Sample records for astrology

  1. Astrology. (United States)

    Carlson, S


    As a divinatory practice, astrology is without equal in both its colorful history and modern day popularity. Astrology has grown, over thousands of years, into a huge and ornate superstructure that lacks a central design. Although astrology has been dimly veiled by its occult mystique for centuries, the light of modern day inquiry has shown its substance to be mostly illusionary and revealed its foundation to be the shakiest possible: that of self-justification and anecdotal evidence. Despite the many claims of its practitioners and followers, extensive investigation has revealed astrology to be a great teetering monument to human gullibility.

  2. Observational Astrology. (United States)

    Mayer, Ben


    Discusses the use of astrological signs as a vehicle for getting students interested in astronomy. Describes the construction and use of simple stellaphane starframes that can be used to locate astrological constellations. Provides instructions for photographing constellations with a 35 millimeter camera. (TW)

  3. Astrology for Physics Teachers (United States)

    Steckline, Vincent S.


    Presents a brief history of astrology and its relation to astronomy. Describes the different types of astrologers, horoscope casting, and horoscope interpretation. Presents reasons for the author's disbelief in astrology. (GS)

  4. Late Babylonian Astrology (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  5. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  6. Astrology and Astronomy. (United States)

    Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA.

    One of a series of information packets, the document provides clear, specific information about the controversial subject of astrology. The packet includes six articles explaining the dozens of careful scientific tests which have concluded that there is no scientific evidence supporting astrology. The packet includes an interview with astronomer…

  7. Greco-Roman Astrology (United States)

    Beck, Roger

    Astrology was entrenched in the culture of the Roman Empire. The system and its influence is described as well as its relationship to mathematical astronomy at the time. The material remains are of two sorts: papyrus horoscopes and coins with astrological motifs.

  8. Astronomy and astrology (United States)

    Zarka, Philippe


    Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

  9. Astrology as Cultural Astronomy (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    The practice of astrology can be traced in most if not all human societies, in most time periods. Astrology has prehistoric origins and flourishes in the modern world, where it may be understood as a form of ethnoastronomy - astronomy practiced by the people. The Western tradition, which originated in Mesopotamia and was developed in the Greek world, has been most studied by academics. However, India is also home to a tradition which has survived in a continuous lineage for 2,000 years. Complex systems of astrology also developed in China and Mesoamerica, while all other human societies appear to seek social and religious meaning in the stars.

  10. Dante, astrology and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro


    Some verses of Dante Alighieri suggest his astrological sign and his probable date of birth. This leads us to reflect on the different methods, increasingly divergent, with which sciences as opposed to beliefs approach reality.

  11. The Scientific Case against Astrology. (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan


    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  12. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie


    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  13. Astrology: Science, Art or Prophesy (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Anahit


    The subject in question is the link between humanity's two earliest disciplines – astronomy and astrology. Is it realistic to assume that the arrangement of celestial bodies, planets and stars can provide an opportunity to unequivocally predetermine the faith of the flora and fauna, of single individuals or entire nations living on planet Earth of the Solar System in the entirety of the Universe? Is it possible to ascertain whether astrology is science, art or prophesy?

  14. Galen and astrology: a Mésalliance? (United States)

    Cooper, Glen M


    The author examines the question of Galen's affinity with astrology, in view of Galen's extended astrological discussion in the De diebus decretoriis (Critical Days). The critical passages from Galen are examined, and shown to be superficial in understanding. The author performs a lexical sounding of Galen's corpus, using key terms with astrological valences drawn from the Critical Days, and assesses their absence in Galen's other works. He compares Galen's astrology with the astrology of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, and evaluates their respective strategies of scientific reasoning. Three types of inference are introduced and applied to Galen's astrology. Finally, he concludes that the empirical side of Galen's science does not depend upon astrological methods or concepts, but that these were introduced for their rhetorical effect in presenting his new medical methodology. It is suggested that continued attention to Galen's astrology has obscured the truly important empirical scientific method that Galen developed.

  15. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus]. (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià


    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  16. Studies of Astrology and Personality. (United States)

    Kelley, I.W.


    Reviews the behavioral evidence of the possible relationship between the movements of the planets and personality variables. Concludes that astrology is a science consisting primarily of false data claims and much further research is required before any supported conclusions can be reached. (Author)

  17. The astrological roots of mesmerism. (United States)

    Schaffer, Simon


    Franz Anton Mesmer's 1766 thesis on the influence of the planets on the human body, in which he first publicly presented his account of the harmonic forces at work in the microcosm, was substantially copied from the London physician Richard Mead's early eighteenth century tract on solar and lunar effects on the body. The relation between the two texts poses intriguing problems for the historiography of medical astrology: Mesmer's use of Mead has been taken as a sign of the Vienna physician's enlightened modernity while Mead's use of astro-meteorology has been seen as evidence of the survival of antiquated astral medicine in the eighteenth century. Two aspects of this problem are discussed. First, French critics of mesmerism in the 1780s found precedents for animal magnetism in the work of Paracelsus, Fludd and other early modern writers; in so doing, they began to develop a sophisticated history for astrology and astro-meteorology. Second, the close relations between astro-meteorology and Mead's project illustrate how the environmental medical programmes emerged. The making of a history for astrology accompanied the construction of various models of the relation between occult knowledge and its contexts in the enlightenment.

  18. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology. (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew


    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  19. Contribution of astrology in medicine -- a review. (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Prasad, P V V; Narayana, A


    Astrology is the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). Both Ayurveda and Astrology have established a way of life in India since time immemorial. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian Holy scriptures and transmitted from generation to generation. Although both Astrology and medicine were developed as a part of religion in ancient India, astrological principles related to prevention, health care and relief from illness were applied as rituals (religious ceremonies). An astrologer gives guidance for taking medicines at suitable time for the best remedy of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and used at appropriate times for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurveda are inseparable in human life. Role of the Astrology in healthy life and pathogenesis of the disease is well known to Indians. When a physician knows etiology of the disease, he attempts to treat the disease with specific medication, diet and life style and also avoiding causative factors. In a case where a physician is unable to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and to treat, the patient depends upon Astrology. Account of good and bad deeds during this life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life which orderly, when, what and how will be clearly known through Astrology. It gives guidelines about welfare not only to human being but also to whole creation and also indicates about calamities and their solutions as possible extent. Hence a concise astrological evaluation related to prevention, health care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases is being presented in this article.

  20. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century. (United States)

    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra M C


    It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine. There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period.

  1. Horoscopes Versus Telescopes: A Focus on Astrology. (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.


    Criticizes astrology and uses student interest to help encouraging critical thinking and the scientific method. Provides some thought-provoking questions, three activities, and resource materials and a list of astronomy organizations. (YP)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  3. Inside the cosmic mind archetypal astrology and the new cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wyss, Phoebe


    Phoebe Wyss, an experienced astrologer, here examines all aspects of astrology in the light of the emerging worldview known as archetypal cosmology.She sets out by exploring the classical roots of astrology in sources of wisdom found in the ancient Egyptian mysteries. She then follows the tradition to modern times through C.G. Jung''s ideas on the nature of the psyche. She also discovers that the claims of astrology are entirely compatible with new cosmological thinking as envisioned by post-modern physics and chaos theory.In the second part of the book, she proposes that the mathematical basis of astrology and the components of astrological charts are both archetypal and cosmic in scope. She argues that the twelve astrological archetypes make up a single ‘cosmic mind', whose patterns are imprinted on all our individual minds.Finally, she exemplifies this radical approach to astrology through an interpretation of the chart of William Blake.

  4. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru. (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia


    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  5. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation. (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano


    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men.

  6. [Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library]. (United States)

    Gluch, Sibylle


    About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a

  7. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas


    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  8. Health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of diseases in astrology. (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Subhakta, P K J P; Narayana, A


    The whole universe is intermingling into a unit in the period of globalization. Different cultures, life-styles and sciences are co-operating with each other in this situation. World Health Organization is working towards collaborating all prevalent medical sciences for attainment of good health and family welfare for each and every individual by 2020. Astrology is a part of Indian heritage. Astrology means the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). The account of deeds of good and bad during the present life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life i.e. what, when and how the things takes place will be clearly known through Astrology. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian scriptures and the knowledge was transmitted from generation to generation. It is also a good source for health promotion, preventive, curative and other medical aspects. Brief direction related to astrological medical aspects is also available in Ayurvedic literature (Carakasamhită, Suśrutasamhhită, Aşţăngasangraha, Aşţăngahŗdaya, Sărngadharasamhită , Băvaprakăśa etc.) Some Ayurvedic practitioners, scholars and scientists realize the need of astrological knowledge related to medicine in the present time. In ancient times physician, astrologer and purŏhita (Hindu priest) simultaneously looked after the health and family welfare of individual, families and country. Astrologer guides medication and suitable time for the better cure of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and treated at appropriate time for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurvĕda are inseparable sciences of life. Hence, in this article, a concise astrological evaluation related to health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of Astrology is being presented.

  9. Nephrology and astrology--is there a link? (United States)

    Hughes, S


    Astrologers presume a link between the susceptibility of particular organs to disease and signs of the Zodiac. A simple test of the positive connection between renal disease and the sign of Libra was undertaken by studying the birth dates of consecutive nephrology in-patient admissions. No significant link was found on analysis, thus disproving the traditional astrologers' claims.

  10. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period. (United States)

    Papathanassiou, M


    Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure.

  11. Self, other, and astrology: esoteric therapy in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Perinbanayagam, R S


    HARRY STACK SULLIVAN'S argument that anxiety as a fundamental human experience is alleviated by the use of various procedures that he called "security operations" is used in this paper to examine the meaning of astrology in Sri Lanka. Astrology and the doctrine of karma provide the relevant framework in which various forms of misfortune are understood and handled. An examination of cases in Sri Lanka reveals that astrology and the doctrine of karma enable a person of that culture to create a number of structures which have a therapeutic effect.

  12. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe. (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M


    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  13. 'Astronomy' or 'astrology': a brief history of an apparent confusion (United States)

    Losev, Alexandre


    The modern usage of the words 'astronomy' and 'astrology' is traced back to distinctions that are largely ignored in recent scholarship. Three interpretations of celestial phenomena (in a geometrical, a substantialist and a prognostic form) co-existed during the Hellenistic Period. From Plato to Isidore of Seville, the semiotic contrast is evidenced, and its later developments are sketched. The concept of astronomy is found to be rather constant and distinct from changing views about astrology.

  14. Astrology in the Era of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Michael B


    The last two decades have seen the number of known exoplanets increase from a small handful to nearly 2000 known exoplanets, thousands more planet candidates, and several upcoming missions that are expected to further increase the population of known exoplanets. Beyond the strictly scientific questions that this has led to regarding planet formation and frequency, this has also led to broader questions such as the philosophical implications of life elsewhere in the universe and the future of human civilization and space exploration. One additional realm that hasn't been adequately considered, however, is that this large increase in exoplanets would also impact claims regarding astrology. In this paper we look at the distribution of planets across the sky and along the Ecliptic, as well as the current and future implications of this planet distribution.

  15. HISTORIA Alexandri Magni: Astronomy, Astrology and Tradition (United States)

    Papathanassiou, M.

    A popular text on the birth, life and death of Alexander the Great is that attributed to Pseudo-Callisthenes. According to this Byzantine text Alexander is the son of the last king of Egypt, the Pharao Nectanebo, who left his country and following Apollo's oracle visited Macedonia. Nectanebo was famous for his astronomical, astrological and magical knowledge which he used to prevent Alexander's birth for some hours until a favoured time comes. In only one manuscript (Paris. gr. 1711, 11th century) of this work there is a unique passage in which astronomical information is given regarding the positions of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets at the time of Alexander's birth. In this paper I attempt a study of all information related to the astronomical instruments and their use as mentioned in the text as well as of the astronomical information regarding Alexander's birth.

  16. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief


    Full Text Available Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after the Renaissance, it still remains of considerable significance in countries like China and Tibet. Astrology took on a prominent medical component in the Old Babylonian Era (1900-1600 BC when diseases were first attributed to stellar bodies and associated gods. In the Neo-Babylonian Era (6th century BC the zodiac came into being: an imaginary belt across the skies (approximately 16o wide which included the pathways of the sun, moon and planets, as perceived from earth. The zodiac belt was divided into 12 equal parts (“houses” or signs, 6 above the horizon and 6 below. The signs became associated with specific months, illnesses and body parts – later with a number of other objects like planets, minerals (e.g. stones and elements of haruspiction (soothsaying, mantic, gyromancy. In this way the stellar objects moving through a zodiac “house” became associated with a multitude of happenings on earth, including illness. The macrocosm of the universe became part of the human microcosm, and by studying the stars, planets, moon, etcetera the healer could learn about the incidence, cause, progress and treatment of disease. He could even predict the sex and physiognomy of unborn children. The art of astrology and calculations involved became very complex. The horoscope introduced by the 3rd century BC (probably with Greek input produced a measure of standardisation: a person’s position within the zodiac would be determined by the date of birth, or

  17. Early-Years Educators' Attitudes to Science and Pseudo-Science: The Case of Astronomy and Astrology. (United States)

    Kallery, Maria


    Surveyed Greek elementary teachers' attitudes toward astrology, investigating whether they could distinguish between astronomy as the science and astrology as the pseudoscience. Teacher surveys indicated that 60 percent of respondents subscribed more or less to the astrological principles, and 59 percent viewed both astronomy and astrology as…

  18. Inter relationship of Ayurveda and Astrology. (United States)

    Dwivedi, Jaiprakash Narayan


    In the universe all the creatures are related to Adhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Acharyas of Ayurveda like Charaka, Sushruta and Kashyap have classified diseases into various categories like Agantuja, Sharirika, Manasika, Swabhavika, etc. Charaka classified diseases based on the prognosis like Sadhya, Asadhya, Mrudu and Daruna. Ayurveda also suggested Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes of Manidharana and chanting Mantras. Astrological sciences suggest 10 types of remedial measures in the treatment of diseases. This science considers that causative factors of various disorders are the Navagrahas (nine planets). The influence of the planets on various procedures like drug processing, bath taking, performing Yajna, wearing Ratna, etc. are well documented in Jyotishashastra. Drugs processed in Chandra Nakshatra acts as ambrosia and subdues Tridoshajanya Vyadhi. Medicated baths are suggested for diseases engendered due to involvement of different planet effects viz. Sarshpa for Shukra, Haridra and Daruharidra for Shani Lodhra for Ketu, Sharpunkha for Rahu, etc. In a close scrutiny it appears that Jyotishashastra Siddhanta can play crucial role in the management of chronic diseases.

  19. Reading the Stars of the Renaissance. Fritz Saxl and Astrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt Duits


    Full Text Available This article discusses Fritz Saxl’s publications on astrological images from the western Middle Ages and Renaissance, from his early study on the representation of the planets (1912, via his catalogues of astrological and mythological manuscripts (1915 and 1927 and his contributions on the depiction of the children of the planets (1919, 1923, 1927 to his booklet on the astrological ceiling in the Villa Farnesina in Rome (1934. It aims to assess the importance of Saxl’s work and to show his development from a close follower of Aby Warburg to an independent theorist, with his own method and approach and his own answer to one of the central issues Warburg had raised – how the integrate the old image of the Renaissance as the revival of classical Antiquity with the new picture of the Renaissance as the birth of the modern rational world presented by Burckhardt during the nineteenth century.

  20. Astrological signs and personality in Kuwaitis and Americans. (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David


    Samples of Kuwaiti (N=460) and American (N=273) undergraduates responded to six personality questionnaires to assess optimism, pessimism, suicidal ideation, ego-grasping, death anxiety, general anxiety, and obssessive-compulsiveness. Each participant was assigned to the astrological sign associated with date of birth. One-way analyses of variance yielded nonsignificant F ratios for all the seven scales in both Kuwaiti and American samples, except for anxiety scores among Americans. It was concluded that there was little support for an association between astrological sun signs and scores on the present personality scales.

  1. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology? (United States)

    Henriques, André


    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  2. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages


    Francois P. Retief; Louise C. Cilliers


    Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after...

  3. "Astronomy" or "astrology": a brief history of an apparent confusion

    CERN Document Server

    Losev, A


    The modern usage of the words astronomy and astrology is traced back to distinctions, largely ignored in recent scholarship. Three interpretations of celestial phenomena (in a geometric, a substantialist and a prognostic versions) coexisted during the Hellenistic period. From Plato to Isidore of Seville, semantic changes are evidenced and their later development is sketched.

  4. Using Astrology to Teach Research Methods to Introductory Psychology Students. (United States)

    Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.


    Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…

  5. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe. (United States)

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman


    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature.

  6. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain. (United States)

    Avalos, Ana


    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  7. The Assimilation of Astrology in the Tibetan Bon Religion


    Ramble, Charles


    International audience; The sciences subsumed within the Tibetan category tsi (rtsis), "calculation," include calendrical reckoning and astrology (kartsi; dkar rtsis) and, secondly, elemental divination (naktsi; nag rtsis). The former is essentially based on the Kālacakra, a late tantra that was introduced from India in the twelfth century, and the latter on Chinese precedents. Although scholarly literature concerning the Tibetans' assimilation of these sciences is steadily growing, there has...

  8. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire. (United States)

    Rutkin, H Darrel


    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  9. Astrological birth signs in suicide: hypothesis or speculation? (United States)

    Salib, Emad


    Astrology is no longer regarded as a science by many, because its claims are almost impossible to test empirically in controlled laboratory conditions and it can not meet the scientific need to be reproducible. However, the majority of those who read their 'star signs' can identify aspects of their personality in what they read and it is possible that this may influence their attitudes and actions. The literature has neglected astrological signs as a possible predictor of suicide ideation. To see whether astrological birth signs are associated with suicide and the method used, data was collected from the Public Health Department in North Cheshire representing all the Cheshire Coroner's verdicts of suicide, and open verdicts, in all deceased aged 60 and above between 1989 and 2000. The observed occurrence of deaths due to natural causes, and suicide, in relation to birth signs did not differ significantly from what would be expected from chance. However, the distribution of suicide by hanging appeared significantly higher in those with a birth sign of Virgo and lowest in Sagittarius and Scorpio. The distribution of violent and non-violent suicides in relation to star signs showed higher occurences of violent death in persons born in the summer months.

  10. Rústico remisión de V. astrología rústico.



    [ES] Definición del término Rústico remisión de V. astrología rústico. en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Rústico remisión de V. astrología rústico. in the dictionary Dicter.

  11. Instruments and demonstrations in the astrological curriculum: evidence from the University of Vienna, 1500-1530. (United States)

    Hayton, Darin


    Historians have used university statutes and acts to reconstruct the official astrology curriculum for students in both the arts and medical faculties, including the books studied, their order, and their relation to other texts. Statutes and acts, however, cannot offer insight into what actually happened during lectures and in the classroom: in other words, how and why astrology was taught and learned in the medieval university. This paper assumes that the astrology curriculum is better understood as the set of practices that constituted it and gave it meaning for both masters and students. It begins to reconstruct what occurred in the classroom by drawing on published and unpublished lecture notes. These offer insight into how masters presented the material as they did, and why. The paper argues three points: first, the teaching of astrology centered on demonstrations involving astrological instruments: specifically, various kinds of paper astrolabes. Second, the astrological instruction focused on conveying the pragmatics of astrology rather than esoteric, theoretical issues. Finally, astrology as it was taught in the arts curriculum was explicitly intended to provide a foundation for students who would advance to study medicine at the university.

  12. Progressions, Rays and Houses in Medieval Islamic Astrology: A Mathematical Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casulleras, J.; Hogendijk, J.P.


    Medieval Islamic mathematicians and astronomers developed a variety of mathematical definitions and computations of the three astrological concepts of houses, rays (or aspects) and progressions. The medieval systems for the astrological houses have been classified by J.D. North and E.S. Kennedy, and

  13. [John Flamsteed's horoscope for laying the groundwork of Greenwich astronomy and astrology]. (United States)

    Oestmann, Günther


    The paper deals with the astronomical and astrological contents of a horoscope cast by John Flamsteed in 1675 for the foundation of Greenwich Observatory. So far no analysis of its astronomical contents has been made. It can be shown that the chart has been drawn correctly, as is to be expected from a competent astronomer. For calculating the planetary positions he most likely used tables issued by Johann Hecker, a pupil of Hevelius, based on Kepler's "Tabulae Rudolphinae" in 1627. The cusps of the twelve astrological houses Flamsteed calculated trigonometrically; so he used no table of houses. Flamsteed employed a method of house division (domification) which was commonly used in the 16th and 17th century and connected with the name of Johannes Regiomontanus. Positional circles joining in the north and south points of the observer's horizon are laid through distances of 30 degrees on the celestial equator, thus giving unequal sections of the ecliptic. By consulting contemporary sources for the interpretation of the chart (Ramesey's Astrologia Restaurata, 1653) it appears that the time for laying the foundation stone was well chosen from the astrological point of view. There were precursors in this practice, e.g. the Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, who was commissioned to submit an astrological report for the foundation for the Franse Wing in the Vatican in 1543, and Tycho Brahe, who performed a solemn ceremony on the island of Hven in 1576 at the laying of the foundation stone of his observatory in an astrologically propitious moment. This leads to the question whether Flamsteed believed in astrology. Michael Hunter has already given evidence that Flamsteed was indeed well-versed with astrological techniques and supplied astrologers with data. But at the same time he expressed hostility towards astrological interpretations issued frequently by different parties during Civil War in England. In an unpublished preface for Hecker's Tables (edited by Hunter) Flamsteed

  14. With Weekly Astronomy Tips Against the Weekly Papers' Astrology Humbug (United States)

    Szécsényi-Nagy, G. A.


    The true democracy - following a long lasting monolithic political-cultural system of the so-called Peoples' Democracy -- freed the sluices in the early nineties for any absurd written idea. No really powerful newspapers or widely circulated magazines were allowed to publish any destructive astrological advice during those 40 years. Although here and there, somehow, it appeared cloaked but was unable to reach the wide public. The first signs of these unwanted changes reached our nation through the electronic media (first of all television, of course ) but very soon a whirl of everyday astrology has occupied a substantial part of almost every newspaper.This situation urges professional and amateur astronomers, astrophysicists, as well as other skeptic scientists and journalists to set their face against any ideas of pseudo-science. In our country, the most has been done by the Hungarian Astronomical Association and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society.I intend to call the attention of our colleagues from other countries and regions to these brave initiatives, and inform them on some useful steps and their first results. I also expect a vivid exchange of the opinions and strategies that can build and develop a wiser society in the over-industrialized or consuming-oriented countries

  15. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records. (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren


    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  16. Ancient Astrology as a Common Root for Science and Pseudo-Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak


    Full Text Available The early history of astrology is closely interrelated with the history of astronomy. Both may be studied separately, but the result may prove one-sided and one may fail to notice things of great consequence. The history of ancient astronomy must be treated jointly with the history of astrology, whose contribution to the history of science has often been underestimated. This situation has begun to change only recently. The number of academic publications suggests that in addition to ancient philosophy, mathematics and astronomy, more and more attention is being paid to ancient astrology, which has played an important role in the history of human thought.

  17. The Church of San Miniato al Monte, Florence: Astronomical and Astrological Connections (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.


    The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.

  18. Rheticus' Heliocentric Providence : a study concerning the astrology, astronomy of the sixteenth century


    Kraai, Jesse


    Rheticus' engagement with Copernicus is discussed in the light of new documents. In particular it is shown that there were strong astrological motivations behind Rheticus' acceptance of the heliocentric theory.


    Genovese, Jeremy E C


    The Google Ngram Viewer shows the frequency of words in a large corpus of books over two centuries. In this study, the names of two pseudosciences, astrology and phrenology, were compared. An interesting pattern emerged. While the level of interest in astrology remained relatively stable over the course of two centuries, interest in phrenology rose rapidly in the early 1800s but then declined. Reasons for this pattern are discussed.

  20. La enseñanza de la astrología en la Universidad de Salamanca (1460 - 1530). (United States)

    García Castillo, P.

    With the creation of the chair of Astrology at the University of Salamanca in 1460 starts an astrological development, which collects critically the classical and the medieval Arab and Jewish texts. Continuing the work of Alphons X it initiates the theoretical and practical development of astrology, which anticipates the Copernican revolution. The paper presents a general overview of the teachers of that chair and a summary of the most important texts.

  1. How to read Simon Forman's casebooks: medicine, astrology, and gender in Elizabethan London. (United States)

    Kassel, L


    Simon Forman's astrological casebooks record thousands of medical consultations. Amidst the wealth of information in these documents, however, it is unclear to what extent Forman relied on the stars for diagnoses and therapies, or how the casebooks reflect the dymanic between Forman and his clients. This article attempts to answer these questions by reading the casebooks alongside Forman's guide to astrological physic. This approach reveals that astrology was paramount in Forman's evaluations and treatments of his patients. According to Forman, in order for him to effect a cure, he had to be trusted. It was particularly difficult to treat women because their health depended on the state of their wombs, and on their sexual activity, subjects about which women were notoriously duplicitous. The task of the astrologer was first to assess whether or not a woman was sexually active, and only then could he make a judgement about her disease. At the same time, in demonstrating an ability to discern whether or not she was being honest about her sexual activities, Forman won her confidence. By accounting for the role of astrology and the dynamics between the patient and the physician, this article provides the framework within which to read one of the most comprehensive records of medical practices in early modern England.

  2. Hebrew and Latin astrology in the twelfth century: the example of the location of pain. (United States)

    Burnett, Charles


    The formative period of Latin and Hebrew astrology occurred virtually simultaneously in both cultures. In the second quarter of the twelfth century the terminology of the subject was established and the textbooks which became authoritative were written. The responsibility for this lay almost entirely with two scholars: John of Seville for the Latins, and Abraham ibn Ezra for the Jews. It is unlikely to have been by coincidence that the same developments in astrology occurred in these two cultures. John of Seville and Abraham ibn Ezra were both brought up within the Islamic culture of Spain, and their astrology was Arabic astrology. Moreover, some scholars have thought that John's origins were Jewish, while Ibn Ezra is known to have collaborated with Latin scholars (whose names are not recorded). It cannot be a coincidence that they forged the science of astrology for their respect co-religionists at almost the same time. Yet, very little research has been done on the possible relations between the two scholars. The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore this relationship, and to illustrate it in particular by their shared doctrine concern the location of pain.

  3. Cosmic Thing: Astrology, Space Science, and Personal Cartography in Robert Rauschenberg's Autobiography (United States)

    Carey, C. L.


    The following paper undertakes an iconographic analysis of Robert Rauschenberg's large scale print, Autobiography (1967). The artist's interest in astronomy and astrology, visual metaphors aligning the body with the cosmos, and the cartographic representation of self are discussed. Autobiography is placed in cultural and historical context with other works by the artist, elaborated as a personal narrative-an alternative to traditional self portraiture.

  4. [Pietro d'Abano and the astrological and scientific image in Padova during the XIV century: from Giotto to Carraresi]. (United States)

    Mariani Canova, Giordana


    The paper intends to prove the incidence that scientific doctrines, mostly Pietro d'Abano's astrological and medical studies, had on Giotto's painting at the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padova and his lost astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione. It is emphasized how in no other painting of his, Giotto displayed as much intellectualism as in the Cappella degli Scrovegni. There we can note the importance of the physical representation of the sky and stars and figures' particular physiognomic characterization referable to Pietro d'Abano's theories presented in his astrological treatises and in his Compilation Phisionomiae. Even the ecceptional botanical realism displayed in the representation of plants can be probably referred to Pietro d'Abano's scientific teaching. An hypotetical reconstruction, according to Ptolomeus' theories and Pietro d'Abano's physiognomic, of Giotto's astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione is also proposed.

