreasonable premises, biased errors, and lack of some real application functions in the process of

  11. Identification of exploration strategies for electric power distribution network using simulated annealing; Identificao de estrategias de exploracao de redes de distribuicao de energia electrica utilizando simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jorge; Saraiva, J. Tome; Leao, Maria Teresa Ponce de [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: jpereira@inescn.pt; jsaraiva@inescn.pt; mleao@inescn.pt

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a model for identification of optimum strategies for electric power distribution networks, considering the aim of minimizing the active power losses. This objective can be attained by modifying the transformer connections or modification of the condenser groups on duty. By the other side, specifications of voltage ranges for each bar and current intensity limits for the branches are admitted, in order to obtain a more realistic the used model. The paper describes the the simulated annealing in order to surpass the mentioned difficulties. The application of the method to the problem resolution allows the identification solutions based on exact models. The application is illustrated with the results obtained by using a IEEE test network and a network based on real distribution with 645 bars.

  12. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  13. Exploring Northwest China's agricultural water-saving strategy: analysis of water use efficiency based on an SE-DEA model conducted in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L; Fang, L; Wang, H; Chen, L; Yang, Y; Qu, X J; Wang, C Y; Yuan, Y; Wang, S B; Wang, Y N

    Worldwide, water scarcity threatens delivery of water to urban centers. Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is often recommended to reduce water demand, especially in water-scarce areas. In this paper, agricultural water use efficiency (AWUE) is examined using the super-efficient data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach in Xi'an in Northwest China at a temporal and spatial level. The grey systems analysis technique was then adopted to identify the factors that influenced the efficiency differentials under the shortage of water resources. From the perspective of temporal scales, the AWUE increased year by year during 2004-2012, and the highest (2.05) was obtained in 2009. Additionally, the AWUE was the best in the urban area at the spatial scale. Moreover, the key influencing factors of the AWUE are the financial situations and agricultural water-saving technology. Finally, we identified several knowledge gaps and proposed water-saving strategies for increasing AWUE and reducing its water demand by: (1) improving irrigation practices (timing and amounts) based on compatible water-saving techniques; (2) maximizing regional WUE by managing water resources and allocation at regional scales as well as enhancing coordination among Chinese water governance institutes.

  14. A Metabolomics-Based Strategy for the Mechanism Exploration of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Descurainia sophia Seeds Extract and Fractions as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A UPLC-QTOF-MS based metabolomics research was conducted to explore potential biomarkers which would increase our understanding of the model and to assess the integral efficacy of Descurainia sophia seeds extract (DS-A. Additionally, DS-A was split into five fractions in descending order of polarity, which were utilized to illustrate the mechanism together. The 26 identified biomarkers were mainly related to disturbances in phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, purine, arginine, and proline metabolism. Furthermore, heat map, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and correlation network diagram of biomarkers perturbed by modeling were all conducted. The results of heat map and HCA suggested that fat oil fraction could reverse the abnormal metabolism in the model to some extent; meanwhile the metabolic inhibitory effect produced by the other four fractions helped to relieve cardiac load and compensate the insufficient energy supplement induced by the existing heart and lung injury in model rats. Briefly, the split fractions interfered with the model from different aspects and ultimately constituted the overall effects of extract. In conclusion, the metabolomics method, combined with split fractions of extract, is a powerful approach for illustrating pathologic changes of Chinese medicine syndrome and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  16. Exploring Radiotherapy Targeting Strategy and Dose: A Pooled Analysis of Cooperative Group Trials of Combined Modality Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Steven E; Fan, Wen; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Vokes, Everett E; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2018-04-21

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy(CRT) is standard therapy for locally-advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(LA-NSCLC)patients. This study was performed to examine thoracic radiotherapy(TRT) parameters and their impact on patient survival. We collected Individual patient data(IPD) from 3600LA-NSCLC patients participating in 16 cooperative group trials of concurrent CRT. The primary TRT parameters examined included field design strategy(elective nodal irradiation(ENI) compared to involved field TRT(IF-TRT)), total dose, and biologically effective dose(BED). Hazard ratios(HRs) for overall survival were calculated with univariable and multivariable Cox models. TRT doses ranged from 60 to 74 Gy with most treatments administered once-daily. ENI was associated with poorer survival than IF-TRT(univariable HR,1.37;95%CI,1.24-1.51,pENI patients were 24 and 16 months, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 dose groups: low total dose(60 Gy), medium total dose(>60Gy-66Gy) and high total dose(>66Gy-74 Gy). With reference to the low dose group, the multivariable HR's were 1.08 for the medium dose group(95%CI=0.93-1.25) and 1.12 for the high dose group(CI=0.97-1.30).The univariate p=0.054 and multivariable p=0.17. BED was grouped as follows: low(55.5 Gy 10 ). With reference to the low BED group, the HR was 1.00(95%CI=0.85-1.18) for the medium BED group and 1.10(95%CI=0.93-1.31) for the high BED group. The univariable p=0.076 and multivariable p=0.16. For LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT, IF-TRT was associated with significantly better survival than ENI-TRT. TRT total and BED dose levels were not significantly associated with patient survival. Future progress will require research focusing on better systemic therapy and TRT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Exploring the impact of an industrial volunteer/school science partnership on elementary teaching strategies and attitudes about future science study: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael Robert

    This study reports the results of research designed to explore the impact of industrial volunteer/school partnerships on elementary science teaching behaviors and students' attitudes about future science study. Since these partnerships involved teachers and students in hands-on or laboratory-type science experiences, the study will add an elementary school component to a series of other studies conducted through the Science Education Program at Temple University that have addressed how to improve the learning outcomes from these experiences. Three suburban elementary schools were randomly selected by a single school district's science supervisor to be involved in this study. Two of the buildings were designated as the experimental schools and teachers worked directly with the researcher as an industrial partner. The third school served as a control with no organized industrial partner. An additional school building in a second suburban school district was selected to serve as a comparison school and a second scientist participated as an industrial volunteer. Unlike the researcher, this scientist had no formal training in science education. Each phase of the study included instruments piloted and reviewed by experienced elementary teachers for appropriateness or by objective experts in the field of education. A student attitude survey and selected tasks from the Inventory of Piagetian Developmental Tasks were administered to all students involved in the study. Empirical data collected through videotaped analysis using the validated Modified-Revised Vickery Science Teacher Behavior Inventory led to the development of a pattern of the most frequently used behaviors during elementary science instruction. A profile of each participating teacher was developed through the use of a validated attitude survey, notes taken during classroom interactions and from information collected during ethnographic interviews. A major conclusion drawn from this study is that neither type

  18. The relationship between Business Strategy, IT Strategy and Alignment Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. A.J.G. Silvius

    2009-01-01

    Aligning business and IT strategy is a prominent area of concern. Organizations that successfully align their business strategy and their IT strategy, outperform their non-aligned peers (Chan et al., 1997). This chapter explores the relationship between business strategy, IT strategy and alignment

  19. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  20. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  1. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  2. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  3. Beyond frontier exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Ji, X.; van Ittersum, M.; González Jaime, L.A.; Stancu, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the prerequisites for a global exploration strategy in an unknown environment on a virtual disaster site. Assume that a robot equipped with a laser range scanner can build a detailed map of a previous unknown environment. The remaining question is how to use this

  4. Geological exploration strategies and site characterisation methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1997-01-01

    Starting with a short overview of the Swiss HLW disposal programme the paper addresses the more general issue of how site characterisation programmes can better be matched to the acknowledged data requirements of safety analysts and repository designers. Swiss experience suggests that measures to promote mutual understanding between geologistsand quantitative modelers and advance planning of the GEO-data-synthesis can help to bridge the gap separating performance assessment input parameters and field measurements. This represents a step towards more effective and cost efficient field investigations. (author). 4 figs

  5. Student Voice Initiative: Exploring Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Blaine G.

    2017-01-01

    Student voice is the process of allowing students to work collaboratively with adults to produce a learning culture that is conducive for optimum growth in every student. In a traditional setting, the adults make the decisions and the students are passive observers in the learning process. Data has shown that this traditional culture is not…

  6. Geological exploration strategies and site characterisation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprecher, C. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Starting with a short overview of the Swiss HLW disposal programme the paper addresses the more general issue of how site characterisation programmes can better be matched to the acknowledged data requirements of safety analysts and repository designers. Swiss experience suggests that measures to promote mutual understanding between geologistsand quantitative modelers and advance planning of the GEO-data-synthesis can help to bridge the gap separating performance assessment input parameters and field measurements. This represents a step towards more effective and cost efficient field investigations. (author). 4 figs.

  7. Normalization Strategies for Enhancing Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Responses during Extreme Events: A Case Study based on Analysis of Four Extreme Events using Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayakumar, J.; Shook, E.; Turner, V. K.

    2017-10-01

    With social media becoming increasingly location-based, there has been a greater push from researchers across various domains including social science, public health, and disaster management, to tap in the spatial, temporal, and textual data available from these sources to analyze public response during extreme events such as an epidemic outbreak or a natural disaster. Studies based on demographics and other socio-economic factors suggests that social media data could be highly skewed based on the variations of population density with respect to place. To capture the spatio-temporal variations in public response during extreme events we have developed the Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE). SEDE collects and integrates social media, news and environmental data to support exploration and assessment of public response to extreme events. For this study, using SEDE, we conduct spatio-temporal social media response analysis on four major extreme events in the United States including the "North American storm complex" in December 2015, the "snowstorm Jonas" in January 2016, the "West Virginia floods" in June 2016, and the "Hurricane Matthew" in October 2016. Analysis is conducted on geo-tagged social media data from Twitter and warnings from the storm events database provided by National Centers For Environmental Information (NCEI) for analysis. Results demonstrate that, to support complex social media analyses, spatial and population-based normalization and filtering is necessary. The implications of these results suggests that, while developing software solutions to support analysis of non-conventional data sources such as social media, it is quintessential to identify the inherent biases associated with the data sources, and adapt techniques and enhance capabilities to mitigate the bias. The normalization strategies that we have developed and incorporated to SEDE will be helpful in reducing the population bias associated with social media data and will be useful

  8. National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwalm, Keith T

    2006-01-01

    ... of a national strategy for securing cyberspace. The approach explored the development of cyber technology strategies and programs related to the mission and roles of Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency...

  9. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  10. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  11. The Explorer program for astronomy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, B.D.; Becklin, E.E.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Dupree, A.K.; Elliot, J.L.; Hoffmann, W.F.; Hudson, H.S.; Jura, M.; Kurfess, J.; Murray, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide NASA with a strategy for proceeding with Explorer-class programs for research in space astronomy and astrophysics. The role of Explorers in astronomy and astrophysics and their past accomplishments are discussed, as are current and future astronomy and astrophysics Explorers. Specific cost needs for an effective Explorer program are considered

  12. Strategies in PRholog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besik Dundua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PRholog is an experimental extension of logic programming with strategic conditional transformation rules, combining Prolog with Rholog calculus. The rules perform nondeterministic transformations on hedges. Queries may have several results that can be explored on backtracking. Strategies provide a control on rule applications in a declarative way. With strategy combinators, the user can construct more complex strategies from simpler ones. Matching with four different kinds of variables provides a flexible mechanism of selecting (subterms during execution. We give an overview on programming with strategies in PRholog and demonstrate how rewriting strategies can be expressed.

  13. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  14. Farside explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from...... the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar......Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded...

