WorldWideScience

Sample records for astrology

  1. Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S

    1988-04-15

    As a divinatory practice, astrology is without equal in both its colorful history and modern day popularity. Astrology has grown, over thousands of years, into a huge and ornate superstructure that lacks a central design. Although astrology has been dimly veiled by its occult mystique for centuries, the light of modern day inquiry has shown its substance to be mostly illusionary and revealed its foundation to be the shakiest possible: that of self-justification and anecdotal evidence. Despite the many claims of its practitioners and followers, extensive investigation has revealed astrology to be a great teetering monument to human gullibility.

  2. Observational Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of astrological signs as a vehicle for getting students interested in astronomy. Describes the construction and use of simple stellaphane starframes that can be used to locate astrological constellations. Provides instructions for photographing constellations with a 35 millimeter camera. (TW)

  3. Astrology for Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckline, Vincent S.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a brief history of astrology and its relation to astronomy. Describes the different types of astrologers, horoscope casting, and horoscope interpretation. Presents reasons for the author's disbelief in astrology. (GS)

  4. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  5. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  6. Astrology and Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA.

    One of a series of information packets, the document provides clear, specific information about the controversial subject of astrology. The packet includes six articles explaining the dozens of careful scientific tests which have concluded that there is no scientific evidence supporting astrology. The packet includes an interview with astronomer…

  7. Greco-Roman Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roger

    Astrology was entrenched in the culture of the Roman Empire. The system and its influence is described as well as its relationship to mathematical astronomy at the time. The material remains are of two sorts: papyrus horoscopes and coins with astrological motifs.

  8. Astronomy and astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

  9. Astrology as Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    The practice of astrology can be traced in most if not all human societies, in most time periods. Astrology has prehistoric origins and flourishes in the modern world, where it may be understood as a form of ethnoastronomy - astronomy practiced by the people. The Western tradition, which originated in Mesopotamia and was developed in the Greek world, has been most studied by academics. However, India is also home to a tradition which has survived in a continuous lineage for 2,000 years. Complex systems of astrology also developed in China and Mesoamerica, while all other human societies appear to seek social and religious meaning in the stars.

  10. Dante, astrology and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Some verses of Dante Alighieri suggest his astrological sign and his probable date of birth. This leads us to reflect on the different methods, increasingly divergent, with which sciences as opposed to beliefs approach reality.

  11. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  12. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  13. Astrology: Science, Art or Prophesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The subject in question is the link between humanity's two earliest disciplines - Astronomy and Astrology. Is it realistic to assume that the arrangement of celestial bodies, planets and stars can provide an opportunity to unequivocally predetermine the faith of the flora and fauna, of single individuals or entire nations living on planet Earth of the Solar System in the entirety of the Universe? Is it possible to ascertain whether astrology is science, art or prophesy?

  14. Galen and astrology: a Mésalliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The author examines the question of Galen's affinity with astrology, in view of Galen's extended astrological discussion in the De diebus decretoriis (Critical Days). The critical passages from Galen are examined, and shown to be superficial in understanding. The author performs a lexical sounding of Galen's corpus, using key terms with astrological valences drawn from the Critical Days, and assesses their absence in Galen's other works. He compares Galen's astrology with the astrology of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, and evaluates their respective strategies of scientific reasoning. Three types of inference are introduced and applied to Galen's astrology. Finally, he concludes that the empirical side of Galen's science does not depend upon astrological methods or concepts, but that these were introduced for their rhetorical effect in presenting his new medical methodology. It is suggested that continued attention to Galen's astrology has obscured the truly important empirical scientific method that Galen developed. PMID:21879603

  15. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

  16. Galen and astrology: a Mésalliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The author examines the question of Galen's affinity with astrology, in view of Galen's extended astrological discussion in the De diebus decretoriis (Critical Days). The critical passages from Galen are examined, and shown to be superficial in understanding. The author performs a lexical sounding of Galen's corpus, using key terms with astrological valences drawn from the Critical Days, and assesses their absence in Galen's other works. He compares Galen's astrology with the astrology of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, and evaluates their respective strategies of scientific reasoning. Three types of inference are introduced and applied to Galen's astrology. Finally, he concludes that the empirical side of Galen's science does not depend upon astrological methods or concepts, but that these were introduced for their rhetorical effect in presenting his new medical methodology. It is suggested that continued attention to Galen's astrology has obscured the truly important empirical scientific method that Galen developed.

  17. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  18. William Harvey, Aristotle and Astrology

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm–microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to A...

  19. Studies of Astrology and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, I.W.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the behavioral evidence of the possible relationship between the movements of the planets and personality variables. Concludes that astrology is a science consisting primarily of false data claims and much further research is required before any supported conclusions can be reached. (Author)

  20. MedicaI Astrology in Spain During the Seventeenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra

    2006-01-01

    [EN] It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modem period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between a...

  1. The Celestial Vault: The Magic of Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, J.

    2004-11-01

    Astrology is a "Geocentric System" that supports the "Astrological Principle". This principle, that human beings and their actions are influenced by the positions of celestial objects, is not objectively supported. The "planetary gods" found in the heavens provided order to help explain the chaotic events in life on earth. Is this why many people think their horoscopes are correct, with the "stars" taking credit? Do "celestial movements" foretell the future? What is the evidence for Astrology? The historical, psychological and physical foundations of astrology will be discussed.

  2. Contribution of astrology in medicine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Prasad, P V V; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Astrology is the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). Both Ayurveda and Astrology have established a way of life in India since time immemorial. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian Holy scriptures and transmitted from generation to generation. Although both Astrology and medicine were developed as a part of religion in ancient India, astrological principles related to prevention, health care and relief from illness were applied as rituals (religious ceremonies). An astrologer gives guidance for taking medicines at suitable time for the best remedy of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and used at appropriate times for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurveda are inseparable in human life. Role of the Astrology in healthy life and pathogenesis of the disease is well known to Indians. When a physician knows etiology of the disease, he attempts to treat the disease with specific medication, diet and life style and also avoiding causative factors. In a case where a physician is unable to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and to treat, the patient depends upon Astrology. Account of good and bad deeds during this life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life which orderly, when, what and how will be clearly known through Astrology. It gives guidelines about welfare not only to human being but also to whole creation and also indicates about calamities and their solutions as possible extent. Hence a concise astrological evaluation related to prevention, health care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases is being presented in this article. PMID:19569452

  3. Contribution of astrology in medicine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Prasad, P V V; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Astrology is the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). Both Ayurveda and Astrology have established a way of life in India since time immemorial. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian Holy scriptures and transmitted from generation to generation. Although both Astrology and medicine were developed as a part of religion in ancient India, astrological principles related to prevention, health care and relief from illness were applied as rituals (religious ceremonies). An astrologer gives guidance for taking medicines at suitable time for the best remedy of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and used at appropriate times for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurveda are inseparable in human life. Role of the Astrology in healthy life and pathogenesis of the disease is well known to Indians. When a physician knows etiology of the disease, he attempts to treat the disease with specific medication, diet and life style and also avoiding causative factors. In a case where a physician is unable to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and to treat, the patient depends upon Astrology. Account of good and bad deeds during this life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life which orderly, when, what and how will be clearly known through Astrology. It gives guidelines about welfare not only to human being but also to whole creation and also indicates about calamities and their solutions as possible extent. Hence a concise astrological evaluation related to prevention, health care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases is being presented in this article.

  4. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  5. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought. PMID:24941731

  6. The astrological roots of mesmerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Franz Anton Mesmer's 1766 thesis on the influence of the planets on the human body, in which he first publicly presented his account of the harmonic forces at work in the microcosm, was substantially copied from the London physician Richard Mead's early eighteenth century tract on solar and lunar effects on the body. The relation between the two texts poses intriguing problems for the historiography of medical astrology: Mesmer's use of Mead has been taken as a sign of the Vienna physician's enlightened modernity while Mead's use of astro-meteorology has been seen as evidence of the survival of antiquated astral medicine in the eighteenth century. Two aspects of this problem are discussed. First, French critics of mesmerism in the 1780s found precedents for animal magnetism in the work of Paracelsus, Fludd and other early modern writers; in so doing, they began to develop a sophisticated history for astrology and astro-meteorology. Second, the close relations between astro-meteorology and Mead's project illustrate how the environmental medical programmes emerged. The making of a history for astrology accompanied the construction of various models of the relation between occult knowledge and its contexts in the enlightenment. PMID:20513627

  7. The astrological roots of mesmerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Franz Anton Mesmer's 1766 thesis on the influence of the planets on the human body, in which he first publicly presented his account of the harmonic forces at work in the microcosm, was substantially copied from the London physician Richard Mead's early eighteenth century tract on solar and lunar effects on the body. The relation between the two texts poses intriguing problems for the historiography of medical astrology: Mesmer's use of Mead has been taken as a sign of the Vienna physician's enlightened modernity while Mead's use of astro-meteorology has been seen as evidence of the survival of antiquated astral medicine in the eighteenth century. Two aspects of this problem are discussed. First, French critics of mesmerism in the 1780s found precedents for animal magnetism in the work of Paracelsus, Fludd and other early modern writers; in so doing, they began to develop a sophisticated history for astrology and astro-meteorology. Second, the close relations between astro-meteorology and Mead's project illustrate how the environmental medical programmes emerged. The making of a history for astrology accompanied the construction of various models of the relation between occult knowledge and its contexts in the enlightenment.

  8. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra M C

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine. There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period. PMID:18543450

  9. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra M C

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine. There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period.

  10. Horoscopes Versus Telescopes: A Focus on Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Criticizes astrology and uses student interest to help encouraging critical thinking and the scientific method. Provides some thought-provoking questions, three activities, and resource materials and a list of astronomy organizations. (YP)

  11. Inside the cosmic mind archetypal astrology and the new cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wyss, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Phoebe Wyss, an experienced astrologer, here examines all aspects of astrology in the light of the emerging worldview known as archetypal cosmology.She sets out by exploring the classical roots of astrology in sources of wisdom found in the ancient Egyptian mysteries. She then follows the tradition to modern times through C.G. Jung''s ideas on the nature of the psyche. She also discovers that the claims of astrology are entirely compatible with new cosmological thinking as envisioned by post-modern physics and chaos theory.In the second part of the book, she proposes that the mathematical basis of astrology and the components of astrological charts are both archetypal and cosmic in scope. She argues that the twelve astrological archetypes make up a single ‘cosmic mind', whose patterns are imprinted on all our individual minds.Finally, she exemplifies this radical approach to astrology through an interpretation of the chart of William Blake.

  12. ASTROLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    恋爱运:恋爱或许会出现情敌,有形成三角恋爱的可能性,无论感情如何深厚都不能掉以轻心。学业运:做事或学习的干劲十足,但是较难保持头脑清醒,宜多花时间整理过往的工作或笔记。友情运:社交运程较佳的日子,适宜结交新朋友,但是不要为初相识的异性朋友付出太多感情。忠告:能讨好自己的打扮会令你的魅力倍增,迁就别人的喜好而打扮只会吃力不讨好。

  13. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2006-12-01

    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men. PMID:17305205

  14. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  15. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  16. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2006-12-01

    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men.

  17. [Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluch, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a

  18. [Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluch, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a

  19. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  20. Why Isaac Newton Rejected Astrology: A Preliminary Reconstruction or "Newton's Comets and the Transformation of Astrology": 20 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkin, H. Darrel

    2006-01-01

    [EN] What was Isaac Newton's relationship to astrology? Unlike with bis study and practice of alchemy, there is very little evidence on which to base a well-established answer. In this preliminary investigation, I argue that Newton rejected astrology for both personal and ideological reasons. This anti-astrological valence is primarily revealed in manuscript writings related to bis mid-1680s theological tract, "The Philosophical Origins of Gentile Theology." In addition to arguing for this an...

  1. Health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of diseases in astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Subhakta, P K J P; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The whole universe is intermingling into a unit in the period of globalization. Different cultures, life-styles and sciences are co-operating with each other in this situation. World Health Organization is working towards collaborating all prevalent medical sciences for attainment of good health and family welfare for each and every individual by 2020. Astrology is a part of Indian heritage. Astrology means the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). The account of deeds of good and bad during the present life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life i.e. what, when and how the things takes place will be clearly known through Astrology. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian scriptures and the knowledge was transmitted from generation to generation. It is also a good source for health promotion, preventive, curative and other medical aspects. Brief direction related to astrological medical aspects is also available in Ayurvedic literature (Carakasamhită, Suśrutasamhhită, Aşţăngasangraha, Aşţăngahŗdaya, Sărngadharasamhită , Băvaprakăśa etc.) Some Ayurvedic practitioners, scholars and scientists realize the need of astrological knowledge related to medicine in the present time. In ancient times physician, astrologer and purŏhita (Hindu priest) simultaneously looked after the health and family welfare of individual, families and country. Astrologer guides medication and suitable time for the better cure of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and treated at appropriate time for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurvĕda are inseparable sciences of life. Hence, in this article, a concise astrological evaluation related to health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of Astrology is being presented. PMID:19580109

  2. Health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of diseases in astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Subhakta, P K J P; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The whole universe is intermingling into a unit in the period of globalization. Different cultures, life-styles and sciences are co-operating with each other in this situation. World Health Organization is working towards collaborating all prevalent medical sciences for attainment of good health and family welfare for each and every individual by 2020. Astrology is a part of Indian heritage. Astrology means the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). The account of deeds of good and bad during the present life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life i.e. what, when and how the things takes place will be clearly known through Astrology. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian scriptures and the knowledge was transmitted from generation to generation. It is also a good source for health promotion, preventive, curative and other medical aspects. Brief direction related to astrological medical aspects is also available in Ayurvedic literature (Carakasamhită, Suśrutasamhhită, Aşţăngasangraha, Aşţăngahŗdaya, Sărngadharasamhită , Băvaprakăśa etc.) Some Ayurvedic practitioners, scholars and scientists realize the need of astrological knowledge related to medicine in the present time. In ancient times physician, astrologer and purŏhita (Hindu priest) simultaneously looked after the health and family welfare of individual, families and country. Astrologer guides medication and suitable time for the better cure of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and treated at appropriate time for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurvĕda are inseparable sciences of life. Hence, in this article, a concise astrological evaluation related to health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of Astrology is being presented.

  3. Nephrology and astrology--is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S

    1990-07-01

    Astrologers presume a link between the susceptibility of particular organs to disease and signs of the Zodiac. A simple test of the positive connection between renal disease and the sign of Libra was undertaken by studying the birth dates of consecutive nephrology in-patient admissions. No significant link was found on analysis, thus disproving the traditional astrologers' claims.

  4. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, M

    1999-01-01

    Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure.

  5. Astrology and science-in response

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, MRN; Chandrashekaran, MK; Rao, Lakshmana JR

    2001-01-01

    We scientists from the scientific/academic community in the so-called ‘elite’ institutes have once again shown our customary apathy in not coming forth to preempt the UGC’s attempt to start courses in vaastushastra and astrology. Despite several newspaper reports and a clarion call given by P. Balaram in his excellent editorial (Curr. Sci., 2000, 79, 1139–1140) we were too apathetic (timid?) to challenge the UGC on this issue. The scientists in these so-called elite institutes do not really h...

  6. Self, other, and astrology: esoteric therapy in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinbanayagam, R S

    1981-02-01

    HARRY STACK SULLIVAN'S argument that anxiety as a fundamental human experience is alleviated by the use of various procedures that he called "security operations" is used in this paper to examine the meaning of astrology in Sri Lanka. Astrology and the doctrine of karma provide the relevant framework in which various forms of misfortune are understood and handled. An examination of cases in Sri Lanka reveals that astrology and the doctrine of karma enable a person of that culture to create a number of structures which have a therapeutic effect.

  7. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory. PMID:20513620

  8. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  9. 'Astronomy' or 'astrology': a brief history of an apparent confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, Alexandre

    2012-03-01

    The modern usage of the words 'astronomy' and 'astrology' is traced back to distinctions that are largely ignored in recent scholarship. Three interpretations of celestial phenomena (in a geometrical, a substantialist and a prognostic form) co-existed during the Hellenistic Period. From Plato to Isidore of Seville, the semiotic contrast is evidenced, and its later developments are sketched. The concept of astronomy is found to be rather constant and distinct from changing views about astrology.

  10. Astrology in the Era of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen the number of known exoplanets increase from a small handful to nearly 2000 known exoplanets, thousands more planet candidates, and several upcoming missions that are expected to further increase the population of known exoplanets. Beyond the strictly scientific questions that this has led to regarding planet formation and frequency, this has also led to broader questions such as the philosophical implications of life elsewhere in the universe and the future of human civilization and space exploration. One additional realm that hasn't been adequately considered, however, is that this large increase in exoplanets would also impact claims regarding astrology. In this paper we look at the distribution of planets across the sky and along the Ecliptic, as well as the current and future implications of this planet distribution.

  11. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after the Renaissance, it still remains of considerable significance in countries like China and Tibet. Astrology took on a prominent medical component in the Old Babylonian Era (1900-1600 BC when diseases were first attributed to stellar bodies and associated gods. In the Neo-Babylonian Era (6th century BC the zodiac came into being: an imaginary belt across the skies (approximately 16o wide which included the pathways of the sun, moon and planets, as perceived from earth. The zodiac belt was divided into 12 equal parts (“houses” or signs, 6 above the horizon and 6 below. The signs became associated with specific months, illnesses and body parts – later with a number of other objects like planets, minerals (e.g. stones and elements of haruspiction (soothsaying, mantic, gyromancy. In this way the stellar objects moving through a zodiac “house” became associated with a multitude of happenings on earth, including illness. The macrocosm of the universe became part of the human microcosm, and by studying the stars, planets, moon, etcetera the healer could learn about the incidence, cause, progress and treatment of disease. He could even predict the sex and physiognomy of unborn children. The art of astrology and calculations involved became very complex. The horoscope introduced by the 3rd century BC (probably with Greek input produced a measure of standardisation: a person’s position within the zodiac would be determined by the date of birth, or

  12. Astrology and other OccuIt Sciences in Seventeenth-Century New Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ávalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    [EN] This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so called occult sciences within the context of Seventeenth-Century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physio...

  13. Early-Years Educators' Attitudes to Science and Pseudo-Science: The Case of Astronomy and Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed Greek elementary teachers' attitudes toward astrology, investigating whether they could distinguish between astronomy as the science and astrology as the pseudoscience. Teacher surveys indicated that 60 percent of respondents subscribed more or less to the astrological principles, and 59 percent viewed both astronomy and astrology as…

  14. Reading the Stars of the Renaissance. Fritz Saxl and Astrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt Duits

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Fritz Saxl’s publications on astrological images from the western Middle Ages and Renaissance, from his early study on the representation of the planets (1912, via his catalogues of astrological and mythological manuscripts (1915 and 1927 and his contributions on the depiction of the children of the planets (1919, 1923, 1927 to his booklet on the astrological ceiling in the Villa Farnesina in Rome (1934. It aims to assess the importance of Saxl’s work and to show his development from a close follower of Aby Warburg to an independent theorist, with his own method and approach and his own answer to one of the central issues Warburg had raised – how the integrate the old image of the Renaissance as the revival of classical Antiquity with the new picture of the Renaissance as the birth of the modern rational world presented by Burckhardt during the nineteenth century.

  15. Inter relationship of Ayurveda and Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Jaiprakash Narayan

    2013-01-01

    In the universe all the creatures are related to Adhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Acharyas of Ayurveda like Charaka, Sushruta and Kashyap have classified diseases into various categories like Agantuja, Sharirika, Manasika, Swabhavika, etc. Charaka classified diseases based on the prognosis like Sadhya, Asadhya, Mrudu and Daruna. Ayurveda also suggested Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes of Manidharana and chanting Mantras. Astrological sciences suggest 10 types of remedial measures in the treatment of diseases. This science considers that causative factors of various disorders are the Navagrahas (nine planets). The influence of the planets on various procedures like drug processing, bath taking, performing Yajna, wearing Ratna, etc. are well documented in Jyotishashastra. Drugs processed in Chandra Nakshatra acts as ambrosia and subdues Tridoshajanya Vyadhi. Medicated baths are suggested for diseases engendered due to involvement of different planet effects viz. Sarshpa for Shukra, Haridra and Daruharidra for Shani Lodhra for Ketu, Sharpunkha for Rahu, etc. In a close scrutiny it appears that Jyotishashastra Siddhanta can play crucial role in the management of chronic diseases.

  16. Inter relationship of Ayurveda and Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Jaiprakash Narayan

    2013-01-01

    In the universe all the creatures are related to Adhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Acharyas of Ayurveda like Charaka, Sushruta and Kashyap have classified diseases into various categories like Agantuja, Sharirika, Manasika, Swabhavika, etc. Charaka classified diseases based on the prognosis like Sadhya, Asadhya, Mrudu and Daruna. Ayurveda also suggested Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes of Manidharana and chanting Mantras. Astrological sciences suggest 10 types of remedial measures in the treatment of diseases. This science considers that causative factors of various disorders are the Navagrahas (nine planets). The influence of the planets on various procedures like drug processing, bath taking, performing Yajna, wearing Ratna, etc. are well documented in Jyotishashastra. Drugs processed in Chandra Nakshatra acts as ambrosia and subdues Tridoshajanya Vyadhi. Medicated baths are suggested for diseases engendered due to involvement of different planet effects viz. Sarshpa for Shukra, Haridra and Daruharidra for Shani Lodhra for Ketu, Sharpunkha for Rahu, etc. In a close scrutiny it appears that Jyotishashastra Siddhanta can play crucial role in the management of chronic diseases. PMID:24049402

  17. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Francois P. Retief; Louise C. Cilliers

    2010-01-01

    Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after...

  18. Astrological signs and personality in Kuwaitis and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    Samples of Kuwaiti (N=460) and American (N=273) undergraduates responded to six personality questionnaires to assess optimism, pessimism, suicidal ideation, ego-grasping, death anxiety, general anxiety, and obssessive-compulsiveness. Each participant was assigned to the astrological sign associated with date of birth. One-way analyses of variance yielded nonsignificant F ratios for all the seven scales in both Kuwaiti and American samples, except for anxiety scores among Americans. It was concluded that there was little support for an association between astrological sun signs and scores on the present personality scales. PMID:16796119

  19. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André

    2015-05-01

    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  20. Using Astrology to Teach Research Methods to Introductory Psychology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…

  1. "Astronomy" or "astrology": a brief history of an apparent confusion

    CERN Document Server

    Losev, A

    2010-01-01

    The modern usage of the words astronomy and astrology is traced back to distinctions, largely ignored in recent scholarship. Three interpretations of celestial phenomena (in a geometric, a substantialist and a prognostic versions) coexisted during the Hellenistic period. From Plato to Isidore of Seville, semantic changes are evidenced and their later development is sketched.

  2. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman

    2010-06-01

    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature. PMID:20513619

  3. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman

    2010-06-01

    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature.

  4. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  5. The Assimilation of Astrology in the Tibetan Bon Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ramble, Charles

    2013-01-01

    International audience The sciences subsumed within the Tibetan category tsi (rtsis), "calculation," include calendrical reckoning and astrology (kartsi; dkar rtsis) and, secondly, elemental divination (naktsi; nag rtsis). The former is essentially based on the Kālacakra, a late tantra that was introduced from India in the twelfth century, and the latter on Chinese precedents. Although scholarly literature concerning the Tibetans' assimilation of these sciences is steadily growing, there h...

  6. Astrology in Early Modern Scotland ca. 1560-1726

    OpenAIRE

    Ridder-Patrick, Janet Harkness; Patrick, Janet Harkness Ridder

    2012-01-01

    Over the last generation scholars have demonstrated the fundamental importance of astrology in the early modern European worldview. While detailed studies have been undertaken of England and many areas of continental Europe, the Scottish experience has been almost completely overlooked. This thesis seeks to address that gap in the literature and recover a lost dimension of early modern Scottish intellectual life, one that was central and influential for a considerable period of...

  7. Astrological birth signs in suicide: hypothesis or speculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Emad

    2003-04-01

    Astrology is no longer regarded as a science by many, because its claims are almost impossible to test empirically in controlled laboratory conditions and it can not meet the scientific need to be reproducible. However, the majority of those who read their 'star signs' can identify aspects of their personality in what they read and it is possible that this may influence their attitudes and actions. The literature has neglected astrological signs as a possible predictor of suicide ideation. To see whether astrological birth signs are associated with suicide and the method used, data was collected from the Public Health Department in North Cheshire representing all the Cheshire Coroner's verdicts of suicide, and open verdicts, in all deceased aged 60 and above between 1989 and 2000. The observed occurrence of deaths due to natural causes, and suicide, in relation to birth signs did not differ significantly from what would be expected from chance. However, the distribution of suicide by hanging appeared significantly higher in those with a birth sign of Virgo and lowest in Sagittarius and Scorpio. The distribution of violent and non-violent suicides in relation to star signs showed higher occurences of violent death in persons born in the summer months. PMID:12741653

  8. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  9. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  10. Magic, astrology and music: the background to Marsilio Ficino's astrological music therapy and his role as a Renaissance magus

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is structured in four substantial chapters with subsections. The first two cover the background to Ficino's thought, the second two present his own attitudes towards magic, astrology and music. Chapter one is concerned with aspects of xnusica inundana as represented by Ficino's three main authorities, Plato, Hermes Trismegistus and Plotinus. Firstly I present the fundamental ideas underlying Ficino's mode of thought and musical practice: the structure of the cosmos, Pythagoreanhar...

  11. Instruments and demonstrations in the astrological curriculum: evidence from the University of Vienna, 1500-1530.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Darin

    2010-06-01

    Historians have used university statutes and acts to reconstruct the official astrology curriculum for students in both the arts and medical faculties, including the books studied, their order, and their relation to other texts. Statutes and acts, however, cannot offer insight into what actually happened during lectures and in the classroom: in other words, how and why astrology was taught and learned in the medieval university. This paper assumes that the astrology curriculum is better understood as the set of practices that constituted it and gave it meaning for both masters and students. It begins to reconstruct what occurred in the classroom by drawing on published and unpublished lecture notes. These offer insight into how masters presented the material as they did, and why. The paper argues three points: first, the teaching of astrology centered on demonstrations involving astrological instruments: specifically, various kinds of paper astrolabes. Second, the astrological instruction focused on conveying the pragmatics of astrology rather than esoteric, theoretical issues. Finally, astrology as it was taught in the arts curriculum was explicitly intended to provide a foundation for students who would advance to study medicine at the university. PMID:20513624

  12. Progressions, Rays and Houses in Medieval Islamic Astrology: A Mathematical Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casulleras, J.; Hogendijk, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Medieval Islamic mathematicians and astronomers developed a variety of mathematical definitions and computations of the three astrological concepts of houses, rays (or aspects) and progressions. The medieval systems for the astrological houses have been classified by J.D. North and E.S. Kennedy, and

  13. Instruments and demonstrations in the astrological curriculum: evidence from the University of Vienna, 1500-1530.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Darin

    2010-06-01

    Historians have used university statutes and acts to reconstruct the official astrology curriculum for students in both the arts and medical faculties, including the books studied, their order, and their relation to other texts. Statutes and acts, however, cannot offer insight into what actually happened during lectures and in the classroom: in other words, how and why astrology was taught and learned in the medieval university. This paper assumes that the astrology curriculum is better understood as the set of practices that constituted it and gave it meaning for both masters and students. It begins to reconstruct what occurred in the classroom by drawing on published and unpublished lecture notes. These offer insight into how masters presented the material as they did, and why. The paper argues three points: first, the teaching of astrology centered on demonstrations involving astrological instruments: specifically, various kinds of paper astrolabes. Second, the astrological instruction focused on conveying the pragmatics of astrology rather than esoteric, theoretical issues. Finally, astrology as it was taught in the arts curriculum was explicitly intended to provide a foundation for students who would advance to study medicine at the university.

  14. Notas sobre la actitud de Juan de Mena hacia la astrología a propósito del libro de Sue Lewis : Astrology and Juan de Mena 's Laberinto de Fortuna

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente García, Luis M.

    2004-01-01

    Se estudia la actitud de Juan de Mena hacia la astrología en el Laberinto de fortuna de Juan de Mena en respuesta sobre todo al trabajo de Sue Lewis: Astrology and Juan de Mena's Laberinto de Fortuna y otras interpretaciones que suponen elevados conocimientos de astrología en Mena. La actitud de Mena hacia la astrología es conservadora y consecuente con los otros modelos de dezires alegóricos. It is studied Juan de Mena's attitude towards astrology in his "Laberinto de Fo...

  15. [John Flamsteed's horoscope for laying the groundwork of Greenwich astronomy and astrology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, Günther

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the astronomical and astrological contents of a horoscope cast by John Flamsteed in 1675 for the foundation of Greenwich Observatory. So far no analysis of its astronomical contents has been made. It can be shown that the chart has been drawn correctly, as is to be expected from a competent astronomer. For calculating the planetary positions he most likely used tables issued by Johann Hecker, a pupil of Hevelius, based on Kepler's "Tabulae Rudolphinae" in 1627. The cusps of the twelve astrological houses Flamsteed calculated trigonometrically; so he used no table of houses. Flamsteed employed a method of house division (domification) which was commonly used in the 16th and 17th century and connected with the name of Johannes Regiomontanus. Positional circles joining in the north and south points of the observer's horizon are laid through distances of 30 degrees on the celestial equator, thus giving unequal sections of the ecliptic. By consulting contemporary sources for the interpretation of the chart (Ramesey's Astrologia Restaurata, 1653) it appears that the time for laying the foundation stone was well chosen from the astrological point of view. There were precursors in this practice, e.g. the Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, who was commissioned to submit an astrological report for the foundation for the Franse Wing in the Vatican in 1543, and Tycho Brahe, who performed a solemn ceremony on the island of Hven in 1576 at the laying of the foundation stone of his observatory in an astrologically propitious moment. This leads to the question whether Flamsteed believed in astrology. Michael Hunter has already given evidence that Flamsteed was indeed well-versed with astrological techniques and supplied astrologers with data. But at the same time he expressed hostility towards astrological interpretations issued frequently by different parties during Civil War in England. In an unpublished preface for Hecker's Tables (edited by Hunter) Flamsteed

  16. Ancient Astrology as a Common Root for Science and Pseudo-Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of astrology is closely interrelated with the history of astronomy. Both may be studied separately, but the result may prove one-sided and one may fail to notice things of great consequence. The history of ancient astronomy must be treated jointly with the history of astrology, whose contribution to the history of science has often been underestimated. This situation has begun to change only recently. The number of academic publications suggests that in addition to ancient philosophy, mathematics and astronomy, more and more attention is being paid to ancient astrology, which has played an important role in the history of human thought.

  17. The Church of San Miniato al Monte, Florence: Astronomical and Astrological Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.

    2011-06-01

    The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.

  18. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  19. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  20. With Weekly Astronomy Tips Against the Weekly Papers' Astrology Humbug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szécsényi-Nagy, G. A.

    2006-08-01

    The true democracy - following a long lasting monolithic political-cultural system of the so-called Peoples' Democracy -- freed the sluices in the early nineties for any absurd written idea. No really powerful newspapers or widely circulated magazines were allowed to publish any destructive astrological advice during those 40 years. Although here and there, somehow, it appeared cloaked but was unable to reach the wide public. The first signs of these unwanted changes reached our nation through the electronic media (first of all television, of course ) but very soon a whirl of everyday astrology has occupied a substantial part of almost every newspaper.This situation urges professional and amateur astronomers, astrophysicists, as well as other skeptic scientists and journalists to set their face against any ideas of pseudo-science. In our country, the most has been done by the Hungarian Astronomical Association and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society.I intend to call the attention of our colleagues from other countries and regions to these brave initiatives, and inform them on some useful steps and their first results. I also expect a vivid exchange of the opinions and strategies that can build and develop a wiser society in the over-industrialized or consuming-oriented countries

  1. Rheticus' Heliocentric Providence : a study concerning the astrology, astronomy of the sixteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Kraai, Jesse

    2000-01-01

    Rheticus' engagement with Copernicus is discussed in the light of new documents. In particular it is shown that there were strong astrological motivations behind Rheticus' acceptance of the heliocentric theory.