  5. The political uses of astrology: predicting the illness and death of princes, kings and popes in the Italian Renaissance. (United States)

    Azzolini, Monica


    This paper examines the production and circulation of astrological prognostications regarding the illness and death of kings, princes, and popes in the Italian Renaissance (ca. 1470-1630). The distribution and consumption of this type of astrological information was often closely linked to the specific political situation in which they were produced. Depending on the astrological techniques used (prorogations, interrogations, or annual revolutions), and the media in which they appeared (private letters or printed prognostica) these prognostications fulfilled different functions in the information economy of Renaissance Italy. Some were used to legitimise the rule of a political leader, others to do just the opposite. Astrological prorogations and interrogations were often used to plan military and political strategies in case of the illness or death of a political leader, while astrological prognostications were generally written to promote certain political leaders while undermining others. While certainly often partisan to this game, astrologers, for their part, worked within a very well established tradition that gave authority to their forecasts. This paper argues that, as indicators of deeper political tensions otherwise not always explicitly manifest, these prognostications are privileged sources of information providing a better understanding of the political history of the period.

  6. 'Magic coins' and 'magic squares': the discovery of astrological sigils in the Oldenburg Letters. (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie


    Enclosed in a 1673 letter to Henry Oldenburg were two drawings of a series of astrological sigils, coins and amulets from the collection of Strasbourg mathematician Julius Reichelt (1637-1719). As portrayals of particular medieval and early modern sigils are relatively rare, this paper will analyse the role of these medals in medieval and early modern medicine, the logic behind their perceived efficacy, and their significance in early modern astrological and cabalistic practice. I shall also demonstrate their change in status in the late seventeenth century from potent magical healing amulets tied to the mysteries of the heavens to objects kept in a cabinet for curiosos. The evolving perception of the purpose of sigils mirrored changing early modem beliefs in the occult influences of the heavens upon the body and the natural world, as well as the growing interests among virtuosi in collecting, numismatics and antiquities.

  7. On the Intercourse Between Indian and the Arabic/Persian Astrologies (United States)

    Beinorius, Audrius


    The history of astrology offers to its students a primary challenge: the complexity of its career in transmission from one cultural area to another and in transformation of its doctrines and methods to fit the interests and cultural circumstances of its eager recipients. The translation movement between the Indian and Arabic/Persian cultures is still rarely studied. In this paper I am discussing the relations (intellectual voyages) between Indian and Arabic/Persian astrological traditions from historical and cultural perspectives. By using the various examples from Sanskrit, Pahlavī, Arabic and Persian sources I try to display the intimate scientific exchanges, by emphasizing the field of astrology and divination, between two geographically close, but in a religious and philosophical sense, very different cultural areas. The conclusion is made that the influence of Hindu astro-sciences on Islamic culture was comparatively greater but the impact of the Islamic sciences on Hindus was no less significant. On both sides a fruitful process of enculturation and integration of technical astral concepts and applied methods took place.

  8. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.


    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  9. The stars and the state: Astronomy, astrology, and the politics of natural knowledge in early medieval Japan (United States)

    Buhrman, Kristina Mairi

    This dissertation examines the social factors involved in the practices of observational astrology (Ch. tianwen, Jp. tenmon ) and calendrical astronomy (Ch. lifa, Jp. rekihō) at the Japanese court. The production and monopolization of astrological and astronomical knowledge had, from the time of the Han Dynasty in China, been part of the state bureaucracy and one of the signs of legitimate rule. In the seventh century, Japan too had imported and implemented these state sciences of the Chinese-style imperium. However, by the twelfth century, while state control of astronomical knowledge continued to operate at a surface level, within the Japanese court bureaucracy dissent and debate reigned. A number of lineages and factions cooperated or competed over astronomical and astrological facts, which resulted in a situation where there was no unified "truth" about the stars accepted by the majority of elite members of the court. The political fragmentation and factionalism that characterized the early medieval Japanese state was also to be found in knowledge about the natural world circulating at court. The major reason for this fragmentation of knowledge was the diversity of the population that produced this same knowledge, a population that did not share either a common identity or definition of practice. Astrological and astronomical knowledge was no longer produced solely by the technical bureaucrats whose offices had been established in the eighth-century Chinese-style law codes (Jp. ritsuryō)—instead, these officials contested with other legitimate but non-official purveyors of natural knowledge: Buddhist monks and court scholars and mathematicians prominent among them. Furthermore, the statements of fact produced by all three of these factions were subject to critique and revision by members of the top echelon of the court bureaucracy, the elite nobility. Clearly there were no independent professional fields of astrology or astronomy in late classical or early

  10. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"]. (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas


    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are

  11. Magia, astrología y ocultismo entre los mineros del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seguramente pocos temas resultarán tan gratos al homenajeado como el de la extensión de las creencias mágicas, del uso de la astrología y del ocultismo en la sociedad española de la Edad Moderna. No sólo ha tratado el problema en dos de sus obras: La Sociedad Española del Renacimiento y, de forma más extensa, en el volumen IV de su Historia de España en la Edad Moderna sino que además es uno de los argumentos a los que en sus clases concede una atención preferente.

  12. Magia, astrología y ocultismo entre los mineros del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seguramente pocos temas resultarán tan gratos al homenajeado como el de la extensión de las creencias mágicas, del uso de la astrología y del ocultismo en la sociedad española de la Edad Moderna. No sólo ha tratado el problema en dos de sus obras: La Sociedad Española del Renacimiento y, de forma más extensa, en el volumen IV de su Historia de España en la Edad Moderna \\ sino que además es uno de los argumentos a los que en sus clases concede una atención preferente.

  13. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO's, and More: Tackling Astronomical Pseudo-science (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.


    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, these days popular astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism and intelligent design (and their denial of the age of the universe), astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the ``face'' on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We discuss some of the recent surveys of belief in pseudo-science and some ways to respond to questions about these topics. A separate resource guide to help answer questions about astronomical pseudoscience is also included in this volume.

  14. [The role of ancient astrology in preparation for a secular natural science and medicine]. (United States)

    Geller, Markham J


    The Persian period in the Near East (from c. 500 BCE) represented the first example of globalisation, during which advanced cultural centres from Egypt to Afghanistan were united under a single rule and common language. Paul Unschuld has drawn attention to a scientific revolution in the late first millennium BC, extending from Greece to China, from Thales to Confucius, which saw natural law replace the divine law in scientific thinking. This paper argues for new advances in astronomy as the specific motor which motivated changes in scientific thinking and influenced other branches of science, including medicine, just as the new science of astrology, which replaced divination, fundamentally changed the nature of medical prognoses. The secularisation of science was not universally accepted among ancient scholars, and the irony is that somewhat similar reservations accompanied the reception of modern quantum physics.

  15. The Palazzo della Ragione in Padua: Representation and Communication of Art, Architecture, and Astrology of a Civic Monument (United States)

    Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.


    Eight centuries of the history of art and of Padua's scientific and technological culture deposited on the stones and frescoes of its Palace of Law ("Palazzo della Ragione") make this great work of urban architecture a part of the city's collective identity. This "palimpsest", legible only to a restricted circle of specialists, should be accessible to a vaster public interested in understanding this object symbol of local culture. The project planned for interactive exploration on the web is a series of digital models, employing tomographic-endoscopic visualizations and, in future, multi-resolution images. The various models devised allow the visitor to superimpose the Palace's current conditions on the various transformations undergone over the centuries. Similarly, comparisons can be made between the astrological fresco cycle with maps of the heavens, cosmological hypotheses, ancient and contemporary astrological treatises, and the related exchange of knowledge between the Orient and the Occident.

  16. When the Chinese met the West: A Review of the Dissemination and Influence of Indian, Arabic and European Astronomy and Astrology in the Imperial China (United States)

    Shi, Yunli


    In traditional Chinese ideology, the tianwen (Celestial Patterns) and lifa (Calendar) are important matters in the legitimization and maintenance of a regime. From very early times, astrology and astronomy became a crucial element in statecraft and establishments were always installed in the government to take care of these matters, which formed a tradition very scrupulously observed and documented by every Chinese dynasty without substantial interruption in thousands of years. A special system consisting of astrology and astronomy was developed and kept on developing on its own track. Such a long and well established tradition did not prevent China from receiving, though sometimes with reluctance and selection, arts and knowledge in astronomy and astrology from outside that might supplement and enhance the indigenous ones. This talk will give a survey on the history of the Chinese reception of astronomical and astrological knowledge from ``the West'', namely, India in the 7th to 10th centuries, Arabic area in the 13th to 15th centuries and Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries. Except tracing down the cultural impacts of the new knowledge from outside, I will concentrate on how the new knowledge was appropriated by Chinese governments, as well as by Chinese astronomers and astrologers.

  17. Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing "hoax" (United States)

    Plait, Philip C.


    Advance praise for Philip Plait s Bad Astronomy "Bad Astronomy is just plain good! Philip Plait clears up every misconception on astronomy and space you never knew you suffered from." --Stephen Maran, Author of Astronomy for Dummies and editor of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia "Thank the cosmos for the bundle of star stuff named Philip Plait, who is the world s leading consumer advocate for quality science in space and on Earth. This important contribution to science will rest firmly on my reference library shelf, ready for easy access the next time an astrologer calls." --Dr. Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist for Scientific American, and author of The Borderlands of Science "Philip Plait has given us a readable, erudite, informative, useful, and entertaining book. Bad Astronomy is Good Science. Very good science..." --James "The Amazing" Randi, President, James Randi Educational Foundation, and author of An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural "Bad Astronomy is a fun read. Plait is wonderfully witty and educational as he debunks the myths, legends, and 'conspiracies that abound in our society. 'The Truth Is Out There' and it's in this book. I loved it!" --Mike Mullane, Space Shuttle astronaut and author of Do Your Ears Pop in Space?

  18. Science versus the stars: a double-blind test of the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and computer-generated astrological natal charts. (United States)

    Wyman, Alyssa Jayne; Vyse, Stuart


    The authors asked 52 college students (38 women, 14 men, M age = 19.3 years, SD = 1.3 years) to identify their personality summaries by using a computer-generated astrological natal chart when presented with 1 true summary and 1 bogus one. Similarly, the authors asked participants to identify their true personality profile from real and bogus summaries that the authors derived from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae, 1985). Participants identified their real NEO-FFI profiles at a greater-than-chance level but were unable to identify their real astrological summaries. The authors observed a P. T. Barnum effect in the accuracy ratings of both psychological and astrological measures but did not find differences between the odd-numbered (i.e., favorable) signs and the even-numbered (i.e., unfavorable) signs.

  19. An Application of the Cosmologic Concepts and Astronomical Symbols in the Ancient Medical Science and Astrology Systems (United States)

    Pikichyan, H. V.


    Employing the cosmologic concepts and astronomical symbols, the features of the ancient subjective approach of the achievement or perception of the knowledge and its systematic delivery ways are presented. In particular, the ancient systems of the natural medical science and the art of astrology are discussed, whereas the relations of the five cosmological elements, three dynamical agents, nine luminaries and twelve zodiac signs are applied. It is pointed out some misunderstandings encountered in the contemporary interpretation on the evaluation of ancient systems of the knowledge.

  20. Métodos para determinar las casas del horóscopo en la astrología

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    Casulleras, Josep


    Full Text Available This paper revises the different methods of computation devised by Medieval Arabic astronomers and mathematicians for the astrological practice of the division of houses. Starting from a classification of these methods established by J.D. North (1986 and extended by E.S. Kennedy (1996, I summarize the available information contained in previous studies and present new data emerging from the analysis of more recently explored sources, emphasizing certain features of a Western astrological tradition.

    Este trabajo repasa los distintos métodos de cálculo que los astrónomos y matemáticos árabes medievales desarrollaron para ser aplicados a la práctica astrológica de la división de casas. Partiendo de una clasificación de estos métodos establecida por J.D. North (1986 y ampliada por E.S. Kennedy (1996, se recoge la información que se halla en estudios anteriores y se presentan nuevos datos como resultado del análisis de fuentes exploradas más recientemente, destacando ciertos elementos pertenecientes a una tradición astrológica occcidental.

  1. The Thinking Features and Significance of Astrology in Zuozhuan%论《左传》星占的思维特征及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    《左传》载录了众多的星占事例,考察人事预言的星占,可以发现古人构建天象与人事关联时所用的五种粘连方式。此外,在充满浓厚巫术思维和神性权力的星占中,理性因素仍有所闪现。《左传》在记述这些星占事例时,其初衷并不是如后人所言的"其失也诬"或"左氏好预言",而是有着深层次的历史语境和心理动机。%Zuozhuan records various astrological instances and investigates astrology in prophecy of personal affairs,discovering five adhesive ways used in constructing the association between astronomical phenomena and personal affairs.Besides,in astrology full of witchcraft thinking and divine power,rational factors still function.The original intention of Zuozhuan in recording astrological instances has its profound historical context and psychological motivation instead of later generations' assumption.

  2. Cosmografía y astrología en Manila: una red intelectual en el mundo colonial ibérico

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    Ana Cecilia Ávalos Flores


    Full Text Available The following article will aim at reconstructing an intellectual network of people interested in both astrology and cosmography in seventeenth-century New Spain. This study will trace a particular means of transmission and dissemination of knowledge, namely the exchange of books on astrology, in order to identify a network of astrologers and cosmographers who shared a similar educational background and who had similar motivations to get interested in the so-called occult sciences. By doing so, this research will reflect on the problem of disciplinary boundaries during the early modern-period, and on the question of transmission of knowledge in the Iberian World.//El presente artículo tiene como objeto de estudio dos campos del conocimiento que estuvieron estrechamente relacionados durante el período moderno: la astrología y la cosmografía. Al estudiar algunos casos inquisitoriales contra ciertos cosmógrafos en Filipinas, acusados de practicar astrología juidiciaria, pretende reconstruir una red intelectual de estudiosos que compartían una tradición educativa y perseguían intereses profesionales similares. En su intento por rastrear esta microcomunidad intelectual, el presente estudio subraya la importancia de la transmisión y circulación del conocimiento, tanto a un nivel abstracto como material, no sólo entre el reino español y sus colonias en el Nuevo Mundo, sino también al interior de las colonias mismas.

  3. The certitude of astrology: The scientific methodology of Al-Qabīsī and Abū Ma'shar. (United States)

    Burnett, Charles


    Abū Ma'shar (787-886) and al-Qābīsī (mid-10th century) were active astrologers and defenders of the scientific character of their discipline. They wrote works on criticisms brought forward against the discipline and challenged practitioners whom they considered as detrimental for the esteem and future fate of their science. Nevertheless, both writers can be seen as heirs to a single tradition of thought, which took its origins in Ptolemy's Tetrabiblios and developed largely independently of the religious philosophical beliefs of a specific community. The arguments developed for proving the scientific value of astrology are interesting in their own right, and merit further study not only by historians of science but also by historians of philosophy.

  4. Astrólogos y astrología al servicio de la monarquía navarra durante la Baja Edad Media (1350-1446

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    Serrano Larráyoz, Fernando


    Full Text Available This article provides a general view on astrologers who served at the courts of Carlos II, Carlos III and Blanca I of Navarre. This was a position that combined the foretelling of future events with the medical practice of the moment. Despite the prestige that astrologers seem to achieve, this position was never held long term except in some concrete cases.

    El artículo presenta una visión general de los astrólogos que sirvieron en la corte de Carlos II, Carlos III y Blanca I de Navarra. Un cargo cortesano que unía la adivinación de hechos futuros con la práctica médica del momento. Pese al prestigio que parecen alcanzar, no resulta una ocupación con cierta continuidad, salvo en casos muy concretos.

  5. The Altdorf mathematics and physics teacher Abdias Trew (1597-1669): astronomer, astrologer, calendar maker and theologician. (German Title: Der Altdorfer Mathematik- und Physikdozent Abdias Trew (1597-1669): Astronom, Astrologe, Kalendermacher und Theologe) (United States)

    Gaab, Hans

    Although Abdias Trew (1597-1669) had studied theology, he obtained the chair of mathematics at Altdorf University, and in 1650, the chair of physics was added. In 1654, in addition, he became the ast official calendar maker of the city of Nuremberg. He is kept in memory as the last important protestant astrologer who tried to provide scientific foundations for this field. In this context, his adherence to the Lutheran confession played a role. Although he aimed at integrating new insights, he adhered to his end to Aristotelian physics, since it served his Wittenberg professors since his student days as a foundation of Lutheran dogmatics. After an extensive biography, separate chapters deal with Trew's works in mathematics, geography, optics, mechanics and musical theory, his writings in astronomy, especially those dealing with comets, as well as his “reformation astrology” in connection with the opinions of Melanchthon, Kepler and others. Trew also took part in the discussions about the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, which was going on during the whole 17th century. After short biographical sketches of some of his contemporaries, the book closes with an extensive bibliography of Trew's writings, manuscripts and letters.

  6. 星象学的人格心理研究%A Research on Personality Psychology in Astrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宣如; 孔克勤


    @@ 1引言 星象学(ASTROLOGY),是一门古老的方术.在一书中,艾森克和Nias(1982)将星象学定义为"对人们所相信的个体出生时行星的位置与他的人格、发展、职业、婚姻及普通的生活事件之间的联系的研究"[1].星象学基于星象学意义上的黄道带、行星及其他特征,对不同个体的人格特质进行描述,但它并未解释为什么特定的星座与特定的人格描述相联系,或者这些描述经由何种途径推断而来.星象学在古代影响深远,但到了17世纪末,随着日心说的确立和近代科学的兴起,星象学失去了科学上的支持,逐渐走向衰落.

  7. From medical astrology to medical astronomy: sol-lunar and planetary theories of disease in British medicine, c. 1700-1850. (United States)

    Harrison, M


    After 1700, astrology lost the respect it once commanded in medical circles. But the belief that the heavens influenced bodily health persisted - even in learned medicine - until well into the nineteenth century. The continuing vitality of these ideas owed much to the new empirical and mechanical outlook of their proponents. Taking their cue from the work of Robert Boyle and Richard Mead, a number of British practitioners amassed statistical evidence which purported to prove the influence of the Moon upon fevers and other diseases. Such ideas flourished in the colonies and in the medical services of the armed forces, but their exponents were not marginal men. Some, like James Lind, were widely respected and drew support for their views from such influential figures as Erasmus Darwin.

  8. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College. (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice


    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.

  9. Astrology February星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. Astrology July星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mafalda; 小豆



  11. Astrology December星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵



  12. Astrology October星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  13. Astrology January星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵



  14. Astrology June星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mafalda; 小豆



  15. The Milky Way and the Development of Astrology in Ancient China%银河与中国古代占星术的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Milky Way was imagined as a river in the sky in ancient China, which is imagined to have the characteristics of water and therefore closely linked in divination with water of the five elements, thus giving rise to the more complex astrological system. However, with the advance in observation technology, people have a more profound understanding of the distribution and operation of stars, and have started constructing bridges according to the stars in the Milky Way through imagination, and thus predict people's weal and woe.%银河是人们想象中的天河,作为一条想象的河流它也具有水的特性,因而在占卜预测术中与五行水紧密相连,并由此衍伸出较为复杂的数术体系。然而随着观测技术的进步,人们对星辰分布和运行有了更深刻的认识,开始根据星象在天河上构造出津桥关梁等建筑,并以此预测人事吉凶祸福。

  16. The Scientific Test on Western Astrology in Twentieth Century%20世纪对西方占星术的科学检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  17. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO'S, and More: A Guide for Those Involved with IYA on Tackling Pseudo-science (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Bobrowsky, M.; Thaller, M.; Plait, P.


    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism, intelligent design, astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the "face" on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We cover information, techniques, resources, and activities for responding sensitively to such claims and for explaining the nature of science. Whether you do programs in a formal classroom, a community setting, a museum, or on the radio, you will need this kind of arsenal of critical-thinking responses for these topics when you face the public. Attendees will receive a resource guide for responding to pseudo-science claims. One of the frequently heard attacks on science deals with "alternatives to evolution" (intelligent design and various forms of creationism). While some think this is a matter with which only biologists need to be concerned, some of the same arguments used against biological evolution are invoked to argue against our understanding of the age of the earth and the universe. We will provide background information on and responses to these ideas, particularly as they concern attacks on cosmology and cosmic evolution. We will also discuss how such questions will give IYA presenters an opportunity to engage the public in discussions about the scientific method and worldview. We will see that some of the agendas and issues we face are not that different from what Galileo faced 400 years ago.

  18. 由《史记·天官书>看上古社会的星占学思想%The Ideology of Astrology of the Ancient Society in The Biography of Astronomical Officials in the Records of the Grand Historian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Biography of Astronomical Officials in the Records of History is the earliest encyclopedia in astronomy handed down from ancient China , and it is a special work summarizing the ideology of astrology of the ancient society .Although astrology is not a science, through The Biography of Astronomical Officials we can have a glance at the theoretical bases and the principles of astrology in the ancient society .The theoretical bases are the harmony of man and nature and the theory of Yin and Yang and five el -ements.The principles are practicing divination on abnormalities , association and comparison , and the concentration on virtues . Therefore , it is of great significance to the study and research of the history of religion , the history of philosophy , the history of poli-tics and the history of culture of ancient China .%《史记·天官书》是我国传世的最早的天文学百科全书,也是一部对上古社会星占学思想予以总结的专书。尽管星占学是非科学的,但透过《天官书》,我们可以一窥上古社会星占学思想的理论基础和星占原则。其理论基础即天人合一观和阴阳五行说。其星占原则即“过度乃占”的原则、联想比拟的原则和关注“德”的原则。由此,对于我国上古社会的宗教史、思想史、政治史和文化史等的考察和研究具有重要意义。

  19. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira


    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  20. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs. (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.


    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  1. Psychic Powers, Astrology & Creationism in the Classroom? (United States)

    Eve, Raymond A.; Dunn, Dana


    Examined is the extent to which teachers actually hold pseudoscientific beliefs. Described are the study design, sources of pseudoscientific belief, and correlates with various types of pseudoscientific beliefs. Results indicate that many high school biology and life science teachers endorse these beliefs. Implications of this study are discussed.…

  2. La Urŷūza de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl y su comentario por Ibn Qunfuḏ: astrología e historia en el Magrib en los siglos XI y XIV (I

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    Samsó, Julio


    Full Text Available A quick revision of the available information on the life and works of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl (fl. Tunis ca. 996-1048 and an analysis of the contents of his Urjūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm which are compared to those of his better known Kitāb al- Barī‘ fī aḥkām al-nujūm. The conclusion is that both works are independent and that the Urjūza is not a summary of the Barī‘. The paper continues with biobibliographical data of the historian, mathematician and astrologer Ibn Qunfudh al-Qusanṭīnī (1339-1407, who is the author of a commentary of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s Urjūza dedicated to Abū Bakr b. Abī Mujāhid Gazī Ibn al-Kās, vizier of the Merinid sultans Abū Fāris (1366-1372 and Abū Zayyān (1372-1374. The work was probably written during the latter’s brief reign and before 1375, the date in which the dedicatee was exiled to Majorca. The work continues with an analysis of the contents of the commentary, the sources quoted, the astrological techniques used both by Ibn Qunfudh and by Ibn Abī l-Rijāl, and the use by the commentator of a set of astronomical tables derived from the zīj of Ibn Isḥāq. We find, finally, a detailed commentary of the horoscopes contained in Ibn Qunfudh’s work which includes one corresponding to the vernal equinox of the year 571 AD, in which there was a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter which announced the arrival of Islam. There are eleven more horoscopes (two of them published previously which constitute an astrological history of Merinid Morocco between 1348 and 1366. Concerning the nine horoscopes analysed here, in six of them it has been possible to identify the subject or the event motivating the prediction, while three remain unidentified.

    Tras una rápida revisión de los escasos datos conocidos sobre la vida y la obra de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl (fl. Túnez c. 996-1048, se analiza el contenido de su Urŷūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm compar



    Gulmez Mustafa; Kitapci Olgun; Dortyol Ibrahim Taylan


    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of date-of-birth on consumption behaviors of young people. A face-to-face interview survey is conducted to collect data. SPSS 18.0 for Windows was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies, ANOVA tests and Chi-square tests were calculated. The findings pointed out that the young consumers on fire group (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) take more instant and impulsive purchase actions. It is a new study about ...

  4. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century]. (United States)

    Kugener, Henri


    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  5. Astrology and Astronomy:From Conjunction to Opposition (United States)

    Kunth, D.


    A theory is not some hunch, or half-baked idea that you come up with while taking a shower, or being under the influence of something or other. A theory, as scientists understand the meaning of the word, is a scientifically tested principle or body of principles that incorporates and explains a significant body of evidence.

  6. 星象与我们%Astrology and us

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 占星迷笃信星座决定命运 玛蒂娜·诺伊格鲍尔36岁,面容姣好,她自认为是一个"典型的处女座的人".对她而言,生活的一切都很美满,惟一的不足是她的爱情--至今仍单身一人.

  7. Astrology in Introductory Astronomy Courses for Nonscience Specialists (United States)

    Zeilik, Michael, II


    Discusses the use of a horoscope-casting laboratory exercise in the astronomy course. Indicates that students can fulfill three objectives: (1) summarize the planetary motions in the geometric universe, (2) be familiar with sidereal and solar time, and (3) be acquainted with the uses ephemerides. (CC)

  8. Kepler's cosmological synthesis astrology, mechanism and the soul

    CERN Document Server

    Boner, Patrick J


    Spanning the course of his career, this book brings new light to Kepler's vitalistic views and their central place in his world picture. It challenges our view of Kepler as a nascent mechanical philosopher who fell back on an older form of physics.

  9. 唐五代官方星占中的星官占卜%Astrological Officials in Official Astrology in Tang and the Five Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. "The Sky's Things", |xam Bushman 'Astrological Mythology' as recorded in the Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts (United States)

    Hollman, J. C.


    The Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts are an extraordinary resource that comprises some 12 000 pages of |xam Bushman beliefs collected in the 1870s in Cape Town, South Africa. About 17% of the collection concerns beliefs and observations of celestial bodies. This paper summarises |xam knowledge about the origins of the celestial bodies as recorded in the manuscripts and situates this within the larger context of the |xam worldview. The stars and planets originate from a mythological past in which they lived as 'people' who hunted and gathered as the |xam did in the past, but who also had characteristics that were to make them the entities that we recognise today. Certain astronomical bodies have consciousness and supernatural potency. They exert an influence over people's everyday lives.

  11. Kaipule and astrology%开普勒与占星术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  12. [Paracelsianism, astrology and medical ethics in the polemical writings of Tommaso Bovio (1521-1609)]. (United States)

    Bondio, Mariacarla Gadebusch


    Tommaso Bovio was a representative of North Italian non-academic medicine in the early modern period. His "dialogues", published in the second half of the 16th century, were written in the Italian vernacular and enjoyed a certain popularity also in Germany. Although Bovio used to exaggerate for rhetorical effect, his portrayal of patients, illness and treatments provides interesting insights into everyday urban life in his time. Sympathising with Paracelsus, Bovio propagated an image of empirics as humanitarians and fought for the recognition of his own practical knowledge and skills. Bovio was a most original figure in the medicine of the period of counter reformation. His writings exemplify the lively debate between the learned medical tradition and unorthodox reform.

  13. Fission track astrology of three Apollo 14 gas-rich breccias (United States)

    Graf, H.; Shirck, J.; Sun, S.; Walker, R.


    The three Apollo 14 breccias 14301, 14313, and 14318 all show fission xenon due to the decay of Pu-244. To investigate possible in situ production of the fission gas, an analysis was made of the U-distribution in these three breccias. The major amount of the U lies in glass clasts and in matrix material and no more than 25% occurs in distinct high-U minerals. The U-distribution of each breccia is discussed in detail. Whitlockite grains in breccias 14301 and 14318 found with the U-mapping were etched and analyzed for fission tracks. The excess track densities are much smaller than indicated by the Xe-excess. Because of a preirradiation history documented by very high track densities in feldspar grains, however, it is impossible to attribute the excess tracks to the decay of Pu-244. A modified track method has been developed for measuring average U-concentrations in samples containing a heterogeneous distribution of U in the form of small high-U minerals. The method is briefly discussed, and results for the rocks 14301, 14313, 14318, 68815, 15595, and the soil 64421 are given.

