Sample records for astrology

  1. Astrology. (United States)

    Carlson, S


    As a divinatory practice, astrology is without equal in both its colorful history and modern day popularity. Astrology has grown, over thousands of years, into a huge and ornate superstructure that lacks a central design. Although astrology has been dimly veiled by its occult mystique for centuries, the light of modern day inquiry has shown its substance to be mostly illusionary and revealed its foundation to be the shakiest possible: that of self-justification and anecdotal evidence. Despite the many claims of its practitioners and followers, extensive investigation has revealed astrology to be a great teetering monument to human gullibility.

  2. Observational Astrology. (United States)

    Mayer, Ben


    Discusses the use of astrological signs as a vehicle for getting students interested in astronomy. Describes the construction and use of simple stellaphane starframes that can be used to locate astrological constellations. Provides instructions for photographing constellations with a 35 millimeter camera. (TW)

  3. Astrology for Physics Teachers (United States)

    Steckline, Vincent S.


    Presents a brief history of astrology and its relation to astronomy. Describes the different types of astrologers, horoscope casting, and horoscope interpretation. Presents reasons for the author's disbelief in astrology. (GS)

  4. Late Babylonian Astrology (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  5. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  6. Greco-Roman Astrology (United States)

    Beck, Roger

    Astrology was entrenched in the culture of the Roman Empire. The system and its influence is described as well as its relationship to mathematical astronomy at the time. The material remains are of two sorts: papyrus horoscopes and coins with astrological motifs.

  7. Astrology and Astronomy. (United States)

    Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA.

    One of a series of information packets, the document provides clear, specific information about the controversial subject of astrology. The packet includes six articles explaining the dozens of careful scientific tests which have concluded that there is no scientific evidence supporting astrology. The packet includes an interview with astronomer…

  8. Astronomy and astrology (United States)

    Zarka, Philippe


    Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

  9. Astrology as Cultural Astronomy (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    The practice of astrology can be traced in most if not all human societies, in most time periods. Astrology has prehistoric origins and flourishes in the modern world, where it may be understood as a form of ethnoastronomy - astronomy practiced by the people. The Western tradition, which originated in Mesopotamia and was developed in the Greek world, has been most studied by academics. However, India is also home to a tradition which has survived in a continuous lineage for 2,000 years. Complex systems of astrology also developed in China and Mesoamerica, while all other human societies appear to seek social and religious meaning in the stars.

  10. The Scientific Case against Astrology. (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan


    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  11. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie


    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  12. Astrology: Science, Art or Prophesy (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Anahit


    The subject in question is the link between humanity's two earliest disciplines - astronomy and astrology. Is it realistic to assume that the arrangement of celestial bodies, planets and stars can provide an opportunity to unequivocally predetermine the faith of the flora and fauna, of single individuals or entire nations living on planet Earth of the Solar System in the entirety of the Universe? Is it possible to ascertain whether astrology is science, art or prophesy?

  13. Galen and astrology: a Mésalliance? (United States)

    Cooper, Glen M


    The author examines the question of Galen's affinity with astrology, in view of Galen's extended astrological discussion in the De diebus decretoriis (Critical Days). The critical passages from Galen are examined, and shown to be superficial in understanding. The author performs a lexical sounding of Galen's corpus, using key terms with astrological valences drawn from the Critical Days, and assesses their absence in Galen's other works. He compares Galen's astrology with the astrology of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, and evaluates their respective strategies of scientific reasoning. Three types of inference are introduced and applied to Galen's astrology. Finally, he concludes that the empirical side of Galen's science does not depend upon astrological methods or concepts, but that these were introduced for their rhetorical effect in presenting his new medical methodology. It is suggested that continued attention to Galen's astrology has obscured the truly important empirical scientific method that Galen developed.

  14. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus]. (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià


    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  15. Studies of Astrology and Personality. (United States)

    Kelley, I.W.


    Reviews the behavioral evidence of the possible relationship between the movements of the planets and personality variables. Concludes that astrology is a science consisting primarily of false data claims and much further research is required before any supported conclusions can be reached. (Author)

  16. The Celestial Vault: The Magic of Astrology (United States)

    McGaha, J.


    Astrology is a "Geocentric System" that supports the "Astrological Principle". This principle, that human beings and their actions are influenced by the positions of celestial objects, is not objectively supported. The "planetary gods" found in the heavens provided order to help explain the chaotic events in life on earth. Is this why many people think their horoscopes are correct, with the "stars" taking credit? Do "celestial movements" foretell the future? What is the evidence for Astrology? The historical, psychological and physical foundations of astrology will be discussed.

  17. The astrological roots of mesmerism. (United States)

    Schaffer, Simon


    Franz Anton Mesmer's 1766 thesis on the influence of the planets on the human body, in which he first publicly presented his account of the harmonic forces at work in the microcosm, was substantially copied from the London physician Richard Mead's early eighteenth century tract on solar and lunar effects on the body. The relation between the two texts poses intriguing problems for the historiography of medical astrology: Mesmer's use of Mead has been taken as a sign of the Vienna physician's enlightened modernity while Mead's use of astro-meteorology has been seen as evidence of the survival of antiquated astral medicine in the eighteenth century. Two aspects of this problem are discussed. First, French critics of mesmerism in the 1780s found precedents for animal magnetism in the work of Paracelsus, Fludd and other early modern writers; in so doing, they began to develop a sophisticated history for astrology and astro-meteorology. Second, the close relations between astro-meteorology and Mead's project illustrate how the environmental medical programmes emerged. The making of a history for astrology accompanied the construction of various models of the relation between occult knowledge and its contexts in the enlightenment.

  18. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology. (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew


    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  19. Contribution of astrology in medicine -- a review. (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Prasad, P V V; Narayana, A


    Astrology is the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). Both Ayurveda and Astrology have established a way of life in India since time immemorial. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian Holy scriptures and transmitted from generation to generation. Although both Astrology and medicine were developed as a part of religion in ancient India, astrological principles related to prevention, health care and relief from illness were applied as rituals (religious ceremonies). An astrologer gives guidance for taking medicines at suitable time for the best remedy of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and used at appropriate times for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurveda are inseparable in human life. Role of the Astrology in healthy life and pathogenesis of the disease is well known to Indians. When a physician knows etiology of the disease, he attempts to treat the disease with specific medication, diet and life style and also avoiding causative factors. In a case where a physician is unable to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and to treat, the patient depends upon Astrology. Account of good and bad deeds during this life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life which orderly, when, what and how will be clearly known through Astrology. It gives guidelines about welfare not only to human being but also to whole creation and also indicates about calamities and their solutions as possible extent. Hence a concise astrological evaluation related to prevention, health care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases is being presented in this article.

  20. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century. (United States)

    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra M C


    It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine. There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period.

  1. Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Pingree


    ... scholar to the erroneous conclusion that Sasanian Iran played a crucial role in the introduction of Greek and Babylonian astronomy and astrology to India and in the development of Indian planetary theory...

  2. Horoscopes Versus Telescopes: A Focus on Astrology. (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.


    Criticizes astrology and uses student interest to help encouraging critical thinking and the scientific method. Provides some thought-provoking questions, three activities, and resource materials and a list of astronomy organizations. (YP)

  3. Inside the cosmic mind archetypal astrology and the new cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wyss, Phoebe


    Phoebe Wyss, an experienced astrologer, here examines all aspects of astrology in the light of the emerging worldview known as archetypal cosmology.She sets out by exploring the classical roots of astrology in sources of wisdom found in the ancient Egyptian mysteries. She then follows the tradition to modern times through C.G. Jung''s ideas on the nature of the psyche. She also discovers that the claims of astrology are entirely compatible with new cosmological thinking as envisioned by post-modern physics and chaos theory.In the second part of the book, she proposes that the mathematical basis of astrology and the components of astrological charts are both archetypal and cosmic in scope. She argues that the twelve astrological archetypes make up a single ‘cosmic mind', whose patterns are imprinted on all our individual minds.Finally, she exemplifies this radical approach to astrology through an interpretation of the chart of William Blake.

  4. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru. (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia


    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  5. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation. (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano


    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men.

  6. [Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library]. (United States)

    Gluch, Sibylle


    About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a

  7. Astrology Pseudoscience and a Discussion About Its Threats to Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik UYAR


    Full Text Available Astrology, a pseudoscience, is highly popular in Turkey. Astrologers, who are its practitioners, produce discourses in the scientific field at the media and at their own platforms. Furthermore, it is possible to find some instances of astrology related activities in Turkish universities. In this article, demarcation of science from pseudoscience and the pseudoscientific status of astrology were discussed in a first place. Next, threats of astrological discourse within economic, educational and medical fields and their threats to society were expressed with some examples. Instances of the astrological activities within higher education institutions, such as an astrology-based master degree thesis, the astrology certificate programs, and an astrology column in an official medical school magazine were evaluated, and it was put forward that they contributed to increase the level of threat and it was also claimed that the existence of astrological activities in the universities contradicts the main purpose and principles of the higher education. In conclusion, some regulatory actions like the implementation of the scientific literacy and demarcation problem to each level of educational curriculum, a general policy for excluding the pseudoscience from higher education institutions and a recommended health warning at the top of the astrology were suggested.

  8. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas


    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  9. Astrology in court: The Spanish Inquisition, authority, and expertise. (United States)

    Lanuza-Navarro, Tayra M C


    Astrology, its legitimacy, and the limits of its acceptable practice were debated in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. Many of the related arguments were mediated by the work of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and the responses to it. Acknowledging the complexities of the relationship between astrological ideas and Christian teachings, this paper focuses on the Catholic debates by specifically considering the decisions about astrology taken by the Spanish Inquisition. The trials of astrologers are examined with the aim of understanding the role of experts in astrology in early modern Spain. This study brings into view the specific nature of the debate on astrology in Spain, the consequences of the actions of the Inquisition and the social control it exerted. The historical events discussed comprise a particular case and also mirror the general debates about astrology taking place in early modern Europe. The experts' opinions expressed in trials and in reports about the discipline received by the Inquisition reveal two key traits of the debate: the dispute about who had the authority to decide on the legitimacy of astrology and the disagreement about what constituted natural and judicial astrological practices. These led to different opinions about what was to be done with each defendant and about what content in their books ought to be forbidden.

  10. Health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of diseases in astrology. (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Subhakta, P K J P; Narayana, A


    The whole universe is intermingling into a unit in the period of globalization. Different cultures, life-styles and sciences are co-operating with each other in this situation. World Health Organization is working towards collaborating all prevalent medical sciences for attainment of good health and family welfare for each and every individual by 2020. Astrology is a part of Indian heritage. Astrology means the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). The account of deeds of good and bad during the present life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life i.e. what, when and how the things takes place will be clearly known through Astrology. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian scriptures and the knowledge was transmitted from generation to generation. It is also a good source for health promotion, preventive, curative and other medical aspects. Brief direction related to astrological medical aspects is also available in Ayurvedic literature (Carakasamhită, Suśrutasamhhită, Aşţăngasangraha, Aşţăngahŗdaya, Sărngadharasamhită , Băvaprakăśa etc.) Some Ayurvedic practitioners, scholars and scientists realize the need of astrological knowledge related to medicine in the present time. In ancient times physician, astrologer and purŏhita (Hindu priest) simultaneously looked after the health and family welfare of individual, families and country. Astrologer guides medication and suitable time for the better cure of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and treated at appropriate time for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurvĕda are inseparable sciences of life. Hence, in this article, a concise astrological evaluation related to health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of Astrology is being presented.

  11. Interreligious transfers in the Middle Ages: the case of astrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, K.


    This article describes the discipline of astrology as an example of manifold interreligious contacts and transfers in the Middle Ages. Over against an image of the Middle Ages as being predominantly Christian and striving to violently suppress science, philosophy, and astrology, it is shown that in

  12. Nephrology and astrology--is there a link? (United States)

    Hughes, S


    Astrologers presume a link between the susceptibility of particular organs to disease and signs of the Zodiac. A simple test of the positive connection between renal disease and the sign of Libra was undertaken by studying the birth dates of consecutive nephrology in-patient admissions. No significant link was found on analysis, thus disproving the traditional astrologers' claims.

  13. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period. (United States)

    Papathanassiou, M


    Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure.

  14. Self, other, and astrology: esoteric therapy in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Perinbanayagam, R S


    HARRY STACK SULLIVAN'S argument that anxiety as a fundamental human experience is alleviated by the use of various procedures that he called "security operations" is used in this paper to examine the meaning of astrology in Sri Lanka. Astrology and the doctrine of karma provide the relevant framework in which various forms of misfortune are understood and handled. An examination of cases in Sri Lanka reveals that astrology and the doctrine of karma enable a person of that culture to create a number of structures which have a therapeutic effect.

  15. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe. (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M


    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  16. Astrology in the Era of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Michael B


    The last two decades have seen the number of known exoplanets increase from a small handful to nearly 2000 known exoplanets, thousands more planet candidates, and several upcoming missions that are expected to further increase the population of known exoplanets. Beyond the strictly scientific questions that this has led to regarding planet formation and frequency, this has also led to broader questions such as the philosophical implications of life elsewhere in the universe and the future of human civilization and space exploration. One additional realm that hasn't been adequately considered, however, is that this large increase in exoplanets would also impact claims regarding astrology. In this paper we look at the distribution of planets across the sky and along the Ecliptic, as well as the current and future implications of this planet distribution.

  17. 'Astronomy' or 'astrology': a brief history of an apparent confusion (United States)

    Losev, Alexandre


    The modern usage of the words 'astronomy' and 'astrology' is traced back to distinctions that are largely ignored in recent scholarship. Three interpretations of celestial phenomena (in a geometrical, a substantialist and a prognostic form) co-existed during the Hellenistic Period. From Plato to Isidore of Seville, the semiotic contrast is evidenced, and its later developments are sketched. The concept of astronomy is found to be rather constant and distinct from changing views about astrology.

  18. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief


    Full Text Available Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after the Renaissance, it still remains of considerable significance in countries like China and Tibet. Astrology took on a prominent medical component in the Old Babylonian Era (1900-1600 BC when diseases were first attributed to stellar bodies and associated gods. In the Neo-Babylonian Era (6th century BC the zodiac came into being: an imaginary belt across the skies (approximately 16o wide which included the pathways of the sun, moon and planets, as perceived from earth. The zodiac belt was divided into 12 equal parts (“houses” or signs, 6 above the horizon and 6 below. The signs became associated with specific months, illnesses and body parts – later with a number of other objects like planets, minerals (e.g. stones and elements of haruspiction (soothsaying, mantic, gyromancy. In this way the stellar objects moving through a zodiac “house” became associated with a multitude of happenings on earth, including illness. The macrocosm of the universe became part of the human microcosm, and by studying the stars, planets, moon, etcetera the healer could learn about the incidence, cause, progress and treatment of disease. He could even predict the sex and physiognomy of unborn children. The art of astrology and calculations involved became very complex. The horoscope introduced by the 3rd century BC (probably with Greek input produced a measure of standardisation: a person’s position within the zodiac would be determined by the date of birth, or

  19. Inter relationship of Ayurveda and Astrology. (United States)

    Dwivedi, Jaiprakash Narayan


    In the universe all the creatures are related to Adhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Acharyas of Ayurveda like Charaka, Sushruta and Kashyap have classified diseases into various categories like Agantuja, Sharirika, Manasika, Swabhavika, etc. Charaka classified diseases based on the prognosis like Sadhya, Asadhya, Mrudu and Daruna. Ayurveda also suggested Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes of Manidharana and chanting Mantras. Astrological sciences suggest 10 types of remedial measures in the treatment of diseases. This science considers that causative factors of various disorders are the Navagrahas (nine planets). The influence of the planets on various procedures like drug processing, bath taking, performing Yajna, wearing Ratna, etc. are well documented in Jyotishashastra. Drugs processed in Chandra Nakshatra acts as ambrosia and subdues Tridoshajanya Vyadhi. Medicated baths are suggested for diseases engendered due to involvement of different planet effects viz. Sarshpa for Shukra, Haridra and Daruharidra for Shani Lodhra for Ketu, Sharpunkha for Rahu, etc. In a close scrutiny it appears that Jyotishashastra Siddhanta can play crucial role in the management of chronic diseases.

  20. Reading the Stars of the Renaissance. Fritz Saxl and Astrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt Duits


    Full Text Available This article discusses Fritz Saxl’s publications on astrological images from the western Middle Ages and Renaissance, from his early study on the representation of the planets (1912, via his catalogues of astrological and mythological manuscripts (1915 and 1927 and his contributions on the depiction of the children of the planets (1919, 1923, 1927 to his booklet on the astrological ceiling in the Villa Farnesina in Rome (1934. It aims to assess the importance of Saxl’s work and to show his development from a close follower of Aby Warburg to an independent theorist, with his own method and approach and his own answer to one of the central issues Warburg had raised – how the integrate the old image of the Renaissance as the revival of classical Antiquity with the new picture of the Renaissance as the birth of the modern rational world presented by Burckhardt during the nineteenth century.

  1. Early-Years Educators' Attitudes to Science and Pseudo-Science: The Case of Astronomy and Astrology. (United States)

    Kallery, Maria


    Surveyed Greek elementary teachers' attitudes toward astrology, investigating whether they could distinguish between astronomy as the science and astrology as the pseudoscience. Teacher surveys indicated that 60 percent of respondents subscribed more or less to the astrological principles, and 59 percent viewed both astronomy and astrology as…

  2. Astrological signs and personality in Kuwaitis and Americans. (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David


    Samples of Kuwaiti (N=460) and American (N=273) undergraduates responded to six personality questionnaires to assess optimism, pessimism, suicidal ideation, ego-grasping, death anxiety, general anxiety, and obssessive-compulsiveness. Each participant was assigned to the astrological sign associated with date of birth. One-way analyses of variance yielded nonsignificant F ratios for all the seven scales in both Kuwaiti and American samples, except for anxiety scores among Americans. It was concluded that there was little support for an association between astrological sun signs and scores on the present personality scales.

  3. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology? (United States)

    Henriques, André


    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  4. Using Astrology to Teach Research Methods to Introductory Psychology Students. (United States)

    Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.


    Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…

  5. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe. (United States)

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman


    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature.

  6. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain. (United States)

    Avalos, Ana


    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  7. The Assimilation of Astrology in the Tibetan Bon Religion


    Ramble, Charles


    International audience; The sciences subsumed within the Tibetan category tsi (rtsis), "calculation," include calendrical reckoning and astrology (kartsi; dkar rtsis) and, secondly, elemental divination (naktsi; nag rtsis). The former is essentially based on the Kālacakra, a late tantra that was introduced from India in the twelfth century, and the latter on Chinese precedents. Although scholarly literature concerning the Tibetans' assimilation of these sciences is steadily growing, there has...

  8. Astrological birth signs in suicide: hypothesis or speculation? (United States)

    Salib, Emad


    Astrology is no longer regarded as a science by many, because its claims are almost impossible to test empirically in controlled laboratory conditions and it can not meet the scientific need to be reproducible. However, the majority of those who read their 'star signs' can identify aspects of their personality in what they read and it is possible that this may influence their attitudes and actions. The literature has neglected astrological signs as a possible predictor of suicide ideation. To see whether astrological birth signs are associated with suicide and the method used, data was collected from the Public Health Department in North Cheshire representing all the Cheshire Coroner's verdicts of suicide, and open verdicts, in all deceased aged 60 and above between 1989 and 2000. The observed occurrence of deaths due to natural causes, and suicide, in relation to birth signs did not differ significantly from what would be expected from chance. However, the distribution of suicide by hanging appeared significantly higher in those with a birth sign of Virgo and lowest in Sagittarius and Scorpio. The distribution of violent and non-violent suicides in relation to star signs showed higher occurences of violent death in persons born in the summer months.

  9. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire. (United States)

    Rutkin, H Darrel


    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  10. Instruments and demonstrations in the astrological curriculum: evidence from the University of Vienna, 1500-1530. (United States)

    Hayton, Darin


    Historians have used university statutes and acts to reconstruct the official astrology curriculum for students in both the arts and medical faculties, including the books studied, their order, and their relation to other texts. Statutes and acts, however, cannot offer insight into what actually happened during lectures and in the classroom: in other words, how and why astrology was taught and learned in the medieval university. This paper assumes that the astrology curriculum is better understood as the set of practices that constituted it and gave it meaning for both masters and students. It begins to reconstruct what occurred in the classroom by drawing on published and unpublished lecture notes. These offer insight into how masters presented the material as they did, and why. The paper argues three points: first, the teaching of astrology centered on demonstrations involving astrological instruments: specifically, various kinds of paper astrolabes. Second, the astrological instruction focused on conveying the pragmatics of astrology rather than esoteric, theoretical issues. Finally, astrology as it was taught in the arts curriculum was explicitly intended to provide a foundation for students who would advance to study medicine at the university.

  11. [John Flamsteed's horoscope for laying the groundwork of Greenwich astronomy and astrology]. (United States)

    Oestmann, Günther


    The paper deals with the astronomical and astrological contents of a horoscope cast by John Flamsteed in 1675 for the foundation of Greenwich Observatory. So far no analysis of its astronomical contents has been made. It can be shown that the chart has been drawn correctly, as is to be expected from a competent astronomer. For calculating the planetary positions he most likely used tables issued by Johann Hecker, a pupil of Hevelius, based on Kepler's "Tabulae Rudolphinae" in 1627. The cusps of the twelve astrological houses Flamsteed calculated trigonometrically; so he used no table of houses. Flamsteed employed a method of house division (domification) which was commonly used in the 16th and 17th century and connected with the name of Johannes Regiomontanus. Positional circles joining in the north and south points of the observer's horizon are laid through distances of 30 degrees on the celestial equator, thus giving unequal sections of the ecliptic. By consulting contemporary sources for the interpretation of the chart (Ramesey's Astrologia Restaurata, 1653) it appears that the time for laying the foundation stone was well chosen from the astrological point of view. There were precursors in this practice, e.g. the Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, who was commissioned to submit an astrological report for the foundation for the Franse Wing in the Vatican in 1543, and Tycho Brahe, who performed a solemn ceremony on the island of Hven in 1576 at the laying of the foundation stone of his observatory in an astrologically propitious moment. This leads to the question whether Flamsteed believed in astrology. Michael Hunter has already given evidence that Flamsteed was indeed well-versed with astrological techniques and supplied astrologers with data. But at the same time he expressed hostility towards astrological interpretations issued frequently by different parties during Civil War in England. In an unpublished preface for Hecker's Tables (edited by Hunter) Flamsteed

  12. With Weekly Astronomy Tips Against the Weekly Papers' Astrology Humbug (United States)

    Szécsényi-Nagy, G. A.


    The true democracy - following a long lasting monolithic political-cultural system of the so-called Peoples' Democracy -- freed the sluices in the early nineties for any absurd written idea. No really powerful newspapers or widely circulated magazines were allowed to publish any destructive astrological advice during those 40 years. Although here and there, somehow, it appeared cloaked but was unable to reach the wide public. The first signs of these unwanted changes reached our nation through the electronic media (first of all television, of course ) but very soon a whirl of everyday astrology has occupied a substantial part of almost every newspaper.This situation urges professional and amateur astronomers, astrophysicists, as well as other skeptic scientists and journalists to set their face against any ideas of pseudo-science. In our country, the most has been done by the Hungarian Astronomical Association and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society.I intend to call the attention of our colleagues from other countries and regions to these brave initiatives, and inform them on some useful steps and their first results. I also expect a vivid exchange of the opinions and strategies that can build and develop a wiser society in the over-industrialized or consuming-oriented countries

  13. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records. (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren


    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  14. Hiding in plain sight: Jung, astrology, and the psychology of the unconscious. (United States)

    Buck, Stephanie


    Astrology was a lifelong interest for C.G. Jung and an important aid in his formulation of psyche and psychic process. Archetypally configured, astrology provided Jung an objective means to a fuller understanding of the analysand's true nature and unique individuation journey. Jung credits astrology with helping to unlock the mystery of alchemy and in so doing providing the symbol language necessary for deciphering the historically remote cosmology of Gnosticism. Astrology also aided Jung's work on synchronicity. Despite astrology's worth to Jung's development of analytical psychology, its fundamental role in guiding his discoveries is all but absent from historical notice. The astrological natal chart seems rarely used clinically, and many clinicians seem unaware of its value as a dynamic diagram of the personality and the potentialities within which nature and nurture foster and/or discourage for individual growth and development over the lifespan. This paper charts Jung's interest in astrology and suggests why his great regard for it and other paranormal or occult practices remains largely neglected and unknown. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. The Church of San Miniato al Monte, Florence: Astronomical and Astrological Connections (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.


    The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.


    Genovese, Jeremy E C


    The Google Ngram Viewer shows the frequency of words in a large corpus of books over two centuries. In this study, the names of two pseudosciences, astrology and phrenology, were compared. An interesting pattern emerged. While the level of interest in astrology remained relatively stable over the course of two centuries, interest in phrenology rose rapidly in the early 1800s but then declined. Reasons for this pattern are discussed.

  17. Hebrew and Latin astrology in the twelfth century: the example of the location of pain. (United States)

    Burnett, Charles


    The formative period of Latin and Hebrew astrology occurred virtually simultaneously in both cultures. In the second quarter of the twelfth century the terminology of the subject was established and the textbooks which became authoritative were written. The responsibility for this lay almost entirely with two scholars: John of Seville for the Latins, and Abraham ibn Ezra for the Jews. It is unlikely to have been by coincidence that the same developments in astrology occurred in these two cultures. John of Seville and Abraham ibn Ezra were both brought up within the Islamic culture of Spain, and their astrology was Arabic astrology. Moreover, some scholars have thought that John's origins were Jewish, while Ibn Ezra is known to have collaborated with Latin scholars (whose names are not recorded). It cannot be a coincidence that they forged the science of astrology for their respect co-religionists at almost the same time. Yet, very little research has been done on the possible relations between the two scholars. The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore this relationship, and to illustrate it in particular by their shared doctrine concern the location of pain.

  18. How to read Simon Forman's casebooks: medicine, astrology, and gender in Elizabethan London. (United States)

    Kassel, L


    Simon Forman's astrological casebooks record thousands of medical consultations. Amidst the wealth of information in these documents, however, it is unclear to what extent Forman relied on the stars for diagnoses and therapies, or how the casebooks reflect the dymanic between Forman and his clients. This article attempts to answer these questions by reading the casebooks alongside Forman's guide to astrological physic. This approach reveals that astrology was paramount in Forman's evaluations and treatments of his patients. According to Forman, in order for him to effect a cure, he had to be trusted. It was particularly difficult to treat women because their health depended on the state of their wombs, and on their sexual activity, subjects about which women were notoriously duplicitous. The task of the astrologer was first to assess whether or not a woman was sexually active, and only then could he make a judgement about her disease. At the same time, in demonstrating an ability to discern whether or not she was being honest about her sexual activities, Forman won her confidence. By accounting for the role of astrology and the dynamics between the patient and the physician, this article provides the framework within which to read one of the most comprehensive records of medical practices in early modern England.

  19. Cosmic Thing: Astrology, Space Science, and Personal Cartography in Robert Rauschenberg's Autobiography (United States)

    Carey, C. L.


    The following paper undertakes an iconographic analysis of Robert Rauschenberg's large scale print, Autobiography (1967). The artist's interest in astronomy and astrology, visual metaphors aligning the body with the cosmos, and the cartographic representation of self are discussed. Autobiography is placed in cultural and historical context with other works by the artist, elaborated as a personal narrative-an alternative to traditional self portraiture.

  20. Criticism and Study of the Astrology of the Eckankar Based on the Teachings of Islam (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Abdolreza; Shamsaie, Maryam; Kakaei, Hashem


    The subject of astrology in the School of Eckankar has two main bases of Karma and reincarnation. Karma or the very law of action and reaction can be called the moral basis of the Eckankar. The totality of this law is accepted by the reason and tradition. But yet what casts doubt and therefore a serious damage to this law would be a tight…

  1. [Pietro d'Abano and the astrological and scientific image in Padova during the XIV century: from Giotto to Carraresi]. (United States)

    Mariani Canova, Giordana


    The paper intends to prove the incidence that scientific doctrines, mostly Pietro d'Abano's astrological and medical studies, had on Giotto's painting at the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padova and his lost astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione. It is emphasized how in no other painting of his, Giotto displayed as much intellectualism as in the Cappella degli Scrovegni. There we can note the importance of the physical representation of the sky and stars and figures' particular physiognomic characterization referable to Pietro d'Abano's theories presented in his astrological treatises and in his Compilation Phisionomiae. Even the ecceptional botanical realism displayed in the representation of plants can be probably referred to Pietro d'Abano's scientific teaching. An hypotetical reconstruction, according to Ptolomeus' theories and Pietro d'Abano's physiognomic, of Giotto's astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione is also proposed.

  2. The political uses of astrology: predicting the illness and death of princes, kings and popes in the Italian Renaissance. (United States)

    Azzolini, Monica


    This paper examines the production and circulation of astrological prognostications regarding the illness and death of kings, princes, and popes in the Italian Renaissance (ca. 1470-1630). The distribution and consumption of this type of astrological information was often closely linked to the specific political situation in which they were produced. Depending on the astrological techniques used (prorogations, interrogations, or annual revolutions), and the media in which they appeared (private letters or printed prognostica) these prognostications fulfilled different functions in the information economy of Renaissance Italy. Some were used to legitimise the rule of a political leader, others to do just the opposite. Astrological prorogations and interrogations were often used to plan military and political strategies in case of the illness or death of a political leader, while astrological prognostications were generally written to promote certain political leaders while undermining others. While certainly often partisan to this game, astrologers, for their part, worked within a very well established tradition that gave authority to their forecasts. This paper argues that, as indicators of deeper political tensions otherwise not always explicitly manifest, these prognostications are privileged sources of information providing a better understanding of the political history of the period.

  3. 'Magic coins' and 'magic squares': the discovery of astrological sigils in the Oldenburg Letters. (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie


    Enclosed in a 1673 letter to Henry Oldenburg were two drawings of a series of astrological sigils, coins and amulets from the collection of Strasbourg mathematician Julius Reichelt (1637-1719). As portrayals of particular medieval and early modern sigils are relatively rare, this paper will analyse the role of these medals in medieval and early modern medicine, the logic behind their perceived efficacy, and their significance in early modern astrological and cabalistic practice. I shall also demonstrate their change in status in the late seventeenth century from potent magical healing amulets tied to the mysteries of the heavens to objects kept in a cabinet for curiosos. The evolving perception of the purpose of sigils mirrored changing early modem beliefs in the occult influences of the heavens upon the body and the natural world, as well as the growing interests among virtuosi in collecting, numismatics and antiquities.