  15. Uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Voto, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methodology and technology that are currently being used in varying degrees in uranium exploration activities worldwide. Since uranium is ubiquitous and occurs in trace amounts (0.2 to 5 ppm) in virtually all rocks of the crust of the earth, exploration for uranium is essentially the search of geologic environments in which geologic processes have produced unusual concentrations of uranium. Since the level of concentration of uranium of economic interest is dependent on the present and future price of uranium, it is appropriate here to review briefly the economic realities of uranium-fueled power generation. (author)

  16. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  17. College Explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1985-01-01

    The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)

  18. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  19. Normalization Strategies for Enhancing Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Responses during Extreme Events: A Case Study based on Analysis of Four Extreme Events using Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ajayakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With social media becoming increasingly location-based, there has been a greater push from researchers across various domains including social science, public health, and disaster management, to tap in the spatial, temporal, and textual data available from these sources to analyze public response during extreme events such as an epidemic outbreak or a natural disaster. Studies based on demographics and other socio-economic factors suggests that social media data could be highly skewed based on the variations of population density with respect to place. To capture the spatio-temporal variations in public response during extreme events we have developed the Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE. SEDE collects and integrates social media, news and environmental data to support exploration and assessment of public response to extreme events. For this study, using SEDE, we conduct spatio-temporal social media response analysis on four major extreme events in the United States including the “North American storm complex” in December 2015, the “snowstorm Jonas” in January 2016, the “West Virginia floods” in June 2016, and the “Hurricane Matthew” in October 2016. Analysis is conducted on geo-tagged social media data from Twitter and warnings from the storm events database provided by National Centers For Environmental Information (NCEI for analysis. Results demonstrate that, to support complex social media analyses, spatial and population-based normalization and filtering is necessary. The implications of these results suggests that, while developing software solutions to support analysis of non-conventional data sources such as social media, it is quintessential to identify the inherent biases associated with the data sources, and adapt techniques and enhance capabilities to mitigate the bias. The normalization strategies that we have developed and incorporated to SEDE will be helpful in reducing the population bias associated with

  20. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Barton, Michael; Jiang, Caigui; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  1. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-02-04

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  2. Explorative Faktorenanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Klopp, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Die explorative Faktorenanalyse (EFA) ist ein Verfahren aus der multivariaten Statistik. Mithilfe der Faktorenanalyse kann aus den Beobachtungen vieler manifester Variablen (z .B Items eines Fragebogens) auf wenige zugrunde liegende latente Variablen, die Faktoren genannt werden, geschlossen werden. Eine EFA führt zu einer Reduktion der Variablen auf wenige, den manifesten Variablen zugrunde liegende Faktoren. Der folgende Text gibt einen Überblick über die Grundlagen der EFA sowie der wichti...

  3. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  4. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  5. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  6. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  7. HR Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1997-01-01

    At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics Research (CERN), Geneva Switzerland we are using OracleHR for managing our human resources since 1995. After the first year of production it became clear that there was a strong need for an easy-to-use Decision Support Tool exploring the data in OracleHR. This paper illustrates an approach which we have adopted to provide on-line management reporting, multi-dimensional analysis, drill-down and slicing & dicing of data, warehoused from OracleHR. The tool offers strong resource management and planning capabilities including career follow-up. The user management and security monitoring are implemented using the Oracle WebServer.

  8. Exploring ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; ESASky Team

    2017-06-01

    ESASky is a science-driven discovery portal for all ESA space astronomy missions. It also includes missions from international partners such as Suzaku and Chandra. The first public release of ESASky features interfaces for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. Using the application requires no prior-knowledge of any of the missions involved and gives users world-wide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from space-based Astronomy missions, plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues, including the Gaia Data Release 1 catalogue. We highlight here the latest features to be developed, including one that allows the user to project onto the sky the footprints of the JWST instruments, at any chosen position and orientation. This tool has been developed to aid JWST astronomers when they are defining observing proposals. We aim to include other missions and instruments in the near future.

  9. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  10. Social Media Cocreation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how social media becomes a part of integrated marketing communications of festival organizations. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the co-creation of festival experiences online by comparing managerial strategies and communicative patterns of three large....... Based on the empirical findings, we propose an analytical framework to improve our understanding of the management of social media communications, offering three distinct value co-creation strategies in a festival context....

  11. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  12. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  13. Exploring EFL fluency in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, T; Brown, P; Herder, S

    2014-01-01

    In EFL contexts, an absence of chances to develop fluency in the language classroom can lead to marked limitations in English proficiency. This volume explores fluency development from a number of different perspectives, investigating measurements and classroom strategies for promoting its development.

  14. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  15. Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, James

    1995-01-01

    Explores strategies in the situation of a runner trying to evade a tackler on a football field. Enables the student to test intuitive strategies in a familiar situation using simple graphical and numerical methods or direct experimentation. (JRH)

  16. Three is a crowd? Exploring the potential of crowdfunding for renewable energy in the Netherlands : New approaches for transitions to low fossil carbon societies: promoting opportunities for effective development, diffusion andimplementation of technologies, policies and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.; Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Raven, R.P.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a huge gap between demand and supply of finance for energy transitions, and the financial and economic crisis have had a negative impact in the already meagre funds for transforming the energy system towards renewable sources. In this paper we explore whether crowdfunding for

  17. Collaborative UAV Exploration of Hostile Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luotsinen, Linus J; Gonzalez, Avelino J; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2004-01-01

    .... UAVs can be lost or significantly damaged during the exploration process. Although employing multiple UAVs can increase the chance of success, their efficiency depends on the collaboration strategies used...

  18. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Analysis on the Strategies of Guangxi Enterprises Exploring ASEAN Sale Market%广西企业开拓东盟市场的营销对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雪梅; 林素娟

    2005-01-01

    There is much of superiority for Guangxi to develop the ASEAN markets, but problems may arise as well. Thisarticle, through analysis, points out that the misuse of marketing strategies is the main reason that obstructs enterprises from developing the market and that international marketing measures should be taken to reinforce market information research, decrease products costs, make greater effort to build markets, cultivate enterprise brand names, select enterprise targeted market, andmake a good use of the public international relationships, etc.

  20. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Health Library / Diagnostics & Testing / Bile Duct Exploration Bile Duct Exploration Common bile duct exploration is a ... Test Details Results and Follow-Up What is bile, and what is bile duct exploration? Bile is ...

  1. Remote sensing in uranium exploration. Basic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide the reader with a basis for making an intelligent approach to the use of remote sensing in uranium exploration. It includes: A description of the various techniques; specific applications in view of exploration strategy and selection of appropriate techniques, and some examples of applications; availability and costs; a bibliography

  2. Remote sensing in uranium exploration. Basic guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide the reader with a basis for making an intelligent approach to the use of remote sensing in uranium exploration. It includes: A description of the various techniques; specific applications in view of exploration strategy and selection of appropriate techniques, and some examples of applications; availability and costs; a bibliography.

  3. Exploring the value of mixed methods within the At Home/Chez Soi housing first project: a strategy to evaluate the implementation of a complex population health intervention for people with mental illness who have been homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric L; Goering, Paula N; Nelson, Geoffrey B

    2012-05-02

    This paper is a methodological case study that describes the At Home/Chez Soi (Housing First) Initiative's mixed-methods strategy for implementation evaluation and discusses the value of these methods in evaluating the implementation of such complex population health interventions. The Housing First (HF) model is being implemented in five cities: Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montréal and Moncton. At Home/Chez Soi is an intervention trial that aims to address the issue of homelessness in people with mental health issues. The HF model emphasizes choices, hopefulness and connecting people with resources that make a difference to their quality of life. A component of HF is supported housing, which provides a rent subsidy and rapid access to housing of choice in private apartments; a second component is support. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate HF implementation. The findings of this case study illustrate how the critical ingredients of complex interventions, such as HF, can be adapted to different contexts while implementation fidelity is maintained at a theoretical level. The findings also illustrate how the project's mixed methods approach helped to facilitate the adaptation process. Another value of this approach is that it identifies systemic and organizational factors (e.g., housing supply, discrimination, housing procurement strategy) that affect implementation of key elements of HF. In general, the approach provides information about both whether and how key aspects of the intervention are implemented effectively across different settings. It thus provides implementation data that are rigorous, contextually relevant and practical.

  4. Appropriate strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halty, M

    1979-01-01

    Technology strategies are concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of technology. Observation of less developed countries (LDCs) and international organizations shows that little attention is given to the development of a technology strategy. LDCs need to formulate a strategy of self-reliant technological development for the next decade. They should no longer be content to stand in a technologically dependent relationship to the developed countries. Such strategies must balance the ratio between investment in indigenous technologies and expenditure for foreign technology. The strategies change according to the level of industrialization achieved. The following considerations come into development of technology strategies: 1) determination of an appropriate balance among the accumulation, consumption, and distribution of technology; 2) the amount and level of government support; and 3) the balance between depth and breadth of technology to be encouraged.

  5. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  6. Mars exploration study workshop 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.; Budden, Nancy Ann

    1993-11-01

    A year-long NASA-wide study effort has led to the development of an innovative strategy for the human exploration of Mars. The latest Mars Exploration Study Workshop 2 advanced a design reference mission (DRM) that significantly reduces the perceived high costs, complex infrastructure, and long schedules associated with previous Mars scenarios. This surface-oriented philosophy emphasizes the development of high-leveraging surface technologies in lieu of concentrating exclusively on space transportation technologies and development strategies. As a result of the DRM's balanced approach to mission and crew risk, element commonality, and technology development, human missions to Mars can be accomplished without the need for complex assembly operations in low-Earth orbit. This report, which summarizes the Mars Exploration Study Workshop held at the Ames Research Center on May 24-25, 1993, provides an overview of the status of the Mars Exploration Study, material presented at the workshop, and discussions of open items being addressed by the study team. The workshop assembled three teams of experts to discuss cost, dual-use technology, and international involvement, and to generate a working group white paper addressing these issues. The three position papers which were generated are included in section three of this publication.

  7. Exploration through Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knab, Sebastian; Rohrbeck, René

    2015-01-01

    With this research we aim to enhance our understanding about how incumbents can explore emerging opportunities through business model innovation. Using a multiple-case, longitudinal research design spanning 2008 to 2014 we investigate exploration activities of the four largest German energy...... utilities in the emerging virtual power plant market. Based on the behavioral theory of the firm, we study how the cognitive and physical elements of an incumbent’s strategy can be changed and how these changes affect its business model innovation activities in the exploration process. Our preliminary...... findings suggest that the use of synergies and probing can lead to changing physical elements and primarily increase business model maturity. CEO change and structural separation can lead to changing cognitive elements and primarily increase business model sophistication....

  8. Evaluation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto Chotto, Mayela; Wentzer, Helle; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article present...... the evaluation strategy and methodology of a research project Making Online Path to Enter new Markets, MOPEM. It is an EU-research project with partners from different Educational Institutions of Technology and Business in five European Countries.......The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article presents...

  9. JAXA's Space Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been studying space exploration scenario, including human exploration for Japan since 2015, which encompasses goals, knowledge gap assessment, and architecture. assessment, and technology roadmap.

  10. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  11. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  12. Motivational Strategies in Medical English Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jun-ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore strategies to motivate students in the classroom of Medical English. Methods:The motivational strategies applied in medical English classroom including defining course goals early in the semester, appropriate teacher behavior, creating real context and giving helpful and frequent Feedback were recommended. Results & Conclusion: The motivational strategies make a positive impact on students’motivation in medical English classroom.

  13. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  14. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  15. Social network marketing strategy and SME strategy benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Helena; Silva, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The study explored what benefits to small or medium-sized firms (SMEs) could be derived from the development of a social media marketing strategy. Results indicated that Facebook can facilitate communications between SME companies and customers, and can also be an important tool in creating brand recognition and broadening awareness. The importance of developing a thoughtfully designed strategy was cited, as SMEs often lack sophisticated marketing or business plans. The positive study results...

  16. Switching strategies to optimize search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Search strategies are explored when the search time is fixed, success is probabilistic and the estimate for success can diminish with time if there is not a successful result. Under the time constraint the problem is to find the optimal time to switch a search strategy or search location. Several variables are taken into account, including cost, gain, rate of success if a target is present and the probability that a target is present. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  17. Evaluating the US Counter-ISIL Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    strategy is actually addressing those critical capabilities and vulnerabilities. Finally, it explores alternative, whole-of-government strategies that...Counterterrorism Strategies as an Illustration. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation , 2009. Enduring Leadership in a Dynamic World. Quadrennial Diplomacy...Evaluating the US Counter-ISIL Strategy A Monograph by LTC Jason A. Curl U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army

  18. Geophysical Exploration. New site exploration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hideo; Sakayama, Toshihiko

    1988-07-25

    Geophysical exploration is used for geologic survey to serve purposes in civil engineering. New methods are being developed inside and outside Japan and are used to serve various purposes. This paper discusses recently developed techniques based on the measurement of seismic waves and electric potential. It also explains seismic tomography, radar tomography, and resistivity tomography which are included in the category of geotomography. At present, effort is being made to apply geophysical exploration technology to problems which were considered to be unsuitable for conventional exploration techniques. When such effort proceeds successfully, it is necessary to develop technology for presenting results quickly and exploration equipment which can work in various conditions. (10 figs, 15 refs)

  19. Interactive Exploration for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Fournier

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new version of our content-based image retrieval system RETIN. It is based on adaptive quantization of the color space, together with new features aiming at representing the spatial relationship between colors. Color analysis is also extended to texture. Using these powerful indexes, an original interactive retrieval strategy is introduced. The process is based on two steps for handling the retrieval of very large image categories. First, a controlled exploration method of the database is presented. Second, a relevance feedback method based on statistical learning is proposed. All the steps are evaluated by experiments on a generalist database.