  14. Chinese Zodiac and Western Astrology%生肖与星座

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾绍强; 安铁; 吕胜中; CorbisImaginechina



  15. The Context of Demarcation in Nature of Science Teaching: The Case of Astrology (United States)

    Turgut, Halil


    The aim of developing students' understanding of the nature of science [NOS] has been considered an important aspect of science education. However, the results of previous research indicate that students of various ages and even teachers possess both inaccurate and inappropriate views of the NOS. Such a failure has been explained by the view that…

  16. [On the astrology and computation in the 12th century: new unpublished manuscripts ]. (United States)

    Caiazzo, Irene


    This article examines three so far unknown lemmatic commentaries on computus and on astrolabe topics, which are to be found in MS Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. math. 4 degrees 33 (second half of the twelfth-century). The commentaries are on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus, on the 'De mensura astrolabii' by Hermann of Reichenau, and on the 'De utilitatibus astrolabii', which is sometimes attributed to Gerbert of Aurillac. No commentaries on the respective treatises have previously been identified as such. The commentaries of the Stuttgart manuscript are of special interest in that they allow us to understand how a twelfth-century scholar read works on computus and the astrolabe, namely works that date back to the eleventh century. Their author remains anonymous, but in all probability he wrote his commentary on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus either in 1143 or in 1150. An appendix to the article includes transcriptions of the introductory texts on the computus and on the astrolabe as well as the beginnings of the commentaries.

  17. Astrology 11月将爱情进行到底!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋卉; 尹川



  18. Relation between Astrological Signs and Personality Traits: the Moderating Role of Astrological Knowledge%星座与人格的关系:星座知识的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培; 何朝峰



  19. Dealing with Astrology, UFOs, and Faces on Other Worlds: A Guide to Addressing Astronomical Pseudoscience in the Classroom (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    Increasing media and student interest in pseudoscience topics such as alien abductions, crop circles, and creationism is forcing astronomy instructors to confront questions for which their graduate training has not prepared them. Yet students have a right to hear a more considered response to their questions in these areas than mere scoffing from those who teach them science. To assist instructors who want to help their students develop better critical thinking skills related to astronomical pseudoscience, a range of ideas and resources is listed in this guide.

  20. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology May星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿晓蒙; 熊喵



  1. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology July星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希梦; 熊喵



  2. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology August星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希梦; 熊喵



  3. Atomic-scale investigations of grain boundary segregation in astrology with a three dimensional atom-probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blavette, D. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut Universitaire de France (France); Letellier, L. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Duval, P. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Guttmann, M. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)


    Both conventional and 3D atom-probes were applied to the investigation of grain-boundary (GB) segregation phenomena in two-phase nickel base superalloys Astroloy. 3D images as provided by the tomographic atom-probe reveal the presence of a strong segregation of both boron and molybdenum at grain-boundaries. Slight carbon enrichment is also detected. Considerable chromium segregation is exhibited at {gamma}`-{gamma}` grain-boundaries. All these segregants are distributed in a continuous manner along the boundary over a width close to 0.5 nm. Experiments show that segregation occurs during cooling and more probably between 1000 C and 800 C. Boron and molybdenum GB enrichments are interpreted as due to an equilibrium type-segregation while chromium segregation is thought to be induced by {gamma}` precipitation at GB`s and stabilised by the presence of boron. No segregation of zirconium is detected. (orig.)

  4. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology August星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 小豆



  5. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology March星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵



  6. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology May星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mafalda; 小豆



  7. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology June星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希梦; 熊喵



  8. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology October星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 小豆



  9. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology February星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵



  10. Astrología, astronomía y filosofía de los principios en Platón


    Lisi, Francisco Leonardo


    El trabajo destaca la importancia de la astronomía en la filosofía platónica analizando su posición en la República: constituye, con la aritmética, la geometría y la estereometría, el quadrivium introductorio en la educación de los guardianes. Pero, para Platón, la astronomía tiene no sólo un interés teórico, sino también práctico. Sus teorías astronómicas están vinculadas con la llamada "filosofía no escrita". Se estudia aquís esta concepción platónica de la astronomía en ambos niveles, teór...

  11. 荀子《天论篇》是对于占星学的批判%Xun Zi' On Heaven is a Critique of Astrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 是荀子的代表作之一.20世纪下半叶,学界对于其中"制天命而用之"的思想推崇备至.今日国人崇尚"天人合一"之说,有人又对其"明于天人之分"的说法颇有争议.①笔者认为这些说法割裂了的整体思想.本文试图给作一新的解释.

  12. East Europe Report, Scientific Affairs, No. 786 (United States)


    world. One of the signs is that in our press here and there modest mention is made of the astrological prognoses that are in style in the West...which after an eminent writer, in response to a query, informed us that stealing is a natural accompaniment of youth, and a discussion of astrology ...the Buddhist mission which is officially permitted in Hungary. The professor enlightened the Hungarian viewers by informing them that astrology is

  13. Star quality. (United States)

    Sewell, Rupert

    Many people will read their horoscopes as they look at the year ahead. But astrologists claim horoscopes can also give clues about illnesses to which you might be predisposed. They believe: Astrology can determine potential health problems as well as personality types. An accurate horoscope depends on good information about birth date and time. Anatomical regions correspond to astrological signs. Astrological signs are grouped into four function types.

  14. Jean-Pierre Luminet: Renaissance Communicator (United States)

    Pullen, L.; Russo, P.


    As science communicators dealing with astronomy we often find a strong interest amongst the public in astrology - how the stars and planets directly affect our individual lives. Nowadays astrology is at odds with the scientific nature of astronomy, but this has not always been the case. Presented here is a background to astrology, to give a deeper understanding of where it has come from and why it has such an enduring place in all forms of global media.

  15. 先秦秦汉丧葬习俗中的数术行为%The Astrological Activity of Funeral Customs in the PreQin Period, Qin and Han Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. Fangshu (comprising the ancient arts of necromancy, astrology and medicine) and Designs for Artificial Objects in the Han Dynasty%方术与汉代器物设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  17. The Jagiellonians and the Stars (United States)

    Baczek, K.; Wszołek, B.


    The largest centre for astronomical and astrological study in the fifteenth century was the University of Cracow, which always was under special care of Jagiellonians. The use of astronomy and astrology at Jagiellonian courts in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were very common. We try to convince the reader about this, exposing very limited historical sources.

  18. The Jagiellonians and the Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baczek, K


    The largest centre for astronomical and astrological study in the fifteenth century was the University of Cracow, which always was under special care of Jagiellonians. The use of astronomy and astrology at Jagiellonian courts in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were very common. We try to convince the reader about this, exposing very limited historical sources.

  19. Warum Astrologie nicht funktionieren kann

    CERN Document Server

    Freistetter, Florian


    There exists many different versions of astrology that are different from each other and sometimes even in conflict with each other. But the basis of every astrological system is the assumption of a connection between the motion of celestial bodies and the fate of man. An analysis of the methods of astrology shows that - regardless of which special system is used - there exists no consistent basis that allows to deduce general and verifiable rules. An astrological analysis is therefore always arbitrary and meaningless. Astrology does not work. ----- Astrologie existiert in vielen verschiedenen Versionen die sich oft deutliche voneinander unterscheiden und sogar widersprechen. Allen gemeinsam ist aber die grundlegende Annahme eines Zusammenhangs zwischen der Bewegung der Himmelsk\\"orper und dem Schicksal der Menschen. Eine Analyse der astrologischen Methodik zeigt, dass sie - egal in welcher konkreten Auspr\\"agung - \\"uber keine in sich schl\\"ussige Grundlage verf\\"ugt, anhand der sich allgemeing\\"ultige und \\...

  20. Stars, demons and the body in fifteenth-century England. (United States)

    Ralley, Robert


    In 1441, Eleanor Cobham, duchess of Gloucester, was arrested, together with three associates: Margery Jourdemayne, the 'Witch of Eye', Roger Bolingbroke, Oxford cleric and astrologer, and Thomas Southwell, MB, canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster. They were accused of plotting to kill King Henry VI by necromancy, but contemporary chronicles differed on the precise nature of their crime: had they summoned demons or cast an astrological chart? This paper explores the relationship between astrology and demonic magic, focusing on feelings, rites and apparatus, and perceptions that the more the practitioner's body was implicated in the divinatory procedure, the more likely it was to be illicit.

  1. The Ptolemaic View of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hübner


    Full Text Available Ptolemy, as part of his account of the universe, applied the established principles of astrology in arriving at a systematic characterization of the different regions and peoples of the earth.

  2. Transmission of Babylonian Astronomy to Other Cultures (United States)

    Jones, Alexander

    Babylonian astronomy and astrology were extensively transmitted to other civilizations in the second and first millennia BC. Greek astronomy in particular was largely shaped by knowledge of Babylonian observations and mathematical astronomy.

  3. Johannes Kepler on Christmas (United States)

    Kemp, Martin


    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  4. Sigüenza y Gongora, Carlos de (1645-1700) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Spanish colonial astronomer, born in Mexico City, became professor of astrology at the university but seems strongly to have opposed astrology and, in 1681, wrote on comets to calm fears aroused by the one of 1680-1. Appointed by decree of Charles II of Spain as royal cosmographer, he mapped New Spain, Mexico and Pensacola Bay and determined the longitude of Mexico City. He published almanacs and...

  5. An Elementary Approach to Thinking under Uncertainty: A Prototype Text (United States)


    would happen in the future as if it were certain. Even today, people go to astrologers , look at horoscopes, and take other actions that give the face every day. In this book we do not try to be prophets or astrologers . We cannot convert uncertainty into certainty, and we cannot provide...old families of the South; within this framework a love story is told). They know generally how many copies of similar novels have been sold in the

  6. Area Handbook Series: Burma: A Country Study (United States)


    Burmans as inferior to Buddhist monks, despite their skills in astrology and other mystic arts. Memories of British troops using Indian soldiers to...Outside the sangha are various other religious practitioners, such as hermits, wizards, alchemists, astrologers , shamans, mediums, and folk experts of all...34carpet" of their hair. Respect often involves an emotional feeling akin to love . Monks so revered may be honored with gifts, which they are too

  7. American Practical Navigator. An Epitome of Navigation. Volume 1 (United States)


    stices. The pseudo science of astrology assigns additional significance, not recognized by scientists, to the positions of the sun and planets...8217nis Latin goddess of love Earth Orth Mid. Eng. - Mars Marl Latin gd of war Jupiter I&9pf40r Latin god of the heavens, Identified with the Greek Zeus...ceputation of ------------------ 511-520 Astrology , pseudo science of ------------ 364 defined ---------------------------- 379 Astronomic latitude

  8. The Faces of Saturn: Images and Texts from Augustus through Dürer to Galileo (United States)

    Shank, M. H.


    This paper follows the thread(s) of Saturn in astrology and art from the Babylonians to Galileo, paying special attention to the planet's political importance from Augustus to the Medici and to its medical/psychological significance from Ficino through Dürer. In passing, I extend David Pingree's astrological interpretation of Dürer's Melencholia I and propose a very personal rationale for the engraving, namely as a memorial to his mother.

  9. De letras hebreas a alturas musicales revisión de aplicaciones de los principios de la música especulativa a la composición musical en el siglo xx parte 1: asignación de alturas por atribución directa y a través de la astrología


    Hasler, Johann


    Este artículo reseña cuatro propuestas realizadas en el sigloxx por teóricos de la música especulativa, cuya intenciónha sido relacionar las alturas musicales con las letras delalfabeto hebreo para deducir la equivalencia musical detextos hebreos utilizados en rituales, sellos o talismanescabalísticos y de la tradición Hermética del esoterismooccidental. En esta primera parte se examinan las atribuciones“directas”, (las que no utilizan el valor numérico delas letras hebreas como factor interm...

  10. 清初中国的欧洲星占学:薛凤祚与穆尼阁对卡尔达诺《托勒密〈四书〉评注》的汉译%European Astrology in Early Qing China: Xue Fengzuo's and Smogulecki's Translation of Cardano's Commentaries on Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  11. 从五星聚房与帝辛占星陶文看武王克商日(公元前1018年2月22日)%A Judgment of the Date(Feb.22, 1018 B.C.) of King Wu's Defeating Shang according to Records of Five planets' Converging near Room (房) and Di Xin Astrologic Pottery Inscriptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  12. 17世纪西方传教士对东方占星术的认识——对陆若汉《日本教会史》的解读%The Western Missionaries' Recognization towards the Eastern Astrology in the 17th Century: An Analysis on Jo(a)o Rodrigues' The Ecclesiastical History of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  13. Models Believe Astrology——Should We Popularize Scientific Knowledge,or Propaganda Superstitions in Astrology?%由《366天诞生星》说到模特的"洋属相"——是普及科学知识,还是宣扬星座迷信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 同古代神话故事密不可分的西方占星术,正是适应众生对神秘星空和神话世界的诸多遐想以及对改变自身处境的渴望,比天文知识更广地流传开来.这种方术是把位于太阳黄道上的12个星座与人的生辰乃至性格和命运拉扯在一起,由之推测未来的"运势"会是如何如何.

  14. Mercury Retrograde Effect in Capital Markets: Truth or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgea Aurora


    Full Text Available From the most ancient times, the astrological beliefs have played an important role in human history, thinking, world-views, language and other elements of social culture. The practice of relating the movement of celestial bodies to events in financial markets is relatively newer but despite the inconsistency between financial astrology and standard economic or financial theory, it seems to be largely spread among capital market traders. This paper evaluates one of the astrological effects on the capital market, more precisely the Mercury retrograde effect on US capital market. Despite the fact that it is just an optical illusion the astrological tradition says that Mercury retrograde periods are characterized by confusion and miscommunications. The trades could be less effective, the individuals more prone to make mistakes so there is a long-held belief that it is better to avoid set plans during Mercury retrograde, signing contracts, starting new ventures or open new stock market positions. The main findings of this study are lower return’s volatilities in the Mercury retrograde periods, inconsistent with the astrologic theories assumptions but consistent with the idea that trader’s beliefs in Mercury retrograde effect could change the market volatility exactly in the opposite sense than the predicted one.

  15. A astrologia como campo profissional em formação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venuto Adriana


    Full Text Available The article studies the process of institutionalization of the profession of astrologer, based on an analysis of the struggle of different professional groups to legitimize new ways of thinking and of organizing their field. Two groups have stood out: the modern group, whose proposal for the field is based on the organizational model of modern professions, and the elite group, which seeks to revert to a traditional professional model. Research was conducted among "professional" astrologers in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Those to be interviewed were initially selected from specialized newspapers and then, once groups had been mapped, the intentional sampling method was applied. The article endeavors to understand if and how these astrologers are creating strategies for their participation in the professional field and what institutional mechanisms have contributed towards creation of a unified cognitive base that will allow these ?professionals? to exercise exclusive control over a given domain of expertise.

  16. Rudolph Hess, A Strategic Move or Ethical Dilemma? (United States)


    still suffered from stomach cramps which had been treated for years by " astrologers and quacks without success." 40 He also indicated that he had...34always beer a great believer in the occult phenomena, astrology , faith-healing and nature-healing." 4 1 Up until his flight to England, Hess continued to...that, in his fanatic love for the fatherland, he wanted to make the greatest sacrifice of which he was capable to Adolf Hitler and the German people

  17. Speech Recognition: Acoustic-Phonetic Knowledge Acquisition and Representation. (United States)


    patience, encouragement and counsel were .1~ boundless. To him, I am deeply indebted. As John once said of me, he is, very simply, love . 04 -a. ;,°55...34banyan" and the /r/ in the /str/ cluster in " astrology ." In addition, the semivowels occur adjacent to vowels which are stressed and unstressed such energy dip, the /1/ or /r/ followed a stressed vowel and preceded an unstressed vowel, such as the III’s in "swollen," "plurality" and " astrology

  18. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  19. Bruno's Spaccio and Hyginus' Poetica Astronomica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo


    The narrative framework of Giordano Bruno’s dialogue Lo spaccio de la bestia trionfante was inspired by Lucian of Samosata and his dialogue The Parliament of the Gods. In this article it is argued that Bruno, within that framework, developed an abundant imagery of astrological constellations...... inspired by the Poetica astronomica, a text ascribed to the Roman mythographer and astronomer Gaius Julius Hyginus (2nd century AD). Already in Lucian’s dialogue, astrological constellations were incorporated into the narrative framework, and precisely this union was imitated in the Renaissance by Leon...

  20. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  1. Astronomy and Politics (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  2. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak


    Full Text Available Western astrology as such developed already in ancient times, partly based on Greek and Egyptian traditions, whereas the main part was elaborated in the Hellenic Egypt and Rome.Ancient astrology was influenced by many factors as the conquests of Macedonians precipitated lively cultural exchange between Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Iran. The foundation, ideology and basic methods of astrology originate from Mesopotamia, though, the input of other regions is mostly its further elaboration. Accepting this theory, those interested in astrology go from one extreme to another and argue that astrology existed in Mesopotamia for millennia the same way it did in Europe in the Middle Ages. In Mesopotamia prophetic skills were held in great esteem, they were often related to healing magic. Foretellers used animal livers for prophesy, they also observed eclipses, atmospheric phenomena, the flight of birds, etc. Prophesy was carried out according to a strict system of omens. Later on the omens were regarded as a wish of gods, not as strict rules for prophesy.Astrology is a study that forms characteristics and predictions on the basis of the configurations of spheres. Sky phenomena had a specific role in predictions since they were seen in the whole country; the appearances in sky were thought to influence the welfare of king and his country. In earlier times astrology was concerned with interpreting phenomena in sky as omens. Later, during the period of Assyrian empire, people started to study certain phenomena, mostly the course of planets and eclipses, as it enabled them to foretell omens. This possibility to foresee omens and the scale of the phenomena helped astrology to win a special role among other systems. Regular sky phenomena were associated with seasons by the observers, those relatively irregular were associated with the fate of empires and kings.The astrologers of Babylonia started to cast horoscopes, but the more thorough elaboration of its

  3. Nablyudeniya geliakicheskikh voskhodov i zakhodov zvezd v drevnej Mesopotamii %t Heliacal rising and setting star observations in ancient Mesopotamia (United States)

    Kurtik, G. E.

    This paper deals with the history of heliacal rising and setting star observations in ancient Mesopotamian astrology and astronomy of the 2nd-1st millennia B.C. The basic sources, utilised terminology, and corresponding astronomical ideas are considered in detail.

  4. Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience Related to Astronomy. An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew


    Provided is a list of 92 references. Categories include general references, debunking astrology, identifying U.F.O.s, ancient astronauts, Velikovsky and worlds in collision, lunacy and the moon, Sirius B and the Dogon tribe, the face and pyramids on mars, the Tunguska Event, and the Bermuda Triangle. (CW)

  5. A Skeptic's Bookshelf: Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience. An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew


    Lists nontechnical books and articles on the various claims of "paranormal" events. Includes general references and materials on: astrology; unidentified flying objects (UFO's); ancient astronauts; lunacy and the moon; Velikovsky and "Worlds in Collision"; the Bermuda triangle; Sirius B and the Dogon; the Tunguska event; creationism; and…

  6. Tycho Brahe, Abū Ma‘shar, and the Comet beyond Venus (Ninth Century A.D.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Kunitzsch, Paul; Mugrauer, Markus; Luge, Daniela; van Gent, R.H.


    From his observations of the A.D. 1572 supernova and the A.D. 1577 comet, Tycho Brahe concluded that such transient celestial objects are outside the Earth’s atmosphere, and he quoted the ninth century A.D. Persian astrologer and astronomer Abū Macshar: Dixit Albumasar, Cometa supra Venerem visus fu

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy. (United States)


    induce creativity, this is approximately the same thing as demanding that the relations of love and friendship be regulated by the norms of a law...microscope had not yet been invented. It is clear that the astrologer —the colleague of this researcher—for the same reason also does not have a telescope

  8. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (7th Annual), The Human Element in Organizational Sensitivity, Held at White Oak, Maryland, 16-17 November 1982 (United States)


    while being high in mysticism (belief in such things as spiritualism, necromancy, astrology , and prophecy) and acquiescence. Emotionally, they are...personal stresses such as death of a loved one, financial difficulties, or material problems). Thus defined, the category of human error accidents tends to

  9. The Effect of Decision Training on Career Decision-Making Competence (United States)


    information from conversations with friends. Horoscope: information from horoscopes written daily for an astrological sign. Newspaper ad: information from...may satisfy your love of adventure. Studying will help youl get better grades. J 163 -, 6. TO WEIGH ALTERNATIVES AND ELIMINATE THE LESS DESIRABLE ONES

  10. Convergence and Religious Terrorism in America (United States)


    outside newspapers, speaking a foreign language or special jargon, requiring free love , polygamy, or celibacy, no compensation for labor, communal...with a mix of teachings from the French astrologer and seer Nostradamus, whose works were becoming extremely popular in Japan. This combination

  11. Before the Emergency: A Framework for Evaluating Emergency Preparedness Alternatives at Higher Education Institutions (United States)


    the Black Swan—hence one that has no better predictive value for assessing the total risks than astrology (we will see how they dress up the...exercising an influence in behalf of humanity and civilization, teaching the blessings of liberty regulated by law, and inculcating love and reverence

  12. Cooperative Security in the Pacific Basin. The 1988 Pacific Symposium, (United States)


    real or illusory, auspicious, or portentious. REGIONAL TRANSFORMATION Set against this astrological symbolism, the current security land- scape of...destroy ourselves. The only hope of the world is God’s divine love for His creature-man--the hope that God would not allow man’s follies to destroy His

  13. The United States Army Infantry Squad: Year 2015. (United States)


    time is a testament to the selfless service they provide the Army daily. To Kellie, Ashley, and Haley, thank you for the notes, pictures, love , and... astrology . "s Before World War I, the world’s major military powers studied major battles to determine how best to prepare their forces to fight in the

  14. A Cognitive Model for Exposition of Human Deception and Counterdeception (United States)


    1 . Intensity. .2. Quality (emotion type). .2.1. anxiety, fear, panic. .2.2. love , compassion, pity, hate, anger. .2.3. pessimism, guilt, shame...defense created by ones opponent and force the opponent to rebuild Astrological readings are ambiguous enough to apply to most people

  15. An Analysis of Strategic Planning to Support the United States Special Operations Forces’ C3 Interoperability. (United States)


    text in the form of a love story using the Socratic method to entice the readers to accept not only his ideas but also to stimulate the reader to...developed the most popular set of classifications during their studies of the stars, when they segmented the skies into twelve astrological sectors that

  16. Criminal Psychological Profiling (United States)


    the medical sciences have attempted to explain and classify human behavior, such as hate, love , fear, and rage, as well as abnormal characteristics...usually the third person called," he joked, "after the psychic and the astrologer ." 󈧪 As mentioned early, in his book Serial Murder, Dr. Holmes called

  17. New Light on the Legendary King Nechepsos of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim


    This paper identifies several indigenous Egyptian attestations of King Nechepsos, previously well known from Classical sources. The name may be understood as ‘Necho the Wise’, and refers to Necho II of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. His association with astrology may be related to an eclipse near...

  18. Gud og naturfænomen i Mesopotamisk religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter

    in which Girra appears in a number of mythical texts as well as in royal inscriptions and astrological and speculative texts. In each case, I show that the way in which Girra is represented in these sources is determined by the formal and pragmatic characteristics of the source in question. Lastly, I...

  19. Archimedes: Knowledge and Lore from Latin Antiquity to the Outgoing European Renaissance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    , and when Archimedean mathematics was translated in the 12th and 13th centuries, almost no integration with the traditional image of the person took place. With the exception of Petrarca, who knew the civically useful engineer and the astrologer (!), fourteenth-century Humanists show no interest...

  20. Leksikon over ordbøger og leksika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálfi, Loránd-Levente

    Findes der en dansk–mongolsk ordbog? Eller en dansk–swahili ordbog? For hvilke sprog findes der i det hele taget danske ordbøger? Og hvilke opslagsværker findes der på dansk om astrologi, astronomi, biologi, filosofi, fluebinding, fysik, historie, islam, kristendom, krydsord, matematik, okkultisme...

  1. An eleventh-century Egyptian guide to the universe the book of curiosities

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Yossef


    The Book of Curiosities is an eleventh-century Arabic account of the heavens and the Earth, illustrated by remarkable maps and astronomical diagrams. This authoritative edition and translation opens a unique window onto the geographical and astrological knowledge of medieval Islam.

  2. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology. (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  3. Magnetized Water: Science or Fraud? (United States)

    Zamora, L. Lahuerta; Anton-Fos, G. M.; Aleman Lopez, P. A.; Martin Algarra, R. V.


    Skepticism is one of the cornerstones of scientific learning. Some pseudosciences in domains such as astronomy or pharmacy use a host of issues in everyday life as pretexts for work in the classroom (e.g., astrology) or laboratory (e.g., homeopathy). Chemistry also offers opportunities to promote skeptical thinking in students. Commercial devices…

  4. Tiger Mother? Good Mother?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese parents face dilemmas in choosing education methods for children Meng Yijun,an accountant at a PR firm in Beijing,has a 10-yearold daughter. Although she was born in 1974,the Year of the Tiger according to Chinese astrology,Meng said

  5. The Influence of Education Major: How Diverse Preservice Teachers View Pseudoscience Topics (United States)

    Losh, Susan Carol; Nzekwe, Brandon


    Pseudoscience beliefs (e.g., astrology, ghosts or UFOs) are rife in American society. Most research examines creation/evolution among liberal arts majors, general public adults, or, infrequently, middle or high school science teachers. Thus, research truncates the "range" of ersatz science thinking and the samples it studies. We examined diverse…

  6. Hvad er forskning? Normer, videnskab og samfund.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    forskningsvurdering. Hugo F. Alrøe og Egon Noe: Et perspektivisk blik på videnskabelig uenighed og ekspertise. Cathrine Hasse: Forskerens læreproces - et kritisk, realistisk perspektiv. David Favrholdt: Om viden og videnskab. Jens Hebor: Demarkationsproblemet. Jan Faye: Hvordan adskilles astronomi fra astrologi? Finn...

  7. Studies in the History of Astronomy. Issue 32 %t Istoriko-Astronomicheskie Issledovaniya. Vypusk XXXII (United States)

    Idlis, G. M.

    This collection contains papers covering a wide scope of problems in the history of astronomy. Its basic headlines are: Cosmology and cosmogony of the 20th century; History of observations and astronomical organizations; Scientists and their works; Astronomy and society; Publications and memoirs; Astronomy and astrology; Memory of scientists

  8. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary. (United States)

    Smith, Charles H.


    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  9. Skeptical Science. (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.


    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  10. A Deficiency of Credulousness. (United States)

    Brewer, Richard


    Asks the question: how does society assist citizens to stop deluding themselves with ESP, UFOs, astrology, polygraphy, water dowsing, channeling, and all manner of New Age gimcrackery? Supplies an answer: educators should emphasize instruction in probability models and scientific inference, while imparting an appropriate, scientific skepticism to…

  11. A view in the mirror - Or through the looking glass. [history of development of optical telescopes (United States)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.


    The development of optical telescopes from the age of astrology to those of today and the future is discussed. The rationales for changes in the design of telescopes during this time are explored. The cost drivers, and how to reduce them, are also discussed.