  4. On the Intercourse Between Indian and the Arabic/Persian Astrologies (United States)

    Beinorius, Audrius


    The history of astrology offers to its students a primary challenge: the complexity of its career in transmission from one cultural area to another and in transformation of its doctrines and methods to fit the interests and cultural circumstances of its eager recipients. The translation movement between the Indian and Arabic/Persian cultures is still rarely studied. In this paper I am discussing the relations (intellectual voyages) between Indian and Arabic/Persian astrological traditions from historical and cultural perspectives. By using the various examples from Sanskrit, Pahlavī, Arabic and Persian sources I try to display the intimate scientific exchanges, by emphasizing the field of astrology and divination, between two geographically close, but in a religious and philosophical sense, very different cultural areas. The conclusion is made that the influence of Hindu astro-sciences on Islamic culture was comparatively greater but the impact of the Islamic sciences on Hindus was no less significant. On both sides a fruitful process of enculturation and integration of technical astral concepts and applied methods took place.

  5. Testing multiple statistical hypotheses resulted in spurious associations: a study of astrological signs and health. (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Hux, Janet E


    To illustrate how multiple hypotheses testing can produce associations with no clinical plausibility. We conducted a study of all 10,674,945 residents of Ontario aged between 18 and 100 years in 2000. Residents were randomly assigned to equally sized derivation and validation cohorts and classified according to their astrological sign. Using the derivation cohort, we searched through 223 of the most common diagnoses for hospitalization until we identified two for which subjects born under one astrological sign had a significantly higher probability of hospitalization compared to subjects born under the remaining signs combined (Pprobability of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (P=0.0447), while Sagittarians had a higher probability of humerus fracture (P=0.0123) compared to all other signs combined. After adjusting the significance level to account for multiple comparisons, none of the identified associations remained significant in either the derivation or validation cohort. Our analyses illustrate how the testing of multiple, non-prespecified hypotheses increases the likelihood of detecting implausible associations. Our findings have important implications for the analysis and interpretation of clinical studies.

  6. Reading the human body : Physiognomics and Astrology in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Hellenistic-Early Roman Period Judaism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovic, Mladen


    This study deals with two manuscripts from the Dead Sea Scrolls whose contents are physiognomic and physiognomic-astrological. These manuscripts contain material that was unknown to have existed in this form in Hellenistic-Early Roman period Judaism (ca. third century CE-first century ?CE) before

  7. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.


    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  8. Variations in Vietnamese marriages, births and infant deaths by months of the Julian calendar and years of the Vietnamese and Chinese astrological calendars. (United States)

    Nguyen, M T; Swenson, I


    The timing of births and marriages in Vietnam appears to have some statistically significant relationships with the signs of the Chinese and Vietnamese astrological calendars. Years considered to be good years have significantly more births and marriages than years that are not considered as desirable. Births and marriages also have some significant variations with seasons of the year. Infant deaths do not appear to have any significant relationships with the astrological signs although infant mortality has some significant relationships with seasons of the year. The findings indicate that there is some purposeful planning for marriages and births to coincide with optimal times defined in the astrological calendars.

  9. The stars and the state: Astronomy, astrology, and the politics of natural knowledge in early medieval Japan (United States)

    Buhrman, Kristina Mairi

    This dissertation examines the social factors involved in the practices of observational astrology (Ch. tianwen, Jp. tenmon ) and calendrical astronomy (Ch. lifa, Jp. rekihō) at the Japanese court. The production and monopolization of astrological and astronomical knowledge had, from the time of the Han Dynasty in China, been part of the state bureaucracy and one of the signs of legitimate rule. In the seventh century, Japan too had imported and implemented these state sciences of the Chinese-style imperium. However, by the twelfth century, while state control of astronomical knowledge continued to operate at a surface level, within the Japanese court bureaucracy dissent and debate reigned. A number of lineages and factions cooperated or competed over astronomical and astrological facts, which resulted in a situation where there was no unified "truth" about the stars accepted by the majority of elite members of the court. The political fragmentation and factionalism that characterized the early medieval Japanese state was also to be found in knowledge about the natural world circulating at court. The major reason for this fragmentation of knowledge was the diversity of the population that produced this same knowledge, a population that did not share either a common identity or definition of practice. Astrological and astronomical knowledge was no longer produced solely by the technical bureaucrats whose offices had been established in the eighth-century Chinese-style law codes (Jp. ritsuryō)—instead, these officials contested with other legitimate but non-official purveyors of natural knowledge: Buddhist monks and court scholars and mathematicians prominent among them. Furthermore, the statements of fact produced by all three of these factions were subject to critique and revision by members of the top echelon of the court bureaucracy, the elite nobility. Clearly there were no independent professional fields of astrology or astronomy in late classical or early

  10. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"]. (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas


    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are

  11. Magia, astrología y ocultismo entre los mineros del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seguramente pocos temas resultarán tan gratos al homenajeado como el de la extensión de las creencias mágicas, del uso de la astrología y del ocultismo en la sociedad española de la Edad Moderna. No sólo ha tratado el problema en dos de sus obras: La Sociedad Española del Renacimiento y, de forma más extensa, en el volumen IV de su Historia de España en la Edad Moderna \\ sino que además es uno de los argumentos a los que en sus clases concede una atención preferente.

  12. Magia, astrología y ocultismo entre los mineros del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seguramente pocos temas resultarán tan gratos al homenajeado como el de la extensión de las creencias mágicas, del uso de la astrología y del ocultismo en la sociedad española de la Edad Moderna. No sólo ha tratado el problema en dos de sus obras: La Sociedad Española del Renacimiento y, de forma más extensa, en el volumen IV de su Historia de España en la Edad Moderna sino que además es uno de los argumentos a los que en sus clases concede una atención preferente.

  13. [The role of ancient astrology in preparation for a secular natural science and medicine]. (United States)

    Geller, Markham J


    The Persian period in the Near East (from c. 500 BCE) represented the first example of globalisation, during which advanced cultural centres from Egypt to Afghanistan were united under a single rule and common language. Paul Unschuld has drawn attention to a scientific revolution in the late first millennium BC, extending from Greece to China, from Thales to Confucius, which saw natural law replace the divine law in scientific thinking. This paper argues for new advances in astronomy as the specific motor which motivated changes in scientific thinking and influenced other branches of science, including medicine, just as the new science of astrology, which replaced divination, fundamentally changed the nature of medical prognoses. The secularisation of science was not universally accepted among ancient scholars, and the irony is that somewhat similar reservations accompanied the reception of modern quantum physics.

  14. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO's, and More: Tackling Astronomical Pseudo-science (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.


    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, these days popular astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism and intelligent design (and their denial of the age of the universe), astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the ``face'' on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We discuss some of the recent surveys of belief in pseudo-science and some ways to respond to questions about these topics. A separate resource guide to help answer questions about astronomical pseudoscience is also included in this volume.

  15. The Palazzo della Ragione in Padua: Representation and Communication of Art, Architecture, and Astrology of a Civic Monument (United States)

    Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.


    Eight centuries of the history of art and of Padua's scientific and technological culture deposited on the stones and frescoes of its Palace of Law ("Palazzo della Ragione") make this great work of urban architecture a part of the city's collective identity. This "palimpsest", legible only to a restricted circle of specialists, should be accessible to a vaster public interested in understanding this object symbol of local culture. The project planned for interactive exploration on the web is a series of digital models, employing tomographic-endoscopic visualizations and, in future, multi-resolution images. The various models devised allow the visitor to superimpose the Palace's current conditions on the various transformations undergone over the centuries. Similarly, comparisons can be made between the astrological fresco cycle with maps of the heavens, cosmological hypotheses, ancient and contemporary astrological treatises, and the related exchange of knowledge between the Orient and the Occident.

  16. When the Chinese met the West: A Review of the Dissemination and Influence of Indian, Arabic and European Astronomy and Astrology in the Imperial China (United States)

    Shi, Yunli


    In traditional Chinese ideology, the tianwen (Celestial Patterns) and lifa (Calendar) are important matters in the legitimization and maintenance of a regime. From very early times, astrology and astronomy became a crucial element in statecraft and establishments were always installed in the government to take care of these matters, which formed a tradition very scrupulously observed and documented by every Chinese dynasty without substantial interruption in thousands of years. A special system consisting of astrology and astronomy was developed and kept on developing on its own track. Such a long and well established tradition did not prevent China from receiving, though sometimes with reluctance and selection, arts and knowledge in astronomy and astrology from outside that might supplement and enhance the indigenous ones. This talk will give a survey on the history of the Chinese reception of astronomical and astrological knowledge from ``the West'', namely, India in the 7th to 10th centuries, Arabic area in the 13th to 15th centuries and Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries. Except tracing down the cultural impacts of the new knowledge from outside, I will concentrate on how the new knowledge was appropriated by Chinese governments, as well as by Chinese astronomers and astrologers.

  17. Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing "hoax" (United States)

    Plait, Philip C.


    Advance praise for Philip Plait s Bad Astronomy "Bad Astronomy is just plain good! Philip Plait clears up every misconception on astronomy and space you never knew you suffered from." --Stephen Maran, Author of Astronomy for Dummies and editor of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia "Thank the cosmos for the bundle of star stuff named Philip Plait, who is the world s leading consumer advocate for quality science in space and on Earth. This important contribution to science will rest firmly on my reference library shelf, ready for easy access the next time an astrologer calls." --Dr. Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist for Scientific American, and author of The Borderlands of Science "Philip Plait has given us a readable, erudite, informative, useful, and entertaining book. Bad Astronomy is Good Science. Very good science..." --James "The Amazing" Randi, President, James Randi Educational Foundation, and author of An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural "Bad Astronomy is a fun read. Plait is wonderfully witty and educational as he debunks the myths, legends, and 'conspiracies that abound in our society. 'The Truth Is Out There' and it's in this book. I loved it!" --Mike Mullane, Space Shuttle astronaut and author of Do Your Ears Pop in Space?

  18. Science versus the stars: a double-blind test of the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and computer-generated astrological natal charts. (United States)

    Wyman, Alyssa Jayne; Vyse, Stuart


    The authors asked 52 college students (38 women, 14 men, M age = 19.3 years, SD = 1.3 years) to identify their personality summaries by using a computer-generated astrological natal chart when presented with 1 true summary and 1 bogus one. Similarly, the authors asked participants to identify their true personality profile from real and bogus summaries that the authors derived from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae, 1985). Participants identified their real NEO-FFI profiles at a greater-than-chance level but were unable to identify their real astrological summaries. The authors observed a P. T. Barnum effect in the accuracy ratings of both psychological and astrological measures but did not find differences between the odd-numbered (i.e., favorable) signs and the even-numbered (i.e., unfavorable) signs.

  19. Astrología : la creencia en la unión del ser humano y el cosmos


    Martín Castejón, Pedro Juan


    La presente tesis está realizada en dos partes claramente diferenciadas. En la primera de ellas, desde la visión de la antropología de las creencias, se hace una recopilación y análisis de las creencias mágicas en general, particularizando en la historia, tradición y fundamentos de la creencia en la astrología. Como consecuencia de este trabajo y de las aportaciones realizadas por los entrevistados y grupos de discusión, se plantearon las hipótesis y las preguntas de investigación que nos ...

  20. An Application of the Cosmologic Concepts and Astronomical Symbols in the Ancient Medical Science and Astrology Systems (United States)

    Pikichyan, H. V.


    Employing the cosmologic concepts and astronomical symbols, the features of the ancient subjective approach of the achievement or perception of the knowledge and its systematic delivery ways are presented. In particular, the ancient systems of the natural medical science and the art of astrology are discussed, whereas the relations of the five cosmological elements, three dynamical agents, nine luminaries and twelve zodiac signs are applied. It is pointed out some misunderstandings encountered in the contemporary interpretation on the evaluation of ancient systems of the knowledge.

  1. Métodos para determinar las casas del horóscopo en la astrología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casulleras, Josep


    Full Text Available This paper revises the different methods of computation devised by Medieval Arabic astronomers and mathematicians for the astrological practice of the division of houses. Starting from a classification of these methods established by J.D. North (1986 and extended by E.S. Kennedy (1996, I summarize the available information contained in previous studies and present new data emerging from the analysis of more recently explored sources, emphasizing certain features of a Western astrological tradition.

    Este trabajo repasa los distintos métodos de cálculo que los astrónomos y matemáticos árabes medievales desarrollaron para ser aplicados a la práctica astrológica de la división de casas. Partiendo de una clasificación de estos métodos establecida por J.D. North (1986 y ampliada por E.S. Kennedy (1996, se recoge la información que se halla en estudios anteriores y se presentan nuevos datos como resultado del análisis de fuentes exploradas más recientemente, destacando ciertos elementos pertenecientes a una tradición astrológica occcidental.

  2. Cosmografía y astrología en Manila: una red intelectual en el mundo colonial ibérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Ávalos Flores


    Full Text Available The following article will aim at reconstructing an intellectual network of people interested in both astrology and cosmography in seventeenth-century New Spain. This study will trace a particular means of transmission and dissemination of knowledge, namely the exchange of books on astrology, in order to identify a network of astrologers and cosmographers who shared a similar educational background and who had similar motivations to get interested in the so-called occult sciences. By doing so, this research will reflect on the problem of disciplinary boundaries during the early modern-period, and on the question of transmission of knowledge in the Iberian World.//El presente artículo tiene como objeto de estudio dos campos del conocimiento que estuvieron estrechamente relacionados durante el período moderno: la astrología y la cosmografía. Al estudiar algunos casos inquisitoriales contra ciertos cosmógrafos en Filipinas, acusados de practicar astrología juidiciaria, pretende reconstruir una red intelectual de estudiosos que compartían una tradición educativa y perseguían intereses profesionales similares. En su intento por rastrear esta microcomunidad intelectual, el presente estudio subraya la importancia de la transmisión y circulación del conocimiento, tanto a un nivel abstracto como material, no sólo entre el reino español y sus colonias en el Nuevo Mundo, sino también al interior de las colonias mismas.

  3. The certitude of astrology: The scientific methodology of Al-Qabīsī and Abū Ma'shar. (United States)

    Burnett, Charles


    Abū Ma'shar (787-886) and al-Qābīsī (mid-10th century) were active astrologers and defenders of the scientific character of their discipline. They wrote works on criticisms brought forward against the discipline and challenged practitioners whom they considered as detrimental for the esteem and future fate of their science. Nevertheless, both writers can be seen as heirs to a single tradition of thought, which took its origins in Ptolemy's Tetrabiblios and developed largely independently of the religious philosophical beliefs of a specific community. The arguments developed for proving the scientific value of astrology are interesting in their own right, and merit further study not only by historians of science but also by historians of philosophy.

  4. Astrólogos y astrología al servicio de la monarquía navarra durante la Baja Edad Media (1350-1446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Larráyoz, Fernando


    Full Text Available This article provides a general view on astrologers who served at the courts of Carlos II, Carlos III and Blanca I of Navarre. This was a position that combined the foretelling of future events with the medical practice of the moment. Despite the prestige that astrologers seem to achieve, this position was never held long term except in some concrete cases.

    El artículo presenta una visión general de los astrólogos que sirvieron en la corte de Carlos II, Carlos III y Blanca I de Navarra. Un cargo cortesano que unía la adivinación de hechos futuros con la práctica médica del momento. Pese al prestigio que parecen alcanzar, no resulta una ocupación con cierta continuidad, salvo en casos muy concretos.

  5. The Altdorf mathematics and physics teacher Abdias Trew (1597-1669): astronomer, astrologer, calendar maker and theologician. (German Title: Der Altdorfer Mathematik- und Physikdozent Abdias Trew (1597-1669): Astronom, Astrologe, Kalendermacher und Theologe) (United States)

    Gaab, Hans

    Although Abdias Trew (1597-1669) had studied theology, he obtained the chair of mathematics at Altdorf University, and in 1650, the chair of physics was added. In 1654, in addition, he became the ast official calendar maker of the city of Nuremberg. He is kept in memory as the last important protestant astrologer who tried to provide scientific foundations for this field. In this context, his adherence to the Lutheran confession played a role. Although he aimed at integrating new insights, he adhered to his end to Aristotelian physics, since it served his Wittenberg professors since his student days as a foundation of Lutheran dogmatics. After an extensive biography, separate chapters deal with Trew's works in mathematics, geography, optics, mechanics and musical theory, his writings in astronomy, especially those dealing with comets, as well as his “reformation astrology” in connection with the opinions of Melanchthon, Kepler and others. Trew also took part in the discussions about the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, which was going on during the whole 17th century. After short biographical sketches of some of his contemporaries, the book closes with an extensive bibliography of Trew's writings, manuscripts and letters.

  6. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira


    ... almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism...

  7. From medical astrology to medical astronomy: sol-lunar and planetary theories of disease in British medicine, c. 1700-1850. (United States)

    Harrison, M


    After 1700, astrology lost the respect it once commanded in medical circles. But the belief that the heavens influenced bodily health persisted - even in learned medicine - until well into the nineteenth century. The continuing vitality of these ideas owed much to the new empirical and mechanical outlook of their proponents. Taking their cue from the work of Robert Boyle and Richard Mead, a number of British practitioners amassed statistical evidence which purported to prove the influence of the Moon upon fevers and other diseases. Such ideas flourished in the colonies and in the medical services of the armed forces, but their exponents were not marginal men. Some, like James Lind, were widely respected and drew support for their views from such influential figures as Erasmus Darwin.

  8. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College. (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice


    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.

  9. Understanding the function of ancient Chinese calendar from The Book of History: Yao's Story - a discussion with the author of the truth of astronomy and astrology in ancient China. (United States)

    Xuan, Huancan

    From his thorough study of The Book of History: Yao's Story, the author of The Truth of Astronomy and Astrology in Ancient China got his opinion that starting from the Yao's era (around 2200 B.C.) the ancient Chinese calendar was no longer made for farming, but was made "to arrange the governors' important political agenda". The follwing essay studies this question from several different points of view.

  10. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO'S, and More: A Guide for Those Involved with IYA on Tackling Pseudo-science (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Bobrowsky, M.; Thaller, M.; Plait, P.


    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism, intelligent design, astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the "face" on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We cover information, techniques, resources, and activities for responding sensitively to such claims and for explaining the nature of science. Whether you do programs in a formal classroom, a community setting, a museum, or on the radio, you will need this kind of arsenal of critical-thinking responses for these topics when you face the public. Attendees will receive a resource guide for responding to pseudo-science claims. One of the frequently heard attacks on science deals with "alternatives to evolution" (intelligent design and various forms of creationism). While some think this is a matter with which only biologists need to be concerned, some of the same arguments used against biological evolution are invoked to argue against our understanding of the age of the earth and the universe. We will provide background information on and responses to these ideas, particularly as they concern attacks on cosmology and cosmic evolution. We will also discuss how such questions will give IYA presenters an opportunity to engage the public in discussions about the scientific method and worldview. We will see that some of the agendas and issues we face are not that different from what Galileo faced 400 years ago.

  11. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira


    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  12. Psychic Powers, Astrology & Creationism in the Classroom? (United States)

    Eve, Raymond A.; Dunn, Dana


    Examined is the extent to which teachers actually hold pseudoscientific beliefs. Described are the study design, sources of pseudoscientific belief, and correlates with various types of pseudoscientific beliefs. Results indicate that many high school biology and life science teachers endorse these beliefs. Implications of this study are discussed.…

  13. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs. (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.


    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  14. La Urŷūza de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl y su comentario por Ibn Qunfuḏ: astrología e historia en el Magrib en los siglos XI y XIV (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsó, Julio


    Full Text Available A quick revision of the available information on the life and works of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl (fl. Tunis ca. 996-1048 and an analysis of the contents of his Urjūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm which are compared to those of his better known Kitāb al- Barī‘ fī aḥkām al-nujūm. The conclusion is that both works are independent and that the Urjūza is not a summary of the Barī‘. The paper continues with biobibliographical data of the historian, mathematician and astrologer Ibn Qunfudh al-Qusanṭīnī (1339-1407, who is the author of a commentary of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s Urjūza dedicated to Abū Bakr b. Abī Mujāhid Gazī Ibn al-Kās, vizier of the Merinid sultans Abū Fāris (1366-1372 and Abū Zayyān (1372-1374. The work was probably written during the latter’s brief reign and before 1375, the date in which the dedicatee was exiled to Majorca. The work continues with an analysis of the contents of the commentary, the sources quoted, the astrological techniques used both by Ibn Qunfudh and by Ibn Abī l-Rijāl, and the use by the commentator of a set of astronomical tables derived from the zīj of Ibn Isḥāq. We find, finally, a detailed commentary of the horoscopes contained in Ibn Qunfudh’s work which includes one corresponding to the vernal equinox of the year 571 AD, in which there was a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter which announced the arrival of Islam. There are eleven more horoscopes (two of them published previously which constitute an astrological history of Merinid Morocco between 1348 and 1366. Concerning the nine horoscopes analysed here, in six of them it has been possible to identify the subject or the event motivating the prediction, while three remain unidentified.

    Tras una rápida revisión de los escasos datos conocidos sobre la vida y la obra de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl (fl. Túnez c. 996-1048, se analiza el contenido de su Urŷūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm compar


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Pingree


      [...]there are numerous passages in other texts of the Sasanian period, and especially in the apologetic literature of the ninth century1, which give us some inkling of what those works were like...

  16. Astrology and Astronomy:From Conjunction to Opposition (United States)

    Kunth, D.


    A theory is not some hunch, or half-baked idea that you come up with while taking a shower, or being under the influence of something or other. A theory, as scientists understand the meaning of the word, is a scientifically tested principle or body of principles that incorporates and explains a significant body of evidence.

  17. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century]. (United States)

    Kugener, Henri


    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  18. Kepler's cosmological synthesis astrology, mechanism and the soul

    CERN Document Server

    Boner, Patrick J


    Spanning the course of his career, this book brings new light to Kepler's vitalistic views and their central place in his world picture. It challenges our view of Kepler as a nascent mechanical philosopher who fell back on an older form of physics.

  19. Astrology in Introductory Astronomy Courses for Nonscience Specialists (United States)

    Zeilik, Michael, II


    Discusses the use of a horoscope-casting laboratory exercise in the astronomy course. Indicates that students can fulfill three objectives: (1) summarize the planetary motions in the geometric universe, (2) be familiar with sidereal and solar time, and (3) be acquainted with the uses ephemerides. (CC)

  20. [On the astrology and computation in the 12th century: new unpublished manuscripts ]. (United States)

    Caiazzo, Irene


    This article examines three so far unknown lemmatic commentaries on computus and on astrolabe topics, which are to be found in MS Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. math. 4 degrees 33 (second half of the twelfth-century). The commentaries are on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus, on the 'De mensura astrolabii' by Hermann of Reichenau, and on the 'De utilitatibus astrolabii', which is sometimes attributed to Gerbert of Aurillac. No commentaries on the respective treatises have previously been identified as such. The commentaries of the Stuttgart manuscript are of special interest in that they allow us to understand how a twelfth-century scholar read works on computus and the astrolabe, namely works that date back to the eleventh century. Their author remains anonymous, but in all probability he wrote his commentary on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus either in 1143 or in 1150. An appendix to the article includes transcriptions of the introductory texts on the computus and on the astrolabe as well as the beginnings of the commentaries.

  1. Fission track astrology of three Apollo 14 gas-rich breccias (United States)

    Graf, H.; Shirck, J.; Sun, S.; Walker, R.


    The three Apollo 14 breccias 14301, 14313, and 14318 all show fission xenon due to the decay of Pu-244. To investigate possible in situ production of the fission gas, an analysis was made of the U-distribution in these three breccias. The major amount of the U lies in glass clasts and in matrix material and no more than 25% occurs in distinct high-U minerals. The U-distribution of each breccia is discussed in detail. Whitlockite grains in breccias 14301 and 14318 found with the U-mapping were etched and analyzed for fission tracks. The excess track densities are much smaller than indicated by the Xe-excess. Because of a preirradiation history documented by very high track densities in feldspar grains, however, it is impossible to attribute the excess tracks to the decay of Pu-244. A modified track method has been developed for measuring average U-concentrations in samples containing a heterogeneous distribution of U in the form of small high-U minerals. The method is briefly discussed, and results for the rocks 14301, 14313, 14318, 68815, 15595, and the soil 64421 are given.

  2. The Context of Demarcation in Nature of Science Teaching: The Case of Astrology (United States)

    Turgut, Halil


    The aim of developing students' understanding of the nature of science [NOS] has been considered an important aspect of science education. However, the results of previous research indicate that students of various ages and even teachers possess both inaccurate and inappropriate views of the NOS. Such a failure has been explained by the view that…

  3. [Paracelsianism, astrology and medical ethics in the polemical writings of Tommaso Bovio (1521-1609)]. (United States)

    Bondio, Mariacarla Gadebusch


    Tommaso Bovio was a representative of North Italian non-academic medicine in the early modern period. His "dialogues", published in the second half of the 16th century, were written in the Italian vernacular and enjoyed a certain popularity also in Germany. Although Bovio used to exaggerate for rhetorical effect, his portrayal of patients, illness and treatments provides interesting insights into everyday urban life in his time. Sympathising with Paracelsus, Bovio propagated an image of empirics as humanitarians and fought for the recognition of his own practical knowledge and skills. Bovio was a most original figure in the medicine of the period of counter reformation. His writings exemplify the lively debate between the learned medical tradition and unorthodox reform.

  4. Dealing with Astrology, UFOs, and Faces on Other Worlds: A Guide to Addressing Astronomical Pseudoscience in the Classroom (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    Increasing media and student interest in pseudoscience topics such as alien abductions, crop circles, and creationism is forcing astronomy instructors to confront questions for which their graduate training has not prepared them. Yet students have a right to hear a more considered response to their questions in these areas than mere scoffing from those who teach them science. To assist instructors who want to help their students develop better critical thinking skills related to astronomical pseudoscience, a range of ideas and resources is listed in this guide.

  5. Atomic-scale investigations of grain boundary segregation in astrology with a three dimensional atom-probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blavette, D. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut Universitaire de France (France); Letellier, L. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Duval, P. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Guttmann, M. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)


    Both conventional and 3D atom-probes were applied to the investigation of grain-boundary (GB) segregation phenomena in two-phase nickel base superalloys Astroloy. 3D images as provided by the tomographic atom-probe reveal the presence of a strong segregation of both boron and molybdenum at grain-boundaries. Slight carbon enrichment is also detected. Considerable chromium segregation is exhibited at {gamma}`-{gamma}` grain-boundaries. All these segregants are distributed in a continuous manner along the boundary over a width close to 0.5 nm. Experiments show that segregation occurs during cooling and more probably between 1000 C and 800 C. Boron and molybdenum GB enrichments are interpreted as due to an equilibrium type-segregation while chromium segregation is thought to be induced by {gamma}` precipitation at GB`s and stabilised by the presence of boron. No segregation of zirconium is detected. (orig.)

  6. Blood group astrology - why the AB0 blood groups do not determine the human character nor the appropriate nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gajšek Grbec


    Full Text Available AB0 blood groups are inherited markers on blood cells. Since their discovery, there were numerous attempts to be attributed a wide variety of biological functions they don’t possess. The purpose of this article is primarily to inform the professional, as well as lay public that the theory of healthy nutrition based on AB0 blood groups represents nothing more than a pseudoscience used for mass exploitation and commercial purposes. ABO blood groups were attributed such characteristics by naturopathic doctor Peter D'Adamo, who on the basis of false methods and erroneous assumptions wrote a bestseller "Eat Right For Your Type". It claims that the blood groupsAB0 represent a "key to the functioning of our immune system" and that the blood group based diet represents a “key to the health of every man”. As in the case of nutrition based on the ABO blood groups, the scientific knowledge in the field of immunohematology is misused to mislead the lay public, we are obliged to explain the real meaning and the role of blood groups in health and disease, the misuse of blood groups in relation to healthy nutrition.

  7. Augustine between 'Manichaean' and 'Catholic' Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    , he included Manichaean astronomical and astrological teachings in this category of inessentials, and declined to engage Augustine on the subject. For Augustine's own passion for astrology and astronomy at the time, of.

  8. Preparing Capable Decision Makers for an Uncertain Future within Underdeveloped, Degraded and Denied Operational Environments (United States)


    fluen ce of t he Starres , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTROLOGY . Con seq uences from th e Ligh t of the Starres . Ou t of...Starres, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTROLOGY . Consequences from the Light of the Starres. Out of this, and the Motion of the

  9. Bibliography on Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) Technology (United States)


    Carbon Astrology Subjected to Hot Isostatic Pressing Jablonski, D. A. Mater Sci Eng 48 (2), 189-98, 1981 ( AD-D121 615) Key Words: Udimet 700...turbine components, heat treatment, microstructure tensile properties, fractography, porosity 73. Manufacture of Low Carbon Astrology Turbine Disk...Pyromet CTX- 1, Pyromet 3 i, tensile properties, creep rupture, microstructure 119 15. Manufacture of Low Carbon Astrology Turbine Disk Shapes by Hot

  10. Star quality. (United States)

    Sewell, Rupert

    Many people will read their horoscopes as they look at the year ahead. But astrologists claim horoscopes can also give clues about illnesses to which you might be predisposed. They believe: Astrology can determine potential health problems as well as personality types. An accurate horoscope depends on good information about birth date and time. Anatomical regions correspond to astrological signs. Astrological signs are grouped into four function types.

  11. Jean-Pierre Luminet: Renaissance Communicator (United States)

    Pullen, L.; Russo, P.


    As science communicators dealing with astronomy we often find a strong interest amongst the public in astrology - how the stars and planets directly affect our individual lives. Nowadays astrology is at odds with the scientific nature of astronomy, but this has not always been the case. Presented here is a background to astrology, to give a deeper understanding of where it has come from and why it has such an enduring place in all forms of global media.