  2. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms. PMID:18988340

  3. Understanding the History of Astrology Accurately: Methodological Reflections on Terminology and Anachronism

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkin, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I will use two of Roger Bacon’s distinctive phrases—astronomia iudiciaria et operativa and opera et verba sapientium—to build up a picture of his distinctive configuration of the 13thcentury map of knowledge, in which mathematics, perspectiva and astrology are all utterly central. I will then explore how astrology thus configured may be used to explore Bacon’s relation to what we call science, magic and religion, although ...

  4. Ancient Astrology as a Common Root for Science and Pseudo-Science

    OpenAIRE

    Enn Kasak

    2000-01-01

    The early history of astrology is closely interrelated with the history of astronomy. Both may be studied separately, but the result may prove one-sided and one may fail to notice things of great consequence. The history of ancient astronomy must be treated jointly with the history of astrology, whose contribution to the history of science has often been underestimated. This situation has begun to change only recently. The number of academic publications suggests that in addition to an...

  5. Chapter 3: Religious Uncertainty, Astrology and the Courts in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabout, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    International audience As one of the multiple techniques intended to rationalize decision-making by reducing uncertainty, astrology is regularly sought after in India. A widely shared assumption is that important decisions as well as our day-today affairs are part of a general, divine order which, though not immediately perceptible, can be deciphered with the appropriate tools. An astrologer's advice is needed for choosing a spouse, for timing the beginning of an action and for solving a v...

  6. Copernicus's Development in Context:Politics, Astrology, Cosmology and a Prince-Bishopric

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    During the two decades before the turning point in Copernicus’s personal and scientific development in 1510, he had experience of political activity which has been largely ignored by the existing Copernicus literature but part of which is reconstructed in outline in this paper. Given the close linkage between politics and astrology, Copernicus’s likely reaction to astrology is re-examined. This reconstruction also suggests that the turning point in 1510 when Copernicus left his post as secret...

  7. INTEREST IN ASTROLOGY AND PHRENOLOGY OVER TWO CENTURIES: A GOOGLE NGRAM STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Jeremy E C

    2015-12-01

    The Google Ngram Viewer shows the frequency of words in a large corpus of books over two centuries. In this study, the names of two pseudosciences, astrology and phrenology, were compared. An interesting pattern emerged. While the level of interest in astrology remained relatively stable over the course of two centuries, interest in phrenology rose rapidly in the early 1800s but then declined. Reasons for this pattern are discussed. PMID:26595286

  8. INTEREST IN ASTROLOGY AND PHRENOLOGY OVER TWO CENTURIES: A GOOGLE NGRAM STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Jeremy E C

    2015-12-01

    The Google Ngram Viewer shows the frequency of words in a large corpus of books over two centuries. In this study, the names of two pseudosciences, astrology and phrenology, were compared. An interesting pattern emerged. While the level of interest in astrology remained relatively stable over the course of two centuries, interest in phrenology rose rapidly in the early 1800s but then declined. Reasons for this pattern are discussed.

  9. Hebrew and Latin astrology in the twelfth century: the example of the location of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Charles

    2010-06-01

    The formative period of Latin and Hebrew astrology occurred virtually simultaneously in both cultures. In the second quarter of the twelfth century the terminology of the subject was established and the textbooks which became authoritative were written. The responsibility for this lay almost entirely with two scholars: John of Seville for the Latins, and Abraham ibn Ezra for the Jews. It is unlikely to have been by coincidence that the same developments in astrology occurred in these two cultures. John of Seville and Abraham ibn Ezra were both brought up within the Islamic culture of Spain, and their astrology was Arabic astrology. Moreover, some scholars have thought that John's origins were Jewish, while Ibn Ezra is known to have collaborated with Latin scholars (whose names are not recorded). It cannot be a coincidence that they forged the science of astrology for their respect co-religionists at almost the same time. Yet, very little research has been done on the possible relations between the two scholars. The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore this relationship, and to illustrate it in particular by their shared doctrine concern the location of pain. PMID:20513618

  10. How to read Simon Forman's casebooks: medicine, astrology, and gender in Elizabethan London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, L

    1999-04-01

    Simon Forman's astrological casebooks record thousands of medical consultations. Amidst the wealth of information in these documents, however, it is unclear to what extent Forman relied on the stars for diagnoses and therapies, or how the casebooks reflect the dymanic between Forman and his clients. This article attempts to answer these questions by reading the casebooks alongside Forman's guide to astrological physic. This approach reveals that astrology was paramount in Forman's evaluations and treatments of his patients. According to Forman, in order for him to effect a cure, he had to be trusted. It was particularly difficult to treat women because their health depended on the state of their wombs, and on their sexual activity, subjects about which women were notoriously duplicitous. The task of the astrologer was first to assess whether or not a woman was sexually active, and only then could he make a judgement about her disease. At the same time, in demonstrating an ability to discern whether or not she was being honest about her sexual activities, Forman won her confidence. By accounting for the role of astrology and the dynamics between the patient and the physician, this article provides the framework within which to read one of the most comprehensive records of medical practices in early modern England.

  11. Hebrew and Latin astrology in the twelfth century: the example of the location of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Charles

    2010-06-01

    The formative period of Latin and Hebrew astrology occurred virtually simultaneously in both cultures. In the second quarter of the twelfth century the terminology of the subject was established and the textbooks which became authoritative were written. The responsibility for this lay almost entirely with two scholars: John of Seville for the Latins, and Abraham ibn Ezra for the Jews. It is unlikely to have been by coincidence that the same developments in astrology occurred in these two cultures. John of Seville and Abraham ibn Ezra were both brought up within the Islamic culture of Spain, and their astrology was Arabic astrology. Moreover, some scholars have thought that John's origins were Jewish, while Ibn Ezra is known to have collaborated with Latin scholars (whose names are not recorded). It cannot be a coincidence that they forged the science of astrology for their respect co-religionists at almost the same time. Yet, very little research has been done on the possible relations between the two scholars. The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore this relationship, and to illustrate it in particular by their shared doctrine concern the location of pain.

  12. Cosmic Thing: Astrology, Space Science, and Personal Cartography in Robert Rauschenberg's Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C. L.

    2011-06-01

    The following paper undertakes an iconographic analysis of Robert Rauschenberg's large scale print, Autobiography (1967). The artist's interest in astronomy and astrology, visual metaphors aligning the body with the cosmos, and the cartographic representation of self are discussed. Autobiography is placed in cultural and historical context with other works by the artist, elaborated as a personal narrative-an alternative to traditional self portraiture.

  13. [Pietro d'Abano and the astrological and scientific image in Padova during the XIV century: from Giotto to Carraresi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani Canova, Giordana

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to prove the incidence that scientific doctrines, mostly Pietro d'Abano's astrological and medical studies, had on Giotto's painting at the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padova and his lost astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione. It is emphasized how in no other painting of his, Giotto displayed as much intellectualism as in the Cappella degli Scrovegni. There we can note the importance of the physical representation of the sky and stars and figures' particular physiognomic characterization referable to Pietro d'Abano's theories presented in his astrological treatises and in his Compilation Phisionomiae. Even the ecceptional botanical realism displayed in the representation of plants can be probably referred to Pietro d'Abano's scientific teaching. An hypotetical reconstruction, according to Ptolomeus' theories and Pietro d'Abano's physiognomic, of Giotto's astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione is also proposed. PMID:19831240

  14. The political uses of astrology: predicting the illness and death of princes, kings and popes in the Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, Monica

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the production and circulation of astrological prognostications regarding the illness and death of kings, princes, and popes in the Italian Renaissance (ca. 1470-1630). The distribution and consumption of this type of astrological information was often closely linked to the specific political situation in which they were produced. Depending on the astrological techniques used (prorogations, interrogations, or annual revolutions), and the media in which they appeared (private letters or printed prognostica) these prognostications fulfilled different functions in the information economy of Renaissance Italy. Some were used to legitimise the rule of a political leader, others to do just the opposite. Astrological prorogations and interrogations were often used to plan military and political strategies in case of the illness or death of a political leader, while astrological prognostications were generally written to promote certain political leaders while undermining others. While certainly often partisan to this game, astrologers, for their part, worked within a very well established tradition that gave authority to their forecasts. This paper argues that, as indicators of deeper political tensions otherwise not always explicitly manifest, these prognostications are privileged sources of information providing a better understanding of the political history of the period. PMID:20513625

  15. The political uses of astrology: predicting the illness and death of princes, kings and popes in the Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, Monica

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the production and circulation of astrological prognostications regarding the illness and death of kings, princes, and popes in the Italian Renaissance (ca. 1470-1630). The distribution and consumption of this type of astrological information was often closely linked to the specific political situation in which they were produced. Depending on the astrological techniques used (prorogations, interrogations, or annual revolutions), and the media in which they appeared (private letters or printed prognostica) these prognostications fulfilled different functions in the information economy of Renaissance Italy. Some were used to legitimise the rule of a political leader, others to do just the opposite. Astrological prorogations and interrogations were often used to plan military and political strategies in case of the illness or death of a political leader, while astrological prognostications were generally written to promote certain political leaders while undermining others. While certainly often partisan to this game, astrologers, for their part, worked within a very well established tradition that gave authority to their forecasts. This paper argues that, as indicators of deeper political tensions otherwise not always explicitly manifest, these prognostications are privileged sources of information providing a better understanding of the political history of the period.

  16. Cosmografía y astrología en Manila: una red intelectual en el mundo colonial ibérico

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cecilia Ávalos Flores

    2009-01-01

    The following article will aim at reconstructing an intellectual network of people interested in both astrology and cosmography in seventeenth-century New Spain. This study will trace a particular means of transmission and dissemination of knowledge, namely the exchange of books on astrology, in order to identify a network of astrologers and cosmographers who shared a similar educational background and who had similar motivations to get interested in the so-called occult sciences. By doing s...

  17. 'Magic coins' and 'magic squares': the discovery of astrological sigils in the Oldenburg Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-09-20

    Enclosed in a 1673 letter to Henry Oldenburg were two drawings of a series of astrological sigils, coins and amulets from the collection of Strasbourg mathematician Julius Reichelt (1637-1719). As portrayals of particular medieval and early modern sigils are relatively rare, this paper will analyse the role of these medals in medieval and early modern medicine, the logic behind their perceived efficacy, and their significance in early modern astrological and cabalistic practice. I shall also demonstrate their change in status in the late seventeenth century from potent magical healing amulets tied to the mysteries of the heavens to objects kept in a cabinet for curiosos. The evolving perception of the purpose of sigils mirrored changing early modem beliefs in the occult influences of the heavens upon the body and the natural world, as well as the growing interests among virtuosi in collecting, numismatics and antiquities. PMID:19244856

  18. The Chinese "Jing Xing" of 1006: Its Identity and Astrological Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    2006-08-01

    The outburst of supernovae 1006 was one of most spectacular astronomical events in history. This event was observed in almost all civilizations. In the Song China, it was known as the appearance of a jing xing , one type of "guest stars". Based on a the descriptions given by various observers from China, Japan and Arabic world, this paper reconstructs the light curve of this supernovae. A close examination of the Chinese descriptions of its location also suggests that the remnant of this supernova might be identified with another radio source other than widely recognized "SN1006". Furthermore, this paper examines the astrological interpretations of this event given by the Chinese astronomers. It shows that such astronomical events had tremendous political implications and their astrological interpretations were shaped by political situation of the time.

  19. Taming the Prophets : Astrology, Orthodoxy and the Word of God in Early Modern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellgren, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse a displacement of the limits between allowable and illicit knowledge in the orthodox, Lutheran discourse of early modern Sweden. Focusing on the debate over astrology, exemplified in the works of Laurentius Paulinus Gothus (1565-1646) and Sigfridus Aronus Forsius (d. 1624), the thesis aims to challenge the view of how the Reformation, regarded as a preliminary stage to the Enlightenment and modern rationalism, contributed to the so-called ‘disenchantme...

  20. As Above, So Below. Astrology and the Inquisition in Seventeenth-Century New Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Defence date: 20 March 2007 Examining board: Prof. Peter Becker, Johannes-Kepler-Universität Linz, Institut für Neuere Geschichte und Zeitgeschichte (Supervisor) ; Prof. Víctor Navarro Brotons, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentación "López Piñero" (External supervisor) ; Prof. Antonella Romano, European University Institute ; Prof. Perla Chinchilla Pawling, Universidad Iberoamericana History of astrology is no longer neglected. Studies on the subject now benefit from a rich...

  1. On the Intercourse Between Indian and the Arabic/Persian Astrologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinorius, Audrius

    2015-05-01

    The history of astrology offers to its students a primary challenge: the complexity of its career in transmission from one cultural area to another and in transformation of its doctrines and methods to fit the interests and cultural circumstances of its eager recipients. The translation movement between the Indian and Arabic/Persian cultures is still rarely studied. In this paper I am discussing the relations (intellectual voyages) between Indian and Arabic/Persian astrological traditions from historical and cultural perspectives. By using the various examples from Sanskrit, Pahlavī, Arabic and Persian sources I try to display the intimate scientific exchanges, by emphasizing the field of astrology and divination, between two geographically close, but in a religious and philosophical sense, very different cultural areas. The conclusion is made that the influence of Hindu astro-sciences on Islamic culture was comparatively greater but the impact of the Islamic sciences on Hindus was no less significant. On both sides a fruitful process of enculturation and integration of technical astral concepts and applied methods took place.

  2. Vir sapiens dominabitur astris: astrological knowledge and practices in the Portuguese medieval court (king João I to king Afonso V)

    OpenAIRE

    Avelar de Carvalho, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em História Medieval The present study addresses the practice of astrology and its cultural repercussions in the 14th and 15th centuries’ Portuguese court. The research is based in the comparative study of three sets of sources: 1) the astrology books from the royal libraries, which reveal the dominant concepts of astrology; 2) the writings of kings João I and Duarte, and prince ...

  3. “Vir sapiens dominabitur astris”. Astrological knowledge and practices in the Portuguese medieval court (King João I to King Afonso V

    OpenAIRE

    Avelar de Carvalho, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the practice of astrology and its cultural repercussions in the 14th and 15th century Portuguese court. It is based in the comparative study of three sets of sources: 1) the astrology books from the royal libraries, which reveal the dominant concepts of astrology; 2) the writings of kings João I and Duarte, and prince Pedro, as examples of the practical application of these concepts; 3) the royal chronicles of Fernão Lopes; Gomes Eanes de Zurara and Rui de Pina. The compa...

  4. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  5. The stars and the state: Astronomy, astrology, and the politics of natural knowledge in early medieval Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Kristina Mairi

    This dissertation examines the social factors involved in the practices of observational astrology (Ch. tianwen, Jp. tenmon ) and calendrical astronomy (Ch. lifa, Jp. rekihō) at the Japanese court. The production and monopolization of astrological and astronomical knowledge had, from the time of the Han Dynasty in China, been part of the state bureaucracy and one of the signs of legitimate rule. In the seventh century, Japan too had imported and implemented these state sciences of the Chinese-style imperium. However, by the twelfth century, while state control of astronomical knowledge continued to operate at a surface level, within the Japanese court bureaucracy dissent and debate reigned. A number of lineages and factions cooperated or competed over astronomical and astrological facts, which resulted in a situation where there was no unified "truth" about the stars accepted by the majority of elite members of the court. The political fragmentation and factionalism that characterized the early medieval Japanese state was also to be found in knowledge about the natural world circulating at court. The major reason for this fragmentation of knowledge was the diversity of the population that produced this same knowledge, a population that did not share either a common identity or definition of practice. Astrological and astronomical knowledge was no longer produced solely by the technical bureaucrats whose offices had been established in the eighth-century Chinese-style law codes (Jp. ritsuryō)—instead, these officials contested with other legitimate but non-official purveyors of natural knowledge: Buddhist monks and court scholars and mathematicians prominent among them. Furthermore, the statements of fact produced by all three of these factions were subject to critique and revision by members of the top echelon of the court bureaucracy, the elite nobility. Clearly there were no independent professional fields of astrology or astronomy in late classical or early

  6. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are

  7. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are

  8. Magia, astrología y ocultismo entre los mineros del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio SÁNCHEZ GÓMEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Seguramente pocos temas resultarán tan gratos al homenajeado como el de la extensión de las creencias mágicas, del uso de la astrología y del ocultismo en la sociedad española de la Edad Moderna. No sólo ha tratado el problema en dos de sus obras: La Sociedad Española del Renacimiento y, de forma más extensa, en el volumen IV de su Historia de España en la Edad Moderna \\ sino que además es uno de los argumentos a los que en sus clases concede una atención preferente.

  9. Magia, astrología y ocultismo entre los mineros del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio SÁNCHEZ GÓMEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Seguramente pocos temas resultarán tan gratos al homenajeado como el de la extensión de las creencias mágicas, del uso de la astrología y del ocultismo en la sociedad española de la Edad Moderna. No sólo ha tratado el problema en dos de sus obras: La Sociedad Española del Renacimiento y, de forma más extensa, en el volumen IV de su Historia de España en la Edad Moderna sino que además es uno de los argumentos a los que en sus clases concede una atención preferente.

  10. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO's, and More: Tackling Astronomical Pseudo-science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2008-11-01

    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, these days popular astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism and intelligent design (and their denial of the age of the universe), astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the ``face'' on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We discuss some of the recent surveys of belief in pseudo-science and some ways to respond to questions about these topics. A separate resource guide to help answer questions about astronomical pseudoscience is also included in this volume.

  11. [The role of ancient astrology in preparation for a secular natural science and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Markham J

    2011-01-01

    The Persian period in the Near East (from c. 500 BCE) represented the first example of globalisation, during which advanced cultural centres from Egypt to Afghanistan were united under a single rule and common language. Paul Unschuld has drawn attention to a scientific revolution in the late first millennium BC, extending from Greece to China, from Thales to Confucius, which saw natural law replace the divine law in scientific thinking. This paper argues for new advances in astronomy as the specific motor which motivated changes in scientific thinking and influenced other branches of science, including medicine, just as the new science of astrology, which replaced divination, fundamentally changed the nature of medical prognoses. The secularisation of science was not universally accepted among ancient scholars, and the irony is that somewhat similar reservations accompanied the reception of modern quantum physics. PMID:22352132

  12. [The role of ancient astrology in preparation for a secular natural science and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Markham J

    2011-01-01

    The Persian period in the Near East (from c. 500 BCE) represented the first example of globalisation, during which advanced cultural centres from Egypt to Afghanistan were united under a single rule and common language. Paul Unschuld has drawn attention to a scientific revolution in the late first millennium BC, extending from Greece to China, from Thales to Confucius, which saw natural law replace the divine law in scientific thinking. This paper argues for new advances in astronomy as the specific motor which motivated changes in scientific thinking and influenced other branches of science, including medicine, just as the new science of astrology, which replaced divination, fundamentally changed the nature of medical prognoses. The secularisation of science was not universally accepted among ancient scholars, and the irony is that somewhat similar reservations accompanied the reception of modern quantum physics.

  13. [Diego de Cisneros and novo-Hispanic astrological and geographical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sala, M L

    1994-01-01

    The collection of geographical information about the New World which was originated during the XVI century started being organized during the XVI century started being organized and explained, in the field of medicine, towards the end of the century and continued during the earliest decades of the following. Writers in the medical profession of these days are characterized by their interest, sometimes coexisting with or alternated with the outlooks of geography of illness and astrology. Diego Cisneros is a outstanding writer of a single place of valuable work so far Known, who was born in Madrid, became a doctor at Alcala de Henares and then arrive in New Spain in 1612. His book represents the incipient baroque of the time and is a valuable contribution to the Knowledge of geography and medicine and is also a piece of art work. It contains one of the first plans of the City of Mexico and its neighbouring sites drawn ina a typical baroque style. The scientific importance of the book consists of the clearcut separation between science and belief leading to assert the freedom of Mankind to put an end to medieval astrology which imprisoned the individual. Because of his leanings towards the Alcala School he upholds the idea of the utility of science and experience linked up to objective clinical observation. Cisneros contributes through his work to the unfolding of two significant processes in the history of national culture: one relates to identity and the other one to scientific community. These pages contain an analysis of the development of his work.

  14. The Palazzo della Ragione in Padua: Representation and Communication of Art, Architecture, and Astrology of a Civic Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.

    2011-06-01

    Eight centuries of the history of art and of Padua's scientific and technological culture deposited on the stones and frescoes of its Palace of Law ("Palazzo della Ragione") make this great work of urban architecture a part of the city's collective identity. This "palimpsest", legible only to a restricted circle of specialists, should be accessible to a vaster public interested in understanding this object symbol of local culture. The project planned for interactive exploration on the web is a series of digital models, employing tomographic-endoscopic visualizations and, in future, multi-resolution images. The various models devised allow the visitor to superimpose the Palace's current conditions on the various transformations undergone over the centuries. Similarly, comparisons can be made between the astrological fresco cycle with maps of the heavens, cosmological hypotheses, ancient and contemporary astrological treatises, and the related exchange of knowledge between the Orient and the Occident.

  15. When the Chinese met the West: A Review of the Dissemination and Influence of Indian, Arabic and European Astronomy and Astrology in the Imperial China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunli

    2012-09-01

    In traditional Chinese ideology, the tianwen (Celestial Patterns) and lifa (Calendar) are important matters in the legitimization and maintenance of a regime. From very early times, astrology and astronomy became a crucial element in statecraft and establishments were always installed in the government to take care of these matters, which formed a tradition very scrupulously observed and documented by every Chinese dynasty without substantial interruption in thousands of years. A special system consisting of astrology and astronomy was developed and kept on developing on its own track. Such a long and well established tradition did not prevent China from receiving, though sometimes with reluctance and selection, arts and knowledge in astronomy and astrology from outside that might supplement and enhance the indigenous ones. This talk will give a survey on the history of the Chinese reception of astronomical and astrological knowledge from ``the West'', namely, India in the 7th to 10th centuries, Arabic area in the 13th to 15th centuries and Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries. Except tracing down the cultural impacts of the new knowledge from outside, I will concentrate on how the new knowledge was appropriated by Chinese governments, as well as by Chinese astronomers and astrologers.

  16. Science versus the stars: a double-blind test of the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and computer-generated astrological natal charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Alyssa Jayne; Vyse, Stuart

    2008-07-01

    The authors asked 52 college students (38 women, 14 men, M age = 19.3 years, SD = 1.3 years) to identify their personality summaries by using a computer-generated astrological natal chart when presented with 1 true summary and 1 bogus one. Similarly, the authors asked participants to identify their true personality profile from real and bogus summaries that the authors derived from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae, 1985). Participants identified their real NEO-FFI profiles at a greater-than-chance level but were unable to identify their real astrological summaries. The authors observed a P. T. Barnum effect in the accuracy ratings of both psychological and astrological measures but did not find differences between the odd-numbered (i.e., favorable) signs and the even-numbered (i.e., unfavorable) signs.

  17. Science versus the stars: a double-blind test of the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and computer-generated astrological natal charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Alyssa Jayne; Vyse, Stuart

    2008-07-01

    The authors asked 52 college students (38 women, 14 men, M age = 19.3 years, SD = 1.3 years) to identify their personality summaries by using a computer-generated astrological natal chart when presented with 1 true summary and 1 bogus one. Similarly, the authors asked participants to identify their true personality profile from real and bogus summaries that the authors derived from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae, 1985). Participants identified their real NEO-FFI profiles at a greater-than-chance level but were unable to identify their real astrological summaries. The authors observed a P. T. Barnum effect in the accuracy ratings of both psychological and astrological measures but did not find differences between the odd-numbered (i.e., favorable) signs and the even-numbered (i.e., unfavorable) signs. PMID:18649494

  18. Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing "hoax"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, Philip C.

    2002-02-01

    Advance praise for Philip Plait s Bad Astronomy "Bad Astronomy is just plain good! Philip Plait clears up every misconception on astronomy and space you never knew you suffered from." --Stephen Maran, Author of Astronomy for Dummies and editor of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia "Thank the cosmos for the bundle of star stuff named Philip Plait, who is the world s leading consumer advocate for quality science in space and on Earth. This important contribution to science will rest firmly on my reference library shelf, ready for easy access the next time an astrologer calls." --Dr. Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist for Scientific American, and author of The Borderlands of Science "Philip Plait has given us a readable, erudite, informative, useful, and entertaining book. Bad Astronomy is Good Science. Very good science..." --James "The Amazing" Randi, President, James Randi Educational Foundation, and author of An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural "Bad Astronomy is a fun read. Plait is wonderfully witty and educational as he debunks the myths, legends, and 'conspiracies that abound in our society. 'The Truth Is Out There' and it's in this book. I loved it!" --Mike Mullane, Space Shuttle astronaut and author of Do Your Ears Pop in Space?

  19. An Application of the Cosmologic Concepts and Astronomical Symbols in the Ancient Medical Science and Astrology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikichyan, H. V.

    2015-07-01

    Employing the cosmologic concepts and astronomical symbols, the features of the ancient subjective approach of the achievement or perception of the knowledge and its systematic delivery ways are presented. In particular, the ancient systems of the natural medical science and the art of astrology are discussed, whereas the relations of the five cosmological elements, three dynamical agents, nine luminaries and twelve zodiac signs are applied. It is pointed out some misunderstandings encountered in the contemporary interpretation on the evaluation of ancient systems of the knowledge.

  20. The Thinking Features and Significance of Astrology in Zuozhuan%论《左传》星占的思维特征及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全志

    2011-01-01

    《左传》载录了众多的星占事例,考察人事预言的星占,可以发现古人构建天象与人事关联时所用的五种粘连方式。此外,在充满浓厚巫术思维和神性权力的星占中,理性因素仍有所闪现。《左传》在记述这些星占事例时,其初衷并不是如后人所言的"其失也诬"或"左氏好预言",而是有着深层次的历史语境和心理动机。%Zuozhuan records various astrological instances and investigates astrology in prophecy of personal affairs,discovering five adhesive ways used in constructing the association between astronomical phenomena and personal affairs.Besides,in astrology full of witchcraft thinking and divine power,rational factors still function.The original intention of Zuozhuan in recording astrological instances has its profound historical context and psychological motivation instead of later generations' assumption.

  1. Métodos para determinar las casas del horóscopo en la astrología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casulleras, Josep

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper revises the different methods of computation devised by Medieval Arabic astronomers and mathematicians for the astrological practice of the division of houses. Starting from a classification of these methods established by J.D. North (1986 and extended by E.S. Kennedy (1996, I summarize the available information contained in previous studies and present new data emerging from the analysis of more recently explored sources, emphasizing certain features of a Western astrological tradition.

    Este trabajo repasa los distintos métodos de cálculo que los astrónomos y matemáticos árabes medievales desarrollaron para ser aplicados a la práctica astrológica de la división de casas. Partiendo de una clasificación de estos métodos establecida por J.D. North (1986 y ampliada por E.S. Kennedy (1996, se recoge la información que se halla en estudios anteriores y se presentan nuevos datos como resultado del análisis de fuentes exploradas más recientemente, destacando ciertos elementos pertenecientes a una tradición astrológica occcidental.

  2. Cosmografía y astrología en Manila: una red intelectual en el mundo colonial ibérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Ávalos Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article will aim at reconstructing an intellectual network of people interested in both astrology and cosmography in seventeenth-century New Spain. This study will trace a particular means of transmission and dissemination of knowledge, namely the exchange of books on astrology, in order to identify a network of astrologers and cosmographers who shared a similar educational background and who had similar motivations to get interested in the so-called occult sciences. By doing so, this research will reflect on the problem of disciplinary boundaries during the early modern-period, and on the question of transmission of knowledge in the Iberian World.//El presente artículo tiene como objeto de estudio dos campos del conocimiento que estuvieron estrechamente relacionados durante el período moderno: la astrología y la cosmografía. Al estudiar algunos casos inquisitoriales contra ciertos cosmógrafos en Filipinas, acusados de practicar astrología juidiciaria, pretende reconstruir una red intelectual de estudiosos que compartían una tradición educativa y perseguían intereses profesionales similares. En su intento por rastrear esta microcomunidad intelectual, el presente estudio subraya la importancia de la transmisión y circulación del conocimiento, tanto a un nivel abstracto como material, no sólo entre el reino español y sus colonias en el Nuevo Mundo, sino también al interior de las colonias mismas.

  3. Astrólogos y astrología al servicio de la monarquía navarra durante la Baja Edad Media (1350-1446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Larráyoz, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a general view on astrologers who served at the courts of Carlos II, Carlos III and Blanca I of Navarre. This was a position that combined the foretelling of future events with the medical practice of the moment. Despite the prestige that astrologers seem to achieve, this position was never held long term except in some concrete cases.

    El artículo presenta una visión general de los astrólogos que sirvieron en la corte de Carlos II, Carlos III y Blanca I de Navarra. Un cargo cortesano que unía la adivinación de hechos futuros con la práctica médica del momento. Pese al prestigio que parecen alcanzar, no resulta una ocupación con cierta continuidad, salvo en casos muy concretos.

  4. The certitude of astrology: The scientific methodology of Al-Qabīsī and Abū Ma'shar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Abū Ma'shar (787-886) and al-Qābīsī (mid-10th century) were active astrologers and defenders of the scientific character of their discipline. They wrote works on criticisms brought forward against the discipline and challenged practitioners whom they considered as detrimental for the esteem and future fate of their science. Nevertheless, both writers can be seen as heirs to a single tradition of thought, which took its origins in Ptolemy's Tetrabiblios and developed largely independently of the religious philosophical beliefs of a specific community. The arguments developed for proving the scientific value of astrology are interesting in their own right, and merit further study not only by historians of science but also by historians of philosophy.

  5. An empirical study of some astrological factors in relation to dog behaviour differences by statistical analysis and compared with human characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    FUZEAU-BRAESCH, Suzel; Denis, Jean-Baptiste

    2007-01-01

    A survey of 500 pedigree dogs was carried out in the Paris region. For each dog, six behavioural traits were determined and ten of their astrological traits were retained. A statistical interpretation of the possible relationships between the two sets of traits was performed based on permutation tests. Two strong associations were detected between the angular positions of Jupiter and the Sun, and the extraversion dominant trait. There were indications of other associations. ...

  6. The Altdorf mathematics and physics teacher Abdias Trew (1597-1669): astronomer, astrologer, calendar maker and theologician. (German Title: Der Altdorfer Mathematik- und Physikdozent Abdias Trew (1597-1669): Astronom, Astrologe, Kalendermacher und Theologe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, Hans

    Although Abdias Trew (1597-1669) had studied theology, he obtained the chair of mathematics at Altdorf University, and in 1650, the chair of physics was added. In 1654, in addition, he became the ast official calendar maker of the city of Nuremberg. He is kept in memory as the last important protestant astrologer who tried to provide scientific foundations for this field. In this context, his adherence to the Lutheran confession played a role. Although he aimed at integrating new insights, he adhered to his end to Aristotelian physics, since it served his Wittenberg professors since his student days as a foundation of Lutheran dogmatics. After an extensive biography, separate chapters deal with Trew's works in mathematics, geography, optics, mechanics and musical theory, his writings in astronomy, especially those dealing with comets, as well as his “reformation astrology” in connection with the opinions of Melanchthon, Kepler and others. Trew also took part in the discussions about the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, which was going on during the whole 17th century. After short biographical sketches of some of his contemporaries, the book closes with an extensive bibliography of Trew's writings, manuscripts and letters.

  7. 星象学的人格心理研究%A Research on Personality Psychology in Astrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宣如; 孔克勤

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1引言 星象学(ASTROLOGY),是一门古老的方术.在一书中,艾森克和Nias(1982)将星象学定义为"对人们所相信的个体出生时行星的位置与他的人格、发展、职业、婚姻及普通的生活事件之间的联系的研究"[1].星象学基于星象学意义上的黄道带、行星及其他特征,对不同个体的人格特质进行描述,但它并未解释为什么特定的星座与特定的人格描述相联系,或者这些描述经由何种途径推断而来.星象学在古代影响深远,但到了17世纪末,随着日心说的确立和近代科学的兴起,星象学失去了科学上的支持,逐渐走向衰落.