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India. (United States)


    India’s socialist democracy. The Congress Party elim- the Hindu religion to the Vedics and fundamentalists. inated the landlord system while this system is...Religious ceremonies take place and talks [Text] New Delhi, 16 August: In a significant statement, about temple-mosque problems and astrology are ram- the

  13. Small Schools in Rural India: "Exclusion" and "Inequity" in Hierarchical School System (United States)

    Diwan, Rashmi


    Small schools have enjoyed rich traditions in the history of education. The Vedic-age gurukula small schools, an abode for children of the privileged few, followed a structured curriculum in the teaching of religion, scriptures, philosophy, literature, warfare, medicine, astrology and history. The rigvedic small schools, which were more…

  14. Campanella, Tommaso [Giovan Domenico] (1568-1639) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Born in Stilo, Calabria, Italy. A Dominican, he wrote on Telesian philosophy and astrology, and cast flattering horoscopes for the influential. A great admirer of Galileo, in 1622 he published his Apologia pro Galileo (`Defense of Galileo'), defending the Copernican system and the separate paths of scripture and nature to knowledge of the Creator. He adopted an animistic, yet empirical, interpret...

  15. Scientists Look at 2010: Carrying on Margaret Mayall's Legacy of Debunking Pseudoscience (United States)

    Larsen, Krinstine


    In 1941 Margaret Mayall, the future director of the AAVSO, and Harvard colleague Bart Bok authored a critical study of astrology and its impact on society entitled "Scientists Look at Astrology." They chastised the scientific community for thinking the debunking of astrology to be "below the dignity of scientists." In contrast, they opined that it is one of the duties of scientists to "inform the public about the nature and background of a current fad, such as astrology, even though to do so may be unpleasant." Fast-forward 68 years in the future, and the astronomical community now faces a pseudoscientific enemy just as insidious as astrology, yet just as ignored by the general professional and amateur community as astrology had been when Mayall and Bok took up the charge in 1941. The pseudoscience in question is the well-publicized "prediction" that the Mayan calendar will end on December 21, 2012, causing the end of civilization in concert with one of a number of possible astronomical calamities, including (but not limited to) the gravitational pull of the center of the Milky Way (somehow enhanced by an "alignment" with our solar system), the near-approach by a mythical 10th planet (often named Nibiru), large-scale damage to the planet by solar flares larger than those ever recorded, or the shifting of the earth's axis of rotation (often confused with a proposed sudden and catastrophic reversal of the earth's magnetic polarity). As a scientific and educational organization, the AAVSO and its members have a responsibility to follow in Mayall's footsteps, shining the light of reason and knowledge on the dark corners of ignorance which far too often permeate the Internet, radio and television programming, and recent films, most notably 2012. This talk will highlight some of the basic premises of the 2012 hysteria and suggest ways that the AAVSO and its members can use variable stars and the history of the AAVSO to counteract some of the astronomical misinformation


    Feti, Viola


    Boethius of Dacia's opera "De somnis" can be defined as a brief treaty that partially follows the traditional quaestio scheme. It includes a passage that seems to copy Etienne Tempier's proposition number sixty-five, which condemns the importance attributed to astrology by many medieval authors. Boethius moves off Aristotle's "De somno et vigilia" idea of physiological dreams to assert a new kind of oneiric phenomena linked to constellations, that, according to the author, aren't divinely inspired, whereas they are to be considered as natural events. Boethius isn't the only philosopher who writes about this particular type of dream as another medieval author, Albertus Magnus, in his "Speculum Astronomiae", describes astrology and its relationship to medicine.

  17. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Girish, T E


    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in nature especially gravity. We show that the studies on retrograde motion and Chesta Bala of planets like Mars in the context of astrology lead to development of differential calculus and planetary dynamics in ancient India. The idea of instantaneous velocity was first developed during the 1st millennium BC and Indians could solve first order differential equations as early as 6th cent AD. Indian contributions to astrophysics and calculus during European dark ages can be considered as a land mark in the pre-renaissance history ...

  18. Federik Grisogono (Federicus Chrysogonus and the Notion of Useful Theoretical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Girardi-Karsulin


    Full Text Available The article considers the idea of astronomy as useful theoretical science as it was promoted by Federik Grisogono, Croatian renaissance philosopher, astrologist and physician in his work Astronomical Mirror. U ntill the Renaissance, theoretical science in principle could not be useful since this followed from the very aristotelian-platonic notion of theoretical science whose assignment was only to consider what is eternal and unchangeable. Theoretical science in any case could not be “useful science”. Grisogono considers possibility of a theoretical science – mathematics (i.e. astrology – being the highest theoretical and at the same time useful science. For us, of course, astrology is none of this. However, by means of his groundbreaking notion of theoretical science, Grisogono worked towards suspending the traditional notion of the theoretical science, as well as towards opening of new possibilities of establishing the modern idea of science.

  19. Philippus Feselius - Biographical notes on the unknown medicus of Kepler's Tertius Interveniens. (German Title: Philippus Feselius - Biographische Notizen zum unbekannten Medicus aus Keplers Tertius Interveniens) (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    Until now, Philipp Feselius has been perceived only indirectly as Kepler's antagonist. Not much is known about his life besides his work as Baden private physician and his book against astrology which was cited intensely in Kepler's «Tertius Interveniens». This paper traces the stations of his career as a physician, about his presumable provenance and education in Strasbourg, his academic career in Tübingen, Strasbourg, Rostock and Padua, the doctorate in Basel in 1592, up to his employment, in 1599, as a court physician in Sulzburg and later in Durlach. Further hand-written and printed traces of Feselius are presented, and his social environment is investigated so that his personality becomes clearer, and relations can be established between his education and his writing against astrology.

  20. The Discovery of the Regular Movements of Celestial Bodies and the Development of Monotheism in the Ancient Near East (United States)

    Lanfranchi, G. B.


    For Ancient Mesopotamians, astronomical phenomena were signs signifying the gods' judgment on human behaviour. Mesopotamian scholars studied celestial phenomena for understanding the gods' will, and strongly developed astrology. From the 8th to the 6th century BC Assyrian and Babylonian astronomers achieved the ability to predict solar and lunar eclipses, and the planets' movements through mathematical calculations. Predictability of astral phenomena solicited the awareness that they are all regular, and that the universe is governed by an eternal, immutable order fixed at its very beginning. This finally favoured the idea that the cosmic order depended on the will of one god only, displacing polytheism in favour of monotheism; and astrology lost its religious importance as a mean to know the divine will.

  1. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine. (United States)

    Demaitre, Luke


    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient.

  2. Proceedings of Industry/Space Division/NASA Conference and Workshops on Mission Assurance Held at Los Angeles, California on 28 April - 2 May 1980. (United States)


    customer - tell loving care each other your concerns. There is an outgoing challenge to each of you to *Better workmanship management make both good...become a love match. vantaged Businesses, Women-Owned Businesses, Labor Surplus Area Awards, Awards to Non-Profit and Foreign Sub- contractors; number of... astrological , etc., data. After over vendors/subcontractors. we have a viable Shuttle Program S some satellites will be retriev- Surveys performed at sub

  3. Area Handbook Series. Sri Lanka, A Country Study (United States)


    astrologers who pick the most auspicious times for the marriage. Except 1or some of the well-educated urban elite, the parents arrange ,1ll...myths, but woishipers visualize him as a cosmic creator who will save his creatures when they have abandoned themselves totally to his love . One of the...mercy of a single, all-powerful God (Allah). God exists for eternity, but out of love he created the world and mankind, endowing both men and women with

  4. JPRS Report, China. (United States)


    henceforth reeked of blood. Among individuals, love was majority of the people are praised for the way they replaced by calculation, entrapment, and...refers to the 12-year cycle of reform and opening to the outside world. animals, each representing. a year in the Chinese astrology , andsymbolizies the...infection, entirely a marriage of love . She bore him three children, Only later did we find that he had a brain tumor.) one of them being Zou Jiahua

  5. JPRS Report, West Europe. (United States)


    love match in Mainz. In Rhineland-Palatinate, where some rural and middle-class economic and ideological structures have been preserved, where ties...Flanders1 Technology International) was similarly startled by the man and his dynamism. Astrologically , Philippe Bodson is a Scorpio, born on 2 November...getting one. He also picked up his great love for the Citroen deux chevaux. After that, he stayed in Paris after being offered a good job by the McKinsey

  6. Comment on "Astronomical alignments as the cause of ~M6+ seismicity"

    CERN Document Server

    Zanette, Damian H


    It is shown that, according to the criteria used by M. Omerbashich (arXiv:1104.2036v4 [physics.gen-ph]), during 2010 the Earth was aligned with at least one pair of planets some 98.6% of the time. This firmly supports Omerbashich's claim that 2010 strongest earthquakes occurred during such astronomical alignments. On this basis, we argue that seismicity is, generally, a phenomenon of astrological origin.

  7. A doppio senso: istruzioni su come orientarsi nelle immagini astrologiche di Palazzo Schifanoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertozzi


    Full Text Available In the “Sala dei Mesi” of Palazzo Schifanoia the months and the zodiacal constellations go from right to left, while the decans (three for every sign go in the opposite direction. This problem was not  clarified by Aby Warburg in his well-known essay Italian Art and International Astrology in the Palazzo Schifanoia of Ferrara (1912. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons of this double direction.

  8. An Ongoing Investigation of Science Literacy: Results of a 22-Year Study Probing Students' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Science (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS


    This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.

  9. Yunus, Abu'l-Hasan ibn (950-1009) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Astronomer, born in Egypt, calculated trigonometric functions for use in astronomy and wrote an astronomical handbook, al-Zij al-Hakimi al-kabir, the Great Tables of Caliph al-Hakim, which contained observations made by Yunus, including 30 lunar eclipses used by SIMON NEWCOMB in his lunar theory. Yunus was also an astrologer, predicting the date of his own death in seven days' time. He made prepa...



    Padhi, M.M.


    The description of male sexual disorders by ancient authors of Indian medicine is praiseworthy. Effort has been made to describe the standard of approach with reference to certain books on Ayurveda and astrology. The development of administration of mineral medicines has added a new aspect in their treatment, but the description regarding their forms, etiopathogenesis, prognosis and the principle of treatment has remained unchanged. The opinions of various authors have been presented historic...

  11. El capítulo sobre el Tasyīr en al-Bāriʻ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl y su traducción alfonsí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Fajardo, Montse


    Full Text Available Tasyīr or “prorogation”, is an astrological procedure with which the astrologer moves, in an imaginary way, an indicator in order to determine the celestial influences. Tasyīr was one of the astrologer’s fundamental tools for the casting of a horoscope. This paper analyzes the information in the chapter on Tasyīr in Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s (11th century book al-Bāri‘, concerning the methods, the techniques and the resources used. Its study highlights the channels through which science was transmitted and the ways in which the astrologer wrote his work using other sources, and stresses the importance of al-Bāri‘ in introducing new astrological knowledge from the East into the Maghrib and medieval Europe (knowledge that was used until the fifteenth century. The comparison of the chapter with its Castilian translation provides evidence of the procedures used by the translators of Alfonso X.El tasyīr o «prorrogación» es un procedimiento astrológico por el que se hace avanzar de forma imaginaria un indicador para conocer las influencias celestes. El tasyīr fue una de las herramientas fundamentales del astrólogo en el levantamiento de un horóscopo. Este artículo analiza la información que contiene el capítulo “Sobre el tasyīr” de la obra al-Bāri‘ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl (siglo XI: los métodos, las técnicas y los recursos que utilizaba. Su estudio nos muestra las vías por las que la ciencia se transmitía, el modo en el que el astrólogo elaboraba su obra, la importancia del al-Bāri‘ como introductor en el Magreb y en la Europa medieval de fuentes y conocimientos nuevos importados de Oriente y la vigencia de su astrología hasta el siglo XV. El cotejo del capítulo mencionado con su traducción castellana nos da pruebas de la forma de trabajar de los traductores de Alfonso X.

  12. Dos textos astrológicos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay al-Bargeloní

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sela, Shlomo


    Full Text Available The main object of this article is to translate, scrutinize the contents and reveal the sources of two Hebrew astrological texts embedded in the commentary on Sefer Yeṣirah composed by Yehudah ben Barzilay, the leading Rabbinic authority in Barcelona in the first half of the 12th century. The first text arises great interest because it incorporates the first ever known horoscopic chart written in Hebrew. The second text includes a miscellany of cosmological and astrological theories. The analysis of both fragments reveals the reception of astrological texts by Jewish intellectuals in the Iberian Peninsula. In contrast with Abraham bar Ḥiyya and Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, who epitomize a renovating trend couching into a Hebrew mold various aspects of Greek and Arabic science, Ben Barzilay embodies a conservative trend which exclusively relies on Jewish astrological and scientific sources.Este artículo tiene como principal propósito traducir, estudiar los contenidos y descubrir las fuentes de dos textos astrológicos hebreos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay, la principal autoridad rabínica de Barcelona en las primeras décadas del siglo XII. El primer texto despierta gran interés porque incorpora el primer horóscopo documentado escrito en lengua hebrea conocido. El segundo texto incorpora una miscelánea de teorías cosmológicas y astrológicas. El análisis de ambos fragmentos revela un caso especial de recepción de fuentes astrológicas y científicas por intelectuales judíos en la península Ibérica. En claro contraste con Abraham bar Ḥiyya y Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, que encarnan una corriente renovadora orientada a verter al hebreo diversos aspectos de la astrología y ciencia griega y árabe, Yehudá ben Barzilay representa una modalidad conservadora inclinada a la utilización de fuentes astrológicas y científicas de autores exclusivamente judíos.

  13. [A brief history of the natural causes of human disease]. (United States)

    Lips-Castro, Walter


    In the study of the causes of disease that have arisen during the development of humankind, one can distinguish three major perspectives: the natural, the supernatural, and the artificial. In this paper we distinguish the rational natural causes of disease from the irrational natural causes. Within the natural and rational causal approaches of disease, we can highlight the Egyptian theory of putrid intestinal materials called "wechdu", the humoral theory, the atomistic theory, the contagious theory, the cellular theory, the molecular (genetic) theory, and the ecogenetic theory. Regarding the irrational, esoteric, and mystic causal approaches to disease, we highlight the astrological, the alchemical, the iatrochemical, the iatromechanical, and others (irritability, solidism, brownism, and mesmerism).

  14. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories. (United States)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  15. De Magia (Ms. Laud Or. 282, Bodleian Library: graphemic representation and transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aléxia Teles Duchowny


    Full Text Available Analysis of the writing in the codex De magia (Ms. Laud Oriental 282, Bodleian Library, an astrological guide written in the Portuguese language as aljamia, with Hebrew characters, and dated to the 15th Century. As well as a classification of the writing, this study analyses the manuscript’s graphemic representation – simple graphemes, in nexus, digraphs and trigraphs, diacritics, number values, punctuation, corrections and cancellation marks – and proposes a coherent and detailed transcription system of Hebrew into Latin graphemes.

  16. Legacy of the Luoshu the 4,000 year search for the meaning of the magic square of order three

    CERN Document Server

    Swetz, Frank


    A symbol of the Divine, a good luck charm, a cosmogram of the world order, a template for fengshui -through the ages, the luoshu, or magic squre of order three, has fascinated people of many different cultures. In this riveting account of cultural detective work, renowned mathematics educator, Frank J. Swetz relates how he uncovered the previously hidden history of the luoshu, from its Chinese origins, shrouded in legend, through its eventual association with Chinese fortunetelling, Daoism, and fengshui, to its incorporation into Islamic astrology and alchemy and its migration into Kabbalistic

  17. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604) (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.


    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  18. Gud og naturfænomen i Mesopotamisk religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter

    that combines genre theory and cognitive linguistics is proposed. Following a suvery of current knowledge of the god Girra, the various texts in which he appears are then analyzed in turn, by genre. The most important textual genre is incantations, in which fire is utilized ritually. I also discuss the way...... in which Girra appears in a number of mythical texts as well as in royal inscriptions and astrological and speculative texts. In each case, I show that the way in which Girra is represented in these sources is determined by the formal and pragmatic characteristics of the source in question. Lastly, I...

  19. Southeast Asia Report (United States)


    astrologers . "I don’t need anything more. I am satisfied with what I have. Our family is already very happy, because we love each other. We don’t need...well. They are both very patriotic and peace- loving . They do not like war or interference from outsiders, and it is the same with all injustice. The...Japan, and Vietnam all have people who love their country and who are willing to make sacrifices for their country. But in Thailand, these people

  20. Proceedings of Conference on 73 Easting: Lessons from Desert Storm Via Advanced Simulation Technology Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 27-29 August 1991 (United States)


    a :onjunction of a number of things. If you’k-e an astrology professor, you’d apprecitte that. The key to what we’re doing is weve got to make this...commanders at all levels particularly below the division. MLRS--I loved that thing because it’s a division commander system. It’s a great weapon of and it’s not well protected. The number one priority for a. tank when it was built andJ still is was survivability. It is too heavy, but we loved

  1. The Dynamic Structure of Everyday Life (United States)


    of the traffic. This deadlock could be resolved by appeal to astrology for all I care, but because nothing sensible can discriminate I have to focus my... loves Mommy me)) The propositions in a dependency network don’t have to be examples from logic texts. They are, in fact, more likely to be conclusions...Whether this works out as intended depends on your representations. If every thought you ever think comes with a timestamp on it-e.g., "Mary loves John

  2. Astronomical Odds: A Policy Framework for the Cosmic Impact Hazard (United States)


    studying objects as far from society as imaginable. Historically, it was the astrologers rather than the astronomers who had aspirations to achieve say goodbye to loved ones and square things up with their God[s], deities, etc c. the opportunity to score with hot chicks using the time-honored...tomorrow or don’t tell some- one how much we love them because we can say it tomorrow... but if we knew there was no tomorrow, could you do everything in one

  3. JPRS Report: East Europe. (United States)


    particularly in those oppressive times, but once they are born, I love them all equally," she replied. We know what we want to discuss with her the sign of the Capricorn. And can you imagine, my husband was born in that sign." Does she believe in astrology ? Not entirely, she only thinks...a config- uration of certain circumstances...." JPRS-EER-91-095 1 July 1991 CZECHOSLOVAKIA 13 Finally, we return to love : "One cannot live

  4. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 2 (Redacted) (United States)


    to preserve the tongue and Astrology to preserve eras. 8- Order them to build. In the Koran, (It is He who hath created for you all things that are on...the soul and peacefulness against others, did not the Prophet say: (religion is love ), and did not Allah tell us in the Qur’an (Serve your Allah until...waiting my wife to give birth ofmy son. However, my love to my country and desire to have fame among my colleagues was more than family love . In spite ofmy

  5. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H


    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  6. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Keplers supernova (SN1604)

    CERN Document Server

    van Gent, Robert H


    In a recent paper Sule et al. (Astronomical Notes, vol. 332 (2011), 655) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  7. Vulgar Beliefs in Vis and Ramin & Tristan and Isolde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sadat Sharif Al-Hoseini


    Full Text Available Ever since ancient times, when man could not find a logic relationship between the extraordinary events and phenomena, feather to Supers tedious beliefs and ideas in their head and mentioned incantations and performed certain rituals to get rid of thepain. In this paper, the four sections is investigated superstitious beliefs and opinions in two oeuvres Vis and Ramin and Tristan and Isolde; that include: Belief in magic and charm, belief in astrology and star's Saad and sinister, Run celebrations such as Nowruz, Mehregan and Passover and Believing thatinnocent stays safe from the fire and feeling red-hotiron.

  8. La obra astrológica de Abraham Ibn Ezra en dos códices castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainz de la Maza, Carlos


    Full Text Available In this article we offer a study and a commentary of Abraham Ibn Ezra’s astrological works that have been preserved in two old Spanish manuscripts translated from Hebrew in a late medieval converso environment.

    En el presente artículo ofrecemos un estudio y comentario de las obras astrológicas de Abraham Ibn Ezra que han sido preservadas en dos manuscritos en castellano traducidos del hebreo en un entorno converso a finales de la Baja Edad Media.

  9. Lessons from Mayan Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham


    The Mayan culture collected exquisite astronomical data for over a millennium. However, it failed to come up with the breakthrough ideas of modern astronomy because the data was analyzed within a mythological culture of astrology that rested upon false but mathematically sophisticated theories about the Universe. Have we learned the necessary lessons to prevent our current scientific culture from resembling Mayan Astronomy? Clearly, data collection by itself is not a guarantee for good science as commonly assumed by funding agencies. A vibrant scientific culture should cultivate multiple approaches to analyzing existing data and to collecting new data.

  10. 读书(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Your Chinese Horoscope 2006: What the Year of the Dog Holds in Store for You 《2006狗年运势》 Author. Neil Somerville Publisher: Harper Element The year 2006 is the Year of the Dog on the Chinese zodiac. What does this mean for you? The ancient art of Chinese Astrology, which predates the Western zodiac, is a detailed system of divination that has been used in the Orient for thousands of years. The depths of its wisdom and the accuracy of its character analysis and predictions have caught the imagination of th...

  11. National Calendar-2008 (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Madan, Ion; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great defect of the calendar is the introduction of the "International day of astrology" in the list of holydays. Another defect is the absence of the indication on the membership to the Communist Party for persons cited from the former Soviet Union.

  12. Many skies alternative histories of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars

    CERN Document Server

    Upgren, Arthur


    Many Skies: Alternative Histories of the Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars examines the changes in science that  alternative solar, stellar, and galactic arrangements would have brought, and explores the different theologies, astrologies, and methods of tracking time that would have developed to reflect them. Our perception of our surroundings, the number of gods we worship, the symbols we use in art and literature, even the way we form nations and empires are all closely tied to our particular (and accidental) placement in the universe.  Upgren also explores the actual ways tha

  13. National Calendar-2009 (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria


    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great deffect of the Calendar is the introduction in the list of holydays of the "international day of astrology". Another defect is the absence of the indication of the membership to Communist Parties for persons cited from the former USSR and former Communist Countries.

  14. Tycho Brahe (United States)

    Dreyer, John Louis Emil


    Preface; 1. The revival of astronomy in Europe; 2. Tycho Brahe's youth; 3. The new star of 1572; 4. Tycho's oration on astrology and his travels in 1575; 5. The island of Hveen and Tycho Brahe's observatories and other buildings; 6. Tycho's life at Hveen until the death of King Frederick II; 7. Tycho's book on the comet of 1577, and his system of the world; 8. Further work on the star of 1572; 9. The last years at Hveen, 1588-97; 10. Tycho's life from his leaving Hveen until his arrival at Prague; 11. Tycho Brahe in Bohemia - his death; 12. Tycho Brahe's scientific achievements; Appendix; Notes; Index.

  15. The Shadow of Enlightenment Optical and Political Transparency in France 1789-1848

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, Theresa


    This book is the first to place revolutionary advances in light and optics in the cultural context of France in the first half of the nineteenth century. The narrative follows the work and careers of France's two chief rivals on the subject of light: Arago and Biot. Their disagreement began on the subject of technical optics, but expanded to include politics, religion, agricultural policy, education, dinner companions, housing arrangements, photography, railroads, vital forces,astrology, the Egyptian calendar, and colonial slavery. At the heart of their disagreement was always a question of vi

  16. When the dragon wore the crown putting starlight back into myth

    CERN Document Server

    Cerow, Don


    When our ancestors gazed upon the skies thousands of years ago they looked up into the center of Creation and saw a mighty Dragon, a great celestial serpent with wings circling ceaselessly above them, night after night, century after century. When the Dragon Wore the Crown is a ground breaking book that covers a period of over six thousand years, focusing on what astrologers would call the Ages of Gemini, Taurus and Aries and taking us through the period of classical astronomy with the Greeks and Romans (approx. 7000 BC-200 AD).When the Dragon Wore the Crown opens and closes with the Chinese m

  17. An informal history of the interpersonal circumplex tradition. (United States)

    Wiggins, J S


    Circular representations of human nature can be traced from ancient astrology to Leonardo Da Vinci to the modern interpersonal circumplex (IPC) tradition. which began with Harry Stack Sullivan. The Kaiser Foundation Psychology Research Group operationalized key concepts of Sullivan's and Timothy Leary (1957) provided extensions of Sullivanian theory that formed the conceptual basis for contemporary circumplex models The current generation of circumplex investigators is exceptionally well represented by the contributors to this special series. The IPC can serve as an integrative cognitive framework for making sense of diverse realms that are well outside its original focus of convenience. The visual and psychological appeal of this powerful model is briefly illustrated.

  18. Male sexual disorders in Indian traditional medicine- a historical review. (United States)

    Padhi, M M


    The description of male sexual disorders by ancient authors of Indian medicine is praiseworthy. Effort has been made to describe the standard of approach with reference to certain books on Ayurveda and astrology. The development of administration of mineral medicines has added a new aspect in their treatment, but the description regarding their forms, etiopathogenesis, prognosis and the principle of treatment has remained unchanged. The opinions of various authors have been presented historically from vedic age up to the modern era. The present status of treatment and the role of Ayurveda in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions have been highlighted here.

  19. Science of Time (United States)


    A Multi-disciplinary Research into the Chronologies of Ancient Nations -- like the Vedas of India Rishies, the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Egyptians and the Chinese. Which traces how the "Measurement of Time" -- which began with the observations of sunrise and Sunset, Full-Moons, eclipses, the movement of stars and the Discovery of the Zodiac that starry pathway of sun in his annual Cycle of the 12-Zodiacal months, the Measurement of Time by planetary Cycles the Discovery of Astronomy and Symbolic or Kabalistic Astrology of the Bible's Old Testament; the Epics of Babylonians and 'Cosmic Cycles' of Chaldeans and Egyptians also the Ancient "Four Yugas" or Hindu Vedic Cycles.



    Rajkishore Prasad


    This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on w...

  1. Medicina e política em dois físicos judeus portugueses de Hamburgo: Rodrigo de Castro e o Medicus Politicus (1614, e Manuel Bocarro Rosales e o Status Astrologicus (1644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Silva, Sandra


    Full Text Available Since the end of the sixteenth century the Hanseatic city of Hamburg received a group of impostant Portuguese physicians that became members of its Iberian Jewish community. This article examines the intellectual contribution and the political implications of two of them, Rodrigo de Castro (1546-1627, who authored an important book on gynaecology, and Manuel Bocarro Rosales (ca. 1588-1662/8?, who wrote different astrological and astronomical works with a messianic-political content.Desde fines del siglo XVI Hamburgo recibió una constelación de distinguidos médicos portugueses que se integran dentro de la comunidad judía de origen ibérico. En este artículo se examina la contribución intelectual y las implicaciones políticas de las obras de dos de ellos, Rodrigo de Castro (1546-1627, autor de un importante tratado ginecológico, y Manuel Bocarro Rosales (ca. 1588-1662/8?, que escribe varias obras sobre astronomía y astrología de contenido político-mesiánico.

  2. European concerted action COST 50 - materials for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressers, J.; Cat, R. de; Fenske, E.


    A combined approach which would yield differential information regarding both crack initiation and crack growth from a single test specimen has been adopted to study the low cycle fatigue behaviour of PM Astrology over a range of testing conditions (temperature, strain-rate, plastic strain-amplitude) which span the range from cycle dependent to time dependent low cycle fatigue. It appears that both crack initiation and crack growth depend in a non-systematic manner on the testing parameters, which results from the simultaneous action of several time dependent processes. These time-dependent processes cause Tomkins' crack growth model to fail to correctly predict the number of cycles spent in crack growth at the high-temperature, low strain-rate end of the test parameter spectrum. At the other end of the test parameter spectrum the match with the experimental data is fortuitious since the laws governing the crack growth behaviour for crack sizes below and beyond approximately 200 (short crack growth behaviour and higher order dependence of the crack growth rate on the crack depth, respectively) deviate from the crack growth law which is at the basis of Tomkins' model. The experimental crack increment data are used to compute fracture mechanics lives. It is suggested that these fracture mechanics lives are appropriate lower bound estimates of the life of PM Astrology containing defects such as inclusions.