  12. Getting Ugly: Exploring Network Development in The Ugly American (United States)


    calculus. In Sarkhan, as in many Asian countries, this may include advice generated through the practice of astrology , palm-reading, and similar...those fools at the State Department had briefed him properly, he would have known all about palmistry and astrology before he even came here...days in the study of Sarkhanese history and the dossiers of Sarkhanese leaders, Hillandale observed that astrology and palmistry were held in

  13. Astrologie alchemiche: Ermetismi in transizione e culture occidentali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Albrile


    Full Text Available Alchemy is the “sacred art” of the transmutation of metals or human beings, and often these two tendencies are expressed together in an allegorical mode infused with an astrological imager reflecting their mystical nature. The astrology is bound to alchemy in the search for the most favorable moment for commencing an enterprise (catarchic astrology or in the form of the interrogational method, in which the horoscope of the precise moment at which a query is made to the astrologer is interpreted to provide an answer. Finally, the article illustrates these themes in some ancient manuscripts from Turin’s National University Library.

  14. The significance of dreams and the star in Matthew's infancy narrative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    men were widespread in antiquity. A star allegedly guided Aeneas to the place where Rome was to be found (Virgil's Aeneid 2.694) (Keener 1999:99). Romans respected astrological confirmation of its rulers and emperors feared astrological predictions of their downfall (Oster 1982:220). Magi reportedly predicted the fall of ...

  15. Burma: Assessing Options for U.S. Engagement (United States)


    time chosen by Burmese astrologers as the most propitious for the country’s new beginning.69 The AFPFL took power with U Nu accepting duties as the...kings”) in 2007, the junta built the new capital on the advice of astrologers and out of fear of attack (from the West) given Rangoon’s

  16. Filosofické základy hlubinné astrologie


    Stehlíková, Miroslava


    The scope of this thesis is a philosophical ground of the astrology and its presence in hermetic treatises that became actual in the period of Renaissance when arose with the interest in Platonism and when the universal notion of the world and medicine became on demand. The thesis brings a scope of origination of the astrology put to the historical and philosophical perspective.

  17. Constructive Decision Theory (United States)


    quantitative issues like price/earnings ratio to be relevant to the future value of Google, while the other considers astrological tables relevant to...Google’s future value. The DM who uses astrology might not understand price/earnings ratios (the no- tion is simply not in his vocabulary) and, similarly

  18. Heuristics, Anecdote and Applying Art: Why War Theorists are Kidding Themselves (United States)


    makes science a more useful methodology than, say, astrology , phrenology, palmistry, or even some of the statistical extrapolations used in...describes the emergence of astronomy out of pseudoscientific astrology (itself an outgrowth of a far more empirical—if not precisely scientific—primitive

  19. I--N-ov-ember

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    destroying the claims of astrology with the piece-de-resistance being Chapter 29, aptly entitled Time to shun astrology. (The re- viewer would seriously like to suggest to the. UGC that this portion of the book be made. compUlsory course material in all universi- ties.) The final chapter, Chapter 33 conclu- des with quotations ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was elevated to the rank of eques, and was considered an authority on inter alia jurisprudence, science, education and grammar. He wrote against astrology as practised by a group of astrologers known as Chaldeans,10 and became involved in scientific arguments with Galen. He probably died at the ripe old age of.

  1. Stars, demons and the body in fifteenth-century England. (United States)

    Ralley, Robert


    In 1441, Eleanor Cobham, duchess of Gloucester, was arrested, together with three associates: Margery Jourdemayne, the 'Witch of Eye', Roger Bolingbroke, Oxford cleric and astrologer, and Thomas Southwell, MB, canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster. They were accused of plotting to kill King Henry VI by necromancy, but contemporary chronicles differed on the precise nature of their crime: had they summoned demons or cast an astrological chart? This paper explores the relationship between astrology and demonic magic, focusing on feelings, rites and apparatus, and perceptions that the more the practitioner's body was implicated in the divinatory procedure, the more likely it was to be illicit.

  2. Questio astronomicalis Zdeňka z Labouně: kritická edice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocánová, Barbora


    Roč. 139, 1/2 (2016), s. 123-165 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : astronomy * astrology * meteorology * quaestio * quodlibet * critical edition * Zdeněk of Labouň Subject RIV: AB - History

  3. The Ptolemaic View of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hübner


    Full Text Available Ptolemy, as part of his account of the universe, applied the established principles of astrology in arriving at a systematic characterization of the different regions and peoples of the earth.

  4. Transmission of Babylonian Astronomy to Other Cultures (United States)

    Jones, Alexander

    Babylonian astronomy and astrology were extensively transmitted to other civilizations in the second and first millennia BC. Greek astronomy in particular was largely shaped by knowledge of Babylonian observations and mathematical astronomy.

  5. Johannes Kepler on Christmas (United States)

    Kemp, Martin


    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  6. JPRS Report, East Europe (United States)


    Zarnowiec nuclear power plant. This should be the domain of astrologers and not scientists. We, at least for now, do not involve ourselves, for...nuclear power plant results from my knowledge of the tragic results of the growth of nuclear energy worldwide, and not from any love of astrology . determine exactly the number of farms which this assistance program will cover. It will probably be a few thousand, depending on the percent- age

  7. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-74) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Astrologer, astronomer and mathematician, born in Tus, Khorasan (now Iran), astrologer to the Isma'ili governor Nasir ad-Din 'Abd ar-Rahim. Captured and imprisoned in Alamut, in a fortress which was the headquarters of the terrorist Assassins, he betrayed the defenses to the invading Mongols. He was rewarded by Ilkhanid dynast Hulagu with an observatory, built with Chinese assistance at Meragha ...

  8. Modèle ou faire-valoir ? Guillaume l'Anglais et quelques-uns de ses épigones


    Moulinier-Brogi, Laurence


    International audience; This paper examines the case of a text led by two main intentions, to shake certain established order and to go down in history as object of study and memory, the treatise De urina non visa consisted in 1220 by William the Englishman, a physician established in Marseille. The singular treatise of medical astrology intended to make an apology of the superiority of the astrology on the medicine and suggested to the practitioners exempting of any element of clinical exami...

  9. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Cultural and Ethical Evaluation (United States)


    Development 18). Are there cross-cultural variations in type results? In a study of mainland Chinese college students, researchers found significantly more T...undynamic theory that traffics in labels much like astrology , have dogged the theory for years" (Moore 74- 78). 22 How do people who are wsubjectsu...8217type talk,’ dismissing it as Jungian astrology , and many resist the idea of being ’type- cast.’... [There is] anxiety that type information might be

  10. The Faces of Saturn: Images and Texts from Augustus through Dürer to Galileo (United States)

    Shank, M. H.


    This paper follows the thread(s) of Saturn in astrology and art from the Babylonians to Galileo, paying special attention to the planet's political importance from Augustus to the Medici and to its medical/psychological significance from Ficino through Dürer. In passing, I extend David Pingree's astrological interpretation of Dürer's Melencholia I and propose a very personal rationale for the engraving, namely as a memorial to his mother.

  11. Mercury Retrograde Effect in Capital Markets: Truth or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgea Aurora


    Full Text Available From the most ancient times, the astrological beliefs have played an important role in human history, thinking, world-views, language and other elements of social culture. The practice of relating the movement of celestial bodies to events in financial markets is relatively newer but despite the inconsistency between financial astrology and standard economic or financial theory, it seems to be largely spread among capital market traders. This paper evaluates one of the astrological effects on the capital market, more precisely the Mercury retrograde effect on US capital market. Despite the fact that it is just an optical illusion the astrological tradition says that Mercury retrograde periods are characterized by confusion and miscommunications. The trades could be less effective, the individuals more prone to make mistakes so there is a long-held belief that it is better to avoid set plans during Mercury retrograde, signing contracts, starting new ventures or open new stock market positions. The main findings of this study are lower return’s volatilities in the Mercury retrograde periods, inconsistent with the astrologic theories assumptions but consistent with the idea that trader’s beliefs in Mercury retrograde effect could change the market volatility exactly in the opposite sense than the predicted one.

  12. A astrologia como campo profissional em formação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venuto Adriana


    Full Text Available The article studies the process of institutionalization of the profession of astrologer, based on an analysis of the struggle of different professional groups to legitimize new ways of thinking and of organizing their field. Two groups have stood out: the modern group, whose proposal for the field is based on the organizational model of modern professions, and the elite group, which seeks to revert to a traditional professional model. Research was conducted among "professional" astrologers in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Those to be interviewed were initially selected from specialized newspapers and then, once groups had been mapped, the intentional sampling method was applied. The article endeavors to understand if and how these astrologers are creating strategies for their participation in the professional field and what institutional mechanisms have contributed towards creation of a unified cognitive base that will allow these ?professionals? to exercise exclusive control over a given domain of expertise.

  13. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts (United States)

    Canova, G. M.


    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  14. Myers-Briggs Type Indicators and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory Correlations. (United States)


    resist change. The person who has a natural preference for sensing probably would use the adjective "practical" in describing himself, while the intuitor... Astrologies ," Theology Today, page 292. 2. Ron Zemke, "Second Thoughts About the MBTI," Training, April 1993, page 43. 3. Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Theusen...March 1990): 30-32. Long, Thomas. "Myers-Briggs and Other Modern Astrologies ." Theology Today. 291-294. Reis, Dayr A. and John H. Button. "Bureaucracy and

  15. Astronomy and Politics (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  16. Bruno's Spaccio and Hyginus' Poetica Astronomica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo


    The narrative framework of Giordano Bruno’s dialogue Lo spaccio de la bestia trionfante was inspired by Lucian of Samosata and his dialogue The Parliament of the Gods. In this article it is argued that Bruno, within that framework, developed an abundant imagery of astrological constellations...... inspired by the Poetica astronomica, a text ascribed to the Roman mythographer and astronomer Gaius Julius Hyginus (2nd century AD). Already in Lucian’s dialogue, astrological constellations were incorporated into the narrative framework, and precisely this union was imitated in the Renaissance by Leon...

  17. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  18. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  19. The Church of the Deans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Albrile


    Full Text Available The article investigates the ways through which peculiar representations of the late Ancient World passed to the Middle Ages. Among them, the astrological discipline is one of the favorite vehicles. The sculptures and other decorations of the Romanesque churches, have rewritten this archaic knowledge in the context of the Christian faith. Another constant presence in the imaginary of Western Christianity are the fabulous creatures related to what in astrology are the Decans. These odd Egyptian deities had at some time before the sixth century of our era made the long voyage to India and back they had travelled to Islamic lands, and so finally returned to Byzantium and the West.

  20. Nablyudeniya geliakicheskikh voskhodov i zakhodov zvezd v drevnej Mesopotamii %t Heliacal rising and setting star observations in ancient Mesopotamia (United States)

    Kurtik, G. E.

    This paper deals with the history of heliacal rising and setting star observations in ancient Mesopotamian astrology and astronomy of the 2nd-1st millennia B.C. The basic sources, utilised terminology, and corresponding astronomical ideas are considered in detail.

  1. A view in the mirror - Or through the looking glass. [history of development of optical telescopes (United States)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.


    The development of optical telescopes from the age of astrology to those of today and the future is discussed. The rationales for changes in the design of telescopes during this time are explored. The cost drivers, and how to reduce them, are also discussed.

  2. Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience Related to Astronomy. An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew


    Provided is a list of 92 references. Categories include general references, debunking astrology, identifying U.F.O.s, ancient astronauts, Velikovsky and worlds in collision, lunacy and the moon, Sirius B and the Dogon tribe, the face and pyramids on mars, the Tunguska Event, and the Bermuda Triangle. (CW)

  3. A Skeptic's Bookshelf: Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience. An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew


    Lists nontechnical books and articles on the various claims of "paranormal" events. Includes general references and materials on: astrology; unidentified flying objects (UFO's); ancient astronauts; lunacy and the moon; Velikovsky and "Worlds in Collision"; the Bermuda triangle; Sirius B and the Dogon; the Tunguska event; creationism; and…

  4. A Neural Network Appoach to the Prediction and Confidence Assignation of Nonlinear Time Series Classifications. (United States)


    problem that has fascinated mathematicians and astrologers alike. With a linear time series the problem is quite trivial; the equation can generally be...effect on the desired output. Excitement increases the probability that the PE will fire while the inhibitor has the opposite effect. The input is

  5. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary. (United States)

    Smith, Charles H.


    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  6. Skeptical Science. (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.


    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  7. A Deficiency of Credulousness. (United States)

    Brewer, Richard


    Asks the question: how does society assist citizens to stop deluding themselves with ESP, UFOs, astrology, polygraphy, water dowsing, channeling, and all manner of New Age gimcrackery? Supplies an answer: educators should emphasize instruction in probability models and scientific inference, while imparting an appropriate, scientific skepticism to…

  8. Matthew, the Parthians, and the Magi : A Contextuaiization of Matthew’s Gospel in Roman-Parthian Relations of the First Centuries BCE and CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, George; van Kooten, George; Barthel, Peter


    This paper explores the consensus and disagreements between the contributors to this first interdisciplinary conference on the Star of Bethlehem. It takes as its starting point the agreement that astrological models that included Syria-Judea only arose in the Greco-Roman period, and that it is

  9. MALTA: A Paradigm of Small Power International Negotiation Strategy. (United States)


    34Under the Oil Gun - Once More", U.S. News and World Report, 3 November 1980, p. 6S. CHAPTER VI ! Nostradamus , as cited by Joseph Micaleff in "Mediter...ranean Maverick," Round Table 275 (July 1979), p. 251. Nostradamus was a French astrologer in the 16th century, one of the most popular of the

  10. Luo Shu


    Albert Ting Pat So; Eric Lee; Kin Lun Li; Dickson Koon Sing Leung


    Feng Shui, still popularly practiced today, was closely related to philosophy, natural science, geography, environmental science, architecture, metaphysics, and astrology in ancient China. It is basically divided into the Form School and the Compass School. The latter deals with numerology, calculation, orientation, and time. Luo Shu [洛書], associated with the eight trigrams [八卦], being an ancient Chinese magic square, ...

  11. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'evil eye', inauspicious sights and astrological events. Discussion. Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional. Indian birth. While these differ somewhat between. Moslem and Hindu the various ceremonies appear to be directed at similar processes: the protection of the moth- er and baby during pregnancy, birth ...

  12. Magnetized Water: Science or Fraud? (United States)

    Zamora, L. Lahuerta; Anton-Fos, G. M.; Aleman Lopez, P. A.; Martin Algarra, R. V.


    Skepticism is one of the cornerstones of scientific learning. Some pseudosciences in domains such as astronomy or pharmacy use a host of issues in everyday life as pretexts for work in the classroom (e.g., astrology) or laboratory (e.g., homeopathy). Chemistry also offers opportunities to promote skeptical thinking in students. Commercial devices…

  13. The effect of geomagnetic storms on suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Introduction. The influence of magnetism on the human body and behaviour is not a new concept. Franz Mesmer (1734-18-15), a student of the- ology, astrology and medicine, had a basic theory that an invis- ible magnetic fluid emanating from the stars influenced the health of human beings. An imbalance of this fluid in the ...

  14. Pseudohistory and Pseudoscience (United States)

    Allchin, Douglas


    The dangers of pseudoscience--parapsychology, astrology,creationism, etc.--are widely criticized. Lessons in the history of science are often viewed as an educational remedy by conveying the nature of science. But such histories can be flawed. In particular, many stories romanticize scientists, inflate the drama of their discoveries,and…

  15. R-ES-ONANCE--INov-em--be-r

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the ill-conceived move by the. UGC (around May 2001) to introduce astrology courses in Indian universities, this wonderful little book has been rescued from the obscurity that it might have otherwise lapsed into. If only it had received more prominence earlier, Balachandra Rao's book would have done more to ...

  16. The Sleep of the Saved and Thankful (United States)


    freed of propaganda.”46 Victory in the Stars. In mid-1941, Louis de Wohl, the “famous Hungarian astrologer ,”47 had a popular syndicated newspaper...the Contracting Powers is attacked by a Power at present not involved in the European War or in the Japanese- Chinese conflict.”81 It made no mention

  17. How Relevant was U.S. Strategy in Winning the Cold War? (United States)


    revolutionary radical who once boasted that China could win a nuclear war simply because there were more Chinese than anybody else, to a careful and...his periodic rearrangements of his schedule to meet the wishes of Mrs. Reagan’s astrologer . Obviously, though, it will take some time for our

  18. Giant Comets, Evolution and Civilization (United States)


    the Origin of Re- ligion, Rhode Island, Moyer Bell (1993). These disturbances carry both millenarian and astrological implications (loc. cit.); they are...known through Chinese astronomical records but were discounted in Western science along with its penetration by Aris- totelian doctrine ,-700 years


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He had proved to be a good astrologer as well! The X-ray, optical, and ultraviolet telescopes on board India's own ASTROSAT, launched by ISRO in 2016 were designed and built by astronomers, many of whom had worked with smaller satellites and balloons – following the same pattern. Space telescopes will play an ...

  20. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology. (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  1. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 87-88 Book Review. Astrology: Believe it or not? A Sitaram · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 88-89 Book Review. The Lady or the Tiger: A Review · S P Suresh · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 90-90 Information and Announcements. Nobel Prize 2001 · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 91-91 Information and Announcements.

  2. Leksikon over ordbøger og leksika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálfi, Loránd-Levente

    Findes der en dansk–mongolsk ordbog? Eller en dansk–swahili ordbog? For hvilke sprog findes der i det hele taget danske ordbøger? Og hvilke opslagsværker findes der på dansk om astrologi, astronomi, biologi, filosofi, fluebinding, fysik, historie, islam, kristendom, krydsord, matematik, okkultisme...

  3. Hvad er forskning? Normer, videnskab og samfund.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    forskningsvurdering. Hugo F. Alrøe og Egon Noe: Et perspektivisk blik på videnskabelig uenighed og ekspertise. Cathrine Hasse: Forskerens læreproces - et kritisk, realistisk perspektiv. David Favrholdt: Om viden og videnskab. Jens Hebor: Demarkationsproblemet. Jan Faye: Hvordan adskilles astronomi fra astrologi? Finn...

  4. Archimedes – Knowledge and Lore from Latin Antiquity to the Outgoing European Renaissance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    of that, and when Archimedean mathematics was translated in the 12th and 13th centuries, almost no integration with the traditional image of the person took place. Petrarca knew the civically useful engineer and the astrologer (!); no other fourteenth-century Humanist seems to know about Archimedes in any...

  5. Origen of Alexandria: The study of the Scriptures as transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 7, 2011 ... Origen emphasised the crucial importance of human will and freedom in the process of salvation. In this process the good is 'appropriated'13 against the common determinism of Hellenistic culture (astrology) and the Gnostic view, according to which salvation was determined by one's make up (as gnostics, ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Astrology. Astrqlqji. Office. Qfis ii. Calque: This is the process of copying or initiating the structure of a foreign language term in coining an equivalent indigenous term. Example: English. Igbo. Happy Christmas. Hapi Krismas[. Science-fiction. Sayens fikshọn iii. Adaptation: This is the process of copying or borrowing a word in ...

  7. Gud og naturfænomen i Mesopotamisk religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter

    in which Girra appears in a number of mythical texts as well as in royal inscriptions and astrological and speculative texts. In each case, I show that the way in which Girra is represented in these sources is determined by the formal and pragmatic characteristics of the source in question. Lastly, I...

  8. Leksikon over ordbøger og leksika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálfi, Loránd-Levente

    Findes der en dansk-mongolsk ordbog? Eller en dansk-swahili ordbog? Hvilke sprog findes der i det hele taget danske ordbøger for? Og hvilke opslagsværker findes der på dansk om astrologi, astronomi, biologi, filosofi, fluebinding, fysik, historie, islam, kristendom, krydsord, matematik, okkultisme...

  9. Macro- and Microstructural Issues in Mazuna Lexicography1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ethnology, religion, oral literature, metallurgy and astrology. As a large refer- ence work it reflects the real language use and/or lexicon of the language. With regard to the dictionary basis, a large lexicographic corpus was probably used. However, the lexicographer does indicate neither the primary sources (also called ...

  10. The Influence of Education Major: How Diverse Preservice Teachers View Pseudoscience Topics (United States)

    Losh, Susan Carol; Nzekwe, Brandon


    Pseudoscience beliefs (e.g., astrology, ghosts or UFOs) are rife in American society. Most research examines creation/evolution among liberal arts majors, general public adults, or, infrequently, middle or high school science teachers. Thus, research truncates the "range" of ersatz science thinking and the samples it studies. We examined diverse…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augustine concludes that astrology cannot say anything on the destiny of man, be it blessed or adverse. This is important in a study of Augustine's early doctrine of predestination because, in the struggle that led to his conversion, he was deeply impressed by the way in which Paul tells the story of the twins,. Esau and Jacob.

  12. New Light on the Legendary King Nechepsos of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim


    This paper identifies several indigenous Egyptian attestations of King Nechepsos, previously well known from Classical sources. The name may be understood as ‘Necho the Wise’, and refers to Necho II of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. His association with astrology may be related to an eclipse near...

  13. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a report from the Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium about the forthcoming transit. To the dismay of many, the same report also carried an ominous statement from a local astrologer, warning the world of catastrophic events such as major air crashes, earthquakes, floods and what not, as the two.

  14. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From Fourier Series to Fourier Transforms · A Sitaram S Thangavelu · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 100-100 Information and Announcements. ICM 1998 and the Fields Medals · A Sitaram · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 87-88 Book Review. Astrology: ...

  15. Author: MC Roos IS LAW SCIENCE?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 5, 2014 ... Even when falsified, some adherents will still uphold a theory by adding ad hoc adjustments or re-interpretations that will "save" it from being refuted. This will, however, lead to a lowering of the theory's "scientific status".74. By applying Popper's demarcation criterion, astrology does not qualify as a science.

  16. An eleventh-century Egyptian guide to the universe the book of curiosities

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Yossef


    The Book of Curiosities is an eleventh-century Arabic account of the heavens and the Earth, illustrated by remarkable maps and astronomical diagrams. This authoritative edition and translation opens a unique window onto the geographical and astrological knowledge of medieval Islam.

  17. Archimedes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    , and when Archimedean mathematics was translated in the 12th and 13th centuries, almost no integration with the traditional image of the person took place. With the exception of Petrarca, who knew the civically useful engineer and the astrologer (!), fourteenth-century Humanists show no interest...

  18. Studies in the History of Astronomy. Issue 32 %t Istoriko-Astronomicheskie Issledovaniya. Vypusk XXXII (United States)

    Idlis, G. M.

    This collection contains papers covering a wide scope of problems in the history of astronomy. Its basic headlines are: Cosmology and cosmogony of the 20th century; History of observations and astronomical organizations; Scientists and their works; Astronomy and society; Publications and memoirs; Astronomy and astrology; Memory of scientists

  19. the matthean community according to the beginning of his gospel 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the astrologers to Jesus. Matthew's intentional depiction of Herod and the whole people of Jerusalem together belonging to the front that rejects the royal child, seriously comes as a surprise. Historically it is well known that Herod was so unpopular with the Jerusalem inhabit- ants that news of a royal child and especially a ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997. A postmodern Revelation. Signs of astrology and the Apocalypse. Toronto: Uni- versity of Toronto Press. COLLINS A Y. 1984. Crisis and catharsis. The power of the Apocalypse. Philadelphia: Westminster. CULLMANN O. 1953. Early Christian worship. London: SCM. Studies in Biblical Theology. DE VILLIERS P G R.

  1. Small Schools in Rural India: "Exclusion" and "Inequity" in Hierarchical School System (United States)

    Diwan, Rashmi


    Small schools have enjoyed rich traditions in the history of education. The Vedic-age gurukula small schools, an abode for children of the privileged few, followed a structured curriculum in the teaching of religion, scriptures, philosophy, literature, warfare, medicine, astrology and history. The rigvedic small schools, which were more…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    says, a mathematical or astrological fatalism which the. Stoics defended.59 Remarking on the Stoical position,. Cudworth writers: that did also in some sense make God himself as servant to the necessity of the matter, and to his own decrees, in that he could not have made the smallest thing in the world otherwise than now ...

  3. in the pastoral epistles?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rendering the concept of respect for the gods as more or less synonymous with conformity to the moral order, this does not necessarily reflect the social imaginary of ordinary people. The magical papyri provide abundant evidence for the popularity of magic, mystery cults and astrological beliefs in this. 5 For this section I am ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iv. Naturalization: This is the act of borrowing words and using the orthography of the target language (TL) in writing them according to the sound of the language. It is otherwise known as. Igbonization. Examples: English. Igbo. Agriculture. Agrịkọlchọ. Astrology. Astrọlọji. Astronomy. Astronomy. Geology. Jiọlọji. Morphology.

  5. Scientists Look at 2010: Carrying on Margaret Mayall's Legacy of Debunking Pseudoscience (United States)

    Larsen, Krinstine


    In 1941 Margaret Mayall, the future director of the AAVSO, and Harvard colleague Bart Bok authored a critical study of astrology and its impact on society entitled "Scientists Look at Astrology." They chastised the scientific community for thinking the debunking of astrology to be "below the dignity of scientists." In contrast, they opined that it is one of the duties of scientists to "inform the public about the nature and background of a current fad, such as astrology, even though to do so may be unpleasant." Fast-forward 68 years in the future, and the astronomical community now faces a pseudoscientific enemy just as insidious as astrology, yet just as ignored by the general professional and amateur community as astrology had been when Mayall and Bok took up the charge in 1941. The pseudoscience in question is the well-publicized "prediction" that the Mayan calendar will end on December 21, 2012, causing the end of civilization in concert with one of a number of possible astronomical calamities, including (but not limited to) the gravitational pull of the center of the Milky Way (somehow enhanced by an "alignment" with our solar system), the near-approach by a mythical 10th planet (often named Nibiru), large-scale damage to the planet by solar flares larger than those ever recorded, or the shifting of the earth's axis of rotation (often confused with a proposed sudden and catastrophic reversal of the earth's magnetic polarity). As a scientific and educational organization, the AAVSO and its members have a responsibility to follow in Mayall's footsteps, shining the light of reason and knowledge on the dark corners of ignorance which far too often permeate the Internet, radio and television programming, and recent films, most notably 2012. This talk will highlight some of the basic premises of the 2012 hysteria and suggest ways that the AAVSO and its members can use variable stars and the history of the AAVSO to counteract some of the astronomical misinformation


    Feti, Viola


    Boethius of Dacia's opera "De somnis" can be defined as a brief treaty that partially follows the traditional quaestio scheme. It includes a passage that seems to copy Etienne Tempier's proposition number sixty-five, which condemns the importance attributed to astrology by many medieval authors. Boethius moves off Aristotle's "De somno et vigilia" idea of physiological dreams to assert a new kind of oneiric phenomena linked to constellations, that, according to the author, aren't divinely inspired, whereas they are to be considered as natural events. Boethius isn't the only philosopher who writes about this particular type of dream as another medieval author, Albertus Magnus, in his "Speculum Astronomiae", describes astrology and its relationship to medicine.

  7. Hermann the Dalmatian as Astronomer (United States)

    Dadic, Z.

    Hermann the Dalmatian was the subject of great controversy for philosophers, and here his work and translations are considered. As far as Hermann's work are concerned his prime interest for astronomy and astrology is stressed. Astrological "predictions" interested him primarely as predictions of events which are related to global questions, i.e. predicting the future course of events in the universe or destiny of nation as a whole, rather then the destiny of indivinduals. On the other hand it is also evident that Hremann with his knowledge of the Eastern, Arabic scientific tradition and the European spiritual tradition, become one of the most important scientists of his times. Hermann archieved a fruitful syntesis between the two traditions and opened new concepts in science. So he stands as a basic figure at the turning point of European science and the scientific endeavours from the 12th to the 15th century.

  8. Examination and notes to the astronomical records in >SUISHU<. (United States)

    Liu, Ciyuan


    Astronomical records are an important part in Chinese official historical books. Their main purpose was for astrology and they are an obstacle for historians who read those books. With modern astronomical methods, one can compute and examine most of those ancient records. By comparing the computed results with the original texts, one can examine the texts, find their mistakes, study their observation method and regulation, inspect astrological theory, take a deeper understanding to those important historical materials. As an example the author deals with the astronomcial records of Dynasties Liang and Chen for 60 years in >SUISHU<, the official history of Dynasty Sui. He also synthesized other historical sources in addition to the astronomical computation.

  9. Philippus Feselius - Biographical notes on the unknown medicus of Kepler's Tertius Interveniens. (German Title: Philippus Feselius - Biographische Notizen zum unbekannten Medicus aus Keplers Tertius Interveniens) (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    Until now, Philipp Feselius has been perceived only indirectly as Kepler's antagonist. Not much is known about his life besides his work as Baden private physician and his book against astrology which was cited intensely in Kepler's «Tertius Interveniens». This paper traces the stations of his career as a physician, about his presumable provenance and education in Strasbourg, his academic career in Tübingen, Strasbourg, Rostock and Padua, the doctorate in Basel in 1592, up to his employment, in 1599, as a court physician in Sulzburg and later in Durlach. Further hand-written and printed traces of Feselius are presented, and his social environment is investigated so that his personality becomes clearer, and relations can be established between his education and his writing against astrology.

  10. The Discovery of the Regular Movements of Celestial Bodies and the Development of Monotheism in the Ancient Near East (United States)

    Lanfranchi, G. B.


    For Ancient Mesopotamians, astronomical phenomena were signs signifying the gods' judgment on human behaviour. Mesopotamian scholars studied celestial phenomena for understanding the gods' will, and strongly developed astrology. From the 8th to the 6th century BC Assyrian and Babylonian astronomers achieved the ability to predict solar and lunar eclipses, and the planets' movements through mathematical calculations. Predictability of astral phenomena solicited the awareness that they are all regular, and that the universe is governed by an eternal, immutable order fixed at its very beginning. This finally favoured the idea that the cosmic order depended on the will of one god only, displacing polytheism in favour of monotheism; and astrology lost its religious importance as a mean to know the divine will.

  11. The Relations between Astronomy and Music in Medieval Armenia (United States)

    Vardumyan, Arpi


    In Middle Ages Astronomy and Music were included in the four sciences, together with Mathematics and Geometry. From ancient times philosophers thought that harmony lies in the basis of world creation. The Earth was in the centre of the Universe, and the seven planets went around it, the Sun and the Moon in their number. Harmony was also in the basis of music, with seven sounds due to seven planets. It was considered that owing to harmonic rotation cosmic universal music appears, and it is not attainable for human ear as it is used to it. Medieval connoisseurs of music therapy believed that for healing a person his astrological data must first be cleared out, in order to define in which musical mode should sound the melody in order to treat him/her. Comparing music with astrology they considered easier to practise the first one because the celestial luminaries are much higher and farther from people.