  20. CSR STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LAURENTIU BARANGA; ION STEGAROIU

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has got three components: economic responsibility of shareholders, corporate environmental responsibility, corporate responsibility of the society. Each component of the CSR has its own features, according to which adequate individual behaviour is established. Knowing these features is very important in CSR strategy development.

  1. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  2. The power of strategy metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and post-structuralism. The paper reports on an action research study of a strategy workshop with the strategic team of a Human Resource Management Department in a Danish Municipality. It identifies two structural dimensions and four generic spatial metaphors were identified. Thus, the paper shows......This paper explores the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making. I seek to unfold a conception of the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making that stresses their creative and critical capacity as well as their constraints on strategic thinking. In order to identify the power of spatial...

  3. Asteroid exploration and utilization: The Hawking explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Alan; Date, Medha; Duarte, Manny; Erian, Neil; Gafka, George; Kappler, Peter; Patano, Scott; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar; Radovich, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources which may exist on asteroids could have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. With the possibly limitless opportunities that exist, it is clear that asteroids are the next step for human existence in space. This report comprises the efforts of NEW WORLDS, Inc. to develop a comprehensive design for an asteroid exploration/sample return mission. This mission is a precursor to proof-of-concept missions that will investigate the validity of mining and materials processing on an asteroid. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on two utilization scenarios: (1) moving an asteroid to an advantageous location for use by Earth; and (2) mining an asteroids and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plane for humans to utilize asteroid resources. The report concentrates specifically on the selection of the most promising asteroids for exploration and the development of an exploration scenario. Future utilization as well as subsystem requirements of an asteroid sample return probe are also addressed.

  4. COINCO - Strategy 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Lundgaard, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    InvestitionsBank des Landes Brandenburg   The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a COINCO Strategy 2025 for becoming one of the world's most competitive regions. Behind this strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become....... Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be ormed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network governance' has to be developed......The group of COINCO Partners Københavns Kommune (Lead partner) Bornholms Regionskommune Oslo Kommune Østfold Fylkeskommune Akershus Fylkeskommune Business Region Göteborg AB Region Skåne Malmö Stad Lund Kommune Landskrona Kommune Helsingborg Kommune Region Halland Region Västra Götaland...

  5. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piórkowska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.

  6. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  7. Modelling oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of oil exploration models in this paper is developed in four parts. The way in which exploration has been dealt with in oil supply models is first described. Five recent models are then looked at, paying particular attention to the explanatory variables used when modelling exploration activities. This is followed by a discussion of the factors which have been shown by several empirical studies to determine exploration in less developed countries. Finally, the interdependence between institutional factors, oil prices and exploration effort is analysed with a view to drawing conclusions for modelling in the future. (UK)

  8. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  9. Study Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Kirketerp; Noer, Vibeke Røn

    and theory forms the basis of the research. Veterinary students have been followed through alternating learning contexts referring to both the scholastic academic classrooms and workplaces in commercial pig herds as well as to group work and game-based situations in a mandatory master course - ”the pig...... as a student´ and the process of professionalization. By maintaining the position of focusing upon the education as a situated and formative trajectory, the comparative analysis shows how students in profession-oriented educational settings manage the challenges of education and use study strategies......ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes...

  10. Arbitrage strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kardaras, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    An arbitrage strategy allows a financial agent to make certain profit out of nothing, i.e., out of zero initial investment. This has to be disallowed on economic basis if the market is in equilibrium state, as opportunities for riskless profit would result in an instantaneous movement of prices of certain financial instruments. The principle of not allowing for arbitrage opportunities in financial markets has far-reaching consequences, most notably the option-pricing and hedging formulas in c...

  11. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrýsková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine current marketing efforts of AARON - the leading seller of digital cameras. I will analyze current marketing tools and suggest improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of these tools. Marketing strategy is a method of managing and coordinating efforts in marketing field so that the goals can be reached. The aim is to increase sales, turnover, revenues, profits, drive out competition and also to build up a corporate image and corporate culture. I will a...

  12. The changing picture of uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are: firstly, to analyse the factors determining exploration strategies, special emphasis being given to the task of defining exploration targets as dictated by projected demand, and to discussing the chances of making new discoveries necessary to meet this challenge; secondly, to delineate the main trends apparent in exploration activities across the free world and to interpret them in the light of this analysis; and, thirdly, to show how the exploration activities of an independent company like Minatome specifically illustrate these points. The various aspects covered include: natural uranium requirements for nuclear power reactors on line, 1970 to 2025; cumulative natural uranium requirements for the same period; availability of economic reserves; geological aspects; financial and political factors; exploration techniques. (U.K.)

  13. Exploring Anthropology’s Value to Military Strategy Since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    anthropological study of military culture, MA2 : anthropological study for the military, in endeavors such as the Human Terrain System concept, where teams of...Anthropology The AAA has judged MA2 as the least ethical category of military anthropology by means of its code of ethics, CEAUSSIC reports, and...open debates on its blog. The lighting rod system most associated with MA2 is the Human Terrain Team, (HTT) employed under the Human Terrain System

  14. Exploring new strategies in diagnosis and treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, Hendrik Teunis Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a rare form of cancer arising at the confluence of the right and left bile duct. The disease is known for its difficult diagnosis and treatment. The chapters in this thesis describe different aspects of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with the aim to improve diagnosis and

  15. Using Simulation to Explore Lean Manufacturing Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patrick W.; Krumwiede, Kip R.; Street, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    Lean manufacturing, an outgrowth of the Toyota Production System, has spread far beyond the automobile industry and is seen by many leaders as a key management philosophy in the battle to compete on an international scale. Successful implementation of lean requires that managers and employees be educated in the proper application of lean tools and…

  16. Exploring Strategies in Facilitating Cultural Diversity: A Freirean Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Zenobia; Guo, Shibao

    2008-01-01

    The student population in Canada's higher education institutions is becoming increasingly racially and culturally diverse. Canadian higher education has the obligation to build inclusive teaching and learning environments where the needs and aspirations of students from diverse cultures and backgrounds can be addressed in an equitable manner.…

  17. Metal Organic Frameworks: Explorations and Design Strategies for MOF Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Rasha

    2016-01-01

    , with its vast structural modularity, reflected by the huge library of the available chemical building blocks, and exceptional controlled porosity, stand as the most promising candidate to address many of the overbearing societal challenges pertaining

  18. Gender Diversity Strategy in Academic Departments: Exploring Organizational Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuhong; Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Full inclusion of women into the academics remains a daunting challenge in the United States. The situation is particularly acute within science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields where the underrepresentation of women and their career disadvantages attract a great deal of attention. Based on a dataset combining a survey of…

  19. exploring technological strategies for valorization of solid sisal waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mgima

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, ... methane yield increments of 23-30% whereas co-digestion with fish waste achieved ... (SMS) were anaerobically co-digested with cow dung manure and yielded 230-300L CH4/kg .... which are: a better nutrient balance,.

  20. Exploring the living universe: A strategy for space life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The status and goals of NASA's life sciences programs are examined. Ways and mean for attaining these goals are suggested. The report emphasizes that a stronger life sciences program is imperative if the U.S. space policy is to construct a permanently manned space station and achieve its stated goal of expanding the human presence beyond earth orbit into the solar system. The same considerations apply in regard to the other major goal of life sciences: to study the biological processes and life in the universe. A principal recommendation of the report is for NASA to expand its program of ground- and space-based research contributing to resolving questions about physiological deconditioning, radiation exposure, potential psychological difficulties, and life support requirements that may limit stay times for personnel on the Space Station and complicate missions of more extended duration. Other key recommendations call for strengthening programs of biological systems research in: controlled ecological life support systems for humans in space, earth systems central to understanding the effects on the earth's environment of both natural and human activities, and exobiology.

  1. Exploration of novel strategies to enhance monoclonal antibodies targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawli, L.A.; Epstein, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper highlights the major obstacles and prospects of antibody targeting for the radio imaging and therapy of human malignant lymphomas and more challenging solid tumors. To improve the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies, the authors have focused their attention on the development of new and successful methods to augment antibody uptake in the tumor. These approaches include the use of radiolabeled streptavidin to target biotinylated monoclonal antibodies already bound to tumor, pretreatment with vasoactive immunoconjugates, and the use of chemically modified antibodies. Because of the promising preclinical data obtained with these three newer approaches, plans are underway to test them in the clinic. More generally, these approaches are applicable to the use of other monoclonal antibody/tumor systems for the diagnosis and therapy of human cancers and related diseases

  2. Exploring the validity of the continuous assessment strategy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... subject areas such as mathematics and science. This article outlines how a Continuous Assessment (CASS) mechanism introduced in the second year mathematics for civil engineering students at Technikon Witwatersrand could attain the desired goals. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol.18(2) 2004: 302-312 ...

  3. Disruptive technologies for Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority business strategy exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    There are three tasks for this research : 1. Methodology to extract Road Usage Patterns from Phone Data: We combined the : most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with : detailed Geographic Information System (...

  4. Exploring assessment factors contributing to students' study strategies: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    "Assessment steers students' learning" is a statement that has been used repeatedly without solid evidence in the literature. This manuscript aims to evaluate the published literatures on the effect of teaching learning environment in particular, the implemented assessment on students' learning

  5. COMPENSATORY STRATEGIES OF FIRST-LANGUAGE-ATTRITED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahdan Syahdan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the compensatory strategies used by two Indonesian children who experienced first language attrition when acquiring English in the English-speaking environment. They use compensatory strategies to compensate for their lack of competence in first language. They employ both interlingual strategies and discourse strategies when they have difficulties in communication. Interlingual strategies used are codeswitching and lexical borrowings and the discourse strategies are overt comments, appeal for assistance, and avoidance.

  6. Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored what three Intermediate Phase English First Additional Language teachers understood about reading and teaching reading, and the strategies they used to develop learners' reading skills. Data gathered through interviews and observations of classroom practice were used to consider the extent of their ...

  7. Exploring Signature Pedagogies in Undergraduate Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the instructional strategies most frequently used by leadership educators who teach academic credit-bearing undergraduate leadership studies courses through a national survey and identifies signature pedagogies within the leadership discipline. Findings from this study suggest that class discussion--whether in the form of…

  8. Exploration of the Effectiveness of Tactile Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldajani, Neda F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the tactile method and aims to explore the effectiveness of using tactile methods with students who are blind and visually impaired. Although there was limited research about using this strategy, all of the research agrees that using tactile is one of the best ways for students who are blind and visually impaired to be…

  9. The Automatic Generation of Knowledge Spaces From Problem Solving Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Ivica; Jeuring, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore theoretical and practical aspects of the automatic generation of knowledge spaces from problem solving strategies. We show how the generated spaces can be used for adapting strategy-based problem solving learning environments (PSLEs).

  10. Regional innovation systems in the Lisbon strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, P.J.M. de; Lagendijk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This contribution explores the framing of the concept of Regional Innovation Systems (RISs) within European ecoruomic policies. Regional innovation systems are analytically and empirically assessed within the policy corltext of the Lisbon strategy, with special reference to regional dimensions in

  11. Challenges of information systems strategy implementation in public hospitals: a South African experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hwabamungu, B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available on this phenomenon in the healthcare sector. Building on previous IS strategizing research we explored the challenges of Information Systems strategy implementation. We then explored the challenges of IS strategy implementation in public hospitals in developing...