  3. Casebooks in Early Modern England: (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren


    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  4. Modern health worries - the dark side of spirituality? (United States)

    Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter; Czető, Márton; Sárog, Noémi; Szemerszky, Renáta


    Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being. Astrologers showed higher levels of spirituality, intuitive-experiential thinking, and modern health worries than individuals from the community sample; and skeptics scored even lower than the latter group with respect to all three constructs. Within the community sample, medium level connections between measures of spirituality and the experiential thinking style, and weak to medium level correlations between spirituality and MHWs were found. The connection between MHWs and experiential thinking style was completely mediated by spirituality. Individuals with higher levels of spirituality are particularly vulnerable to overgeneralized messages on health related risks. Official communication of potential risks based on rational scientific reasoning is not appropriate to persuade them as it has no impact on the intuitive-experiential system.

  5. Micro moon versus macro moon: Brightness and size

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra


    The moon, moonlight, phases of the moon and its relatively simple recurring cycle has been of interest since time immemorial to the human beings, navigators, astronomers and astrologers. The fact that its orbit is elliptical as well its plane is inclined with the plane of rotation of the earth gives rise to new moon to full moon and solar and lunar eclipses. During the phase of the full moon, the luminous flux and its apparent size will depend on its distance from the earth. In case it is at farthest point known as lunar apogee causes smallest full moon or micro full moon and if it is closest to us termed as lunar perigee will result in macro full moon, also known as super moon, a term coined by astrologer Richard Nolle in 1979. The theoretical expressions for the lunar luminous fluxes on the earth representing the power of lunar light the earth intercepts in the direction normal to the incidence over an area of one square meter are derived for two extreme positions lunar apogee and lunar perigee. The express...

  6. The History of Science as a Tool To Identify and Confront Pseudoscience (United States)

    Rasmussen, Seth C.


    Many are concerned by the widespread popularity pseudoscience has achieved in modern society. While it is easy to dismiss such beliefs as belonging to the uneducated, numerous studies have shown that such beliefs are not significantly reduced by a university education. In fact, one study found that belief in astrology was largely unaffected by the completion of a U.S. science degree: students who commenced a degree program believing in astrology finished that program still believing in it. This illustrates the extent to which even a successful science education has failed to transform students’ intellectual outlook, and should raise sharp concern as to the deficiencies in our present science curriculum. Over the years various authors have given sound justification for the inclusion of a historical component in science programs. I would like to add to these arguments the fact that knowledge of science history allows one to more easily identify and confront pseudoscience and that rectifying the current deficiency of historical context in our science education may be an effective approach to change the way students view claims and ideas presented to them.

  7. The Star of Bethlehem is Not the Nova DO Aquilae (Nor Any Other Nova, Supernova, or Comet)

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bradley E


    The Star of Bethlehem is only known from a few verses in the Gospel of Matthew, with the Star inspiring and leading the Magi (i.e., Persian astrologers) to Jerusalem and ultimately worshipping the young Jesus Christ in Bethlehem. In the last four centuries, astronomers have put forth over a dozen greatly different naturalistic explanations, all involving astronomical events, often a bright nova, supernova, or comet. This paper will evaluate one prominent recent proposal, that the Star was a 'recurrent nova' now catalogued as DO Aquilae, and provide three refutations. In particular, (1) DO Aql is certainly not a recurrent nova, but rather an ordinary nova with a recurrence time scale of over a million years, (2) in its 1925 eruption, DO Aql certainly never got brighter than 8.5 mag, and the physics of the system proves that it could never get to the required luminosity of a supernova, and (3) the Magi were astrologers who had no recognition or interpretation for novae (or supernovae or comets) so any such even...

  8. Chinese records of the 1874 transit of Venus (United States)

    Lu, Lingfeng; Li, Huifang


    Before the advent of radar, transits of Venus were very important for measuring the distance between the Earth and the Sun. A transit occurred in 1874, and was visible from China, other parts of east and southeast Asia and from India, Australia and New Zealand and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. As a result, many astronomers from Western countries came to China to observe it. According to traditional Chinese astrology, the Sun represented the Emperor, and if the Sun was invaded by other astronomical bodies it meant that the Emperor and the country faced some ominous disaster. In the late nineteenth century, Western astronomical knowledge was widely translated into Chinese and spread among Chinese intellectuals, so the 1874 transit supposedly was easily understood by Chinese intellectuals. Before the transit took place, various Chinese publications introduced this kind of celestial event as science news, but at the same time other influential newspapers and journals discussed the astrological connection between the transit and the fortunes of the nation. In this paper we review these interesting Chinese records and discuss the different attitudes towards the transit exhibited by Chinese intellectuals and officials, during a period when Western learning was being widely disseminated throughout China.

  9. The Gate of Heaven: Revisiting Roman Mithraic Cosmology (United States)

    Assasi, R.


    The definition and origins of Roman Mithraism remain highly problematic and controversial among modern scholars. The majority of research on Roman Mithraism focuses on interpreting the physical evidence because no considerable written narratives or theology from the religion survive. The most important Mithraic artifact is a repeated bull-slaying scene, which leaves no doubt that this figure conveys the core divine message of the cult. There is also another important Mithraic character that seems to be as important as the bull-slayer. This figure is a lion-headed man entwined by a snake. The author suggests that these figures represent the north ecliptic pole and argues for the importance of this astronomical reference in the Mithraic iconography and mythology. The author also demonstrates the possible relation of his proposed astrological model to the geocentric understanding of the axial precession around the ecliptic pole, where the Roman bull-slaying Mithras could be visualized in the form of a Mithraic constellation. This astrological model also is proposed to be the architectural design concept of Roman Mithraeum. The author also points to the core Christian symbols as possible contemporaneous parallels or derivatives of the Mithraic iconography and theology.

  10. The Gaugamela Battle Eclipse: An Archaeoastronomical Analysis (United States)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Verderame, L.

    A total lunar eclipse occurred during the night preceding the decisive Battle of Gaugamela (20th September 331 BCE), when the Macedonian army, led by Alexander the Great, finally defeated the Persian king Darius and his army. This astronomical event, well known to historians, had a relevant role on the battle outcome. The eclipse was described in detail by Babylonian astronomers, though, unfortunately, the text of their report has only partially been preserved. We have reconstructed the evolution of the phenomenon as it appeared to the observer in Babylonia, by using the positional astronomy code "Planetario V2.0". On the base of this reconstruction we suggest a number of integrations to the lost part of the text, allowing a finer astrological interpretation of the eclipse and of its influence on the mood of the armies that set against each other on the following morning.

  11. Los arabismos del "Libro conplido" y otras huellas árabes


    Oliver Pérez, Dolores


    El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el rico material lingüístico que proporciona el Libro Conplido en los Iudizios de las Estrellas, traducción romance de un tratado árabe de Astrología escrito el año 1040. Los ámbitos de influjo de la lengua árabe del original en el romance castellano de la traducción son: 1) influjos sintácticos y estilísticos, 2) préstamos léxicos: de la lengua común, tecnicismos astrológicos. Se añade un glosario con todas las citas, en las que aparecen los pré...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Iulian TOROCZKAI


    Full Text Available This study looks into how Ioan Petru Culianu illustrated some of his ideas, as a historian of religions and as a philosopher of culture, in one of his literary works, The Emeralds Game. This novel is more than mere detective fiction, it is also a magic and esoteric novel, and to understand it we need to refer to magic, astrologic or geomantic practices. This means the considerations the author expressed in his other essential scientific works are “logically” extended, continued in this literary writing. The contemporaneity of the work is suggested by the significant fictional world it proposes, a world where the political blends with the religious, where reality blends with the psychological, science with adventure; all these aspects bring this novel to the same level with other similar novels, like Umberto Eco’s Name of the Rose or Dan Brown’s Da Vinci Code.

  13. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H


    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  14. The cold reading technique. (United States)

    Dutton, D L


    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  15. Is evaluating complementary and alternative medicine equivalent to evaluating the absurd? (United States)

    Greasley, Pete


    Complementary and alternative therapies such as reflexology and acupuncture have been the subject of numerous evaluations, clinical trials, and systematic reviews, yet the empirical evidence in support of their efficacy remains equivocal. The empirical evaluation of a therapy would normally assume a plausible rationale regarding the mechanism of action. However, examination of the historical background and underlying principles for reflexology, iridology, acupuncture, auricular acupuncture, and some herbal medicines, reveals a rationale founded on the principle of analogical correspondences, which is a common basis for magical thinking and pseudoscientific beliefs such as astrology and chiromancy. Where this is the case, it is suggested that subjecting these therapies to empirical evaluation may be tantamount to evaluating the absurd.

  16. Stress and temperature distributions of individual particles in a shock wave propagating through dry and wet sand mixtures (United States)

    Schumaker, Merit G.; Kennedy, Gregory; Thadhani, Naresh; Hankin, Markos; Stewart, Sarah T.; Borg, John P.


    Determining stress and temperature distributions of dynamically compacted particles is of interest to the geophysical and astrological research communities. However, the researcher cannot easily observe particle interactions during a planar shock experiment. By using mesoscale simulations, we can unravel granular particle interactions. Unlike homogenous materials, the averaged Hugoniot state for heterogeneous granular materials differs from the individual stress and temperature states of particles during a shock event. From planar shock experiments for dry and water-saturated Oklahoma sand, we constructed simulations using Sandia National Laboratory code known as CTH and then compared these simulated results to the experimental results. This document compares and presents stress and temperature distributions from simulations, with a discussion on the difference between Hugoniot measurements and distribution peaks for dry and water-saturated sand.

  17. The Process of Building the Gene Smith Tibetology Literature Center at the Southwest University for Nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIXI Lamu; LIU Yong; BENG Jia


    The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center ( TBRC) founded by Gene Smith , is a non-profit organization which concentrates on collec-ting, sorting, and digitizing Tibetan literature . Most of the documents comes from Gene Smith ’ s personal collection , and the content covers reli-gion, philosophy, medicine, arts, psychology, as-trology, poetics, and history, etc.The digitali-zation of Tibetan literature and putting them on line is the key project of the institute .The purpose of the Ethnic Literature Center in the Southwest Uni-versity for Nationalities ( SWUN) is to rescue and preserve the ancient manuscripts of the ethnic groups , and there is a Tibetan Literature Section in the center .

  18. A Course in Science and Pseudoscience (United States)

    Taylor, Richard


    A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.

  19. Introduction to stereology. (United States)

    West, Mark J


    Just as astrology became astronomy and alchemy became chemistry through the application of mathematics, descriptive anatomy can be expected to become more and more quantitative in nature. This article describes the basics of stereology, which provides meaningful quantitative descriptions of the geometry of three-dimensional (3D) structures from measurements that are made on two-dimensional (2D) images. With precise mathematical descriptions such as those that can be obtained with unbiased stereological techniques, it will be possible to make concise descriptions of the relationships between structure and function, of the dynamics of structure, and to reassert the importance of quantitative morphology as an essential part of the evaluation of biological tissues.

  20. The five elements and Chinese-American mortality. (United States)

    Smith, Gary


    D. P. Phillips, T. E. Ruth, and L. M. Wagner (1993) reported that 1969-1990 California mortality data show that Chinese Americans are particularly vulnerable to diseases that Chinese astrology and traditional Chinese medicine associate with their birth years. For example, because fire is associated with the heart, a Chinese person born in a fire year (such as 1937) is more likely to die of heart disease than is a Chinese person born in a nonfire year. However, many diseases were excluded from this study, some diseases that were included have ambiguous links to birth years, and the statistical tests were indirect. A more complete statistical analysis and independent California mortality data for the years 1960-1968 and 1991-2002 did not replicate the original results.

  1. [The Paduan doctor Alessandro Pellati, his library and the first edition of De medicorum astrologia]. (United States)

    Fattori, D


    The article prints the text of a document in the Archivio di Stato, Venice, comprising a list of books intended for auction, with an estimate of their value. THey constitute the private library of Alessandro Pellati (d. 1487), a Paduan doctor about whom nothing is known, except his name appears in the colophon of the first edition of a short treatise attributed to Hippocrates, the De medicorum astrologia seu de esse aegrorum, translated into Latin and published in Padua in 1483. The considerable number of astrological works in his library show that Pellati was keenly interested in the subject which, under the title of "natural magic", had assumed a significant place in medical studies at that time, particularly in Padua.

  2. N18, powder metallurgy superalloy for disks: Development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedou, J.Y.; Lautridou, J.C.; Honnorat, Y. (SNECMA, Evry (France). Materials and Processes Dept.)


    The preliminary industrial development of a powder metallurgy (PM) superalloy, designated N18, for disk applications has been completed. This alloy exhibits good overall mechanical properties after appropriate processing of the material. These properties have been measured on both isothermally forged and extruded billets, as well as on specimens cut from actual parts. The temperature capability of the alloy is about 700 C for long-term applications and approximately 750 C for short-term use because of microstructural instability. Further improvements in creep and crack propagation properties, without significant reduction in tensile strength, are possible through appropriate thermomechanical processing, which results in a large controlled grain size. Spin pit tests on subscale disks have confirmed that the N18 alloy has a higher resistance than PM Astrology and is therefore an excellent alloy for modern turbine disk applications.

  3. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters. (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward


    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  4. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts (United States)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  5. Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602). (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman


    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons.

  6. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric


    Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. PMID:24744920

  7. The Luminaries: A D―ned Fine Tale, but of What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scheckter


    Full Text Available The Luminaries (2013, Eleanor Catton’s novel of nineteenth-century New Zealand, has won wide international acclaim, including the Man Booker Prize. Yet many readers find the work exasperating to read—a “nightmare,” to use a term Catton herself suggests. In large measure, this response emerges from Catton’s use of heavy structuring devices, particularly astrology and mathematics, that pertain to the time period of her fiction. These frameworks tend to make totalizing claims, often through causal or linear progression, and to support modern, realistic protocols of reading. As this essay demonstrates, Catton undercuts those claims, and frustrates such readings, by emphasizing multiple paths of comprehension and multiple voices of narration. The Luminaries embraces its multiple structural mechanisms, but is not dominated by any of them.

  8. Revision and Re-enchantment of the Legacy of Psychology from a Half Century of Consciousness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Grof


    Full Text Available Drawing on observations from more than fifty years of research into an important subgroup of non-ordinary states of consciousness that he calls holotropic, the author suggests a revision of some basic assumptions of modern psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The proposed changes involve the nature of consciousness and its relationship to matter, dimensions of the human psyche, the roots of emotional and psychosomatic disorders, and therapeutic strategy. In the light of the new observations, spirituality appears to be an essential attribute of the human psyche and of existence in general. An important and controversial subject that could be only tangentially addressed in the context of this paper is the importance of archetypal psychology and astrology for consciousness research.

  9. Cosmic Perspectives (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.


    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  10. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Blomstedt


    Full Text Available Herbowski (2013 suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned.

  11. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars (United States)

    Minti, Hari


    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  12. Elementi di astrologia nel Decameron censurato di Luigi Groto

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    Kristina Lazar


    Full Text Available The censored version of the Decameron by Luigi Groto, which was published in 1588, was already the third censorship of Boccaccio's masterpiece during the Counter-Reformation. As opposed to the other two censured versions, this one did not place emphasis on philological questions, but it tried above all to narratively fill the gaps created by expurgation; in some cases following the original plot and in the others changing it to such a degree that the novels remained barely recognizable. This article exposes some characteristics of Groto's mannerist style; especially the elements of astrology, which emerge in the expurgated parts of the text, and the way these elements function when inserted into Boccaccio's text.

  13. Reviews Equipment: Chameleon Nano Flakes Book: Requiem for a Species Equipment: Laser Sound System Equipment: EasySense VISION Equipment: UV Flash Kit Book: The Demon-Haunted World Book: Nonsense on Stilts Book: How to Think about Weird Things Web Watch (United States)


    WE RECOMMEND Requiem for a Species This book delivers a sober message about climate change Laser Sound System Sound kit is useful for laser demonstrations EasySense VISION Data Harvest produces another easy-to-use data logger UV Flash Kit Useful equipment captures shadows on film The Demon-Haunted World World-famous astronomer attacks pseudoscience in this book Nonsense on Stilts A thought-provoking analysis of hard and soft sciences How to Think about Weird Things This book explores the credibility of astrologers and their ilk WORTH A LOOK Chameleon Nano Flakes Product lacks good instructions and guidelines WEB WATCH Amateur scientists help out researchers with a variety of online projects

  14. Astronomy across cultures the history of non-Western astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaochun, Sun


    Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  15. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H


    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  16. [The prescription as literature]. (United States)

    Telle, Joachim


    In the medical writings of antiquity the recipe, a basic form of scientific writing, was considered a literary genre with conventions of its own. In texttype-linguistics, however, the recipe plays only a minor role; in studies on the history of literary short texts it is hardly ever mentioned and, furthermore, it has come to the conclusion that the recipe's function has lain solely in the curing of the sick. The present study focuses on its multifunctional character. A collection of widely scattered and hardly accessible recipes shows that the recipe adopted functions beyond giving technical directives. Its multifunctionality in the German literature of early modern times is manifest in medical and cooking jocular recipes, cooking recipes in minnesang, mock recipes aimed at physicians and astrologers, recipes of spiritual-religious content, recipes containing art and literary criticism as well as recipes in a moral-satirical or a political-agitative vein.

  17. Melihat Sekilas Imam Fakhral-Din al-Razi (544-606 H/1149-1209 M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Malik Marpaung


    Full Text Available Fakhr al-Din al-Razi adalah seorang pemikir klasik yang terpercaya. Pengetahuan nya meliputi berbagai disiplin ilmu, seperti teologi, tafsir, hukum, bahasa, sastra, tasawuf, filsafat, kedokteran, fisika, astronomi, astrologi, matematika, dan lain-lain. Dalam hal fikih, al-Razi bermazhab Syafi’i, dalam filsafat terpengaruh Muhammad Zakaria al Razi dan Ibn Sina, sedang dalam hal fisika mengikuti jejak Abual-Barakat al-Baghdadi. Tidak berbeda dengan filosof yang anti-Aristotelian sebelumnya, al-Razi mencoba menyelaraskan agama dan filsafat rasional. Keunggulan al-Razi di berbagai bidang ini belum banyak digali sehingga menjadi tambahan bagi khazanah keilmuan Islam. Artikel ini hendak memaparkan beberapa pemikiran-pemikiran Fakhr al-Din al-Razi yang berkenaan dengan kalam, filsafat, fikih, dan ilmu pengetahuan lain yang dapat ditemukan dalam karya-karyanya yang sudah diterbitkan. Dengan harapan, artikel ini dapat berguna untuk lebih mengenalkan pemikiran-pemikirannya yang masih menunggu untuk dieksplorasi lebih serius.

  18. Abrahán Enseña astronomía: el prototipo bíblico del estudio del cómputo en las abadías Benedictinas de Cava de' Tirreni y Ripoll. (United States)

    Castiñeiras González, M. A.

    In two miscellanies of computus from the abbeys of Cava de' Tirreni (XI century) and Santa María de Ripoll (XII century) an interesting illumination with the patriarch Abraham teaching three Egyptian disciples in secrets of cosmos was represented. The image, not documented in the Vulgata, is derived from a Jewish-Hellenistic tradition that presented Hebrews preceding Egyptians and Greeks in scientific knowledge. The representation of this subject is related to the teaching of astronomy in the Benedictine abbeys to determine the times (horas canonicae) and dates of Easter. But the Isidore's text which accompanies the illumination explains its real meaning: thanks to astrology, that had even practiced by Abraham, magicians were able to determine the birth of Christ. However this event put an end to superstition and was the beginning of Christian time.

  19. The inspiration of astronomical phenomena (INSAP). Proceedings. Conference, Rocca di Papa (Italy), 27 Jun - 2 Jul 1994. (United States)

    The papers concern the inspiration provided by astronomy to the fields of art, philosophy, religion and various human cultures. Individual papers cover the following topics: the Qur'anic conception of astronomical phenomena on Islamic civilization, the Milky Way and society, the mythology and ritual of India, the Varanasi Sun temples, celestial bodies meanings in pre-Hispanic Mexico, the celestial basis of civilization, Mexican eclipse imagery, Chinese dynastic ideology - astrological origins, NW Europe stone rows, stars and seasons in southern Africa, the Pleiades and Hesperides, stars and philosophy, the search for extraterrestrial life, the significance of the pre-Copernican revolution, Judaeo-Christian revelation, Maria Magdalena - the Morning Star, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, stellar poetry, John Bauer's star-spangled fairy-tale world, Polish romantic poetry, the expansion of astronomical horizons, recent comet research and ancient sky implications, civilization Spenglerian model and punctuational crises, Anaxagoras and the scientist/laity interaction.

  20. 当代西方“左翼”学者眼中的马克思——评梅格纳德·德赛《马克思的复仇》一书%Marx in the Eyes of Contemporary Western Left-wing Scholars:Review of Marx's Revenge by Meghnad Desai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Marx does not need to be saddled with the stupid things written in his name: no longer, not after the collapse of soviet system. He does not need to be deified or hailed as an astrologer of capitalism, casting its horoscope and predicting its death at a specific date.%马克思不需要沦为以他的名义所写的愚蠢的东西:不是在苏联体制解体之后不需要,而是永远不需要。马克思不需要被作为资本主义的占星家来神化和赞扬,说什么他绘出了资本主义的天宫图,预测了资本主义灭亡的确切日期。

  1. [Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain]. (United States)

    Tausiet, María


    One of the main obsessions of the early modern era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of religion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Enracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making "silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins".

  2. Die New Age beweging - oorsig en beoordeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. de Bruyn


    Full Text Available The New Age Movement (NAM is a leaderless but powerful network, working to bring about radical change in the world. In fact the NAM is a transplantation of Hindu philosophy, with Buddist elements from the East to the West. This article explicates the origin of the NAM and describes its mystic, occult and feminist character. In the article it is stated that the NAM rests on monistic and astrological pillars and that its main doctrines are as follows: pantheism, emanation (instead of creation, reincarnation and the fact that Christ is one of the great Masters controlling the world. The views and doctrines of the NAM are then judged in the light of Scripture.

  3. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist]. (United States)

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I


    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  4. Cosmic Disasters, Real and Imagined (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.


    Since ancient times, humans have looked to the skies for explanations of past tragedies and predictions of the future. Indeed the very word "disaster” means "bad star". Although most such myths and forecasts are purely imaginary, we have, in more recent times, identified real cosmic impact events in the past and we have developed the necessary tools to discover and predict them in the near-term future. We dynamical astronomers, the direct descendants of ancient astrologers, have at last gained the tools to actually deliver on at least some of the promises of ancient astrologers, to predict "Armageddon” before it arrives. Nevertheless, we still carry some baggage of mythos, ancient disasters blamed on impacts that never happened, and obsessions over impacts of such incredible improbability that we would better worry about other things. In this talk I will review our present state of knowledge of what is out there that might hit us and with what frequency, the estimated consequences of impacts of all sizes, and from these derive an "actuarial” impact risk assessment. I will present the "intrinsic risk", before any Earth-approaching asteroids were discovered; where we are now with the present level of survey completeness; and where future surveys should take us. I will put this in the context of risk levels from other natural, and un-natural, hazards. I will close with a brief discussion of a claimed impact that almost certainly did not happen, relating to the extinction of megafauna in North America 12,900 years ago. The mythos underlying this claim may provide an object lesson on the present day "street fight” over the reality of global warming.

  5. Measuring Science Literacy in College Undergraduates (United States)

    Impey, Chris David; Buxner, S. R.; Antonellis, J.; King, C.; Johnson, E.; CATS


    Initial results from a major study of scientific literacy are presented, involving nearly 10,000 undergraduates in science classes at a large Southwestern Land Grant public university over a 20-year period. The science content questions overlap with those in the NSF's Science Indicators series. About 10% of all undergraduates in the US take a General Education astronomy course, and NSF data and the work of Jon Miller show that the number of college science courses taken is the strongest predictor of civic scientific literacy. Our data show that gains in knowledge on any particular item through the time students graduate are only 10-15%. Among students who have taken most or all of their science requirements, one-in-three think that antibiotics kill viruses as well as bacteria, one-in-four think lasers work by focusing sound waves, one-in-five think atoms are smaller than electrons, and the same fraction is unaware that humans evolved from earlier species of animals and that the Earth takes a year to go around the Sun. The fraction of undergraduates saying that astrology is "not at all” scientific increases from 17% to a still-low 34% as they move through the university. Equally worrying, half of all science majors say that astrology is "sort of” or "very” scientific. Education majors - the cohort of future teachers - perform worse than average on most individual questions and in terms of their overall scientific literacy. Assuming the study institution is representative of the nation's higher education institutions, our instruction is not raising students to the level we would expect for educated citizens who must vote on many issues that relate to science and technology. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  6. La teología de la luz de Guerrico de Igny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hallet, S.J.


    Full Text Available El beato Guerrico de Igny nos ha dejado 54 sermones. Uno de los temas recurrentes de su doctrina espiritual es el de la luz, que proviene del Padre Celestial, se encarna en Jesucristo, ardió en esas lámparas llamadas Juan Bautista, los magos y Simeón, y sigue iluminando toda la historia de la salvación, brillando en las diferentes acciones de sus actuales discípulos. Pensador original, el célebre abad cisterciense enriquece con sus aportes personales una teología de la luz que se encontraba ya esbozada en Orígenes, Agustín, el Pseudo Dionisio, Casiano y BernardoBlessed Guerrico de Igny has left us 54 sermons. One of the recurring themes of his spiritual doctrine is that of light, which proceeds from the Celestial Father, is incarnated in Jesus Christ, burned in those luminous figures called John the Baptist, the astrologers and Simon, and continues to brighten all of salvation history, shining in the different actions of his current disciples. An original thinker, the celebrated Cistercian abbot enriches with his personal contributions a theology of light that was already found outlined in Origen, Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, Cassian and Bernard

  7. On the Origin of "White Tiger Unfavorable for Husband"%浅析白虎克夫的来由

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "白虎克夫"是中国一种历史悠久、流传甚广而又害人不浅的文化心理。这种恐惧心理产生的原因可以追溯到星相学中作为"灾星"的白虎和生物界几近绝迹的凶猛动物"白虎"。而最终把两者联系起来的则是因谐音而至以讹传讹的结果。其流行则是文化心理与民间习俗合力推动的结果。%" White tiger unfavorable for husband" is a long - time cultural mentality. It is argued that this vicious concept has much to do with astrology, where white tiger is considered evil and unlucky, and biology where white tiger is nearly extinct. The mentality is a joint consequence of cultural mentality and folk customs.

  8. Tibetan medicinal formulas used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Luna Antonio


    Full Text Available Introduction: Men-Tsee-Khang in Dharamsala, India, formally known as the Tibetan Medical and Astrological Institute (TMAI, is dedicated to the teachings and practice of Tibetan medicine, which uses therapeutic agents in multi-ingredient formulas. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to identify formulas used at Men-Tsee-Khang for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and to compare the Tibetan usage of particular ingredients with pharmacological data from the scientific database. Methods: Using ethnographic techniques and methods, five physicians were selected, and the interviews were conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. Results: A correlation was observed between central nervous system disorders and rLung, one of the three humors in Tibetan medicine, and 10 formulas used to treat the imbalance of this particular humor were identified. These formulas utilize 61 ingredients, including salts, animal products and plants. The 48 plant species identified in these formulas are traditionally used in Tibetan medicine and are deposited at the Men-Tsee-Khang Herbarium. Each formula treats several symptoms related to rLung imbalance, so the plants may have therapeutic uses distinct from those of the formulas in which they are included. Data from the scientific literature indicate that all of the formulas include ingredients with neuropsychiatric action and corroborate the therapeutic use of 75,6% of the plants. Conclusion: These findings indicate a level of congruence between the therapeutic uses of particular plant species in Tibetan and Western medicines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Shivakumar*, Pushpa Agrawal and Praveen Kumar Gupta


    Full Text Available The people in India have an outstanding knowledge of medicinal plants acquired over centuries. A passion for studying medicinal plants is evident both in folk and scholarly traditions. The indigenous mode of understanding and using plants is different from the modern scientific way. It includes botanical, medical and astrological elements. This is the basis of green pharmacy. Indians obviously care for medicinal plants because they know so many of them, so much about them and have worked extensively on their application. It is a remarkable fact that the use of medicinal plants is still a living tradition in the form of a million village-based folk carriers. These traditional birth attendants, bonesetters, herbal healers and wandering monks are invisible to policy makers and therefore not taken into account as a public health resource. Apart from these specialised folk healers there are also millions of women and elders with traditional knowledge of food and nutrition and herbal home-remedies. However, the revitalisation of this vast and diverse folk tradition does not appear on the Governments agenda. Here is an attempt to introduce these traditional knowledge with an emphasis of Nevadensin that holds a promising substance to cure many of the diseases naturally.