  8. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice

    2010-06-01

    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium. PMID:20513621

  9. Astro-Medicine. Astrology and Medicine, East and West, éd. Anna Akasoy, Charles Burnett et Ronit Yoeli-Tlalin

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    Le volume Astro-Medicine. Astrology and Medicine, East and West, édité par A. Akasoy, C. Burnett et R. Yoeli-Tlalin, nous présente les Actes d’un Colloque organisé par le Projet de recherche AHRC « Islam and Tibet : Cultural Interactions (8th-17th Centuries) » en 2005. Le but de ce Colloque et, plus généralement, du Projet de Recherche « Islam and Tibet » était celui d’examiner en profondeur les modalités d’interaction entre les cultures occidentale et orientale dans une perspective qui allai...

  10. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice

    2010-06-01

    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.

  11. From medical astrology to medical astronomy: sol-lunar and planetary theories of disease in British medicine, c. 1700-1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M

    2000-03-01

    After 1700, astrology lost the respect it once commanded in medical circles. But the belief that the heavens influenced bodily health persisted - even in learned medicine - until well into the nineteenth century. The continuing vitality of these ideas owed much to the new empirical and mechanical outlook of their proponents. Taking their cue from the work of Robert Boyle and Richard Mead, a number of British practitioners amassed statistical evidence which purported to prove the influence of the Moon upon fevers and other diseases. Such ideas flourished in the colonies and in the medical services of the armed forces, but their exponents were not marginal men. Some, like James Lind, were widely respected and drew support for their views from such influential figures as Erasmus Darwin.

  12. Astrology February星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希梦

    2014-01-01

    水瓶座又称宝瓶座,星座符号象征着水和空气波,具象与抽象并存。从有关水瓶座的神话中,就可看出它爱好自由的特征,看似有规见律却让人难以捉摸,是一个多变而不可预测的星座。文/胡希梦水瓶座1.20~2.18水瓶座本月活力十足,火星和太阳产生的助力将运势大幅拉动,让你的交际能力得到明显提升。应多与人交流,多出席聚会,良好沟通会带来好运。本月星运:★★★★爱情:有伴侣的你与另一半进入了平稳期,日子看似平淡,其实是有了默契。单身的你还没有遇到心仪的那个人。财运:本月水瓶座的财运一般,

  13. Astrology December星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵

    2011-01-01

    爱宠非凡转变,让"唯优"来实现!天生崇尚自由的射手座喜欢无拘无束的生活,即知即行的个性让他们经常会有冲动的表现。Sagittarius射手座11.23~12.21射手座主人星运本月工作方面虽然很忙碌,但工作气氛轻松愉快,对于事业有积极的态度,斗志旺盛。始终保持勇往直前的冲劲。射手座狗狗星运本月射手座狗狗的身体会出现一些小状况,主人要时刻留意,用唯优营养液给它补充一些营养吧!

  14. Astrology July星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mafalda; 小豆

    2011-01-01

    巨蟹座的狗狗一直都给人精力充沛爱心洋溢的感觉,但到了本月,似乎运势稍有改变,小焦虑与小疲惫轮番登场,改善这一切,离不开唯优的帮忙!Cancer巨蟹座6.22~7.22巨蟹座主人星运上半月会很忙碌,但有些事情会适得其反。感情上也会出现小烦恼,甚至发生纠纷,但这一切都会在月中结束,稳定下来。

  15. Astrology January星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵

    2012-01-01

    爱宠非凡转变,让"唯优"来实现!拥有执著个性的摩羯座狗狗,虽然属于埋头苦干的实践派,但是对于生活细节方面十分谨慎小心,是个不折不扣的现实主义者。

  16. Astrology June星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mafalda; 小豆

    2011-01-01

    迎来最佳拍档双子座的月份,所有双子座狗狗都是非常具有配合度的,如果你想拥有一只非凡本领的狗狗,记住挑选时问好,是不是双子座哟!Cemimi双子座5.21~6.21双子座主人星运社交活动非常丰富的一个月,中旬会有一次与工作有关的"疾风骤雨",因为自己能量不足所以会感到很疲惫。双子座狗狗星运由于忙碌,主人会疏于管理家中狗狗,如果对狗狗饮食不能进行细致照料,可以每日给狗狗一点唯优营养液,增强狗狗自身免疫力。

  17. Astrology October星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UselessKPI

    2014-01-01

    白羊座3.21~4.19也许一件事情会让你的情绪突然爆发,甚至做出一些大胆的举动。别担心,这不会对你有太多影响,反而会让你轻松下来。本月星运:★★★爱情:容易对对方产生质疑或者感情不和,大胆说出你的想法并且去解决问题,不要踌躇和猜忌,有问题及时处理。

  18. Study of Celestial Figures in Sign of The Zodiac in the Comprehensive Reference to Rules in Ibn Hibinta's Manuscript of Astrology (Al-Mughni Fi Ahkam Al- Nujum دراسة الصُّور السَّماوية في مخطوط

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Chalhoub

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Various astronomy subjects arose from scientific, social, and religious circumstances which were ruling in Islamic Arabic Civilized Age. These circumstances played basic role in directing this science and branching it into suitable branches. One of the plenty subjects which this science discuss it in Islamic, Arabic civilization is planet figure science which describe celestial figure and pinpoint the location of stars in length and width. The importance of this research comes out that it will study the relation between this branch of astrology's branches and astronomy through studying celestial figures in sign of the zodiac in the Comprehensive Reference to Rules in Ibn Hibinta's Manuscript of Astrology (Al-Mughni Fi Ahkam Al- Nujum to support studied Arabic astrological texts which is till nowadays still very few.

  19. The Scientific Test on Western Astrology in Twentieth Century%20世纪对西方占星术的科学检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彤

    2005-01-01

    20世纪,一些学者和科学家试图用已有的科学理论和哲学分析将西方占星术(astrology)①排除在科学之外,但真正让西方占星术目前仍没能走入主流科学里的,却是近30年来的几百个对占星术有效性的科学检验.今天从哲学上看,无论是证伪主义所表述的科学是理性的,还是历史主义所表述的科学是非理性的都一致地把占星术拒斥在科学之外.占星术之所以又会在大众中盛行起来,是缘于在20世纪初人们开始对科学万能发生质疑,同时对主要是涉及精神领域的占星术,至今仍没有能很好替代它的科学学科,正如化学、核物理学可以很好地替代炼金术那样.

  20. The Milky Way and the Development of Astrology in Ancient China%银河与中国古代占星术的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董涛

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way was imagined as a river in the sky in ancient China, which is imagined to have the characteristics of water and therefore closely linked in divination with water of the five elements, thus giving rise to the more complex astrological system. However, with the advance in observation technology, people have a more profound understanding of the distribution and operation of stars, and have started constructing bridges according to the stars in the Milky Way through imagination, and thus predict people's weal and woe.%银河是人们想象中的天河,作为一条想象的河流它也具有水的特性,因而在占卜预测术中与五行水紧密相连,并由此衍伸出较为复杂的数术体系。然而随着观测技术的进步,人们对星辰分布和运行有了更深刻的认识,开始根据星象在天河上构造出津桥关梁等建筑,并以此预测人事吉凶祸福。

  1. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO'S, and More: A Guide for Those Involved with IYA on Tackling Pseudo-science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Bobrowsky, M.; Thaller, M.; Plait, P.

    2008-05-01

    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism, intelligent design, astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the "face" on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We cover information, techniques, resources, and activities for responding sensitively to such claims and for explaining the nature of science. Whether you do programs in a formal classroom, a community setting, a museum, or on the radio, you will need this kind of arsenal of critical-thinking responses for these topics when you face the public. Attendees will receive a resource guide for responding to pseudo-science claims. One of the frequently heard attacks on science deals with "alternatives to evolution" (intelligent design and various forms of creationism). While some think this is a matter with which only biologists need to be concerned, some of the same arguments used against biological evolution are invoked to argue against our understanding of the age of the earth and the universe. We will provide background information on and responses to these ideas, particularly as they concern attacks on cosmology and cosmic evolution. We will also discuss how such questions will give IYA presenters an opportunity to engage the public in discussions about the scientific method and worldview. We will see that some of the agendas and issues we face are not that different from what Galileo faced 400 years ago.

  2. 由《史记·天官书>看上古社会的星占学思想%The Ideology of Astrology of the Ancient Society in The Biography of Astronomical Officials in the Records of the Grand Historian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继宁

    2014-01-01

    The Biography of Astronomical Officials in the Records of History is the earliest encyclopedia in astronomy handed down from ancient China , and it is a special work summarizing the ideology of astrology of the ancient society .Although astrology is not a science, through The Biography of Astronomical Officials we can have a glance at the theoretical bases and the principles of astrology in the ancient society .The theoretical bases are the harmony of man and nature and the theory of Yin and Yang and five el -ements.The principles are practicing divination on abnormalities , association and comparison , and the concentration on virtues . Therefore , it is of great significance to the study and research of the history of religion , the history of philosophy , the history of poli-tics and the history of culture of ancient China .%《史记·天官书》是我国传世的最早的天文学百科全书,也是一部对上古社会星占学思想予以总结的专书。尽管星占学是非科学的,但透过《天官书》,我们可以一窥上古社会星占学思想的理论基础和星占原则。其理论基础即天人合一观和阴阳五行说。其星占原则即“过度乃占”的原则、联想比拟的原则和关注“德”的原则。由此,对于我国上古社会的宗教史、思想史、政治史和文化史等的考察和研究具有重要意义。

  3. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  4. Astrology in the Era of Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen the number of known exoplanets increase from a small handful to nearly 2000 known exoplanets, thousands more planet candidates, and several upcoming missions that are expected to further increase the population of known exoplanets. Beyond the strictly scientific questions that this has led to regarding planet formation and frequency, this has also led to broader questions such as the philosophical implications of life elsewhere in the universe and the future of ...

  5. Sin and Flaws in Kerala Temple Astrology

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabout, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Indian concepts for which the terms 'sin' and 'expiation' are regularly given are respectively pāpa and prāyaścitta (Skt.). They are often associated with the notion of karma: briefly said, the misfortune which one experiences may be explained as being the consequence of one's own acts committed in a previous life and those past actions are termed 'sinful' in English translations. A 'sinner' may however alleviate to some extent the consequences of his 'sins' by practicing 'expiations'. Put in...

  6. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  7. Psychic Powers, Astrology & Creationism in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, Raymond A.; Dunn, Dana

    1990-01-01

    Examined is the extent to which teachers actually hold pseudoscientific beliefs. Described are the study design, sources of pseudoscientific belief, and correlates with various types of pseudoscientific beliefs. Results indicate that many high school biology and life science teachers endorse these beliefs. Implications of this study are discussed.…

  8. La Urŷūza de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl y su comentario por Ibn Qunfuḏ: astrología e historia en el Magrib en los siglos XI y XIV (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsó, Julio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick revision of the available information on the life and works of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl (fl. Tunis ca. 996-1048 and an analysis of the contents of his Urjūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm which are compared to those of his better known Kitāb al- Barī‘ fī aḥkām al-nujūm. The conclusion is that both works are independent and that the Urjūza is not a summary of the Barī‘. The paper continues with biobibliographical data of the historian, mathematician and astrologer Ibn Qunfudh al-Qusanṭīnī (1339-1407, who is the author of a commentary of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s Urjūza dedicated to Abū Bakr b. Abī Mujāhid Gazī Ibn al-Kās, vizier of the Merinid sultans Abū Fāris (1366-1372 and Abū Zayyān (1372-1374. The work was probably written during the latter’s brief reign and before 1375, the date in which the dedicatee was exiled to Majorca. The work continues with an analysis of the contents of the commentary, the sources quoted, the astrological techniques used both by Ibn Qunfudh and by Ibn Abī l-Rijāl, and the use by the commentator of a set of astronomical tables derived from the zīj of Ibn Isḥāq. We find, finally, a detailed commentary of the horoscopes contained in Ibn Qunfudh’s work which includes one corresponding to the vernal equinox of the year 571 AD, in which there was a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter which announced the arrival of Islam. There are eleven more horoscopes (two of them published previously which constitute an astrological history of Merinid Morocco between 1348 and 1366. Concerning the nine horoscopes analysed here, in six of them it has been possible to identify the subject or the event motivating the prediction, while three remain unidentified.

    Tras una rápida revisión de los escasos datos conocidos sobre la vida y la obra de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl (fl. Túnez c. 996-1048, se analiza el contenido de su Urŷūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm compar

  9. Al-Qabisi (Alcabitus), The Introduction to Astrology

    OpenAIRE

    Lejbowicz, Max

    2008-01-01

    Avec une constance remarquable, Charles Burnett et ses associés poursuivent l’édition et la traduction anglaise de traités d’astrologie rédigés en arabe et traduits en latin au XIIe siècle. Après Abū Ma‘šar et Adélard de Bath, puis Hermann de Carinthie et Jean de Séville, et après al-Kindī et un anonyme latin sans oublier les deux versions hébraïques, l’une de Kalonymus b. Kalonymus et l’autre d’un anonyme, voici al-Qabīsī et, à nouveau, Jean de Séville. L’ouvrage al-Qabīsī est un manuel d’in...

  10. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  11. THE EFFECT OF ASTROLOGY ON YOUNG CUSTOMER BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Gulmez Mustafa; Kitapci Olgun; Dortyol Ibrahim Taylan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of date-of-birth on consumption behaviors of young people. A face-to-face interview survey is conducted to collect data. SPSS 18.0 for Windows was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies, ANOVA tests and Chi-square tests were calculated. The findings pointed out that the young consumers on fire group (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) take more instant and impulsive purchase actions. It is a new study about ...

  12. Astrology in Introductory Astronomy Courses for Nonscience Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilik, Michael, II

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of a horoscope-casting laboratory exercise in the astronomy course. Indicates that students can fulfill three objectives: (1) summarize the planetary motions in the geometric universe, (2) be familiar with sidereal and solar time, and (3) be acquainted with the uses ephemerides. (CC)

  13. 星象与我们%Astrology and us

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翀

    2004-01-01

    @@ 占星迷笃信星座决定命运 玛蒂娜·诺伊格鲍尔36岁,面容姣好,她自认为是一个"典型的处女座的人".对她而言,生活的一切都很美满,惟一的不足是她的爱情--至今仍单身一人.

  14. Astrology and Astronomy:From Conjunction to Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunth, D.

    2009-02-01

    A theory is not some hunch, or half-baked idea that you come up with while taking a shower, or being under the influence of something or other. A theory, as scientists understand the meaning of the word, is a scientifically tested principle or body of principles that incorporates and explains a significant body of evidence.

  15. Kepler's cosmological synthesis astrology, mechanism and the soul

    CERN Document Server

    Boner, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Spanning the course of his career, this book brings new light to Kepler's vitalistic views and their central place in his world picture. It challenges our view of Kepler as a nascent mechanical philosopher who fell back on an older form of physics.

  16. 唐五代官方星占中的星官占卜%Astrological Officials in Official Astrology in Tang and the Five Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贞

    2006-01-01

    基于天上星官与人间社会的对应关系而建立起来的星官占卜是唐五代官方星占的重要方式,它是通过预言的形式而对灾祸降临的具体人物和事件给予大致性的落实和确定,因而对帝王政治具有极其特殊的影响.

  17. [Paracelsianism, astrology and medical ethics in the polemical writings of Tommaso Bovio (1521-1609)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondio, Mariacarla Gadebusch

    2004-01-01

    Tommaso Bovio was a representative of North Italian non-academic medicine in the early modern period. His "dialogues", published in the second half of the 16th century, were written in the Italian vernacular and enjoyed a certain popularity also in Germany. Although Bovio used to exaggerate for rhetorical effect, his portrayal of patients, illness and treatments provides interesting insights into everyday urban life in his time. Sympathising with Paracelsus, Bovio propagated an image of empirics as humanitarians and fought for the recognition of his own practical knowledge and skills. Bovio was a most original figure in the medicine of the period of counter reformation. His writings exemplify the lively debate between the learned medical tradition and unorthodox reform. PMID:15015853

  18. [On the astrology and computation in the 12th century: new unpublished manuscripts ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Irene

    2012-01-01

    This article examines three so far unknown lemmatic commentaries on computus and on astrolabe topics, which are to be found in MS Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. math. 4 degrees 33 (second half of the twelfth-century). The commentaries are on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus, on the 'De mensura astrolabii' by Hermann of Reichenau, and on the 'De utilitatibus astrolabii', which is sometimes attributed to Gerbert of Aurillac. No commentaries on the respective treatises have previously been identified as such. The commentaries of the Stuttgart manuscript are of special interest in that they allow us to understand how a twelfth-century scholar read works on computus and the astrolabe, namely works that date back to the eleventh century. Their author remains anonymous, but in all probability he wrote his commentary on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus either in 1143 or in 1150. An appendix to the article includes transcriptions of the introductory texts on the computus and on the astrolabe as well as the beginnings of the commentaries. PMID:23155756

  19. Como es arriba es abajo: Simbolismo de los astros en Hermetismo y astrología

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar, Susana

    2016-01-01

    La cultura forma nuestra cosmovisio¿n de la realidad. Actualmente nuestra cultura esta¿ repleta de si¿mbolos e ima¿genes que de forma silenciosa transmiten sus mensajes a nuestro inconsciente. Entre todos compartimos una visio¿n global, ya que todos somos ba¿sicamente lo mismo: Seres humanos. Nuestra psique inconsciente presenta unos arquetipos que son presentes en todo el mundo, formando lo que se conoce como inconsciente colectivo. Mirando atra¿s en la historia nos damos cuenta que mucho...

  20. "The Sky's Things", |xam Bushman 'Astrological Mythology' as recorded in the Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    The Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts are an extraordinary resource that comprises some 12 000 pages of |xam Bushman beliefs collected in the 1870s in Cape Town, South Africa. About 17% of the collection concerns beliefs and observations of celestial bodies. This paper summarises |xam knowledge about the origins of the celestial bodies as recorded in the manuscripts and situates this within the larger context of the |xam worldview. The stars and planets originate from a mythological past in which they lived as 'people' who hunted and gathered as the |xam did in the past, but who also had characteristics that were to make them the entities that we recognise today. Certain astronomical bodies have consciousness and supernatural potency. They exert an influence over people's everyday lives.

  1. [On the astrology and computation in the 12th century: new unpublished manuscripts ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Irene

    2012-01-01

    This article examines three so far unknown lemmatic commentaries on computus and on astrolabe topics, which are to be found in MS Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. math. 4 degrees 33 (second half of the twelfth-century). The commentaries are on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus, on the 'De mensura astrolabii' by Hermann of Reichenau, and on the 'De utilitatibus astrolabii', which is sometimes attributed to Gerbert of Aurillac. No commentaries on the respective treatises have previously been identified as such. The commentaries of the Stuttgart manuscript are of special interest in that they allow us to understand how a twelfth-century scholar read works on computus and the astrolabe, namely works that date back to the eleventh century. Their author remains anonymous, but in all probability he wrote his commentary on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus either in 1143 or in 1150. An appendix to the article includes transcriptions of the introductory texts on the computus and on the astrolabe as well as the beginnings of the commentaries.

  2. Astrology 11月将爱情进行到底!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋卉; 尹川

    2009-01-01

    狗狗的世界里,没有爱情小说,没有爱情电影,可是它们却拥有最真实的情感表达。不管这个月爱情运势如何,它都以不到黄河不死心的坚定信念,抱得美狗归。

  3. The Context of Demarcation in Nature of Science Teaching: The Case of Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Halil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of developing students' understanding of the nature of science [NOS] has been considered an important aspect of science education. However, the results of previous research indicate that students of various ages and even teachers possess both inaccurate and inappropriate views of the NOS. Such a failure has been explained by the view that…

  4. [Paracelsianism, astrology and medical ethics in the polemical writings of Tommaso Bovio (1521-1609)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondio, Mariacarla Gadebusch

    2004-01-01

    Tommaso Bovio was a representative of North Italian non-academic medicine in the early modern period. His "dialogues", published in the second half of the 16th century, were written in the Italian vernacular and enjoyed a certain popularity also in Germany. Although Bovio used to exaggerate for rhetorical effect, his portrayal of patients, illness and treatments provides interesting insights into everyday urban life in his time. Sympathising with Paracelsus, Bovio propagated an image of empirics as humanitarians and fought for the recognition of his own practical knowledge and skills. Bovio was a most original figure in the medicine of the period of counter reformation. His writings exemplify the lively debate between the learned medical tradition and unorthodox reform.

  5. Kaipule and astrology%开普勒与占星术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海鹏

    2008-01-01

    开普勒作为一代科学巨匠,由于受社会条件所限,跟当时社会上颇为流行的占星术亦有千丝万缕的联系,本文就他们的联系做一简要介绍,以期大家对开普勒有更全面的了解.

  6. Chinese Zodiac and Western Astrology%生肖与星座

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾绍强; 安铁; 吕胜中; CorbisImaginechina

    2004-01-01

    每个中国人的生命表象背后.都隐藏着一个与己相关的生灵.这就是十二生肖:而星座作为西方文化的一部分.近年也引起许多人的兴趣:生肖和星座对于我们到底意味着什么呢?

  7. Fission track astrology of three Apollo 14 gas-rich breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.; Shirck, J.; Sun, S.; Walker, R.

    1973-01-01

    The three Apollo 14 breccias 14301, 14313, and 14318 all show fission xenon due to the decay of Pu-244. To investigate possible in situ production of the fission gas, an analysis was made of the U-distribution in these three breccias. The major amount of the U lies in glass clasts and in matrix material and no more than 25% occurs in distinct high-U minerals. The U-distribution of each breccia is discussed in detail. Whitlockite grains in breccias 14301 and 14318 found with the U-mapping were etched and analyzed for fission tracks. The excess track densities are much smaller than indicated by the Xe-excess. Because of a preirradiation history documented by very high track densities in feldspar grains, however, it is impossible to attribute the excess tracks to the decay of Pu-244. A modified track method has been developed for measuring average U-concentrations in samples containing a heterogeneous distribution of U in the form of small high-U minerals. The method is briefly discussed, and results for the rocks 14301, 14313, 14318, 68815, 15595, and the soil 64421 are given.

  8. Dealing with Astrology, UFOs, and Faces on Other Worlds: A Guide to Addressing Astronomical Pseudoscience in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    Increasing media and student interest in pseudoscience topics such as alien abductions, crop circles, and creationism is forcing astronomy instructors to confront questions for which their graduate training has not prepared them. Yet students have a right to hear a more considered response to their questions in these areas than mere scoffing from those who teach them science. To assist instructors who want to help their students develop better critical thinking skills related to astronomical pseudoscience, a range of ideas and resources is listed in this guide.

  9. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology June星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希梦; 熊喵

    2012-01-01

    来无影、去无踪、心神不定、脚步不停,这便是多变的双子座。双子座的主要性格特征就是无拘无束。本月星座形象狗:博美犬本月小红花:双子座、摩羯座本月小黑叉:狮子座、双鱼座动力十足的双子座狗狗夏日的到来带给你无尽的出游欲望,快让唯优营养液给你增加活力把!

  10. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology August星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 小豆

    2011-01-01

    拥有王者气质的狮子座狗狗,天生都是破坏分子,热情奔放、个性十足,"王子"是它,"恶魔"也是它。Leo狮子座7.23~8.22狮子座主人星运工作中将出现一些压力,会感到疲惫和繁忙,但要忍耐和坚持,真正追求的目标就会实现。注意放松身

  11. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology May星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿晓蒙; 熊喵

    2012-01-01

    简单地说,金牛座狗狗行动特征就是按部就班,从容不迫。也许你早已经发现,狗狗就是喜欢按自己的人生哲学走路的,超有自己的调调!狗狗是不会轻易改变自己的生活习惯,你准备跟它打"持久战"吧!

  12. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology February星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵

    2012-01-01

    拥有执著个性的摩羯座狗狗,虽然属于埋头苦干的实践派,但是对于生活细节方面十分谨慎小心,是个不折不扣的现实主义者。Aquarius水瓶座1.20~2.18水瓶座主人星运本月水瓶座在投资方面会有一些小小的收获,可以大胆地尝试一些新的投资项目,在月初的时候就会赢得开门红。水瓶座狗狗星运水瓶座狗狗任性,发脾气,耍性子的情况时有发生,主人要耐心应对,才可保持与狗狗和谐相处。

  13. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology March星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 熊喵

    2012-01-01

    天生爱浪漫,并且富有幻想的双鱼座狗狗,一生在自己幻想的世界里遨游,表面上天真、忠厚,却掩盖不了一颗探求未知的心。Pisces双鱼座2.19~3.20双鱼座主人星运本月双鱼座的事业会遇到前所未有的挑战,慎重考虑未来的路,正确的抉择会使你将来的事业一帆风顺。双鱼座狗狗星运

  14. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology May星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mafalda; 小豆

    2011-01-01

    就算在难敌美食诱惑的金牛座面前,"唯优"仍能发挥最佳功效,让狗狗肠道更健康,身心更舒畅!Taurus金牛座4.20~5.20金牛座主人星运工作上创意灵感闪现,但记住遇事学会简化,注意休息,已婚的主人要注意口舌之争,并且谨防自己财务状况出现危机。金牛座狗狗星运本月的当家星座,作为奖励,主人给狗狗买一瓶唯优营养液尝一尝,健康是最好的礼物。

  15. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology July星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希梦; 熊喵

    2012-01-01

    拥有孩子般的纯洁和天真,充满了热情和正能量,崇尚和平、希望所有人都能幸福如愿,这就是巨蟹座!Cancer巨蟹座6.22~7.22巨蟹座主人星运本月由于星相变动的缘故,巨蟹座的运势有所下降。事业方面会遇到阻碍,建议行事要小心谨慎些。巨蟹座狗狗星运巨蟹座狗狗本月外出容易跟别的狗狗起冲突,主人一定要系好牵引绳。

  16. Atomic-scale investigations of grain boundary segregation in astrology with a three dimensional atom-probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blavette, D. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut Universitaire de France (France); Letellier, L. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Duval, P. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Guttmann, M. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    1996-08-01

    Both conventional and 3D atom-probes were applied to the investigation of grain-boundary (GB) segregation phenomena in two-phase nickel base superalloys Astroloy. 3D images as provided by the tomographic atom-probe reveal the presence of a strong segregation of both boron and molybdenum at grain-boundaries. Slight carbon enrichment is also detected. Considerable chromium segregation is exhibited at {gamma}`-{gamma}` grain-boundaries. All these segregants are distributed in a continuous manner along the boundary over a width close to 0.5 nm. Experiments show that segregation occurs during cooling and more probably between 1000 C and 800 C. Boron and molybdenum GB enrichments are interpreted as due to an equilibrium type-segregation while chromium segregation is thought to be induced by {gamma}` precipitation at GB`s and stabilised by the presence of boron. No segregation of zirconium is detected. (orig.)

  17. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology October星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大斗斗南希; 小豆

    2011-01-01

    拥有高贵品位和优雅气质的天秤座狗狗,虽然有选择困难症,但在它摇摆不定的生命里对生活品质的要求却异常坚定。Libra天秤座9.23~10.23天秤座主人星运财运较佳,收入方面会往上攀升,只要善于理财,是能够有笔像样积蓄的,投资是你这个月最好的选择。天秤座狗星运本月天秤座狗狗的嗅觉异常灵敏,对于即将发生的好事、坏事都有准确的预测,所以未来一个月会顺风顺水。

  18. 爱宠非凡转变,让“唯优”来实现! Astrology August星运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希梦; 熊喵

    2012-01-01

    热情、阳光、大方是它的特点,自信、拥有王者风范是它的气质,充满正能量而无所畏惧,这就是——狮子座!Leo狮子座7.23~8.22狮子座主人星运这个月狮子座太夸张,惹眼的行为会带来负面影响,要稍稍收敛锋芒,聚会的场合也不宜久留。狮子座狗狗星运本月狮子座狗狗心情比较烦躁,容易在家胡乱吠叫,主人要多安抚它。

  19. Warum Astrologie nicht funktionieren kann

    OpenAIRE

    Freistetter, Florian

    2011-01-01

    There exists many different versions of astrology that are different from each other and sometimes even in conflict with each other. But the basis of every astrological system is the assumption of a connection between the motion of celestial bodies and the fate of man. An analysis of the methods of astrology shows that - regardless of which special system is used - there exists no consistent basis that allows to deduce general and verifiable rules. An astrological analysis is therefore always...

  20. 荀子《天论篇》是对于占星学的批判%Xun Zi' On Heaven is a Critique of Astrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章启群

    2011-01-01

    @@ 是荀子的代表作之一.20世纪下半叶,学界对于其中"制天命而用之"的思想推崇备至.今日国人崇尚"天人合一"之说,有人又对其"明于天人之分"的说法颇有争议.①笔者认为这些说法割裂了的整体思想.本文试图给作一新的解释.

  1. Star quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Rupert

    Many people will read their horoscopes as they look at the year ahead. But astrologists claim horoscopes can also give clues about illnesses to which you might be predisposed. They believe: Astrology can determine potential health problems as well as personality types. An accurate horoscope depends on good information about birth date and time. Anatomical regions correspond to astrological signs. Astrological signs are grouped into four function types. PMID:16425761

  2. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest II

    OpenAIRE

    Enn Kasak

    1999-01-01

    Western astrology as such developed already in ancient times, partly based on Greek and Egyptian traditions, whereas the main part was elaborated in the Hellenic Egypt and Rome.Ancient astrology was influenced by many factors as the conquests of Macedonians precipitated lively cultural exchange between Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Iran. The foundation, ideology and basic methods of astrology originate from Mesopotamia, though, the input of other regions is mostly its further elaboration. Ac...

  3. Un tournant dans la critique de l’astrologie? La ‘Summa de astris’ de Gérard de Feltre

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokina, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Summa de astris written in 1264-1265 by the Dominican Gerard of Feltre is the first work which is entirely devoted to the criticism of astrology in the West since the time of the Church Fathers. It has a special place in discussions on astrology in the thirteenth century. On the one hand, the Summa de astris has absorbed many arguments against astrology developed in Christian antiquity and repeated in the Middle Ages. On the other hand, we see new approache...

  4. Jean-Pierre Luminet: Renaissance Communicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, L.; Russo, P.

    2009-02-01

    As science communicators dealing with astronomy we often find a strong interest amongst the public in astrology - how the stars and planets directly affect our individual lives. Nowadays astrology is at odds with the scientific nature of astronomy, but this has not always been the case. Presented here is a background to astrology, to give a deeper understanding of where it has come from and why it has such an enduring place in all forms of global media.

  5. 先秦秦汉丧葬习俗中的数术行为%The Astrological Activity of Funeral Customs in the PreQin Period, Qin and Han Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳萍

    2008-01-01

    本文以先秦秦汉时期丧葬习俗中的数术行为作为研究对象,考察了先秦秦汉时期数术行为在丧葬习俗中的表现、地位,并对数术行为存在的社会原因、思想文化基础及社会意义进行了探究.

  6. The Jagiellonians and the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczek, K.; Wszołek, B.

    2007-12-01

    The largest centre for astronomical and astrological study in the fifteenth century was the University of Cracow, which always was under special care of Jagiellonians. The use of astronomy and astrology at Jagiellonian courts in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were very common. We try to convince the reader about this, exposing very limited historical sources.

  7. The Jagiellonians and the Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baczek, K

    2007-01-01

    The largest centre for astronomical and astrological study in the fifteenth century was the University of Cracow, which always was under special care of Jagiellonians. The use of astronomy and astrology at Jagiellonian courts in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were very common. We try to convince the reader about this, exposing very limited historical sources.