  12. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences. (United States)

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François


    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Workbook for Naval Science 3: An Illustrated Workbook for the NJROTC Student. (United States)


    the most important scientist of the exploring age was an Italian, Galileo Galilei . He lived in the middle of the age (1564-1642)^. He was a made...of Galileo’s scientific explorations, he invented the first simple thermometer (thermos means heat). Galileo said that the only way man could...a. astrology. b. meteorology. c. biology. 2. The thermometer was invented by: a. Galileo . b. Leonardo da Vinci. c. Columbus. 3. The invention

  14. US Foreign Policy and a Military Regime in Argentina (United States)


    Isabel’s Rasputin, the astrologer Jose Lopez Rega, attempted to take some corrective measures in mid 1975-e.g., repeal of the absentee clause of the...criticisms the government appears to have no intention of accepting "the shock" method-which would probably create two million unemployed-but remains...Montoneros have been wounded badly but they probably still have some fighting potential. Unlike these Moscow-Havana dominated-or-infiltrated terrorist

  15. The Future of the Russian Military: Constraints, Trends, and Factors Affecting Stability and Instability (United States)


    military: their characteristics, extent and probable future impact. Section II deals with comparisons and contrasts within the new Russian military today...from the ’new structures’. I’m your military astrologer -parapsychologist!", Armlia (Army), No 14, July, 1992. Figure (3). Wife to Officer-husband: "Do we...examination of some of the serious problems which exist at unit levels in the Russian armed forces, which, in the author’s experience, were probably not

  16. Forty-Five Years of Frustration: America’s Enduring Dilemma of Fighting Insurgents with Airpower (United States)


    despite all of its high-tech wizardry—has significantly increased the probability of collateral damage, and every occurrence of it diminishes the pros...For most, though, restraint is probably the prudent course of action. The emphasis on kinetic airpower helped doom America’s pursuit of broad...war, an estimated 2.9 million were Roman Catholics. The remainder subscribed to a blend of Buddhism, animism, and astrology ; Confu- cian principles

  17. Compression of a Radar Track of a Near Earth Satellite into an Earth Centered Inertial State Vector Using Least Squares Differential Correction (United States)


    into the night sky and wondered about the things he saw there. As far back as 3000 B.C., Babylonian priest- astrologers were observing and recording the...last item comes from Gauss’ groundbreaking work in the field of probability theory and states that the value of an estimate which maximizes the... probability of obtaining a particular set of data is the true value (4: 22). The third assumption is supported by the Central Limit Theorem, also developed by

  18. Practical Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems at NAVSEA, (United States)


    rules out astrology . and probably selecting stock portfolios, * Rule out those problems where the experts always argue about whether the answer is...process of identifying issues with a high probability of adjustment on individual 1040-type tax returns." (Sullivan, July 1986). This area of...facts and tens of thousands of rules. The present software and hardware are not capable of this level and probably won’t be for another AI generation

  19. Great III - Cultural Resource Inventory. Volume 2 (United States)


    river channel migration in the American Eottoms was probably the most favorable section of the Mississippi River Valley for long-term prehistoric...the city of St. Louis. The records are too meager to determine any relarionship but it seems probably that there was some type of rela- tionship...34. Journal Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. 20:357-367. Links the Piasa bird to astrology and concludes the location was a "Shrine of one of the

  20. Warrior or Pundit: Ethical Struggle of Army Senior Leaders (United States)


    decade of war has persisted. Therefore, the U.S., Military must have an ethical comprehensive strategy to address the probable issues of conflict...address the probable issues of conflict termination and future warfare. This paper will examine the relationship between Congress, the executive branch...the course of future events becomes. Crystal balls that work reliably are hard to find, while astrology , alas is apt to disappoint also. But

  1. Nostradamus (1503-66) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Doctor, astrologer, born in St Rémy, France. Took on the role of a prophet and wrote Centuries, a collection of predictions in rhyme (1555-8). The predictions are expressed in obscure and enigmatic terms, which are both difficult to interpret and open to many interpretations, and so can be interpreted as successful prophesies, including what Catherine of Medici interpreted as the manner of deat...

  2. The Sino-Indian Border Dispute: India’s Current Options (United States)


    borders "with the Chinese king of astrology , the Indian king of religion and the Persian king of wealth.Ŗ Ti-song De-tren invited an Indian Buddhist... Chinese question Tibet’s past authority to conclude treaties, and insist that the Sino-Indian boundary still requires delimitation. At present in the...certain sections, while the rest of the boundary was well-known and established through custom and tradition. The Chinese question Tibet’s past authority

  3. Creating Strategic Vision: Long-Range Planning for National Security (United States)


    Chinese initiative was born in the minds of Nixon and Kissinger without significant assistance from strategic planners. Bloomfield credits Secretaries...hardly surprising that most predictions are either disreputable or ambiguous. Palm readers, oracles, and astrologers typ- ically hedge their statements...and muddy their language to where the re- suits are approximately equivalent to the cryptic statements printed on slips of paper found in Chinese

  4. Astronomical Odds: A Policy Framework for the Cosmic Impact Hazard (United States)


    numerous to discuss here. Nevertheless, it is interesting to review aspects of the ancient Chinese record of cometary visitations, which is unusually...studying objects as far from society as imaginable. Historically, it was the astrologers rather than the astronomers who had aspirations to achieve social...the earth." Tyler, P., " Chinese Seek Atom Option to Fend Off Asteroids," New York Times, 27 April 1996 (Late Edition - Final), p.4. 2 In this

  5. [The work of Hunayn ibn Ishāq in the Arabic manuscripts of Escurialense Library]. (United States)

    Cano Ledesma, A


    After a short historical introduction about Hunayn's life and about the foundation and development of the Escurialense Library, the article deals with the Arabic collection which is kept in it. Hunayn is the author of some work in the Escurialense codices, and the translator of some others. Particularly, three codices containing original medical works by Hunayn are listed here and commented on in detail, together with twenty-five containing Hunayn's translations of Hippocratic and Galenic texts. Some astrological texts are also treated.

  6. An Ongoing Investigation of Science Literacy: Results of a 22-Year Study Probing Students' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Science (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS


    This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.

  7. A doppio senso: istruzioni su come orientarsi nelle immagini astrologiche di Palazzo Schifanoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertozzi


    Full Text Available In the “Sala dei Mesi” of Palazzo Schifanoia the months and the zodiacal constellations go from right to left, while the decans (three for every sign go in the opposite direction. This problem was not  clarified by Aby Warburg in his well-known essay Italian Art and International Astrology in the Palazzo Schifanoia of Ferrara (1912. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons of this double direction.

  8. The Spiritual '1968'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadager, Anne


    Reich sig til sin helt egensindige udgave af den protestantiske krisentro, hvor der også var plads til astrologi, djævletilbedelse og til brug af I-Ching. Ole Grünbaum derimod tilsluttede sig bevægelsen The Divine Light Mission og dens i 1972 14 årige leder Guru Maharaj Ji, og han flyttede i ashram, et...

  9. Dos textos astrológicos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay al-Bargeloní

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sela, Shlomo


    Full Text Available The main object of this article is to translate, scrutinize the contents and reveal the sources of two Hebrew astrological texts embedded in the commentary on Sefer Yeṣirah composed by Yehudah ben Barzilay, the leading Rabbinic authority in Barcelona in the first half of the 12th century. The first text arises great interest because it incorporates the first ever known horoscopic chart written in Hebrew. The second text includes a miscellany of cosmological and astrological theories. The analysis of both fragments reveals the reception of astrological texts by Jewish intellectuals in the Iberian Peninsula. In contrast with Abraham bar Ḥiyya and Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, who epitomize a renovating trend couching into a Hebrew mold various aspects of Greek and Arabic science, Ben Barzilay embodies a conservative trend which exclusively relies on Jewish astrological and scientific sources.Este artículo tiene como principal propósito traducir, estudiar los contenidos y descubrir las fuentes de dos textos astrológicos hebreos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay, la principal autoridad rabínica de Barcelona en las primeras décadas del siglo XII. El primer texto despierta gran interés porque incorpora el primer horóscopo documentado escrito en lengua hebrea conocido. El segundo texto incorpora una miscelánea de teorías cosmológicas y astrológicas. El análisis de ambos fragmentos revela un caso especial de recepción de fuentes astrológicas y científicas por intelectuales judíos en la península Ibérica. En claro contraste con Abraham bar Ḥiyya y Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, que encarnan una corriente renovadora orientada a verter al hebreo diversos aspectos de la astrología y ciencia griega y árabe, Yehudá ben Barzilay representa una modalidad conservadora inclinada a la utilización de fuentes astrológicas y científicas de autores exclusivamente judíos.

  10. El capítulo sobre el Tasyīr en al-Bāriʻ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl y su traducción alfonsí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Fajardo, Montse


    Full Text Available Tasyīr or “prorogation”, is an astrological procedure with which the astrologer moves, in an imaginary way, an indicator in order to determine the celestial influences. Tasyīr was one of the astrologer’s fundamental tools for the casting of a horoscope. This paper analyzes the information in the chapter on Tasyīr in Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s (11th century book al-Bāri‘, concerning the methods, the techniques and the resources used. Its study highlights the channels through which science was transmitted and the ways in which the astrologer wrote his work using other sources, and stresses the importance of al-Bāri‘ in introducing new astrological knowledge from the East into the Maghrib and medieval Europe (knowledge that was used until the fifteenth century. The comparison of the chapter with its Castilian translation provides evidence of the procedures used by the translators of Alfonso X.El tasyīr o «prorrogación» es un procedimiento astrológico por el que se hace avanzar de forma imaginaria un indicador para conocer las influencias celestes. El tasyīr fue una de las herramientas fundamentales del astrólogo en el levantamiento de un horóscopo. Este artículo analiza la información que contiene el capítulo “Sobre el tasyīr” de la obra al-Bāri‘ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl (siglo XI: los métodos, las técnicas y los recursos que utilizaba. Su estudio nos muestra las vías por las que la ciencia se transmitía, el modo en el que el astrólogo elaboraba su obra, la importancia del al-Bāri‘ como introductor en el Magreb y en la Europa medieval de fuentes y conocimientos nuevos importados de Oriente y la vigencia de su astrología hasta el siglo XV. El cotejo del capítulo mencionado con su traducción castellana nos da pruebas de la forma de trabajar de los traductores de Alfonso X.

  11. Práce českých hermetiků z 30. let 20. století


    Jiruš, Milan


    The aim of my thesis is to improve the orientation of students in the field of the basic hermetic sciences, for exemple the alchemy, the astrology and the magic, which are developping also nowadays. The first part of my thesis is considered to describe the renewal of the hermetism in Bohemia in the end of 19th century and to watch its development till the 30th of the 20th century. Another part of my project decribes the hermetic society "Universalia" and it presents the main and significant m...

  12. Origins of NASA names (United States)

    Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.


    Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

  13. The Voynich Manuscript: An Elegant Enigma (United States)


    Memorativa: The Art of Memory 53 8.2 The Hermetic Tradition 55 8.3 Astrology and Astronomy 56 8.4 Magical Systems 56 8.4.1 Picatrix 57 8.4.2 Solomonian...spanning so many centuries and ranging over so many aspects of art , history. philosophy, and philology. I have thoroughly enjoyed every moment of far later than the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries. There is nothing ’ Gothic ’ or angular about them. They are fat and rotund and suggest in

  14. Science of Time (United States)


    A Multi-disciplinary Research into the Chronologies of Ancient Nations -- like the Vedas of India Rishies, the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Egyptians and the Chinese. Which traces how the "Measurement of Time" -- which began with the observations of sunrise and Sunset, Full-Moons, eclipses, the movement of stars and the Discovery of the Zodiac that starry pathway of sun in his annual Cycle of the 12-Zodiacal months, the Measurement of Time by planetary Cycles the Discovery of Astronomy and Symbolic or Kabalistic Astrology of the Bible's Old Testament; the Epics of Babylonians and 'Cosmic Cycles' of Chaldeans and Egyptians also the Ancient "Four Yugas" or Hindu Vedic Cycles.

  15. Estudio comparativo de los aspectos económicos/financieros de las empresas del sector de la construcción en China y España


    Pan, Jiao


    En el siglo XXI, la ciencia y la tecnología humana han obtenido mucho desarrollo, como astrología, medicina, biológica, informática y construcción, etc., los cuales han majorado a la vida diaria nuestra. La industria de la constucción es una disciplina básica, pero por el crecimiento de la demanda nuestra, ella está frente a oportunidades y espacios de desarrollo que nunca existían. En los campos de la Arquitectura e ingeniería, la construcción es el arte o técnica de fabric...

  16. « The Activities of Iranian Astronomers in Mongol China », in : N. Pourjavady & Ž. Vesel, éds., Sciences, techniques et instruments dans le monde iranien (Xe-XIXe siècle). Téhéran, Presses Universitaires d'Iran / Institut Français d




    This article deals with two specifically Iranian aspects of the works that were used by the Muslim astronomers who had been brought to Beijing by the Mongols in the last third of the 13th century. Two of these works, an astronomical handbook (zīj) compiled in China on the basis of new observations and the popular astrology by Kūshyār ibn Labbān (ca. 1000), were translated into Chinese in 1383. Transliterations of the titles of some other works and of various astronomical instruments were list...

  17. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest III Vana-Hiina


    Enn Kasak


    The article concerns Chinese astral myths, calendar and astrology. Chinese creation myths concern also the creation of the Sun, Moon and stars. The heavenly bodies are constantly endangered by the sky dragon that now and then catches them, probably a reference to eclipses. Cosmology existed in Ancient China in the same sense as in Ancient Greede, though many ancient books were burned on the emperor's orders in 213 BC. Teaching of the endless sky emerged in the Han era, while in 1 century AD t...

  18. Studies in the history of astronomy. Number 19, 1987 (United States)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    Papers are presented on such topics as the history of the exploration of Venus, the history of the discovery of the relic radiation, Copernicus' star catalog, Euler's contribution to potential theory in connection with the theory of the earth's figure, the role of astrology in ancient culture, and the history of the study of astronomical refraction. Attention is also given to astronomy in Kazakhstan during the Second World War, the contribution of Arago to the development of astrophysics instrumentation, and the work on astronomy written by Kirik of Novgorod in the year 1136.

  19. Motivation, cognition and pseudoscience. (United States)

    Lindeman, M


    The article proposes a framework that views pseudoscientific beliefs as a joint function of the basic social motives and the default way of processing everyday information. The interplay between the basic motives and experiential thinking is illustrated with three examples. The first concerns comprehension of self via astrology and graphology, and the second involves the comprehension of unexpected events (one domain of the motive to comprehend the world). The last example describes health control by alternative medicine, as a modern way of controlling future outcomes.

  20. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories. (United States)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  1. Lessons from Mayan Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham


    The Mayan culture collected exquisite astronomical data for over a millennium. However, it failed to come up with the breakthrough ideas of modern astronomy because the data was analyzed within a mythological culture of astrology that rested upon false but mathematically sophisticated theories about the Universe. Have we learned the necessary lessons to prevent our current scientific culture from resembling Mayan Astronomy? Clearly, data collection by itself is not a guarantee for good science as commonly assumed by funding agencies. A vibrant scientific culture should cultivate multiple approaches to analyzing existing data and to collecting new data.

  2. Using Stellarium to cyber-observe the Great American Eclipse (United States)

    Prim, Ellie R.; Sitar, David J.


    The Great American Eclipse is over. Somewhat sad, is it not? Individuals who were unable to experience the event on August 21, 2017, can now cyber-observe the eclipse with Stellarium ( In the authors' opinion, it is fun and has many great applications in the classroom. In addition it is open source and available for Android, iOS, and Linux users. We here at Appalachian use it in our introductory astronomy labs for specific activities such as investigating coordinate systems, discovering differences between solar and sidereal days, as well as determining why your "astrological sign" is most often not your "astronomical sign."

  3. Mathematical Astronomy in India (United States)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  4. Kozmolojik Temelleri Işığında İhvan es-Safa'da Astroloji ve Astrolojinin Meşruluğu Sorunu


    AYDIN, Hasan


     Astrology, as it?s known, a type of foresee that consists in the interpretion of the influence of planets, stars and all heavenly bodies on earthly affairs in order to predict or affect the destinies of individuals, groups, or nations, etc. It was originated in Mesopotamia, perhaps in the 3rd- 2nd millennium BCE, but attained its full development in Greek and Hellenistic period and entered Islamic world in the 8th and 9th CE. centuries in three simultaneous streams?Hellenistic, Indian and S?...

  5. Legacy of the Luoshu the 4,000 year search for the meaning of the magic square of order three

    CERN Document Server

    Swetz, Frank


    A symbol of the Divine, a good luck charm, a cosmogram of the world order, a template for fengshui -through the ages, the luoshu, or magic squre of order three, has fascinated people of many different cultures. In this riveting account of cultural detective work, renowned mathematics educator, Frank J. Swetz relates how he uncovered the previously hidden history of the luoshu, from its Chinese origins, shrouded in legend, through its eventual association with Chinese fortunetelling, Daoism, and fengshui, to its incorporation into Islamic astrology and alchemy and its migration into Kabbalistic

  6. Many skies alternative histories of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars

    CERN Document Server

    Upgren, Arthur


    Many Skies: Alternative Histories of the Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars examines the changes in science that  alternative solar, stellar, and galactic arrangements would have brought, and explores the different theologies, astrologies, and methods of tracking time that would have developed to reflect them. Our perception of our surroundings, the number of gods we worship, the symbols we use in art and literature, even the way we form nations and empires are all closely tied to our particular (and accidental) placement in the universe.  Upgren also explores the actual ways tha

  7. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H


    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  8. La obra astrológica de Abraham Ibn Ezra en dos códices castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainz de la Maza, Carlos


    Full Text Available In this article we offer a study and a commentary of Abraham Ibn Ezra’s astrological works that have been preserved in two old Spanish manuscripts translated from Hebrew in a late medieval converso environment.

    En el presente artículo ofrecemos un estudio y comentario de las obras astrológicas de Abraham Ibn Ezra que han sido preservadas en dos manuscritos en castellano traducidos del hebreo en un entorno converso a finales de la Baja Edad Media.

  9. When the dragon wore the crown putting starlight back into myth

    CERN Document Server

    Cerow, Don


    When our ancestors gazed upon the skies thousands of years ago they looked up into the center of Creation and saw a mighty Dragon, a great celestial serpent with wings circling ceaselessly above them, night after night, century after century. When the Dragon Wore the Crown is a ground breaking book that covers a period of over six thousand years, focusing on what astrologers would call the Ages of Gemini, Taurus and Aries and taking us through the period of classical astronomy with the Greeks and Romans (approx. 7000 BC-200 AD).When the Dragon Wore the Crown opens and closes with the Chinese m

  10. Tycho Brahe (United States)

    Dreyer, John Louis Emil


    Preface; 1. The revival of astronomy in Europe; 2. Tycho Brahe's youth; 3. The new star of 1572; 4. Tycho's oration on astrology and his travels in 1575; 5. The island of Hveen and Tycho Brahe's observatories and other buildings; 6. Tycho's life at Hveen until the death of King Frederick II; 7. Tycho's book on the comet of 1577, and his system of the world; 8. Further work on the star of 1572; 9. The last years at Hveen, 1588-97; 10. Tycho's life from his leaving Hveen until his arrival at Prague; 11. Tycho Brahe in Bohemia - his death; 12. Tycho Brahe's scientific achievements; Appendix; Notes; Index.

  11. The Ptolemaen Musica. Introduction, Russian translation and notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Alexandrova


    Full Text Available An often neglected small treatise, conventionally entitled The Ptolemaean ‘Musica’ (apparently dated to the Late Antiquity, is translated into the Russian for the first time. The work is a compilation of various sources, which include the Aristoxenian rhythmics, the Neopythagorean numerology and harmonics as well as the Ptolemaean geocentric astrology. According to its author the planetary cycles in their unity are closely related to the musical proportions. This approach further allows correlating the planetary rhythms with the musical rhythmics.

  12. National Calendar-2009 (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria


    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great deffect of the Calendar is the introduction in the list of holydays of the "international day of astrology". Another defect is the absence of the indication of the membership to Communist Parties for persons cited from the former USSR and former Communist Countries.

  13. National Calendar-2008 (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Madan, Ion; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great defect of the calendar is the introduction of the "International day of astrology" in the list of holydays. Another defect is the absence of the indication on the membership to the Communist Party for persons cited from the former Soviet Union.

  14. The Shadow of Enlightenment Optical and Political Transparency in France 1789-1848

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, Theresa


    This book is the first to place revolutionary advances in light and optics in the cultural context of France in the first half of the nineteenth century. The narrative follows the work and careers of France's two chief rivals on the subject of light: Arago and Biot. Their disagreement began on the subject of technical optics, but expanded to include politics, religion, agricultural policy, education, dinner companions, housing arrangements, photography, railroads, vital forces,astrology, the Egyptian calendar, and colonial slavery. At the heart of their disagreement was always a question of vi

  15. Analysis of the presence of pseudoscience in the catalogues of public libraries in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Cortiñas-Rovira


    Full Text Available This paper examines the presence of books regarding instances of pseudoscience as their main topic in catalogues of public libraries in Spain, as well as the opinion of such works about pseudoscience. A database is created to analyse both absolute and relative amounts of those works in all Spanish catalogues. The numbers show a small, yet worrying percentage of 0.15% titles concerning several pseudosciences and prove astrology as the most abundant instance in libraries. The study also explains the menace of homeopathy, as the works about this pseudotherapy outnumber those regarding chemotherapy in a 1/20 ratio.

  16. Orion in Homer: is it a Terrestrial, an Astral or an Astronomical Myth? (United States)

    Revello, Manuela


    In Greek literature the subjects that relate to stars and constellations are very complex. Various studies are involved in this field of investigation, such as those of astronomy, astrology, mythology, astral-metereology and philology; the situation becomes even more complicated when we attempt to reconstruct a picture of the knowledge of the stars and the relative degree of consciousness of this matter existent during the Homeric age. In this brief report we shall look at the constellation of Orion. The discussed arguments will point out the sharp differences that exist between terrestrial, astronomical and astral myths.

  17. Medicina e política em dois físicos judeus portugueses de Hamburgo: Rodrigo de Castro e o Medicus Politicus (1614, e Manuel Bocarro Rosales e o Status Astrologicus (1644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Silva, Sandra


    Full Text Available Since the end of the sixteenth century the Hanseatic city of Hamburg received a group of impostant Portuguese physicians that became members of its Iberian Jewish community. This article examines the intellectual contribution and the political implications of two of them, Rodrigo de Castro (1546-1627, who authored an important book on gynaecology, and Manuel Bocarro Rosales (ca. 1588-1662/8?, who wrote different astrological and astronomical works with a messianic-political content.Desde fines del siglo XVI Hamburgo recibió una constelación de distinguidos médicos portugueses que se integran dentro de la comunidad judía de origen ibérico. En este artículo se examina la contribución intelectual y las implicaciones políticas de las obras de dos de ellos, Rodrigo de Castro (1546-1627, autor de un importante tratado ginecológico, y Manuel Bocarro Rosales (ca. 1588-1662/8?, que escribe varias obras sobre astronomía y astrología de contenido político-mesiánico.

  18. Modern health worries - the dark side of spirituality? (United States)

    Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter; Czető, Márton; Sárog, Noémi; Szemerszky, Renáta


    Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being. Astrologers showed higher levels of spirituality, intuitive-experiential thinking, and modern health worries than individuals from the community sample; and skeptics scored even lower than the latter group with respect to all three constructs. Within the community sample, medium level connections between measures of spirituality and the experiential thinking style, and weak to medium level correlations between spirituality and MHWs were found. The connection between MHWs and experiential thinking style was completely mediated by spirituality. Individuals with higher levels of spirituality are particularly vulnerable to overgeneralized messages on health related risks. Official communication of potential risks based on rational scientific reasoning is not appropriate to persuade them as it has no impact on the intuitive-experiential system. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The perceived efficacy of various "future-ologies" and complementary medicine. (United States)

    Furnham, A


    To examine the relationship between beliefs in ways of telling the future (astrology, graphology, palmistry etc) and beliefs in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Participants completed a short questionnaire that requested that they rate the efficacy of 8 CAM therapies along with 12 other ways of predicting the future ranging from the well known and established (astrology) to the less well known (tasseography, oneiromancy). Short descriptions of each were provided. They also answered four attitude statements on science as applied to medicine. Two hundred three (130 female, 73 male) adult Britains obtained from a university subject panel served as unpaid volunteer subjects. CAM therapies were judged as modestly effective and most of the other "-ologies" ineffective. Further analysis confirmed two clear factors with the different methods loading on two different factors. Regressions showed females who were less concerned with scientific evaluations but more concerned with treatment believed more in the efficacy of the "future-ologies." Also females, who had heard of fewer "future-ologies" but more CAM practices were more likely to believe in the efficacy of CAM therapies. Belief in CAM is unrelated to belief in "future-ologies." Interest in the scientific evaluations of treatment is the best predictor of beliefs about efficacy.

  20. The Gate of Heaven: Revisiting Roman Mithraic Cosmology (United States)

    Assasi, R.


    The definition and origins of Roman Mithraism remain highly problematic and controversial among modern scholars. The majority of research on Roman Mithraism focuses on interpreting the physical evidence because no considerable written narratives or theology from the religion survive. The most important Mithraic artifact is a repeated bull-slaying scene, which leaves no doubt that this figure conveys the core divine message of the cult. There is also another important Mithraic character that seems to be as important as the bull-slayer. This figure is a lion-headed man entwined by a snake. The author suggests that these figures represent the north ecliptic pole and argues for the importance of this astronomical reference in the Mithraic iconography and mythology. The author also demonstrates the possible relation of his proposed astrological model to the geocentric understanding of the axial precession around the ecliptic pole, where the Roman bull-slaying Mithras could be visualized in the form of a Mithraic constellation. This astrological model also is proposed to be the architectural design concept of Roman Mithraeum. The author also points to the core Christian symbols as possible contemporaneous parallels or derivatives of the Mithraic iconography and theology.

  1. A Successful Integration of Astronomy into an Elementary School Curriculum (United States)

    Romani, P. N.; Hackett, K.; Jackson, T.; Melzer, S.; Edwards, S.; Moore, F.


    Fifth and sixth grade students at Glenarden Woods Elementary Magnet School for Talented and Gifted (TAG) Students, Glenarden, Maryland studied Europe in the Medieval time period this year in a thematic unit that involved language arts, social studies, and art. We used this as a vehicle to incorporate math and science projects involving astronomy into the curriculum. In this way, we could integrate science into the thematic unit rather than having math and science be divorced from what the students were doing in the other subject areas. For the first project we studied the claims of astrology. This was chosen because during the Medieval time period astronomy and astrology were closely linked. We then took advantage of Comet Hale-Bopp to compare what people in the Medieval time period thought/knew about comets to what we believe now. For this unit we stretched the middle ages to include a demonstration of how Tycho proved that the comet of 1577 was further from the Earth than the Moon. Lastly, we did a short lesson plan on sundials. We will present details of the projects and lessons learned.

  2. Chinese records of the 1874 transit of Venus (United States)

    Lu, Lingfeng; Li, Huifang


    Before the advent of radar, transits of Venus were very important for measuring the distance between the Earth and the Sun. A transit occurred in 1874, and was visible from China, other parts of east and southeast Asia and from India, Australia and New Zealand and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. As a result, many astronomers from Western countries came to China to observe it. According to traditional Chinese astrology, the Sun represented the Emperor, and if the Sun was invaded by other astronomical bodies it meant that the Emperor and the country faced some ominous disaster. In the late nineteenth century, Western astronomical knowledge was widely translated into Chinese and spread among Chinese intellectuals, so the 1874 transit supposedly was easily understood by Chinese intellectuals. Before the transit took place, various Chinese publications introduced this kind of celestial event as science news, but at the same time other influential newspapers and journals discussed the astrological connection between the transit and the fortunes of the nation. In this paper we review these interesting Chinese records and discuss the different attitudes towards the transit exhibited by Chinese intellectuals and officials, during a period when Western learning was being widely disseminated throughout China.

  3. European concerted action COST 50 - materials for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressers, J.; Cat, R. de; Fenske, E.


    A combined approach which would yield differential information regarding both crack initiation and crack growth from a single test specimen has been adopted to study the low cycle fatigue behaviour of PM Astrology over a range of testing conditions (temperature, strain-rate, plastic strain-amplitude) which span the range from cycle dependent to time dependent low cycle fatigue. It appears that both crack initiation and crack growth depend in a non-systematic manner on the testing parameters, which results from the simultaneous action of several time dependent processes. These time-dependent processes cause Tomkins' crack growth model to fail to correctly predict the number of cycles spent in crack growth at the high-temperature, low strain-rate end of the test parameter spectrum. At the other end of the test parameter spectrum the match with the experimental data is fortuitious since the laws governing the crack growth behaviour for crack sizes below and beyond approximately 200 (short crack growth behaviour and higher order dependence of the crack growth rate on the crack depth, respectively) deviate from the crack growth law which is at the basis of Tomkins' model. The experimental crack increment data are used to compute fracture mechanics lives. It is suggested that these fracture mechanics lives are appropriate lower bound estimates of the life of PM Astrology containing defects such as inclusions.

