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  1. Astrocytoma

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    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Astrocytoma SHARE Home > Brain Tumor Information > Types of Tumors ... service. Low Grade Astrocytoma Information about low grade astrocytoma. Home Donor and Privacy Policies Find Resources Disclaimer ...

  2. Pilocytic astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-wei CONG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA is a low-grade glioma that occurs mainly in children and young adults. The histomorphology of PA located in the cerebellum (WHOⅠ is very typical. This article is to report one case of PA in the cerebellum of an 8-year-old child, and to discuss the clinical, imaging and pathological features of PA and clinicopathological differentiations from relevant tumors.  Methods and Results An 8-year-old girl presented intermittent headache for one month and the headache was aggravated for 7 d. MRI showed circular space-occupying lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere and cerebellar vermis, and the lesion revealed uneven signals. During the surgery, the tumor was soft and jellylike, with poor blood supply. Histologically, tumor cell nuclei were round or oval; cytoplasmic projections on both ends were slender hair-like, and were arranged around the blood vessels. Part of tumor cells had spindle nuclei, and showed fascicular compact arrangement or loose reticular arrangement. The pathomorphism of this tumro was slightly different from that of typical PA. It had unusually rich blood vessels, and Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granules were not obvious. Tumor cells were diffusely positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, synaptophysin (Syn, vimentin (Vim and P53, but negative for cytokeratin (CK, neuronal nuclei (NeuN and neurofilament protein (NF. Ki-67 index was 2%-5%. Vascular endothelial cells were positive for CD34, and scatteredly expressed CD68. Pathological diagosis was pilocytic astrocytoma (WHOⅠ.  Conclusions Pilocytic astrocytoma usually happens in children and adolescents and often occurs in the cerebellum. Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granules are helpful to make a clear diagnosis, but they are not necessary conditions of diagnosis. Differential diagnoses should be paid attention, such as pilomyxoid astrocytoma, angiocentric glioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT

  3. Anaplastic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sean A; Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-07-01

    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a diffusely infiltrating, malignant, astrocytic, primary brain tumor. AA is currently defined by histology although future classification schemes will include molecular alterations. AA can be separated into subgroups, which share similar molecular profiles, age at diagnosis and median survival, based on 1p/19q co-deletion status and IDH mutation status. AA with co-deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q and IDH mutation have the best prognosis. AA with IDH mutation and no 1p/19q co-deletion have intermediate prognosis and AA with wild-type IDH have the worst prognosis and share many molecular alterations with glioblastoma. Treatment of noncodeleted AA based on preliminary results from the CATNON clinical trial consists of maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy with post-radiotherapy temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. The role of concurrent TMZ and whether IDH1 subgroups benefit from TMZ is currently being evaluated in the recently completed randomized, prospective Phase III clinical trial, CATNON. PMID:27230974

  4. Prognostic parameters in benign astrocytomas

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    Westergaard, L; Gjerris, F; Klinken, L

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the prognosis of different types of benign astrocytomas and to ascertain whether patients with partially resected benign astrocytomas, or any subtype of these, would benefit from postoperative radiotherapy, we studied retrospectively material comprising 300 patients with benign...

  5. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco Otavio; Lombardi, Ismael Augusto; Mello, Adriana Yuki; Romero, Flavio Ramalho; Ducati, Luis Gustavo; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio; Zanini, Marco Antonio

    2013-04-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently described tumor that occurs predominantly in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region and is rarely found elsewhere. It has similar features as pilocytic astrocytomas, but has distinct histological characteristics and a poorer prognosis. A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is an aggressive tumor, and increased awareness is necessary with a suspect case. We present the first case of a pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem described after the newest World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors.

  6. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zanini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently described tumor that occurs predominantly in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region and is rarely found elsewhere. It has similar features as pilocytic astrocytomas, but has distinct histological characteristics and a poorer prognosis. A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is an aggressive tumor, and increased awareness is necessary with a suspect case. We present the first case of a pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem described after the newest World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors.

  7. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem

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    Marco Antonio Zanini; Ducati Gustavo Luis; Roberto Colichio Gabarra; Adriana Yuki Mello; Ismael Augusto Lombardi; Flavio Ramalho Romero; Francisco Otavio Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently described tumor that occurs predominantly in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region and is rarely found elsewhere. It has similar features as pilocytic astrocytomas, but has distinct histological characteristics and a poorer prognosis. A pilomyxoid astrocytoma is an aggressive tumor, and increased awareness is necessary with a suspect case. We present the first case of a pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the brainstem described after the newest World Health...