  8. Warum Astrologie nicht funktionieren kann

    CERN Document Server

    Freistetter, Florian

    2011-01-01

    There exists many different versions of astrology that are different from each other and sometimes even in conflict with each other. But the basis of every astrological system is the assumption of a connection between the motion of celestial bodies and the fate of man. An analysis of the methods of astrology shows that - regardless of which special system is used - there exists no consistent basis that allows to deduce general and verifiable rules. An astrological analysis is therefore always arbitrary and meaningless. Astrology does not work. ----- Astrologie existiert in vielen verschiedenen Versionen die sich oft deutliche voneinander unterscheiden und sogar widersprechen. Allen gemeinsam ist aber die grundlegende Annahme eines Zusammenhangs zwischen der Bewegung der Himmelsk\\"orper und dem Schicksal der Menschen. Eine Analyse der astrologischen Methodik zeigt, dass sie - egal in welcher konkreten Auspr\\"agung - \\"uber keine in sich schl\\"ussige Grundlage verf\\"ugt, anhand der sich allgemeing\\"ultige und \\...

  9. Stars, demons and the body in fifteenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralley, Robert

    2010-06-01

    In 1441, Eleanor Cobham, duchess of Gloucester, was arrested, together with three associates: Margery Jourdemayne, the 'Witch of Eye', Roger Bolingbroke, Oxford cleric and astrologer, and Thomas Southwell, MB, canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster. They were accused of plotting to kill King Henry VI by necromancy, but contemporary chronicles differed on the precise nature of their crime: had they summoned demons or cast an astrological chart? This paper explores the relationship between astrology and demonic magic, focusing on feelings, rites and apparatus, and perceptions that the more the practitioner's body was implicated in the divinatory procedure, the more likely it was to be illicit. PMID:20513622

  10. Stars, demons and the body in fifteenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralley, Robert

    2010-06-01

    In 1441, Eleanor Cobham, duchess of Gloucester, was arrested, together with three associates: Margery Jourdemayne, the 'Witch of Eye', Roger Bolingbroke, Oxford cleric and astrologer, and Thomas Southwell, MB, canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster. They were accused of plotting to kill King Henry VI by necromancy, but contemporary chronicles differed on the precise nature of their crime: had they summoned demons or cast an astrological chart? This paper explores the relationship between astrology and demonic magic, focusing on feelings, rites and apparatus, and perceptions that the more the practitioner's body was implicated in the divinatory procedure, the more likely it was to be illicit.

  11. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  12. Material Culture of Greek and Roman Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James

    In the Greek and Roman worlds, astronomy had a rich material culture. Many objects had practical applications to timekeeping or liberal education or astrological prediction, but many others were meant to express philosophical, religious, or political values.

  13. Johannes Kepler on Christmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  14. Transmission of Babylonian Astronomy to Other Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander

    Babylonian astronomy and astrology were extensively transmitted to other civilizations in the second and first millennia BC. Greek astronomy in particular was largely shaped by knowledge of Babylonian observations and mathematical astronomy.

  15. Estudi dels manuscrits científics del monestir de Santa Maria de Ripoll. Notes per a un estat de la qüestió (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Puigvert i Planagumà, Gemma

    1995-01-01

    Since the great contribution of A. Le Boeuffle to the study of astronomy and astrology in the Classical period, a big number of studies on Medieval period related with this field has been carried out. The author does a review of these studies main contributions and justify the need to elaborate an astronominal-astrological lexicon in the scientific manuscripts of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll.

  16. Astrologia e Cabbalà nell’ebraismo italiano rinascimentale

    OpenAIRE

    Lelli, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Although Jews always stressed the boundaries of man’s intellect when facing the scientific knowledge of a transcendental God’s creation, they always held the study of astronomy and astrology in high esteem. From the time of the Bible through the early modern era, the major limit to scientific discovery imposed on Jews by their monotheistic faith made it difficult for them to create an autonomous astrological science, in the Greek meaning. However, ...

  17. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola e la riforma dell’astrologia

    OpenAIRE

    Pompeo Faracovi, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    On the 24th of February 1463, the Renaissance philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was born at Mirandola, near Modena in Italy. In 1486, at the young age of 23, he famously offered to defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy and magic. The intellectual journey of Pico is very complex. In his book Disputationes he criticized firmly astrology. In this book Pico presents arguments against the practice of astrology that have had enormo...

  18. La storia astrologica universale. L'oroscopo delle religioni tra Medioevo e Rinascimento

    OpenAIRE

    Federici Vescovini, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    The essay draws the history of the horoscope among the religions during the Middle Age and the Renaissance. The astrological concept of the great events in the world is based on the branch of knowledge of the great conjunctions. It is about medieval astrology which had as its turning point the explanation of the birth and decay of reigns and religions, but also of natural disasters.

  19. Annotazioni sul carattere 'possibile' del sapere astrologico tra Medioevo e Rinascimento

    OpenAIRE

    Verardi, Donato

    2015-01-01

    The history of astrology has become the subject of rigorous study only since the mid-19th century, thanks to the first contributions of Oriental studies, and particularly of Egyptology. In close relation with classical philology, these studies have made available a number of Greek, Latin, Arabic and Hebrew texts with an astrological content: among them the fragments of Nechepto-Petosiris; the treatises by Manetho, Dorotheus, Vettius Valens, Ptolemy, Paul of...

  20. Odraz znamení zvěrokruhu v tvaru - konvolut keramických nádob

    OpenAIRE

    RAABOVÁ, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contains an introduction to astrology and zodiac in theoretical part. It represent zodiac during the art history and discusses its symbolic meaning as a whole and its individual signs. Furthermore, affects the issue of language art forms in the psychology of art. The practical part of thesis is focused on objects realization, they result from combination of shape elements and importance of astrological signs. The outcome of this part of work is set of 12 ceramic objects.

  1. The Faces of Saturn: Images and Texts from Augustus through Dürer to Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, M. H.

    2013-04-01

    This paper follows the thread(s) of Saturn in astrology and art from the Babylonians to Galileo, paying special attention to the planet's political importance from Augustus to the Medici and to its medical/psychological significance from Ficino through Dürer. In passing, I extend David Pingree's astrological interpretation of Dürer's Melencholia I and propose a very personal rationale for the engraving, namely as a memorial to his mother.

  2. 从五星聚房与帝辛占星陶文看武王克商日(公元前1018年2月22日)%A Judgment of the Date(Feb.22, 1018 B.C.) of King Wu's Defeating Shang according to Records of Five planets' Converging near Room (房) and Di Xin Astrologic Pottery Inscriptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴大鐘

    2014-01-01

    帝辛占星陶文记载金星的白天出现和中国传统星座二十八宿的角宿,帝辛占星陶文证明《宋书·天文志》等的帝辛末期五星聚房记录.在夏商周断代工程报告中,中国政府对于公元前1019年9月17日五星聚房事实的确认,证明了《史记》和帝辛占星陶文的记录是准确的,同时也证明武王克商的甲子日为公元前1018年2月22日.

  3. Study of Celestial Figures in Sign of The Zodiac in the Comprehensive Reference to Rules in Ibn Hibinta's Manuscript of Astrology (Al-Mughni Fi Ahkam Al- Nujum) دراسة الصُّور السَّماوية في مخطوط

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Chalhoub; Rula Ali

    2009-01-01

    Various astronomy subjects arose from scientific, social, and religious circumstances which were ruling in Islamic Arabic Civilized Age. These circumstances played basic role in directing this science and branching it into suitable branches. One of the plenty subjects which this science discuss it in Islamic, Arabic civilization is planet figure science which describe celestial figure and pinpoint the location of stars in length and width. The importance of this research comes out that it wil...

  4. De letras hebreas a alturas musicales revisión de aplicaciones de los principios de la música especulativa a la composición musical en el siglo xx parte 1: asignación de alturas por atribución directa y a través de la astrología

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo reseña cuatro propuestas realizadas en el sigloxx por teóricos de la música especulativa, cuya intenciónha sido relacionar las alturas musicales con las letras delalfabeto hebreo para deducir la equivalencia musical detextos hebreos utilizados en rituales, sellos o talismanescabalísticos y de la tradición Hermética del esoterismooccidental. En esta primera parte se examinan las atribuciones“directas”, (las que no utilizan el valor numérico delas letras hebreas como factor interm...

  5. Models Believe Astrology——Should We Popularize Scientific Knowledge,or Propaganda Superstitions in Astrology?%由《366天诞生星》说到模特的"洋属相"——是普及科学知识,还是宣扬星座迷信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秉翰

    2007-01-01

    @@ 同古代神话故事密不可分的西方占星术,正是适应众生对神秘星空和神话世界的诸多遐想以及对改变自身处境的渴望,比天文知识更广地流传开来.这种方术是把位于太阳黄道上的12个星座与人的生辰乃至性格和命运拉扯在一起,由之推测未来的"运势"会是如何如何.

  6. A astrologia como campo profissional em formação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venuto Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the process of institutionalization of the profession of astrologer, based on an analysis of the struggle of different professional groups to legitimize new ways of thinking and of organizing their field. Two groups have stood out: the modern group, whose proposal for the field is based on the organizational model of modern professions, and the elite group, which seeks to revert to a traditional professional model. Research was conducted among "professional" astrologers in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Those to be interviewed were initially selected from specialized newspapers and then, once groups had been mapped, the intentional sampling method was applied. The article endeavors to understand if and how these astrologers are creating strategies for their participation in the professional field and what institutional mechanisms have contributed towards creation of a unified cognitive base that will allow these ?professionals? to exercise exclusive control over a given domain of expertise.

  7. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  8. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  9. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  10. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  11. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Western astrology as such developed already in ancient times, partly based on Greek and Egyptian traditions, whereas the main part was elaborated in the Hellenic Egypt and Rome.Ancient astrology was influenced by many factors as the conquests of Macedonians precipitated lively cultural exchange between Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Iran. The foundation, ideology and basic methods of astrology originate from Mesopotamia, though, the input of other regions is mostly its further elaboration. Accepting this theory, those interested in astrology go from one extreme to another and argue that astrology existed in Mesopotamia for millennia the same way it did in Europe in the Middle Ages. In Mesopotamia prophetic skills were held in great esteem, they were often related to healing magic. Foretellers used animal livers for prophesy, they also observed eclipses, atmospheric phenomena, the flight of birds, etc. Prophesy was carried out according to a strict system of omens. Later on the omens were regarded as a wish of gods, not as strict rules for prophesy.Astrology is a study that forms characteristics and predictions on the basis of the configurations of spheres. Sky phenomena had a specific role in predictions since they were seen in the whole country; the appearances in sky were thought to influence the welfare of king and his country. In earlier times astrology was concerned with interpreting phenomena in sky as omens. Later, during the period of Assyrian empire, people started to study certain phenomena, mostly the course of planets and eclipses, as it enabled them to foretell omens. This possibility to foresee omens and the scale of the phenomena helped astrology to win a special role among other systems. Regular sky phenomena were associated with seasons by the observers, those relatively irregular were associated with the fate of empires and kings.The astrologers of Babylonia started to cast horoscopes, but the more thorough elaboration of its

  12. An eleventh-century Egyptian guide to the universe the book of curiosities

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Yossef

    2013-01-01

    The Book of Curiosities is an eleventh-century Arabic account of the heavens and the Earth, illustrated by remarkable maps and astronomical diagrams. This authoritative edition and translation opens a unique window onto the geographical and astrological knowledge of medieval Islam.

  13. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  14. A Skeptic's Bookshelf: Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1984-01-01

    Lists nontechnical books and articles on the various claims of "paranormal" events. Includes general references and materials on: astrology; unidentified flying objects (UFO's); ancient astronauts; lunacy and the moon; Velikovsky and "Worlds in Collision"; the Bermuda triangle; Sirius B and the Dogon; the Tunguska event; creationism; and…

  15. Skeptical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  16. A Deficiency of Credulousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Asks the question: how does society assist citizens to stop deluding themselves with ESP, UFOs, astrology, polygraphy, water dowsing, channeling, and all manner of New Age gimcrackery? Supplies an answer: educators should emphasize instruction in probability models and scientific inference, while imparting an appropriate, scientific skepticism to…

  17. The Influence of Education Major: How Diverse Preservice Teachers View Pseudoscience Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Susan Carol; Nzekwe, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoscience beliefs (e.g., astrology, ghosts or UFOs) are rife in American society. Most research examines creation/evolution among liberal arts majors, general public adults, or, infrequently, middle or high school science teachers. Thus, research truncates the "range" of ersatz science thinking and the samples it studies. We examined diverse…

  18. Bruno's Spaccio and Hyginus' Poetica Astronomica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2000-01-01

    The narrative framework of Giordano Bruno’s dialogue Lo spaccio de la bestia trionfante was inspired by Lucian of Samosata and his dialogue The Parliament of the Gods. In this article it is argued that Bruno, within that framework, developed an abundant imagery of astrological constellations...

  19. Leksikon over ordbøger og leksika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálfi, Loránd-Levente

    Findes der en dansk–mongolsk ordbog? Eller en dansk–swahili ordbog? For hvilke sprog findes der i det hele taget danske ordbøger? Og hvilke opslagsværker findes der på dansk om astrologi, astronomi, biologi, filosofi, fluebinding, fysik, historie, islam, kristendom, krydsord, matematik, okkultisme...

  20. Pseudohistory and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The dangers of pseudoscience--parapsychology, astrology,creationism, etc.--are widely criticized. Lessons in the history of science are often viewed as an educational remedy by conveying the nature of science. But such histories can be flawed. In particular, many stories romanticize scientists, inflate the drama of their discoveries,and…

  1. A view in the mirror - Or through the looking glass. [history of development of optical telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The development of optical telescopes from the age of astrology to those of today and the future is discussed. The rationales for changes in the design of telescopes during this time are explored. The cost drivers, and how to reduce them, are also discussed.

  2. Esoterika - historický vývoj a postoj římsko-katolické církve

    OpenAIRE

    ŠERÁ, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    The work describes historical development of esotherics and its related fields. It tracks the history line back to the ancient cultures that lay the grounds for the New Age understanding of magic as well as astrology and tarot. It studies the Middle Ages and the present when new religions not only came to existence but they also have made great development since.

  3. Scientific Responses to Pseudoscience Related to Astronomy. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Provided is a list of 92 references. Categories include general references, debunking astrology, identifying U.F.O.s, ancient astronauts, Velikovsky and worlds in collision, lunacy and the moon, Sirius B and the Dogon tribe, the face and pyramids on mars, the Tunguska Event, and the Bermuda Triangle. (CW)

  4. АРХЕТИП КАК СУДЬБА

    OpenAIRE

    Чиж, М.

    2010-01-01

    The article is concerned with the question of precondition of archetype. So, the beginning pattern is considered in relation with other forces that determinate human beings in historical perspective. The aumor makes a special accent on astrology as occult worldview, founded on the Law of universal sympathy.

  5. Matthew, the Parthians, and the Magi : A Contextuaiization of Matthew’s Gospel in Roman-Parthian Relations of the First Centuries BCE and CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, George; van Kooten, George; Barthel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the consensus and disagreements between the contributors to this first interdisciplinary conference on the Star of Bethlehem. It takes as its starting point the agreement that astrological models that included Syria-Judea only arose in the Greco-Roman period, and that it is likel

  6. Small Schools in Rural India: "Exclusion" and "Inequity" in Hierarchical School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Small schools have enjoyed rich traditions in the history of education. The Vedic-age gurukula small schools, an abode for children of the privileged few, followed a structured curriculum in the teaching of religion, scriptures, philosophy, literature, warfare, medicine, astrology and history. The rigvedic small schools, which were more…

  7. Tiger Mother? Good Mother?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese parents face dilemmas in choosing education methods for children Meng Yijun,an accountant at a PR firm in Beijing,has a 10-yearold daughter. Although she was born in 1974,the Year of the Tiger according to Chinese astrology,Meng said

  8. Nablyudeniya geliakicheskikh voskhodov i zakhodov zvezd v drevnej Mesopotamii %t Heliacal rising and setting star observations in ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtik, G. E.

    This paper deals with the history of heliacal rising and setting star observations in ancient Mesopotamian astrology and astronomy of the 2nd-1st millennia B.C. The basic sources, utilised terminology, and corresponding astronomical ideas are considered in detail.

  9. Hvad er forskning? Normer, videnskab og samfund.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    forskningsvurdering. Hugo F. Alrøe og Egon Noe: Et perspektivisk blik på videnskabelig uenighed og ekspertise. Cathrine Hasse: Forskerens læreproces - et kritisk, realistisk perspektiv. David Favrholdt: Om viden og videnskab. Jens Hebor: Demarkationsproblemet. Jan Faye: Hvordan adskilles astronomi fra astrologi? Finn...

  10. Magnetized Water: Science or Fraud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L. Lahuerta; Anton-Fos, G. M.; Aleman Lopez, P. A.; Martin Algarra, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    Skepticism is one of the cornerstones of scientific learning. Some pseudosciences in domains such as astronomy or pharmacy use a host of issues in everyday life as pretexts for work in the classroom (e.g., astrology) or laboratory (e.g., homeopathy). Chemistry also offers opportunities to promote skeptical thinking in students. Commercial devices…

  11. Studies in the History of Astronomy. Issue 32 %t Istoriko-Astronomicheskie Issledovaniya. Vypusk XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idlis, G. M.

    This collection contains papers covering a wide scope of problems in the history of astronomy. Its basic headlines are: Cosmology and cosmogony of the 20th century; History of observations and astronomical organizations; Scientists and their works; Astronomy and society; Publications and memoirs; Astronomy and astrology; Memory of scientists

  12. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday speech;…

  13. Scientists Look at 2010: Carrying on Margaret Mayall's Legacy of Debunking Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Krinstine

    2010-06-01

    In 1941 Margaret Mayall, the future director of the AAVSO, and Harvard colleague Bart Bok authored a critical study of astrology and its impact on society entitled "Scientists Look at Astrology." They chastised the scientific community for thinking the debunking of astrology to be "below the dignity of scientists." In contrast, they opined that it is one of the duties of scientists to "inform the public about the nature and background of a current fad, such as astrology, even though to do so may be unpleasant." Fast-forward 68 years in the future, and the astronomical community now faces a pseudoscientific enemy just as insidious as astrology, yet just as ignored by the general professional and amateur community as astrology had been when Mayall and Bok took up the charge in 1941. The pseudoscience in question is the well-publicized "prediction" that the Mayan calendar will end on December 21, 2012, causing the end of civilization in concert with one of a number of possible astronomical calamities, including (but not limited to) the gravitational pull of the center of the Milky Way (somehow enhanced by an "alignment" with our solar system), the near-approach by a mythical 10th planet (often named Nibiru), large-scale damage to the planet by solar flares larger than those ever recorded, or the shifting of the earth's axis of rotation (often confused with a proposed sudden and catastrophic reversal of the earth's magnetic polarity). As a scientific and educational organization, the AAVSO and its members have a responsibility to follow in Mayall's footsteps, shining the light of reason and knowledge on the dark corners of ignorance which far too often permeate the Internet, radio and television programming, and recent films, most notably 2012. This talk will highlight some of the basic premises of the 2012 hysteria and suggest ways that the AAVSO and its members can use variable stars and the history of the AAVSO to counteract some of the astronomical misinformation

  14. [SCIENCE AND DREAMS IN THE MIDDLE AGES: IL "DE SOMNIIS" DI BOEZIO DI DACIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feti, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Boethius of Dacia's opera "De somnis" can be defined as a brief treaty that partially follows the traditional quaestio scheme. It includes a passage that seems to copy Etienne Tempier's proposition number sixty-five, which condemns the importance attributed to astrology by many medieval authors. Boethius moves off Aristotle's "De somno et vigilia" idea of physiological dreams to assert a new kind of oneiric phenomena linked to constellations, that, according to the author, aren't divinely inspired, whereas they are to be considered as natural events. Boethius isn't the only philosopher who writes about this particular type of dream as another medieval author, Albertus Magnus, in his "Speculum Astronomiae", describes astrology and its relationship to medicine.

  15. [SCIENCE AND DREAMS IN THE MIDDLE AGES: IL "DE SOMNIIS" DI BOEZIO DI DACIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feti, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Boethius of Dacia's opera "De somnis" can be defined as a brief treaty that partially follows the traditional quaestio scheme. It includes a passage that seems to copy Etienne Tempier's proposition number sixty-five, which condemns the importance attributed to astrology by many medieval authors. Boethius moves off Aristotle's "De somno et vigilia" idea of physiological dreams to assert a new kind of oneiric phenomena linked to constellations, that, according to the author, aren't divinely inspired, whereas they are to be considered as natural events. Boethius isn't the only philosopher who writes about this particular type of dream as another medieval author, Albertus Magnus, in his "Speculum Astronomiae", describes astrology and its relationship to medicine. PMID:26946816

  16. Chaucer's Dantean Presentation of Time in The Canterbury Tales: Libra and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Marijane

    In the last of his several chronographiæ — astronomically expressed descriptions of time — contained in The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer uses language that has led modern readers to believe that he is making elementary errors about the altitude of the Sun above the horizon and about the astrological relationship between Libra and the Moon. In this essay, I argue that the errors are ours, not his. If one reads the altitude of the Sun by means of Chaucer's observing instrument, the astrolabe, and — forgetting astrology — perceives the Moon's relationship to the sign/constellation of Libra as a real one much like Dante's similar image at the end of The Divine Comedy, both the astronomical and spiritual meanings of the passage in the Tales become clearer.

  17. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. PMID:25948700

  18. Federik Grisogono (Federicus Chrysogonus and the Notion of Useful Theoretical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Girardi-Karsulin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the idea of astronomy as useful theoretical science as it was promoted by Federik Grisogono, Croatian renaissance philosopher, astrologist and physician in his work Astronomical Mirror. U ntill the Renaissance, theoretical science in principle could not be useful since this followed from the very aristotelian-platonic notion of theoretical science whose assignment was only to consider what is eternal and unchangeable. Theoretical science in any case could not be “useful science”. Grisogono considers possibility of a theoretical science – mathematics (i.e. astrology – being the highest theoretical and at the same time useful science. For us, of course, astrology is none of this. However, by means of his groundbreaking notion of theoretical science, Grisogono worked towards suspending the traditional notion of the theoretical science, as well as towards opening of new possibilities of establishing the modern idea of science.

  19. Philippus Feselius - Biographical notes on the unknown medicus of Kepler's Tertius Interveniens. (German Title: Philippus Feselius - Biographische Notizen zum unbekannten Medicus aus Keplers Tertius Interveniens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    Until now, Philipp Feselius has been perceived only indirectly as Kepler's antagonist. Not much is known about his life besides his work as Baden private physician and his book against astrology which was cited intensely in Kepler's «Tertius Interveniens». This paper traces the stations of his career as a physician, about his presumable provenance and education in Strasbourg, his academic career in Tübingen, Strasbourg, Rostock and Padua, the doctorate in Basel in 1592, up to his employment, in 1599, as a court physician in Sulzburg and later in Durlach. Further hand-written and printed traces of Feselius are presented, and his social environment is investigated so that his personality becomes clearer, and relations can be established between his education and his writing against astrology.

  20. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Girish, T E

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in nature especially gravity. We show that the studies on retrograde motion and Chesta Bala of planets like Mars in the context of astrology lead to development of differential calculus and planetary dynamics in ancient India. The idea of instantaneous velocity was first developed during the 1st millennium BC and Indians could solve first order differential equations as early as 6th cent AD. Indian contributions to astrophysics and calculus during European dark ages can be considered as a land mark in the pre-renaissance history ...

  1. The Discovery of the Regular Movements of Celestial Bodies and the Development of Monotheism in the Ancient Near East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, G. B.

    2011-06-01

    For Ancient Mesopotamians, astronomical phenomena were signs signifying the gods' judgment on human behaviour. Mesopotamian scholars studied celestial phenomena for understanding the gods' will, and strongly developed astrology. From the 8th to the 6th century BC Assyrian and Babylonian astronomers achieved the ability to predict solar and lunar eclipses, and the planets' movements through mathematical calculations. Predictability of astral phenomena solicited the awareness that they are all regular, and that the universe is governed by an eternal, immutable order fixed at its very beginning. This finally favoured the idea that the cosmic order depended on the will of one god only, displacing polytheism in favour of monotheism; and astrology lost its religious importance as a mean to know the divine will.

  2. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals.

  3. The Relations between Astronomy and Music in Medieval Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardumyan, Arpi

    2015-07-01

    In Middle Ages Astronomy and Music were included in the four sciences, together with Mathematics and Geometry. From ancient times philosophers thought that harmony lies in the basis of world creation. The Earth was in the centre of the Universe, and the seven planets went around it, the Sun and the Moon in their number. Harmony was also in the basis of music, with seven sounds due to seven planets. It was considered that owing to harmonic rotation cosmic universal music appears, and it is not attainable for human ear as it is used to it. Medieval connoisseurs of music therapy believed that for healing a person his astrological data must first be cleared out, in order to define in which musical mode should sound the melody in order to treat him/her. Comparing music with astrology they considered easier to practise the first one because the celestial luminaries are much higher and farther from people.

  4. The Astral Curved Disc of Chevroches (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devevey, F. Rousseau, A.

    2009-08-01

    The excavation of the unexplored secondary agglomeration in Chevroches (Nièvre), from 2001 to 2002, directed by F. Devevey (INRAP), has led to the discovery of an astrological bronze curved disc of a type unknown in the ancient world; it is inscribed with three lines in Greek transcribing Egyptian an Roman months, and the twelve signs of the zodiac. This article presents the first observations.

  5. Vulgar Beliefs in Vis and Ramin & Tristan and Isolde

    OpenAIRE

    Shima Sadat Sharif Al-Hoseini; Abbas Ali Maghsodlo

    2014-01-01

    Ever since ancient times, when man could not find a logic relationship between the extraordinary events and phenomena, feather to Supers tedious beliefs and ideas in their head and mentioned incantations and performed certain rituals to get rid of thepain. In this paper, the four sections is investigated superstitious beliefs and opinions in two oeuvres Vis and Ramin and Tristan and Isolde; that include: Belief in magic and charm, belief in astrology and star's Saad and siniste...

  6. [Tomaso Rangone (1493-1577): an Italian physician and his library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The private library of Tomaso Rangone (1473-1577), famous for his patronage of Jacobo Sansovino and Alessandro Vittoria, does not only reflect the personal interests of a medical practitioner in the Italian Renaissance, but also the social, and scientific development of the first half of the Cinquecento: the popularity of astrology, the effect of the European expansion on geography, the growing interest for historiography, the advances in the field of medicine and botany and the remaining influence of medieval scholasticism. PMID:23527446

  7. A doppio senso: istruzioni su come orientarsi nelle immagini astrologiche di Palazzo Schifanoia

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bertozzi

    2012-01-01

    In the “Sala dei Mesi” of Palazzo Schifanoia the months and the zodiacal constellations go from right to left, while the decans (three for every sign) go in the opposite direction. This problem was not  clarified by Aby Warburg in his well-known essay Italian Art and International Astrology in the Palazzo Schifanoia of Ferrara (1912). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons of this double direction.

  8. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...

  9. A doppio senso: istruzioni su come orientarsi nelle immagini astrologiche di Palazzo Schifanoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertozzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the “Sala dei Mesi” of Palazzo Schifanoia the months and the zodiacal constellations go from right to left, while the decans (three for every sign go in the opposite direction. This problem was not  clarified by Aby Warburg in his well-known essay Italian Art and International Astrology in the Palazzo Schifanoia of Ferrara (1912. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons of this double direction.

  10. Prilog istraživanju renesansnog mišljenja »magia naturalis« kao »sapientia« i »scientia naturalis«

    OpenAIRE

    Banić-Pajnić, Erna

    1982-01-01

    In the last decades interest in the »marginal« subjects of renaissance thinking has intensified; consequently, ideas about magic and astrology could not be avoided. This interest is first and foremost a result of understanding the need using two basic ally different historiographic approaches in studying renaissance intellectual life. One approach is for those processes that led to radical changes in the structure of thinking and acting characteristic of the old view of the world, in which on...

  11. Comment on "Astronomical alignments as the cause of ~M6+ seismicity"

    CERN Document Server

    Zanette, Damian H

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that, according to the criteria used by M. Omerbashich (arXiv:1104.2036v4 [physics.gen-ph]), during 2010 the Earth was aligned with at least one pair of planets some 98.6% of the time. This firmly supports Omerbashich's claim that 2010 strongest earthquakes occurred during such astronomical alignments. On this basis, we argue that seismicity is, generally, a phenomenon of astrological origin.

  12. An Ongoing Investigation of Science Literacy: Results of a 22-Year Study Probing Students' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS

    2013-04-01

    This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.

  13. El capítulo sobre el Tasyīr en al-Bāriʻ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl y su traducción alfonsí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Fajardo, Montse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tasyīr or “prorogation”, is an astrological procedure with which the astrologer moves, in an imaginary way, an indicator in order to determine the celestial influences. Tasyīr was one of the astrologer’s fundamental tools for the casting of a horoscope. This paper analyzes the information in the chapter on Tasyīr in Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s (11th century book al-Bāri‘, concerning the methods, the techniques and the resources used. Its study highlights the channels through which science was transmitted and the ways in which the astrologer wrote his work using other sources, and stresses the importance of al-Bāri‘ in introducing new astrological knowledge from the East into the Maghrib and medieval Europe (knowledge that was used until the fifteenth century. The comparison of the chapter with its Castilian translation provides evidence of the procedures used by the translators of Alfonso X.El tasyīr o «prorrogación» es un procedimiento astrológico por el que se hace avanzar de forma imaginaria un indicador para conocer las influencias celestes. El tasyīr fue una de las herramientas fundamentales del astrólogo en el levantamiento de un horóscopo. Este artículo analiza la información que contiene el capítulo “Sobre el tasyīr” de la obra al-Bāri‘ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl (siglo XI: los métodos, las técnicas y los recursos que utilizaba. Su estudio nos muestra las vías por las que la ciencia se transmitía, el modo en el que el astrólogo elaboraba su obra, la importancia del al-Bāri‘ como introductor en el Magreb y en la Europa medieval de fuentes y conocimientos nuevos importados de Oriente y la vigencia de su astrología hasta el siglo XV. El cotejo del capítulo mencionado con su traducción castellana nos da pruebas de la forma de trabajar de los traductores de Alfonso X.

  14. Dos textos astrológicos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay al-Bargeloní

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sela, Shlomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this article is to translate, scrutinize the contents and reveal the sources of two Hebrew astrological texts embedded in the commentary on Sefer Yeṣirah composed by Yehudah ben Barzilay, the leading Rabbinic authority in Barcelona in the first half of the 12th century. The first text arises great interest because it incorporates the first ever known horoscopic chart written in Hebrew. The second text includes a miscellany of cosmological and astrological theories. The analysis of both fragments reveals the reception of astrological texts by Jewish intellectuals in the Iberian Peninsula. In contrast with Abraham bar Ḥiyya and Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, who epitomize a renovating trend couching into a Hebrew mold various aspects of Greek and Arabic science, Ben Barzilay embodies a conservative trend which exclusively relies on Jewish astrological and scientific sources.Este artículo tiene como principal propósito traducir, estudiar los contenidos y descubrir las fuentes de dos textos astrológicos hebreos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay, la principal autoridad rabínica de Barcelona en las primeras décadas del siglo XII. El primer texto despierta gran interés porque incorpora el primer horóscopo documentado escrito en lengua hebrea conocido. El segundo texto incorpora una miscelánea de teorías cosmológicas y astrológicas. El análisis de ambos fragmentos revela un caso especial de recepción de fuentes astrológicas y científicas por intelectuales judíos en la península Ibérica. En claro contraste con Abraham bar Ḥiyya y Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, que encarnan una corriente renovadora orientada a verter al hebreo diversos aspectos de la astrología y ciencia griega y árabe, Yehudá ben Barzilay representa una modalidad conservadora inclinada a la utilización de fuentes astrológicas y científicas de autores exclusivamente judíos.