  4. Casebooks in Early Modern England: (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren


    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  5. Alexandria, An emporium in the Silk Road, and the Traffic of Unusual Medicines. (United States)

    Rosso, Ana Maria


    In Ancient times, an active trade of exotic and peculiar drugs tool place along the Silk Road. Coming through China, India, Central Asia, Armenia, including Colchis, Arabia, Nubia as far as Greece and Rome, it was centered during Ptolemaic and Roman times in Alexandria, the world Emporium, remarkably advanced in scientific medicine. Physicians required a variety of active ingredients for their pharmacotherapy, following various related branches of medicine. These included: 1) herbal remedies: including toxic plants 2) polypharmacy: missing together all kind of drugs 3) dreckapotheke or copropharmacy, employing unclean materials 4) organic therapy, using exotic or domestic animal products 5) aromatherapy, lined to essential oils and perfumes 6) 'medical astrology and botany', regarding the laws of sympathy in the natural world 7) alchemy and magic medicine: with occult knowledge

  6. Otoman encounters with European science: sixtienth and seventeenth-century translations into turkish (United States)

    Gunegrun, Feza

    The article concerns the traslation of medical and geographical texts from Arabic, Persian and European languages during Middle Age. The following astonomical texts are mentioned: a)Si fasl der marifet-i takvim (The thirty Chapters of Calendar Making) b)Er- Risaletu'l-fethiyye fi'l- hey'e (Astronomical treatise glorifying the Triump) by Ali Qushji, translated bySeydi Ali Reis c)The European astronomical Tables by Nathalis Durret (1590-1650)translated by Tezkireci Kose Ibrahim (1635-1663) d)Secenel-al-aflak fi gayet al idrak (Mirror of the Heavens and the Summit of Perception)translated by Tezkireci Kose Ibrahim Effendi. It is noted, that Ottoman astrologers and timekeepers used the tables by Ulug Beg till the mid- eighteenth century. e) The astronomical tables by Alexis Clairot (1713-165) were translated by Helifezade Cinari Ismail Effendi.

  7. Bashing Pseudoscience in Academia (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Robinson, G. M.; Moulton, J.


    Belief in paranormal, supernatural and other new-age claims is increasing according to surveys by the NSF and others. Astronomy-related pseudo-scientific beliefs are especially common. For example, more than thirty percent of Americans consider astrology to be scientific and more than one-third believe that extraterrestrial beings have visited earth at some time in the past. Not only do such beliefs ignore sound reasoning and information but they compete as alternative explanations for the world around us. While a general education might be expected to reduce acceptance of unsound beliefs, the level of such belief is surprisingly high among those with a higher education. An astronomer, a philosopher and a psychologist cooperated in developing a brief college course designed to challenge unsound reasoning and information, and to inoculate the participants with skepticism. Pre- and post-course opinion surveys show significant changes in belief.

  8. Abrahán Enseña astronomía: el prototipo bíblico del estudio del cómputo en las abadías Benedictinas de Cava de' Tirreni y Ripoll. (United States)

    Castiñeiras González, M. A.

    In two miscellanies of computus from the abbeys of Cava de' Tirreni (XI century) and Santa María de Ripoll (XII century) an interesting illumination with the patriarch Abraham teaching three Egyptian disciples in secrets of cosmos was represented. The image, not documented in the Vulgata, is derived from a Jewish-Hellenistic tradition that presented Hebrews preceding Egyptians and Greeks in scientific knowledge. The representation of this subject is related to the teaching of astronomy in the Benedictine abbeys to determine the times (horas canonicae) and dates of Easter. But the Isidore's text which accompanies the illumination explains its real meaning: thanks to astrology, that had even practiced by Abraham, magicians were able to determine the birth of Christ. However this event put an end to superstition and was the beginning of Christian time.

  9. Astronomical knowledge transmission through illustrated Aratea manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Marion


    This carefully researched monograph is a historical investigation of the illustrated Aratea astronomical manuscript and its many interpretations over the centuries. Aratus' 270 B.C.E. Greek poem describing the constellations and astrological phenomena was translated and copied over 800 years into illuminated manuscripts that preserved and illustrated these ancient stories about the constellations. The Aratea survives in its entirety due to multiple translations from Greek to Latin and even to Arabic, with many illuminated versions being commissioned over the ages. The survey encompasses four interrelated disciplines: history of literature, history of myth, history of science, and history of art. Aratea manuscripts by their nature are a meeting place of these distinct branches, and the culling of information from historical literature and from the manuscripts themselves focuses on a wider, holistic view; a narrow approach could not provide a proper prospective. What is most essential to know about this work is...

  10. Astronomy across cultures the history of non-Western astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaochun, Sun


    Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  11. Solar Wear Tattoo: New Technology Through the use of Different Material Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Vanessa da Graça


    Full Text Available This study comes within the framework of a PhD course in Design, which is the continuation of a Masters Degree research in Fashion Design, searching for wardrobe technology and innovation through material behaviour. The intent of this project is to present solutions that promote a new and versatile product allowing for a different kind of aesthetic. This will be achieved through different materials with different behaviours that when put together create an innovative technology thus creating a new practice of body art, through the use of fashionable beachwear created with this technology. This technology allows the transformation of the suntan marks left by female swimwear. This will result in the creation of designs and drawings on the body, using shapes inspired by the Oriental Zodiac Signs, as well as colours drawn from the five elements of Feng Shui, which are also present in the Western Astrological Signs.

  12. The inspiration of astronomical phenomena (INSAP). Proceedings. Conference, Rocca di Papa (Italy), 27 Jun - 2 Jul 1994. (United States)

    The papers concern the inspiration provided by astronomy to the fields of art, philosophy, religion and various human cultures. Individual papers cover the following topics: the Qur'anic conception of astronomical phenomena on Islamic civilization, the Milky Way and society, the mythology and ritual of India, the Varanasi Sun temples, celestial bodies meanings in pre-Hispanic Mexico, the celestial basis of civilization, Mexican eclipse imagery, Chinese dynastic ideology - astrological origins, NW Europe stone rows, stars and seasons in southern Africa, the Pleiades and Hesperides, stars and philosophy, the search for extraterrestrial life, the significance of the pre-Copernican revolution, Judaeo-Christian revelation, Maria Magdalena - the Morning Star, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, stellar poetry, John Bauer's star-spangled fairy-tale world, Polish romantic poetry, the expansion of astronomical horizons, recent comet research and ancient sky implications, civilization Spenglerian model and punctuational crises, Anaxagoras and the scientist/laity interaction.

  13. Galilei's astronomical discoveries using the telescope and their evaluation found in a writing-calendar from 1611 (United States)

    Herbst, K.-D.


    Yearly calendars were a mass-produced article in early modern times and had an enormous importance in everyday life. Besides a first part, the Calendarium with the monthly tables, they contain a second part, the astrological Prognosticum. At first, the two parts were sold separately. In the second half of the 17th century, the parts were designed as a unity and sold together. The calendars in quart format contain texts which are so interesting that historical research should give them more consideration. Such a text is found, e.g., in the second part of the calendar for 1611, written by Paul Nagel, astronomer and rector of the school in Torgau. Nagel informs about Galilei's discoveries with the telescope. The (Latin) text was written in August 1610. This text is presented and put into perspective in the scientific debates of the time about the telescope as a new invention with consequences to philosophy.

  14. Reviews Equipment: Chameleon Nano Flakes Book: Requiem for a Species Equipment: Laser Sound System Equipment: EasySense VISION Equipment: UV Flash Kit Book: The Demon-Haunted World Book: Nonsense on Stilts Book: How to Think about Weird Things Web Watch (United States)


    WE RECOMMEND Requiem for a Species This book delivers a sober message about climate change Laser Sound System Sound kit is useful for laser demonstrations EasySense VISION Data Harvest produces another easy-to-use data logger UV Flash Kit Useful equipment captures shadows on film The Demon-Haunted World World-famous astronomer attacks pseudoscience in this book Nonsense on Stilts A thought-provoking analysis of hard and soft sciences How to Think about Weird Things This book explores the credibility of astrologers and their ilk WORTH A LOOK Chameleon Nano Flakes Product lacks good instructions and guidelines WEB WATCH Amateur scientists help out researchers with a variety of online projects

  15. Attitudes and Views of Medical Students toward Science and Pseudoscience. (United States)

    Peña, Adolfo; Paco, Ofelia


    To know opinions, attitudes and interest of medical students toward science and pseudoscience. A questionnaire was administered to 124 medical students of the San Marcos University in Lima, Peru. 173 students were surveyed. The response rate was 72%. Eighty-three percent (100/121) of respondents said that science is the best source of knowledge, 67% (82/123) said they were interested in science and technology news, 76% said they had not read any science magazine or book (other than medical texts and journals) in the last five years. Thirteen percent (16/124) of respondents said that astrology is "very scientific" and 40% (50/124) stated that it is "sort of scientific." 50% of respondents shared the opinion that some people possess psychic powers. Medical students' attitudes toward science are generally not favorable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Iulian TOROCZKAI


    Full Text Available This study looks into how Ioan Petru Culianu illustrated some of his ideas, as a historian of religions and as a philosopher of culture, in one of his literary works, The Emeralds Game. This novel is more than mere detective fiction, it is also a magic and esoteric novel, and to understand it we need to refer to magic, astrologic or geomantic practices. This means the considerations the author expressed in his other essential scientific works are “logically” extended, continued in this literary writing. The contemporaneity of the work is suggested by the significant fictional world it proposes, a world where the political blends with the religious, where reality blends with the psychological, science with adventure; all these aspects bring this novel to the same level with other similar novels, like Umberto Eco’s Name of the Rose or Dan Brown’s Da Vinci Code.

  17. The five elements and Chinese-American mortality. (United States)

    Smith, Gary


    D. P. Phillips, T. E. Ruth, and L. M. Wagner (1993) reported that 1969-1990 California mortality data show that Chinese Americans are particularly vulnerable to diseases that Chinese astrology and traditional Chinese medicine associate with their birth years. For example, because fire is associated with the heart, a Chinese person born in a fire year (such as 1937) is more likely to die of heart disease than is a Chinese person born in a nonfire year. However, many diseases were excluded from this study, some diseases that were included have ambiguous links to birth years, and the statistical tests were indirect. A more complete statistical analysis and independent California mortality data for the years 1960-1968 and 1991-2002 did not replicate the original results. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Psychology and survival. (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M


    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Horacio de Freitas


    Full Text Available If something is usually considered to be remarkable about “The origin of German tragic drama”, a book written by Walter Benjamin in order to be a postulant as a teacher at the University, is its conceptual richness and innovation. This essay tries to accomplish two objectives: On the one hand, to understand the sense of one of these notions, that of melancholy, which is so important for Benjamin both in this work and all along his philosophical production. On the other hand, an attempt is made to investigate both implicit and explicit sources used by the philosopher to refer to the term under consideration. This will lead us to deal with classic medicine authors such as Hippocrates and Galen, from the renacentist astrological ideological repertoire such as Ficino and some Freudian proposals about mourning and melancholy.

  20. Diseño automático de redes de neuronas artificiales para la predicción de series temporales


    Peralta Donate, Juan


    El ser humano ha avanzado mucho, tecnológicamente hablando, en el último siglo. La sed por descubrir e innovar no tiene límites y cómo no, aplicar dichas innovaciones para nuestro provecho y bienestar general. Uno de los campos de investigación a los que se ha aplicado dicha innovación es la predicción. Al hablar de predicción, lo primero que nos puede venir a la cabeza son temas no tan científicos como la astrología o la lectura de manos, pero en realidad, diversos métodos estadísticos y mat...

  1. [On iatrochemistry, one of its prominent supporters, Otto Tachen, and his principal work]. (United States)

    Asholt, O


    A survey is given of the transition in the 1600-years from superstition, humoral pathology, astrology, alchemy to spagyric medicine - the Paracelsian revolutionary new medicine: iatrochemistry. A number of persons are mentioned who participated in the proces where the old mingled with the new. The efforts of developping a chemistry necessary for iatrochemistry resulted in a great interest in tectbooks and courses in chemistry as well as spagyric pharmacopoeas. The most important persons in this work are mentioned aming whom a rather unknown-but nevertheless significant physician, Otto Tachen, is particularly described. His work and writings are mentioned and commented-especially his main work: "Antiwuissimae Hippocratiocae medicinae clavis". The provenance of my copy of thes book is related. Tho persons with relation to Denmark are met with: the count Christian Albert of Gottorp and Helwig Bieterich that in a periode the doctor of the crownprince of Denmark (the som of Christian IV).

  2. Die New Age beweging - oorsig en beoordeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. de Bruyn


    Full Text Available The New Age Movement (NAM is a leaderless but powerful network, working to bring about radical change in the world. In fact the NAM is a transplantation of Hindu philosophy, with Buddist elements from the East to the West. This article explicates the origin of the NAM and describes its mystic, occult and feminist character. In the article it is stated that the NAM rests on monistic and astrological pillars and that its main doctrines are as follows: pantheism, emanation (instead of creation, reincarnation and the fact that Christ is one of the great Masters controlling the world. The views and doctrines of the NAM are then judged in the light of Scripture.

  3. The Books of Chilam Balam: astronomical content and the Paris Codex. (United States)

    Paxton, M.

    Written predominantly in the Maya language but almost entirely in European script, the Books of Chilam Balam are post-Conquest counterparts of pre-Columbian hieroglyphic codices. Not all of the texts have been fully analyzed. The Books of Chilam Balam is historical celendrical, astrological, prophetic, medical, and religious, these works offer promise of broad information on pre-Hispanic Maya practices. In reviewing the astronomical content of the sections of the Books of Chilam Balam identified in the Miram study as generally pre-Columbian in origin, it is evident that some passages contain complex metaphors. Thus it is possible to gain some understanding of the celestial concepts of the ancient Maya from the poetic and esoteric accounts. However, as much of this information may pass unnoticed by non-Mayans, the clearest insights concerning pre-Columbian Maya astronomy come from the sections of the Books of Chilam Balam that are more computational in nature.

  4. N18, powder metallurgy superalloy for disks: Development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedou, J.Y.; Lautridou, J.C.; Honnorat, Y. (SNECMA, Evry (France). Materials and Processes Dept.)


    The preliminary industrial development of a powder metallurgy (PM) superalloy, designated N18, for disk applications has been completed. This alloy exhibits good overall mechanical properties after appropriate processing of the material. These properties have been measured on both isothermally forged and extruded billets, as well as on specimens cut from actual parts. The temperature capability of the alloy is about 700 C for long-term applications and approximately 750 C for short-term use because of microstructural instability. Further improvements in creep and crack propagation properties, without significant reduction in tensile strength, are possible through appropriate thermomechanical processing, which results in a large controlled grain size. Spin pit tests on subscale disks have confirmed that the N18 alloy has a higher resistance than PM Astrology and is therefore an excellent alloy for modern turbine disk applications.

  5. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters. (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward


    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  6. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H


    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  7. Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602). (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman


    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons.

  8. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric


    Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. PMID:24744920

  9. Cosmic Perspectives (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.


    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  10. Revision and Re-enchantment of the Legacy of Psychology from a Half Century of Consciousness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Grof


    Full Text Available Drawing on observations from more than fifty years of research into an important subgroup of non-ordinary states of consciousness that he calls holotropic, the author suggests a revision of some basic assumptions of modern psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The proposed changes involve the nature of consciousness and its relationship to matter, dimensions of the human psyche, the roots of emotional and psychosomatic disorders, and therapeutic strategy. In the light of the new observations, spirituality appears to be an essential attribute of the human psyche and of existence in general. An important and controversial subject that could be only tangentially addressed in the context of this paper is the importance of archetypal psychology and astrology for consciousness research.

  11. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H


    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  12. Elementi di astrologia nel Decameron censurato di Luigi Groto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lazar


    Full Text Available The censored version of the Decameron by Luigi Groto, which was published in 1588, was already the third censorship of Boccaccio's masterpiece during the Counter-Reformation. As opposed to the other two censured versions, this one did not place emphasis on philological questions, but it tried above all to narratively fill the gaps created by expurgation; in some cases following the original plot and in the others changing it to such a degree that the novels remained barely recognizable. This article exposes some characteristics of Groto's mannerist style; especially the elements of astrology, which emerge in the expurgated parts of the text, and the way these elements function when inserted into Boccaccio's text.

  13. Signs vs. Causes? An Epistemological Approach to Prognosis in the Latin Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fidora


    Full Text Available From the 12th century onwards, prognostic disciplines were part and parcel of the Latin ordo scientiarum. This is true for astrology and divination as well as for medicine and weather forecasting. While scholarly research has focused very much on the moral discussions of knowledge of the future in the Middle Ages, the epistemological challenge of integrating this form of knowledge into a coherent theoretical framework has been neglected so far. This article shows how the traditional account of prognostic disciplines as sign-based forms of knowledge was revised and refined during the 13 th century in the light of new philosophical (Aristotelian and also theological paradigms. As a result of this, Latin philosophers and theologians established important criteria which allowed for a clear-cut epistemological distinction between different forms of prognostic signs and thus radicalized the discussion about the legitimacy of some prognostic disciplines.

  14. The Luminaries: A D―ned Fine Tale, but of What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scheckter


    Full Text Available The Luminaries (2013, Eleanor Catton’s novel of nineteenth-century New Zealand, has won wide international acclaim, including the Man Booker Prize. Yet many readers find the work exasperating to read—a “nightmare,” to use a term Catton herself suggests. In large measure, this response emerges from Catton’s use of heavy structuring devices, particularly astrology and mathematics, that pertain to the time period of her fiction. These frameworks tend to make totalizing claims, often through causal or linear progression, and to support modern, realistic protocols of reading. As this essay demonstrates, Catton undercuts those claims, and frustrates such readings, by emphasizing multiple paths of comprehension and multiple voices of narration. The Luminaries embraces its multiple structural mechanisms, but is not dominated by any of them.

  15. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars (United States)

    Minti, Hari


    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  16. A Course in Science and Pseudoscience (United States)

    Taylor, Richard


    A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.

  17. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Blomstedt


    Full Text Available Herbowski (2013 suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned.

  18. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts (United States)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  19. Measuring Science Literacy in College Undergraduates (United States)

    Impey, Chris David; Buxner, S. R.; Antonellis, J.; King, C.; Johnson, E.; CATS


    Initial results from a major study of scientific literacy are presented, involving nearly 10,000 undergraduates in science classes at a large Southwestern Land Grant public university over a 20-year period. The science content questions overlap with those in the NSF's Science Indicators series. About 10% of all undergraduates in the US take a General Education astronomy course, and NSF data and the work of Jon Miller show that the number of college science courses taken is the strongest predictor of civic scientific literacy. Our data show that gains in knowledge on any particular item through the time students graduate are only 10-15%. Among students who have taken most or all of their science requirements, one-in-three think that antibiotics kill viruses as well as bacteria, one-in-four think lasers work by focusing sound waves, one-in-five think atoms are smaller than electrons, and the same fraction is unaware that humans evolved from earlier species of animals and that the Earth takes a year to go around the Sun. The fraction of undergraduates saying that astrology is "not at all” scientific increases from 17% to a still-low 34% as they move through the university. Equally worrying, half of all science majors say that astrology is "sort of” or "very” scientific. Education majors - the cohort of future teachers - perform worse than average on most individual questions and in terms of their overall scientific literacy. Assuming the study institution is representative of the nation's higher education institutions, our instruction is not raising students to the level we would expect for educated citizens who must vote on many issues that relate to science and technology. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  20. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon


    We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers) and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology) of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contents of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson's Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson's Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson's Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern) published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts that Choson

  1. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn


    Full Text Available We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contnts of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson`s Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson`s Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson`s Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts

  2. Teaching evolution: challenging religious preconceptions. (United States)

    Lovely, Eric C; Kondrick, Linda C


    Teaching college students about the nature of science should not be a controversial exercise. College students are expected to distinguish between astronomy and astrology, chemistry and alchemy, evolution and creationism. In practice, however, the conflict between creationism and the nature of science may create controversy in the classroom, even walkouts, when the subject of evolution is raised. The authors have grappled with the meaning of such behaviors. They surveyed 538 students in a public, liberal arts college. Pre/post course surveys were analyzed to track changes in student responses to questions that were either consistent or inconsistent with the Theory of Evolution after a semester of instruction in a college biology or zoology course in which evolution was taught. Many students who were initially undecided about issues regarding evolution had shifted in their viewpoints by the end of the course. It was found that more education about the evidence for and the mechanics of evolutionary processes did not necessarily move students toward a scientific viewpoint. The authors also discovered a "wedge" effect among students who were undecided about questions pertaining to human ancestry at the beginning of the course. About half of these students shifted to a scientific viewpoint at the end of the course; the other half shifted toward agreement with statements consistent with creationism.

  3. Johannes Kepler and the Supernova of 1604 (United States)

    Boner, P. J.


    The brilliant luminary that first appeared in October 1604 was considered by many contemporaries to be a new star of unrivalled magnitude. Shining forth near the historic conjunction of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, the new star held important implications for several areas of interest, notably astrology, astronomy, chronology and theology. Addressing all of these areas in his comprehensive book, De stella nova (1606), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) studied the new star extensively under the aegis of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612) in Prague. The focus of the following presentation is Kepler's theory of the new star's origins in the celestial ether. Describing the heavens poetically as a fertile expanse of "liquid fields", Kepler suggested that the new star sprung from the celestial ether much like the numerous living beings in the sublunary realm which were spontaneously generated from the Earth. As evidence for his claim, Kepler pointed to the conspicuous mathematical patterns similarly observed in earthly and celestial entities. Kepler's efficient cause for this explanation, known as the animate faculty, accounted for both the generation and form of new phenomena in the celestial and terrestrial realms. The new star of 1604 proved to be no exception.

  4. Ahmad al-Damanhūrī (1689-1778) and the utility of expertise in early modern Ottoman Egypt. (United States)

    Murphy, Jane H


    Eighteenth-century Arabic manuscripts in the "uncommon sciences"--a range of mathematical, astronomical, astrological, medical, and divinatory practices-number in the thousands. In light of the economic and social upheaval over the eighteenth century this sustained production must be understood from perspectives of both intellectual and social history. Ahmad al-Damanhūrī's writings and his rise from rural orphan to head of al-Azhar Mosque suggest the role and value of expertise in the uncommon sciences, particularly as these fields brought religious scholars and ruling military elites into close relations. Precisely because the uncommon sciences bridged these two social classes, this expertise was important for individuals' social and intellectual formation. Recognizing the significance of the uncommon sciences for the history of this period offers a new reading of the work of the chronicler 'Abd al-Rahmān al-Jabartī, who used language and exemplars from the uncommon sciences to reflect on the proper and just relationship between expertise (embodied by the religious scholarly class) and the emerging state.

  5. [Thomas Fincke and trigonometry]. (United States)

    Schönbeck, Jürgen


    Thomas Fincke (January 6th, 1561 - April 24th, 1650), born in Flensburg (Germany), was one of the very most important and significant scientists in Denmark during the seventeenth century, a mathematician and astrologer and physician in the beginning of modern science, a representative of humanism and an influentual academic organizer. He studied in Strasbourg (since 1577) and Padua (since 1583) and received his M.D. in Basel (1587), he practised as a physician throughtout his life (since 1587 or 1590) and became a professor at Copenhagen (1591). But he was best known because of his Geometriae rotundi libri XIIII (1583), a famous book on plane and spherical trigonometry, based not on Euclid but on Petrus Ramus. In this influentual work, in which Fincke introduced the terms tangent and secant and probable first noticed the Law of Tangents and the so-called Newton-Oppel-Mauduit-Simpson-Mollweide-Gauss-formula, he showed himself to be ,,abreast of the mathematics of his time".

  6. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public? (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.


    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  7. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality (United States)

    Janis, Allen I.


    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  8. Genetic aspects of population policy. (United States)

    Morton, N E


    Every science begins in folklore and matures as it reacts against dogma and myth. Astronomy developed in the Neolithic, but it did not outgrow astrology until the sixteenth century. Chemistry discarded alchemy at about the same time. On the contrary, the short history of genetics has been concurrent with the pseudo-science of eugenics, which, at times, has been widely accepted and incorporated in population policy and directive genetic counselling, with rare opposition by geneticists. Societal pressures are likely to increase with the power of genetic technology, the fear it generates and the perception that population growth threatens human welfare. Without a pertinent ethical code, geneticists are vulnerable to both temptation and opprobrium. The intrusion of eugenics into genetic counselling has been a recent source of concern to societies and congresses of genetics. This review traces the causes of this concern and the manner of its expression in the absence of an international voice for genetics that could address ethical and other common interests.

  9. 0.4°S 32.7°E: Censorinus and His ‘Astronomical’ Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pobežin


    Full Text Available Even though seldom heard of today, Censorinus was not an unimportant author in Late Antiquity or even in the early modern period. Quoted over and over again by later authors, among them Copernicus, this grammarian was recognised for one of his most outstanding qualities – the ability to compile sources. Not an original thinker himself, Censorinus managed to compile and organise the knowledge ranging from the works of Aristotle to the astrological tablets of the Chaldaeans, arranging it all around the central theme of his work – birthdays, particularly the birthday of his patron Quintus Caerellius. In his only extant oeuvre De die natali, a ‘golden little book’ (Vossius, Censorinus addressed a vast variety of different themes from literature, music, history, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, embryology, even history, and calendars of different Mediterranean peoples. His work is divided into two principal parts concerning conception (and birth and time, the division line between the two parts being the praise for Quintus Caerellius. The two parts seem to have little in common at first glance, but this colourful review of different themes seems to have one main purpose: to elevate the importance of Caerellius’ birthday as high as possible.

  10. Cognition and belief in paranormal phenomena: gestalt/feature-intensive processing theory and tendencies toward ADHD, depression, and dissociation. (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Matthews, Justin; Asten, Janet


    Belief in paranormal phenomena and cryptids--unknown animals such as Bigfoot--may predispose individuals to interpret real-world objects and events in the same way that eyewitness identification can be biased by unrelated information (P. James and N. Thorpe, 1999). Psychological tendencies toward attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dissociation, and depression, even at subclinical levels, may be associated systematically with particular paranormal or cryptozoological beliefs. The authors evaluated these psychological tendencies using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (C. K. Conners, D. Erhardt, and E. Sparrow, 1999), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (L. Coleman & J. Clark, 1999), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, 1996). They performed regression analyses against beliefs in ghosts, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), extrasensory perception (ESP), astrology, and cryptids. ADHD, dissociation, and depression were associated with enhanced tendencies toward paranormal and cryptozoological beliefs, although participants who believed in each of the phenomena differed from one another in predictable and psychologically distinguishable ways. Cognitively biasing influences of preexisting psychological tendencies may predispose individuals to specific perceptual and cognitive errors during confrontation of real-world phenomena.

  11. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration. (United States)

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J


    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  12. Hvězdářství krále Jana (United States)

    Černá, Alena M.; Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena; Stluka, Martin

    The critical edition of the collection "King John's Astronomy" is based on the Old Czech manuscript written at the beginning of the 15th century which is preserved at the Library of the National Museum in Prague (ms. II F 14). The collection consists of several separate parts - first of all it contains astronomical and astrological treatises refering to Ptolemy's works. Explanations on the impact of the seven planets and twelve zodiacal signs on the fate of man, who was born under their influence, prevail in the texts. The texts which are connected with Hippocrates and Galenos' doctrines about humoral physiology and humoral pathology are another subject. They are supplemented by a treatise on blood-letting and by pharmaceutical instructions on different weight units. Another treatise deals with God, God's acts and with human fate. The manuscript also contains calendar tools for the calculation of Easter and other feasts during the year. The origin of this Old Czech text coincides with the period of the development of national languages as languages of science. Vocabulary contained in the manuscript is rich. It yields evidence about the formation of terminological systems in various fields involved in the collection. The Old Czech language of this literary monument exhibits unexpectedly archaic features. The present edition is a result of interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers from the fields of diachronic Bohemistics, classical philology, and astronomy. The publication is completed with the critical apparatus, indices, vocabulary, by a list of the chosen literature and other related supplements.

  13. The last ride of Henry II of France: orbital injury and a king's demise. (United States)

    Eftekhari, Kian; Choe, Christina H; Vagefi, M Reza; Eckstein, Lauren A


    Jousting was a popular pastime for royalty in the Renaissance era. Injuries were common, and the eye was particularly at risk from the splinters of the wooden lance. On June 30, 1559, Henry II of France participated in a jousting tournament to celebrate two royal weddings. In the third match, Gabriel de Montgomery struck Henry on the right shoulder and the lance splintered, sending wooden shards into his face and right orbit. Despite being cared for by the prominent physicians Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, the king died 10 days later and was found to have a cerebral abscess. The wound was not explored immediately after the injury; nevertheless, wooden foreign bodies were discovered in the orbit at the time of autopsy. The dura had not been violated, suggesting that an infection may have traveled from the orbit into the brain. Nostradamus and Luca Guarico, the astrologer to the Medici family, had prophesied the death of Henry II of France, but he ignored their warnings and thus changed the course of history in Renaissance Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Newton’s apple and other myths about science

    CERN Document Server

    Kampourakis, Kostas


    A falling apple inspired Isaac Newton’s insight into the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But the more intriguing question is why such stories endure as explanations of how science happens. Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of great scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present. Among the myths refuted in this volume is the idea that no science was done in the Dark Ages, that alchemy and astrology were purely superstitious pursuits, that fear of public reaction alone led Darwin to delay publishing his theory of evolution, and that Gregor Mendel was far ahead of his time as a pioneer of genetics. Several twentieth-century myths about particle physics, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and more are discredited here as well. In addition, a number of broad generalizations about science go under the microscope of history: the notion that religion impeded science, that scientists typically a...

  15. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

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    Natasha Kate


    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  16. Tycho Brahe, Abu Mashar, and the comet beyond Venus (ninth century A.D.)

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Mugrauer, Markus; Luge, Daniela; van Gent, Rob


    From his observations of the A.D. 1572 super-nova and the A.D. 1577 comet, Tycho Brahe concluded that such transient celestial objects are outside the Earth's atmosphere, and he quoted the 9th century A.D. Persian astrologer and astronomer Abu Mashar: Dixit Albumasar, Cometa supra Venerem visus fuit, i.e. that he had reported much earlier that comets were seen beyond Venus. However, even from a more detailed Latin translation, the observations and logic behind Abu Mashar's conclusion were not understandable. We present here the original Arabic text (MS Ankara, Saib 199) together with our translation and interpretation: Abu Mashar reported that he had observed Venus in (or projected onto) the tail of a comet and concluded that the comet was behind Venus, because he had observed the extinction of Venus due to the cometary tail to be negligible (light of Venus was unimpaired). He then concluded that the comet would be located behind Venus. He also mentioned that others had observed Jupiter and Saturn in cometary...