  8. Prognostic parameters in benign astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, L; Gjerris, F; Klinken, L

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the prognosis of different types of benign astrocytomas and to ascertain whether patients with partially resected benign astrocytomas, or any subtype of these, would benefit from postoperative radiotherapy, we studied retrospectively material comprising 300 patients with benign...... astrocytomas treated in the period 1956 to 1991. The pilocytic type of astrocytoma was found to have an outstandingly good prognosis and should be regarded as a distinct nosological entity. For the non-pilocytic supratentorial astrocytomas, a multivariate regression analysis showed that age, tumour site...... time of patients with non-pilocytic supratentorial benign astrocytomas. The study emphasizes the necessity of a prospective combined multicenter analysis of the effect of radiation on benign astrocytomas....

  9. astrocyte and astrocytoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, J.

    2008-01-01

    -transforming gene (PTTG), was found to be upregulated by the CaR in the H-500 cells, whereas calcium had no effect on PTTG expression in the U-87 astrocytoma cell line, but other proproliferative agents did upregulate PTTG in the U-87 cells. This makes PTTG a potential marker of malignancy and a therapeutic target...

  10. A Pilocytic Astrocytoma Mimicking a Clinoidal Meningioma

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    Hong, Christopher S.; Lehman, Norman L.; Eric Sauvageau

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas and meningiomas are benign, primary brain tumors that may involve the optic tract. Classically, the presence of a dural “tail” sign may differentiate a meningioma from other intracranial lesions. In this report, we describe a mass with the typical appearance of a clinoidal meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but postoperatively diagnosed as a pilocytic astrocytoma. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of a pilocytic astrocytoma mimicking a meningioma on ...

  11. Intracranial metastasis of spinal intramedullary anaplastic astrocytoma

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    Kataria, Rashim; Bhasme, Vishal; Chopra, Sanjeev; V D Sinha; Singhvi, Shashi

    2011-01-01

    Meningeal spread of spinal intramedullary astrocytoma into the cranium is rare. Only few case reports are available so far in the literature. We report a case of intramedullary high grade astrocytoma of the conus, developing intracranial metastasis after three months of partial excision of the spinal mass. The need for radical surgery, entire neuroaxis radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested in the management of malignant spinal cord astrocytoma to prevent dissemination.

  12. Imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytomas in comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas

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    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: jhkate@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Yeon-Lim, E-mail: ylsuh76@skku.edu [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: rtombow@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung Jin, E-mail: shinhj@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: pedrad@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo, E-mail: smc7629@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described astrocytic tumor that has been previously diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). The purpose of this study was to describe the imaging features of PMAs in comparison with PAs. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed CT/MR images and medical records of 10 patients with PMA and 38 patients with PA. The mean ages of patients with PMA and PA were 10 and 15 years, respectively. Imaging features including location, composition, enhancement pattern, presence of calcification, hemorrhage, and leptomeningeal dissemination were compared in patients with two tumor types. Results: Six PMAs (60%) occurred at the suprasellar area and the cerebellum was the most common (45%) site of PA. Solid component was dominant in eight PMAs (80%) and in 19 PAs (50%). All of the PMAs containing solid mass (n = 8) included non-enhancing portion while 12/37 (32%) PAs included non-enhancing solid portion (p < 0.05). Leptomeningeal dissemination was noted in five PMAs (50%) and one PA (3%) (p < 0.05). Other imaging findings were not significantly different. Conclusion: A younger age, more frequent occurrence at the suprasellar area, mainly solid mass containing non-enhancing portion, and more frequent leptomeningeal dissemination are helpful differential features of PMAs as compared to PAs.

  13. A 16-Gene Signature Distinguishes Anaplastic Astrocytoma from Glioblastoma

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    Soumya Alige Mahabala Rao; Sujaya Srinivasan; Irene Rosita Pia Patric; Alangar Sathyaranjandas Hegde; Bangalore Ashwathnarayanara Chandramouli; Arivazhagan Arimappamagan; Vani Santosh; Paturu Kondaiah; Manchanahalli R Sathyanarayana Rao; Kumaravel Somasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III) and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV) are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a mo...