  15. Walter Odington's De etate mundi and the Pursuit of a Scientific Chronology in Medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, Carl Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with a forgotten treatise on the age of the world, written between 1308 and 1316 by Walter Odington, a monk of Evesham Abbey, otherwise known for his writings on alchemy and music theory. By tracing the sources and rationale behind Odington's arguments and comparing them with those of other medieval authors, the article attempts to shed new light on the state of chronological scholarship in England in the eleventh to fourteenth centuries, when astronomical and astrological methods were freely used to supplement or replace scriptural interpretation, yielding creative and unexpected results. PMID:27320253

  16. New Light on the Legendary King Nechepsos of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies several indigenous Egyptian attestations of King Nechepsos, previously well known from Classical sources. The name may be understood as ‘Necho the Wise’, and refers to Necho II of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. His association with astrology may be related to an eclipse near the ...... the beginning of that king’s historical reign. This paper further identifies the sage Petosiris known from Greek texts as the well-attested sage Petesis. The divine instructors of Nechepsos and Petosiris are identified as Imhotep and Amenhotep son of Hapu....

  17. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  18. Cafer es-Sadık'ın Eserleri

    OpenAIRE

    ATALAN, Mehmet

    2001-01-01

    Jajar al-Sadiq who is the 6th Shi 'ite Imamiyyah seems as an İmportant figure in the early years of the second century when Abbasid received the diagnasty from the Umeyye. The works mention Jafar al-Sadiq’s studies. Same mysterious sciences as astrology. cefr; augury, talisman, chemistry, magic, and extra ordinary abilities have been referred to Jafar al-Sadiq. Many of these works are avaible as published and hand written in Süleymaniye Library in Istanbul. The works except Kitab al-Tawhid ar...

  19. Michael Servetus (1511-1553): physician and heretic who described the pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-07-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the life of the physician and theologian Michael Servetus and to discuss his analysis of the pulmonary circulation. Writers have praised Servetus for his commitment to educating his colleagues about what he heralded as the truth, and criticized him for his perceived arrogance. Servetus made contributions to the fields of geography, astrology, theology, and medicine. This paper refers to the translation of a portion of Servetus' book Christianismi Restitutio by Charles D. O'Malley. PMID:22748500

  20. Kozmolojik Temelleri Işığında İhvan es-Safa'da Astroloji ve Astrolojinin Meşruluğu Sorunu

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Hasan

    2011-01-01

     Astrology, as it?s known, a type of foresee that consists in the interpretion of the influence of planets, stars and all heavenly bodies on earthly affairs in order to predict or affect the destinies of individuals, groups, or nations, etc. It was originated in Mesopotamia, perhaps in the 3rd- 2nd millennium BCE, but attained its full development in Greek and Hellenistic period and entered Islamic world in the 8th and 9th CE. centuries in three simultaneous streams?Hellenistic, Indian and S?...

  1. Elements in the Melting Pot: Merging Chemistry, Assaying, and Natural History, Ca. 1730-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Hjalmar

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines how the modern concept of the chemical element emerged during the eighteenth century. It traces this concept to a group of assayers, mineralogists, and chemists active at the Swedish Bureau of Mines (Bergskollegium). Driven by a deep ontological pragmatism, these "mining chemists" came to regard all inquiries into the component parts of metals as useless speculation. Instead, metals were treated as immutable species that made mineralogical taxonomy possible. Their work was a form of Enlightenment boundary work, which associated chrysopoeia and the pursuit of the components of metals with superstition and disreputable activities such as astrology. PMID:26103757

  2. Manilio y Venancio

    OpenAIRE

    Maranini, Anna

    1997-01-01

    In the first half of the I st century A.D. the Latin poet M. Manilius wrote out a poem on astrology entitled Astronomica. Before the XI th century neither a direct nor and indirect evidence of its survival existed which can be considered really trustworthy; however it is possible that this hexametric poem influenced the works of some medieval authors, as other more famous and testified Latin authors did, through not yet well known channels. Maybe among those medieval authors can be numbered t...

  3. Astrologia y medicina para todos los públicos: las polémicas entre Benito Feijoo, Diego de Torres y Martín Martínez y la popularización de la ciencia en la España de principios del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Galech Amillano, Jesús María

    2010-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral se centra en el estudio de las polémicas públicas sobre medicina y astrología que tuvieron lugar en España de 1724 a 1727, aproximadamente. Los tres actores principales fueron Benito Feijoo, Diego de Torres y Martín Martínez, tres autores estudiados en profundidad por los historiadores, si bien estas polémicas concretas con frecuencia han sido desatendidas. Esta investigación es un estudio de caso en la historia de la ciencia española del siglo XVIII. Las características d...

  4. Kepler and the Star of Bethlehem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a famous astronomer. But like other astronomers he had a problem to find work that would guarantee a regular income. So he was lucky to get work as "Styrian landscape mathematician" in Graz. One of his tasks was to write an annual calendar of weather forecasts and policital developments on the basis of astrological facts. He correctly predicted a conflict with the Osmanic Empire, although it is not clear whether the stars or the newspapers were the cause for that. Both his horoscope for Wallenstein and his book "Warnung an die Gegner der Astrologie" are well known. Kepler believed in some aspects of astrology, the influence of the planets for example. He deduced this front his ideas about physics. He neglected other aspects of astrology. e.g. the significance of the zodiac. In 1604 Kepler observed a new star and believed in a connection to a special and very rare planetary conjunction. After a Jupiter-Saturn-conjunction Jupiter met Mars. Kepler speculated that the star of Bethlehem might be a new star which was generated after a similar conjunction and recalculated it for 6/7 BC. Nowadays examples of both astronomical (and astrological) interpretations of the star of Bethlehem exist. The best known is the three time conjunction of 6/7 BC. But the interpretation of Martin (1980) for 213 BC seems equally excellent. Vardaman (1989) takes the Halley comet of 12 BC to be the star of Bethlehem. Other speculations arise from two Novae in the years 5 and 4 BC, tabulated in sources from the Far East. But historians tell us that there is no need fo a real star. The text in Matthew, book 2 is a legend. What is important in regard to the understanding of the star of Bethlehem is the "sidus Julium" the comet which could be seen in the sky during Caesar's funeral and the match of the King of Armenia Tiridates to Nero in Rome during. There was no real star over Bethlehem. All we have are interesting speculations, like those by Kepler.

  5. Micro moon versus macro moon: Brightness and size

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The moon, moonlight, phases of the moon and its relatively simple recurring cycle has been of interest since time immemorial to the human beings, navigators, astronomers and astrologers. The fact that its orbit is elliptical as well its plane is inclined with the plane of rotation of the earth gives rise to new moon to full moon and solar and lunar eclipses. During the phase of the full moon, the luminous flux and its apparent size will depend on its distance from the earth. In case it is at ...

  6. Lessons from Mayan Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Mayan culture collected exquisite astronomical data for over a millennium. However, it failed to come up with the breakthrough ideas of modern astronomy because the data was analyzed within a mythological culture of astrology that rested upon false but mathematically sophisticated theories about the Universe. Have we learned the necessary lessons to prevent our current scientific culture from resembling Mayan Astronomy? Clearly, data collection by itself is not a guarantee for good science as commonly assumed by funding agencies. A vibrant scientific culture should cultivate multiple approaches to analyzing existing data and to collecting new data.

  7. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    2013-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  8. The Shadow of Enlightenment Optical and Political Transparency in France 1789-1848

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This book is the first to place revolutionary advances in light and optics in the cultural context of France in the first half of the nineteenth century. The narrative follows the work and careers of France's two chief rivals on the subject of light: Arago and Biot. Their disagreement began on the subject of technical optics, but expanded to include politics, religion, agricultural policy, education, dinner companions, housing arrangements, photography, railroads, vital forces,astrology, the Egyptian calendar, and colonial slavery. At the heart of their disagreement was always a question of vi

  9. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  10. De Magia (Ms. Laud Or. 282, Bodleian Library: graphemic representation and transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aléxia Teles Duchowny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the writing in the codex De magia (Ms. Laud Oriental 282, Bodleian Library, an astrological guide written in the Portuguese language as aljamia, with Hebrew characters, and dated to the 15th Century. As well as a classification of the writing, this study analyses the manuscript’s graphemic representation – simple graphemes, in nexus, digraphs and trigraphs, diacritics, number values, punctuation, corrections and cancellation marks – and proposes a coherent and detailed transcription system of Hebrew into Latin graphemes.

  11. La obra astrológica de Abraham Ibn Ezra en dos códices castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainz de la Maza, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we offer a study and a commentary of Abraham Ibn Ezra’s astrological works that have been preserved in two old Spanish manuscripts translated from Hebrew in a late medieval converso environment.

    En el presente artículo ofrecemos un estudio y comentario de las obras astrológicas de Abraham Ibn Ezra que han sido preservadas en dos manuscritos en castellano traducidos del hebreo en un entorno converso a finales de la Baja Edad Media.

  12. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Keplers supernova (SN1604)

    CERN Document Server

    van Gent, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Sule et al. (Astronomical Notes, vol. 332 (2011), 655) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  13. When the dragon wore the crown putting starlight back into myth

    CERN Document Server

    Cerow, Don

    2013-01-01

    When our ancestors gazed upon the skies thousands of years ago they looked up into the center of Creation and saw a mighty Dragon, a great celestial serpent with wings circling ceaselessly above them, night after night, century after century. When the Dragon Wore the Crown is a ground breaking book that covers a period of over six thousand years, focusing on what astrologers would call the Ages of Gemini, Taurus and Aries and taking us through the period of classical astronomy with the Greeks and Romans (approx. 7000 BC-200 AD).When the Dragon Wore the Crown opens and closes with the Chinese m

  14. Legacy of the Luoshu the 4,000 year search for the meaning of the magic square of order three

    CERN Document Server

    Swetz, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A symbol of the Divine, a good luck charm, a cosmogram of the world order, a template for fengshui -through the ages, the luoshu, or magic squre of order three, has fascinated people of many different cultures. In this riveting account of cultural detective work, renowned mathematics educator, Frank J. Swetz relates how he uncovered the previously hidden history of the luoshu, from its Chinese origins, shrouded in legend, through its eventual association with Chinese fortunetelling, Daoism, and fengshui, to its incorporation into Islamic astrology and alchemy and its migration into Kabbalistic

  15. National Calendar-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Madan, Ion; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great defect of the calendar is the introduction of the "International day of astrology" in the list of holydays. Another defect is the absence of the indication on the membership to the Communist Party for persons cited from the former Soviet Union.

  16. Tycho Brahe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, John Louis Emil

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. The revival of astronomy in Europe; 2. Tycho Brahe's youth; 3. The new star of 1572; 4. Tycho's oration on astrology and his travels in 1575; 5. The island of Hveen and Tycho Brahe's observatories and other buildings; 6. Tycho's life at Hveen until the death of King Frederick II; 7. Tycho's book on the comet of 1577, and his system of the world; 8. Further work on the star of 1572; 9. The last years at Hveen, 1588-97; 10. Tycho's life from his leaving Hveen until his arrival at Prague; 11. Tycho Brahe in Bohemia - his death; 12. Tycho Brahe's scientific achievements; Appendix; Notes; Index.

  17. Orion in Homer: is it a Terrestrial, an Astral or an Astronomical Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revello, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    In Greek literature the subjects that relate to stars and constellations are very complex. Various studies are involved in this field of investigation, such as those of astronomy, astrology, mythology, astral-metereology and philology; the situation becomes even more complicated when we attempt to reconstruct a picture of the knowledge of the stars and the relative degree of consciousness of this matter existent during the Homeric age. In this brief report we shall look at the constellation of Orion. The discussed arguments will point out the sharp differences that exist between terrestrial, astronomical and astral myths.

  18. Vulgar Beliefs in Vis and Ramin & Tristan and Isolde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sadat Sharif Al-Hoseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever since ancient times, when man could not find a logic relationship between the extraordinary events and phenomena, feather to Supers tedious beliefs and ideas in their head and mentioned incantations and performed certain rituals to get rid of thepain. In this paper, the four sections is investigated superstitious beliefs and opinions in two oeuvres Vis and Ramin and Tristan and Isolde; that include: Belief in magic and charm, belief in astrology and star's Saad and sinister, Run celebrations such as Nowruz, Mehregan and Passover and Believing thatinnocent stays safe from the fire and feeling red-hotiron.

  19. 读书(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Your Chinese Horoscope 2006: What the Year of the Dog Holds in Store for You 《2006狗年运势》 Author. Neil Somerville Publisher: Harper Element The year 2006 is the Year of the Dog on the Chinese zodiac. What does this mean for you? The ancient art of Chinese Astrology, which predates the Western zodiac, is a detailed system of divination that has been used in the Orient for thousands of years. The depths of its wisdom and the accuracy of its character analysis and predictions have caught the imagination of th...

  20. Many skies alternative histories of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars

    CERN Document Server

    Upgren, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Many Skies: Alternative Histories of the Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars examines the changes in science that  alternative solar, stellar, and galactic arrangements would have brought, and explores the different theologies, astrologies, and methods of tracking time that would have developed to reflect them. Our perception of our surroundings, the number of gods we worship, the symbols we use in art and literature, even the way we form nations and empires are all closely tied to our particular (and accidental) placement in the universe.  Upgren also explores the actual ways tha

  1. National Calendar-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    2009-10-01

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great deffect of the Calendar is the introduction in the list of holydays of the "international day of astrology". Another defect is the absence of the indication of the membership to Communist Parties for persons cited from the former USSR and former Communist Countries.

  2. Modern health worries - the dark side of spirituality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter; Czető, Márton; Sárog, Noémi; Szemerszky, Renáta

    2016-08-01

    Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being. Astrologers showed higher levels of spirituality, intuitive-experiential thinking, and modern health worries than individuals from the community sample; and skeptics scored even lower than the latter group with respect to all three constructs. Within the community sample, medium level connections between measures of spirituality and the experiential thinking style, and weak to medium level correlations between spirituality and MHWs were found. The connection between MHWs and experiential thinking style was completely mediated by spirituality. Individuals with higher levels of spirituality are particularly vulnerable to overgeneralized messages on health related risks. Official communication of potential risks based on rational scientific reasoning is not appropriate to persuade them as it has no impact on the intuitive-experiential system. PMID:27231809

  3. Micro moon versus macro moon: Brightness and size

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The moon, moonlight, phases of the moon and its relatively simple recurring cycle has been of interest since time immemorial to the human beings, navigators, astronomers and astrologers. The fact that its orbit is elliptical as well its plane is inclined with the plane of rotation of the earth gives rise to new moon to full moon and solar and lunar eclipses. During the phase of the full moon, the luminous flux and its apparent size will depend on its distance from the earth. In case it is at farthest point known as lunar apogee causes smallest full moon or micro full moon and if it is closest to us termed as lunar perigee will result in macro full moon, also known as super moon, a term coined by astrologer Richard Nolle in 1979. The theoretical expressions for the lunar luminous fluxes on the earth representing the power of lunar light the earth intercepts in the direction normal to the incidence over an area of one square meter are derived for two extreme positions lunar apogee and lunar perigee. The express...

  4. The Gate of Heaven: Revisiting Roman Mithraic Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assasi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The definition and origins of Roman Mithraism remain highly problematic and controversial among modern scholars. The majority of research on Roman Mithraism focuses on interpreting the physical evidence because no considerable written narratives or theology from the religion survive. The most important Mithraic artifact is a repeated bull-slaying scene, which leaves no doubt that this figure conveys the core divine message of the cult. There is also another important Mithraic character that seems to be as important as the bull-slayer. This figure is a lion-headed man entwined by a snake. The author suggests that these figures represent the north ecliptic pole and argues for the importance of this astronomical reference in the Mithraic iconography and mythology. The author also demonstrates the possible relation of his proposed astrological model to the geocentric understanding of the axial precession around the ecliptic pole, where the Roman bull-slaying Mithras could be visualized in the form of a Mithraic constellation. This astrological model also is proposed to be the architectural design concept of Roman Mithraeum. The author also points to the core Christian symbols as possible contemporaneous parallels or derivatives of the Mithraic iconography and theology.

  5. The History of Science as a Tool To Identify and Confront Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Seth C.

    2007-06-01

    Many are concerned by the widespread popularity pseudoscience has achieved in modern society. While it is easy to dismiss such beliefs as belonging to the uneducated, numerous studies have shown that such beliefs are not significantly reduced by a university education. In fact, one study found that belief in astrology was largely unaffected by the completion of a U.S. science degree: students who commenced a degree program believing in astrology finished that program still believing in it. This illustrates the extent to which even a successful science education has failed to transform students’ intellectual outlook, and should raise sharp concern as to the deficiencies in our present science curriculum. Over the years various authors have given sound justification for the inclusion of a historical component in science programs. I would like to add to these arguments the fact that knowledge of science history allows one to more easily identify and confront pseudoscience and that rectifying the current deficiency of historical context in our science education may be an effective approach to change the way students view claims and ideas presented to them.

  6. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  7. The Star of Bethlehem is Not the Nova DO Aquilae (Nor Any Other Nova, Supernova, or Comet)

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bradley E

    2013-01-01

    The Star of Bethlehem is only known from a few verses in the Gospel of Matthew, with the Star inspiring and leading the Magi (i.e., Persian astrologers) to Jerusalem and ultimately worshipping the young Jesus Christ in Bethlehem. In the last four centuries, astronomers have put forth over a dozen greatly different naturalistic explanations, all involving astronomical events, often a bright nova, supernova, or comet. This paper will evaluate one prominent recent proposal, that the Star was a 'recurrent nova' now catalogued as DO Aquilae, and provide three refutations. In particular, (1) DO Aql is certainly not a recurrent nova, but rather an ordinary nova with a recurrence time scale of over a million years, (2) in its 1925 eruption, DO Aql certainly never got brighter than 8.5 mag, and the physics of the system proves that it could never get to the required luminosity of a supernova, and (3) the Magi were astrologers who had no recognition or interpretation for novae (or supernovae or comets) so any such even...

  8. Chinese records of the 1874 transit of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingfeng; Li, Huifang

    2013-03-01

    Before the advent of radar, transits of Venus were very important for measuring the distance between the Earth and the Sun. A transit occurred in 1874, and was visible from China, other parts of east and southeast Asia and from India, Australia and New Zealand and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. As a result, many astronomers from Western countries came to China to observe it. According to traditional Chinese astrology, the Sun represented the Emperor, and if the Sun was invaded by other astronomical bodies it meant that the Emperor and the country faced some ominous disaster. In the late nineteenth century, Western astronomical knowledge was widely translated into Chinese and spread among Chinese intellectuals, so the 1874 transit supposedly was easily understood by Chinese intellectuals. Before the transit took place, various Chinese publications introduced this kind of celestial event as science news, but at the same time other influential newspapers and journals discussed the astrological connection between the transit and the fortunes of the nation. In this paper we review these interesting Chinese records and discuss the different attitudes towards the transit exhibited by Chinese intellectuals and officials, during a period when Western learning was being widely disseminated throughout China.

  9. European concerted action COST 50 - materials for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressers, J.; Cat, R. de; Fenske, E.

    1984-01-01

    A combined approach which would yield differential information regarding both crack initiation and crack growth from a single test specimen has been adopted to study the low cycle fatigue behaviour of PM Astrology over a range of testing conditions (temperature, strain-rate, plastic strain-amplitude) which span the range from cycle dependent to time dependent low cycle fatigue. It appears that both crack initiation and crack growth depend in a non-systematic manner on the testing parameters, which results from the simultaneous action of several time dependent processes. These time-dependent processes cause Tomkins' crack growth model to fail to correctly predict the number of cycles spent in crack growth at the high-temperature, low strain-rate end of the test parameter spectrum. At the other end of the test parameter spectrum the match with the experimental data is fortuitious since the laws governing the crack growth behaviour for crack sizes below and beyond approximately 200 ..mu..m (short crack growth behaviour and higher order dependence of the crack growth rate on the crack depth, respectively) deviate from the crack growth law which is at the basis of Tomkins' model. The experimental crack increment data are used to compute fracture mechanics lives. It is suggested that these fracture mechanics lives are appropriate lower bound estimates of the life of PM Astrology containing defects such as inclusions.

  10. Cosmic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  11. Revision and Re-enchantment of the Legacy of Psychology from a Half Century of Consciousness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Grof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on observations from more than fifty years of research into an important subgroup of non-ordinary states of consciousness that he calls holotropic, the author suggests a revision of some basic assumptions of modern psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The proposed changes involve the nature of consciousness and its relationship to matter, dimensions of the human psyche, the roots of emotional and psychosomatic disorders, and therapeutic strategy. In the light of the new observations, spirituality appears to be an essential attribute of the human psyche and of existence in general. An important and controversial subject that could be only tangentially addressed in the context of this paper is the importance of archetypal psychology and astrology for consciousness research.

  12. Galilei's astronomical discoveries using the telescope and their evaluation found in a writing-calendar from 1611

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, K.-D.

    2009-06-01

    Yearly calendars were a mass-produced article in early modern times and had an enormous importance in everyday life. Besides a first part, the Calendarium with the monthly tables, they contain a second part, the astrological Prognosticum. At first, the two parts were sold separately. In the second half of the 17th century, the parts were designed as a unity and sold together. The calendars in quart format contain texts which are so interesting that historical research should give them more consideration. Such a text is found, e.g., in the second part of the calendar for 1611, written by Paul Nagel, astronomer and rector of the school in Torgau. Nagel informs about Galilei's discoveries with the telescope. The (Latin) text was written in August 1610. This text is presented and put into perspective in the scientific debates of the time about the telescope as a new invention with consequences to philosophy.

  13. [Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausiet, María

    2011-01-01

    One of the main obsessions of the early modern era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of religion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Enracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making "silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins". PMID:22368801

  14. Siddha medicine--background and principles and the application for skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thas, J Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Siddha medicine is one of the most ancient medical systems of India. Siddha is the mother medicine of ancient Tamils/Dravidians of peninsular South India. The word Siddha means established truth. The persons who were associated with establishing such a Siddha school of thought were known as Siddhars. They recorded their mystic findings in medicine, yoga, and astrology in Tamil. Fundamental Principles of Siddha include theories of Five Elements (Aimpootham), and Three Forces/Faults (Mukkuttram). The Eight Methods of Examination (Envakai Thervukal) is used to determine diagnosis, etiology, treatment and prognosis. Siddha has safe herbal and herbo mineral treatment for psoriasis, eczema, alopecia, diabetic ulcer, warts, vitiligo, pemphigus, pompholyx, leprosy, and many more very common and rare diseases. Lifestyle modifications including diet are important. PMID:18280906

  15. Astronomy across cultures the history of non-Western astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaochun, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  16. The inspiration of astronomical phenomena (INSAP). Proceedings. Conference, Rocca di Papa (Italy), 27 Jun - 2 Jul 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papers concern the inspiration provided by astronomy to the fields of art, philosophy, religion and various human cultures. Individual papers cover the following topics: the Qur'anic conception of astronomical phenomena on Islamic civilization, the Milky Way and society, the mythology and ritual of India, the Varanasi Sun temples, celestial bodies meanings in pre-Hispanic Mexico, the celestial basis of civilization, Mexican eclipse imagery, Chinese dynastic ideology - astrological origins, NW Europe stone rows, stars and seasons in southern Africa, the Pleiades and Hesperides, stars and philosophy, the search for extraterrestrial life, the significance of the pre-Copernican revolution, Judaeo-Christian revelation, Maria Magdalena - the Morning Star, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, stellar poetry, John Bauer's star-spangled fairy-tale world, Polish romantic poetry, the expansion of astronomical horizons, recent comet research and ancient sky implications, civilization Spenglerian model and punctuational crises, Anaxagoras and the scientist/laity interaction.

  17. [Jean Fernel and the humanist spirit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Jean-François

    2011-06-01

    Jean Fernel (1497-1558) embodied the humanist spirit of the Renaissance. He studied philosophy (especially Aristotle), astrology, arithmetic, mathematics and Latin literature before devoting his life to medicine. He conducted a comprehensive synthesis of the medical system of Galen, and invented the terms "physiology" and "pathology". His taste for teaching, his extensive clinical practice, his benevolent attitude to the sick, and his consideration for individuals and for human nature all contribute to Jean Fernel's image as a humanist. He was the most famous physician of his time, although his work relying on philosophy and galenic dogmatism eventually became obsolete. Forgotten for half a millennium, this distant precursor of holistic medicine is worthy of renewed interest. PMID:22530525

  18. Les doctrines de la science de l’Antiquité à l’âge classique. Louvain, Peeters, 1999.

    OpenAIRE

    Vesel, Živa

    2010-01-01

    Recueils d’articles consacrés à l’analyse de la formation des doctrines scientifiques, notamment sous l’angle de la philosophie. Les articles suivants concernent, ne serait-ce qu’en partie, l’histoire des sciences du monde iranien : R. Rashed, “Combinatoire et métaphysique : Ibn Sīnā, al-Tūsī et al-Halabī” ; R. Morelon, “Astronomie ‘physique’ et astronomie ‘mathématique’ dans l’astronomie précopernicienne” ; G. Saliba, “Astronomy and Astrology in Medieval Arabic Thought” et J. Jolivet, “Class...

  19. Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-04-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  20. [Author and time of writing of Shanghanlun Jujie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu-Ji; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Hong-Yan; Ding, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Li Wenjin (courtesy name of Xiangyi, the styled names as Zhian and Shujingtang Zhuren), lived in Xu Village, south of Tianyin Mountain, Jinling. He was born on the 47(th) year of the Kangxi Period (1708) and died approximately at the end of the Qianlong Period. Bold and generous, he liked making friends and practising medicine, divination, astrology, and also writing poetry and painting. Later he devoted himself to medicine and wrote Shanghanlun Jujie and Yijia 24 ze. Shanghanlun Jujie included Shanghanzabinglun Shujingtangqinjie (14 volumes) and Siwenji (7 volumes). The former one was written in 1768 and was his annotation of Shanghanlun. Siwenji included Shujingtang Gaidingzhushi Hanrewenpingyaoxingfu (4 volumes), Shujingtang Shenyizazhu (1 volume), Yiyao Zhenyan (1 volume) and Shujingtang Yiyaojian (1 volume) and was finished in 1765. PMID:23879985

  1. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century, PMID:22822609

  2. [The celestial phenomena in A. Dürer's engraving Melancholia I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The celestial body of Dürer's engraving Melencolia I is connected with his painting of a meteor, the Raveningham-painting; it is shown that the origin of this painting owns to the impact of the meteor of Ensisheim in 1492. Until now the celestial body, the balance, and the magic square are nearly consistently interpreted as the planet Saturn, the zodiac sign Libra, and the planet Jupiter, and the melancholy woman is subject to these heavenly bodies. Consequently, neoplatonic astrology has been the main focus of the engraving; including the rainbow, the engraving has also been interpreted biblically. The present paper, however, places emphasis on problems of the geometry as the reason of melancholy. Any astronomical meaning of the configuration of the numbers of the magic square is discarded. PMID:20336927

  3. Iatrosophia and an eighteenth-century oneirokritēs in the National Library of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhelman, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Medical dreams were not discussed by Greek popular dream interpreters, but were the domain of physicians like Hippocrates, Galen, and Rufus of Ephesus, or the followers of the healing god Asclepius. An exception is an oneirokrites (dreambook) in Codex 1350 of the National Library of Greece in Athens. This eighteenth-century text reflects Ottoman Greek iatrosophia. An iatrosophion, widely used in Byzantine and Ottoman Greece, was a physician's notebook of recipes and treatments or was the collective compendium of classical and Byzantine medical and pharmacological texts consulted in hospital settings. Some iatrosophia included medical cures and drugs, but also spells, exorcisms, magic, astrology, and practical advice. The writer of our oneirokrites used such a magico-medical iatrosophion. After interpreting a dream symbol, he often advises a prophylactic (usually dietary) cure or treatment for restoring or maintaining health, or recommends religious prayers and spells, or apotropaic magic. PMID:20695396

  4. Introduction to stereology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mark J

    2012-08-01

    Just as astrology became astronomy and alchemy became chemistry through the application of mathematics, descriptive anatomy can be expected to become more and more quantitative in nature. This article describes the basics of stereology, which provides meaningful quantitative descriptions of the geometry of three-dimensional (3D) structures from measurements that are made on two-dimensional (2D) images. With precise mathematical descriptions such as those that can be obtained with unbiased stereological techniques, it will be possible to make concise descriptions of the relationships between structure and function, of the dynamics of structure, and to reassert the importance of quantitative morphology as an essential part of the evaluation of biological tissues. PMID:22854572

  5. Is evaluating complementary and alternative medicine equivalent to evaluating the absurd?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greasley, Pete

    2010-06-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies such as reflexology and acupuncture have been the subject of numerous evaluations, clinical trials, and systematic reviews, yet the empirical evidence in support of their efficacy remains equivocal. The empirical evaluation of a therapy would normally assume a plausible rationale regarding the mechanism of action. However, examination of the historical background and underlying principles for reflexology, iridology, acupuncture, auricular acupuncture, and some herbal medicines, reveals a rationale founded on the principle of analogical correspondences, which is a common basis for magical thinking and pseudoscientific beliefs such as astrology and chiromancy. Where this is the case, it is suggested that subjecting these therapies to empirical evaluation may be tantamount to evaluating the absurd. PMID:20457720

  6. English literature’s change and revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宪

    2015-01-01

    <正>English literature’s change and revolution have five period:The Renaissance Period,The Neoclassical Period,The Romantic Period,The Victorian Period,The Modern Period.1.The Renaissance Period Generally,it refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th centuries.It first started in Italy,with the flowering of painting,sculpture and literature.From Italy the movement went to embrace the rest of Europe.The Renaissance,which means rebirth or revival,is actrally a movement stimulated by a series of historical events,such as the rediscovery of ancient Roman and Greek culture,the new discoveries in geography and astrology,the

  7. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  8. [A brief history of the natural causes of human disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips-Castro, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the causes of disease that have arisen during the development of humankind, one can distinguish three major perspectives: the natural, the supernatural, and the artificial. In this paper we distinguish the rational natural causes of disease from the irrational natural causes. Within the natural and rational causal approaches of disease, we can highlight the Egyptian theory of putrid intestinal materials called "wechdu", the humoral theory, the atomistic theory, the contagious theory, the cellular theory, the molecular (genetic) theory, and the ecogenetic theory. Regarding the irrational, esoteric, and mystic causal approaches to disease, we highlight the astrological, the alchemical, the iatrochemical, the iatromechanical, and others (irritability, solidism, brownism, and mesmerism). PMID:26581540

  9. Imhotep and the discovery of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. PMID:24744920

  10. Reviews Equipment: Chameleon Nano Flakes Book: Requiem for a Species Equipment: Laser Sound System Equipment: EasySense VISION Equipment: UV Flash Kit Book: The Demon-Haunted World Book: Nonsense on Stilts Book: How to Think about Weird Things Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Requiem for a Species This book delivers a sober message about climate change Laser Sound System Sound kit is useful for laser demonstrations EasySense VISION Data Harvest produces another easy-to-use data logger UV Flash Kit Useful equipment captures shadows on film The Demon-Haunted World World-famous astronomer attacks pseudoscience in this book Nonsense on Stilts A thought-provoking analysis of hard and soft sciences How to Think about Weird Things This book explores the credibility of astrologers and their ilk WORTH A LOOK Chameleon Nano Flakes Product lacks good instructions and guidelines WEB WATCH Amateur scientists help out researchers with a variety of online projects

  11. Elementi di astrologia nel Decameron censurato di Luigi Groto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lazar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The censored version of the Decameron by Luigi Groto, which was published in 1588, was already the third censorship of Boccaccio's masterpiece during the Counter-Reformation. As opposed to the other two censured versions, this one did not place emphasis on philological questions, but it tried above all to narratively fill the gaps created by expurgation; in some cases following the original plot and in the others changing it to such a degree that the novels remained barely recognizable. This article exposes some characteristics of Groto's mannerist style; especially the elements of astrology, which emerge in the expurgated parts of the text, and the way these elements function when inserted into Boccaccio's text.