  17. Ambitious For Power in Shakespeare’s Macbeth

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    Mustafa Mustafa


    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the ambition of a king’s servant in Shakespeare’s, 'Macbeth'. Because of three witches (astrologer advice which said that if he wants to be a king later, and to reach his ambition, he must kill his king and his close friend, Banquo. It means that he must use all way to reach his goals. But in the end, he got killed because his deed in reaching for his goals goes through by wrong way. This writing is expected to contribute for further research focused on whom is interested in English literary. This writing also included in descriptive interpretative discourse analyzes. The technique of collecting data is done by using inventory technique. Abstrak: Tulisan ini bertujuan menggambarkan ambisi seorang abdi raja dalam Macbeth karya Shakespeare. Karena ucapan dari tiga penyihir (ahli nujun yang mengatakan bahwa kelak akan menjadi raja dan untuk mencapainya harus membunuh raja serta teman dekatnya, Banquo, ia harus menggunakan berbagai macam cara agar tujuan tersebut tercapai. Namun, pada akhirnya, ia terbunuh karena perbuatan tersebut dilakukannya dengan cara yang salah. Tulisan ini diharapakan dapat memberikan sumbangan pemikiran utamanya bagi peminat kesusastraan Inggris. Tulisan ini menggunakan metode analisis wacana deskriptif interpretatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan inventory technique. Kata-Kata Kunci: ambisi; pengkhianatan; dan konspirasi.

  18. New Perspectives in Planetarium Lectures: How to Tell Science under the Dome while Preserving the "Enchantment" (United States)

    Gandolfi, G.; Catanzaro, G.; Giovanardi, S.; Masi, G.; Vomero, V.


    We discuss the philosophy and strategy of a modern planetarium lecture within the larger frame of the communication of astronomy. The planetarium is a peculiar medium that requires a creative and rigorous approach in order to balance the three motivating forces behind the 'planetarium experience': scientific knowledge (method and contents); technological 'sense of wonder' and a pre-rational (not necessarily anti-rational) sense of 'enchantment'. While scientific and technological resources are typically fully exploited in state-of-the-art domes, the latter concept-introduced by Max Weber in order to categorize the mystic/aesthetic impact of nature on the human mind-has not been sufficiently explored. To use it effectively demands an understanding of the public perception of astronomy, stressing the crucial role of professional communication skills for the effective communication of science. Rather than enforcing a narrow focus on pure science and/or a crusade against astrology, we believe that the planetarium experience should be a stimulating reawakening of curiosity and a holistic awareness of the sky and hence of the Universe. Fine tuning of the above three components makes the classical confl ict between the boring academic lecture under the stars versus disneyish, supertechnological shows obsolete. We present some approaches for creating "fine-tuned lectures", with examples from our experience at the Rome Planetarium.

  19. El mundo mágico en el Madrid de los Austrias a través de las cartas, avisos y relaciones de sucesos

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    Vitar, Beatriz


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the different expressions of the magic in Madrid under the Hapsburgs, in the context of the Baroque mentality and the morality of the Counter-Reformation. These expressions were, among others, asthrology, the casting of horoscopes, palmistry, witchcraft and the interpretation of unusual or extraordinary events. The author aims to show the way in which the Crown as well as the Church often used these expressions for their own interests, thereby preserving the status quo and the people's disfranchisement.

    En este artículo se analizan las distintas manifestaciones de lo mágico en el Madrid de los Austrias, en el marco de la mentalidad del Barroco y de la moral contrarreformista. Entre los aspectos estudiados se encuentran prácticas mágicas tales como la astrología y la confección de horóscopos, la quiromancia o la brujería, así como sucesos anormales o extraordinarios. A través de este estudio se intenta mostrar el modo en que dichas manifestaciones eran manipuladas por la monarquía y la Iglesia en su provecho, a fin de mantener el statu-quo y la sumisión de los súbditos.

  20. Chinese Seal Clasp–Meeting technology and elegance with functional goals

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    Kong Mario


    Full Text Available This study comes within the framework of a PhD course in Design, which is the continuation of a Masters degree research in Fashion Design, searching for wardrobe technology and innovation, through the use of three-dimensional computer-aided design and printing, with it’s use already popular in areas related to product development and design, as well as architecture, translating and adapting, integrating it into the world of Fashion. The intent of this project is to present solutions that promote a new and versatile product, allowing for a different kind of aesthetic. This will be achieved and presented through planning and prototyping, thus creating a new clasp for fashion products. This research will result in a finished clasp, with its purpose and function being tested, in order to achieve concrete results, thus creating an innovative technology to be part of a fashion collection that allows the transformation of the suntan marks left by female swimwear. This will result in the creation of designs and drawings on the body, using shapes inspired by the Oriental Zodiac Signs, as well as colours drawn from the five elements of Feng Shui, which are also present in the Western Astrological Signs.

  1. New ways of believing or belonging: is religion giving way to spirituality? (United States)

    Glendinning, Tony; Bruce, Steve


    In this article, the presence of alternative spirituality and practices within the general culture and their relationship to institutional religion are examined using national survey data collected as part of the 2001 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey. Alternative practices are found to divide into two groups of interests: concerns with personal well-being and interest in divination. Better-educated women are much more likely to engage with holistic practices associated with well-being; a minority of younger, less well-educated women are more likely to have found horoscopes, astrology, fortune-telling and tarot 'important in their lives'. Churchgoers find divination antithetical to religion while the use and salience of a range of holistic practices is as acceptable among churchgoers as it is among non-attenders and the secular (once allowance has been made for the connections between putatively alternative practices, gender, age and education). This underscores a focus on personal well-being rather than alternative spirituality in the consumption of holistic products and practices within the general culture. The study findings are used to assess claims for a spiritual revolution in modern Britain.

  2. The influence of the Chinese zodiac on fertility in Hong Kong SAR. (United States)

    Yip, Paul S F; Lee, Joseph; Cheung, Y B


    The annual total of births in Hong Kong SAR fell substantially in the past 20 years; hence the total fertility rate (TFR) followed the downward trend and dropped to a low of 0.9 below replacement level in 2000. Despite the long-term downward trend, short-run increases in the annual total of births and the TFR were exhibited. Such temporary fertility increases are identified in the Dragon Years of 1988 and 2000. The phenomenon of fertility changes associated with zodiacal animal years is examined in this paper with a view to gaining some insight into whether Chinese cultural preferences and folklore beliefs might have influenced prospective parents' reproductive behaviour. The paper explains the underlying philosophy of the Chinese astrological tradition and discusses how zodiacal preferences affect fertility between 1976 and 2000. The paper also explores why zodiacal influences on Chinese fertility before 1976 did not exist. It is unquestionable that the Dragon Year preference exerts an influence on fertility of modern Chinese populations through zodiacal birth-timing motivations. Birth rate rise in the Dragon Year is due to changes in timing of births that will have little effect on cumulative fertility.

  3. Perceptions of Eighth Graders Concerning the Aim, Effectiveness, and Scientific Basis of Pseudoscience: the Case of Crystal Healing (United States)

    Metin, Duygu; Cakiroglu, Jale; Leblebicioglu, Gulsen


    Practices such as astrology or crystal healing can be defined as pseudoscience. Against pseudoscience, one of the major responsibilities of science education must be to develop science-literate individuals who are able to understand what science is, how science is undertaken, how scientific knowledge is constructed, and how it is justified, then they will be able to determine whether a claim is valid and be alert to practices which fall outside the realms of science, especially those in the area of pseudoscience. For this reason, the ability of recognizing flawed process and claims of pseudoscience is referred to one of the crucial parts of science literacy. The present study aimed to uncover middle school students' understanding of the inherent aim of pseudoscientists and pseudoscientific applications related to crystals and to reveal their judgments and justifications regarding the effectiveness and scientific basis of these applications. The present study was qualitative in nature. The results of the study showed that the students were very gullible about the aim, effectiveness, and scientific basis of pseudoscientific practices and in particular the use of crystals. Furthermore, similar to pseudoscientists, the students generally used weak reasoning to evaluate the presented claims and research designs about crystals and crystal healing.

  4. Aion, Eros e Hades nei frammenti caldaici

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    Silvia Lenzi


    Full Text Available The essay deals with some aspects of the knotty question concerning the presence of Aion, Eros and Hades in the variegated universe of the Chaldean Oracles, traditionally attributed to a collaboration between two “Hellenized Magi” of the second c. AD: Julian “the Chaldean” and his son Julian “the Theurgist” (even if the theurgical expertise of the elder Julian, the repository of a more ancient Chaldean tradition, might not involve a direct eastern origin but only his knowledge of “Chaldean” sciences such as astrology and divination”. Aion, who is examined here in terms of his relationship with Chronos, as a more or less autonomous divinity, is mentioned only in the context of some fragments, but his name never appears in the oracular verses. Eros (beloging also to the triad of fr. 46, along with “Faith” and “Truth” stands for an independent cosmological principle whose task is to preserve the universe and the armony of the cosmos. The Chaldean Oracles never make any explicit mention of Hades, who anyway is cited by the Byzantine scholar Psellos as an autonomous divinity of the Chaldeans.

  5. De temperamentis disputatio medica (1593 – a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski

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    Agnieszka Raubo


    Full Text Available The article describes a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski – “De temperamentis disputatio medica” (1593. Naborowski was a poet who lived at the turn of the 17th century and the work considered here is the result of his medical studies in Switzerland. The article addresses the poet’s scholarly interests, but first and foremost, it focuses on the subject of the research – the theory of temperaments. With ancient lineage and extremely popular in the sixteenth century, the theory was most frequently presented in the contexts of physiognomy, astrology and the lesions that were conditioned by the theory, yet in Naborowski’s work, it gained a new, solely theoretical perspec-tive. It was also concerned with the meticulous consideration of the systematics of temperaments (e.g. their differentiation – one was moderate and eight were merged, as well as their detailed division. The style of these considerations is characteristic for medical works of that period, and they constitute an interesting example of how practical issues in 16th and 17th century medicine were systematized. Furthermore, Naborowski’s considerations are a vivid example of permeable nature of disciplines – philosophy and medicine, and medicine with the broadly understood field of the humanities.

  6. Free will and paranormal beliefs

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    Ken eMogi


    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  7. Practical Divinity and Medical Ethics: Lawful versus Unlawful Medicine in the Writings of William Perkins (1558–1602) (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman


    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between “lawful” and “unlawful” medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  8. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério


    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  9. Circulation of Stars (United States)

    Boitani, P.


    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  10. Ways of Presenting Love in Ancient Sanskrit Literature

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    Fabrizia Baldissera


    Full Text Available This study traces the appearance and relevance of love motifs in Sanskrit texts. It deals with preclassical, classical and medieval literature, with excerpts from the Vedic scriptures, the epics, the normative texts and the courtly formalized Kāvya. Attention is paid to the change in the status of women, whose position becomes gradually more subordinate over time. Several conventional topoi of Sanskrit erotic literature are examined, such as love enjoyed in the union of the lovers, or suffered in their separation; divine love; the traditional belief that women are more passionate than men; the different religious/philosophical schools' outlook towards love; love in the dramatic theory of aesthetic experience; the importance of marriage, and marital love as opposed or complementary to illicit love. Finally there is a brief survey of a few scientific disciplines that have something to say about the experience of love, like Āyurveda, astronomy/astrology, and the treatises on Dharma and those on the science of government.

  11. Starry Cities and Astrolies - Books to communicate with the public (United States)

    Stanic, N.


    Extragalactic worlds have been presented as star cities in a book of original design - STARRY CITIES - galaxies and time travel, the first book about galaxies written in Serbian for the general public. This book isn't written just for those interested in science, but for all kind of artists, philosophers and thinkers. A second book, ASTROLIES deals with common confusions concerning astronomy and astrology. These two books don't only offer interesting illustrations, data from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories - they induce, by provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, a sense of adventure and a challenge to explore. The publisher of both books is the oldest and the biggest publisher of text-books in Serbia, Zavod za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva2, currently celebrating 50 years in publishing (1957-2007). They already publish a dozen books in popular astronomy, but a special astronomical series for the general public was introduced in 2004. STARRY CITIES and ASTROLIES are part of the ongoing multidisciplinary project Astronomy. Inspiration. Art that started at the end of 2004 at the Public Observatory in Belgrade. This project intends to inspire (or perhaps even "infect") artists with cosmic themes and the fantastic scenery of the Universe.

  12. An observation planning algorithm applied to multi-objective astronomical observations and its simulation in COSMOS field (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao


    Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic sky surveys are now booming, such as LAMOST already built by China, BIGBOSS project put forward by the U.S. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) telescope developed by the United States, Mexico and Spain. They all use or will use this approach and each fiber can be moved within a certain area for one astrology target, so observation planning is particularly important for this Sky Surveys. One observation planning algorithm used in multi-objective astronomical observations is developed. It can avoid the collision and interference between the fiber positioning units in the focal plane during the observation in one field of view, and the interested objects can be ovserved in a limited round with the maximize efficiency. Also, the observation simulation can be made for wide field of view through multi-FOV observation. After the observation planning is built ,the simulation is made in COSMOS field using GTC telescope. Interested galaxies, stars and high-redshift LBG galaxies are selected after the removal of the mask area, which may be bright stars. Then 9 FOV simulation is completed and observation efficiency and fiber utilization ratio for every round are given. Otherwise,allocating a certain number of fibers for background sky, giving different weights for different objects and how to move the FOV to improve the overall observation efficiency are discussed.

  13. Low cycle fatigue of PM/HIP astroloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, S.J.; Stoloff, N.S.; Duquette, D.J. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    Low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue-environment interactions of PM/HIP Astrology were studied at 650 C and 725 C. Total strain range was varied from 1.5% to 2.7% at a frequency of 0.3Hz. Creep-fatigue tests were performed with 2 min. or 5 min. tensile hold times. All tests were run in high purity argon in an attempt to minimize environmental effects. Employing a tensile hold was more damaging than raising temperature by 75 C. Slopes of Coffin-Manson plots were nearly independent of temperature and hold time. Raising temperature from 650 C to 725 C did not change the transgranular (TG) crack propagation mode, whereas employing hold times caused TG+IG propagation. All samples displayed multiple fracture origins associated with inclusions located at the specimen surface; pre-existing pores did not affect fatigue crack initiation. Examination of secondary cracks showed no apparent creep damage. Oxidation in high purity argon appeared to be the major factor in LCF life degradation due to hold times.

  14. Free will and paranormal beliefs (United States)

    Mogi, Ken


    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hakan YAMAN


    Full Text Available One of the famous scientists of the Kanuni period, GeliboluluSururi, gained his reputation by his commentary-books and his translations.His commentaries to “Mesnevi” and “Sebistan-i Hayal” which made himfamous, his books in Arabic and Farsi and his translations from theselanguages can be mentioned as major parts of his work. Although it is notexactly known how many books he published, total number of his books areassumed to be around 30 including his translations and compilations. One ofhis translations was famous cosmology book of the time “Kitabü’l-aca’ibve’l-Gara’ib” by Kazvini. Although most of the sources about “Sururi” claimhim to author a book about “ilm-i nücum” (science of stars, the mentionedbook is unfortunately not available in any library. In this article we will try toverify whether Sururi really authored an astrology book, making use ofdependable sources available.

  16. The Inner Meaning of Outer Space: Human Nature and the Celestial Realm

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    Timothy L. Hubbard


    Full Text Available Kant argued that humans possess a priori knowledge of space; although his argument focused on a physics of bodies, it also has implications for a psychology of beings. Many human cultures organize stars in the night sky into constellations (i.e., impose structure; attribute properties, behaviors, and abilities to objects in the celestial realm (i.e., impose meaning; and use perceived regularity in the celestial realms in development of calendars, long-range navigation, agriculture, and astrology (i.e., seek predictability and control. The physical inaccessibility of the celestial realm allows a potent source of metaphor, and also allows projection of myths regarding origin and ascension, places of power, and dwelling places of gods, immortals, and other souls. Developments in astronomy and cosmology infl uenced views of human nature and the place of humanity in the universe, and these changes parallel declines in egocentrism with human development. Views regarding alleged beings (e.g., angels, extraterrestrials from the celestial realm (and to how communicate with such beings are anthropocentric and ignore evolutionary factors in physical and cognitive development. It is suggested that in considering views and uses of the celestial realm, we learn not just about the universe, but also about ourselves. *

  17. Astronomical Books and Charts in the Book of Bibliographie Coreenne

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    Ki-Won Lee


    Full Text Available We investigate astronomical materials listed in the book of Bibliographie Coreenne written by Maurice Courant. He classified ancient Korean books into nine Divisions (部 and thirty six Classes (類, and published them as three volumes (ranging from 1894 to 1896 and one supplement (in 1901. In total, 3,821 books including astronomical ones are listed together with information on physical size, possessional place, bibliographical note, and so forth. Although this book is an essential one in the field of Korea bibliography and contains many astronomical materials such as Cheon-Mun-Ryu-Cho 天文類抄, Si-Heon-Seo 時憲書, and Cheon-Sang-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do 天象列次分野之圖, it has not been well known to the public nor to astronomical society. Of 3,821 catalogues, we found that about 50 Items (種 are related to astronomy or astrology, and verified that most of them are located in the Kyujanggak Royal Library 奎章閣. We also found an unknown astronomical chart, Hon-Cheon-Chong-Seong-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do 渾天總星列次分野之圖. Because those astronomical materials are not well known to international astronomical community and there have been few studies on the materials in Korea, we here introduce and review them, particularly with the astronomical viewpoint.

  18. Astronomical Books and Charts in the Book of Bibliographie Coreenne (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu


    We investigate astronomical materials listed in the book of Bibliographie Coréenne written by Maurice Courant. He classified ancient Korean books into nine Divisions (?) and thirty six Classes (?), and published them as three volumes (ranging from 1894 to 1896) and one supplement (in 1901). In total, 3,821 books including astronomical ones are listed together with information on physical size, possessional place, bibliographical note, and so forth. Although this book is an essential one in the field of Korea bibliography and contains many astronomical materials such as Cheon-Mun-Ryu-Cho ????, Si-Heon-Seo ??????, and Cheon-Sang-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ????????, it has not been well known to the public nor to astronomical society. Of 3,821 catalogues, we found that about 50 Items (?) are related to astronomy or astrology, and verified that most ! of them are located in the Kyujanggak Royal Library ???. We also found an unknown astronomical chart, Hon-Cheon-Chong-Seong-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ??????????. Because those astronomical materials are not well known to international astronomical community and there have been few studies on the materials in Korea, we here introduce and review them, particularly with the astronomical viewpoint.

  19. Hinduism and death with dignity: historic and contemporary case examples. (United States)

    Dewar, Rajan; Cahners, Nancy; Mitchell, Christine; Forrow, Lachlan


    An estimated 1.2 to 2.3 million Hindus live in the United States. End-of-life care choices for a subset of these patients may be driven by religious beliefs. In this article, we present Hindu beliefs that could strongly influence a devout person's decisions about medical care, including end-of-life care. We provide four case examples (one sacred epic, one historical example, and two cases from current practice) that illustrate Hindu notions surrounding pain and suffering at the end of life. Chief among those is the principle of karma, through which one reaps the benefits and penalties for past deeds. Deference to one's spouse or family is another important Hindu value, especially among Hindu women, which can impact the decision-making process and challenge the Western emphasis on autonomy. In addition, the Hindu embrace of astrology can lead to a desire to control the exact time of death. Confounding any generalizations, a Hindu patient may reject or accept treatments based on the individual patient's or family's interpretation of any given tradition. Through an awareness of some of the fundamental practices in Hinduism and the role of individual interpretation within the tradition, clinicians will be better able to support their Hindu patients and families at the end of life. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  20. A Tree-Structured List in a Mathematical Series Text from Mesopotamia (United States)

    Proust, Christine

    The written culture of the Ancient Near East, whose history covers more than three millennia (from the beginning of the third millennium to the end of the first millennium BCE), underwent profound transformations over the centuries and showed many faces according to the region of the vast territory in which it developed. Yet despite the diversity of contexts in which they worked, the scholars of Mesopotamia and neighboring regions maintained and consistently cultivated a true `art of lists', in the fields of mathematics, lexicography, astrology, astronomy, medicine, law and accounting. The study of the writing techniques particular to lists represents therefore an important issue for the understanding of the intellectual history of the Ancient Near East. In this chapter, I consider extreme cases of list structures, and to do this I have chosen very long lists, most items of which are not semantically autonomous. More specifically, I shall study one of the most abstract and concise lists that have come down to us. It belongs to a series, of which one tablet is kept in the Oriental Institute in Chicago (no. A 24194). The study of this case will allow to set forth some of the writing techniques that were particularly developed in the series. Such a study of the structures of the mathematical texts could benefit other areas in Assyriology.

  1. Anania Shirakatsi's Cosmographical and Natural Philosophical Views (United States)

    Danielyan, Eduard


    The observation of the heaven and celestial bodies has taken place since ancient times in the Armenian Highland. The notions of the sphericity of the Earth and celestial bodies, and other theses (about elements, comparative sizes of celestial bodies, antipodes, earthquakes, criticism of astrology, etc.) were reflected and elaborated in "Cosmography" of Anania Shirakatsi (VII century AD), as well as "Ashkharhatsoyts" ("Geography") of Movses Khorenatsi (V century AD) and his continuer Anania Shirakatsi. The road of observation and study of the Milky Way - the fundamental kernel of the development of astronomy - has led the human mind to galaxies, the cognition of the infinite capabilities of the development of matter, that is to say, from the studies of the elements constituting the Earth and other spherical bodies in the Universe (studied by Aristotle) to the Heliocentric system by Copernicus (1473-1543), from the cosmogonic ideas of Democritus (460-370 BC) about the multitude of worlds and the character of the Milky Way and their reflection in natural philosophic views of Anania Shirakatsi to the discovery of non-stationary objects and processes in the Universe owing to the activity of the nuclei of galaxies, according to the cosmogonic conception of academician Victor Ambartsumyan. Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage greatly contributed to the development of Armenian and world natural scientific thought.

  2. Stars come down to Earth As estrelas descem à Terra

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    Luiz Marcelo Brandão Carneiro


    Full Text Available Stars come down to Earth — A little known essay by Theodor W. Adorno, Stars Come Down to Earth is a study about horoscopes and superstition, written in the form of an analysis for the astrology column of the Los Angeles Times in the early 1950s. The German philosopher points out that the texts offered to the reader are an amalgam of the rational and the irrational, revealing the frankly ideological meanderings of their object. Obra não muito conhecida de Theodor W. Adorno, As estrelas descem à Terra é um estudo sobre horóscopo e superstição, originalmente dirigido à coluna de astrologia do Los Angeles Times do início dos anos 1950. O filósofo alemão, pontuando os textos oferecidos aos leitores como um mistura entre o racional e o irracional, revela os meandros do caráter francamente ideológico de seu objeto.

  3. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

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    Wing Lam


    Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art, mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. Martial arts such as Cantonese Hung Gar (Hong Family and Hasayfu Hung Gar (Hong Family Four Lower Tigers dedicate a portion of their systems to achieving awesome strength and speed, and to imitating the tiger’s physical prowess. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

  4. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources. (United States)

    Regier, Jonathan


    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics.

  5. Sociology of religion and the occult revival

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    Lennart Ejerfeldt


    Full Text Available The "new" that makes the cults of the occult revival to "new religions" of the Western world, is their recently increased social significance. Historically most of modern occultism is anything but new. From the research and theorizing about the occult revival we have picked up some main themes. The first is the social diffusion of the new occultism. In this field, we find some studies of superstition, especially astrology. These illuminate the differences in social connotation between the consumers of superstition and the followers of institutional religion. Secondly the study of the occult revival has made valuable contributions to the conceptualizing of "cult" and the cultic phenomenon. Thirdly, we will look upon the connection between the occult revival and the counter-culture. The problem of the rise of cults as a symptom of socio-cultural change will be briefly discussed with reference to Bell's thesis of "the disjuntion of culture and social structure". Lastly, we proffer some reflections on the occult revival and the new spiritual trends in the churches, which so sharply contrast with the theology and churchmanship of the sixties.

  6. Reorganização de saberes tradicionais em Los sorias, de Alberto Laiseca

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    Graciela Ravetti


    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste estudo, propõe-se uma consideração sobre a reformulação de saberes tradicionais em termos não metafísicos na obra do escritor argentino Alberto Laiseca, Los sorias (1998, construída a partir da convergência dos temas das religiões, da magia e da astrologia, lado a lado com outros saberes em face de (deshierarquização. Palavras chave: Literatura hispano-americana; literatura argenti­na; romance contemporâneo; ficção científica. Abstract: In this study, we propose a consideration on the reformulation of traditional knowledge in no metaphysical terms in the work of Argentine writer Alberto Laiseca, Los sorias (1998, constructed from the convergence of the themes of religion, magic and astrology alongside with other knowledge in the face of de-hierarchization. Keywords: Argentine literature; contemporary romance, science fiction, Spanish American literature.

  7. Luo Shu

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    Albert Ting Pat So


    Full Text Available Feng Shui, still popularly practiced today, was closely related to philosophy, natural science, geography, environmental science, architecture, metaphysics, and astrology in ancient China. It is basically divided into the Form School and the Compass School. The latter deals with numerology, calculation, orientation, and time. Luo Shu [洛書], associated with the eight trigrams [八卦], being an ancient Chinese magic square, forms the foundation of the Compass School. The original Luo Shu, a 3 × 3 magic square, was not unique in ancient China but the extension of it to a total of 18 to 36 standard charts was unique, which are still used by all Compass School Feng Shui masters. In this article, modern linear algebra, developed only in the mid-19th century, is employed to prove that there is a strong coherence between the 36 charts if they are treated as 36 matrices and such correspondences conscientiously agree with ancient theories of Feng Shui. This article may help to form a scientific base for the systematic understanding, development, and further research of Luo Shu–related applications.

  8. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu


    Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  9. Theories of comets to the age of Laplace (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    Although the development of ideas about cometary motion has been investigated in several projects, a comprehensive and detailed survey of physical theories of comets has not been conducted. The available works either illustrate relatively short periods in the history of physical cometology or portray a landscape view without adequate details. The present study is an attempt to depict the details of the major physical theories of comets from Aristotle to the age of Laplace. The basic question from which this project originated was simple: how did natural philosophers and astronomers define the nature and place of a new category of celestial objects--the comets--after Brahe's estimation of cometary distances? However, a study starting merely from Brahe without covering classical and medieval thought about comets would be incomplete. Thus, based on the fundamental physical characteristics attributed to comets, the history of cometology may be divided into three periods: from Aristotle to Brahe, in which comets were assumed to be meteorological phenomena; from Brahe to Newton, when comets were admitted as celestial bodies but with unknown trajectories; and from Newton to Laplace, in which they were treated as members of the solar system having more or less the same properties of the planets. By estimating the mass of comets in the 1800s, Laplace diverted cometology into a different direction wherein they were considered among the smallest bodies in the solar system and deprived of the most important properties that had been used to explain their physical constitution during the previous two millennia. Ideas about the astrological aspects of comets are not considered in this study. Also, topics concerning the motion of comets are explained to the extent that is helpful in illustrating their physical properties. The main objective is to demonstrate the foundations of physical theories of comets, and the interaction between observational and mathematical astronomy, and

  10. The Nature of Punctuational Crises and the Spenglerian Model of Civilization (United States)

    Clube, S. V. M.

    acknowledged dispensers of prognosis and mitigation who endorsed the adverse implications of 'blazing stars' (astrologers, soothsayers etc.) were commonly impugned and censured. Nowadays, of course, we are able to recognise that the Earth's environment is not only one of essentially uniformitarian calm, as formerly assumed, but one that is also interrupted by 'punctuational crises', each crisis being the sequence of events which arises due to the fragmentation of an individual comet whose orbit intersects the Earth's. That even modest crises can arouse apprehension is known through the circumstances of the nineteenth century break-up of Comet Biela. Indeed it seems that these crises are rather frequently characterized by relatively violent (paradigm shifting) transmutations of human society such as were originally proposed by Spengler and Toynbee more than sixty years ago on the basis of historical analysis alone. It would appear, then, that the historical fear of comets which has been with us since the foundation of civilization, far from being the reflection of an astrological perception of the cosmos which was deranged and therefore abandoned, has a perfectly rational basis in occasional cometary fragmentation events. Such events recur and evidently have quite serious implications for society and government today. Thus when cosmic danger returns and there is growing awareness of the fact, we find that society is capable of becoming uncontrollably convulsed as 'enlightenment' spreads. A revival of millenarian expectations under these circumstances, for example, is not so much an underlying consequence but a deviant manifestation of the violent turmoil into which society falls, often to revolutionary effect.