  12. ACTIVE MARKETING STRATEGY IN THE EDUCATION MARKET:BREAKTHROUGH POSITIONING STRATEGY IN PROMOTING UNIVERSITY’S INNOVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkus N.A; Pashkus V.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the possibility of using active marketing strategies for promoting the results of university’s innovations. Benefits, that can be obtained by university through its strategy of breakthrough positioning explored

  13. A causal role for right frontopolar cortex in directed, but not random, exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Zajkowski, Wojciech K; Kossut, Malgorzata; Wilson, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    The explore-exploit dilemma occurs anytime we must choose between exploring unknown options for information and exploiting known resources for reward. Previous work suggests that people use two different strategies to solve the explore-exploit dilemma: directed exploration, driven by information seeking, and random exploration, driven by decision noise. Here, we show that these two strategies rely on different neural systems. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to inhibit the right fronto...

  14. Transfusion strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and numerous reports have emphasised the need for reduction. Following this there is increased attention to the concept of patient blood management. However, bleeding is relatively common following cardiac surgery and is furth....... In conclusion the evidence supports that each institution establishes its own patient blood management strategy to both conserve blood products and maximise outcome.......Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and numerous reports have emphasised the need for reduction. Following this there is increased attention to the concept of patient blood management. However, bleeding is relatively common following cardiac surgery and is further...

  15. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed mainly to introduce the methods and techniques of uranium geochemical exploration to exploration geologists who may not have had experience with geochemical exploration methods in their uranium programmes. The methods presented have been widely used in the uranium exploration industry for more than two decades. The intention has not been to produce an exhaustive, detailed manual, although detailed instructions are given for a field and laboratory data recording scheme and a satisfactory analytical method for the geochemical determination of uranium. Rather, the intention has been to introduce the concepts and methods of uranium exploration geochemistry in sufficient detail to guide the user in their effective use. Readers are advised to consult general references on geochemical exploration to increase their understanding of geochemical techniques for uranium

  16. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  17. NATO strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarr, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear weapons are for NATO both the primary instrument for deterring a nuclear attack and the fall-back option if, in the event of a conventional assault, NATO's non-nuclear defence forces cannot hold. The dilemma of depending upon potentially self-destructive nuclear responses if deterrence fails and defence falters has always haunted NATO strategy, but after the Soviets achieved nuclear parity with the United States, this dilemma became more intensely perceived. Now the credibility, viability, acceptability, sensibility and morality of nuclear weapons for deterrence and defence are increasingly at issue. As a result, an increasing variety of non-nuclear (conventional) alternatives are being advanced to replace or supplement nuclear deterrence for the Alliance. The thrust of the author of this paper remarks is to attempt to apply the definitions, requirements, and other key conceptual distinctions of nuclear deterrence found in the body of western strategic literature to three categories of non-nuclear alternatives currently in vogue: strengthened conventional forces; deployment of new, high-technology non-nuclear weapons; and adoption of an offensive manoeuvre strategy. Let me, therefore, begin by listing the basic definitions, concepts and apparent requirements of deterrence which the deterrence theory literature offers

  18. Stochastic Strategy Adjustment in Coordination Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    We explore a model of equilibrium selection in coordination games, where agents stochastically adjust their strategies to changes in their local environment. Instead of playing perturbed best-response, we assume that agents follow a rule of "switching to better strategies more likely". We relate

  19. Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Meeting the identified needs of Earth science requires approaching EOS as an information system and not simply as one or more satellites with instruments. Six elements of strategy are outlined as follows: implementation of the individual discipline missions as currently planned; use of sustained observational capabilities offered by operational satellites without waiting for the launch of new mission; put first priority on the data system; deploy an Advanced Data Collection and Location System; put a substantial new observing capability in a low Earth orbit in such a way as to provide for sustained measurements; and group instruments to exploit their capabilities for synergism; maximize the scientific utility of the mission; and minimize the costs of implementation where possible.

  20. Uranium exploration in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severne, B.; Penaherrera, P.F.; Fiallos, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    The 600-km segment of the Andean Cordillera in Ecuador includes zones that can be correlated, geologically, with uranium districts elsewhere in the Andes. It is believed that these essentially unexplored zones have the potential for economic uranium mineralization. Exploration activity to date has been limited, although it has involved both geochemical and radiometric techniques to evaluate geological concepts. Minor uranium occurrences (with chemical analyses up to 100 ppm) have been encountered, which provide further incentive to commence large-scale systematic exploration. It is recognized that a very large exploration budget and considerable technical expertise will be required to ensure exploration success. Consequently, participation by groups of proven capability from other countries will be sought for Ecuador's national exploration programme. (author)

  1. Search strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, B. M.

    Attention is given to the approaches which would provide the greatest chance of success in attempts related to the discovery of extraterrestrial advanced cultures in the Galaxy, taking into account the principle of least energy expenditure. The energetics of interstellar contact are explored, giving attention to the use of manned spacecraft, automatic probes, and beacons. The least expensive approach to a search for other civilizations involves a listening program which attempts to detect signals emitted by such civilizations. The optimum part of the spectrum for the considered search is found to be in the range from 1 to 2 GHz. Antenna and transmission formulas are discussed along with the employment of matched gates and filters, the probable characteristics of the signals to be detected, the filter-signal mismatch loss, surveys of the radio sky, the conduction of targeted searches.

  2. Smart Strategy to Boost Students' Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Sfafi'i, Muhammad Lukman

    2015-01-01

    Reading as one of language skills plays significant roles in the teaching English as a foreign language. Since the teacher still uses the conventional way to teach reading, students‘ ability in reading comprehension seems still unsatisfactory yet. So, teacher should explore and develop new strategies. One of strategies in reading comprehension that can trigger our students to attain that purpose is SMART (Self Monitoring Approach for Reading and Thinking) strategy. ...

  3. Pengembangan Identitas Organisasi Sebagai Strategi Bisnis

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetyo, Yan Wahid; Himam, Fathul

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to explore how an organizational identity was used as business strategy for private TV station. Qualitative approach with traditional grounded theory was used as research design. The data were collected through observation, interview and document analysis. The study found that organizational identity can be useful as business strategy to gain market positioning. This research also emphasized a model of identity development that can be used as business strategy. Keyword...

  4. Intersections between strategy and business models

    OpenAIRE

    磯村 和人

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between strategy and business models. I review major researches on strategy and business models to provide a viewpoint to consider the intersections between them. The theory of strategy shifts the focus from visible competitive advantage to its internal managerial resources. The concept of business models has been discussed because a business model is considered to be a combination of internal and external business processes; it clarifies how to effectivel...

  5. Modeling Business Strategy: A Consumer Value Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Svee , Eric-Oluf; Giannoulis , Constantinos; Zdravkovic , Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Part 3: Business Modeling; International audience; Business strategy lays out the plan of an enterprise to achieve its vision by providing value to its customers. Typically, business strategy focuses on economic value and its relevant exchanges with customers and does not directly address consumer values. However, consumer values drive customers’ choices and decisions to use a product or service, and therefore should have a direct impact on business strategy. This paper explores whether and h...

  6. Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in ... State using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 17.0. ... to observe its prevalence and to implement strategies toward the alleviation of the ...

  7. Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-11

    Jul 11, 2016 ... Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels. Andy Heyes ... strategy now looks to target middle-market consumers with reasonable ...... celebrities and high profiles from politics to corporate…whom are well ...

  8. Exploring the influence of instant messaging and video conferencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bond-Barnard, Fletcher & Steyn • Exploring the influence of instant ... 37. 1. Introduction ..... its strategy; therefore, projects (in some shape or form) will be found in the vast majority of ...... corporate software vie for workplace. CNET News.

  9. Knowledge Governance Strategies in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Söderlund, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge governance (KG) aims at strategically influencing knowledge processes by implementing governance mechanisms. Little is known about whether, how, or why such strategies differ among firms. We utilize a large-scale empirical study of 20 organizations to develop a typology of KG strategies...... in project-based organizations; we then explore how these strategies emerge and affect organizational knowledge processes. Six strategies are identified: Protector, Deliverer, Polisher, Explorer, Supporter, and Analyzer. This paper posits a multi-level categorization model to facilitate comparisons among KG...... strategies. We uncover three main drivers of organizations' chosen knowledge governance strategies-namely, attitudes about humans, knowledge, and knowledge control....

  10. Exploration of solids based on representation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Publio Suárez Sotomonte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to some of the findings of a research project implemented as a teaching strategy to generate environments for the learning of platonic and archimedean solids, with a group of eighth grade students. This strategy was based on the meaningful learning approach and on the use of representation systems using the ontosemiotic approach in mathematical education, as a framework for the construction of mathematical concepts. This geometry teaching strategy adopts the stages of exploration, representation-modeling, formal construction and study of applications. It uses concrete, physical and tangible materials for origami, die making, and structures for the construction of threedimensional solids considered external tangible solid representation systems, as well as computer based educational tools to design dynamic geometry environments as intangible external representation systems.These strategies support both the imagination and internal systems of representation, fundamental to the comprehension of geometry concepts.

  11. Financing U.S. exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Osso, L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of financing U.S. exploration from the perspective of an independent oil and gas producer. When Burlington Resources was split into a separate company from the Burlington Northern Railroad three years ago, the company owned extensive resources but had little production capability, and had to resolve the problem of raising development capital. According to the author of this paper, three key elements in the company's perception of the business environment drove its strategy: that the role of independent producers would be crucial in new onshore oil and gas development as the majors moved offshore; that energy prices would remain weak; and that financial market sentiment would not favor a move to leverage the company more highly than its starting-point of 19 percent debt-to-total capital ratio

  12. Exploration: A misunderstood business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The business of exploration is persistently misunderstand. Why? Misunderstandings persist and even pervade educated, sophisticated, and obviously capable business practitioners and savants of an array of disciplines - finance, economics, and the management sciences. Routine and appropriate assumptions that apply for most businesses invoke nonsense applied to exploration, a unique business. The uniqueness of exploration, unrecognized, sustains the misunderstandings. The authors will not here obliterate these obdurate misunderstandings with some revelation. They show, however, how the misunderstandings naturally arise among those who certainly are not used to being naive

  13. Arts of urban exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2005-01-01

    to the city’ and ‘writing the city’. Through addressing recent cases of psychogeographical experimentation in terms of these themes, the paper raises broad questions about artistic practices and urban exploration to introduce this theme issue on ‘Arts of urban exploration’ and to lead into the specific......This paper addresses ways in which artists and cultural practitioners have recently been using forms of urban exploration as a means of engaging with, and intervening in, cities. It takes its cues from recent events on the streets of New York that involved exploring urban spaces through artistic...

  14. MBN Explorer Users' Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Sushko, Gennady; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    The MBN Explorer Users' Guide describes how to install and to run MBN Explorer, the software package for advanced multiscale simulations of complex molecular structure and dynamics. This guide includes the description of the main features and the algorithms of the program, the manual how to use...... simulations of structure and dynamics of a broad range of systems with the sizes from the atomic up to the mesoscopic scales. MBN Explorer is being developed and distributed by MBN Research Center, www.mbnresearch.com, which organises hands-on tutorials for the software, user's workshops and conferences....

  15. Avionics Architecture for Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  16. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  17. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  18. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  19. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  1. Developing the MD Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Philip V.

    1993-04-01

    The MD Explorer is an eight-seat twin-turbine engine helicopter which is being developed using integrated product definition (IPD) team methodology. New techniques include NOTAR antitorque system for directional control, a composite fuselage, an all-composite bearingless main rotor, and digital cockpit displays. Three-dimensional CAD models are the basis of the entire Explorer design. Solid models provide vendor with design clarification, removing much of the normal drawing interpretation errors.

  2. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  3. Exploring the Freemium Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Reime, Erlend Vihovde

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is exploring the Freemium business model, answering how a Freemium model is defined and how it works in real-life. It discusses the original definition by Fred Wilson, and present the context where the Freemium business model is used, Internet services in the Web 2.0. It also looks at how customers react to free services and the Internet. After this, the three main directions within business strategy theory are explored: Industry-based competition, Firm-specific Resources and Capa...