  12. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  13. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  14. The first neurology book. De Cerebri Morbis...(1549) by Jason Pratensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestronk, A

    1988-03-01

    In 1549, Jason Pratensis published De Cerebri Morbis...(DCM), the first separate book on the general subject of neurologic disease. The publication of DCM reflected two trends in 16th century medicine: (1) interest in the anatomy and function of specific organs, and (2) retranslation of the works of Galen, who emphasized the primacy of the brain in behavioral and motor functions. Brain diseases in DCM were classified in terms of symptom complexes. Some of the 33 chapters discuss tremor, tetanus, vertigo, epilepsy, and hemicrania. Concepts of diseases, and their pathogenesis and treatment, reflected the writings of Greek, Roman, and Arabic authors, as well as newer concepts of astrology and pharmacy that were prevalent during the Renaissance. There were few new bedside or clinical observations in DCM. However, DCM is an important text, crystallizing several 16th century trends to provide the first compendium of brain disorders. PMID:3277602

  15. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Blomstedt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbowski (2013 suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned.

  16. Recovery of Ancient Math,a New Idea on the History of Math in Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasty%古数复原——明末清初数学史研究的一种思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋芝业

    2011-01-01

    Researches on the history of math in late Ming and early Qing dynasty has two defects,first,researches are not balanced enough,second,they lack of an overall grasp.The thought of recovery of ancient math need to be improved,the study of astrology should g%关于明末清初数学史的研究有两大缺陷,一是研究不够均衡,二是缺乏整体把握。需要推进古数复原思想,让数术研究走进数学史研究的视野,探索古代数学的文化蕴涵。

  17. Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-04-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons.

  18. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  19. SRI RAMSHALAKA: A VEDIC METHOD OF TEXT ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkishore Prasad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on which answers to queries are inferred and ingrained. However, none of the verses are visible and directly readable. Thus here we take SriRamshalakha as the ancient Indian method of text encryption and decryption and based on the same algorithms for the encryption and decryption of plain English text areproposed. The developed algorithms are presented with examples and possibility of its use in steganography and text to image transformation are also discussed.

  20. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. PMID:24744920

  1. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  2. A Course in Science and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard

    2009-04-01

    A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.

  3. N18, powder metallurgy superalloy for disks: Development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedou, J.Y.; Lautridou, J.C.; Honnorat, Y. (SNECMA, Evry (France). Materials and Processes Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    The preliminary industrial development of a powder metallurgy (PM) superalloy, designated N18, for disk applications has been completed. This alloy exhibits good overall mechanical properties after appropriate processing of the material. These properties have been measured on both isothermally forged and extruded billets, as well as on specimens cut from actual parts. The temperature capability of the alloy is about 700 C for long-term applications and approximately 750 C for short-term use because of microstructural instability. Further improvements in creep and crack propagation properties, without significant reduction in tensile strength, are possible through appropriate thermomechanical processing, which results in a large controlled grain size. Spin pit tests on subscale disks have confirmed that the N18 alloy has a higher resistance than PM Astrology and is therefore an excellent alloy for modern turbine disk applications.

  4. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  5. 论《史记·天官书》易学思想%Studies on the Views of Changes in The Biography of Astronomical Officials in Historical Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继宁; 朱君毅

    2015-01-01

    《史记·天官书》与易学思想有着较深的渊源。《天官书》所体现的天人思想、“变”的思想、象征和联想类比的星占方法等,是对易学思想的继承和发扬。%The views of Changes are the ideological origin of The Biography of Astronomical Officials in Historical Records. The harmony of man and nature, the ideology of changes, the astrological method of symbol, association and analogy in The Biography of Astronomical Officials in Historical Records carry on the views of Changes.

  6. The Books of Chilam Balam: astronomical content and the Paris Codex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, M.

    Written predominantly in the Maya language but almost entirely in European script, the Books of Chilam Balam are post-Conquest counterparts of pre-Columbian hieroglyphic codices. Not all of the texts have been fully analyzed. The Books of Chilam Balam is historical celendrical, astrological, prophetic, medical, and religious, these works offer promise of broad information on pre-Hispanic Maya practices. In reviewing the astronomical content of the sections of the Books of Chilam Balam identified in the Miram study as generally pre-Columbian in origin, it is evident that some passages contain complex metaphors. Thus it is possible to gain some understanding of the celestial concepts of the ancient Maya from the poetic and esoteric accounts. However, as much of this information may pass unnoticed by non-Mayans, the clearest insights concerning pre-Columbian Maya astronomy come from the sections of the Books of Chilam Balam that are more computational in nature.

  7. Abrahán Enseña astronomía: el prototipo bíblico del estudio del cómputo en las abadías Benedictinas de Cava de' Tirreni y Ripoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeiras González, M. A.

    In two miscellanies of computus from the abbeys of Cava de' Tirreni (XI century) and Santa María de Ripoll (XII century) an interesting illumination with the patriarch Abraham teaching three Egyptian disciples in secrets of cosmos was represented. The image, not documented in the Vulgata, is derived from a Jewish-Hellenistic tradition that presented Hebrews preceding Egyptians and Greeks in scientific knowledge. The representation of this subject is related to the teaching of astronomy in the Benedictine abbeys to determine the times (horas canonicae) and dates of Easter. But the Isidore's text which accompanies the illumination explains its real meaning: thanks to astrology, that had even practiced by Abraham, magicians were able to determine the birth of Christ. However this event put an end to superstition and was the beginning of Christian time.

  8. Cosmic Disasters, Real and Imagined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, humans have looked to the skies for explanations of past tragedies and predictions of the future. Indeed the very word "disaster” means "bad star". Although most such myths and forecasts are purely imaginary, we have, in more recent times, identified real cosmic impact events in the past and we have developed the necessary tools to discover and predict them in the near-term future. We dynamical astronomers, the direct descendants of ancient astrologers, have at last gained the tools to actually deliver on at least some of the promises of ancient astrologers, to predict "Armageddon” before it arrives. Nevertheless, we still carry some baggage of mythos, ancient disasters blamed on impacts that never happened, and obsessions over impacts of such incredible improbability that we would better worry about other things. In this talk I will review our present state of knowledge of what is out there that might hit us and with what frequency, the estimated consequences of impacts of all sizes, and from these derive an "actuarial” impact risk assessment. I will present the "intrinsic risk", before any Earth-approaching asteroids were discovered; where we are now with the present level of survey completeness; and where future surveys should take us. I will put this in the context of risk levels from other natural, and un-natural, hazards. I will close with a brief discussion of a claimed impact that almost certainly did not happen, relating to the extinction of megafauna in North America 12,900 years ago. The mythos underlying this claim may provide an object lesson on the present day "street fight” over the reality of global warming.

  9. Massartu: The Observation of Astronomical Phenomena in Assyria (7th Century BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, F. M.

    2011-06-01

    The term massartu is well attested in letters in cuneiform to and from the Neo-Assyrian court, written in the main in the 7th century BC. In itself, massartu is a general Akkadian term, meaning "watch, guard", but in the early 1st millennium BC it takes on two interesting semantic specializations, both of which are tied to the practical and political needs of the Assyrian empire. In astrological-astronomical terms, massartu denotes the wake, vigil, or watch for astronomical observations on the part of the court specialists: such a wake was required by the Assyrian king on a nightly basis, for the subsequent consultation of the vast compilation of omens called Enūma Anu Enlil, and the drawing of conclusions relating to the state of the empire and of the royal dynasty. Many interesting texts show us the workings of the massartu in the capital city Nineveh or in other cities of Mesopotamia. But massartu had also a wider meaning, "vigilance", which denoted the requirement, on the part of all the subjects of the king of Assyria, to keep their eyes and ears open, so as to be able to report to the king if anything untoward was taking place, whether in the capital city or in the most remote military outpost of the empire. Thus, in a way, the astrologers were expected to perform no more and no less than the collective duty of "vigilance" on behalf of the king-but with their eyes trained on the heavens, and in await for signs ultimately sent from the gods.

  10. Measuring Science Literacy in College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David; Buxner, S. R.; Antonellis, J.; King, C.; Johnson, E.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Initial results from a major study of scientific literacy are presented, involving nearly 10,000 undergraduates in science classes at a large Southwestern Land Grant public university over a 20-year period. The science content questions overlap with those in the NSF's Science Indicators series. About 10% of all undergraduates in the US take a General Education astronomy course, and NSF data and the work of Jon Miller show that the number of college science courses taken is the strongest predictor of civic scientific literacy. Our data show that gains in knowledge on any particular item through the time students graduate are only 10-15%. Among students who have taken most or all of their science requirements, one-in-three think that antibiotics kill viruses as well as bacteria, one-in-four think lasers work by focusing sound waves, one-in-five think atoms are smaller than electrons, and the same fraction is unaware that humans evolved from earlier species of animals and that the Earth takes a year to go around the Sun. The fraction of undergraduates saying that astrology is "not at all” scientific increases from 17% to a still-low 34% as they move through the university. Equally worrying, half of all science majors say that astrology is "sort of” or "very” scientific. Education majors - the cohort of future teachers - perform worse than average on most individual questions and in terms of their overall scientific literacy. Assuming the study institution is representative of the nation's higher education institutions, our instruction is not raising students to the level we would expect for educated citizens who must vote on many issues that relate to science and technology. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  11. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers) and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology) of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contents of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson's Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson's Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson's Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern) published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts that Choson

  12. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  13. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  14. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  15. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  16. Tibetan medicinal formulas used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Luna Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men-Tsee-Khang in Dharamsala, India, formally known as the Tibetan Medical and Astrological Institute (TMAI, is dedicated to the teachings and practice of Tibetan medicine, which uses therapeutic agents in multi-ingredient formulas. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to identify formulas used at Men-Tsee-Khang for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and to compare the Tibetan usage of particular ingredients with pharmacological data from the scientific database. Methods: Using ethnographic techniques and methods, five physicians were selected, and the interviews were conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. Results: A correlation was observed between central nervous system disorders and rLung, one of the three humors in Tibetan medicine, and 10 formulas used to treat the imbalance of this particular humor were identified. These formulas utilize 61 ingredients, including salts, animal products and plants. The 48 plant species identified in these formulas are traditionally used in Tibetan medicine and are deposited at the Men-Tsee-Khang Herbarium. Each formula treats several symptoms related to rLung imbalance, so the plants may have therapeutic uses distinct from those of the formulas in which they are included. Data from the scientific literature indicate that all of the formulas include ingredients with neuropsychiatric action and corroborate the therapeutic use of 75,6% of the plants. Conclusion: These findings indicate a level of congruence between the therapeutic uses of particular plant species in Tibetan and Western medicines.

  17. Luo Shu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ting Pat So

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feng Shui, still popularly practiced today, was closely related to philosophy, natural science, geography, environmental science, architecture, metaphysics, and astrology in ancient China. It is basically divided into the Form School and the Compass School. The latter deals with numerology, calculation, orientation, and time. Luo Shu [洛書], associated with the eight trigrams [八卦], being an ancient Chinese magic square, forms the foundation of the Compass School. The original Luo Shu, a 3 × 3 magic square, was not unique in ancient China but the extension of it to a total of 18 to 36 standard charts was unique, which are still used by all Compass School Feng Shui masters. In this article, modern linear algebra, developed only in the mid-19th century, is employed to prove that there is a strong coherence between the 36 charts if they are treated as 36 matrices and such correspondences conscientiously agree with ancient theories of Feng Shui. This article may help to form a scientific base for the systematic understanding, development, and further research of Luo Shu–related applications.

  18. Teaching evolution: challenging religious preconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Eric C; Kondrick, Linda C

    2008-08-01

    Teaching college students about the nature of science should not be a controversial exercise. College students are expected to distinguish between astronomy and astrology, chemistry and alchemy, evolution and creationism. In practice, however, the conflict between creationism and the nature of science may create controversy in the classroom, even walkouts, when the subject of evolution is raised. The authors have grappled with the meaning of such behaviors. They surveyed 538 students in a public, liberal arts college. Pre/post course surveys were analyzed to track changes in student responses to questions that were either consistent or inconsistent with the Theory of Evolution after a semester of instruction in a college biology or zoology course in which evolution was taught. Many students who were initially undecided about issues regarding evolution had shifted in their viewpoints by the end of the course. It was found that more education about the evidence for and the mechanics of evolutionary processes did not necessarily move students toward a scientific viewpoint. The authors also discovered a "wedge" effect among students who were undecided about questions pertaining to human ancestry at the beginning of the course. About half of these students shifted to a scientific viewpoint at the end of the course; the other half shifted toward agreement with statements consistent with creationism. PMID:21669781

  19. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics. PMID:24988759

  20. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda. PMID:19580108

  1. Hvězdářství krále Jana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Alena M.; Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena; Stluka, Martin

    The critical edition of the collection "King John's Astronomy" is based on the Old Czech manuscript written at the beginning of the 15th century which is preserved at the Library of the National Museum in Prague (ms. II F 14). The collection consists of several separate parts - first of all it contains astronomical and astrological treatises refering to Ptolemy's works. Explanations on the impact of the seven planets and twelve zodiacal signs on the fate of man, who was born under their influence, prevail in the texts. The texts which are connected with Hippocrates and Galenos' doctrines about humoral physiology and humoral pathology are another subject. They are supplemented by a treatise on blood-letting and by pharmaceutical instructions on different weight units. Another treatise deals with God, God's acts and with human fate. The manuscript also contains calendar tools for the calculation of Easter and other feasts during the year. The origin of this Old Czech text coincides with the period of the development of national languages as languages of science. Vocabulary contained in the manuscript is rich. It yields evidence about the formation of terminological systems in various fields involved in the collection. The Old Czech language of this literary monument exhibits unexpectedly archaic features. The present edition is a result of interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers from the fields of diachronic Bohemistics, classical philology, and astronomy. The publication is completed with the critical apparatus, indices, vocabulary, by a list of the chosen literature and other related supplements.

  2. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.

    2005-11-01

    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  3. Investigation on the Polar stars of "Tai Yi"%“太一”星象考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永恒

    2012-01-01

    According to the ancient records and archaeological materials,this artide notarized "Tai Yi" as the polar stars in 7 627 BC or 8 292 BC.It is conformed by a rock painting of 10,000 years ago in Shanxi province of China This article also dissuisses the changes of "Tai Yi"astrology.%文章对中国古代文化中的重要概念"太一"进行了天文学方面的考察,根据古代文献和考古资料确认了"太一"所对应的具体星象,其年代为公元前7 627年或公元前8 292年前后,而一万年前的山西吉县柿子滩岩画是"太一"的具体证据。并讨论了"太一"星象的演变。

  4. On the Origin of "White Tiger Unfavorable for Husband"%浅析白虎克夫的来由

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏锑平

    2012-01-01

    "白虎克夫"是中国一种历史悠久、流传甚广而又害人不浅的文化心理。这种恐惧心理产生的原因可以追溯到星相学中作为"灾星"的白虎和生物界几近绝迹的凶猛动物"白虎"。而最终把两者联系起来的则是因谐音而至以讹传讹的结果。其流行则是文化心理与民间习俗合力推动的结果。%" White tiger unfavorable for husband" is a long - time cultural mentality. It is argued that this vicious concept has much to do with astrology, where white tiger is considered evil and unlucky, and biology where white tiger is nearly extinct. The mentality is a joint consequence of cultural mentality and folk customs.

  5. Understanding Planets in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Veede

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available On our planet time flows evenly everywhere but the history as weknow it has different length and depth in every place. Maybe thedeepest layer of history lies in the land between Tigris and Eufrat –Mesopotamia (Greek ‘the land between two rivers’. Itis hard to grasp how much our current culture has inherited fromthe people of that land – be it either the wheel, the art of writing,or the units for measuring time and angles. Science and knowledgeof stars has always – though with varying success – been importantin European culture. Much from the Babylonian beliefs about constellationsand planets have reached our days. Planets had an importantplace in Babylonian astral religion, they were observed asmuch for calendrical as astrological purposes, and the qualities ofthe planetary gods were carried on to Greek and Rome.The following started out as an attempt to compose a list of planetstogether with corresponding gods who lend their names and qualitiesto the planets. Though it was easy to find such a list aboutGreece and Rome, texts concerning Mesopotamia included miscellaneousfacts subdivided into general categories only (e.g. Pannekoek1961. The reasons of this vagueness later became evident with thecompiling of such a table starting to look like Sisyphean work.

  6. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available It should be economical to divide the beliefs connected with the starry sky into four groups:I. Cosmological beliefs touch the creation or genesis of the world, beliefs of the world order, the end of the world. The starry sky and the constellations are something similar to icons for the initiated - a symbol, a prescript and an example at the same time. II. Cosmogonic beliefs of the genesis of the orbs, the creation stories of the Sun, the Moon, the planets, the Milky Way, the stars and constellations. The starry sky is something like an alive history-book, sometimes also a catalogue of moral processes. III. Meteorological beliefs reflect the concepts of the influence of the orbs on the environment - the weather and nature and through them, economy. In that case, the starry sky is a calendar with weather forecast. IV. Astrological beliefs touch the possible direct influence of the orbs on the society and individuals. The starry sky is an oracle written in a secret code, to be read only by the initiated who have been taken (celebrated, chosen out, etc. to teach and guide the rest. The current classification allows us to systematise and later also to compare the beliefs of a culture.

  7. Exploring the first scientific observations of lunar eclipses made in Siam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Orchiston, Darunee Lingling; George, Martin; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2016-04-01

    The first great ruler to encourage the adoption of Western culture and technology throughout Siam (present-day Thailand) was King Narai, who also had a passion for astronomy. He showed this by encouraging French and other Jesuit missionaries, some with astronomical interests and training, to settle in Siam from the early 1660s. One of these was Father Antoine Thomas, and he was the first European known to have carried out scientific astronomical observations from Siam when he determined the latitude of Ayutthaya in 1681 and the following year observed the total lunar eclipse of 22 February. A later lunar eclipse also has an important place in the history of Thai astronomy. In 1685 a delegation of French missionary-astronomers settled in Ayutthaya, and on 10-11 December 1685 they joined King Narai and his court astrologers and observed a lunar eclipse from the King's 'country retreat' near Lop Buri. This event so impressed the King that he approved the erection of a large modern well-equipped astronomical observatory at Lop Buri. Construction of Wat San Paulo Observatory - as it was known - began in 1686 and was completed in 1687. In this paper we examine these two lunar eclipses and their association with the development of scientific astronomy in Siam.

  8. Cognition and belief in paranormal phenomena: gestalt/feature-intensive processing theory and tendencies toward ADHD, depression, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Matthews, Justin; Asten, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Belief in paranormal phenomena and cryptids--unknown animals such as Bigfoot--may predispose individuals to interpret real-world objects and events in the same way that eyewitness identification can be biased by unrelated information (P. James and N. Thorpe, 1999). Psychological tendencies toward attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dissociation, and depression, even at subclinical levels, may be associated systematically with particular paranormal or cryptozoological beliefs. The authors evaluated these psychological tendencies using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (C. K. Conners, D. Erhardt, and E. Sparrow, 1999), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (L. Coleman & J. Clark, 1999), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, 1996). They performed regression analyses against beliefs in ghosts, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), extrasensory perception (ESP), astrology, and cryptids. ADHD, dissociation, and depression were associated with enhanced tendencies toward paranormal and cryptozoological beliefs, although participants who believed in each of the phenomena differed from one another in predictable and psychologically distinguishable ways. Cognitively biasing influences of preexisting psychological tendencies may predispose individuals to specific perceptual and cognitive errors during confrontation of real-world phenomena. PMID:17144153

  9. The Inner Meaning of Outer Space: Human Nature and the Celestial Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Hubbard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kant argued that humans possess a priori knowledge of space; although his argument focused on a physics of bodies, it also has implications for a psychology of beings. Many human cultures organize stars in the night sky into constellations (i.e., impose structure; attribute properties, behaviors, and abilities to objects in the celestial realm (i.e., impose meaning; and use perceived regularity in the celestial realms in development of calendars, long-range navigation, agriculture, and astrology (i.e., seek predictability and control. The physical inaccessibility of the celestial realm allows a potent source of metaphor, and also allows projection of myths regarding origin and ascension, places of power, and dwelling places of gods, immortals, and other souls. Developments in astronomy and cosmology infl uenced views of human nature and the place of humanity in the universe, and these changes parallel declines in egocentrism with human development. Views regarding alleged beings (e.g., angels, extraterrestrials from the celestial realm (and to how communicate with such beings are anthropocentric and ignore evolutionary factors in physical and cognitive development. It is suggested that in considering views and uses of the celestial realm, we learn not just about the universe, but also about ourselves. *

  10. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  11. FLORA OF CONCERN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANTS - PART I VATERIA INDICA LINN, DIPTEROCARPACEAE – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh K. R. Hari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine in India is resurrecting with a huge demand, with a number of new pharmacies sprouting out in the due course of time. Though the situation is promising to the Herbal practitioners, the increase in consumption of the flora in the name of medicine, timber etc. critically affects the Bio-diversity, there by drawing a plenty of indigenous plants to the endangered species list released by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Sarja (Vateria indica Linn. is one such Indigenous & Endemic plant species to the Western Ghats, which requires an urgent attention to be conserved. On critically analyzing the status of Vateria indica Linn. It was found to be over exploited & highly felled for the purpose of making Plywood’s. Datas reveal that a shocking rate of around 6200 tons of timber per annum was being used for the same purpose in the late 1960’s. Traditional medicine & Astrological sciences too yield references which make us understand its bondage with the culture and tradition of the country. This study is being undertaken to bring about awareness among the Herbal practitioners & Environmentalists to take Voluntary measures in conserving such Red listed plants, so that it would be made available to the generations to come. “Nature creates, human predates & only humane protects”.

  12. Tycho Brahe, Abu Mashar, and the comet beyond Venus (ninth century A.D.)

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Mugrauer, Markus; Luge, Daniela; van Gent, Rob

    2016-01-01

    From his observations of the A.D. 1572 super-nova and the A.D. 1577 comet, Tycho Brahe concluded that such transient celestial objects are outside the Earth's atmosphere, and he quoted the 9th century A.D. Persian astrologer and astronomer Abu Mashar: Dixit Albumasar, Cometa supra Venerem visus fuit, i.e. that he had reported much earlier that comets were seen beyond Venus. However, even from a more detailed Latin translation, the observations and logic behind Abu Mashar's conclusion were not understandable. We present here the original Arabic text (MS Ankara, Saib 199) together with our translation and interpretation: Abu Mashar reported that he had observed Venus in (or projected onto) the tail of a comet and concluded that the comet was behind Venus, because he had observed the extinction of Venus due to the cometary tail to be negligible (light of Venus was unimpaired). He then concluded that the comet would be located behind Venus. He also mentioned that others had observed Jupiter and Saturn in cometary...

  13. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  14. Eclipse prediction in Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, J. M.

    2000-02-01

    Among the many celestial phenomena observed in ancient Mesopotamia, eclipses, particularly eclipses of the Moon, were considered to be among the astrologically most significant events. In Babylon, by at least the middle of the seventh century BC, and probably as early as the middle of the eighth century BC, astronomical observations were being systematically conducted and recorded in a group of texts which we have come to call Astronomical Diaries. These Diaries contain many observations and predictions of eclipses. The predictions generally include the expected time of the eclipse, apparently calculated quite precisely. By the last three centuries BC, the Babylonian astronomers had developed highly advanced mathematical theories of the Moon and planets. This paper outlines the various methods which appear to have been formulated by the Mesopotamian astronomers to predict eclipses of the Sun and the Moon. It also considers the question of which of these methods were actually used in compiling the Astronomical Diaries, and speculates why these particular methods were used.

  15. [Kitab Rahasia Hari dan Bintang]: ‘Ilm al-Nujūm ‘inda al-Muslimīn min Qabīlah Sasak

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    Suprapto Suprapto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript that became the study of this article is the text Kitab Rahasia Hari dan Bintang (The Book on the Mysteries of Days and Stars which originated from the island of Lombok, in the province of Nusa Tenggara Barat. A part of the Sasak community still uses the contents of the text in their daily lives. Among the important uses of this text is for starting important activities such as building a house, determining the day of a wedding, sailing, trading and also in starting the planting season. The Sasak community uses the calculation of the days in the manuscript that, in local terminology, is often called diwase. Aside from that, the presence of this manuscript, written in the Arabic alphabet pegon, also explains many important things about the transmission of Islamic knowledge from its centre in the Middle East to the archipelago. The transmission process for Islamic knowledge in the archipelago did not only happen in the three main fields of fiqh, kalām, and taṣawwuf, but also in the field of Islamic astrological knowledge which acculturated with local culture.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v19i3.358 

  16. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

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    Wing Lam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art, mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. Martial arts such as Cantonese Hung Gar (Hong Family and Hasayfu Hung Gar (Hong Family Four Lower Tigers dedicate a portion of their systems to achieving awesome strength and speed, and to imitating the tiger’s physical prowess. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

  17. Reorganização de saberes tradicionais em Los sorias, de Alberto Laiseca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Ravetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste estudo, propõe-se uma consideração sobre a reformulação de saberes tradicionais em termos não metafísicos na obra do escritor argentino Alberto Laiseca, Los sorias (1998, construída a partir da convergência dos temas das religiões, da magia e da astrologia, lado a lado com outros saberes em face de (deshierarquização. Palavras chave: Literatura hispano-americana; literatura argenti­na; romance contemporâneo; ficção científica. Abstract: In this study, we propose a consideration on the reformulation of traditional knowledge in no metaphysical terms in the work of Argentine writer Alberto Laiseca, Los sorias (1998, constructed from the convergence of the themes of religion, magic and astrology alongside with other knowledge in the face of de-hierarchization. Keywords: Argentine literature; contemporary romance, science fiction, Spanish American literature.

  18. Hinduism and death with dignity: historic and contemporary case examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Rajan; Cahners, Nancy; Mitchell, Christine; Forrow, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 1.2 to 2.3 million Hindus live in the United States. End-of-life care choices for a subset of these patients may be driven by religious beliefs. In this article, we present Hindu beliefs that could strongly influence a devout person's decisions about medical care, including end-of-life care. We provide four case examples (one sacred epic, one historical example, and two cases from current practice) that illustrate Hindu notions surrounding pain and suffering at the end of life. Chief among those is the principle of karma, through which one reaps the benefits and penalties for past deeds. Deference to one's spouse or family is another important Hindu value, especially among Hindu women, which can impact the decision-making process and challenge the Western emphasis on autonomy. In addition, the Hindu embrace of astrology can lead to a desire to control the exact time of death. Confounding any generalizations, a Hindu patient may reject or accept treatments based on the individual patient's or family's interpretation of any given tradition. Through an awareness of some of the fundamental practices in Hinduism and the role of individual interpretation within the tradition, clinicians will be better able to support their Hindu patients and families at the end of life. PMID:25794293

  19. La teología de la luz de Guerrico de Igny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hallet, S.J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El beato Guerrico de Igny nos ha dejado 54 sermones. Uno de los temas recurrentes de su doctrina espiritual es el de la luz, que proviene del Padre Celestial, se encarna en Jesucristo, ardió en esas lámparas llamadas Juan Bautista, los magos y Simeón, y sigue iluminando toda la historia de la salvación, brillando en las diferentes acciones de sus actuales discípulos. Pensador original, el célebre abad cisterciense enriquece con sus aportes personales una teología de la luz que se encontraba ya esbozada en Orígenes, Agustín, el Pseudo Dionisio, Casiano y BernardoBlessed Guerrico de Igny has left us 54 sermons. One of the recurring themes of his spiritual doctrine is that of light, which proceeds from the Celestial Father, is incarnated in Jesus Christ, burned in those luminous figures called John the Baptist, the astrologers and Simon, and continues to brighten all of salvation history, shining in the different actions of his current disciples. An original thinker, the celebrated Cistercian abbot enriches with his personal contributions a theology of light that was already found outlined in Origen, Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, Cassian and Bernard

  20. Political astronomy: Comet and meteor observations by Muslim historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander Kapoor, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    Eclipses and unexpected phenomena like comets, meteors, novae and earthquakes were viewed among various cultures as violating the established order of the heavens. They were considered to be ill omens for kings and emperors and were routinely monitored. The present work looks into the texts of history and literature by Muslim historians and chroniclers in West Asia and India that carry stray references to such phenomena. The accounts often relate the apparitions to specific disastrous events or prognosticate revolts, deaths, epidemics, earthquakes all that that took place in later times. Obviously, the occurrences interested the astrologers more. Comet appearances would last for days and weeks but nearly all the writings lack sequential observations. Meteor showers are annual features but the Islamic calendar being lunar would not easily lead one to notice periodic nature of the incidents, let alone sensing a periodicity in comet appearances. These are non-astronomy texts with little scientific content but being from different ages permit us to see how the astronomical perceptions changed over the times. The recorded details and firm chronology, tested against modern back calculations, can provide valuable information on them, keeping in mind the text and the context in which the original reference was made. We also notice a qualitative change in the Indian writings of the 18th century and later where the authors begin to show up with influence of exposure to the European scientific progress.

  1. Practical Divinity and Medical Ethics: Lawful versus Unlawful Medicine in the Writings of William Perkins (1558–1602)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between “lawful” and “unlawful” medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  2. An observation planning algorithm applied to multi-objective astronomical observations and its simulation in COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic sky surveys are now booming, such as LAMOST already built by China, BIGBOSS project put forward by the U.S. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) telescope developed by the United States, Mexico and Spain. They all use or will use this approach and each fiber can be moved within a certain area for one astrology target, so observation planning is particularly important for this Sky Surveys. One observation planning algorithm used in multi-objective astronomical observations is developed. It can avoid the collision and interference between the fiber positioning units in the focal plane during the observation in one field of view, and the interested objects can be ovserved in a limited round with the maximize efficiency. Also, the observation simulation can be made for wide field of view through multi-FOV observation. After the observation planning is built ,the simulation is made in COSMOS field using GTC telescope. Interested galaxies, stars and high-redshift LBG galaxies are selected after the removal of the mask area, which may be bright stars. Then 9 FOV simulation is completed and observation efficiency and fiber utilization ratio for every round are given. Otherwise,allocating a certain number of fibers for background sky, giving different weights for different objects and how to move the FOV to improve the overall observation efficiency are discussed.

  3. Starry Cities and Astrolies - Books to communicate with the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-06-01

    Extragalactic worlds have been presented as star cities in a book of original design - STARRY CITIES - galaxies and time travel, the first book about galaxies written in Serbian for the general public. This book isn't written just for those interested in science, but for all kind of artists, philosophers and thinkers. A second book, ASTROLIES deals with common confusions concerning astronomy and astrology. These two books don't only offer interesting illustrations, data from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories - they induce, by provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, a sense of adventure and a challenge to explore. The publisher of both books is the oldest and the biggest publisher of text-books in Serbia, Zavod za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva2, currently celebrating 50 years in publishing (1957-2007). They already publish a dozen books in popular astronomy, but a special astronomical series for the general public was introduced in 2004. STARRY CITIES and ASTROLIES are part of the ongoing multidisciplinary project Astronomy. Inspiration. Art that started at the end of 2004 at the Public Observatory in Belgrade. This project intends to inspire (or perhaps even "infect") artists with cosmic themes and the fantastic scenery of the Universe.

  4. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics.

  5. Hinduism and death with dignity: historic and contemporary case examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Rajan; Cahners, Nancy; Mitchell, Christine; Forrow, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 1.2 to 2.3 million Hindus live in the United States. End-of-life care choices for a subset of these patients may be driven by religious beliefs. In this article, we present Hindu beliefs that could strongly influence a devout person's decisions about medical care, including end-of-life care. We provide four case examples (one sacred epic, one historical example, and two cases from current practice) that illustrate Hindu notions surrounding pain and suffering at the end of life. Chief among those is the principle of karma, through which one reaps the benefits and penalties for past deeds. Deference to one's spouse or family is another important Hindu value, especially among Hindu women, which can impact the decision-making process and challenge the Western emphasis on autonomy. In addition, the Hindu embrace of astrology can lead to a desire to control the exact time of death. Confounding any generalizations, a Hindu patient may reject or accept treatments based on the individual patient's or family's interpretation of any given tradition. Through an awareness of some of the fundamental practices in Hinduism and the role of individual interpretation within the tradition, clinicians will be better able to support their Hindu patients and families at the end of life.