  14. MR imaging characteristics of protoplasmic astrocytomas

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    Tay, Kevin L. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Radiology, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Tsui, Alpha [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Pathology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Phal, Pramit M.; Tress, Brian M. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Drummond, Katharine J. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Protoplasmic astrocytomas are a poorly recognized and uncommon subtype of astrocytoma. While usually categorized with other low-grade gliomas, there is literature to suggest that protoplasmic astrocytomas have differences in biology compared to other gliomas in this group. This paper presents the MR imaging characteristics of a series of eight protoplasmic astrocytomas. We retrospectively reviewed MR images and histopathology of eight consecutive cases of histologically proven protoplasmic astrocytomas. Patients ranged from 17 to 51 years of age with a 5:3 male to female ratio. The tumors were located in the frontal or temporal lobes and tended to be large, well defined, and had a very high signal on T2 (close to cerebrospinal fluid). Generally, a large proportion of the tumor showed substantial signal suppression on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Six of the eight lesions also demonstrated a partial or complete rim of reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) around the T2 FLAIR suppressing portion. The possibility that a primary cerebral neoplasm represents a protoplasmic astrocytoma should be considered in a patient with a large frontal or temporal tumor that has a very high signal on T2 with a large proportion of the tumor showing substantial T2 FLAIR suppression. A further clue is a partial or complete rim of reduced ADC. (orig.)

  15. Nerve growth factor expression in astrocytoma and cerebrospinal fluid: a new biomarker for prognosis of astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiao-yu; FENG Yun; XU Wen-lin; YANG Yong; ZHANG Yan; ZHANG Zhi-jian; GONG Ai-hua; YUAN Zhi-cheng; LU Pei-song; ZHAN Li-ping; WANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have discovered that nuclear translocation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor fragments function differently from the traditional model. This study aimed to uncover the nuclear expression of NGF in astrocytoma and its biological significance.Methods Ninety-four paraffin-embedded astrocytoma specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) and hemotoxylin & eosin (HE) staining. Preoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and intraoperative snap-frozen astrocytoma tissues were assayed for NGF expression by ELISA and Western blotting. The outcome of patients who contributed samples was tracked. Each ten tissue samples from patients with traumatic brain injury who had received decompression surgery and CSF samples from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia but with no history of nervous system disease were taken as control.Results NGF-positive immunoreactive products were distributed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of astrocytoma, but were only located in the cytoplasm of traumatic brain injury (TBI) tissue. NGF nuclear-positive rate (NPR) of grades Ⅲ-Ⅳ astrocytomas (70.0%) was higher than that of grades Ⅰ-Ⅱ astrocytoma (28.6%, P<0.05). NGF-NP expression positively correlated with the NGF concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (r=0.755, P<0.01). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the median survival time was 25 months for NGF-NP astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients and 42 months in NGF nuclear negative (NGF-NN) astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients (P<0.05). In astrocytoma Ⅲ-Ⅳ patients, the median survival was 7 months for NGF-NP patients and 24 months for NGF-NN patients (P<0.01). Two types of NGF with molecular weights of 13 and 36 kDa were present in astrocytoma, but only the 36 kDa NGF was found in the CSF. NGF expression elevated as the malignancy increased.Conclusions NGF-NP expression and NGF level in CSF were significant prognostic factors in astrocytoma patients.Because of the easy

  16. The Clinical Significance of Cathepsin S Expression in Human Astrocytomas

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    Flannery, Thomas; Gibson, David; Mirakhur, Menakshi; McQuaid, Stephen; Greenan, Caroline; Trimble, Anne; Walker, Brian; McCormick, Derek; Johnston, Patrick G.

    2003-01-01

    Early local invasion by astrocytoma cells results in tumor recurrence even after apparent total surgical resection, leading to the poor prognosis associated with malignant astrocytomas. Proteolytic enzymes have been implicated in facilitating tumor cell invasion and the current study was designed to characterize the expression of the cysteine proteinase cathepsin S (CatS) in astrocytomas and examine its potential role in invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of biopsies demonstrated that Cat...

  17. Pilocytic Astrocytoma Presenting as an Orbital Encephalocele: A Case Report

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    Bruzek, Amy; Shepherd, Daniel; Van Gompel, Jamie; Jentoft, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 29-year-old male who presented with new-onset seizures. He was subsequently found to have an orbital encephalocele containing a focus of pilocytic astrocytoma. We believe that this is the first report of a pilocytic astrocytoma located within the orbit that did not originate from the optic pathway. It is also the first case of a pilocytic astrocytoma completely contained within an encephalocele. This case suggests a close pathological examination of encephaloceles fo...