  4. Exploring objects for recognition in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; Ypma, Jelmer; de Boer, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Perception in natural systems is a highly active process. In this paper, we adopt the strategy of natural systems to explore objects for 3D object recognition using robots. The exploration of objects enables the system to learn objects from different viewpoints, which is essential for 3D object

  5. Practical measures to promote exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohall, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1950, Pakistan has gone through several phases of hydrocarbon exploration, but despite our geologically prospective areas, our discovery and development of substantial reserves, and our existing infrastructure facilities, exploration has been limited. We attribute this limited exploration to the absence of long-term gas-development strategies, to the gas-price formula, and to legislative and contractual frameworks for concession agreements in use for most of our exploration history. This paper examines Pakistan's exploration history and reveals current gas-development strategies. It also discusses the revised pricing formula and legislation to benefit other developing countries that are in similar situations and want to accelerate the pace of their exploration activities

  6. Nuclear reactor strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Srinivasan, T.N.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to a linear programming model considered by Hafele and Manne ('Strategies for a Transition from Fossil to Nuclear Fuels'. 11ASA Research Report RR-74-7) in which the sum of discounted costs of meeting demand for electrical and non-electrical energy over a horizon of 75 years divided into 25 periods of 3 years is minimised subject to constraints, inter alia, on the total availability of fossil fuel and low cost ($15/lb) natural uranium. The sensitivity of the Hafele-Manne results are explored with respect to changes in some crucial parameters and assumptions namely; variation in discount rate, variation in current costs of operation of HTRB, variation in costs and availability of natural uranium, market penetration constraints, changing capital costs, price responsive demands, petroleum prices, and minimisation of PETG consumption with constraints on the sum of discounted costs. (U.K.)

  7. Hospital turnaround strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James

    2008-01-01

    Despite reports of higher profitability in recent years, hospitals are failing at a faster rate than ever before. Although many hospitals leave decisions regarding revenues and costs to chief financial officers and their staff, this is a recipe for disaster. From research conducted over the last 4 years on hospital bankruptcies and turnarounds, the author found that a common series of actions will help organizations evade collapse. The author explored these turnaround strategies through research and analysis of a variety of hospitals and health systems that had a high probability of immediate financial crisis or collapse. His continued observation and analysis of these hospitals in subsequent years showed that most hospitals never emerge from their bleak financial conditions. However, a few hospital administrations have successfully turned around their organizations.

  8. Interactive Control System, Intended Strategy, Implemented Strategy dan Emergent Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubagus Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between management control system (MCS and strategy formation processes, namely: intended strategy, emergent strategy and impelemented strategy. The focus of MCS in this study was interactive control system. The study was based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM as its multivariate analyses instrument. The samples were upper middle managers of manufacturing company in Banten Province, DKI Jakarta Province and West Java Province. AMOS Software 16 program is used as an additional instrument to resolve the problem in SEM modeling. The study found that interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on Intended strategy; interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on implemented strategy; interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on emergent strategy. The limitation of this study is that our empirical model only used one way relationship between the process of strategy formation and interactive control system.

  9. Interactive Control System, Intended Strategy, Implemented Strategy dan Emergent Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tubagus Ismail; Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between management control system (MCS) and strategy formation processes, namely: intended strategy, emergent strategy and impelemented strategy. The focus of MCS in this study was interactive control system. The study was based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as its multivariate analyses instrument. The samples were upper middle managers of manufacturing company in Banten Province, DKI Jakarta Province and West Java Province. AM...

  10. The Impact of Career Exploration upon the Success of Underrepresented Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elaine J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that contribute to college student success are multiple. Career exploration as a student success strategy was explored in this study. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to explore whether there was a relationship between career exploration and the success of underrepresented students in higher education. Quantitative…

  11. Auditing Marketing Strategy Implementation Success

    OpenAIRE

    Herhausen, Dennis; Egger, Thomas; Oral, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    What makes a marketing strategy implementation successful and how can managers measure this success? To answer these questions, we developed a two-step audit approach. First, managers should measure the implementation success regarding effectiveness, efficiency, performance outcomes, and strategic embeddedness. Second, they should explore the reasons that have led to success or failure by regarding managerial, leadership, and environmental traps. Doing so will also provide corrective action p...

  12. Exploring Conflict Management Using Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleha Yazid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on qualitative methods in researching the area of conflict management, specifically in Self-Managed Project Team (SMPT. The research aims to explore the evolvement of conflict management strategies in SMPT as this type of team is given the responsibility to solve problems and make decision by themselves. The inductive approach will overcome the limitation of quantitative method in management research as one of its objectives is to explain the different elements of the explored social system and their interconnection. Hence, it aims at the contextual understanding of social behavior rather than extensive measurement. This paper also includes the research activities in details such as the data collection methods which involved semi-structured interviews and weekly telephone interviews. The findings of the research proposed that conflict management strategies in SMPT changes over time from confrontation and cooperative style towards avoidance due to the issues of reputation and the deadline.

  13. Categorizing the Growth Strategies of Small Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Westerlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the link between a small firm’s investment in R&D and its growth strategy. A firm’s growth strategy refers to the means by which the organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. We categorize firm growth strategies into eight distinctive clusters: opportunity explorers, radical innovators, business developers, business expanders, profit makers, business rebuilders, stagnators, and downsizers. We argue that understanding a firm’s growth orientation provides a way to assess the returns of its R&D investments, because an organization’s intangible growth strategies and tangible inputs are connected.

  14. Exploring the Learning Mechanism in Educational Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kiili, Kristian; Ketamo, Harri

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the problem based gaming model that tries to explain the learning process in educational games. The model was studied through Geometry game aimed for pre-school children (N = 24). The game relays on learning by teaching approach and involves AI-engine modeling the human concept learning structures. The qualitative analyses were used to explore participants learning processes and gaming strategies. The results indicated that the model well describes th...

  15. Exploring Conflict Management Using Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid, Zaleha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on qualitative methods in researching the area of conflict management, specifically in Self-Managed Project Team (SMPT). The research aims to explore the evolvement of conflict management strategies in SMPT as this type of team is given the responsibility to solve problems and make decision by themselves. The inductive approach will overcome the limitation of quantitative method in management research as one of its objectives is to explain the different elements of the expl...

  16. Dealing with exploration uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capen, E.

    1992-01-01

    Exploration for oil and gas should fulfill the most adventurous in their quest for excitement and surprise. This paper tries to cover that tall order. The authors will touch on the magnitude of the uncertainty (which is far greater than in most other businesses), the effects of not knowing target sizes very well, how to build uncertainty into analyses naturally, how to tie reserves and chance estimates to economics, and how to look at the portfolio effect of an exploration program. With no apologies, the authors will be using a different language for some readers - the language of uncertainty, which means probability and statistics. These tools allow one to combine largely subjective exploration information with the more analytical data from the engineering and economic side

  17. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities in their intera...... in their interactions, testing social roles and conventions. This article explores the vigilance and creative agency displayed by Hang'ombe children, in an environment spurring their acquisition of distinct social and discursive skills.......In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...

  18. Mining Social Entrepreneurship Strategies Using Topic Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanto Chandra

    Full Text Available Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE, SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world's largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs' strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies, specificity (general versus specific strategies, and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies; they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies-a reduction from the 39 strategies-and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making.

  19. Mining Social Entrepreneurship Strategies Using Topic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Yanto; Jiang, Li Crystal; Wang, Cheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world's largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs' strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies-a reduction from the 39 strategies-and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making.

  20. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  1. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  2. Not Just Fun, But Serious Strategies: Using Meta-Cognitive Strategies in Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyeong; Park, Hyungsung; Baek, Youngkyun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the meta-cognitive strategies on the academic and gaming achievements. Exploring the effects of those achievements on the social problem solving of students is also of interest. For this purpose, the MMORPG [Massively Multiple Online Role Playing Game] "Gersang" was used. The…

  3. Explorations in Personal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Michael S.; And Others

    This text, designed for college students, is oriented toward the social, emotional, and behavioral aspects of health. Eight health-related topics of major concern for college students were selected for inclusion: (1) interpersonal relationships; (2) coping strategies; (3) sexuality; (4) nutrition; (5) medical care and services; (6) health…

  4. Exploring Ideas through Synectics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E. Anne

    1997-01-01

    Defines "synectics" as the bringing together of diverse elements. Notes that as an instructional strategy, it depends upon thinking by analogy or metaphor. Discusses components of a synectics lesson. Presents three sample synectics lessons (on "Macbeth," friendship, and Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird"). (PA)

  5. Awake the exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1995-01-01

    A balance of the strategy is made to reactivate the search of hydrocarbons, having in all that the seismic activity and the perforation of wells were good in the first semester of 2003. Advances 16 prospects, they are approved to extend effective contracts and to incorporate special clauses for those that are signed in the second semester of the 2003

  6. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  7. Strategies for Internationalisation at Technical Universities in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Katrine Hahn; Karlsen, Jan Erik

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates strategies for internationalisation at technical universities in the Nordic countries. The study explores the institutional rationales for internationalisation, the stories told in the strategy documents, the importance of leaders, faculty, administration and students for implementation of the strategy, and barriers and…

  8. An Investigation of Metacognitive Strategies Used by EFL Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Huei-Chun; Chan, Chi-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    The main intent of the present study is to find out what metacognitive strategies Taiwanese college students employ in EFL listening process. Four research questions explored in the study include: (1) What are the metacognitive strategies adopted by EFL listeners when they listen? (2) What are the differences of metacognitive strategies between…

  9. Using Networks For Changing Innovation Strategy: The Case of IBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dittrich (Koen); G.M. Duysters (Geert); A-P. de Man (Ard-Pieter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLarge-scale strategic change projects in companies may be supported by using alliance networks. This paper shows that IBM’s change from an exploitation strategy towards an exploration strategy required a radically different network strategy as well. By entering into more non-equity

  10. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  11. Exploring Racism through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  12. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  13. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  14. Geophysics in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnley, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    There are no revolutionary new methods of uranium exploration on the horizon. Continuing improvements in existing methods and types of instrumentation are to be expected, but the main scope of improvement will hinge upon using the best of the available methods more meticulously and systematically, and paying more attention to the analysis of data. (author)

  15. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  16. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  17. Exploring Project Management Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Nijhuis

    2017-01-01

    From the article: "The object of this paper is to explore the actual practice in project management education in the Netherlands and compare it to reference institutions and recent literature. A little over 40% of the Higher Education institutions in the Netherlands mentions PM education in

  18. Exploring processes and deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, S.J.J.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Fournier, F.; Mendling, J.

    2015-01-01

    In process mining, one of the main challenges is to discover a process model, while balancing several quality criteria. This often requires repeatedly setting parameters, discovering a map and evaluating it, which we refer to as process exploration. Commercial process mining tools like Disco,

  19. Domestic uranium exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium exploration in the United States reached its alltime high in 1978 when the chief exploration indicator, surface drilling, totaled 47 million feet. In 1979, however, total drilling declined to 41 million feet, and during the first 8 months of 1980 the trend continued, as surface drilling was 27% less than for the same period in 1979. The total drilling for 1980 now is expected to be below 30 million feet, far less than the 39.4 million feet planned by industry at the beginning of the year. Falling uranium prices, the uncertainties of future uranium demand, rising costs, and the possibility of stiff foreign competition are the prime causes for the current reduction in domestic uranium exploration. Uranium exploration in the United States continues to be concentrated in the vicinity of major producing areas such as the San Juan Basin, Wyoming Basins, Texas Coastal Plain, Paradox Basin, and northeastern Washington, and in areas of recent discoveries including the Henry Mountains, Utah, the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon, and central Colorado. The distributions, by location, of total surface drilling for 1979 and the first half of 1980 are presented