  6. Low cycle fatigue of PM/HIP astroloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, S.J.; Stoloff, N.S.; Duquette, D.J. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    Low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue-environment interactions of PM/HIP Astrology were studied at 650 C and 725 C. Total strain range was varied from 1.5% to 2.7% at a frequency of 0.3Hz. Creep-fatigue tests were performed with 2 min. or 5 min. tensile hold times. All tests were run in high purity argon in an attempt to minimize environmental effects. Employing a tensile hold was more damaging than raising temperature by 75 C. Slopes of Coffin-Manson plots were nearly independent of temperature and hold time. Raising temperature from 650 C to 725 C did not change the transgranular (TG) crack propagation mode, whereas employing hold times caused TG+IG propagation. All samples displayed multiple fracture origins associated with inclusions located at the specimen surface; pre-existing pores did not affect fatigue crack initiation. Examination of secondary cracks showed no apparent creep damage. Oxidation in high purity argon appeared to be the major factor in LCF life degradation due to hold times.

  7. Anania Shirakatsi's Cosmographical and Natural Philosophical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielyan, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    The observation of the heaven and celestial bodies has taken place since ancient times in the Armenian Highland. The notions of the sphericity of the Earth and celestial bodies, and other theses (about elements, comparative sizes of celestial bodies, antipodes, earthquakes, criticism of astrology, etc.) were reflected and elaborated in "Cosmography" of Anania Shirakatsi (VII century AD), as well as "Ashkharhatsoyts" ("Geography") of Movses Khorenatsi (V century AD) and his continuer Anania Shirakatsi. The road of observation and study of the Milky Way - the fundamental kernel of the development of astronomy - has led the human mind to galaxies, the cognition of the infinite capabilities of the development of matter, that is to say, from the studies of the elements constituting the Earth and other spherical bodies in the Universe (studied by Aristotle) to the Heliocentric system by Copernicus (1473-1543), from the cosmogonic ideas of Democritus (460-370 BC) about the multitude of worlds and the character of the Milky Way and their reflection in natural philosophic views of Anania Shirakatsi to the discovery of non-stationary objects and processes in the Universe owing to the activity of the nuclei of galaxies, according to the cosmogonic conception of academician Victor Ambartsumyan. Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage greatly contributed to the development of Armenian and world natural scientific thought.

  8. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  9. Stars come down to Earth As estrelas descem à Terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Brandão Carneiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stars come down to Earth — A little known essay by Theodor W. Adorno, Stars Come Down to Earth is a study about horoscopes and superstition, written in the form of an analysis for the astrology column of the Los Angeles Times in the early 1950s. The German philosopher points out that the texts offered to the reader are an amalgam of the rational and the irrational, revealing the frankly ideological meanderings of their object. Obra não muito conhecida de Theodor W. Adorno, As estrelas descem à Terra é um estudo sobre horóscopo e superstição, originalmente dirigido à coluna de astrologia do Los Angeles Times do início dos anos 1950. O filósofo alemão, pontuando os textos oferecidos aos leitores como um mistura entre o racional e o irracional, revela os meandros do caráter francamente ideológico de seu objeto.

  10. Sociology of religion and the occult revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The "new" that makes the cults of the occult revival to "new religions" of the Western world, is their recently increased social significance. Historically most of modern occultism is anything but new. From the research and theorizing about the occult revival we have picked up some main themes. The first is the social diffusion of the new occultism. In this field, we find some studies of superstition, especially astrology. These illuminate the differences in social connotation between the consumers of superstition and the followers of institutional religion. Secondly the study of the occult revival has made valuable contributions to the conceptualizing of "cult" and the cultic phenomenon. Thirdly, we will look upon the connection between the occult revival and the counter-culture. The problem of the rise of cults as a symptom of socio-cultural change will be briefly discussed with reference to Bell's thesis of "the disjuntion of culture and social structure". Lastly, we proffer some reflections on the occult revival and the new spiritual trends in the churches, which so sharply contrast with the theology and churchmanship of the sixties.

  11. Astronomical Books and Charts in the Book of Bibliographie Coreenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu

    2008-06-01

    We investigate astronomical materials listed in the book of Bibliographie Coréenne written by Maurice Courant. He classified ancient Korean books into nine Divisions (?) and thirty six Classes (?), and published them as three volumes (ranging from 1894 to 1896) and one supplement (in 1901). In total, 3,821 books including astronomical ones are listed together with information on physical size, possessional place, bibliographical note, and so forth. Although this book is an essential one in the field of Korea bibliography and contains many astronomical materials such as Cheon-Mun-Ryu-Cho ????, Si-Heon-Seo ??????, and Cheon-Sang-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ????????, it has not been well known to the public nor to astronomical society. Of 3,821 catalogues, we found that about 50 Items (?) are related to astronomy or astrology, and verified that most ! of them are located in the Kyujanggak Royal Library ???. We also found an unknown astronomical chart, Hon-Cheon-Chong-Seong-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ??????????. Because those astronomical materials are not well known to international astronomical community and there have been few studies on the materials in Korea, we here introduce and review them, particularly with the astronomical viewpoint.

  12. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Allen I.

    2008-01-01

    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  13. DOES SURŪRĮ HAVE A BOOK CALLED “AĤKĀM-I NÜCŪM”? / SURŪRĮ’NĐN AĤKĀM-I NÜCŪM ĐSĐMLĐ BIR ESERĐ VAR MI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hakan YAMAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the famous scientists of the Kanuni period, GeliboluluSururi, gained his reputation by his commentary-books and his translations.His commentaries to “Mesnevi” and “Sebistan-i Hayal” which made himfamous, his books in Arabic and Farsi and his translations from theselanguages can be mentioned as major parts of his work. Although it is notexactly known how many books he published, total number of his books areassumed to be around 30 including his translations and compilations. One ofhis translations was famous cosmology book of the time “Kitabü’l-aca’ibve’l-Gara’ib” by Kazvini. Although most of the sources about “Sururi” claimhim to author a book about “ilm-i nücum” (science of stars, the mentionedbook is unfortunately not available in any library. In this article we will try toverify whether Sururi really authored an astrology book, making use ofdependable sources available.

  14. Women, medicine and life in the Middle Ages (500-1500 AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, S

    1994-01-01

    The status of women in the Middle Ages was ambiguous, because although they had great responsibility and expertise in practical affairs they were viewed as chattel and inferior to men. They were skilled in cookery, often of highly spiced dishes using a variety of ingredients and flavorings, and they were taught the use of medicinal herbs. They were often skilled in simple first aid, though they were not allowed to practise outside the home. An important exception of this was Hildegarde von Bingen, whose Physica brought her great renown. In it she became the first woman to discuss plants in relation to their medicinal properties. For most people in the Middle Ages, treatment revolved around herbs and diet, together with faith and holy relics and the use of (forbidden) pagan incantation and ritual. Astrology was often a necessary adjunct to treatment. In Salerno, however, medicine had been practised from classical times, and medical training could last for 7 years or more. One of the greatest medieval medical texts is the Tacuinum Sanitatis, which describes in detail the 6 essentials for the preservation of man's health. Several vegetables and herbs are mentioned in connection with the kidneys, the picking and preparation of which are imbued with magic. PMID:7847475

  15. Monastic incorporation of classical botanic medicines into the Renaissance pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucelli, R J

    1994-01-01

    Ancient Greek physicians believed that health resulted from a balance of natural forces. Many, including Dioscorides, made compilations of plants and medicines derived from them, giving prominence to diuretics, cathartics and emetics. During the Roman Empire, although Greek physicians were highly valued, the Roman matron performed many medical functions and magic and astrology were increasingly used. In Judaic and later Christian societies disease was equated with divine disfavor. After the fall of Rome, the classical Greek medical texts were mainly preserved in Latin translation by the Benedictine monasteries, which were based around a patient infirmary, a herb garden and a library. Local plants were often substituted for the classical ones, however, and the compilations became confused and inaccurate. Greek medicine survived better in the remains of the Eastern Roman Empire, and benefitted from the influence of Arab medicine. Intellectual revival, when it came to Europe, did so on the fringes of the Moslem world, and Montpellier and Salerno were among the first of the new medical centers. Rather than relying on ancient experts, the new experimental method reported the tested effects of substances from identified plants. This advance was fostered by the foundation of universities and greatly aided by the later invention of the printing press, which also allowed wider dissemination of the classical texts. PMID:7847452

  16. The last ride of Henry II of France: orbital injury and a king's demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Kian; Choe, Christina H; Vagefi, M Reza; Eckstein, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    Jousting was a popular pastime for royalty in the Renaissance era. Injuries were common, and the eye was particularly at risk from the splinters of the wooden lance. On June 30, 1559, Henry II of France participated in a jousting tournament to celebrate two royal weddings. In the third match, Gabriel de Montgomery struck Henry on the right shoulder and the lance splintered, sending wooden shards into his face and right orbit. Despite being cared for by the prominent physicians Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, the king died 10 days later and was found to have a cerebral abscess. The wound was not explored immediately after the injury; nevertheless, wooden foreign bodies were discovered in the orbit at the time of autopsy. The dura had not been violated, suggesting that an infection may have traveled from the orbit into the brain. Nostradamus and Luca Guarico, the astrologer to the Medici family, had prophesied the death of Henry II of France, but he ignored their warnings and thus changed the course of history in Renaissance Europe. PMID:25890627

  17. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

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    Céline Coderey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  18. A Flame of Nezami’s Language

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    Heidarali Dahmardeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nezami’s Poem is in the front rank of poetry. He always attempted to choose the best words- fine words using beautiful words and expressions. His poetry is enriched by his power of imagination and awareness of the common knowledge and beliefs of the time. The common features of his speech includes a unique use of the words-word choice, creating new compounds, compounding- description, repetition, emphasis, transformation, omission, using Quranic verses, Islamic hadiths and Arabic compounds, expressions of astrology and medicine, adages, proverbs and idioms regularly used by ordinary people. He is a poet familiar with the language of ordinary people and their beliefs, customs and traditions. Since he rightfully attended to the spoken language and because of his particular style of speech, his works are full of street talks to the extent that this propery can be viewed as the prominent stylistic feature of his poems. He took advantage of the common sciences of the time and utilized the scientific, astrological and medical terms and also the technical meanings and themes of these sciences. His imagination and awareness of the sciences and beliefs made his poems productive. Some of the features of his poems are as follow:   1- Imagery : Imagery refers to producing pictures, paintings or shows in the mind of readers /listeners using words. That is, the poet or writer should have such mastery over using words, space, meanings and their relations that makes him able to effectively use the sentences and words to create paintings, pictures or shows in the mind of readers or listener, to enable the reader to imagine a real painting or picture when he is over with his reading.    2- Diction : Experts of language issues and grammar beliefs that word coining can strengthen the foundation of language. So, the first premise in creating fine text is to choose musical words appropriate for the given text and meaning. In the first step, melodic

  19. Theodorus Graminaeus. Een wiskundige in dienst van de contrareformatie

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    Rienk Vermij

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Theodorus Graminaeus, a mathematician in the service of the Counter-Reformation Theodorus Graminaeus (ca. 1540-1596 offers an example of the fluid status of mathematics and its practitioners in the early modern period. Born at Roermond, Graminaeus studied at Cologne, where he became a professor of mathematics in 1566. As a professor, Graminaeus also acted as printer and publisher of mathematical, religious and other works. In 1575 he obtained a licentiate in law. Around the same time, he became tutor of Johann Wilhelm, crown prince to the United Duchies of Jülich, Cleves and Berg. In 1582, he left his position at the university of Cologne and appears to have entered the service of Johann Wilhelm full time. After the latter’s succession as duke (1592, Graminaeus got an administrative position in the duchy of Berg. Graminaeus wrote a dozen works on a variety of subjects, including the calendar, comets, the Antichrist, witches, and publicity for the dukes of Cleves. He did not aim at exactness and objectivity. Even his mathematical works bear the stamp of his religious beliefs and embody religious and political values. Tycho Brahe (who refuted Graminaeus’s work on the nova of 1572 at some length already felt that they lacked rigour. Graminaeus felt he lived in a very dark age. He had witnessed the religious troubles at his birthplace, Roermond, in 1566-1567 and since that time abhorred Protestantism. In his work, he tried to read the signs of the time by finding patterns in world history based on astrological models and ancient prophecies. (In this, he appears not to have been unique among Catholics at Cologne. At the court of Cleves, he put himself decidedly on the side of the Roman-Catholic faction. As the Counter- Reformation, led by the Jesuits, gained momentum in the United Duchies, his expectations became somewhat less gloomy.

  20. 汉代“荧惑”星占及其政治功能探析%The Study on Martian Divination and Its Political Function in the Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄尽忠

    2016-01-01

    荧惑(火星)自古以来就被人们视为灾星,在汉代星占学上备受关注。其占辞多与兵、丧、饥馑、疾疫等灾害紧密相联。在天人感应思想的影响下,荧惑入太微、守心、守犯舆鬼和南斗及与其他行星合犯等严重失行天象都被视为重要灾难降临的征兆,成为大臣、儒学经师等劝谏帝王修身养德、推行仁政的重要借口,在两汉时期的政治运作中发挥着极其独特的作用。%Mars was regarded as a bane since ancient time and received much attention in Astrology of the Han dynasty deducing diction was closely related to the war, funeral, famine and disease, etc. Under the influence of the thought of heaven and the astronomical phenomena deviated seriously from normal orbit included the Mars enter the Supreme Palace Enclosure, Mars stayi Antares, Mars staying or violating Ghosts and the Southern Dipper, and join or violate with other planets weer deemed to signs of co of greet disaster. These become important excuse that ministers and Confucian classics persuaded the emperors to cultivate their mind and carry out the policy of benevolence, it plays a most special role in political operation of the Han dynasty.

  1. A Renaissance celestial globe as an analogue computer for determination of the coordinates on the heaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, Lajos

    Around 1480 the Dominican astronomer and instrument maker Hans Dorn in Castle Buda (Budapest) built a copper celestial globe. This globe is a composite instrument, suited to mark the position of celestial bodies - - i.e. comets, planets, etc. - directly on the star-globe, and to locate the stars represented on the globe in the sky. The globe has a diameter of 39.5 cm and gives the fixed stars according to Ptolemy. The main circles are set in for the celestial equator and ecliptic. On the top of the vertical meridian circle (divided into 4 x 90^o) is a planispheric astrolabe on a strong perpendicular axis. On the reverse side of the astrolabe the altitude arcs can be set by a diopter. Two quadrants with arc-scales protrude downward in horseshoe shape, parallel to the globe, from the bottom of the astrolabe. The divided quadrants parallel to the disk of the astrolabe point to the horizontal 'calendar' disk of the globe and can be turned with the astrolabe to indicate the azimuth. When the globe is adjusted to a given instant of time, the position of a celestial body can be determined by turning the astrolabe and the diopter to the object. The quadrant then shows - with the 'calendar' disk and the quadrant's graduation seen parallel to the mater - the position on the globe either for a planet, a comet, or even a fixed star. Both globe and astrolabe enable one to fix the position of the heavenly bodies directly without the necessity of coordinate transformation. Father Dorn (Saxonia, ca.1425 - Vienna, after 1509) built the combined `analogue computer globe' for the court astrologer of the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, magister Martinus Olkusz z Bylica (also called Martinus Ilkusz). Today the globe is in the Museum of Collegium Maius at Cracow.

  2. Ransom, Religion, and Red Giants: C.S. Lewis and Fred Hoyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Famed fantasy writer C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was known to friends as a well-read astronomy aficionado. However, this medieval scholar and Christian apologist embraced a pre-Copernican universe (with its astrological overtones) in his Chronicles of Narnia series and defended the beauty and relevance of the geocentric model in his final academic work, "The Discarded Image". In the "Ransom Trilogy” ("Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength") philologist Ransom (loosely based on Lewis's close friend J.R.R. Tolkien) travels to Lewis's visions of Mars and Venus, where he interacts with intelligent extraterrestrials, battles with evil scientists, and aids in the continuation of extraterrestrial Christian values. In the final book, Ransom is joined by a handful of colleagues in open warfare against the satanic N.I.C.E. (National Institute for Coordinated Experiments). Geneticist and evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane criticized Lewis for his scientifically inaccurate descriptions of the planets, and his disdain for the scientific establishment. Lewis responded to the criticism in essays of his own. Another of Lewis's favorite scientific targets was atheist Fred Hoyle, whom he openly criticized for anti-Christian statements in Hoyle's BBC radio series. Writer and Lewis friend Dorothy L. Sayers voiced her own criticism of Hoyle. In a letter, Lewis dismissed Hoyle as "not a great philosopher (and none of my scientific colleagues think much of him as a scientist.” Given Lewis's lack of respect for Hoyle, and use of creative license in describing the planets, and the flat-earth, "geocentric” Narnia, it is surprising that Lewis very carefully includes an astronomically correct description of red giants in two novels in the Narnia series ("The Magician's Nephew" and "The Last Battle"). This inclusion is even more curious given that Fred Hoyle is well-known as one of the pioneers in the field of stellar death and the properties of red giants.

  3. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest III Vana-Hiina

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    Enn Kasak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns Chinese astral myths, calendar and astrology. Chinese creation myths concern also the creation of the Sun, Moon and stars. The heavenly bodies are constantly endangered by the sky dragon that now and then catches them, probably a reference to eclipses. Cosmology existed in Ancient China in the same sense as in Ancient Greede, though many ancient books were burned on the emperor's orders in 213 BC. Teaching of the endless sky emerged in the Han era, while in 1 century AD the theory of endless empty space was formulated. For the majority of Chinese history, astronomers were in the service of the country - studying and interpreting heavenly phenomena. The Chinese divided the heavenly sphere into several hundred little constellations of one to ten stars. They used the so-called Lunar Zodiac that contained 28 xiu or homes of the Moon but also the Sun Zodiac. Myths concerned the stars and their naming. Heavenly processes were believed to influence the earthly. From China come the earliest observations of solar eclipses and comets. The earliest registered solar eclipse is dated in 720 BC. There are also records about ceremonies dedicated to solar eclipses. Halley's comet has been sighted and recorded since 12 BC at its every passage, but irregularly already since 240 BC. The very first comet descriptions come from 1057-1056 BC. Chinese chronology is based on imperial eras: the inauguration of every emperor started a new era. The Chinese lunar-solar calendar was improved via constant observations. Seasons were determined by the position of the Ursa Major at dawn. The length of synodic months at the time was 29.5 days and a topic year 366 days. A supplementary month was added according to a 19-year cycle. Chinese calendar achieved its contemporary form in 7th-10th centuries.

  4. Esportazione di un modello poetico orientale. L’esempio dello haiku nella letteratura spagnola ultima

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    Giuliana Calabrese

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As explained by George Steiner in Nostalgia for The Absolute (1974, after the decline of the formal religious systems and of the major theories-mythologies of the XIX-XX centuries as  well (Marxism, Freudian psychoanalysis and Lévy-Straussian anthropology, in Western culture it has appeared a great moral and emotional  emptiness. In order to avoid this condition, Western emptiness has often been replaced with “irrational waves” of supernatural concepts as astrology, occultism and Orientalism.Thanks to this perspective, an Oriental cultural model can be used in Western society and find a new onset in an artistic form such as short poetry (already used in Western literature by the great Latin-American masters José Juan Tablada, Octavio Paz, Jorge Luis Borges and by some of the Spanish poets of the so called Generación del 27. In Spain, in the last decade, thanks to the Eastern model, the haiku, an example of short poetry, has been a recurring model in the youngest poets’ literature but also in their predecessors’ poetry.The aim of this paper is to present a way among some writings of haiku, that in these last years has become an inevitable model in the exclusive practice and in combination with other poetic forms as well. We will see how poets use haiku in a standard way (the description of a moment of contemplation of nature but also how they apply haiku’s philosophy to the Western context. Spanish poets as Josep María Rodríguez, Aurora Luque or Manuel Lara Cantizani show how Eastern legacy can gain a greater and greater power, even if, in some cases, its aesthetical-poetical essence has been adapted to the Western Postmodern context that practices it.

  5. PROSAIC TEXTS OF ABBÂS VESIM AND INVESTIGATING OF THE POEMS IN THESE TEXTS

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    İbrahim HALİL TUĞLUK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish Literature has been formed by effect of Persian literature to a large extent and formed its own language and so had a large important period of Turkish literature. Basic expression means of this literature is poetry. Prose has been always in the shadow of poetry and second class, in fact prosaic texts are usually about didactical subjects just as history, geography, science of religion, astronomy, medicine and biography. Prosaic wording has also differences in the context of purpose and content. An important feature of prose form is its effort to approach to poetry form. Harmony in language that is constituted by rhythm especially approached prose texts to poetic wording further. Studies about these poetic texts in prosaic texts are quite important in points of confirming statistics of poetic texts in Classical Turkish prose literature, retaining, meaning and harmony combinations that have been established by poetry in prose and also designating classical cultural substructure of Ottoman. There are a lot of scholar and craftsman who came into prominence by their literal and scholarly identity in Ottoman history. Abbâs Vesȋm is among the people who lived in 18th century and had these features. His works must be investigated in many aspects because of these features. In this context, it is important to research poetical sections of his works about medicine and astrology that Abbâs Vesȋm wrote except literature in the sense of confirming poetical wording in prosaic texts and designating wording features in prosaic texts.In this study, it is aimed to search the prosaic works of Abbâs Vesȋm who is poet of 18th century, confirm the copies, transcript of poetic sections in these works and search these works in the sense of form and content.

  6. Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual Alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausiet, María

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main obsessions of the Early Modern Era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and the unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of re ligion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Engracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making «silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins».

    Una de las principales obsesiones de la Edad Moderna consistió en determinar las nociones de verdadero y falso para aplicarlas a los distintos campos del saber y, de ese modo, fundamentar la separación entre lo lícito y lo prohibido. Dicha tendencia iba a afectar especialmente a los terrenos de la religión y la ciencia, haciéndose necesario distinguir no sólo verdaderos y falsos espíritus, reliquias o milagros, sino también verdaderos y falsos astrólogos y alquimistas. Situada a caballo entre el idealismo y el materialismo, la alquimia ejemplificaba especialmente dichas tensiones, como se comprobará a través del proceso incoado en 1593 contra un fraile del monasterio jerónimo de Santa Engracia de Zaragoza, a quien su prior acusó de fabricar «plata de humo y joyas de trasgos».

  7. Music Inspired by Astronomy: A Selected Listing for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2008-11-01

    Part of the aim of the International Year of Astronomy is to show the connections between astronomy and other areas of human culture. Such connections are easily found in music, where astronomical ideas have found a wide range of expression. This is not a comprehensive listing, but a sampling of some of the pieces that are available on CD's, and that may be of particular interest to educators and astronomy enthusiasts. To qualify for the list, a piece (or the composer's vision for it) has to include some real science and not just an astronomical term in the title or in a few lyrics. For example, we do not list The Planets, by Gustav Holst, since it treats the astrological view of the planets. And we regret that Philip Glass' opera Galileo is not available on CD and therefore cannot be listed. Nor do we include the thousands of popular songs that use the moon or the stars for an easy rhyme or a quick romantic image. And, while many jazz pieces have astronomy in the title, it is often hard to know just how the piece and the astronomy go together; so we've sadly omitted jazz too. For those with old-fashioned ears, like the author, we note that no warranty is made that all these pieces are easy to listen to, but each takes some key idea from astronomy and makes music out of it. A more comprehensive discussion can be found in my article in Astronomy Education Review: http://aer.noao.edu/cgi-bin/article.pl?id=193

  8. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  9. Oassi sámi noaidevuođa birra Kaspar Peucera čállosis Commentarius de praecipuis divinationum generibus (Wittenberg 1560: Teakstakritihkalaš hámis jorgalusain ja kommentáraiguin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Pippin Aspaas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The text on Sami shamanism in Caspar Peucer’s Commentarius de praecipuis divinationum generibus (Wittenberg 1560: Critical edition, with translation and commentary. Among the sources dealing with the shamanistic skills of the Sami (formerly Lapponian population, a certain text by Kaspar Peucer has so far been little known. This man of extreme learning was the son-in-law of Philip Melanchthon and a Professor at the University of Wittenberg. A true polyhistor, well versed in Medicine, Geography, Astrology, Theology, etc., Peucer included in his chef-d’oeuvre on divination an elaborate description of the shamanism of the so-called Pilappii. The present article offers a critical edition of this text, based on the editions of Wittenberg 1560 (A, 1572 (B, 1580 (C, as well as Zerbst 1591 (D and Frankfurt 1593 (E. In addition to translations into North Sami and Norwegian (see Appendix, some contextualisation is offered, which can be summarised as follows: A similar testimony on shamanism is found in the Historia de gentibus Septentrionalibus by Olaus Magnus (Rome 1555. However, that text is not elaborate enough to prove that Kaspar Peucer has copied his description from him. It is more likely that some student among the considerable number of Swedes, Finns and Norwegians that were immatriculated at Wittenberg University in the years following the Reformation, presented this account to Peucer. Many details in the account make it strikingly similar to Sami folk narratives that have been assembled several centuries later. For example, the description of maritime Sami by Anders Larsen (1870–1949, the Sami book by Johan Turi (published 1910 and Sami songs (joik that were collected by Jacob Fellman in the 1820’s can be compared with Peucer’s account. Peucer himself, however, categorised the shamanism of the Sami as a form of theomanteia, i.e. a form of magic which he considered to originate not from the true God, but from the Devil.

  10. Powder metallurgy of turbine disc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingesten, N.G. (Dep. of Engineering Metals)

    1981-03-01

    The first part embraced a study of carbide precipitated in IN 100 and astrology powders. The powder was heat treated at temperatures between 950/sup 0/C and 1150/sup 0/C. After aging at 950-1100/sup 0/C the MC-carbides formed during atomization were replaced by M/sub 23/C/sub 6/-carbides. After 1150/sup 0/C treatments the MC carbides were present again. Precipitation comparable with that obtained in HIP:ed specimens was not observed at free particle surfaces. However, powder particles which had agglomerated during atomization often exhibited considerable precipitation at contiguous surfaces. Obviously, contact between the particles must occur if coarse precipitation at particle surfaces is to develop. Reduced PPB-precipitation was obtained by pre-heat- treatment of powder before compaction. It is suggested that the carbon otherwise available for PPB-precipitation forms carbides in the interior of the powder particles. The aim of the second part was to ..gamma..-strengthen a Co-based super-alloy (Co-15Cr-3Mo-5Ti). Here the Ti-addition gives a coherent and ordered ..gamma..-phase Co/sub 3/Ti. However, upon ageing the alloy is unstable in order to increase the stability modifications of the alloy were prepared by: leaving out the Mo-content, adding 10 % Ni and by decreasing the Ti-content to 4.2 %. In addition, the effect of enhanced grain size and of deformation was investigated. Significant reduction of the transformation rate was only obtained by decresing the Ti-content while deformation of the alloy greatly increased the transformation rate.(author).

  11. End-of-the-World: Using Science to Dispel Public Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    2013-10-01

    Polls taken in mid-2012 indicated that 10% of Americans did not expect to survive the “end of the world” on 12/21/12. Children were especially vulnerable, and some contemplated suicide. Comets Elenin and ISON also attracted apocalyptic fears. Elenin was blamed for the several earthquakes, including the Fukushima mega-quake of 03/11/11. Such fears, which seem to harp back to earlier centuries, are now widely promulgated by the Internet and cable TV, where dozens of “documentaries” are shown every week dealing with UFOs, aliens, astrology, and a variety of cosmic threats. In this talk I recount some of my experiences and those of other scientists leading up to the 12/21/12 doomsday. We made a big effort to defuse these fears, and to warn teachers and parents that a substantial fraction of their children were in danger of being taken in by the 2012 hoax. This experience is just one example of an anti-science trend that seems to be growing in the U.S. and around the world. Prime examples are the creationist efforts to deny evolution, the similar tactics of the global warming denialists, and health hoaxes such as homeopathy and the anti-vaccination movement. As scientists, we should consider how best to communicate real science to the public, and when to “go negative” to fight against pseudoscience. We must recognize the presence of powerful anti-science forces that are well funded and skillful at exploiting new communication tools enabled by the Internet. This is a challenge for all of us.

  12. Relations between Eastern Four Pillars Theory and Western Measures of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the validity of personality classification using four pillars theory, a tradition in China and northeastern Asia. Materials and Methods Four pillars analyses were performed for 148 adults on the basis of their birth year, month, day, and hour. Participants completed two personality tests, the Korean version of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short Version (TCI) and the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; scores were correlated with four pillars classification elements. Mean difference tests (e.g., t-test, ANOVA) were compared with groups classified by four pillars index. Results There were no significant correlations between personality scale scores and total yin/yang number (i.e., the 8 heavenly or earthly stems), and no significant between-groups results for classifications by yin/yang day stem and the five elements. There were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.29) correlations between the five elements and personality scale scores. For the six gods and personality scales, there were significant but weak (r=0.18-0.25) correlations. Features predicted by four pillars theory were most consistent when participants were grouped according to the yin/yang of the day stem and dominance of yin/yang numbers in the eight heavenly or earthly stems. Conclusion Although the major criteria of four pillars theory were not independently correlated with personality scale scores, correlations emerged when participants were grouped according to the composite yin/yang variable. Our results suggest the utility of four pillars theory (beyond fortune telling or astrology) for classifying personality traits and making behavioral predictions. PMID:25837175

  13. Tycho Brahe, Abū Macshar, and the comet beyond Venus (ninth century A.D.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Kunitzsch, Paul; Mugrauer, Markus; Luge, Daniela; van Gent, Rob

    2016-05-01

    From his observations of the A.D. 1572 super-nova and the A.D. 1577 comet, Tycho Brahe concluded that such transient celestial objects are outside the Earth's atmosphere, and he quoted the 9th century A.D. Persian astrologer and astronomer Abu Mashar: Dixit Albumasar, Cometa supra Venerem visus fuit, i.e. that he had reported much earlier that comets were seen beyond Venus. However, even from a more detailed Latin translation, the observations and logic behind Abu Mashar's conclusion were not understandable. We present here the original Arabic text (MS Ankara, Saib 199) together with our translation and interpretation: Abu Mashar reported that he had observed Venus in (or projected onto) the tail of a comet and concluded that the comet was behind Venus, because he had observed the extinction of Venus due to the cometary tail to be negligible (light of Venus was unimpaired). He then concluded that the comet would be located behind Venus. He also mentioned that others had observed Jupiter and Saturn in cometary tails, so that those comets would even be located beyond those two outer planets - in the sphere of the stars. The dates of the observed close conjunctions were not mentioned; using known orbital elements for a few comets, we found a few close conjunctions between comets and planets from A.D. 770 to 868, but we cannot be sure regarding which conjunctions were reported. While the argument of Abu Mashar is not correct (as cometary tails are optically thin), parts of the conclusion - namely that comets are outside the Earth atmosphere and beyond the moon - is correct. This may have helped Tycho Brahe to come to his revolutionary conclusion.