  11. A Flame of Nezami’s Language

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    Heidarali Dahmardeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Nezami’s Poem is in the front rank of poetry. He always attempted to choose the best words- fine words using beautiful words and expressions. His poetry is enriched by his power of imagination and awareness of the common knowledge and beliefs of the time. The common features of his speech includes a unique use of the words-word choice, creating new compounds, compounding- description, repetition, emphasis, transformation, omission, using Quranic verses, Islamic hadiths and Arabic compounds, expressions of astrology and medicine, adages, proverbs and idioms regularly used by ordinary people. He is a poet familiar with the language of ordinary people and their beliefs, customs and traditions. Since he rightfully attended to the spoken language and because of his particular style of speech, his works are full of street talks to the extent that this propery can be viewed as the prominent stylistic feature of his poems. He took advantage of the common sciences of the time and utilized the scientific, astrological and medical terms and also the technical meanings and themes of these sciences. His imagination and awareness of the sciences and beliefs made his poems productive. Some of the features of his poems are as follow:   1- Imagery : Imagery refers to producing pictures, paintings or shows in the mind of readers /listeners using words. That is, the poet or writer should have such mastery over using words, space, meanings and their relations that makes him able to effectively use the sentences and words to create paintings, pictures or shows in the mind of readers or listener, to enable the reader to imagine a real painting or picture when he is over with his reading.    2- Diction : Experts of language issues and grammar beliefs that word coining can strengthen the foundation of language. So, the first premise in creating fine text is to choose musical words appropriate for the given text and meaning. In the first step, melodic

  12. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

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    Céline Coderey


    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  13. Looking through the Vizão Feita por Xpo a el Rey Dom Affonso Henriques (1659 Franciscans in India and the legitimization of the Braganza monarchy

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    Barreto Xavier, Ângela


    Full Text Available Early modern Portuguese political providentialism has attracted significant scholarly interest in recent years. Whether in reference to the legitimization of imperialism in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to the divine justification of royal power in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (especially after 1640, to Sebastianism, the Fifth Empire and other forms of millenarism, or to the uses of astrology, scholars have demonstrated that political providentialism was a familiar language to the Portuguese monarchy. Little is known, however, about the formulation and spread of political providentialism in the Asian part of the Portuguese Empire. In this paper I provide a more complex picture of the dissemination of this language in the Estado da Índia through an analysis of the treatise Vizão de Affonso Henriques, written in Goa by Friar António de S. Thiago, in the year 1659. How does this treatise relate to metropolitan political providentialism, namely in the context of the legitimization of the Braganza monarchy? How is Franciscanism crucial in the treatise’s structure? And can the treatise be located at the crossroads of Euro-Asiatic political culture?En los últimos años el estudio del providencialismo político en el Portugal Moderno ha despertado un significativo interés académico. Ya sea como referencia a la legitimación del imperialismo de los siglos XV y XVI, ya a la justificación divina del poder real en los siglos XVI y XVII (sobre todo después de 1640, como al Sebastianismo, al Quinto Imperio y demás formas de milenarismo o a los usos de la astrología, los especialistas han demostrado que el providencialismo era una lenguaje conocido en la monarquía portuguesa. Poco se sabe, sin embargo, de su formulación y propagación en la parte asiática del Imperio portugués. En este trabajo se propone una imagen más compleja de la difusión del providencialismo político en el Estado de la India a través de un an

  14. [The therapeutics of Paracelsus with reference to natural philosophy, alchemy and psychology]. (United States)

    Schott, H


    The controversial reception of Paracelsus is still going on. The crucial question is whether he is a man of the Middle Ages or of modern times. It is not possible to give a simple answer. We have to study the writings of Paracelsus within the scientific and cultural context of the Renaissance. This period is characterized by a new concept of natural philosophy. The theory of signature tries to read or translate certain constellations within the natural environment as a secret code. The idea of a sympathetic correspondence between natural bodies or substances implies the possibility of magical healing. A wellknown example is the preparation of the 'weapon salve'. There are two realities of spiritual powers at the same time: demons from the outside of the human body and powers of the mind from its inside which influence the body functions. The natural philosophy of the Renaissance tries to 'naturalize' the demons as a complement of matter. Paracelsus reflects the ideas of his time. The human being has got two bodies: a visible one which belongs to earth and an invisible one which belongs to heaven. The 'philosopher' as a pharmacist and a doctor has to detect the invisible body corresponding with the celestial world (stars, planets) by analysing the manifest astrological signs. The alchemical preparation of remedies has to purify the specific healing substances ('arcana') from the crude material. The pharmacist and doctor just imitates artificially the quasi alchemical metabolic process of nature itself continuing and finishing it. Paracelsus' concept of imagination ('imaginatio') implies a psychosomatic model how far spiritual powers can influence the body functions. Paracelsus stresses radically the importance of suggestions as a source of illness. The synchronical concepts are confusing today. Knowledge and superstition, scientific rationality and irrational speculations come together and can hardly be separated. Nevertheless, at the end of the 20th century we may

  15. Master John of Arderne (1307-1380): a founder of modern surgery. (United States)

    Pearn, John


    John of Arderne (1307-1380) was one founder of surgery as the profession is known today. He was the first English surgeon of whom biographic details survive. Born on the Arderne Estates at Newark, England, he served as a military surgeon in France in campaigns where gunpowder was used in combat for the first time. His best-known work, the Practica (De Arte Phisicali et de Cirurgia), formed the basis of practical surgical teaching in the medical schools of medieval Europe. Biographic research of primary and secondary archives and documents. John of Arderne's surgical practice was undertaken against a background of turbulent political, military and medical events. He survived the Black Death (1347) and its cyclical recurrences. He lived through the turbulent reigns of Edward II and Edward III and practised in London in the decades preceding the simmering unrest which preceded the Peasant's Revolt of 1381. Surgical and medical practice in the late Middle Ages was enmeshed in astrological beliefs. It was greatly influenced by church doctrine of disease causation. In this paper, the known details of John of Arderne's life are placed in the perspective of these societal and professional influences. He is one of several pre-Renaissance European doctors who were the first to challenge the received medical lore of Galen and later Arabic surgeons. Writing when he was 70 years of age, John of Arderne was the first to advocate that surgeons should trust their own clinical experience 'Wele ymagynyng subtile things' rather than following the directions of others, even including those advocated by himself. © 2011 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. The Mars Exploration Rover/Collaborative Information Portal (United States)

    Walton, Joan; Filman, Robert E.; Schreiner, John; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)


    Astrology has long argued that the alignment of the planets governs human affairs. Science usually scoffs at this. There is, however, an important exception: sending spacecraft for planetary exploration. In late May and early June, 2003, Mars will be in position for Earth launch. Two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will rocket towards the red planet. The rovers will perform a series of geological and meteorological experiments, seeking to examine geological evidence for water and conditions once favorable for life. Back on earth, a small army of surface operations staff will work to keep the rovers running, sending directions for each day's operations and receiving the files encoding the outputs of the Rover's six instruments. (Mars is twenty light minutes from Earth. The rovers must be robots.) The fundamental purpose of the project is, after all, Science. Scientists have experiments they want to run. Ideally, scientists want to be immediately notified when the data products of their experiments have been received, so that they can examine their data and (collaboratively) deduce results. Mars is an unpredictable environment. We may issue commands to the rovers but there is considerable uncertainty in how the commands will be executed and whether what the rovers sense will be worthy of further pursuit. The steps of what is, to a scientist, conceptually an individual experiment may be scattered over a large number of activities. While the scientific staff has an overall strategic idea of what it would like to accomplish, activities are planned daily. The data and surprises of the previous day need to be integrated into the negotiations for the next day's activities, all synchronized to a schedule of transmission windows . Negotiations is the operative term, as different scientists want the resources to run possibly incompatible experiments. Many meetings plan each day's activities.

  17. Ransom, Religion, and Red Giants: C.S. Lewis and Fred Hoyle (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine


    Famed fantasy writer C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was known to friends as a well-read astronomy aficionado. However, this medieval scholar and Christian apologist embraced a pre-Copernican universe (with its astrological overtones) in his Chronicles of Narnia series and defended the beauty and relevance of the geocentric model in his final academic work, "The Discarded Image". In the "Ransom Trilogy” ("Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength") philologist Ransom (loosely based on Lewis's close friend J.R.R. Tolkien) travels to Lewis's visions of Mars and Venus, where he interacts with intelligent extraterrestrials, battles with evil scientists, and aids in the continuation of extraterrestrial Christian values. In the final book, Ransom is joined by a handful of colleagues in open warfare against the satanic N.I.C.E. (National Institute for Coordinated Experiments). Geneticist and evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane criticized Lewis for his scientifically inaccurate descriptions of the planets, and his disdain for the scientific establishment. Lewis responded to the criticism in essays of his own. Another of Lewis's favorite scientific targets was atheist Fred Hoyle, whom he openly criticized for anti-Christian statements in Hoyle's BBC radio series. Writer and Lewis friend Dorothy L. Sayers voiced her own criticism of Hoyle. In a letter, Lewis dismissed Hoyle as "not a great philosopher (and none of my scientific colleagues think much of him as a scientist.” Given Lewis's lack of respect for Hoyle, and use of creative license in describing the planets, and the flat-earth, "geocentric” Narnia, it is surprising that Lewis very carefully includes an astronomically correct description of red giants in two novels in the Narnia series ("The Magician's Nephew" and "The Last Battle"). This inclusion is even more curious given that Fred Hoyle is well-known as one of the pioneers in the field of stellar death and the properties of red giants.

  18. Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses (United States)

    Chattejee, T. K. C.


    Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

  19. Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual Alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain

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    Tausiet, María


    Full Text Available One of the main obsessions of the Early Modern Era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and the unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of re ligion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Engracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making «silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins».

    Una de las principales obsesiones de la Edad Moderna consistió en determinar las nociones de verdadero y falso para aplicarlas a los distintos campos del saber y, de ese modo, fundamentar la separación entre lo lícito y lo prohibido. Dicha tendencia iba a afectar especialmente a los terrenos de la religión y la ciencia, haciéndose necesario distinguir no sólo verdaderos y falsos espíritus, reliquias o milagros, sino también verdaderos y falsos astrólogos y alquimistas. Situada a caballo entre el idealismo y el materialismo, la alquimia ejemplificaba especialmente dichas tensiones, como se comprobará a través del proceso incoado en 1593 contra un fraile del monasterio jerónimo de Santa Engracia de Zaragoza, a quien su prior acusó de fabricar «plata de humo y joyas de trasgos».

  20. The Cultural Epigenesis of Gender-Based Violence in Cambodia: Local and Buddhist Perspectives. (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice


    Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Cambodians see its causes and effects and to identify and analyse the cultural forces that underpin and shape its landscape. An ethnographic study was carried out with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual violence against women and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. Their views and experiences of it were recorded-the popular idioms expressed and the symptoms of distress experienced by survivors and perpetrators. From these results, the eight cultural forces, or cultural attractors, that are seen to propel a person to violence were identified. Violence stemmed from blighted endowment, or 'bad building' (sɑmnaaŋ mɨn lʔɑɑ) determined by deeds in a previous life (kam). Children with a vicious character (kmeeŋ kaac or doṣa-carita) might grow to be abusers, and particular birthmarks on boys were thought to be portents. Krʊəh, or mishap, especially when a female's horoscope predicted a zodiac house on the descent (riesəy), explained vulnerability to violence and its timing. Astrological incompatibility (kuu kam) was a risk factor. Lust, anger and ignorance, the 'Triple Poison', fuelled it. 'Entering the road to ruin' (apāyamuk), including alcohol abuse, womanising and gambling, triggered it. Confusion and loss of judgement (mohā) led to moral blindness (mo baŋ). These were the eight cultural attractors that shaped the landscape of violence against women. The cultural epigenesis of violence against women in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women. An understanding of the epigenesis of violence could strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women.

  1. Armenian Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Farmanyan, Sona V.


    A review is given on archaeoastronomy in Armenia and astronomical knowledge reflected in the Armenian culture. Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times and Armenia is rich in its astronomical heritage, such as the names of the constellations, ancient observatories, Armenian rock art (numerous petroglyphs of astronomical content), ancient and medieval Armenian calendars, astronomical terms and names used in Armenian language since II-I millennia B.C., records of astronomical events by ancient Armenians (e.g. Halley's comet in 87 B.C., supernovae explosion in 1054), the astronomical heritage of the Armenian medieval great thinker Anania Shirakatsi's (612-685), medieval sky maps and astronomical devices by Ghukas (Luca) Vanandetsi (XVII-XVIII centuries) and Mkhitar Sebastatsi (1676-1749), etc. For systemization and further regular studies, we have created a webpage devoted to Armenian archaeoastronomical matters at Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) website. Issues on astronomy in culture include astronomy in ancient Armenian cultures, ethnoastronomy, astronomy in Armenian religion and mythology, astronomy and astrology, astronomy in folklore and poetry, astronomy in arts, astrolinguistics and astroheraldry. A similar webpage for Astronomy in Armenian Culture is being created at ArAS website and a permanent section "Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture" has been created in ArAS Electronic Newsletter. Several meetings on this topic have been organized in Armenia during 2007-2014, including the archaeoastronomical meetings in 2012 and 2014, and a number of books have been published. Several institutions are related to these studies coordinated by Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) and researchers from the fields of astronomy, history, archaeology, literature, linguistics, etc. are involved.

  2. Relations between Eastern four pillars theory and Western measures of personality traits. (United States)

    Jung, Seung Ah; Yang, Chang Soon


    The present study investigated the validity of personality classification using four pillars theory, a tradition in China and northeastern Asia. Four pillars analyses were performed for 148 adults on the basis of their birth year, month, day, and hour. Participants completed two personality tests, the Korean version of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short Version (TCI) and the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; scores were correlated with four pillars classification elements. Mean difference tests (e.g., t-test, ANOVA) were compared with groups classified by four pillars index. There were no significant correlations between personality scale scores and total yin/yang number (i.e., the 8 heavenly or earthly stems), and no significant between-groups results for classifications by yin/yang day stem and the five elements. There were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.29) correlations between the five elements and personality scale scores. For the six gods and personality scales, there were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.25) correlations. Features predicted by four pillars theory were most consistent when participants were grouped according to the yin/yang of the day stem and dominance of yin/yang numbers in the eight heavenly or earthly stems. Although the major criteria of four pillars theory were not independently correlated with personality scale scores, correlations emerged when participants were grouped according to the composite yin/yang variable. Our results suggest the utility of four pillars theory (beyond fortune telling or astrology) for classifying personality traits and making behavioral predictions.

  3. 山形県「年間三隣亡」の経済面への影響についての一考察《論文》


    植林, 茂


    山形県では, 三隣亡の年は1年間を通して家を建てることを避けるべきであるという迷信が, 現時点においても広く浸透している。この地域的なアノマリーについて分析すると, 山形県の年間三隣亡は住宅投資(持家の新設住宅着工) への負の効果が認められ, 簡単な計量分析を行えば, 三隣亡の年には住宅着工が平均的に15~20%程度減少している。また, その影響は, 庄内地域だけではなく, 山形県全体に及んでいる一方で, 近隣他県においてはみられない。さらに, 三隣亡という迷信が住宅着工に影響を与えるというアノマリーは, プロスペクト理論を使えば, ある程度説明できる。In Yamagata prefecture, we can find the anomaly that most people avoid building residential houses in the Sanrinbou year which exists three times in 12 years (one circle of the signs of the zodiac in Chinese astrology...

  4. Theodorus Graminaeus. Een wiskundige in dienst van de contrareformatie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rienk Vermij


    Full Text Available Theodorus Graminaeus, a mathematician in the service of the Counter-Reformation Theodorus Graminaeus (ca. 1540-1596 offers an example of the fluid status of mathematics and its practitioners in the early modern period. Born at Roermond, Graminaeus studied at Cologne, where he became a professor of mathematics in 1566. As a professor, Graminaeus also acted as printer and publisher of mathematical, religious and other works. In 1575 he obtained a licentiate in law. Around the same time, he became tutor of Johann Wilhelm, crown prince to the United Duchies of Jülich, Cleves and Berg. In 1582, he left his position at the university of Cologne and appears to have entered the service of Johann Wilhelm full time. After the latter’s succession as duke (1592, Graminaeus got an administrative position in the duchy of Berg. Graminaeus wrote a dozen works on a variety of subjects, including the calendar, comets, the Antichrist, witches, and publicity for the dukes of Cleves. He did not aim at exactness and objectivity. Even his mathematical works bear the stamp of his religious beliefs and embody religious and political values. Tycho Brahe (who refuted Graminaeus’s work on the nova of 1572 at some length already felt that they lacked rigour. Graminaeus felt he lived in a very dark age. He had witnessed the religious troubles at his birthplace, Roermond, in 1566-1567 and since that time abhorred Protestantism. In his work, he tried to read the signs of the time by finding patterns in world history based on astrological models and ancient prophecies. (In this, he appears not to have been unique among Catholics at Cologne. At the court of Cleves, he put himself decidedly on the side of the Roman-Catholic faction. As the Counter- Reformation, led by the Jesuits, gained momentum in the United Duchies, his expectations became somewhat less gloomy.

  5. The Inner Meaning of Outer Space:Human Nature and the Celestial Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Hubbard


    Full Text Available Kant afirmaba que los seres humanos poseen un conocimiento a priori del espacio. Aunque este argumento se centra en la física de los cuerpos, también tiene implicaciones para la psicología del ser. Muchas culturas humanas organizan las estrellas en constelaciones (imponen estructura; atribuyen propiedades, conductas y habilidades a objetos en el reino celeste (esto es, determinan significado; y usan la regularidad percibida en los reinos celestes para el desarrollo de calendarios, navegaciones de grandes distancias, agricultura y astrología (buscan predicción y control. La inaccesibilidad física del reino celeste permite una potente fuente de metáforas, así como la protección de los mitos sobre el origen y la ascensión, los lugares del poder y aquellos donde habitan dioses, seres inmortales y otras almas. Los desarrollos en astronomía y cosmología influyeron las opiniones sobre la naturaleza humana y el lugar de la humanidad en el universo; estos cambios ponen en paralelo los descensos en el egocentrismo y el desarrollo humano. Las visiones acerca de los presuntos seres (como los ángeles y los extraterrestres del reino celestial (y cómo comunicarse con esos seres son antropocéntricas e ignoran factores evolutivos del desarrollo físico y cognitivo. Se sugiere que al considerar opiniones y usos del reino celeste, aprendemos no sólo acerca del universo, sino también sobre nosotros mismos.

  6. Applied Historical Astronomy (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard


    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  7. End-of-the-World: Using Science to Dispel Public Fear (United States)

    Morrison, David


    Polls taken in mid-2012 indicated that 10% of Americans did not expect to survive the “end of the world” on 12/21/12. Children were especially vulnerable, and some contemplated suicide. Comets Elenin and ISON also attracted apocalyptic fears. Elenin was blamed for the several earthquakes, including the Fukushima mega-quake of 03/11/11. Such fears, which seem to harp back to earlier centuries, are now widely promulgated by the Internet and cable TV, where dozens of “documentaries” are shown every week dealing with UFOs, aliens, astrology, and a variety of cosmic threats. In this talk I recount some of my experiences and those of other scientists leading up to the 12/21/12 doomsday. We made a big effort to defuse these fears, and to warn teachers and parents that a substantial fraction of their children were in danger of being taken in by the 2012 hoax. This experience is just one example of an anti-science trend that seems to be growing in the U.S. and around the world. Prime examples are the creationist efforts to deny evolution, the similar tactics of the global warming denialists, and health hoaxes such as homeopathy and the anti-vaccination movement. As scientists, we should consider how best to communicate real science to the public, and when to “go negative” to fight against pseudoscience. We must recognize the presence of powerful anti-science forces that are well funded and skillful at exploiting new communication tools enabled by the Internet. This is a challenge for all of us.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahibuddin Juddah


    Full Text Available Abstrak— Kota Pare-Pare sebagai kota yang layak memiliki suatu fasilitas ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang diperuntukkan bagi generasi-generasi muda penerus bangsa di kota Pare-Pare dalam hal ini fasilitas ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang berkaitan dengan astronomi yakni Sekolah Tinggi Astronomi (Ilmu Perbintangan di Kota Pare-pare dengan tema Arsitektur Metafora. Pada bidang astronomi terdapat berbagai macam bentuk-bentuk fantastis yang dapat dijadikan lambang bentuk dalam arsitektur seperti bentuk rasi bintang, bentuk lintasan orbit planet dan bentuk-bentuk benda langit lainnya, begitu juga dengan bentuk-bentuk fenomena yang dihasilkannya. Dengan perwujudan bentuk-bentuk ini sebagai simbol pada gaya bangunan, baik bentuk bangunan, fungsi maupun penataan ruang di dalamnya, diharapkan pelaku kegiatan dalam bangunan merasakan maksud dan ekspresi dari bangunan. Kata Kunci : Sekolah Tinggi, Astronomi, Arsitektur Metafora Abstract—Pare- Pare as a city that deserves to have a facility of science and technology that is intended for younger generations in Pare - Pare in this case the facilities of science and technology relates to astronomy namely the College of Astronomy (Science Astrology in Pare- pare the theme of Architecture Metaphor. In the field of astronomy there are various kinds of fantastic shapes that can be used as the epitome of form in architecture such as the shape of constellations, planets orbit trajectory shapes and forms of other celestial bodies, as well as the forms of the phenomenon produces. The realization of these forms as a symbol on the style of the building, both buildings form, function and arrangement of space in it, it is hoped the perpetrators of activity in the building feel the intention and expression of the building Key word : High School, Astronomy, Metaphor Architecture

  9. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I., E-mail: [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Oluwasegun, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Olorunniwo, O.E., E-mail: [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Atanda, P.O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)


    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  10. Relations between Eastern Four Pillars Theory and Western Measures of Personality Traits (United States)

    Jung, Seung Ah


    Purpose The present study investigated the validity of personality classification using four pillars theory, a tradition in China and northeastern Asia. Materials and Methods Four pillars analyses were performed for 148 adults on the basis of their birth year, month, day, and hour. Participants completed two personality tests, the Korean version of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short Version (TCI) and the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; scores were correlated with four pillars classification elements. Mean difference tests (e.g., t-test, ANOVA) were compared with groups classified by four pillars index. Results There were no significant correlations between personality scale scores and total yin/yang number (i.e., the 8 heavenly or earthly stems), and no significant between-groups results for classifications by yin/yang day stem and the five elements. There were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.29) correlations between the five elements and personality scale scores. For the six gods and personality scales, there were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.25) correlations. Features predicted by four pillars theory were most consistent when participants were grouped according to the yin/yang of the day stem and dominance of yin/yang numbers in the eight heavenly or earthly stems. Conclusion Although the major criteria of four pillars theory were not independently correlated with personality scale scores, correlations emerged when participants were grouped according to the composite yin/yang variable. Our results suggest the utility of four pillars theory (beyond fortune telling or astrology) for classifying personality traits and making behavioral predictions. PMID:25837175

  11. Oassi sámi noaidevuođa birra Kaspar Peucera čállosis Commentarius de praecipuis divinationum generibus (Wittenberg 1560: Teakstakritihkalaš hámis jorgalusain ja kommentáraiguin

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    Per Pippin Aspaas


    Full Text Available The text on Sami shamanism in Caspar Peucer’s Commentarius de praecipuis divinationum generibus (Wittenberg 1560: Critical edition, with translation and commentary. Among the sources dealing with the shamanistic skills of the Sami (formerly Lapponian population, a certain text by Kaspar Peucer has so far been little known. This man of extreme learning was the son-in-law of Philip Melanchthon and a Professor at the University of Wittenberg. A true polyhistor, well versed in Medicine, Geography, Astrology, Theology, etc., Peucer included in his chef-d’oeuvre on divination an elaborate description of the shamanism of the so-called Pilappii. The present article offers a critical edition of this text, based on the editions of Wittenberg 1560 (A, 1572 (B, 1580 (C, as well as Zerbst 1591 (D and Frankfurt 1593 (E. In addition to translations into North Sami and Norwegian (see Appendix, some contextualisation is offered, which can be summarised as follows: A similar testimony on shamanism is found in the Historia de gentibus Septentrionalibus by Olaus Magnus (Rome 1555. However, that text is not elaborate enough to prove that Kaspar Peucer has copied his description from him. It is more likely that some student among the considerable number of Swedes, Finns and Norwegians that were immatriculated at Wittenberg University in the years following the Reformation, presented this account to Peucer. Many details in the account make it strikingly similar to Sami folk narratives that have been assembled several centuries later. For example, the description of maritime Sami by Anders Larsen (1870–1949, the Sami book by Johan Turi (published 1910 and Sami songs (joik that were collected by Jacob Fellman in the 1820’s can be compared with Peucer’s account. Peucer himself, however, categorised the shamanism of the Sami as a form of theomanteia, i.e. a form of magic which he considered to originate not from the true God, but from the Devil.

  12. Powder metallurgy of turbine disc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingesten, N.G. (Dep. of Engineering Metals)


    The first part embraced a study of carbide precipitated in IN 100 and astrology powders. The powder was heat treated at temperatures between 950/sup 0/C and 1150/sup 0/C. After aging at 950-1100/sup 0/C the MC-carbides formed during atomization were replaced by M/sub 23/C/sub 6/-carbides. After 1150/sup 0/C treatments the MC carbides were present again. Precipitation comparable with that obtained in HIP:ed specimens was not observed at free particle surfaces. However, powder particles which had agglomerated during atomization often exhibited considerable precipitation at contiguous surfaces. Obviously, contact between the particles must occur if coarse precipitation at particle surfaces is to develop. Reduced PPB-precipitation was obtained by pre-heat- treatment of powder before compaction. It is suggested that the carbon otherwise available for PPB-precipitation forms carbides in the interior of the powder particles. The aim of the second part was to ..gamma..-strengthen a Co-based super-alloy (Co-15Cr-3Mo-5Ti). Here the Ti-addition gives a coherent and ordered ..gamma..-phase Co/sub 3/Ti. However, upon ageing the alloy is unstable in order to increase the stability modifications of the alloy were prepared by: leaving out the Mo-content, adding 10 % Ni and by decreasing the Ti-content to 4.2 %. In addition, the effect of enhanced grain size and of deformation was investigated. Significant reduction of the transformation rate was only obtained by decresing the Ti-content while deformation of the alloy greatly increased the transformation rate.(author).

  13. Arnaldo Da Villanova medieval physician (1235-1311). A first approach. (United States)

    Ricciardi, Biagio; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto


    Arnaldo de Villanova, was a Catalan Physician, born in Villanova de Grau, a suburb of Valencia - Spain about 1235. He died off the coast of Genoa in 1311 during a sea voyage departing from Messina in Sicily, during a diplomatic mission by Pope Clement V in Avignon on orders by the King of Sicily. He was a so famous and clever scientist of the thirteenth century, to give his name to the Universitary Hospital of Montpellier - France. His interests ranged from theology, to politics, medicine, and anymore alchemy. He was an adviser and physician of Kings of Aragon, like Peter III the Great (1276-1285) and James II the Right (1285-1327), of Robert of Angi (1309-1343) of Naples, and of Popes, like Innocenzo V (1276), Bonifacio VIII (1294-1303), Benedetto XI (1303-1304), Clemente V (1305-1314), and of the King of Sicily Federico II of Aragon (1296-1337). For the Pope Bonifacio VIII, suffering from renal colic due to kidney stones, he prescribed Hydrotherapy with Fiuggi Thermal water, that was specially transported for him from its source to Rome and Anagni, in jars wrapped in coarse carpets or wool fabrics, to better maintain the source temperature. In addition in July of 1301, he also produced an astrological seal (Talisman) made of gold loaded of virtues, obtained exposing the seal to the power of the Sun, in those days in the Leo Constellation. This seal was worn by the Pope in an hernial belt of leather to support the kidney,probably to improve hisnephroptosis. Arnaldo produced this seal according to what was described in the book Picatrix - The goal of the wise of the Arabic astronomer and alchemist "Abū l-Qāsim Maslama b.- Ahmad al-Majriti, known with the pseudonym Ghayat al hakim died in Cordova about 1008. Ten years later, after his mysterious death at sea on a Sicilian royal ship, his body was not buried at sea, but was reported in Sicily and buried in the Federician Castle of Montalbano of Elicona at the end of Peloritans Mountains near Milazzo, about 90 km

  14. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question (United States)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.


    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  15. [History of the tuning fork. I: Invention of the tuning fork, its course in music and natural sciences. Pictures from the history of otorhinolaryngology, presented by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt German Medical History Museum]. (United States)

    Feldmann, H


    G. Cardano, physician, mathematician, and astrologer in Pavia, Italy, in 1550 described how sound may be perceived through the skull. A few years later H. Capivacci, also a physician in Padua, realized that this phenomenon might be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between hearing disorders located either in the middle ear or in the acoustic nerve. The German physician G. C. Schelhammer in 1684 was the first to use a common cutlery fork in further developing the experiments initiated by Cardano and Capivacci. For a long time to come, however, there was no demand for this in practical otology. The tuning fork was invented in 1711 by John Shore, trumpeter and lutenist to H. Purcell and G.F. Händel in London. A picture of Händel's own tuning fork, probably the oldest tuning fork in existence, is presented here for the first time. There are a number of anecdotes connected with the inventor of the tuning fork, using plays on words involving the name Shore, and mixing up pitch-pipe and pitchfork. Some of these are related here. The tuning fork as a musical instrument soon became a success throughout Europe. The German physicist E. F. F. Chladni in Wittenberg around 1800 was the first to systematically investigate the mode of vibration of the tuning fork with its nodal points. Besides this, he and others tried to construct a complete musical instrument based on sets of tuning forks, which, however, were not widely accepted. J. H. Scheibler in Germany in 1834 presented a set of 54 tuning forks covering the range from 220 Hz to 440 Hz, at intervals of 4 Hz. J. Lissajous in Paris constructed a very elaborate tuning fork with a resonance box, which was intended to represent the international standard of the musical note A with 435 vibrations per second, but this remained controversial. K. R. Koenig, a German physicist living in Paris, invented a tuning fork which was kept in continuous vibration by a clockwork. H. Helmholtz, physiologist in Heidelberg, in 1863

  16. Uncommon Sense - The Heretical Nature of Science (United States)

    Cromer, Alan


    Most people believe that science arose as a natural end-product of our innate intelligence and curiosity, as an inevitable stage in human intellectual development. But physicist and educator Alan Cromer disputes this belief. Cromer argues that science is not the natural unfolding of human potential, but the invention of a particular culture, Greece, in a particular historical period. Indeed, far from being natural, scientific thinking goes so far against the grain of conventional human thought that if it hadn't been discovered in Greece, it might not have been discovered at all.In Uncommon Sense , Alan Cromer develops the argument that science represents a radically new and different way of thinking. Using Piaget's stages of intellectual development, he shows that conventional thinking remains mired in subjective, "egocentric" ways of looking at the world--most people even today still believe in astrology, ESP, UFOs, ghosts and other paranormal phenomena--a mode of thought that science has outgrown. He provides a fascinating explanation of why science began in Greece, contrasting the Greek practice of debate to the Judaic reliance on prophets for acquiring knowledge. Other factors, such as a maritime economy and wandering scholars (both of which prevented parochialism) and an essentially literary religion not dominated by priests, also promoted in Greece an objective, analytical way of thinking not found elsewhere in the ancient world. He examines India and China and explains why science could not develop in either country. In China, for instance, astronomy served only the state, and the private study of astronomy was forbidden. Cromer also provides a perceptive account of science in Renaissance Europe and of figures such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton. Along the way, Cromer touches on many intriguing topics, arguing, for instance, that much of science is essential complete; there are no new elements yet to be discovered. He debunks the vaunted SETI (Search for

  17. Comets, meteors, and eclipses: Art and science in early Renaissance Italy (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.