  20. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  1. Exploring the nanoworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The nanoworld is a real world waiting to be explored and to be exploited, and the key to this world is microscopy. Modem techniques of microscopy reveal not only atoms and molecules, but also how they combine and interact. They allow us to explore not only the natural but also the synthesised nanoworld. Through this exploration, we can discover new natural forms which can act as templates for constructing novel materials of technological and scientific importance, we can obtain knowledge about the nanoworld (eg the structure of macromolecules) which gives us the means to manipulate the natural world, and we can discover how nature uses microstructure to achieve materials properties (eg strength) which we can then mimic. There are many modern forms of microscopy which are used in this exploration. They include not only a variety of microscopes (eg electron, atomic force, scanning tunnelling) but also an increasing range of sophisticated techniques such as electron tomography, image reconstruction, energy loss spectroscopy and high resolution microscopy, in which mathematical manipulation of the data is playing an increasingly important role. Meanwhile developments in aberration correctors and electron energy monochromation are taking microscopy into a new realm of resolution both in imaging and spectroscopy. Research at the nanoscale is causing a convergence between the biological and physical sciences, largely because the tools and techniques they use are becoming increasingly common to both fields. This challenges us to arrange our activities to optimise our efforts and resources. So we see significant developments in shared instrumentation and remote operation, and we see the setting up of nanotechnology institutes where researchers from across the biological, mathematical, materials and medical disciplines explore together. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  2. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  3. Investment in exploration by the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, W.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines investment in domestic uranium exploration by US companies. In addition to examining the influence of typically considered variables such as expected price of output, expected cost of production, cost of capital, and reserve holdings, the analysis also considers the influence of selected attributes of the corporations involved, including cash flow, exploration expertise, and corporate investment strategy. This latter class of variables (i.e., corporate variables) has never been considered in the analysis of the determination of industry investment behavior. The sample includes observations of 25 firms' behavior over a period of 7 years, 1973 through 1979. In addition to supporting the energy Information Administration's more comprehensive uranium market modelling efforts, an interesting question this study addresses is the role of major oil companies in the uranium exploration field. The results suggest that expected profit and level of reserve holdings significantly affect exploration effort. It is also found that firms with greater cash flow and depth of in-house exploration expertise will explore more than firms with less. On the other hand, the results do not suggest that firms' diversification strategies differentiate their exploration in the short run. For instance, in the uranium industry, mineral firms do not behave differently from energy (e.g., oil) firms, once the other determinants of investment in exploration are considered. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that corporate variables should be considered in models of uranium exploration. Their consideration will enhance the ability to model exploration behavior accurately. 10 tables

  4. Exploring Entrepreneurial Network Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years the successful collaborative arrangements and relationships between university, industry and public institutions have become a mantra in transforming new scientific knowledge into new innovations and business ventures. The fit between these very different actor groups has been treated as a contingent factor. However only little attention have been giving to a specific focus on the strategies that new business ventures have obtained to establish the fit between small firms,...

  5. Reports and recommendations from COSPAR Planetary Exploration Committee (PEX) & International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration, the objectives of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX) are to provide high quality, independent science input to support the development of a global space exploration program while working to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system bodies. PEX engages with COSPAR Commissions and Panels, science foundations, IAA, IAF, UN bodies, and IISL to support in particular national and international space exploration working groups and the new era of planetary exploration. COSPAR's input, as gathered by PEX, is intended to express the consensus view of the international scientific community and should ultimately provide a series of guidelines to support future space exploration activities and cooperative efforts, leading to outstanding scientific discoveries, opportunities for innovation, strategic partnerships, technology progression, and inspiration for people of all ages and cultures worldwide. We shall focus on the lunar exploration aspects, where the COSPAR PEX is building on previous COSPAR, ILEWG and community conferences. An updated COSPAR PEX report is published and available online (Ehrenfreund P. et al, COSPAR planetary exploration panel report, http://www.gwu.edu/~spi/assets/COSPAR_PEX2012.pdf). We celebrate 20 years after the 1st International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon at Beatenberg in June 1994. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established the year after in April 1995 at an EGS meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon (http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ ). It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and

  6. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  7. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  8. Exploring textual data

    CERN Document Server

    Lebart, Ludovic; Berry, Lisette

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines deal with large text sets requiring both text management and text analysis. Faced with a large amount of textual data collected in marketing surveys, literary investigations, historical archives and documentary data bases, these researchers require assistance with organizing, describing and comparing texts. Exploring Textual Data demonstrates how exploratory multivariate statistical methods such as correspondence analysis and cluster analysis can be used to help investigate, assimilate and evaluate textual data. The main text does not contain any strictly mathematical demonstrations, making it accessible to a large audience. This book is very user-friendly with proofs abstracted in the appendices. Full definitions of concepts, implementations of procedures and rules for reading and interpreting results are fully explored. A succession of examples is intended to allow the reader to appreciate the variety of actual and potential applications and the complementary processin...

  9. Exploring improvisation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2007-06-01

    Improvisation has long been considered a function of music, dance, and the theatre arts. An exploration of the definitions and characteristics of this concept in relation to the art and practice of nursing provide an opportunity to illuminate related qualities within the field of nursing. Nursing has always demonstrated improvisation because it is often required to meet the needs of patients in a rapidly changing environment. However, little has been done to identify improvisation in the practice of nursing or to teach improvisation as a nursing knowledge-based skill. This article strives to explore the concept of improvisation in nursing, to describe the characteristics of improvisation as applied to nursing, and to utilize case studies to illustrate various manifestations of improvisation in nursing practice.

  10. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  11. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  12. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available prospective map are the weights-of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote.... . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION φWMSD+V(Sn) = λ N(A) ∑ −→x ∈A P(−→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣−→x −QSn( −→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ +(1− λ)s2(OSn) , (2) where QSn( −→x ) is the location vector of an optimal exploration focal point in Sn nearest to −→x , and s2(OSn) is the variance...

  13. An asteroseismology explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.; Cox, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In response to a NASA opportunity, a proposal has been made to study the concept of an Asteroseismology Explorer (ASE). The goal of the ASE would be to measure solar-like oscillations on many (perhaps hundreds) of stars during a 1-year mission, including many members of open clusters. In this paper, the authors describe this proposal's observational goals, a strawman technical approach, and likely scientific rewards

  14. Gases in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Pacer, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Interest continues to grow in the use of helium and radon detection as a uranium exploration tool because, in many instances, these radiogenic gases are the only indicators of deeply buried mineralization. The origin of these gases, their migration in the ground, the type of samples and measurement techniques are discussed. Case histories of comparative tests conducted on known uranium deposits at three geologically diverse sites in the United States of America are also presented. (author)

  15. COACH – EXPLORER - MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Nićin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays technologies are characterised by the expert specialists. In training technologies there are also coaches-experts for some sports. Aport from governing training technology, thus he performs manager’s work (planning, programing, accomplishing, controlling, correcting the coach also performs the work of an explorer, because the work of the coach is creative, creating, exploring and it is necessary to include innovation into training process, and innovations are nothing but rehearse of someting new, what is but scientific approach to the training. More the coach succeeds in controlling more factors which influence the sport achievement, he will be more successful. To be able to do all that, the coach must observe, follow, control and correct sportist’s reactions on exercises and loads all the time. The coach demonstrates his activity even through marketing, educational psychological, administrative- technical, nutritional and entire useful social role, so his work is interdisciplinary very complex, important, public, and thus it is a subject to critics. In order to be successful, a modern coach must be an exellent expert-specialist, but also an explorer and manager, and before all a creator of training technology

  16. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  17. A marketing strategy for a nursing college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pryde

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore and describe a marketing strategy for a nursing college. An explorative and descriptive research design, within the context of a nursing college and affiliated hospitals, was followed. A literature study of marketing models was undertaken and the Delphi-method was utilised to determine the contribution of marketing staff and the possible content of a marketing strategy for a nursing college. The results were utilised to describe guidelines for such a strategy, consisting of marketers/marketing agents, target market, product, price, promotional activities, place and market research. Recommendations include the planning, implementation and evaluation of strategy, inservice training for potential marketing agents, inclusion of marketing as part of the formal education of tutors and nurse managers,as well as an impact study of the scholar as the main consumer.

  18. A marketing strategy for a nursing college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, M; Muller, M

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study is to explore and describe a marketing strategy for a nursing college. An explorative and descriptive research design, within the context of a nursing college and affiliated hospitals, was followed. A literature study of marketing models was undertaken and the Delphi-method was utilised to determine the contribution of marketing staff and the possible content of a marketing strategy for a nursing college. The results were utilised to describe guidelines for such a strategy, consisting of marketers/marketing agents, target market, product, price, promotional activities, place and market research. Recommendations include the planning, implementation and evaluation of strategy, inservice training for potential marketing agents, inclusion of marketing as part of the formal education of tutors and nurse managers, as well as an impact study of the scholar as the main consumer.

  19. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....

  20. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  1. Negotiation strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on then negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant supply chain management (SCM) literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated...... to reject or confirm the reached conclusions. Originality/value - The paper is the first to specifically investigate the role of negotiation strategies in the academic discipline of SCM from a qualitative angle using participant observations and interviews....

  2. Management Accounting and Supply Chain Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Kim S.; Thrane, Sof

    2016-01-01

    Research positioned in the intersection between management accounting and supply chain management is increasing. However, the relationship between management accounting and supply chain strategies has been neglected in extant research. This research adds to literature on management accounting and supply chain management through exploring how supply chain strategy and management accounting is related, and how supply chain relationship structure modifies this relation. Building on a contingency...

  3. Congruent, Divergent and Incoherent Corporate Level Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Cliff; Ward, Keith; Kakabadse, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper draws together four related strands of theory to address the processes of corporate value creation. Specifically, contributions from resource-based theory, dynamic capabilities, corporate strategy and Mintzberg’s structure theory have been combined to derive four congruent resource-creating strategies: financial control, scale, leverage, and creativity. Mintzberg’s configurations approach is used to explore the organisational structures and processes associated wi...

  4. Human exploration and settlement of Mars - The roles of humans and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific objectives and strategies for human settlement on Mars are examined in the context of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integrated strategy for humans and robots in the exploration and settlement of Mars is examined. Such an effort would feature robotic, telerobotic, and human-supervised robotic phases.

  5. Integrated Manufacturing Strategy: A Prerequisite for Environmental Excellence

    OpenAIRE

    W. Rocky Newman; Mark D. Hanna; William E.Youngdahl

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based upon a framework which links the effective integration of manufacturing strategy into overall corporate strategy (Wheelwright and Hayes 1985) and corporate attainment of environmental excellence (Winsemius and Guntram 1992). By exploring the practical implications of this framework, the paper suggests that improvement of environmental performance may depend on adequate integration of manufacturing strategy into overall corporate strategy. Hence, situations may commonly exi...

  6. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUMENTS IN IMPLEMENTING FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES COMPETITIVENESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovska, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article explores the use of  аdministrative instruments in implementing functional strategies competitiveness management. Due to providing strategic financial management competitiveness the use of administrative levers of control in the formulation and implementation of financial strategies were investigated. System of financial policies forming by individual policies of  general financial strategy, which is an administrative levers of influence on implementation strategies, was proposed...

  7. Exploring Knowledge of English Speaking Strategies in 8th and 12th Graders (Exploración del conocimiento de las estrategias de expresión oral en inglés en estudiantes de los grados octavo y doceavo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a research study that analyses eighth and twelfth graders' knowledge of speaking strategies to communicate in English. The Oral Communication Strategy Inventory, developed by Nakatani in 2006, was applied to 108 students belonging to the public, semi-public and private educational sectors in Chile. The findings show that 8th…

  8. Mining Social Entrepreneurship Strategies Using Topic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world’s largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs’ strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies―a reduction from the 39 strategies―and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making. PMID:26998970

  9. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  10. International Planning for Subglacial Lake Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, M.; Priscu, J.

    2003-04-01

    As one of the last unexplored frontiers on our planet, subglacial lakes offer a unique and exciting venue for exploration and research. Over the past several years, subglacial lakes have captured the imagination of the scientific community and public, evoking images of potential exotic life forms surviving under some of the most extreme conditions on earth. Various planning activities have recognized that due to the remote and harsh conditions, that a successful subglacial lake exploration program will entail a concerted effort for a number of years. It will also require an international commitment of major financial and human resources. To begin a detailed planning process, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) convened the Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists (SALEGOS) in Tokyo in 2000. The group was asked to build on previous workshops and meetings to develop a plan to explore subglacial lake environments. Its mandate adopted the guiding principles as agreed in Cambridge in 1999 that the program would be interdisciplinary in scope, be designed for minimum contamination and disturbance of the subglacial lake environment, have as a goal lake entry and sample retrieval, and that the ultimate target of the program should be Lake Vostok exploration. Since its formation SALEGOS has met three times and addressed some of the more intractable issues related to subglacial lake exploration. Topics under discussion include current state-of-the-knowledge of subglacial environments, technological needs, international management and organizational strategies, a portfolio of scientific projects, "clean" requirements, and logistical considerations. In this presentation the actvities of SALEGOS will be summarized and recommendations for an international subglacial lake exploration program discussed.