  10. Understanding Planets in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Veede


    Full Text Available On our planet time flows evenly everywhere but the history as weknow it has different length and depth in every place. Maybe thedeepest layer of history lies in the land between Tigris and Eufrat –Mesopotamia (Greek ‘the land between two rivers’. Itis hard to grasp how much our current culture has inherited fromthe people of that land – be it either the wheel, the art of writing,or the units for measuring time and angles. Science and knowledgeof stars has always – though with varying success – been importantin European culture. Much from the Babylonian beliefs about constellationsand planets have reached our days. Planets had an importantplace in Babylonian astral religion, they were observed asmuch for calendrical as astrological purposes, and the qualities ofthe planetary gods were carried on to Greek and Rome.The following started out as an attempt to compose a list of planetstogether with corresponding gods who lend their names and qualitiesto the planets. Though it was easy to find such a list aboutGreece and Rome, texts concerning Mesopotamia included miscellaneousfacts subdivided into general categories only (e.g. Pannekoek1961. The reasons of this vagueness later became evident with thecompiling of such a table starting to look like Sisyphean work.

  11. Hvězdářství krále Jana (United States)

    Černá, Alena M.; Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena; Stluka, Martin

    The critical edition of the collection "King John's Astronomy" is based on the Old Czech manuscript written at the beginning of the 15th century which is preserved at the Library of the National Museum in Prague (ms. II F 14). The collection consists of several separate parts - first of all it contains astronomical and astrological treatises refering to Ptolemy's works. Explanations on the impact of the seven planets and twelve zodiacal signs on the fate of man, who was born under their influence, prevail in the texts. The texts which are connected with Hippocrates and Galenos' doctrines about humoral physiology and humoral pathology are another subject. They are supplemented by a treatise on blood-letting and by pharmaceutical instructions on different weight units. Another treatise deals with God, God's acts and with human fate. The manuscript also contains calendar tools for the calculation of Easter and other feasts during the year. The origin of this Old Czech text coincides with the period of the development of national languages as languages of science. Vocabulary contained in the manuscript is rich. It yields evidence about the formation of terminological systems in various fields involved in the collection. The Old Czech language of this literary monument exhibits unexpectedly archaic features. The present edition is a result of interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers from the fields of diachronic Bohemistics, classical philology, and astronomy. The publication is completed with the critical apparatus, indices, vocabulary, by a list of the chosen literature and other related supplements.

  12. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public? (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.


    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  13. Cognition and belief in paranormal phenomena: gestalt/feature-intensive processing theory and tendencies toward ADHD, depression, and dissociation. (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Matthews, Justin; Asten, Janet


    Belief in paranormal phenomena and cryptids--unknown animals such as Bigfoot--may predispose individuals to interpret real-world objects and events in the same way that eyewitness identification can be biased by unrelated information (P. James and N. Thorpe, 1999). Psychological tendencies toward attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dissociation, and depression, even at subclinical levels, may be associated systematically with particular paranormal or cryptozoological beliefs. The authors evaluated these psychological tendencies using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (C. K. Conners, D. Erhardt, and E. Sparrow, 1999), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (L. Coleman & J. Clark, 1999), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, 1996). They performed regression analyses against beliefs in ghosts, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), extrasensory perception (ESP), astrology, and cryptids. ADHD, dissociation, and depression were associated with enhanced tendencies toward paranormal and cryptozoological beliefs, although participants who believed in each of the phenomena differed from one another in predictable and psychologically distinguishable ways. Cognitively biasing influences of preexisting psychological tendencies may predispose individuals to specific perceptual and cognitive errors during confrontation of real-world phenomena.

  14. El mundo mágico en el Madrid de los Austrias a través de las cartas, avisos y relaciones de sucesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitar, Beatriz


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the different expressions of the magic in Madrid under the Hapsburgs, in the context of the Baroque mentality and the morality of the Counter-Reformation. These expressions were, among others, asthrology, the casting of horoscopes, palmistry, witchcraft and the interpretation of unusual or extraordinary events. The author aims to show the way in which the Crown as well as the Church often used these expressions for their own interests, thereby preserving the status quo and the people's disfranchisement.

    En este artículo se analizan las distintas manifestaciones de lo mágico en el Madrid de los Austrias, en el marco de la mentalidad del Barroco y de la moral contrarreformista. Entre los aspectos estudiados se encuentran prácticas mágicas tales como la astrología y la confección de horóscopos, la quiromancia o la brujería, así como sucesos anormales o extraordinarios. A través de este estudio se intenta mostrar el modo en que dichas manifestaciones eran manipuladas por la monarquía y la Iglesia en su provecho, a fin de mantener el statu-quo y la sumisión de los súbditos.

  15. Astronomy and Culture (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.


    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  16. Hinduism and death with dignity: historic and contemporary case examples. (United States)

    Dewar, Rajan; Cahners, Nancy; Mitchell, Christine; Forrow, Lachlan


    An estimated 1.2 to 2.3 million Hindus live in the United States. End-of-life care choices for a subset of these patients may be driven by religious beliefs. In this article, we present Hindu beliefs that could strongly influence a devout person's decisions about medical care, including end-of-life care. We provide four case examples (one sacred epic, one historical example, and two cases from current practice) that illustrate Hindu notions surrounding pain and suffering at the end of life. Chief among those is the principle of karma, through which one reaps the benefits and penalties for past deeds. Deference to one's spouse or family is another important Hindu value, especially among Hindu women, which can impact the decision-making process and challenge the Western emphasis on autonomy. In addition, the Hindu embrace of astrology can lead to a desire to control the exact time of death. Confounding any generalizations, a Hindu patient may reject or accept treatments based on the individual patient's or family's interpretation of any given tradition. Through an awareness of some of the fundamental practices in Hinduism and the role of individual interpretation within the tradition, clinicians will be better able to support their Hindu patients and families at the end of life.

  17. Practical Divinity and Medical Ethics: Lawful versus Unlawful Medicine in the Writings of William Perkins (1558–1602) (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman


    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between “lawful” and “unlawful” medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  18. Free will and paranormal beliefs (United States)

    Mogi, Ken


    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  19. The Inner Meaning of Outer Space: Human Nature and the Celestial Realm

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    Timothy L. Hubbard


    Full Text Available Kant argued that humans possess a priori knowledge of space; although his argument focused on a physics of bodies, it also has implications for a psychology of beings. Many human cultures organize stars in the night sky into constellations (i.e., impose structure; attribute properties, behaviors, and abilities to objects in the celestial realm (i.e., impose meaning; and use perceived regularity in the celestial realms in development of calendars, long-range navigation, agriculture, and astrology (i.e., seek predictability and control. The physical inaccessibility of the celestial realm allows a potent source of metaphor, and also allows projection of myths regarding origin and ascension, places of power, and dwelling places of gods, immortals, and other souls. Developments in astronomy and cosmology infl uenced views of human nature and the place of humanity in the universe, and these changes parallel declines in egocentrism with human development. Views regarding alleged beings (e.g., angels, extraterrestrials from the celestial realm (and to how communicate with such beings are anthropocentric and ignore evolutionary factors in physical and cognitive development. It is suggested that in considering views and uses of the celestial realm, we learn not just about the universe, but also about ourselves. *

  20. Astronomical Books and Charts in the Book of Bibliographie Coreenne (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu


    We investigate astronomical materials listed in the book of Bibliographie Coréenne written by Maurice Courant. He classified ancient Korean books into nine Divisions (?) and thirty six Classes (?), and published them as three volumes (ranging from 1894 to 1896) and one supplement (in 1901). In total, 3,821 books including astronomical ones are listed together with information on physical size, possessional place, bibliographical note, and so forth. Although this book is an essential one in the field of Korea bibliography and contains many astronomical materials such as Cheon-Mun-Ryu-Cho ????, Si-Heon-Seo ??????, and Cheon-Sang-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ????????, it has not been well known to the public nor to astronomical society. Of 3,821 catalogues, we found that about 50 Items (?) are related to astronomy or astrology, and verified that most ! of them are located in the Kyujanggak Royal Library ???. We also found an unknown astronomical chart, Hon-Cheon-Chong-Seong-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ??????????. Because those astronomical materials are not well known to international astronomical community and there have been few studies on the materials in Korea, we here introduce and review them, particularly with the astronomical viewpoint.

  1. Tycho Brahe, Abu Mashar, and the comet beyond Venus (ninth century A.D.)

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    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Mugrauer, Markus; Luge, Daniela; van Gent, Rob


    From his observations of the A.D. 1572 super-nova and the A.D. 1577 comet, Tycho Brahe concluded that such transient celestial objects are outside the Earth's atmosphere, and he quoted the 9th century A.D. Persian astrologer and astronomer Abu Mashar: Dixit Albumasar, Cometa supra Venerem visus fuit, i.e. that he had reported much earlier that comets were seen beyond Venus. However, even from a more detailed Latin translation, the observations and logic behind Abu Mashar's conclusion were not understandable. We present here the original Arabic text (MS Ankara, Saib 199) together with our translation and interpretation: Abu Mashar reported that he had observed Venus in (or projected onto) the tail of a comet and concluded that the comet was behind Venus, because he had observed the extinction of Venus due to the cometary tail to be negligible (light of Venus was unimpaired). He then concluded that the comet would be located behind Venus. He also mentioned that others had observed Jupiter and Saturn in cometary...

  2. Luo Shu

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    Albert Ting Pat So


    Full Text Available Feng Shui, still popularly practiced today, was closely related to philosophy, natural science, geography, environmental science, architecture, metaphysics, and astrology in ancient China. It is basically divided into the Form School and the Compass School. The latter deals with numerology, calculation, orientation, and time. Luo Shu [洛書], associated with the eight trigrams [八卦], being an ancient Chinese magic square, forms the foundation of the Compass School. The original Luo Shu, a 3 × 3 magic square, was not unique in ancient China but the extension of it to a total of 18 to 36 standard charts was unique, which are still used by all Compass School Feng Shui masters. In this article, modern linear algebra, developed only in the mid-19th century, is employed to prove that there is a strong coherence between the 36 charts if they are treated as 36 matrices and such correspondences conscientiously agree with ancient theories of Feng Shui. This article may help to form a scientific base for the systematic understanding, development, and further research of Luo Shu–related applications.

  3. De temperamentis disputatio medica (1593 – a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski

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    Agnieszka Raubo


    Full Text Available The article describes a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski – “De temperamentis disputatio medica” (1593. Naborowski was a poet who lived at the turn of the 17th century and the work considered here is the result of his medical studies in Switzerland. The article addresses the poet’s scholarly interests, but first and foremost, it focuses on the subject of the research – the theory of temperaments. With ancient lineage and extremely popular in the sixteenth century, the theory was most frequently presented in the contexts of physiognomy, astrology and the lesions that were conditioned by the theory, yet in Naborowski’s work, it gained a new, solely theoretical perspec-tive. It was also concerned with the meticulous consideration of the systematics of temperaments (e.g. their differentiation – one was moderate and eight were merged, as well as their detailed division. The style of these considerations is characteristic for medical works of that period, and they constitute an interesting example of how practical issues in 16th and 17th century medicine were systematized. Furthermore, Naborowski’s considerations are a vivid example of permeable nature of disciplines – philosophy and medicine, and medicine with the broadly understood field of the humanities.

  4. Sociology of religion and the occult revival

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    Lennart Ejerfeldt


    Full Text Available The "new" that makes the cults of the occult revival to "new religions" of the Western world, is their recently increased social significance. Historically most of modern occultism is anything but new. From the research and theorizing about the occult revival we have picked up some main themes. The first is the social diffusion of the new occultism. In this field, we find some studies of superstition, especially astrology. These illuminate the differences in social connotation between the consumers of superstition and the followers of institutional religion. Secondly the study of the occult revival has made valuable contributions to the conceptualizing of "cult" and the cultic phenomenon. Thirdly, we will look upon the connection between the occult revival and the counter-culture. The problem of the rise of cults as a symptom of socio-cultural change will be briefly discussed with reference to Bell's thesis of "the disjuntion of culture and social structure". Lastly, we proffer some reflections on the occult revival and the new spiritual trends in the churches, which so sharply contrast with the theology and churchmanship of the sixties.


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    Dr. Hakan YAMAN


    Full Text Available One of the famous scientists of the Kanuni period, GeliboluluSururi, gained his reputation by his commentary-books and his translations.His commentaries to “Mesnevi” and “Sebistan-i Hayal” which made himfamous, his books in Arabic and Farsi and his translations from theselanguages can be mentioned as major parts of his work. Although it is notexactly known how many books he published, total number of his books areassumed to be around 30 including his translations and compilations. One ofhis translations was famous cosmology book of the time “Kitabü’l-aca’ibve’l-Gara’ib” by Kazvini. Although most of the sources about “Sururi” claimhim to author a book about “ilm-i nücum” (science of stars, the mentionedbook is unfortunately not available in any library. In this article we will try toverify whether Sururi really authored an astrology book, making use ofdependable sources available.

  6. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality (United States)

    Janis, Allen I.


    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  7. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

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    Wing Lam


    Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art, mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. Martial arts such as Cantonese Hung Gar (Hong Family and Hasayfu Hung Gar (Hong Family Four Lower Tigers dedicate a portion of their systems to achieving awesome strength and speed, and to imitating the tiger’s physical prowess. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

  8. Stars come down to Earth As estrelas descem à Terra

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    Luiz Marcelo Brandão Carneiro


    Full Text Available Stars come down to Earth — A little known essay by Theodor W. Adorno, Stars Come Down to Earth is a study about horoscopes and superstition, written in the form of an analysis for the astrology column of the Los Angeles Times in the early 1950s. The German philosopher points out that the texts offered to the reader are an amalgam of the rational and the irrational, revealing the frankly ideological meanderings of their object. Obra não muito conhecida de Theodor W. Adorno, As estrelas descem à Terra é um estudo sobre horóscopo e superstição, originalmente dirigido à coluna de astrologia do Los Angeles Times do início dos anos 1950. O filósofo alemão, pontuando os textos oferecidos aos leitores como um mistura entre o racional e o irracional, revela os meandros do caráter francamente ideológico de seu objeto.

  9. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources. (United States)

    Regier, Jonathan


    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics.

  10. Anania Shirakatsi's Cosmographical and Natural Philosophical Views (United States)

    Danielyan, Eduard


    The observation of the heaven and celestial bodies has taken place since ancient times in the Armenian Highland. The notions of the sphericity of the Earth and celestial bodies, and other theses (about elements, comparative sizes of celestial bodies, antipodes, earthquakes, criticism of astrology, etc.) were reflected and elaborated in "Cosmography" of Anania Shirakatsi (VII century AD), as well as "Ashkharhatsoyts" ("Geography") of Movses Khorenatsi (V century AD) and his continuer Anania Shirakatsi. The road of observation and study of the Milky Way - the fundamental kernel of the development of astronomy - has led the human mind to galaxies, the cognition of the infinite capabilities of the development of matter, that is to say, from the studies of the elements constituting the Earth and other spherical bodies in the Universe (studied by Aristotle) to the Heliocentric system by Copernicus (1473-1543), from the cosmogonic ideas of Democritus (460-370 BC) about the multitude of worlds and the character of the Milky Way and their reflection in natural philosophic views of Anania Shirakatsi to the discovery of non-stationary objects and processes in the Universe owing to the activity of the nuclei of galaxies, according to the cosmogonic conception of academician Victor Ambartsumyan. Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage greatly contributed to the development of Armenian and world natural scientific thought.

  11. Starry Cities and Astrolies - Books to communicate with the public (United States)

    Stanic, N.


    Extragalactic worlds have been presented as star cities in a book of original design - STARRY CITIES - galaxies and time travel, the first book about galaxies written in Serbian for the general public. This book isn't written just for those interested in science, but for all kind of artists, philosophers and thinkers. A second book, ASTROLIES deals with common confusions concerning astronomy and astrology. These two books don't only offer interesting illustrations, data from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories - they induce, by provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, a sense of adventure and a challenge to explore. The publisher of both books is the oldest and the biggest publisher of text-books in Serbia, Zavod za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva2, currently celebrating 50 years in publishing (1957-2007). They already publish a dozen books in popular astronomy, but a special astronomical series for the general public was introduced in 2004. STARRY CITIES and ASTROLIES are part of the ongoing multidisciplinary project Astronomy. Inspiration. Art that started at the end of 2004 at the Public Observatory in Belgrade. This project intends to inspire (or perhaps even "infect") artists with cosmic themes and the fantastic scenery of the Universe.

  12. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério


    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  13. Low cycle fatigue of PM/HIP astroloy

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    Choe, S.J.; Stoloff, N.S.; Duquette, D.J. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    Low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue-environment interactions of PM/HIP Astrology were studied at 650 C and 725 C. Total strain range was varied from 1.5% to 2.7% at a frequency of 0.3Hz. Creep-fatigue tests were performed with 2 min. or 5 min. tensile hold times. All tests were run in high purity argon in an attempt to minimize environmental effects. Employing a tensile hold was more damaging than raising temperature by 75 C. Slopes of Coffin-Manson plots were nearly independent of temperature and hold time. Raising temperature from 650 C to 725 C did not change the transgranular (TG) crack propagation mode, whereas employing hold times caused TG+IG propagation. All samples displayed multiple fracture origins associated with inclusions located at the specimen surface; pre-existing pores did not affect fatigue crack initiation. Examination of secondary cracks showed no apparent creep damage. Oxidation in high purity argon appeared to be the major factor in LCF life degradation due to hold times.

  14. Reorganização de saberes tradicionais em Los sorias, de Alberto Laiseca

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    Graciela Ravetti


    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste estudo, propõe-se uma consideração sobre a reformulação de saberes tradicionais em termos não metafísicos na obra do escritor argentino Alberto Laiseca, Los sorias (1998, construída a partir da convergência dos temas das religiões, da magia e da astrologia, lado a lado com outros saberes em face de (deshierarquização. Palavras chave: Literatura hispano-americana; literatura argenti­na; romance contemporâneo; ficção científica. Abstract: In this study, we propose a consideration on the reformulation of traditional knowledge in no metaphysical terms in the work of Argentine writer Alberto Laiseca, Los sorias (1998, constructed from the convergence of the themes of religion, magic and astrology alongside with other knowledge in the face of de-hierarchization. Keywords: Argentine literature; contemporary romance, science fiction, Spanish American literature.

  15. Circulation of Stars (United States)

    Boitani, P.


    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  16. Free will and paranormal beliefs

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    Ken eMogi


    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  17. Symbolics of the constellations of sagittarius and centaurus in russian traditional culture (United States)

    Bagdasarov, R.


    Centaurus falls into the category of 'imaginary animals'. The Russian tradition used not only the symbol Sgr (a result of its acquaintance with the circle of Zodiac), but also the symbol Cen, which fact, as we shall demonstrate, is an evidence of certain mythological-astronomical conceptions. Both the constellations Sagittarius (Sgr) and Centaurus (Cen) are usually represented as versions of the picture of a fantastic being, a Centaur, shaped as man from head to waist, and as an animal, mostly, a horse, from waist down. 'Centaurus' (from the Greek word kev (or kevw)) for 'kill' and o, for 'bull') means 'bull killer', and is probably related to the opposition of the zodiacal constellations Taurus and Sagittarius. When the latter begins to rise on to the night sky, the former disappears completely from view. Sagittarius is represented at ancient monuments related to astronomy as a centaur holding a bow and pointing at certain stars. The constellation of Centaurus is also symbolised by a centaur, but holding not a bow, but a staff or a spear in one hand and an 'animal of sacrifice' in the other (Higinus, Astronomica, III, 37, 1; Chernetsov, 1975, Figure 1). The attributes stand for the Peliases Spear (The Mithological Dictionary, 1991), depicted in astrological maps as The Spear of Centaurus1, The Wolf (Lupus), the Panther or the Beast (Flammarion, 1994).

  18. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

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    Natasha Kate


    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  19. Research on Witches and Their Witchcraft in Shakespeare's Plays%莎士比亚戏剧中的女巫及其巫术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文艺复兴时期.处于萌芽时期的科学与伪科学如魔术、巫术、占星术等并存,这一现象在莎士比亚的戏剧中也有所反映。本文对莎剧中众多女巫形象进行了分析,指出女巫虽然具有预知祸福等超自然能力,但她们的本质仍然是人。在莎士比亚戏剧中,女巫是人世间诱人堕入罪恶的邪恶力量,女巫的预言则象征了人内心的欲望。%During the Renaissance, the developing science coexisted with pseudoscience such as magic, witchcraft, astrology and so on, which is also reflected in Shakespeare's plays. This paper analyses the image of the witches in Shakespeare's plays, and points out that although the witches have supernatural power they are essentially human beings rather than goddesses or Fates. The witches are actually the malicious forces that make use of the weakness of human beings to induce them to evil. The prophecy of the witches is actually the embodiment of the inner desire in the human soul.

  20. Chinese Seal Clasp–Meeting technology and elegance with functional goals

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    Kong Mario


    Full Text Available This study comes within the framework of a PhD course in Design, which is the continuation of a Masters degree research in Fashion Design, searching for wardrobe technology and innovation, through the use of three-dimensional computer-aided design and printing, with it’s use already popular in areas related to product development and design, as well as architecture, translating and adapting, integrating it into the world of Fashion. The intent of this project is to present solutions that promote a new and versatile product, allowing for a different kind of aesthetic. This will be achieved and presented through planning and prototyping, thus creating a new clasp for fashion products. This research will result in a finished clasp, with its purpose and function being tested, in order to achieve concrete results, thus creating an innovative technology to be part of a fashion collection that allows the transformation of the suntan marks left by female swimwear. This will result in the creation of designs and drawings on the body, using shapes inspired by the Oriental Zodiac Signs, as well as colours drawn from the five elements of Feng Shui, which are also present in the Western Astrological Signs.

  1. Political astronomy: Comet and meteor observations by Muslim historians (United States)

    Chander Kapoor, Ramesh


    Eclipses and unexpected phenomena like comets, meteors, novae and earthquakes were viewed among various cultures as violating the established order of the heavens. They were considered to be ill omens for kings and emperors and were routinely monitored. The present work looks into the texts of history and literature by Muslim historians and chroniclers in West Asia and India that carry stray references to such phenomena. The accounts often relate the apparitions to specific disastrous events or prognosticate revolts, deaths, epidemics, earthquakes all that that took place in later times. Obviously, the occurrences interested the astrologers more. Comet appearances would last for days and weeks but nearly all the writings lack sequential observations. Meteor showers are annual features but the Islamic calendar being lunar would not easily lead one to notice periodic nature of the incidents, let alone sensing a periodicity in comet appearances. These are non-astronomy texts with little scientific content but being from different ages permit us to see how the astronomical perceptions changed over the times. The recorded details and firm chronology, tested against modern back calculations, can provide valuable information on them, keeping in mind the text and the context in which the original reference was made. We also notice a qualitative change in the Indian writings of the 18th century and later where the authors begin to show up with influence of exposure to the European scientific progress.

  2. Free will and paranormal beliefs. (United States)

    Mogi, Ken


    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  3. Theories of comets to the age of Laplace (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    Although the development of ideas about cometary motion has been investigated in several projects, a comprehensive and detailed survey of physical theories of comets has not been conducted. The available works either illustrate relatively short periods in the history of physical cometology or portray a landscape view without adequate details. The present study is an attempt to depict the details of the major physical theories of comets from Aristotle to the age of Laplace. The basic question from which this project originated was simple: how did natural philosophers and astronomers define the nature and place of a new category of celestial objects--the comets--after Brahe's estimation of cometary distances? However, a study starting merely from Brahe without covering classical and medieval thought about comets would be incomplete. Thus, based on the fundamental physical characteristics attributed to comets, the history of cometology may be divided into three periods: from Aristotle to Brahe, in which comets were assumed to be meteorological phenomena; from Brahe to Newton, when comets were admitted as celestial bodies but with unknown trajectories; and from Newton to Laplace, in which they were treated as members of the solar system having more or less the same properties of the planets. By estimating the mass of comets in the 1800s, Laplace diverted cometology into a different direction wherein they were considered among the smallest bodies in the solar system and deprived of the most important properties that had been used to explain their physical constitution during the previous two millennia. Ideas about the astrological aspects of comets are not considered in this study. Also, topics concerning the motion of comets are explained to the extent that is helpful in illustrating their physical properties. The main objective is to demonstrate the foundations of physical theories of comets, and the interaction between observational and mathematical astronomy, and

  4. New Understanding of“Distinguishing the Object of Yin and Yang”in the Baoxun Bamboo Manuscript of Tsinghua University%清华简《保训》“测阴阳之物”新论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    清华简《保训》问世后,学界给予了高度的关注。但是,无论在文字的释读、隶定,抑或思想史层面的研究上,都存在较大分歧,实际上很多问题还有待于进一步研究。本人认为,清华简《保训》涉及古代源远流长的一种方术——气占。殷周时代,卜筮之风隆盛,灼龟为卜问,蓍占为筮问。这两种祷问术数因有殷墟甲骨和《周易》的传世,人们知之甚详。但对于“气占”这一方术了解甚少,清华简《保训》的问世,唤醒了我们对古代这一方术的记忆。换言之,必须从气占视域去分析与评论《保训》“测阴阳之物”,才能弄清楚其中的真实含义。气占与天人感应世界观紧密相关,除了人与自然相互影响之外,气占在性质上是一种方术,在某些层面也可以说是一种古代巫术。气占祈求通过某种技术手段,揣摩天心天意,力求做到人事与天意协调一致,期盼天降祥瑞而不是谴告,从而达到天命不移之社会目的。%Since it was made public, the Baoxun(Instructions for Preservation) bamboo manuscript of Tsinghua University has aroused widespread academic interest. However, there exist great differences on the recognition and interpretations of the Characters as well as on the researches concerning intellectual history. This article argues on the existence of the idea of Qi Divination in the Baoxun bamboo manuscript of Tsinghua University. Divination is very popular during the Yin and Zhou Dynasties. People use turtle shell and yarrow to divine. These two ways of divination was well known because of Zhouyi and the discovered oracle bones from the Yin Ruins. In the meantime, there are few ancient records on Qi Divination. The appearance of the Baoxun bamboo manuscript of Tsinghua University awoke our memories on the ancient astrology. From the perspective of Qi Divination, the meaning of“distinguishing the Object of Yin

  5. The Nature of Punctuational Crises and the Spenglerian Model of Civilization (United States)

    Clube, S. V. M.

    acknowledged dispensers of prognosis and mitigation who endorsed the adverse implications of 'blazing stars' (astrologers, soothsayers etc.) were commonly impugned and censured. Nowadays, of course, we are able to recognise that the Earth's environment is not only one of essentially uniformitarian calm, as formerly assumed, but one that is also interrupted by 'punctuational crises', each crisis being the sequence of events which arises due to the fragmentation of an individual comet whose orbit intersects the Earth's. That even modest crises can arouse apprehension is known through the circumstances of the nineteenth century break-up of Comet Biela. Indeed it seems that these crises are rather frequently characterized by relatively violent (paradigm shifting) transmutations of human society such as were originally proposed by Spengler and Toynbee more than sixty years ago on the basis of historical analysis alone. It would appear, then, that the historical fear of comets which has been with us since the foundation of civilization, far from being the reflection of an astrological perception of the cosmos which was deranged and therefore abandoned, has a perfectly rational basis in occasional cometary fragmentation events. Such events recur and evidently have quite serious implications for society and government today. Thus when cosmic danger returns and there is growing awareness of the fact, we find that society is capable of becoming uncontrollably convulsed as 'enlightenment' spreads. A revival of millenarian expectations under these circumstances, for example, is not so much an underlying consequence but a deviant manifestation of the violent turmoil into which society falls, often to revolutionary effect.