  18. 201Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of 201Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imaging for astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the anatomical

  19. A 16-gene signature distinguishes anaplastic astrocytoma from glioblastoma.

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    Soumya Alige Mahabala Rao

    Full Text Available Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a more robust molecular classifier, we analysed RT-qPCR expression data of 175 differentially regulated genes across astrocytoma using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM and found the most discriminatory 16-gene expression signature for the classification of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. The 16-gene signature obtained in the training set was validated in the test set with diagnostic accuracy of 89%. Additionally, validation of the 16-gene signature in multiple independent cohorts revealed that the signature predicted anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples with accuracy rates of 99%, 88%, and 92% in TCGA, GSE1993 and GSE4422 datasets, respectively. The protein-protein interaction network and pathway analysis suggested that the 16-genes of the signature identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT pathway as the most differentially regulated pathway in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma. In addition to identifying 16 gene classification signature, we also demonstrated that genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in distinguishing glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma.

  20. Inhibition of STAT3 Reduces Astrocytoma Cell Invasion and Constitutive Activation of STAT3 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Astrocytoma

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    Qinchuan Liang; Chenkai Ma; Yang Zhao; Guodong Gao; Jie Ma

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines (U251 and U87), and investigated th...

  1. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces astrocytoma cell invasion and constitutive activation of STAT3 predicts poor prognosis in human astrocytoma.

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    Qinchuan Liang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines (U251 and U87, and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell's adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthermore, pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3(Tyr705could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis.

  2. Aggressive retinal astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis

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    Tomida M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Machiko Tomida,1 Yoshinori Mitamura,1 Takashi Katome,1 Hiroshi Eguchi,1 Takeshi Naito,1 Takayuki Harada21Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, 2Visual Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report the case of a patient with an aggressive retinal astrocytoma accompanied with macular edema and neovascular vessels, who was initially treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. A 24-year-old male presented to our clinic complaining of visual disturbance in his right eye. At 8 years of age, he had been diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis complex. Fundus examination demonstrated a retinal tumor accompanied with marked neovascular vessels on the surface, retinal hemorrhage, and macular edema. After six monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections, fundus examination demonstrated marked regression of the macular edema and neovascular vessels. Two months later, a vitreous hemorrhage developed which necessitated pars plana vitrectomy. After additional intravitreal bevacizumab injection for preventing intraoperative bleeding, vitrectomy with endophotocoagulation for the tumor was performed. The vitreous sample was obtained during vitrectomy, and we measured the vascular endothelial growth factor concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The surgically removed epiretinal neovascular membrane and biopsied retinal tumor expressed vascular endothelial growth factor, although several intravitreal bevacizumab injections led to a vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor concentration of undetectable levels. The clinical course and immunohistochemical analyses indicate that intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy may have been insufficient to treat the aggressive retinal astrocytoma with macular edema and that laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy for the tumor should be considered following intravitreal

  3. Radiation Therapy for Pilocytic Astrocytomas of Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Though radiation therapy is generally considered the most effective treatment for unresectable pilocytic astrocytomas in children, there are few data to support this claim. To examine the efficacy of radiation therapy for pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas, we retrospectively reviewed the experience at our institution. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients 18 years old or younger with unresectable tumors and without evidence of neurofibromatosis have been treated since 1982. Patients were treated with local radiation fields to a median dose of 54 Gy. Six patients were treated with radiosurgery to a median dose of 15.5 Gy. Five patients were treated with initial chemotherapy and irradiated after progression. Results: All patients were alive after a median follow-up of 5.0 years. However, progression-free survival was 68.7%. None of 11 infratentorial tumors progressed compared with 6 of 20 supratentorial tumors. A trend toward improved progression-free survival was seen with radiosurgery (80%) compared with external beam alone (66%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Eight of the 9 patients progressing after therapy did so within the irradiated volume. Conclusions: Although the survival of these children is excellent, almost one third of patients have progressive disease after definitive radiotherapy. Improvements in tumor control are needed in this patient population, and the optimal therapy has not been fully defined. Prospective trials comparing initial chemotherapy to radiation therapy are warranted.

  4. Integrated analysis of mismatch repair system in malignant astrocytomas.

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    Irene Rodríguez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.

  5. Dramatic regression of presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma with photodynamic therapy

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    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used for treatment of various intraocular tumors including choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, amelanotic choroidal melanoma and choroidal neovascular membrane due to choroidal osteoma. This case report documents the effect of PDT for a presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma. A 42-year-old female with a juxtapapillary acquired astrocytoma was treated with a single session of PDT using standard parameters. The tumor showed dramatic regression over 6 months into a fibrotic scar. It remained regressed and stable with 20/20 vision after 51 months of follow-up. We believe that PDT can be used as a primary treatment for acquired retinal astrocytoma.