    We discuss eight trecento (fourteenth century) paintings containing depictions of astronomical events to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting in early Renaissance Italy, noting that an artistic interest in naturalism predisposed these pioneering painters to make their scientific observations. In turn, the convincing representations of their observations of astronomical phenomena in works of art rendered their paintings more believable, convincing. Padua was already a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology) when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (circa 1301-1303). Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem in the Adoration of the Magi scene. Moreover, he painted a historical apparition that he recently had observed with a great accuracy even by modern standards. Halley's Comet of 1301 (Olson, 1979). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and "astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we discuss Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, reputed to have been partially blinded by a solar eclipse, whose calamity may find expression in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30; 1338?). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20) contain dazzling meteor showers that reveal the artist's observed astronomical phenomena, such as the "radiant" effect of meteor showers, first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt in 1799 and only accepted in the nineteenth century. Lorenzetti also painted sporadic, independent

  18. Comets, Meteors, and Eclipses: Art and Science in Early Renaissance Italy (Invited) (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.


    We discuss several topics relating artists and their works with actual astronomical events in early Renaissance Italy to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting. Padua, where Galileo would eventually hold a chair at the University, was already by the fourteenth century (trecento) a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology). It is no wonder that when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (c. 1303) that in the scene of the Adoration of the Magi Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem. Moreover, he painted an historical apparition he recently had observed with a great understanding of its scientific structure: Halley's Comet of 1301 (since Olson's first publication of this idea in Scientific American we have expanded the argument in several articles and talks). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and ``astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we tackle the question how Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, who is documented as having been partially blinded by lengthy unprotected observation of the partial phase of an annular solar eclipse, reflects his observations in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20), contain dazzling meteor showers that hold important symbolic meanings in the cyle's argument but more importantly reveal that the artist observed astronomical phenomena, such as the ``radiant" effect, which was first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt

  19. Ideas. A History: From Fire to Freud. 2. ed.; Ideen. Eine Kulturgeschichte von der Entdeckung des Feuers bis zur Moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, P.


    In this hugely ambitious and exciting book Peter Watson tells the history of ideas from prehistory to the present day, seeking a new way to tell the history of the world. The book begins over a million years ago with a discussion of how the earliest ideas might have originated. Looking at animal behaviour that appears to require some thought tool-making, territoriality, counting, language (or at least sounds), pairbonding Peter Watson moves on to the apeman and the development of simple ideas such as cooking, the earliest language, the emergence of family life. All the obvious areas will be tackled the Ancient Greeks, Christian theology, the ideas of Jesus, astrological thought, the soul, the self, beliefs about the heavens, the ideas of Islam, the Crusades, humanism, the Renaissance, Gutenberg and the book, the scientific revolution, the age of discovery, Shakespeare, the idea of Revolution, the Romantic imagination, Darwin, imperialism, modernism, Freud right up to the present day and the internet. (orig./GL) [German] Beginnt die Ideengeschichte der Menschheit, als die Fruehmenschen erstmals Feuer machen, vor ca. 1,8 Millionen Jahren? Oder schon mit dem ersten Faustkeil vor etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahren? Warum entwickelte sich vor 40 000 Jahren eine komplexe Sprache? Wie kamen das Minus- und das Plus-Zeichen in die Vorstellungswelt, und wie entstand das Bild vom Paradies? Peter Watson laedt ein zu einer Expedition durch die abenteuerliche Welt menschlicher Ideen. Vom ersten Feuer, dem ersten Werkzeug und den ersten Worten ueber die Geburt der Goetter, die ersten Gesetze und die Entwicklung grosser Zentren von Wissen und Weisheit bis hin zu den umwaelzenden Ideen der Moderne: das Groesste und das Kleinste, das Selbst-Bewusstsein des Individuums und die Entdeckung des Unbewussten. Dabei ordnet Watson die riesige Materialfuelle nach drei zentralen Ideen, die fuer ihn die Geschichte der Menschheit praegen: die Seele, mehr als die Idee von einem Gott, Europa, mehr als das

  20. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius (United States)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  1. Problems of the Modern Romanian Astronomy: TELEROM (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin; Minti, Harry; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu


    Cercetare") the TELEROM project was finally rejected and its funding was lost, after 10 months of discussions and granted funding! Other problems, such as the proliferation of the astrology between Romanian professional astronomers, a reduced weight of physicists between Romanian professional astronomers in comparison with mathematicians, as well as very reduced issue from the professional Romanian astronomers in international journals in the last years and the intellectual theft of publications have been also discussed in this 4 TV series presented by the weekly astronomy show "We and the Sky" of Columna TV (in Romanian).

  2. Cetacean beachings correlate with geomagnetic disturbances in Earth's magnetosphere: an example of how astronomical changes impact the future of life (United States)

    Ferrari, Thomas E.


    The beaching and stranding of whales and dolphins around the world has been mystifying scientists for centuries. Although many theories have been proposed, few are substantiated by unequivocal statistical evidence. Advances in the field of animal magnetoreception have established that many organisms, including cetaceans, have an internal `compass,' which they use for orientation when traveling long distances. Astrobiology involves not only the origin and distribution of life in the universe, but also the scientific study of how extraterrestrial conditions affect evolution of life on planet Earth. The focus of this study is how cetacean life is influenced by disturbances in its environment that originate from an astrological phenomenon - in the present study that involves solar flares and cetacean beachings. Solar storms are caused by major coronal eruptions on the Sun. Upon reaching Earth, they cause disturbances in Earth's normally stable magnetosphere. Unable to follow an accurate magnetic bearing under such circumstances, cetaceans lose their compass reading while travelling and, depending on their juxtaposition and nearness to land, eventually beach themselves. (1) This hypothesis was supported by six separate, independent surveys of beachings: (A) in the Mediterranean Sea, (B) the northern Gulf of Mexico, (C) the east and (D) west coasts of the USA and two surveys (E and F) from around the world. When the six surveys were pooled (1614 strandings), a highly significant correlation (R 2 = 0.981) of when strandings occurred with when major geomagnetic disturbances in Earth's magnetosphere occurred was consistent with this hypothesis. (2) Whale and dolphin strandings in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the east coast of the USA were correlated (R 2 = 0.919, R 2 = 0.924) with the number of days before and after a geomagnetic storm. (3) Yearly strandings were correlated with annual geomagnetic storm days. (4) Annual beachings of cetaceans from 1998 to 2012 were

  3. Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis Pachis


    Full Text Available This editorial introduces the articles published within the OLH Special Collection, ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’. The first two articles in this collection interrogate the figures of specific healing gods. Olympia Panagiotidou’s article ‘Asclepius’ Myths and Healing Narratives: Counter-Intuitive Concepts and Cultural Expectations’ focuses on the curative features that defined the image of Asclepius, the most famous of the healing gods. The next article in the collection, ‘The Fate of a Healing Goddess: Ocular Pathologies, the Antonine Plague, and the Ancient Roman Cult of Bona Dea’ by Leonardo Ambasciano, interrogates the religious figure of another healing agent: the Italian goddess Bona Dea who was particularly venerated in Rome and in the region of Latium and whose cult reveals the way in which ancient Roman androcentric control over women was institutionalised through religious figures.  The third article in the collection, Audrey Ferlut’s ‘Goddesses as Consorts of the Healing Gods in 'Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae': Forms of Cult and Ritual Practices’ considers the impact that cults dedicated to gods and goddesses had on populations in the wider area of the Roman Empire, focusing on the Northern provinces of the Western Roman Empire ('Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae'. The collection’s final article, ‘From Textual Reception to Textual Codification: Thessalos and the Quest for Authenticity’ by Spyros Piperakis, moves the discussion from the question of cult practices to ‘alternative’ healing therapies in antiquity. Piperakis deals with astrological medicine, one of many alternative therapeutic methods that became popular during the Hellenistic and Roman period.  Taken together, the articles in ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’ demonstrate that we need to approach the study of ancient myths and cults within their socio-cultural context

  4. La creación del mundo supralunar según Abraham Ibn Ezra: un estudio comparativo de sus dos comentarios a Génesis 1,14

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    Sela, Shlomo


    Full Text Available This article aims at elucidating Abraham Ibn Ezra's (ca. 1089 - ca. 1167 opinion about the creation of the supra-lunar world. A major and striking feature of Ibn Ezra's approach is that he did not find it convenient to address this issue, intimately related to the nature of the celestial bodies, in his astronomical or astrological treatises, but rather in his biblical commentaries. Therefore, we propose to concentrate our efforts on the meticulous study of the two commentaries which Ibn Ezra wrote on Genesis 1,14. As this verse focuses on the account of the creation of the heavenly bodies, we have assumed that the elusive Ibn Ezra could not have avoided revealing his view, or, at least, that we should have left some significant hints from which we may uncover his genuine opinion about the creation of the supra-lunar world.

    El propósito de este artículo es averiguar la opinión de Abraham Ibn Ezra (ca. 1089 - ca. 1167 sobre lo relacionado con la creación del mundo supralunar. Una característica fundamental dei modus operandi de Ibn Ezra es que, si buscamos información acerca de su opinión sobre la creación del mundo, tanto sublunar como supralunar, no la hallaremos en sus tratados científicos astronómicos o astrológicos, sino precisamente en sus comentarios bíblicos. Por lo tanto, la metodología más adecuada consistirá en concentrar nuestros esfuerzos en el estudio meticuloso de sus dos comentarios a Génesis 1,14. Dado que este verso bíblico tiene como objetivo principal el relato y la descripción de la creación de las luminarias, pensamos que en ambos comentarios Ibn Ezra no pudo haber eludido dar su verdadera opinión -o al menos dejar alguna pista significativa- sobre la creación del mundo supralunar.

  5. Ar galime priskirti pretekstą Oktaviją Senekai? Can we attribute the Praetexta Octavia to Seneca?

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    Jovita Dikmonienė


    Full Text Available The article explores the problems of the authorship of the Roman tragedy Octavia. The aim of the article is to introduce and analyse research carried out by scientists on the problems of the authorship of Octavia and to answer to the question on whether this praetexta could have been written by Seneca.For literary critics the greatest doubt about the authorship of Seneca’s Octavia raises the shadow of Agrippina, Nero’s dead mother, who correctly foretells the death of Nero – the emperor will become a victim of revenge and be killed by being stabbed in the neck. The doubt stems from the fact that Seneca had died three years before Nero. However, the future revenge is defined using typical words (iugulum dare – jab to the throat, which are used by Seneca in his other tragedies to describe non-heroic death, such as in Agamemnon (43, Oedipus (1036–1037, Thyestes (721–723, etc. So iugulum dare can be treated as locus communis in Seneca’s tragedies, meaning revenge, violent death. On the other hand, according to historians (Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Seneca was aware of the planned assassination of Nero in 65 CE by Piso’s conspirators. At the beginning of a conspiracy, conspirators would gather to talk about Nero’s crimes and Seneca maintained close relationships with many of them. Therefore, Seneca could have written Octavia at the beginning of 65 CE and read it at the gathering of Piso’s circle, where everyone spoke of Nero’s crimes supporting the need for a conspiracy.Nero’s dethronement was also predicted by astrologers. Rolando Ferri doubts whether astrologers could have predicted to the Princeps that he would become a criminal (animam nocentem sceleribus (Octavia, 630 and fugitive (turpem fugam (Octavia, 620. It is these two lines of Octavia, according to Ferri, that do not allow attributing Octavia to Seneca. The author of the article argues Ferri’s claims. If Seneca wrote the praetexta in the spring of 65 CE when Piso

  6. Concepts of Simultaneity From Antiquity to Einstein and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, F A [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for the History and Foundations of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht University P.O Box 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Concepts of Simultaneity (henceforth: Simultaneity) is Jammer's historical monograph dedicated to the development of a single concept in physics. Jammer's idea to write a history of concepts of simultaneity proves to be a wonderful idea: it makes Simultaneity literally unique in its kind and it provides a new perspective from which to look at the historical development of concepts of time, about which much has already been written. Anyone who believes that Einstein was the first person on planet Earth to reflect on how to establish whether two distant events have occurred at the same time, i.e. simultaneously, will stop believing this after having read chapters 2 and 3 of Simultaneity (chapter 1 consists of terminological preliminaries), which deal with Antiquity and the Middle Ages, respectively. For example, Augustine of Hippo anticipated, in his Confessions (397 C.E.), nothing less than the method to determine the simultaneity of distant events that we associate with Einstein. Augustine set out to criticise the heresy of astrology. He considered two infants being born simultaneously in distant places. According to the doctrines of astrology they should lead very similar lives, because they are born under the same constellation of the stars. Yet one infant, Augustine imagined, is the child of a poor maid servant whereas the other is the child of a rich lady, so that they would almost certainly lead very different lives. How to know whether the infants are born simultaneously? Augustine proposed to dispatch, at the moment of birth, two messengers who run equally fast from the houses were the babies were born (whether they do run equally fast can be ascertained by using only local simultaneity judgments); the messengers should run towards each other in order to see whether they meet 'at equal distance from either house' (p. 49). If so, the infants were born simultaneously. Of course, this will not be very accurate, but that is not the point. The

  7. A Flame of Nezami’s Language

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    Heidarali Dahmardeh


    Full Text Available  Abstract Nezami’s Poem is in the front rank of poetry. He always attempted to choose the best words- fine words using beautiful words and expressions. His poetry is enriched by his power of imagination and awareness of the common knowledge and beliefs of the time. The common features of his speech includes a unique use of the words-word choice, creating new compounds, compounding- description, repetition, emphasis, transformation, omission, using Quranic verses, Islamic hadiths and Arabic compounds, expressions of astrology and medicine, adages, proverbs and idioms regularly used by ordinary people. He is a poet familiar with the language of ordinary people and their beliefs, customs and traditions. Since he rightfully attended to the spoken language and because of his particular style of speech, his works are full of street talks to the extent that this propery can be viewed as the prominent stylistic feature of his poems. He took advantage of the common sciences of the time and utilized the scientific, astrological and medical terms and also the technical meanings and themes of these sciences. His imagination and awareness of the sciences and beliefs made his poems productive. Some of the features of his poems are as follow:   1- Imagery : Imagery refers to producing pictures, paintings or shows in the mind of readers /listeners using words. That is, the poet or writer should have such mastery over using words, space, meanings and their relations that makes him able to effectively use the sentences and words to create paintings, pictures or shows in the mind of readers or listener, to enable the reader to imagine a real painting or picture when he is over with his reading.    2- Diction : Experts of language issues and grammar beliefs that word coining can strengthen the foundation of language. So, the first premise in creating fine text is to choose musical words appropriate for the given text and meaning. In the first step

  8. Osmanlı’da Zaman-Mekân Kavrayışının Değişimi; Edebi Metinler Üzerinden Bir İrdeleme Change In The Ottoman Space-Time Conception; An Inquiry Through Ottoman Literary Texts

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    Full Text Available This study entitled “Change in Ottoman Space-Time Conception:An Inquiry Through Ottoman Literary Texts”, proposes a noveldiscussion on the transformation of Ottoman practices from pre-modernto modern times with the use of recently discovered archival and literarytexts which has been neglected so far in the techno-cultural and socioculturalresearches. In that sense, “change in the Ottoman space-timeconception” is one of the pivotal parameters in order to scrutinize thetransformation of everyday life practices in respect to the changingcontextual phenomena of the pre-modern and the modern, and thispaper attempts to go beyond the prevalent approach of consideringindustrial revolution as the pre-requisite of discussing the socialtransformations brought by modernity. One of the main objectives ofthis study is to examine and visualize the technological, social andcultural processes experienced in the daily life practices that arespecific to the Ottoman realm in relation to the space-time conception.Based on this conceptual framework, the first part named “Müneccims,Muvakkits and the Auspicious Moments: Ottoman Space-TimeConception Before 19th Century” intends to expose the „pre-modernOttoman system‟ in relation to temporal space-time conception rootedin cosmology and nature. Accordingly, the second part under the title“New Space-Time Conception and Modernity in Ottoman Realm” aims toscrutinize the Ottoman experience of modernity in tune with the erosionof cosmological units derived from empirical observation.In this sense „cosmology, astrology (ilm-i nücum, astronomy (ilm-iheyet‟, „müneccimbaşılık ve müneccimler (chief astrologer and theastrologers, „müneccimbaşı takvimleri (chief astrologer calendars‟,„zayiçe (horoscope ve eşref saat (auspicious moment‟ and „muvakkitler,muvakkithaneler‟ are phenomena to be studied. As they display theoperations of the Ottoman psycho-social structure, these

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Tycho Brahe and Prague: Crossroads of European Science (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Christianson, J. R.; Hadravová, A.; Hadrava, P.; Solc, M.


    The 16th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of the International Symposium on the History of Science in the Rudolphine Period. The meeting was held in Prague from 22 to 25 October 2001, on the 400th anniversary of Tycho's sudden death, and was attended by approximately 65 scientists and historians. The volume contains 36 contributions dealing with the life and work of Tycho Brahe, the astronomy of the era, and many cultural aspects of Rudolphine Prague. One of the first papers is an eye-opener on the fact that Tycho Brahe was a cosmologically-driven observer. This is followed by a very illuminating paper on gender roles in science in the late 16th century, with emphasis on the role of Sophie Brahe, Tycho's youngest sister. Several subsequent papers reveal the existence of barely known links between Tycho and his contemporaneous colleagues. These extremely-well documented papers also deal with the broader philosophical investigation he was involved in, viz. meteorology, medicine, astrology, alchemy and even theology. Important names of Tycho's days are Petrus Severinus, Johannes Pratensis, Theophrastus Paracelsus, John Craig, Ursus (Nicolai Reymers Baer) etc. Very illuminating is the information on the relations between Tycho and the Jesuits in Prague, explaining the reason why this order was very supportive of the Tychonic cosmological model. The relationsship with Kepler, and also Kepler's observational activities (after Tycho's death) are highlighted as well as the hideous mode of communication between Galileo and Kepler. More than one paper deals with the accuracy and precision of Tycho's observations, and the causal impact of this accuracy on the scientific revolution. Another study discusses the study of Tycho's handwriting, this paper brings the aditional bonus of a list of accessible works which contain notes by him. One very interesting project was Brahe's proposal to the Republic of Venice to determine the exact latitudes of

  10. Perrault's experiments, a matter of soil hydrology and epistemology (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Berta, Andrea; Settura, Matteo


    to misinterpretate the experiments by a physical point of view. As his interpretation of the experiments did not corroborate the hypothesis that precipitation might be at the origin of all the springs, it accepted one of the forms of the traditional scheme of water circulation. According to it, greatly productive springs should be sustained by evaporation and condensation processes taking place below the soil surface. Even if Perrault's conclusions went in the direction of the ancient opinion, not only De l'origine des fontaines is a seminal work of experimental hydrology, but also it can be regarded to as a milestone of scientific revolution. In his critique of both ancient (e.g. Aristotle) and modern scholars (e.g. Nicolas Papin) he makes use of principles drawn by the works of Bacon, Galilei and Pascal. Stating that "the first and most usual maxim of our moderns is to doubt everything", he shows deep awareness of the specific essence of scientific modernity. Moreover his rejection of alchemy, analogical reasoning and astrological influences arises from the conviction that "it is to experiments that we owe the finest knowledge we now have concerning the things of nature". According to this perspective, despite of all the difficulties of the soil-hydrologic laboratory practice, Perrault was nevertheless able to report his experiments in terms that we can properly reproduce nowadays.

  11. Ancient cults of the sun (German Title: Antike Sonnenkulte) (United States)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    In ancient astronomy, the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos did not meet universal approval. Contrary to that, the cult of the sun gained immense importance in the Roman Empire. Relics of this significance we still find e.g. in the meaning of the Sunday in the week and in the date of Christmas. The rise of the sun cults is characterised by the merging of different gods from various cultures. Already in classical Greece the god of the sun, Helios, almagated with the god of light, Apollo. The resulting entity was regarded as the harmonic guide of the visible universe, symbolized by Apoll. As well as he plays the lyre, he conducts the cosmos harmonically as the sun. Plato recommends to politicians to study musical harmonics and astronomy in order to get a feeling of the right way to rule the state. In consequence to the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Babylonian star religion was mingled with Greek cosmology and the concept of transmigration of souls. The astrology resulting therefrom spread out over the whole Hellenistic world and was very common in the Roman Empire. The calendar with its religious division of time as the days of the week, following the principle of the gods of the planets governing the hour, was well known. The god of the sun was graded up by the adoption of the calendar of the sun from Egypt by Caesar. Augustus chose Apoll as his guardian god and built with “his” sundial a symbol of the god of the sun, which was visible from a long distance. Augustus used more astral symbols as propaganda of leadership. During the competition with the Parthians, another large empire, for world domination the focus fell on an Iranian god: the Iranian god of light and contract - Mithras. Shortly before 100 A.D., a new cult of mysteries arose in the Roman Empire, called cult of Mithras, and spread quickly. It combined the attributes of a classical sun-god with a religion of salvation, guaranteed by baptism, communion and seven degrees to be passed

  12. The religious and social principles of patients' rights in holy books (Avesta, Torah, Bible, and Quran) and in traditional medicine. (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Hatami, Maryam; Hatami, Neda


    Health protection and promotion in healthy people and restoring patients' health have been the most important themes in medicine and health throughout our history. Therefore, discussion of different aspects of patients' rights includes implementation of these objectives by the medical community, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, etc., and the people in charge of health affairs. The principal objective of our research is the study of medical ideology and the approaches of our ancestors in relation to different aspects of patients' rights. To study the different ideologies of traditional medicine in relation to patients' rights, appropriate data were extracted from the original resources of traditional medicine and from religious books. By means of library research we studied these resources in addition to electronic versions of the Alhavi book (by Rhazes), the Kamel-al-Sanaah (by Ahvazi), the Canon of Medicine (by Avicenna), the Zakhireye Khawrazmshahi (by Jorjani), the Avesta, the Torah, the Bible, the Quran, and many other resources, and, finally, after searching, gathering, and encoding the findings, analyzed them qualitatively for thematic content. The holy Avesta book clearly insists on the competence of physicians and setting the appointment fee in accordance with peoples' income. The Old Testament (holy Torah) warned government officials who did not observe patients' rights. In the four gospels (holy Bible) the importance of treatment and taking care of the patient is stressed. After the emergence of Islam, medical students, before beginning the principal courses, had to study Islamic jurisprudence, ethics, logic sciences, natural sciences, geometry, astrology, calculus, and similar courses so that after purifying their soul they could enter the saintly profession of physicians. The holy Quran refers to saving the life of a human irrespective of social class, race, and religion, and insists on exemption of patients from physical activity, including

  13. TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death (United States)

    Thykier, C.


    by the young new King Christian IV. Almost all of Tycho Brahe's privileges given to him by the late King Frederik II were taken from him. Shortly after that, he gathered his family and assistants and went to Rostock, from where he wrote a letter to Christian IV saying that he would contemplate returning to Denmark if the king would give him back his privileges. Christian very sternly answered the astronomer that if he should hope to return to Denmark he had to act like a servant. Tycho was too proud to go down to his knees for the king and never returned. So the reason for Tycho's acceptance of the invitation by Emperor Rudolf to come to Prague was that Christian IV would not continue the very considerable financial support to Tycho of about one percentage of the state income. The latest historical research has indicated that a "camarilla" of enemies stood behind Christian IV's aversion against Tycho. Tycho was not merely an astronomer, but also an astrologer and alchemist. As far as we know he never tried to make gold; his alchemic experiments were of medical character. This was not legal without permission from the Church and the University. Both the clergy and the doctors of the university envied the great scientist because princes and learned people preferred to visit Tycho at his "private university" on the island of Hven instead of visiting the University of Copenhagen. A new theory about Tycho's death has appeared. It has always been told that he died of a burst urinary bladder because he drank too much at parties. According to forensic medicine, however, this cannot be true. Tycho lived for some time after he became ill, and a bursted bladder would cause sudden death. A more plausible explanation would be that Tycho poisoned himself with his very strong medicines containing heavy metals like mercury and arsenic.

  14. [Epilepsy, eponyms and patron saints (history of Western civilization)]. (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Stojsavljević, N; Drulović, J


    about the precipitous decay of attitudes that started with Romans and inaugurated the way of thinking characteristic of Renaissance and the ages thereafter. Serbian literature of the Middle Age was strongly impacted by influences that fanned from Italy (Salerno) and south France (Montpellier), reflecting the attitudes of medical schools and universities prevailing at that time Europe. The name [symbol: see text] from Hilandar Medical Codex No 517 (XV-XVI century) is obviously taken from Byzantine medicine, which was founded on the works of Hippocrates, Galen and Dioscurides. It came down to us through the Serbian folk Byzantine codices named "latrosophia of Hilandar", preserved mostly from the author Michail Pselos (XI century). On the other hand, the name [symbol: see text] or morbus magnus, reflects its Roman origin. The name [symbol: see text] meaning fainting, loss of consciousness or syncope, stems from the same source. The name [symbol: see text] designated epileptic disease in Serbian monks, monasteries probably being the only niche where epileptics could find refuge. Children's epilepsy or convulsions are expressed as [symbol: see text] No mention is found of epileptic status except for the notion [symbol: see text] meaning "to be without consciousness for a longer period of time'; it does not, however, refer directly to epilepsy or convulsions. It is worthy noting that already in the XIV century Serbs had their medical literature translated to their own language, and were the only one of all Slavic peoples that did so. Nevertheless, both apocryphal and canonical, as well as consecrated medicine were based on magic, astrology and occultism. The magic formulas used in Middle Age Serbia for the cure of epileptics as well as sick in general, were basically irrational; still, as a trace of its descension they contained unintelligible words of the eastern origin (Greek, Persian or Jewish). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  15. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15) (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.


    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  16. The Sun as you never saw it before (United States)


    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that

  17. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD


    we tend to feel that we have a right to roam around and to dip in to whatever catches our interest. Online courses need to offer this same facility through intuitive navigation and iconic signalling–and even more so if the course is to be retained as a source of reference. When multi-media designers stop feeding the frenzy of the people who market online learning, we might begin to see some appropriate use of it. Sadly the visual ergonomics of a learning environment are poorly understood and rarely viewed as important by learning designers-and results in a weakness in many online environments in which the visual mode of learning is dominant. Pedagogy I look forward to the day when there is a collective realisation of how extremely limited (and contradictory most of the current educational theories really are. For example, my own view is that ‘Learning Styles’ as a predictive model for how people learn is about as effective as using astrological charts to make decisions about the future. We can be certain of very little when it comes to an understanding of how people learn. What is emerging form experience and research is that effective learning is much more a function of the emotional response to a learning environment than the techniques and structures that it is based on. For learning to be effective the learner needs to feel Included, Individual, Interested and Inspired. How much online learning have you seen that manages to achieve these 4 Is? Promotion Long ago in the early dawn of online learning (about 1997, there was a widely held belief that this new form of computer-mediated learning was so wonderful that people could not wait to take part. Those of you old enough to remember will recall that it was described as a ‘killer application’ 2 –which, given the number of learners ‘killed off’ by online learning (about 70% who take part 3, turned out to be a highly prescient descriptor. Many organisations who are now re-launching online learning realise the

  18. El boto y los geoglifos de Nasca: una contribución de la investigación estética en la arqueología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    rito con la forma plástica del mismo y que se enlazan en un misterioso pero igualmente elocuente propósito. El arte como excedente de energías encuentra la posibilidad de llevar a cabo mediante este residuo de 'energía cultural', la forma que el mito exige para su significado. Esta manifestación no necesariamente ha de ser plástica puede ejercerse con otras formas de arte, bailes, cantos o lances deportivos, de competencia (al igual que el 'agón' griego que también pueden incluirse en este caso como expresión estética, en espacios rigurosamente señalados y consagrados en cumplimiento de esos ritos. Estos son los fundamentos de juicio crítico-estético que apoyan la tesis del autor La astrología (o religiosidad, puesto que hay armonía entre el astro solar y la existencia humana conjuga con el arte y desarrolla su actividad en los múltiples y complejos trazos-rectilíneos juntamente con oíros dibujos totémicos entrelazados y relacionados con estos trazos, algunos largos de kilómetros. Hace una memoria de su señalamiento y analiza el 'Informe Hawkins' como el más reciente y científico paso de investigación y que determina una fecha para la ejecución de estos trazos entre los años 390 a 500 de la era cristiana. Hawkins declara que estos trazos 'no parecen tener significado astronómico' por lo mismo cabe inclinarse hacia la hipótesis lúdicra del autor de este ensayo, como expresiones sociales en las que interviene un determinado sentido de juego, del deporte religioso. Entre los muchos glifos totémicos figura lo del cetáceo Boto (Orea gladiator que aparece ya en la cerámica del primer período cultural, el 'naturalista', que florece en los tiempos del sub-estilo 'nasca' de Lumbreras (100-300 d.C.. Comenta la posibilidad de errores en su trazo y señala el ejemplo como prueba de un rito que no es de una simple gratificación estética. Y deduce, de acuerdo con opiniones autorizadas, el desarrollo socio-político del 'genio' nasquense hasta su

  19. News & Announcements (United States)


    education in thermal analysis; it will consist of Mettler-Toledo thermal analysis instrumentation, peripherals, training and service. Applications must be submitted by April 1, 2000. Application forms may be downloaded from Questions should be directed to Jon Foreman, Product Manager, Thermal Analysis, Mettler-Toledo, Inc., 1900 Polaris Parkway, Columbus, OH 43240; phone: 1-800/638-8537; fax: 614/438-4871; email: Courses, Seminars, Meetings, Opportunities Cosmos in the Classroom 2 A national symposium on the trials and tribulations of teaching astronomy to college non-science majors will be held at the Pasadena, California, Convention Center on July 17-19, 2000, as part of the 112th Annual Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Designed for everyone who teaches introductory astronomy, the symposium will focus on ways to improve teaching, to involve students more effectively, and to put astronomy in a wider context. Specific discussion topics will include: getting out of lecture mode, using the Web effectively, dealing with creationism and astrology, and laboratory and observation projects. The 2.5-day program will involve panels of mentor instructors, an exchange of handouts and teaching resources, hands-on workshops for trying new techniques and approaches, and lots of time for discussion. Participants will range from veteran instructors to nervous graduate students about to teach their first solo course. We especially hope to involve those teaching astronomy in small colleges without extensive astronomy research programs, and colleagues in other sciences who teach astronomy on a part-time basis. To get on the mailing list for the meeting, send your name, institution, email, and postal mailing address (indicating an interest in the 2000 Education Symposium) via: email:; fax: 415/337-5205 (Attn: 2000 Education Symp.) mail: 2000 Education Symposium, ASP, 390 Ashton Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94112