  11. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L

    2012-01-01

    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  12. Spacecraft exploration of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Langevin, Y.; Farquhar, R.; Fulchignoni, M.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of spacecraft exploration, we still await the first direct investigation of an asteroid. This paper describes how a growing international interest in the solar system's more primitive bodies should remedy this. Plans are under way in Europe for a dedicated asteroid mission (Vesta) which will include multiple flybys with in situ penetrator studies. Possible targets include 4 Vesta, 8 Flora and 46 Hestia; launch its scheduled for 1994 or 1996. In the United States, NASA plans include flybys of asteroids en route to outer solar system targets

  13. Exploring C++ 11

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Exploring C++ divides C++ up into bite-sized chunks that will help you learn the language one step at a time. Assuming no familiarity with C++, or any other C-based language, you'll be taught everything you need to know in a logical progression of small lessons that you can work through as quickly or as slowly as you need.C++ can be a complicated language. Writing even the most straight-forward of programs requires you to understand many disparate aspects of the language and how they interact with one another. C++ doesn't lend itself to neat compartmentalization the way other languages do. Rat

  14. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  15. SpaceExplorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard

    2007-01-01

    Web pages are designed to be displayed on a single screen, but as more and more screens are being introduced in our surroundings a burning question becomes how to design, interact, and display web pages on multiple devices and displays. In this paper I present the SpaceExplorer prototype, which...... is able to display standard HTML web pages on multiple displays with only a minor modification to the language. Based on the prototype a number of different examples are presented and discussed and some preliminary findings are presented....

  16. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  17. Uranium exploration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  18. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  19. Strategies of Legitimacy Through Social Media: The Networked Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Itziar; Etter, Michael; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2016-01-01

    the concept of a networked legitimacy strategy. With this strategy, legitimacy is gained through participation in non-hierarchical open platforms and the co-construction of agendas. We explore the organizational transition needed to yield this new legitimacy approach. We argue that, in this context......How can corporations develop legitimacy when coping with stakeholders who have multiple, often conflicting sustainable development (SD) agendas? We address this question by conducting an in-depth longitudinal case study of a corporation's stakeholder engagement in social media and propose......, legitimacy gains may increase when firms are able to reduce the control over the engagements and relate non-hierarchically with their publics. We contribute to the extant literature on political corporate social responsibility and legitimacy by providing an understanding of a new context for engagement...

  20. Cosmochemistry and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    About 125 scientists, engineers, business men and women, and other specialists attended the sixth meeting of the Space Resources Roundtable, held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. The meeting was co-sponsored by the Space Resources Roundtable, Inc. (a nonprofit organization dedicated to the use of space resources for the benefit of humankind), the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the Colorado School of Mines. Presentations and discussions during the meeting made it clear that the knowledge gained from cosmochemical studies of the Moon and Mars is central to devising ways to use in situ resources. This makes cosmochemistry central to the human exploration and development of space, which cannot happen without extensive in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Cosmochemists at the meeting reported on an array of topics: the nature of lunar surface materials and our lack of knowledge about surface materials in permanently shadowed regions at the lunar poles; how to make reasonable simulated lunar materials for resource extraction testbeds, vehicle design tests, and construction experiments on Earth; and how to explore for resources on the Moon and Mars.

  1. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  2. The advanced composition explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.C.; Burlaga, L.F.; Cummings, A.C.; Feldman, W.C.; Frain, W.E.; Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R.E.; Hovestadt, D.; Krimigis, S.M.; Mason, G.M.; McComas, D.; Mewaldt, R.A.; Simpson, J.A.; von Rosenvinge, T.T.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) was recently selected as one of two new Explorer-class missions to be developed for launch during the mid-1990's ACE will observe particles of solar, interplanetary, interstellar, and galactic origins, spanning the energy range from that of the solar wind (∼1 keV/nucleon) to galactic cosmic ray energies (several hundred MeV/nucleon). Definitive studies will be made of the abundance of nearly all isotopes from H to Zn (1≤Z≤30), with exploratory isotope studies extending to Zr(Z=40). To accomplish this, the ACE payload includes six high-resolution spectrometers, each designed to provide the optimum charge, mass, or charge-state resolution in its particular energy range, and each having a geometry factor optimized for the expected flux levels, so as to provide a collecting power a factor of 10 to 1000 times greater than previous or planned experiments. The payload also includes several instruments of standard design that will monitor solar wind and magnetic field conditions and energetic H, He, and electron fluxes. We summarize here the scientific objectives, instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission approach that were defined for ACE during the Phase-A study period

  3. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  4. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  5. Can rewiring strategy control the epidemic spreading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Yin, Qiuju; Liu, Wenyang; Yan, Zhijun; Shi, Tianyu

    2015-11-01

    Relation existed in the social contact network can affect individuals' behaviors greatly. Considering the diversity of relation intimacy among network nodes, an epidemic propagation model is proposed by incorporating the link-breaking threshold, which is normally neglected in the rewiring strategy. The impact of rewiring strategy on the epidemic spreading in the weighted adaptive network is explored. The results show that the rewiring strategy cannot always control the epidemic prevalence, especially when the link-breaking threshold is low. Meanwhile, as well as strong links, weak links also play a significant role on epidemic spreading.

  6. Gas strategies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch-Prigent, L.

    1992-01-01

    The different factors affecting gas supply and demand in Europe are examined and the strategies considered necessary to ensure a successful European gas market in the 21st century are outlined. A number of conclusions are drawn. Even though a significant rise in the total demand for gas in Europe is forecast, there are enough sources to cover this demand. However, to think that this gas will be available at cheap conditions is an illusion. These sources are located further and further away which means that their costs will increase. Given the risks inherent in exploring, producing, transporting and marketing these reserves, all the concerned parties must be allowed an acceptable rate of return on their investment. The environmental positive assets inherent in natural gas will guarantee the industry a bright future if they can be fully exploited. New regulations must not hinder the development of new markets or the construction of new infrastructures. The transit directive already permits the softening of the rules regarding transportation; but in order for it to come into real effect there must be gas available on the market. (author)

  7. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  8. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  9. Strategies for Aging in Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Dupuis-Blanchard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For healthy and independent older adults, aging in place can be seen as identical to any other adult living at home. Little is known about how frail seniors, particularly those who speak a minority language, manage the challenges of aging in place. The present qualitative descriptive study explores the strategies that Canadian French-speaking seniors have put in place to counter their loss of independence and promote their ability to stay in their home. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 39 older adults and transcribed, followed by content analysis to identify common themes related to study objectives. Six themes emerged in response to strategies described for aging in place. Findings reveal the limited extent to which language issues were perceived as a barrier by participants. In conclusion, the results of this study provide us with fruitful insights to guide community nursing practice, future research, and public policy.

  10. Legitimacy Strategy in Institutional Multiplicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2014-01-01

    research: adaptation, bypass, manipulation, and intervention/innovation. However, the paper goes further by presenting an operational framework for legitimacy strategy, postulating that it is grounded in the ‘corporate commitment’ of MNEs and is operationalized either by ‘corporate initiative......This paper focuses on ‘institutional void’ (IV) and ‘civil society’ (CS). Investigating five European MNEs in a fragmented business system by using a multiple-case-study method and a sense-making approach, we explore how IV and CS affect MNEs and how MNEs respond to them in pursuit of legitimacy....... Our study reveals three forms of IV, i.e., system void, value chain void, and void between social need and citizen services, and two broad roles of CS, being an enabler and constrainer that affect MNE operations and survival. We validate four types of legitimacy strategies presented by previous...

  11. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orning, Hans Jacob

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour......, and other kinds of material or symbolic assets? Seven essays by Scandinavian scholars are supplemented by contributions from Stephen White, John Hudson and Gerd Althoff, to provide a new baseline for discussing both the strategies pursued in the political game and those used to settle local disputes. Using...... practice and process as key analytical concepts, these authors explore formal law and litigation in conjunction with non-formal legal proceedings such as out-of-court mediation, rituals, emotional posturing, and feuding. Their insights place the Northern medieval world in a European context of dispute...

  12. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...

  13. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Friedmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may cover only a fractional part of the entire game graph. We present a local strategy improvement algorithm which explores the game graph on-the-fly whilst performing the improvement steps. We also compare it empirically with existing global strategy improvement algorithms and the currently only other local algorithm for solving parity games. It turns out that local strategy improvement can outperform these others by several orders of magnitude.

  15. Exploring exploration orientation and its determinants : Some empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, H.R.; Volberda, H.W.; Sidhu, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Adopting an information-process perspective, this article conceptualizes exploration orientation in terms of scope of information acquisition. In line with this conceptualization, a multidimensional operational measure of exploration orientation is developed and its internal consistency established.

  16. The design explorer project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Annelise Mark; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Buur, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process....... The project introduces a new approach to support of design; instead of design guidelines, support is given by creating a transparent information environment in which designers can navigate freely according to their individual preferences. The project is based on a framework that structures the dimensions......, or categories, of domain information which need to be available for a system or product designer/design team in order to determine the characteristics of the artefact, or object of design. These dimensions include information about the different work domains in which the product plays a role during its lifetime...

  17. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  18. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  19. Mineral nuclear exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The information on quantitative determination in rocks of water (humidity), rock-forming chemical elements, and various usefull components are presented. When considering separate chemical elements given are brief information on their content in natural objects, nuclear properties (the main reactions, their cross sections, isotope characteristics etc.). Possibilities of different nuclear methods in determination of chemical element concentrations in ores and rocks are analyzed. The greatest attention is paid to analysis of methods, based on gamma quantum and neutron irradiation. The results of application of laboratory nuclear-physical methods of rapid analysis are briefly considered, whereas the results of different field methods of nuclear exploration are considered in detail: field survey, well logging, inspection of mine roadway walls. In the appendix general information on chemical elements and sensitivity thresholds of certain activation methods are presented

  20. Exploring the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2008-01-01

    David Harland opens with a review of the robotic probes, namely the Rangers which returned television before crashing into the Moon, the Surveyors which ''soft landed'' in order to investigate the nature of the surface, and the Lunar Orbiters which mapped prospective Apollo landing sites. He then outlines the historic landing by Apollo 11 in terms of what was discovered, and how over the next several missions the program was progressively geared up to enable the final three missions each to spend three days on comprehensive geological investigations. He concludes with a review of the robotic spacecraft that made remote-sensing observations of the Moon. Although aimed at the enthusiast, and can be read as an adventure in exploration, the book develops the scientific theme of lunar geology, and therefore will be of use as background reading for undergraduate students of planetary sciences. In addition, with the prospect of a resumption of human missions, it will help journalists understand what Apollo achieved ...

  1. Solar system exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Quaide, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described

  2. Exploring the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, G.; Vernier, P.; Le Bihan, D.; Comtat, C.; Van Wassenhove, V.; Texier, I.; Planat-Chretien, A.; Poher, V.; Dinten, J.M.; Pannetier-lecoeur, M.; Trebossen, R.; Lethimonnier, F.; Eger, E.; Thirion, B.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Piazza, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Marti, S.; Klein, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Paillere, M.L.; Artiges, E.; Lemaitre, H.; Karila, L.; Houenou, J.; Sarrazin, S.; Hantraye, P.; Aron Badin, R.; Mergui, S.; Palfi, S.; Bemelmans, A.; Berger, F.; Frouin, V.; Pinel, J.F.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2014-01-01

    CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) has been involved in brain research for over 50 years and this 62. issue of 'Clefs CEA' is the best occasion to come back on the latest advances in this wide field. The purpose is to show how neuroimaging combined with neuro sciences and computational sciences has shed light on various aspects of the brain life and experience such as for instance learning (with highlights on dyslexia and dyscalculia), vision, the feeling of time, consciousness, addictions, ageing, and neuro-degenerative diseases. This document is divided into 6 parts: 1) non-invasive exploration of the brain, 2) development, learning and plasticity of the brain, 3) cognitive architecture and the brain, 4) mental health and vulnerability, 5) neuro-degenerative diseases, and 6) identifying bio-markers for cerebral disorders. (A.C.)