  6. A Flame of Nezami’s Language

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    Heidarali Dahmardeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Nezami’s Poem is in the front rank of poetry. He always attempted to choose the best words- fine words using beautiful words and expressions. His poetry is enriched by his power of imagination and awareness of the common knowledge and beliefs of the time. The common features of his speech includes a unique use of the words-word choice, creating new compounds, compounding- description, repetition, emphasis, transformation, omission, using Quranic verses, Islamic hadiths and Arabic compounds, expressions of astrology and medicine, adages, proverbs and idioms regularly used by ordinary people. He is a poet familiar with the language of ordinary people and their beliefs, customs and traditions. Since he rightfully attended to the spoken language and because of his particular style of speech, his works are full of street talks to the extent that this propery can be viewed as the prominent stylistic feature of his poems. He took advantage of the common sciences of the time and utilized the scientific, astrological and medical terms and also the technical meanings and themes of these sciences. His imagination and awareness of the sciences and beliefs made his poems productive. Some of the features of his poems are as follow:   1- Imagery : Imagery refers to producing pictures, paintings or shows in the mind of readers /listeners using words. That is, the poet or writer should have such mastery over using words, space, meanings and their relations that makes him able to effectively use the sentences and words to create paintings, pictures or shows in the mind of readers or listener, to enable the reader to imagine a real painting or picture when he is over with his reading.    2- Diction : Experts of language issues and grammar beliefs that word coining can strengthen the foundation of language. So, the first premise in creating fine text is to choose musical words appropriate for the given text and meaning. In the first step, melodic

  7. Looking through the Vizão Feita por Xpo a el Rey Dom Affonso Henriques (1659 Franciscans in India and the legitimization of the Braganza monarchy

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    Barreto Xavier, Ângela


    Full Text Available Early modern Portuguese political providentialism has attracted significant scholarly interest in recent years. Whether in reference to the legitimization of imperialism in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to the divine justification of royal power in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (especially after 1640, to Sebastianism, the Fifth Empire and other forms of millenarism, or to the uses of astrology, scholars have demonstrated that political providentialism was a familiar language to the Portuguese monarchy. Little is known, however, about the formulation and spread of political providentialism in the Asian part of the Portuguese Empire. In this paper I provide a more complex picture of the dissemination of this language in the Estado da Índia through an analysis of the treatise Vizão de Affonso Henriques, written in Goa by Friar António de S. Thiago, in the year 1659. How does this treatise relate to metropolitan political providentialism, namely in the context of the legitimization of the Braganza monarchy? How is Franciscanism crucial in the treatise’s structure? And can the treatise be located at the crossroads of Euro-Asiatic political culture?En los últimos años el estudio del providencialismo político en el Portugal Moderno ha despertado un significativo interés académico. Ya sea como referencia a la legitimación del imperialismo de los siglos XV y XVI, ya a la justificación divina del poder real en los siglos XVI y XVII (sobre todo después de 1640, como al Sebastianismo, al Quinto Imperio y demás formas de milenarismo o a los usos de la astrología, los especialistas han demostrado que el providencialismo era una lenguaje conocido en la monarquía portuguesa. Poco se sabe, sin embargo, de su formulación y propagación en la parte asiática del Imperio portugués. En este trabajo se propone una imagen más compleja de la difusión del providencialismo político en el Estado de la India a través de un an

  8. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

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    Céline Coderey


    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Mizusawa, Trisha; Zurek, David [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Martin, Christopher D.; Neill, James D. [Department of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 405-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)


    The dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis is surrounded by the largest known classical nova shell. This shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have undergone classical nova eruptions in the past, and that at least some classical novae become dwarf novae long after their nova thermonuclear outbursts. The current size of the shell, its known distance, and the largest observed nova ejection velocity set a lower limit to the time since Z Cam's last outburst of 220 years. The radius of the brightest part of Z Cam's shell is currently {approx}880 arcsec. No expansion of the radius of the brightest part of the ejecta was detected, with an upper limit of {<=}0.17 arcsec yr{sup -1}. This suggests that the last Z Cam eruption occurred {>=}5000 years ago. However, including the important effect of deceleration as the ejecta sweeps up interstellar matter in its snowplow phase reduces the lower limit to 1300 years. This is the first strong test of the prediction of nova thermonuclear runaway theory that the interoutburst times of classical novae are longer than 1000 years. The intriguing suggestion that Z Cam was a bright nova, recorded by Chinese imperial astrologers in October-November 77 B.C.E., is consistent with our measurements. If Z Cam was indeed the nova of 77 B.C.E. we predict that its ejecta are currently expanding at 85 km s{sup -1}, or 0.11 arcsec yr{sup -1}. Detection and measurement of this rate of expansion should be possible in just a few years.

  10. Ransom, Religion, and Red Giants: C.S. Lewis and Fred Hoyle (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine


    Famed fantasy writer C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was known to friends as a well-read astronomy aficionado. However, this medieval scholar and Christian apologist embraced a pre-Copernican universe (with its astrological overtones) in his Chronicles of Narnia series and defended the beauty and relevance of the geocentric model in his final academic work, "The Discarded Image". In the "Ransom Trilogy” ("Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength") philologist Ransom (loosely based on Lewis's close friend J.R.R. Tolkien) travels to Lewis's visions of Mars and Venus, where he interacts with intelligent extraterrestrials, battles with evil scientists, and aids in the continuation of extraterrestrial Christian values. In the final book, Ransom is joined by a handful of colleagues in open warfare against the satanic N.I.C.E. (National Institute for Coordinated Experiments). Geneticist and evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane criticized Lewis for his scientifically inaccurate descriptions of the planets, and his disdain for the scientific establishment. Lewis responded to the criticism in essays of his own. Another of Lewis's favorite scientific targets was atheist Fred Hoyle, whom he openly criticized for anti-Christian statements in Hoyle's BBC radio series. Writer and Lewis friend Dorothy L. Sayers voiced her own criticism of Hoyle. In a letter, Lewis dismissed Hoyle as "not a great philosopher (and none of my scientific colleagues think much of him as a scientist.” Given Lewis's lack of respect for Hoyle, and use of creative license in describing the planets, and the flat-earth, "geocentric” Narnia, it is surprising that Lewis very carefully includes an astronomically correct description of red giants in two novels in the Narnia series ("The Magician's Nephew" and "The Last Battle"). This inclusion is even more curious given that Fred Hoyle is well-known as one of the pioneers in the field of stellar death and the properties of red giants.

  11. Tycho Brahe, Abū Macshar, and the comet beyond Venus (ninth century A.D.) (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Kunitzsch, Paul; Mugrauer, Markus; Luge, Daniela; van Gent, Rob


    From his observations of the A.D. 1572 super-nova and the A.D. 1577 comet, Tycho Brahe concluded that such transient celestial objects are outside the Earth's atmosphere, and he quoted the 9th century A.D. Persian astrologer and astronomer Abu Mashar: Dixit Albumasar, Cometa supra Venerem visus fuit, i.e. that he had reported much earlier that comets were seen beyond Venus. However, even from a more detailed Latin translation, the observations and logic behind Abu Mashar's conclusion were not understandable. We present here the original Arabic text (MS Ankara, Saib 199) together with our translation and interpretation: Abu Mashar reported that he had observed Venus in (or projected onto) the tail of a comet and concluded that the comet was behind Venus, because he had observed the extinction of Venus due to the cometary tail to be negligible (light of Venus was unimpaired). He then concluded that the comet would be located behind Venus. He also mentioned that others had observed Jupiter and Saturn in cometary tails, so that those comets would even be located beyond those two outer planets - in the sphere of the stars. The dates of the observed close conjunctions were not mentioned; using known orbital elements for a few comets, we found a few close conjunctions between comets and planets from A.D. 770 to 868, but we cannot be sure regarding which conjunctions were reported. While the argument of Abu Mashar is not correct (as cometary tails are optically thin), parts of the conclusion - namely that comets are outside the Earth atmosphere and beyond the moon - is correct. This may have helped Tycho Brahe to come to his revolutionary conclusion.

  12. Theodorus Graminaeus. Een wiskundige in dienst van de contrareformatie

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    Rienk Vermij


    Full Text Available Theodorus Graminaeus, a mathematician in the service of the Counter-Reformation Theodorus Graminaeus (ca. 1540-1596 offers an example of the fluid status of mathematics and its practitioners in the early modern period. Born at Roermond, Graminaeus studied at Cologne, where he became a professor of mathematics in 1566. As a professor, Graminaeus also acted as printer and publisher of mathematical, religious and other works. In 1575 he obtained a licentiate in law. Around the same time, he became tutor of Johann Wilhelm, crown prince to the United Duchies of Jülich, Cleves and Berg. In 1582, he left his position at the university of Cologne and appears to have entered the service of Johann Wilhelm full time. After the latter’s succession as duke (1592, Graminaeus got an administrative position in the duchy of Berg. Graminaeus wrote a dozen works on a variety of subjects, including the calendar, comets, the Antichrist, witches, and publicity for the dukes of Cleves. He did not aim at exactness and objectivity. Even his mathematical works bear the stamp of his religious beliefs and embody religious and political values. Tycho Brahe (who refuted Graminaeus’s work on the nova of 1572 at some length already felt that they lacked rigour. Graminaeus felt he lived in a very dark age. He had witnessed the religious troubles at his birthplace, Roermond, in 1566-1567 and since that time abhorred Protestantism. In his work, he tried to read the signs of the time by finding patterns in world history based on astrological models and ancient prophecies. (In this, he appears not to have been unique among Catholics at Cologne. At the court of Cleves, he put himself decidedly on the side of the Roman-Catholic faction. As the Counter- Reformation, led by the Jesuits, gained momentum in the United Duchies, his expectations became somewhat less gloomy.

  13. 汉代“荧惑”星占及其政治功能探析%The Study on Martian Divination and Its Political Function in the Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    荧惑(火星)自古以来就被人们视为灾星,在汉代星占学上备受关注。其占辞多与兵、丧、饥馑、疾疫等灾害紧密相联。在天人感应思想的影响下,荧惑入太微、守心、守犯舆鬼和南斗及与其他行星合犯等严重失行天象都被视为重要灾难降临的征兆,成为大臣、儒学经师等劝谏帝王修身养德、推行仁政的重要借口,在两汉时期的政治运作中发挥着极其独特的作用。%Mars was regarded as a bane since ancient time and received much attention in Astrology of the Han dynasty deducing diction was closely related to the war, funeral, famine and disease, etc. Under the influence of the thought of heaven and the astronomical phenomena deviated seriously from normal orbit included the Mars enter the Supreme Palace Enclosure, Mars stayi Antares, Mars staying or violating Ghosts and the Southern Dipper, and join or violate with other planets weer deemed to signs of co of greet disaster. These become important excuse that ministers and Confucian classics persuaded the emperors to cultivate their mind and carry out the policy of benevolence, it plays a most special role in political operation of the Han dynasty.

  14. Applied Historical Astronomy (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard


    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  15. Powder metallurgy of turbine disc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingesten, N.G. (Dep. of Engineering Metals)


    The first part embraced a study of carbide precipitated in IN 100 and astrology powders. The powder was heat treated at temperatures between 950/sup 0/C and 1150/sup 0/C. After aging at 950-1100/sup 0/C the MC-carbides formed during atomization were replaced by M/sub 23/C/sub 6/-carbides. After 1150/sup 0/C treatments the MC carbides were present again. Precipitation comparable with that obtained in HIP:ed specimens was not observed at free particle surfaces. However, powder particles which had agglomerated during atomization often exhibited considerable precipitation at contiguous surfaces. Obviously, contact between the particles must occur if coarse precipitation at particle surfaces is to develop. Reduced PPB-precipitation was obtained by pre-heat- treatment of powder before compaction. It is suggested that the carbon otherwise available for PPB-precipitation forms carbides in the interior of the powder particles. The aim of the second part was to ..gamma..-strengthen a Co-based super-alloy (Co-15Cr-3Mo-5Ti). Here the Ti-addition gives a coherent and ordered ..gamma..-phase Co/sub 3/Ti. However, upon ageing the alloy is unstable in order to increase the stability modifications of the alloy were prepared by: leaving out the Mo-content, adding 10 % Ni and by decreasing the Ti-content to 4.2 %. In addition, the effect of enhanced grain size and of deformation was investigated. Significant reduction of the transformation rate was only obtained by decresing the Ti-content while deformation of the alloy greatly increased the transformation rate.(author).

  16. Oassi sámi noaidevuođa birra Kaspar Peucera čállosis Commentarius de praecipuis divinationum generibus (Wittenberg 1560: Teakstakritihkalaš hámis jorgalusain ja kommentáraiguin

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    Per Pippin Aspaas


    Full Text Available The text on Sami shamanism in Caspar Peucer’s Commentarius de praecipuis divinationum generibus (Wittenberg 1560: Critical edition, with translation and commentary. Among the sources dealing with the shamanistic skills of the Sami (formerly Lapponian population, a certain text by Kaspar Peucer has so far been little known. This man of extreme learning was the son-in-law of Philip Melanchthon and a Professor at the University of Wittenberg. A true polyhistor, well versed in Medicine, Geography, Astrology, Theology, etc., Peucer included in his chef-d’oeuvre on divination an elaborate description of the shamanism of the so-called Pilappii. The present article offers a critical edition of this text, based on the editions of Wittenberg 1560 (A, 1572 (B, 1580 (C, as well as Zerbst 1591 (D and Frankfurt 1593 (E. In addition to translations into North Sami and Norwegian (see Appendix, some contextualisation is offered, which can be summarised as follows: A similar testimony on shamanism is found in the Historia de gentibus Septentrionalibus by Olaus Magnus (Rome 1555. However, that text is not elaborate enough to prove that Kaspar Peucer has copied his description from him. It is more likely that some student among the considerable number of Swedes, Finns and Norwegians that were immatriculated at Wittenberg University in the years following the Reformation, presented this account to Peucer. Many details in the account make it strikingly similar to Sami folk narratives that have been assembled several centuries later. For example, the description of maritime Sami by Anders Larsen (1870–1949, the Sami book by Johan Turi (published 1910 and Sami songs (joik that were collected by Jacob Fellman in the 1820’s can be compared with Peucer’s account. Peucer himself, however, categorised the shamanism of the Sami as a form of theomanteia, i.e. a form of magic which he considered to originate not from the true God, but from the Devil.

  17. End-of-the-World: Using Science to Dispel Public Fear (United States)

    Morrison, David


    Polls taken in mid-2012 indicated that 10% of Americans did not expect to survive the “end of the world” on 12/21/12. Children were especially vulnerable, and some contemplated suicide. Comets Elenin and ISON also attracted apocalyptic fears. Elenin was blamed for the several earthquakes, including the Fukushima mega-quake of 03/11/11. Such fears, which seem to harp back to earlier centuries, are now widely promulgated by the Internet and cable TV, where dozens of “documentaries” are shown every week dealing with UFOs, aliens, astrology, and a variety of cosmic threats. In this talk I recount some of my experiences and those of other scientists leading up to the 12/21/12 doomsday. We made a big effort to defuse these fears, and to warn teachers and parents that a substantial fraction of their children were in danger of being taken in by the 2012 hoax. This experience is just one example of an anti-science trend that seems to be growing in the U.S. and around the world. Prime examples are the creationist efforts to deny evolution, the similar tactics of the global warming denialists, and health hoaxes such as homeopathy and the anti-vaccination movement. As scientists, we should consider how best to communicate real science to the public, and when to “go negative” to fight against pseudoscience. We must recognize the presence of powerful anti-science forces that are well funded and skillful at exploiting new communication tools enabled by the Internet. This is a challenge for all of us.


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    İbrahim HALİL TUĞLUK


    Full Text Available Classical Turkish Literature has been formed by effect of Persian literature to a large extent and formed its own language and so had a large important period of Turkish literature. Basic expression means of this literature is poetry. Prose has been always in the shadow of poetry and second class, in fact prosaic texts are usually about didactical subjects just as history, geography, science of religion, astronomy, medicine and biography. Prosaic wording has also differences in the context of purpose and content. An important feature of prose form is its effort to approach to poetry form. Harmony in language that is constituted by rhythm especially approached prose texts to poetic wording further. Studies about these poetic texts in prosaic texts are quite important in points of confirming statistics of poetic texts in Classical Turkish prose literature, retaining, meaning and harmony combinations that have been established by poetry in prose and also designating classical cultural substructure of Ottoman. There are a lot of scholar and craftsman who came into prominence by their literal and scholarly identity in Ottoman history. Abbâs Vesȋm is among the people who lived in 18th century and had these features. His works must be investigated in many aspects because of these features. In this context, it is important to research poetical sections of his works about medicine and astrology that Abbâs Vesȋm wrote except literature in the sense of confirming poetical wording in prosaic texts and designating wording features in prosaic texts.In this study, it is aimed to search the prosaic works of Abbâs Vesȋm who is poet of 18th century, confirm the copies, transcript of poetic sections in these works and search these works in the sense of form and content.

  19. 高动态环境下GPS信号捕获研究%Research on GPS Signal Acquisition Algorithm in High Dynamic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹; 柯熙政; 何振泉


    高动态环境信号的捕获是GPS接收机的关键技术,接收机处于高速运动的状态使GPS信号产生相位延迟和多普勒频移,增加了信号的捕获难度。分析了滑动相关捕获和基于FFT捕获两种算法,给出了基于FFT捕获算法的FPGA实现架构,并采用GPS信号仿真器对该设计的可行性进行了捕获验证。结果表明:在导航星相对载体的速度为1000m/s,加速度为5g的情况下,基于FFT捕获算法可以实现信号的可靠捕获。%Signal capture in dynamic environment is the key technology of the Global Positioning System( GPS) receiver. The phase delay of GPS signal and doppler frequency shift are produced by the receiver within a state of high speed movement, and the signal capture difficulty is increased. Two algorithms including FFT capturing and sliding relative to capture are analyzed. The FPGA implementation architecture based on FFT capturing algorithm is given,and the GPS signal simulator is adopted to verify the feasibility of the design which can capture signal. The results show that capture based on FFT algorithm can realize reliable signal capture in the navigation astrology for carrier rate of 1000 m/s and acceleration of 5g cases.

  20. Armenian Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Farmanyan, Sona V.


    A review is given on archaeoastronomy in Armenia and astronomical knowledge reflected in the Armenian culture. Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times and Armenia is rich in its astronomical heritage, such as the names of the constellations, ancient observatories, Armenian rock art (numerous petroglyphs of astronomical content), ancient and medieval Armenian calendars, astronomical terms and names used in Armenian language since II-I millennia B.C., records of astronomical events by ancient Armenians (e.g. Halley's comet in 87 B.C., supernovae explosion in 1054), the astronomical heritage of the Armenian medieval great thinker Anania Shirakatsi's (612-685), medieval sky maps and astronomical devices by Ghukas (Luca) Vanandetsi (XVII-XVIII centuries) and Mkhitar Sebastatsi (1676-1749), etc. For systemization and further regular studies, we have created a webpage devoted to Armenian archaeoastronomical matters at Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) website. Issues on astronomy in culture include astronomy in ancient Armenian cultures, ethnoastronomy, astronomy in Armenian religion and mythology, astronomy and astrology, astronomy in folklore and poetry, astronomy in arts, astrolinguistics and astroheraldry. A similar webpage for Astronomy in Armenian Culture is being created at ArAS website and a permanent section "Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture" has been created in ArAS Electronic Newsletter. Several meetings on this topic have been organized in Armenia during 2007-2014, including the archaeoastronomical meetings in 2012 and 2014, and a number of books have been published. Several institutions are related to these studies coordinated by Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) and researchers from the fields of astronomy, history, archaeology, literature, linguistics, etc. are involved.

  1. Introduction to Garudapurăna with reference to Ayurvĕda. (United States)

    Subhose, Varanasi; Narayana, Ala; Prasad, P V V; Rao, M Mruthyumjaya


    The Purănas are the encyclopedic works of the ancient and medieval Hindu religion, philosophy, history, politics, ethics, sciences etc. There are 18 (Astădaśa) purănas, which are, considered as mahăpurănas, among which Garudapurăna is popular one. The Garudapurăna is divided into two parts viz., Pŭrvakhanda and Uttarakhanda. The first part, which is also called Acărakhanda consists of 240 chapters. The greater part of the Pŭrvakhanda occupies the descriptions of Vratas (religious observances), sacred places dedicated to the Sŭrya (sun), Lord Siva and Lord Visnu. It also contains treatises on various aspects like astrology, palmistry, politics, Sănkhya, Yŏga, anatomy, precious stones and extensive information on vedic medicine i.e., Ayurveda. The Uttarakhanda consists of two khandas viz. Dharmakhanda and Brahmakhanda, which are divided into 42 and 29 chapters, respectively. The Dharmakhanda is also known as the Prĕtakalpa which contains directions for the performance of obsequies rites. The Prĕtakalpa portion of the Garudapurăna is generally recited during the period of mourning and so its importance is self-evident. It is almost impossible to narrate within such a small framework, the wide range of splendid truths scattered in the pages of this noble purănam. Little information is available from internal evidence to establish its exact period. However, it is supposed to be quite ancient in its origin.

  2. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest III Vana-Hiina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak


    Full Text Available The article concerns Chinese astral myths, calendar and astrology. Chinese creation myths concern also the creation of the Sun, Moon and stars. The heavenly bodies are constantly endangered by the sky dragon that now and then catches them, probably a reference to eclipses. Cosmology existed in Ancient China in the same sense as in Ancient Greede, though many ancient books were burned on the emperor's orders in 213 BC. Teaching of the endless sky emerged in the Han era, while in 1 century AD the theory of endless empty space was formulated. For the majority of Chinese history, astronomers were in the service of the country - studying and interpreting heavenly phenomena. The Chinese divided the heavenly sphere into several hundred little constellations of one to ten stars. They used the so-called Lunar Zodiac that contained 28 xiu or homes of the Moon but also the Sun Zodiac. Myths concerned the stars and their naming. Heavenly processes were believed to influence the earthly. From China come the earliest observations of solar eclipses and comets. The earliest registered solar eclipse is dated in 720 BC. There are also records about ceremonies dedicated to solar eclipses. Halley's comet has been sighted and recorded since 12 BC at its every passage, but irregularly already since 240 BC. The very first comet descriptions come from 1057-1056 BC. Chinese chronology is based on imperial eras: the inauguration of every emperor started a new era. The Chinese lunar-solar calendar was improved via constant observations. Seasons were determined by the position of the Ursa Major at dawn. The length of synodic months at the time was 29.5 days and a topic year 366 days. A supplementary month was added according to a 19-year cycle. Chinese calendar achieved its contemporary form in 7th-10th centuries.

  3. Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual Alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausiet, María


    Full Text Available One of the main obsessions of the Early Modern Era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and the unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of re ligion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Engracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making «silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins».

    Una de las principales obsesiones de la Edad Moderna consistió en determinar las nociones de verdadero y falso para aplicarlas a los distintos campos del saber y, de ese modo, fundamentar la separación entre lo lícito y lo prohibido. Dicha tendencia iba a afectar especialmente a los terrenos de la religión y la ciencia, haciéndose necesario distinguir no sólo verdaderos y falsos espíritus, reliquias o milagros, sino también verdaderos y falsos astrólogos y alquimistas. Situada a caballo entre el idealismo y el materialismo, la alquimia ejemplificaba especialmente dichas tensiones, como se comprobará a través del proceso incoado en 1593 contra un fraile del monasterio jerónimo de Santa Engracia de Zaragoza, a quien su prior acusó de fabricar «plata de humo y joyas de trasgos».

  4. [Medicine and humanism: insights of the Nürnberg city physician Theodericus Ulsenius regarding Morbus Gallicus]. (United States)

    Santing, C G


    The Nuremberg physician and humanist Theodericus Ulsenius (c. 1460-1508) was the author of two works on the so-called Morbus Gallicus. In 1496 he published a Vaticinium in epidemicam scabiem, and he also wrote fifty aphorisms, entitled Cura mali francici. In this article I will characterize Ulsenius' ideas and compare these to the measures the Nuremberg town government took to diminish the dangerous effects of the epidemic. In the function of official town physician, Ulsenius was one of the chief advisers and executives of the Nuremberg health policy. As the 'Ratsverlässe' (records of the town-council meetings) give detailed information, the reactions of senate and physicians can be followed from day to day. The Vaticinium a poem of 100 hexameters was printed at the office of Hans Mair and presented as a pamphlet with a woodcut from the workshop of Albrecht Dürer. The verses refer to a dream of the poet, in which the God Apollo addresses him and talks about the terrible disease. The origin and symptoms of the illness are discussed extensively, in accordance with the prevailing medico-astrological conceptions. Nevertheless, the poem ist not a medical piece of work, but a literary-styled and humanistically appropriate description of the recent epidemic, meant for fellow members of the German respublica litteraria. Like most of Ulsenius' writings, the Cura mali francici only survived as a copy made by his colleague Hartmann Schedel. It seems that the author had different types of audience in mind. The aphorisms refer to the Aphorisms of his great example, the famous Ancient medical doctor Hippocrates of Kos. The addresses of the Cura are obviously medical professionals: the physician in the towns harassed by the Morbus Gallicus and especially the medical professors who hat to lecture on the new ailment.

  5. Cetacean beachings correlate with geomagnetic disturbances in Earth's magnetosphere: an example of how astronomical changes impact the future of life (United States)

    Ferrari, Thomas E.


    The beaching and stranding of whales and dolphins around the world has been mystifying scientists for centuries. Although many theories have been proposed, few are substantiated by unequivocal statistical evidence. Advances in the field of animal magnetoreception have established that many organisms, including cetaceans, have an internal `compass,' which they use for orientation when traveling long distances. Astrobiology involves not only the origin and distribution of life in the universe, but also the scientific study of how extraterrestrial conditions affect evolution of life on planet Earth. The focus of this study is how cetacean life is influenced by disturbances in its environment that originate from an astrological phenomenon - in the present study that involves solar flares and cetacean beachings. Solar storms are caused by major coronal eruptions on the Sun. Upon reaching Earth, they cause disturbances in Earth's normally stable magnetosphere. Unable to follow an accurate magnetic bearing under such circumstances, cetaceans lose their compass reading while travelling and, depending on their juxtaposition and nearness to land, eventually beach themselves. (1) This hypothesis was supported by six separate, independent surveys of beachings: (A) in the Mediterranean Sea, (B) the northern Gulf of Mexico, (C) the east and (D) west coasts of the USA and two surveys (E and F) from around the world. When the six surveys were pooled (1614 strandings), a highly significant correlation (R 2 = 0.981) of when strandings occurred with when major geomagnetic disturbances in Earth's magnetosphere occurred was consistent with this hypothesis. (2) Whale and dolphin strandings in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the east coast of the USA were correlated (R 2 = 0.919, R 2 = 0.924) with the number of days before and after a geomagnetic storm. (3) Yearly strandings were correlated with annual geomagnetic storm days. (4) Annual beachings of cetaceans from 1998 to 2012 were

  6. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius (United States)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  7. Ideas. A History: From Fire to Freud. 2. ed.; Ideen. Eine Kulturgeschichte von der Entdeckung des Feuers bis zur Moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, P.