  14. Patrum erga filiam amor luctuosus. L’espressione funebre dell’amore familiare nella poesia di Giovanni Pontano e Jan Kochanowski. Paralleli e ispirazioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Urban-Godziek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrum erga filiam amor luctuosus: Mournful Expression of Family Love in the Poetry of Giovanni Pontano and Jan Kochanowski. Parallels and Inspirations The early modern tradition of poetry dedicated to family love was started by Giovanni Pontano. He used the tradition of Roman love elegy in order to write the collection De amore coniugali (On Conjugal Love. Some of the poems were addressed to Pontano’s wife, Ariadna, while others were elegies and lullabies (Naeneiae addressed to his children and suffused with powerful emotions. The subject of family love reverberates also in his mournful poetry, for instance in the collection Tumuli consisting of mournful epigraphic elegies. There is significant evidence indicating that Jan Kochanowski had Pontano’s poetry in mind when he was writing one of the most original early modern funeral cycles, Treny. The cycle was devoted to his thirteen-month- ?old daughter Urszula. In Tren II he distinctly refers to the author of Naeniae and Tumuli, even though he does not mention his name. Moreover, the influence of the astrological poem Urania becomes noticeable in the mode of using mourning topoi and the plot of Treny. Characteristically, the final part of Urania was devoted to Pontano’s daughter Lucia, who had died at the age of thirteen. The elaborate humanistic discourse on the philosophical vision of the world, which is an ideologically significant part of Kochanowski’s oeuvre, had its precedent in Pontano’s poetry. The relationship sheds new light on the range of Kochanowski’s reading and the reception of Pontano’s work in Poland. The ending of both cycles reflects the influence of Petrarch’s Canzoniere on the poets: Pontano and Kochanowski refer to the sonnets from the cycle In morte di Madonna Laura, which involve metapoetical issues.

  15. Contraceptive product advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, A

    1985-07-01

    In the US, all national broadcast networks refuse to accept ads for contraceptive products. About 10 years ago, the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), a trade association, inserted a ban on contraceptive ads in its advertising code for member stations. The ban was voluntary, but all NAB stations adhered to it. When the NAB dropped its advertising code in 1982, for legal reasons unrelated to contraceptive advertising, individual networks established their own codes. These codes continued the ban on contraceptives along with bans on ads for cigarettes, X-rated movies, sex magazines, and astrology services. In recent years, a few local radio and television stations and cable networks began accepting contraceptive ads. The ads, which are tasteful and straightforward, met with little or no public disapproval. Given that the national television networks through their programming willingly expose viewers to an estimated 9230 sexual acts or references a year, it is hard to understand why they persist in refusing to air contraceptive ads or to allow any references to contraceptive use in their programming. There are some hopeful signs. A number of national organizations are now publicly urging the networks to drop their ban. These organizations include the American College of Nurse-Midwives, the American Jewish Congress, and the Society for Adolescent Medicine. The Center for Population Options recently organized a task force to promote contraceptive advertising. The task force is composed of representatives from a wide range of national organizations, including the American Public Health Association and the National Urban League. The task force developed guidelines for the production and selection of contraceptive ads. The guidelines state that ads must provide accurate and clear information on product effectiveness, present comparisons with other products fairly, advise users to read all instructions, and inform listeners if there is an effectiveness waiting

  16. Ideas. A History: From Fire to Freud. 2. ed.; Ideen. Eine Kulturgeschichte von der Entdeckung des Feuers bis zur Moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, P.

    2005-07-01

    In this hugely ambitious and exciting book Peter Watson tells the history of ideas from prehistory to the present day, seeking a new way to tell the history of the world. The book begins over a million years ago with a discussion of how the earliest ideas might have originated. Looking at animal behaviour that appears to require some thought tool-making, territoriality, counting, language (or at least sounds), pairbonding Peter Watson moves on to the apeman and the development of simple ideas such as cooking, the earliest language, the emergence of family life. All the obvious areas will be tackled the Ancient Greeks, Christian theology, the ideas of Jesus, astrological thought, the soul, the self, beliefs about the heavens, the ideas of Islam, the Crusades, humanism, the Renaissance, Gutenberg and the book, the scientific revolution, the age of discovery, Shakespeare, the idea of Revolution, the Romantic imagination, Darwin, imperialism, modernism, Freud right up to the present day and the internet. (orig./GL) [German] Beginnt die Ideengeschichte der Menschheit, als die Fruehmenschen erstmals Feuer machen, vor ca. 1,8 Millionen Jahren? Oder schon mit dem ersten Faustkeil vor etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahren? Warum entwickelte sich vor 40 000 Jahren eine komplexe Sprache? Wie kamen das Minus- und das Plus-Zeichen in die Vorstellungswelt, und wie entstand das Bild vom Paradies? Peter Watson laedt ein zu einer Expedition durch die abenteuerliche Welt menschlicher Ideen. Vom ersten Feuer, dem ersten Werkzeug und den ersten Worten ueber die Geburt der Goetter, die ersten Gesetze und die Entwicklung grosser Zentren von Wissen und Weisheit bis hin zu den umwaelzenden Ideen der Moderne: das Groesste und das Kleinste, das Selbst-Bewusstsein des Individuums und die Entdeckung des Unbewussten. Dabei ordnet Watson die riesige Materialfuelle nach drei zentralen Ideen, die fuer ihn die Geschichte der Menschheit praegen: die Seele, mehr als die Idee von einem Gott, Europa, mehr als das

  17. Arnaldo Da Villanova medieval physician (1235-1311). A first approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Biagio; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Arnaldo de Villanova, was a Catalan Physician, born in Villanova de Grau, a suburb of Valencia - Spain about 1235. He died off the coast of Genoa in 1311 during a sea voyage departing from Messina in Sicily, during a diplomatic mission by Pope Clement V in Avignon on orders by the King of Sicily. He was a so famous and clever scientist of the thirteenth century, to give his name to the Universitary Hospital of Montpellier - France. His interests ranged from theology, to politics, medicine, and anymore alchemy. He was an adviser and physician of Kings of Aragon, like Peter III the Great (1276-1285) and James II the Right (1285-1327), of Robert of Angi (1309-1343) of Naples, and of Popes, like Innocenzo V (1276), Bonifacio VIII (1294-1303), Benedetto XI (1303-1304), Clemente V (1305-1314), and of the King of Sicily Federico II of Aragon (1296-1337). For the Pope Bonifacio VIII, suffering from renal colic due to kidney stones, he prescribed Hydrotherapy with Fiuggi Thermal water, that was specially transported for him from its source to Rome and Anagni, in jars wrapped in coarse carpets or wool fabrics, to better maintain the source temperature. In addition in July of 1301, he also produced an astrological seal (Talisman) made of gold loaded of virtues, obtained exposing the seal to the power of the Sun, in those days in the Leo Constellation. This seal was worn by the Pope in an hernial belt of leather to support the kidney,probably to improve hisnephroptosis. Arnaldo produced this seal according to what was described in the book Picatrix - The goal of the wise of the Arabic astronomer and alchemist "Abū l-Qāsim Maslama b.- Ahmad al-Majriti, known with the pseudonym Ghayat al hakim died in Cordova about 1008. Ten years later, after his mysterious death at sea on a Sicilian royal ship, his body was not buried at sea, but was reported in Sicily and buried in the Federician Castle of Montalbano of Elicona at the end of Peloritans Mountains near Milazzo, about 90 km

  18. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  19. Introduction of health administrations at the end of the Qing dynasty%试论清末卫生行政机构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽娟

    2001-01-01

    During the new policy and reform of constitutionality from 1901 to 1911 at the end of the Qing dynasty, there were the contents of health administrations. A special independent organization was affiliated to the Ministries of Police and Civil Administration. The central health administration refers to the Health Section of Police, which was promoted to a Department after the Police Ministry changed to Civil Administration, including three sections: health, quarantine and arts of necromancy, astrology, and medicine. The duties of these three sections included checking the establishment of medical schools, testing doctors, administrating cleaning streets and epidemic prevention, examining and approving health rules. A Health Department was set up by the police headquarters of inner and external city in the capital, and health section was set up by police of each province. There was a police head in government of county to charge the health works. It was the first health administration in the bureaucracy system in China, and the beginning of learning from the west and modernization on health administration.%1901年到1911年清末新政、筹备立宪改革中,有卫生行政内容,卫生行政无专门独立机构,附属在巡警部、民政部里。中央卫生行政机构指巡警部的卫生科,巡警部改为民政部后,卫生科升为卫生司,下设保健、检疫、方术三个科,其职掌为考核医学堂之设置,考验医生,管理清道、防疫,审定卫生、保健章程。京师内、外城巡警总厅设卫生处。各省巡警道设卫生课。州县佐治官设警务长一员,掌卫生事宜。自此,我国卫生行政始借鉴西方逐步向现代化演进。

  20. India's mission to Mars cost less than the movie Gravity: Multidimensional View in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Meenu; Kumar, Pawan; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    Over the years, Mars has been the centre of attraction for science fiction writers, Hollywood movie makers, astrologers, astronomers and the scientific community. For scientists and technologists, Mars continues to be an enigma. This is essentially because even tough humans have dreamt for long about human colonisation of Mars. Indian space programme had a very humble beginning during the early 1960s. India launched its first satellite in 1975 with assistance from the erstwhile USSR. India achieved the status of space-faring nation2 by 1980, and by the end of 2014 has launched around 75 satellites. India has become the first nation to reach Mars on its maiden attempt after its Mars Orbiter Mission completed its 10-month journey and successfully entered the Red Planet's orbit. The Mars Orbiter Mission, a low-cost 74 million project, blasted off from Earth on November 5, 2013, aboard an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. At its initial stage, the rocket booster placed the probe into Earth's orbit before the craft fired the engines to break free of Earth's gravity en route to Mars. This is India's first mission into such deep space to search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. But the mission's primary objective is technological-if successful, the country will be joining an elite club of nations: the United States, Russia and Europe. India is becoming known for low-cost innovation in diverse fields such as healthcare and education. The technological capability being demonstrated and the knowledge gained from the operations of the mission will be invaluable in future developments and also in the training of the flight operations and mission control staff. All of this capability can be carried forward to future launches and operations. The sustained presence of methane observed by previous missions suggests that an active production mechanism is at work, most likely tectonic in nature, although there are some suggestions that it may point to a biological origin

  1. The stars, the moon, and the shadowed earth: Viennese astronomy in the fifteenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James Steven

    This dissertation is a study of astronomy at the University of Vienna from the beginning of the fifteenth century through the career of Johannes Regiomontanus (d. 1476), the university's most celebrated astronomer. Regiomontanus and his mentor Georg Peurbach (d. 1461) established a framework for the practice of astronomy, including the linkage of cosmology to astronomy, attempts to correct the errors and ambiguities of the medieval astronomical tradition, a renewed interest in Ptolemy's Almagest , and a program of observations intended as a basis for the reform of planetary tables and models, that remained in place for the more celebrated astronomical achievements of the following century. This study traces the roots of this framework to astronomical teaching at the University of Vienna in the first half of the fifteenth century, as well as its expansion by Regiomontanus as he moved from Vienna to Italy, Hungary, and Germany. Chapter One provides background for the reader unfamiliar with medieval, Ptolemaic astronomy, and also argues that the shift described in the next chapter was, in part, motivated by astrological concerns. Chapter Two demonstrates that, by the middle of the fifteenth century, Viennese astronomy had come to incorporate a significant element of Aristotelian cosmology. Chapter Three examines fourteenth- and fifteenth-century responses to the Theorica planetarum , the most common astronomical teaching text at medieval universities, arguing that university astronomers were capable of identifying and addressing problems with the Theorica in a sophisticated manner. Chapter Four argues that the seemingly contradictory aspects of Regiomontanus's astronomical career can be understood as all contributing to a program of reform that encompassed both the correction of astronomical tables on the basis of new and comprehensive observations as well as the construction of homocentric planetary models to replace the venerable Ptolemaic system. Chapter Five shows

  2. Problems of the Modern Romanian Astronomy: TELEROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin; Minti, Harry; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu

    2011-06-01

    Cercetare") the TELEROM project was finally rejected and its funding was lost, after 10 months of discussions and granted funding! Other problems, such as the proliferation of the astrology between Romanian professional astronomers, a reduced weight of physicists between Romanian professional astronomers in comparison with mathematicians, as well as very reduced issue from the professional Romanian astronomers in international journals in the last years and the intellectual theft of publications have been also discussed in this 4 TV series presented by the weekly astronomy show "We and the Sky" of Columna TV (in Romanian).

  3. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  4. Arnaldo Da Villanova medieval physician (1235-1311). A first approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Biagio; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Arnaldo de Villanova, was a Catalan Physician, born in Villanova de Grau, a suburb of Valencia - Spain about 1235. He died off the coast of Genoa in 1311 during a sea voyage departing from Messina in Sicily, during a diplomatic mission by Pope Clement V in Avignon on orders by the King of Sicily. He was a so famous and clever scientist of the thirteenth century, to give his name to the Universitary Hospital of Montpellier - France. His interests ranged from theology, to politics, medicine, and anymore alchemy. He was an adviser and physician of Kings of Aragon, like Peter III the Great (1276-1285) and James II the Right (1285-1327), of Robert of Angi (1309-1343) of Naples, and of Popes, like Innocenzo V (1276), Bonifacio VIII (1294-1303), Benedetto XI (1303-1304), Clemente V (1305-1314), and of the King of Sicily Federico II of Aragon (1296-1337). For the Pope Bonifacio VIII, suffering from renal colic due to kidney stones, he prescribed Hydrotherapy with Fiuggi Thermal water, that was specially transported for him from its source to Rome and Anagni, in jars wrapped in coarse carpets or wool fabrics, to better maintain the source temperature. In addition in July of 1301, he also produced an astrological seal (Talisman) made of gold loaded of virtues, obtained exposing the seal to the power of the Sun, in those days in the Leo Constellation. This seal was worn by the Pope in an hernial belt of leather to support the kidney,probably to improve hisnephroptosis. Arnaldo produced this seal according to what was described in the book Picatrix - The goal of the wise of the Arabic astronomer and alchemist "Abū l-Qāsim Maslama b.- Ahmad al-Majriti, known with the pseudonym Ghayat al hakim died in Cordova about 1008. Ten years later, after his mysterious death at sea on a Sicilian royal ship, his body was not buried at sea, but was reported in Sicily and buried in the Federician Castle of Montalbano of Elicona at the end of Peloritans Mountains near Milazzo, about 90 km

  5. Ar galime priskirti pretekstą Oktaviją Senekai? Can we attribute the Praetexta Octavia to Seneca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Dikmonienė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the problems of the authorship of the Roman tragedy Octavia. The aim of the article is to introduce and analyse research carried out by scientists on the problems of the authorship of Octavia and to answer to the question on whether this praetexta could have been written by Seneca.For literary critics the greatest doubt about the authorship of Seneca’s Octavia raises the shadow of Agrippina, Nero’s dead mother, who correctly foretells the death of Nero – the emperor will become a victim of revenge and be killed by being stabbed in the neck. The doubt stems from the fact that Seneca had died three years before Nero. However, the future revenge is defined using typical words (iugulum dare – jab to the throat, which are used by Seneca in his other tragedies to describe non-heroic death, such as in Agamemnon (43, Oedipus (1036–1037, Thyestes (721–723, etc. So iugulum dare can be treated as locus communis in Seneca’s tragedies, meaning revenge, violent death. On the other hand, according to historians (Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Seneca was aware of the planned assassination of Nero in 65 CE by Piso’s conspirators. At the beginning of a conspiracy, conspirators would gather to talk about Nero’s crimes and Seneca maintained close relationships with many of them. Therefore, Seneca could have written Octavia at the beginning of 65 CE and read it at the gathering of Piso’s circle, where everyone spoke of Nero’s crimes supporting the need for a conspiracy.Nero’s dethronement was also predicted by astrologers. Rolando Ferri doubts whether astrologers could have predicted to the Princeps that he would become a criminal (animam nocentem sceleribus (Octavia, 630 and fugitive (turpem fugam (Octavia, 620. It is these two lines of Octavia, according to Ferri, that do not allow attributing Octavia to Seneca. The author of the article argues Ferri’s claims. If Seneca wrote the praetexta in the spring of 65 CE when Piso

  6. Concepts of Simultaneity From Antiquity to Einstein and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, F A [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for the History and Foundations of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht University P.O Box 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-10-05

    Concepts of Simultaneity (henceforth: Simultaneity) is Jammer's historical monograph dedicated to the development of a single concept in physics. Jammer's idea to write a history of concepts of simultaneity proves to be a wonderful idea: it makes Simultaneity literally unique in its kind and it provides a new perspective from which to look at the historical development of concepts of time, about which much has already been written. Anyone who believes that Einstein was the first person on planet Earth to reflect on how to establish whether two distant events have occurred at the same time, i.e. simultaneously, will stop believing this after having read chapters 2 and 3 of Simultaneity (chapter 1 consists of terminological preliminaries), which deal with Antiquity and the Middle Ages, respectively. For example, Augustine of Hippo anticipated, in his Confessions (397 C.E.), nothing less than the method to determine the simultaneity of distant events that we associate with Einstein. Augustine set out to criticise the heresy of astrology. He considered two infants being born simultaneously in distant places. According to the doctrines of astrology they should lead very similar lives, because they are born under the same constellation of the stars. Yet one infant, Augustine imagined, is the child of a poor maid servant whereas the other is the child of a rich lady, so that they would almost certainly lead very different lives. How to know whether the infants are born simultaneously? Augustine proposed to dispatch, at the moment of birth, two messengers who run equally fast from the houses were the babies were born (whether they do run equally fast can be ascertained by using only local simultaneity judgments); the messengers should run towards each other in order to see whether they meet 'at equal distance from either house' (p. 49). If so, the infants were born simultaneously. Of course, this will not be very accurate, but that is not the point. The

  7. Osmanlı’da Zaman-Mekân Kavrayışının Değişimi; Edebi Metinler Üzerinden Bir İrdeleme Change In The Ottoman Space-Time Conception; An Inquiry Through Ottoman Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl UÇMAN ALTINIŞIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study entitled “Change in Ottoman Space-Time Conception:An Inquiry Through Ottoman Literary Texts”, proposes a noveldiscussion on the transformation of Ottoman practices from pre-modernto modern times with the use of recently discovered archival and literarytexts which has been neglected so far in the techno-cultural and socioculturalresearches. In that sense, “change in the Ottoman space-timeconception” is one of the pivotal parameters in order to scrutinize thetransformation of everyday life practices in respect to the changingcontextual phenomena of the pre-modern and the modern, and thispaper attempts to go beyond the prevalent approach of consideringindustrial revolution as the pre-requisite of discussing the socialtransformations brought by modernity. One of the main objectives ofthis study is to examine and visualize the technological, social andcultural processes experienced in the daily life practices that arespecific to the Ottoman realm in relation to the space-time conception.Based on this conceptual framework, the first part named “Müneccims,Muvakkits and the Auspicious Moments: Ottoman Space-TimeConception Before 19th Century” intends to expose the „pre-modernOttoman system‟ in relation to temporal space-time conception rootedin cosmology and nature. Accordingly, the second part under the title“New Space-Time Conception and Modernity in Ottoman Realm” aims toscrutinize the Ottoman experience of modernity in tune with the erosionof cosmological units derived from empirical observation.In this sense „cosmology, astrology (ilm-i nücum, astronomy (ilm-iheyet‟, „müneccimbaşılık ve müneccimler (chief astrologer and theastrologers, „müneccimbaşı takvimleri (chief astrologer calendars‟,„zayiçe (horoscope ve eşref saat (auspicious moment‟ and „muvakkitler,muvakkithaneler‟ are phenomena to be studied. As they display theoperations of the Ottoman psycho-social structure, these

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Tycho Brahe and Prague: Crossroads of European Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Christianson, J. R.; Hadravová, A.; Hadrava, P.; Solc, M.

    2003-01-01

    The 16th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of the International Symposium on the History of Science in the Rudolphine Period. The meeting was held in Prague from 22 to 25 October 2001, on the 400th anniversary of Tycho's sudden death, and was attended by approximately 65 scientists and historians. The volume contains 36 contributions dealing with the life and work of Tycho Brahe, the astronomy of the era, and many cultural aspects of Rudolphine Prague. One of the first papers is an eye-opener on the fact that Tycho Brahe was a cosmologically-driven observer. This is followed by a very illuminating paper on gender roles in science in the late 16th century, with emphasis on the role of Sophie Brahe, Tycho's youngest sister. Several subsequent papers reveal the existence of barely known links between Tycho and his contemporaneous colleagues. These extremely-well documented papers also deal with the broader philosophical investigation he was involved in, viz. meteorology, medicine, astrology, alchemy and even theology. Important names of Tycho's days are Petrus Severinus, Johannes Pratensis, Theophrastus Paracelsus, John Craig, Ursus (Nicolai Reymers Baer) etc. Very illuminating is the information on the relations between Tycho and the Jesuits in Prague, explaining the reason why this order was very supportive of the Tychonic cosmological model. The relationsship with Kepler, and also Kepler's observational activities (after Tycho's death) are highlighted as well as the hideous mode of communication between Galileo and Kepler. More than one paper deals with the accuracy and precision of Tycho's observations, and the causal impact of this accuracy on the scientific revolution. Another study discusses the study of Tycho's handwriting, this paper brings the aditional bonus of a list of accessible works which contain notes by him. One very interesting project was Brahe's proposal to the Republic of Venice to determine the exact latitudes of

  9. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Widget Jones's Highgate science week diary Saturday 17 March Alcohol units 20 (but all went up in flames—what a waste!), smoke—lots (but none from cigarettes!) (g. though possible concern about passive inhaling) Who needs a hangover when you've got crazy Highgate School chemist 'Zbig' Szydlo launching Science Week with exploding potato crisp cartons! Looks like that liquid nitrogen stuff might be good for chilling the Chardonnay though. Memo to self: buy earplugs next year and go with Shazzer so don't suffer embarrassment of grabbing hold of complete stranger during scary bits! Must take sunglasses too for big flash at the end—must admit Hydro Gin is a brand I've not come across, but sounds v.g. Monday 19 March Alcohol units 2 (fizzy wine at opening ceremony for refurbished Physics Department!), smoke—lots again (but all from Trevor's pipe!) Big coup as Trevor Baylis turned up to speak about inventing the clockwork radio. Not sure I'd have strength or coordination to wind one up before breakfast—would need to find environmentally aware boyfriend with healthy liver and strong wrist. We all proved weakest links when it came to the 'name a woman inventor' quiz—Trev was so right when he said that men don't realize that girls with great legs can have good ideas as well! But then went on to say that even the blokes often end up penniless and destined —like me the way things are going—to be discovered half eaten by Alsatians a couple of weeks after snuffing it in a lonely bedsit. Thursday 22 MarchAlcohol units 0 (but the first event was at 9 o'clock in the morning!), smoke—none (couldn't persuade any of the pupils to give me one!), endangered species saved: 1 (v.v.g. indeed) Lured by promise of 'live astrology in the classroom' I staggered out of bed at an ungodly hour hoping to find that my Venus was ascendant and Mark Darcy and I would be aligned soon. Initially disappointed to discover that it was in fact astronomy on the breakfast menu via a remotely

  10. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  11. Ancient cults of the sun (German Title: Antike Sonnenkulte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    In ancient astronomy, the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos did not meet universal approval. Contrary to that, the cult of the sun gained immense importance in the Roman Empire. Relics of this significance we still find e.g. in the meaning of the Sunday in the week and in the date of Christmas. The rise of the sun cults is characterised by the merging of different gods from various cultures. Already in classical Greece the god of the sun, Helios, almagated with the god of light, Apollo. The resulting entity was regarded as the harmonic guide of the visible universe, symbolized by Apoll. As well as he plays the lyre, he conducts the cosmos harmonically as the sun. Plato recommends to politicians to study musical harmonics and astronomy in order to get a feeling of the right way to rule the state. In consequence to the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Babylonian star religion was mingled with Greek cosmology and the concept of transmigration of souls. The astrology resulting therefrom spread out over the whole Hellenistic world and was very common in the Roman Empire. The calendar with its religious division of time as the days of the week, following the principle of the gods of the planets governing the hour, was well known. The god of the sun was graded up by the adoption of the calendar of the sun from Egypt by Caesar. Augustus chose Apoll as his guardian god and built with “his” sundial a symbol of the god of the sun, which was visible from a long distance. Augustus used more astral symbols as propaganda of leadership. During the competition with the Parthians, another large empire, for world domination the focus fell on an Iranian god: the Iranian god of light and contract - Mithras. Shortly before 100 A.D., a new cult of mysteries arose in the Roman Empire, called cult of Mithras, and spread quickly. It combined the attributes of a classical sun-god with a religion of salvation, guaranteed by baptism, communion and seven degrees to be passed

  12. TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thykier, C.

    1992-07-01

    by the young new King Christian IV. Almost all of Tycho Brahe's privileges given to him by the late King Frederik II were taken from him. Shortly after that, he gathered his family and assistants and went to Rostock, from where he wrote a letter to Christian IV saying that he would contemplate returning to Denmark if the king would give him back his privileges. Christian very sternly answered the astronomer that if he should hope to return to Denmark he had to act like a servant. Tycho was too proud to go down to his knees for the king and never returned. So the reason for Tycho's acceptance of the invitation by Emperor Rudolf to come to Prague was that Christian IV would not continue the very considerable financial support to Tycho of about one percentage of the state income. The latest historical research has indicated that a "camarilla" of enemies stood behind Christian IV's aversion against Tycho. Tycho was not merely an astronomer, but also an astrologer and alchemist. As far as we know he never tried to make gold; his alchemic experiments were of medical character. This was not legal without permission from the Church and the University. Both the clergy and the doctors of the university envied the great scientist because princes and learned people preferred to visit Tycho at his "private university" on the island of Hven instead of visiting the University of Copenhagen. A new theory about Tycho's death has appeared. It has always been told that he died of a burst urinary bladder because he drank too much at parties. According to forensic medicine, however, this cannot be true. Tycho lived for some time after he became ill, and a bursted bladder would cause sudden death. A more plausible explanation would be that Tycho poisoned himself with his very strong medicines containing heavy metals like mercury and arsenic.

  13. The religious and social principles of patients' rights in holy books (Avesta, Torah, Bible, and Quran) and in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Hatami, Maryam; Hatami, Neda

    2013-03-01

    Health protection and promotion in healthy people and restoring patients' health have been the most important themes in medicine and health throughout our history. Therefore, discussion of different aspects of patients' rights includes implementation of these objectives by the medical community, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, etc., and the people in charge of health affairs. The principal objective of our research is the study of medical ideology and the approaches of our ancestors in relation to different aspects of patients' rights. To study the different ideologies of traditional medicine in relation to patients' rights, appropriate data were extracted from the original resources of traditional medicine and from religious books. By means of library research we studied these resources in addition to electronic versions of the Alhavi book (by Rhazes), the Kamel-al-Sanaah (by Ahvazi), the Canon of Medicine (by Avicenna), the Zakhireye Khawrazmshahi (by Jorjani), the Avesta, the Torah, the Bible, the Quran, and many other resources, and, finally, after searching, gathering, and encoding the findings, analyzed them qualitatively for thematic content. The holy Avesta book clearly insists on the competence of physicians and setting the appointment fee in accordance with peoples' income. The Old Testament (holy Torah) warned government officials who did not observe patients' rights. In the four gospels (holy Bible) the importance of treatment and taking care of the patient is stressed. After the emergence of Islam, medical students, before beginning the principal courses, had to study Islamic jurisprudence, ethics, logic sciences, natural sciences, geometry, astrology, calculus, and similar courses so that after purifying their soul they could enter the saintly profession of physicians. The holy Quran refers to saving the life of a human irrespective of social class, race, and religion, and insists on exemption of patients from physical activity, including

  14. The representation of legitimacy in Sassanian coins (Kavad I and Zamasp eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilnaz Rahbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation of legitimacy in Sassanian coins (Kavad I and Zamasp erasIn each era, social, cultural and political aspects, and their changes have a prominent role on the creation of the Governmental artworks that tries to act as a public media to show their power and legitimacy trends. This study wishes to survey the symbols of Sassanian coins and the role of this visual media from the power and legitimacy point of view during Kavad I (r. 488-531 AD and Zamasp (r. 496-499 AD eras, as a challenging period of the Sassanid dynasty. We try to show how Sassanid kings used artworks, especially coins, because of their spreads to transfer their legitimacy messages, thus they used it as the most principal media to show the power and its changes to publics. The result shows the changes during the first reign of Kavad I and after his deposing by clergies due to supporting the Mazdakites doctrine, raise of Zamasp to the throne and the second reign of Kavad I that they used various icons and symbols rooted in Zoroastrian beliefs to show their power and legitimacy according to condition changes. The emphasis of Kavad I on astrologic signs as the symbol of charisma and, in contrast, the representation of Zamasp, the successor of Kavad I after deposing, in the form of receiving diadem as a sign of his superiority and power, and the reuse of traditional symbols of legitimacy by Kavad I in the combination of diadem as the representation of his legitimacy after his second reign are some documents of visual changes of this challenging period. Wizerunkowa legitymizacja władzy na monetach Sasanidów (za Kavada i za I ZamaspaW każdej epoce zmienne czynniki społeczne, kulturowe i polityczne mają istotne znaczenie dla tworzenia dzieł sztuki, które w sferze publicznej mają się stać nośnikiem legitymizowania przez sprawujących rządy ich władzy politycznej. Celem niniejszego studium jest zbadanie symboli przedstawionych na monetach bitych przez w

  15. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-04-01

    we tend to feel that we have a right to roam around and to dip in to whatever catches our interest. Online courses need to offer this same facility through intuitive navigation and iconic signalling–and even more so if the course is to be retained as a source of reference. When multi-media designers stop feeding the frenzy of the people who market online learning, we might begin to see some appropriate use of it. Sadly the visual ergonomics of a learning environment are poorly understood and rarely viewed as important by learning designers-and results in a weakness in many online environments in which the visual mode of learning is dominant. Pedagogy I look forward to the day when there is a collective realisation of how extremely limited (and contradictory most of the current educational theories really are. For example, my own view is that ‘Learning Styles’ as a predictive model for how people learn is about as effective as using astrological charts to make decisions about the future. We can be certain of very little when it comes to an understanding of how people learn. What is emerging form experience and research is that effective learning is much more a function of the emotional response to a learning environment than the techniques and structures that it is based on. For learning to be effective the learner needs to feel Included, Individual, Interested and Inspired. How much online learning have you seen that manages to achieve these 4 Is? Promotion Long ago in the early dawn of online learning (about 1997, there was a widely held belief that this new form of computer-mediated learning was so wonderful that people could not wait to take part. Those of you old enough to remember will recall that it was described as a ‘killer application’ 2 –which, given the number of learners ‘killed off’ by online learning (about 70% who take part 3, turned out to be a highly prescient descriptor. Many organisations who are now re-launching online learning realise the

  16. The Sun as you never saw it before

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that

  17. News & Announcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    education in thermal analysis; it will consist of Mettler-Toledo thermal analysis instrumentation, peripherals, training and service. Applications must be submitted by April 1, 2000. Application forms may be downloaded from http://www.na.mt.com. Questions should be directed to Jon Foreman, Product Manager, Thermal Analysis, Mettler-Toledo, Inc., 1900 Polaris Parkway, Columbus, OH 43240; phone: 1-800/638-8537; fax: 614/438-4871; email: Thermal.Grant@mt.com. Courses, Seminars, Meetings, Opportunities Cosmos in the Classroom 2 A national symposium on the trials and tribulations of teaching astronomy to college non-science majors will be held at the Pasadena, California, Convention Center on July 17-19, 2000, as part of the 112th Annual Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Designed for everyone who teaches introductory astronomy, the symposium will focus on ways to improve teaching, to involve students more effectively, and to put astronomy in a wider context. Specific discussion topics will include: getting out of lecture mode, using the Web effectively, dealing with creationism and astrology, and laboratory and observation projects. The 2.5-day program will involve panels of mentor instructors, an exchange of handouts and teaching resources, hands-on workshops for trying new techniques and approaches, and lots of time for discussion. Participants will range from veteran instructors to nervous graduate students about to teach their first solo course. We especially hope to involve those teaching astronomy in small colleges without extensive astronomy research programs, and colleagues in other sciences who teach astronomy on a part-time basis. To get on the mailing list for the meeting, send your name, institution, email, and postal mailing address (indicating an interest in the 2000 Education Symposium) via: email: meeting@aspsky.org; fax: 415/337-5205 (Attn: 2000 Education Symp.) mail: 2000 Education Symposium, ASP, 390 Ashton Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94112