  3. Exploring Aspects of Strategic Management for a Small Plant Bakery

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, PA; Bell, GA; Thomson, EM

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the use some aspects of strategic management in order to inform a small plant bakery. We briefly review key theories underpinning business strategy and its implementation. A small plant bakery in the UK was analysed, identifying its Critical Success Factors (CSF) and Key Performance Indicators (KPI) comparing these with previous periods and other successful bakery businesses. Furthermore, the case study strategy is used to guide this research. We seek to determine if criti...

  4. Reaching Into the Unknown: Actions, Goal Hierarchies, and Explorative Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood G. Gozli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Action is widely characterized as possessing a teleological dimension. The dominant way of describing goal-directed action and agency is in terms of exploitation, i.e., pursuing pre-specified goals using existing strategies. Recent theoretical developments emphasize the place of exploration, i.e., discovering new goals or acquiring new strategies. The exploitation-exploration distinction poses questions with regard to goals and agency: Should exploration, as some authors have suggested, be regarded as acting without a goal? We argue that recognizing the hierarchical nature of goals is crucial in distinguishing the two kinds of activity, because this recognition prevents the claim that exploration is goal-free, while allowing for a homogeneous account of both exploitative and explorative actions. An action typically causes relatively low-level/proximal (i.e., sensorimotor, immediate and relatively high-level/distal (i.e., in the environment, at a wider timescale outcomes. In exploitation, one relies on existing associations between low- and high-level states, whereas in exploration one does not have the ability or intention to control high-level/distal states. We argue that explorative action entails the capacity to exercise control within the low-level/proximal states, which enables the pursuit of indeterminate goals at the higher levels of a goal hierarchy, and the possibility of acquiring new goals and reorganization of goal hierarchies. We consider how the dominant models of agency might accommodate this capacity for explorative action.

  5. Exploring Seafloor Volcanoes in Cyberspace: NOAA's "Ocean Explorer" Inspires Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Seafloor exploration being done by scientists is an ideal way to introduce students to technology as a tool for inquiry. The same technology that allows scientists to share data in near real time can also provide students the tools to become researchers. NOAA's Ocean Explorer Explorations website is a rich research data bank that can be used by…

  6. Exploration in sensitive areas: Convincing the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Exmouth region WA is known for the Ningaloo Reef, an environmentally sensitive region covered by petroleum exploration permits. This paper discusses the issue of carrying out drilling operations in an environmentally sensitive area. Despite the successful drilling of two wells in the area in 1993, and an environmental management strategy developed by the operating company, the continuing policy of not allowing drilling in Ningaloo Marine Park was an example of government, the local community and the widespread public disregarding of scientific evidence and the environmental record of the oil and gas industry. Nevertheless, the communications program was a success and the exploration company now has an environmental policy that reflects the importance of community and government education and consultation. 1 fig., 1 photo., 11 refs

  7. Robotics and automation in Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Roger D.; Sturms, Francis M., Jr.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Gamber, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to the exploration of Mars is examined which relies on the use of smaller and simpler vehicles. The new strategy involves the following principles: limiting science objectives to retrieval of rock samples from several different but geologically homogeneous areas; making use of emerging microspacecraft technologies to significantly reduce the mass of hardware elements; simplifying missions to the absolutely essential elements; and managing risk through the employment of many identical independent pieces some of which may fail. The emerging technologies and their applications to robotic Mars missions are discussed.

  8. Chromatin conformation capture strategies in molecular diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vree, Pauline J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I have explored the clinical potential of the 4C-technology and worked on development of a novel chromatin conformation capture based technology, called TLA. In chapter 2 I describe how the 4C-technology can be applied as a targeted strategy to identify putative fusion-genes or

  9. A MARKETING STRATEGY ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coita Dorin Cristian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic is an increasingly important energy technology. Deriving energy from the sun offers numerous environmental benefits. It is an extremely clean energy source, and few other power-generating technologies have as little environmental impact as photovoltaic. In this article we explored some dimensions of photovoltaic market and suggested a marketing strategy for solar panels manufacturers

  10. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  11. Managing consumer disengagement through green advertising strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, E-Jian

    2017-01-01

    A discord is apparent between consumers’ concerns and their actual green behaviour – a surfacing issue that has obstructed effective green messages by advertisers. Four distinct consumer disengagement issues, including consumer backlash, environmental exhaustion, motivational challenges and social pressures were identified. This thesis explored cultural discourses surrounding green marketing and proposes green advertising strategies that address consumer disengagement. Using the Grounded Theo...

  12. Electronic government: Rethinking channel management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; Pieterson, Willem Jan; Noordman, H.N.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how an alternative multichannel management strategy can improve the way governments and citizens interact. Improvement is necessary because, based on empirical data from various sources, the conclusion can be drawn that there is a gap between the communication channels

  13. Negotiation Strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of this paper This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on the negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant SCM literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated for on previous no...

  14. The mathematics of games of strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Dresher, Melvin

    1981-01-01

    A noted research mathematician explores decision making in the absence of perfect information. His clear presentation of the mathematical theory of games of strategy encompasses applications to many fields, including economics, military, business, and operations research. No advanced algebra or non-elementary calculus occurs in most of the proofs.

  15. Social Media strategy for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration uses various social media platforms to communicate the research and achievements of the collaboration to a wider public audience. The strategy to achieve this goal will be presented, with an analysis of the effectiveness as a function of certain factors. A specific focus on the social media approach during the LHC Run II time period in 2015 will be explored.

  16. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories......The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  17. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Clark, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  18. Evaluating the enforceability of texting laws: strategies tested in Connecticut and Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  19. Expanding the seat belt program strategies toolbox: a starter kit for trying new program ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  20. The Effect of Information Access Strategy on Power Consumption and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different information access strategies on power consumption and information reliability, considering the wireless sensor network as the source of information. Basically, the paper explores three different access strategies, namely; reactive, periodic and hybrid...

  1. Learning strategy as a guide to career succes in organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    Our lack of understanding regarding how managers learn is in sharp contrast to the importance attached and money spend on management development. This research explores how managers acquire their competences by establishing the relationships between organizational structure, learning strategy and

  2. 36 benchmarking human capital strategies of domestic and foreign

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complexity of benchmarking the human capital strategies of others due to higher barriers to imitation ... Nigerian airline industry, exploring the issue of deregulation of the industry. This is ..... way to attain a number of corporate objectives.

  3. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  4. Exploring the dusty Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghese, F

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Dust is an ubiquitous inhabitant of the interstellar medium, and leaves an unmistakable signature in its optical properties, and physico-chemical evolution. Although there is little direct knowledge of the true nature of interstellar dust grains, strong evidences point toward the possibility that such grains are composites of many small monomers (mainly made of silicates and carbonaceous materials. We consider two different models of fluffy dust aggregates, occurring as result of ballistic particle-cluster and cluster-cluster aggregation, and a cluster with a Gaussian-like sphere size distribution. We study the optical properties of such composite structures through the multipole fields and the Transition Matrix approach. Our results show the severe limits of applicability of the effective medium theories. By comparing radiation and gravitational forces, we also infer some relevant insights into the dynamical evolution of composite grains in the Solar System. We finally explore the possible role of composite fluffy dust grains in igniting an extraterrestrial prebiotic chemistry.

  5. Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the

  6. De Nederlandse cybersecurity strategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent werd de Nederlandse 'Nationale Cybersecurity Strategie: Slagkracht door samenwerking' openbaar gemaakt. Wat zijn de hoofdpunten van deze strategie en wat betekend dat voor de burgers, bedrijven, overheid, afnemers of leveranciers van informatie- en communicatie technologie?

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  8. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  9. US Strategy for Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veazie, Arnold

    2003-01-01

    .... This strategic research paper analyzes the President's National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace to determine whether it effectively provides solutions for securing cyberspace. It concludes by proposing an alternative strategy for securing cyberspace.

  10. Strategi Pembelajaran Biologi Berbasis Kompetensi dan Konservasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Ridlo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPembelajaran melibatkan interaksi dosen, mahasiswa, dan sumber belajar. Interaksi antara ketiganya membutuhkan strategi pembelajaran. Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan strategi pembelajaran biologi di Jurusan Biologi Unnes yang telah berkomitmen mengaplikasikan kurikulum berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan ciri pendekatan jelajah alam sekitar (JAS. Metodologi penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Informannya dosen dan mahasiswa yang mengajar dan belajar biologi umum, mikrobiologi, dan taksonomi hewan. Data yang diperoleh berupa deskripsi kegiatan belajar mengajar dan lesson study.  Data-data dianalisis kemudian dinarasikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pembelajaran biologi dengan pendekatan berpusat pada siswa yang dikhususkan pada kegiatan penjelajahan alam sekitar dapat dilakukan menggunakan strategi yang berbasis pada cara belajar siswa aktif dan kooperatif. Strategi-strategi tersebut adalah pembelajaran kontekstual, pembelajaran partisipatif, dan pembelajaran inkuiri. AbstractLearning involves the interaction of lecturer, students, and learning resources. The interaction between them requires a learning strategy. This research aims to generate learning strategies of biology in the Department of Biology Unnes which has committed to apply the competence- and conservation-based curriculum of features the environmental exploration (JAS approach. The research methodology uses a qualitative approach. The informants are the faculty members and the students who, respectively, teach and learn biology, microbiology, and animal taxonomy subjects. The data obtained were in the form of description of learning activities and lesson studies. The data were then analyzed narratively. The results showed that the student-centered learning of environmental exploration may be conducted using active- and cooperative-based strategies. Examples of these strategies are contextual learning, participatory learning, and inquiry learning.

  11. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  12. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Halbheer, Daniel; Stahl, Florian; Koenigsberg, Oded; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  13. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw , Duncan; Edwards , John

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  14. Uranium exploration in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruquee, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The sedimentary succession of Bangladesh has continental sandstones with lignite and organic matter which are favourable host rocks for sedimentary uranium. The shield areas around Bangladesh are considered good source areas for uranium. Encouraged by this idea, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) started an exploration programme in 1976 with the assistance of the IAEA and the United Nations Development Programme. Preliminary reconnaissance radiometric surveys carried out in 1976-1977 in the Chittagong, Chittagong hill tract and Sylhet districts identified some anomalies with 3 to 5 times the background (XBG). This was followed by regional reconnaissance radiometric surveys which were carried out between 1977 and 1985 in some of the anticlines of the Chittagong and Sylhet districts, including an airborne (helicopter) survey over the Jaldi area. These surveys resulted in the discovery of more than 300 radiometric anomalies of 3 to 60 XBG. They occur in the medium to fine grained ferruginous sandstones of the Dupitila and Tipam Formations of Mio-Pliocene age. These anomalous beds show variation in slime and heavy mineral contents. Some samples collected from the anomalous beds contain uranium and thorium ranging from 20 to 100 ppm and 100 to 1000 ppm, respectively. Exploratory drilling to a depth of about 400 ft was carried out on a very limited scale in the northeastern part of the Sylhet district. Gamma logging of these holes indicated many subsurface anomalies (3 to 21 XBG) in the Dupitila Formation. These anomalies are linked to thin layers with restricted lateral extensions. Geochemical orientation studies and radon surveys were done in some selected areas of Sylhet to test their suitability for further surveys. 9 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  16. Online Strategy Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

  17. Backbone amide linker strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shelton, Anne Pernille Tofteng; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    In the backbone amide linker (BAL) strategy, the peptide is anchored not at the C-terminus but through a backbone amide, which leaves the C-terminal available for various modifications. This is thus a very general strategy for the introduction of C-terminal modifications. The BAL strategy...

  18. Strategies Against Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessman, Frank

    The major antipoverty strategies of the 1960's are analyzed--the conflict model of Alinsky, the welfare crisis approach of Cloward and Piven, and the new careers viewpoint of Riessman and Pearl. The latter strategy is said to have a greater "multiplier effect" on poverty than other approaches. Discussed are such specific strategies in…

  19. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstatt, Kelly L; Voss, Joel L

    2014-01-01

    Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  20. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Brandstatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.