    In this hugely ambitious and exciting book Peter Watson tells the history of ideas from prehistory to the present day, seeking a new way to tell the history of the world. The book begins over a million years ago with a discussion of how the earliest ideas might have originated. Looking at animal behaviour that appears to require some thought tool-making, territoriality, counting, language (or at least sounds), pairbonding Peter Watson moves on to the apeman and the development of simple ideas such as cooking, the earliest language, the emergence of family life. All the obvious areas will be tackled the Ancient Greeks, Christian theology, the ideas of Jesus, astrological thought, the soul, the self, beliefs about the heavens, the ideas of Islam, the Crusades, humanism, the Renaissance, Gutenberg and the book, the scientific revolution, the age of discovery, Shakespeare, the idea of Revolution, the Romantic imagination, Darwin, imperialism, modernism, Freud right up to the present day and the internet. (orig./GL) [German] Beginnt die Ideengeschichte der Menschheit, als die Fruehmenschen erstmals Feuer machen, vor ca. 1,8 Millionen Jahren? Oder schon mit dem ersten Faustkeil vor etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahren? Warum entwickelte sich vor 40 000 Jahren eine komplexe Sprache? Wie kamen das Minus- und das Plus-Zeichen in die Vorstellungswelt, und wie entstand das Bild vom Paradies? Peter Watson laedt ein zu einer Expedition durch die abenteuerliche Welt menschlicher Ideen. Vom ersten Feuer, dem ersten Werkzeug und den ersten Worten ueber die Geburt der Goetter, die ersten Gesetze und die Entwicklung grosser Zentren von Wissen und Weisheit bis hin zu den umwaelzenden Ideen der Moderne: das Groesste und das Kleinste, das Selbst-Bewusstsein des Individuums und die Entdeckung des Unbewussten. Dabei ordnet Watson die riesige Materialfuelle nach drei zentralen Ideen, die fuer ihn die Geschichte der Menschheit praegen: die Seele, mehr als die Idee von einem Gott, Europa, mehr als das

  8. The stars, the moon, and the shadowed earth: Viennese astronomy in the fifteenth century (United States)

    Byrne, James Steven

    This dissertation is a study of astronomy at the University of Vienna from the beginning of the fifteenth century through the career of Johannes Regiomontanus (d. 1476), the university's most celebrated astronomer. Regiomontanus and his mentor Georg Peurbach (d. 1461) established a framework for the practice of astronomy, including the linkage of cosmology to astronomy, attempts to correct the errors and ambiguities of the medieval astronomical tradition, a renewed interest in Ptolemy's Almagest , and a program of observations intended as a basis for the reform of planetary tables and models, that remained in place for the more celebrated astronomical achievements of the following century. This study traces the roots of this framework to astronomical teaching at the University of Vienna in the first half of the fifteenth century, as well as its expansion by Regiomontanus as he moved from Vienna to Italy, Hungary, and Germany. Chapter One provides background for the reader unfamiliar with medieval, Ptolemaic astronomy, and also argues that the shift described in the next chapter was, in part, motivated by astrological concerns. Chapter Two demonstrates that, by the middle of the fifteenth century, Viennese astronomy had come to incorporate a significant element of Aristotelian cosmology. Chapter Three examines fourteenth- and fifteenth-century responses to the Theorica planetarum , the most common astronomical teaching text at medieval universities, arguing that university astronomers were capable of identifying and addressing problems with the Theorica in a sophisticated manner. Chapter Four argues that the seemingly contradictory aspects of Regiomontanus's astronomical career can be understood as all contributing to a program of reform that encompassed both the correction of astronomical tables on the basis of new and comprehensive observations as well as the construction of homocentric planetary models to replace the venerable Ptolemaic system. Chapter Five shows

  9. India's mission to Mars cost less than the movie Gravity: Multidimensional View in Engineering Education (United States)

    Rani, Meenu; Kumar, Pawan; Vandana, Vandana


    Over the years, Mars has been the centre of attraction for science fiction writers, Hollywood movie makers, astrologers, astronomers and the scientific community. For scientists and technologists, Mars continues to be an enigma. This is essentially because even tough humans have dreamt for long about human colonisation of Mars. Indian space programme had a very humble beginning during the early 1960s. India launched its first satellite in 1975 with assistance from the erstwhile USSR. India achieved the status of space-faring nation2 by 1980, and by the end of 2014 has launched around 75 satellites. India has become the first nation to reach Mars on its maiden attempt after its Mars Orbiter Mission completed its 10-month journey and successfully entered the Red Planet's orbit. The Mars Orbiter Mission, a low-cost 74 million project, blasted off from Earth on November 5, 2013, aboard an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. At its initial stage, the rocket booster placed the probe into Earth's orbit before the craft fired the engines to break free of Earth's gravity en route to Mars. This is India's first mission into such deep space to search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. But the mission's primary objective is technological-if successful, the country will be joining an elite club of nations: the United States, Russia and Europe. India is becoming known for low-cost innovation in diverse fields such as healthcare and education. The technological capability being demonstrated and the knowledge gained from the operations of the mission will be invaluable in future developments and also in the training of the flight operations and mission control staff. All of this capability can be carried forward to future launches and operations. The sustained presence of methane observed by previous missions suggests that an active production mechanism is at work, most likely tectonic in nature, although there are some suggestions that it may point to a biological origin

  10. Comets, meteors, and eclipses: Art and science in early Renaissance Italy (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.


    We discuss eight trecento (fourteenth century) paintings containing depictions of astronomical events to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting in early Renaissance Italy, noting that an artistic interest in naturalism predisposed these pioneering painters to make their scientific observations. In turn, the convincing representations of their observations of astronomical phenomena in works of art rendered their paintings more believable, convincing. Padua was already a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology) when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (circa 1301-1303). Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem in the Adoration of the Magi scene. Moreover, he painted a historical apparition that he recently had observed with a great accuracy even by modern standards. Halley's Comet of 1301 (Olson, 1979). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and "astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we discuss Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, reputed to have been partially blinded by a solar eclipse, whose calamity may find expression in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30; 1338?). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20) contain dazzling meteor showers that reveal the artist's observed astronomical phenomena, such as the "radiant" effect of meteor showers, first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt in 1799 and only accepted in the nineteenth century. Lorenzetti also painted sporadic, independent

  11. Comets, Meteors, and Eclipses: Art and Science in Early Renaissance Italy (Invited) (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.


    We discuss several topics relating artists and their works with actual astronomical events in early Renaissance Italy to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting. Padua, where Galileo would eventually hold a chair at the University, was already by the fourteenth century (trecento) a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology). It is no wonder that when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (c. 1303) that in the scene of the Adoration of the Magi Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem. Moreover, he painted an historical apparition he recently had observed with a great understanding of its scientific structure: Halley's Comet of 1301 (since Olson's first publication of this idea in Scientific American we have expanded the argument in several articles and talks). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and ``astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we tackle the question how Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, who is documented as having been partially blinded by lengthy unprotected observation of the partial phase of an annular solar eclipse, reflects his observations in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20), contain dazzling meteor showers that hold important symbolic meanings in the cyle's argument but more importantly reveal that the artist observed astronomical phenomena, such as the ``radiant" effect, which was first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt

  12. Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis Pachis


    Full Text Available This editorial introduces the articles published within the OLH Special Collection, ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’. The first two articles in this collection interrogate the figures of specific healing gods. Olympia Panagiotidou’s article ‘Asclepius’ Myths and Healing Narratives: Counter-Intuitive Concepts and Cultural Expectations’ focuses on the curative features that defined the image of Asclepius, the most famous of the healing gods. The next article in the collection, ‘The Fate of a Healing Goddess: Ocular Pathologies, the Antonine Plague, and the Ancient Roman Cult of Bona Dea’ by Leonardo Ambasciano, interrogates the religious figure of another healing agent: the Italian goddess Bona Dea who was particularly venerated in Rome and in the region of Latium and whose cult reveals the way in which ancient Roman androcentric control over women was institutionalised through religious figures.  The third article in the collection, Audrey Ferlut’s ‘Goddesses as Consorts of the Healing Gods in 'Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae': Forms of Cult and Ritual Practices’ considers the impact that cults dedicated to gods and goddesses had on populations in the wider area of the Roman Empire, focusing on the Northern provinces of the Western Roman Empire ('Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae'. The collection’s final article, ‘From Textual Reception to Textual Codification: Thessalos and the Quest for Authenticity’ by Spyros Piperakis, moves the discussion from the question of cult practices to ‘alternative’ healing therapies in antiquity. Piperakis deals with astrological medicine, one of many alternative therapeutic methods that became popular during the Hellenistic and Roman period.  Taken together, the articles in ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’ demonstrate that we need to approach the study of ancient myths and cults within their socio-cultural context

  13. Archetypal Interpretation of Life is but a Dream by Calderon%卡尔德隆《人生如梦》的神话与宗教原型解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继刚; 张依萌


    卡尔德隆是西班牙十七世纪最伟大的剧作家之一,《人生如梦》是他的代表之作,主要讲述了波兰王子塞希斯蒙多因星象预言而命途多舛的人生。本文运用神话原型批评的方法对《人生如梦》进行分析,从塞希斯蒙多的“原罪”、“弑父”情结、获得“救赎”的方式与戏剧情节的“U”型叙事结构等基本方面,挖掘主要人物和叙事情节背后的隐喻原型,找出作品与古希腊罗马神话、基督教圣经神话之间的联系,深入探究文本的隐含意义。这使《人生如梦》的文本研究有了一种新的思路和方法。%Calderon is one of the greastest Spanish playwrights in 17th century ,and Life is but a Dream is regarded as his masterpiece .The play mainly talks about the ill -fated life of Poland prince ,Sigimund , owning to the astrology foretelling .Mythological and archetypal approach is employed in this thesis to an‐alyze the masterpiece .This thesis explores the implied archetypal behind the main characters and plots , finds out the relation among this book and the Greek mythology and mythology in Christian Bible ,and re‐searches the implied meaning of the text in aspect of original sin ,patricide complex ,salvation way and the U narrative structure of the text .It provides a new idea and method to research the masterpiece ,Life is but a Dream .

  14. Uncommon Sense - The Heretical Nature of Science (United States)

    Cromer, Alan


    Most people believe that science arose as a natural end-product of our innate intelligence and curiosity, as an inevitable stage in human intellectual development. But physicist and educator Alan Cromer disputes this belief. Cromer argues that science is not the natural unfolding of human potential, but the invention of a particular culture, Greece, in a particular historical period. Indeed, far from being natural, scientific thinking goes so far against the grain of conventional human thought that if it hadn't been discovered in Greece, it might not have been discovered at all.In Uncommon Sense , Alan Cromer develops the argument that science represents a radically new and different way of thinking. Using Piaget's stages of intellectual development, he shows that conventional thinking remains mired in subjective, "egocentric" ways of looking at the world--most people even today still believe in astrology, ESP, UFOs, ghosts and other paranormal phenomena--a mode of thought that science has outgrown. He provides a fascinating explanation of why science began in Greece, contrasting the Greek practice of debate to the Judaic reliance on prophets for acquiring knowledge. Other factors, such as a maritime economy and wandering scholars (both of which prevented parochialism) and an essentially literary religion not dominated by priests, also promoted in Greece an objective, analytical way of thinking not found elsewhere in the ancient world. He examines India and China and explains why science could not develop in either country. In China, for instance, astronomy served only the state, and the private study of astronomy was forbidden. Cromer also provides a perceptive account of science in Renaissance Europe and of figures such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton. Along the way, Cromer touches on many intriguing topics, arguing, for instance, that much of science is essential complete; there are no new elements yet to be discovered. He debunks the vaunted SETI (Search for

  15. Arnaldo Da Villanova medieval physician (1235-1311). A first approach. (United States)

    Ricciardi, Biagio; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto


    Arnaldo de Villanova, was a Catalan Physician, born in Villanova de Grau, a suburb of Valencia - Spain about 1235. He died off the coast of Genoa in 1311 during a sea voyage departing from Messina in Sicily, during a diplomatic mission by Pope Clement V in Avignon on orders by the King of Sicily. He was a so famous and clever scientist of the thirteenth century, to give his name to the Universitary Hospital of Montpellier - France. His interests ranged from theology, to politics, medicine, and anymore alchemy. He was an adviser and physician of Kings of Aragon, like Peter III the Great (1276-1285) and James II the Right (1285-1327), of Robert of Angi (1309-1343) of Naples, and of Popes, like Innocenzo V (1276), Bonifacio VIII (1294-1303), Benedetto XI (1303-1304), Clemente V (1305-1314), and of the King of Sicily Federico II of Aragon (1296-1337). For the Pope Bonifacio VIII, suffering from renal colic due to kidney stones, he prescribed Hydrotherapy with Fiuggi Thermal water, that was specially transported for him from its source to Rome and Anagni, in jars wrapped in coarse carpets or wool fabrics, to better maintain the source temperature. In addition in July of 1301, he also produced an astrological seal (Talisman) made of gold loaded of virtues, obtained exposing the seal to the power of the Sun, in those days in the Leo Constellation. This seal was worn by the Pope in an hernial belt of leather to support the kidney,probably to improve hisnephroptosis. Arnaldo produced this seal according to what was described in the book Picatrix - The goal of the wise of the Arabic astronomer and alchemist "Abū l-Qāsim Maslama b.- Ahmad al-Majriti, known with the pseudonym Ghayat al hakim died in Cordova about 1008. Ten years later, after his mysterious death at sea on a Sicilian royal ship, his body was not buried at sea, but was reported in Sicily and buried in the Federician Castle of Montalbano of Elicona at the end of Peloritans Mountains near Milazzo, about 90 km

  16. Concepts of Simultaneity From Antiquity to Einstein and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, F A [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for the History and Foundations of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht University P.O Box 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Concepts of Simultaneity (henceforth: Simultaneity) is Jammer's historical monograph dedicated to the development of a single concept in physics. Jammer's idea to write a history of concepts of simultaneity proves to be a wonderful idea: it makes Simultaneity literally unique in its kind and it provides a new perspective from which to look at the historical development of concepts of time, about which much has already been written. Anyone who believes that Einstein was the first person on planet Earth to reflect on how to establish whether two distant events have occurred at the same time, i.e. simultaneously, will stop believing this after having read chapters 2 and 3 of Simultaneity (chapter 1 consists of terminological preliminaries), which deal with Antiquity and the Middle Ages, respectively. For example, Augustine of Hippo anticipated, in his Confessions (397 C.E.), nothing less than the method to determine the simultaneity of distant events that we associate with Einstein. Augustine set out to criticise the heresy of astrology. He considered two infants being born simultaneously in distant places. According to the doctrines of astrology they should lead very similar lives, because they are born under the same constellation of the stars. Yet one infant, Augustine imagined, is the child of a poor maid servant whereas the other is the child of a rich lady, so that they would almost certainly lead very different lives. How to know whether the infants are born simultaneously? Augustine proposed to dispatch, at the moment of birth, two messengers who run equally fast from the houses were the babies were born (whether they do run equally fast can be ascertained by using only local simultaneity judgments); the messengers should run towards each other in order to see whether they meet 'at equal distance from either house' (p. 49). If so, the infants were born simultaneously. Of course, this will not be very accurate, but that is not the point. The

  17. Ar galime priskirti pretekstą Oktaviją Senekai? Can we attribute the Praetexta Octavia to Seneca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Dikmonienė


    Full Text Available The article explores the problems of the authorship of the Roman tragedy Octavia. The aim of the article is to introduce and analyse research carried out by scientists on the problems of the authorship of Octavia and to answer to the question on whether this praetexta could have been written by Seneca.For literary critics the greatest doubt about the authorship of Seneca’s Octavia raises the shadow of Agrippina, Nero’s dead mother, who correctly foretells the death of Nero – the emperor will become a victim of revenge and be killed by being stabbed in the neck. The doubt stems from the fact that Seneca had died three years before Nero. However, the future revenge is defined using typical words (iugulum dare – jab to the throat, which are used by Seneca in his other tragedies to describe non-heroic death, such as in Agamemnon (43, Oedipus (1036–1037, Thyestes (721–723, etc. So iugulum dare can be treated as locus communis in Seneca’s tragedies, meaning revenge, violent death. On the other hand, according to historians (Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Seneca was aware of the planned assassination of Nero in 65 CE by Piso’s conspirators. At the beginning of a conspiracy, conspirators would gather to talk about Nero’s crimes and Seneca maintained close relationships with many of them. Therefore, Seneca could have written Octavia at the beginning of 65 CE and read it at the gathering of Piso’s circle, where everyone spoke of Nero’s crimes supporting the need for a conspiracy.Nero’s dethronement was also predicted by astrologers. Rolando Ferri doubts whether astrologers could have predicted to the Princeps that he would become a criminal (animam nocentem sceleribus (Octavia, 630 and fugitive (turpem fugam (Octavia, 620. It is these two lines of Octavia, according to Ferri, that do not allow attributing Octavia to Seneca. The author of the article argues Ferri’s claims. If Seneca wrote the praetexta in the spring of 65 CE when Piso

  18. Osmanlı’da Zaman-Mekân Kavrayışının Değişimi; Edebi Metinler Üzerinden Bir İrdeleme Change In The Ottoman Space-Time Conception; An Inquiry Through Ottoman Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study entitled “Change in Ottoman Space-Time Conception:An Inquiry Through Ottoman Literary Texts”, proposes a noveldiscussion on the transformation of Ottoman practices from pre-modernto modern times with the use of recently discovered archival and literarytexts which has been neglected so far in the techno-cultural and socioculturalresearches. In that sense, “change in the Ottoman space-timeconception” is one of the pivotal parameters in order to scrutinize thetransformation of everyday life practices in respect to the changingcontextual phenomena of the pre-modern and the modern, and thispaper attempts to go beyond the prevalent approach of consideringindustrial revolution as the pre-requisite of discussing the socialtransformations brought by modernity. One of the main objectives ofthis study is to examine and visualize the technological, social andcultural processes experienced in the daily life practices that arespecific to the Ottoman realm in relation to the space-time conception.Based on this conceptual framework, the first part named “Müneccims,Muvakkits and the Auspicious Moments: Ottoman Space-TimeConception Before 19th Century” intends to expose the „pre-modernOttoman system‟ in relation to temporal space-time conception rootedin cosmology and nature. Accordingly, the second part under the title“New Space-Time Conception and Modernity in Ottoman Realm” aims toscrutinize the Ottoman experience of modernity in tune with the erosionof cosmological units derived from empirical observation.In this sense „cosmology, astrology (ilm-i nücum, astronomy (ilm-iheyet‟, „müneccimbaşılık ve müneccimler (chief astrologer and theastrologers, „müneccimbaşı takvimleri (chief astrologer calendars‟,„zayiçe (horoscope ve eşref saat (auspicious moment‟ and „muvakkitler,muvakkithaneler‟ are phenomena to be studied. As they display theoperations of the Ottoman psycho-social structure, these

  19. Signing off (United States)


    Widget Jones's Highgate science week diary Saturday 17 March Alcohol units 20 (but all went up in flames—what a waste!), smoke—lots (but none from cigarettes!) (g. though possible concern about passive inhaling) Who needs a hangover when you've got crazy Highgate School chemist 'Zbig' Szydlo launching Science Week with exploding potato crisp cartons! Looks like that liquid nitrogen stuff might be good for chilling the Chardonnay though. Memo to self: buy earplugs next year and go with Shazzer so don't suffer embarrassment of grabbing hold of complete stranger during scary bits! Must take sunglasses too for big flash at the end—must admit Hydro Gin is a brand I've not come across, but sounds v.g. Monday 19 March Alcohol units 2 (fizzy wine at opening ceremony for refurbished Physics Department!), smoke—lots again (but all from Trevor's pipe!) Big coup as Trevor Baylis turned up to speak about inventing the clockwork radio. Not sure I'd have strength or coordination to wind one up before breakfast—would need to find environmentally aware boyfriend with healthy liver and strong wrist. We all proved weakest links when it came to the 'name a woman inventor' quiz—Trev was so right when he said that men don't realize that girls with great legs can have good ideas as well! But then went on to say that even the blokes often end up penniless and destined —like me the way things are going—to be discovered half eaten by Alsatians a couple of weeks after snuffing it in a lonely bedsit. Thursday 22 MarchAlcohol units 0 (but the first event was at 9 o'clock in the morning!), smoke—none (couldn't persuade any of the pupils to give me one!), endangered species saved: 1 (v.v.g. indeed) Lured by promise of 'live astrology in the classroom' I staggered out of bed at an ungodly hour hoping to find that my Venus was ascendant and Mark Darcy and I would be aligned soon. Initially disappointed to discover that it was in fact astronomy on the breakfast menu via a remotely

  20. Ancient cults of the sun (German Title: Antike Sonnenkulte) (United States)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    In ancient astronomy, the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos did not meet universal approval. Contrary to that, the cult of the sun gained immense importance in the Roman Empire. Relics of this significance we still find e.g. in the meaning of the Sunday in the week and in the date of Christmas. The rise of the sun cults is characterised by the merging of different gods from various cultures. Already in classical Greece the god of the sun, Helios, almagated with the god of light, Apollo. The resulting entity was regarded as the harmonic guide of the visible universe, symbolized by Apoll. As well as he plays the lyre, he conducts the cosmos harmonically as the sun. Plato recommends to politicians to study musical harmonics and astronomy in order to get a feeling of the right way to rule the state. In consequence to the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Babylonian star religion was mingled with Greek cosmology and the concept of transmigration of souls. The astrology resulting therefrom spread out over the whole Hellenistic world and was very common in the Roman Empire. The calendar with its religious division of time as the days of the week, following the principle of the gods of the planets governing the hour, was well known. The god of the sun was graded up by the adoption of the calendar of the sun from Egypt by Caesar. Augustus chose Apoll as his guardian god and built with “his” sundial a symbol of the god of the sun, which was visible from a long distance. Augustus used more astral symbols as propaganda of leadership. During the competition with the Parthians, another large empire, for world domination the focus fell on an Iranian god: the Iranian god of light and contract - Mithras. Shortly before 100 A.D., a new cult of mysteries arose in the Roman Empire, called cult of Mithras, and spread quickly. It combined the attributes of a classical sun-god with a religion of salvation, guaranteed by baptism, communion and seven degrees to be passed

  1. The religious and social principles of patients' rights in holy books (Avesta, Torah, Bible, and Quran) and in traditional medicine. (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Hatami, Maryam; Hatami, Neda


    Health protection and promotion in healthy people and restoring patients' health have been the most important themes in medicine and health throughout our history. Therefore, discussion of different aspects of patients' rights includes implementation of these objectives by the medical community, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, etc., and the people in charge of health affairs. The principal objective of our research is the study of medical ideology and the approaches of our ancestors in relation to different aspects of patients' rights. To study the different ideologies of traditional medicine in relation to patients' rights, appropriate data were extracted from the original resources of traditional medicine and from religious books. By means of library research we studied these resources in addition to electronic versions of the Alhavi book (by Rhazes), the Kamel-al-Sanaah (by Ahvazi), the Canon of Medicine (by Avicenna), the Zakhireye Khawrazmshahi (by Jorjani), the Avesta, the Torah, the Bible, the Quran, and many other resources, and, finally, after searching, gathering, and encoding the findings, analyzed them qualitatively for thematic content. The holy Avesta book clearly insists on the competence of physicians and setting the appointment fee in accordance with peoples' income. The Old Testament (holy Torah) warned government officials who did not observe patients' rights. In the four gospels (holy Bible) the importance of treatment and taking care of the patient is stressed. After the emergence of Islam, medical students, before beginning the principal courses, had to study Islamic jurisprudence, ethics, logic sciences, natural sciences, geometry, astrology, calculus, and similar courses so that after purifying their soul they could enter the saintly profession of physicians. The holy Quran refers to saving the life of a human irrespective of social class, race, and religion, and insists on exemption of patients from physical activity, including

  2. TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death (United States)

    Thykier, C.


    by the young new King Christian IV. Almost all of Tycho Brahe's privileges given to him by the late King Frederik II were taken from him. Shortly after that, he gathered his family and assistants and went to Rostock, from where he wrote a letter to Christian IV saying that he would contemplate returning to Denmark if the king would give him back his privileges. Christian very sternly answered the astronomer that if he should hope to return to Denmark he had to act like a servant. Tycho was too proud to go down to his knees for the king and never returned. So the reason for Tycho's acceptance of the invitation by Emperor Rudolf to come to Prague was that Christian IV would not continue the very considerable financial support to Tycho of about one percentage of the state income. The latest historical research has indicated that a "camarilla" of enemies stood behind Christian IV's aversion against Tycho. Tycho was not merely an astronomer, but also an astrologer and alchemist. As far as we know he never tried to make gold; his alchemic experiments were of medical character. This was not legal without permission from the Church and the University. Both the clergy and the doctors of the university envied the great scientist because princes and learned people preferred to visit Tycho at his "private university" on the island of Hven instead of visiting the University of Copenhagen. A new theory about Tycho's death has appeared. It has always been told that he died of a burst urinary bladder because he drank too much at parties. According to forensic medicine, however, this cannot be true. Tycho lived for some time after he became ill, and a bursted bladder would cause sudden death. A more plausible explanation would be that Tycho poisoned himself with his very strong medicines containing heavy metals like mercury and arsenic.

  3. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15) (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.


    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  4. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD


    we tend to feel that we have a right to roam around and to dip in to whatever catches our interest. Online courses need to offer this same facility through intuitive navigation and iconic signalling–and even more so if the course is to be retained as a source of reference. When multi-media designers stop feeding the frenzy of the people who market online learning, we might begin to see some appropriate use of it. Sadly the visual ergonomics of a learning environment are poorly understood and rarely viewed as important by learning designers-and results in a weakness in many online environments in which the visual mode of learning is dominant. Pedagogy I look forward to the day when there is a collective realisation of how extremely limited (and contradictory most of the current educational theories really are. For example, my own view is that ‘Learning Styles’ as a predictive model for how people learn is about as effective as using astrological charts to make decisions about the future. We can be certain of very little when it comes to an understanding of how people learn. What is emerging form experience and research is that effective learning is much more a function of the emotional response to a learning environment than the techniques and structures that it is based on. For learning to be effective the learner needs to feel Included, Individual, Interested and Inspired. How much online learning have you seen that manages to achieve these 4 Is? Promotion Long ago in the early dawn of online learning (about 1997, there was a widely held belief that this new form of computer-mediated learning was so wonderful that people could not wait to take part. Those of you old enough to remember will recall that it was described as a ‘killer application’ 2 –which, given the number of learners ‘killed off’ by online learning (about 70% who take part 3, turned out to be a highly prescient descriptor. Many organisations who are now re-launching online learning realise the

  5. News & Announcements (United States)


    education in thermal analysis; it will consist of Mettler-Toledo thermal analysis instrumentation, peripherals, training and service. Applications must be submitted by April 1, 2000. Application forms may be downloaded from Questions should be directed to Jon Foreman, Product Manager, Thermal Analysis, Mettler-Toledo, Inc., 1900 Polaris Parkway, Columbus, OH 43240; phone: 1-800/638-8537; fax: 614/438-4871; email: Courses, Seminars, Meetings, Opportunities Cosmos in the Classroom 2 A national symposium on the trials and tribulations of teaching astronomy to college non-science majors will be held at the Pasadena, California, Convention Center on July 17-19, 2000, as part of the 112th Annual Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Designed for everyone who teaches introductory astronomy, the symposium will focus on ways to improve teaching, to involve students more effectively, and to put astronomy in a wider context. Specific discussion topics will include: getting out of lecture mode, using the Web effectively, dealing with creationism and astrology, and laboratory and observation projects. The 2.5-day program will involve panels of mentor instructors, an exchange of handouts and teaching resources, hands-on workshops for trying new techniques and approaches, and lots of time for discussion. Participants will range from veteran instructors to nervous graduate students about to teach their first solo course. We especially hope to involve those teaching astronomy in small colleges without extensive astronomy research programs, and colleagues in other sciences who teach astronomy on a part-time basis. To get on the mailing list for the meeting, send your name, institution, email, and postal mailing address (indicating an interest in the 2000 Education Symposium) via: email:; fax: 415/337-5205 (Attn: 2000 Education Symp.) mail: 2000 Education Symposium, ASP, 390 Ashton Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94112