  6. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Occurring in the Third Ventricle

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    Sanghyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA is a rare central nervous system tumor that has been included in the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Due to its more aggressive behavior, PMA is classified as Grade II neoplasm by the World Health Organization. PMA predominantly affects the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region and occurs in children (mean age of occurrence = 10 months. We report a case of a 24-year-old man who presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting. Brain CT and MRI revealed a mass occupying only the third ventricle. We performed partial resection. Histological findings, including monophasic growth with a myxoid background, and absence of Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies, as well as the strong positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein were consistent with PMA.

  7. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  8. Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord

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    Larson, David B. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiology A-030, Denver, CO (United States); Hedlund, Gary L. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are among the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in the pediatric age group. The presence of contrast enhancement is a major factor used to distinguish these tumors from other spinal cord lesions. We present a case of histologically proved non-enhancing intramedullary spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma in a 12-year-old girl. This case represents an exception to the conventional wisdom that pediatric spinal neoplasms enhance with administration of intravenous contrast material. (orig.)

  9. Transcriptional analysis of aggressiveness and heterogeneity across grades of astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Wang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma is the most common glioma, accounting for half of all primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Late detection and the aggressive nature of high-grade astrocytomas contribute to high mortality rates. Though many studies identify candidate biomarkers using high-throughput transcriptomic profiling to stratify grades and subtypes, few have resulted in clinically actionable results. This shortcoming can be attributed, in part, to pronounced lab effects that reduce signature robustness and varied individual gene expression among patients with the same tumor. We addressed these issues by uniformly preprocessing publicly available transcriptomic data, comprising 306 tumor samples from three astrocytoma grades (Grade 2, 3, and 4 and 30 non-tumor samples (normal brain as control tissues. Utilizing Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC, a network-based classification approach, we examined the global and individual patterns of network regulation across tumor grades. Additionally, we applied gene-based approaches to identify genes whose expression changed consistently with increasing tumor grade and evaluated their robustness across multiple studies using statistical sampling. Applying DIRAC, we observed a global trend of greater network dysregulation with increasing tumor aggressiveness. Individual networks displaying greater differences in regulation between adjacent grades play well-known roles in calcium/PKC, EGF, and transcription signaling. Interestingly, many of the 90 individual genes found to monotonically increase or decrease with astrocytoma grade are implicated in cancer-affected processes such as calcium signaling, mitochondrial metabolism, and apoptosis. The fact that specific genes monotonically increase or decrease with increasing astrocytoma grade may reflect shared oncogenic mechanisms among phenotypically similar tumors. This work presents statistically significant results that enable better characterization of different human

  10. Characterization of a novel anti-cancer compound for astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Y Lee

    Full Text Available The standard chemotherapy for brain tumors is temozolomide (TMZ, however, as many as 50% of brain tumors are reportedly TMZ resistant leaving patients without a chemotherapeutic option. We performed serial screening of TMZ resistant astrocytoma cell lines, and identified compounds that are cytotoxic to these cells. The most cytotoxic compound was an analog of thiobarbituric acid that we refer to as CC-I. There is a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of CC-I in TMZ resistant astrocytoma cells. Cell death appears to occur via apoptosis. Following CC-I exposure, there was an increase in astrocytoma cells in the S and G2/M phases. In in vivo athymic (nu/nu nude mice subcutaneous and intracranial tumor models, CC-I completely inhibited tumor growth without liver or kidney toxicity. Molecular modeling and enzyme activity assays indicate that CC-I selectively inhibits topoisomerase IIα similar to other drugs in its class, but its cytotoxic effects on astrocytoma cells are stronger than these compounds. The cytotoxic effect of CC-I is stronger in cells expressing unmethylated O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT but is still toxic to cells with methylated MGMT. CC-I can also enhance the toxic effect of TMZ on astrocytoma when the two compounds are combined. In conclusion, we have identified a compound that is effective against astrocytomas including TMZ resistant astrocytomas in both cell culture and in vivo brain tumor models. The enhanced cytotoxicity of CC-I and the safety profile of this family of drugs could provide an interesting tool for broader evaluation against brain tumors.

  11. Multiple solid pilocytic astrocytomas in cerebleiium with neurofibromatosis type: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seo Young; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Pilocytic astrocytoma usually has a classic imaging manifestation of a solitary, cyst-like mass with a strong contrast-enhancing mural nodule. There is only one published report so far of multiple solid and cyst type pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient from the United States in 2007. We report a case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with only solid, multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in NF1 patient.

  12. Effects of dexamethasone on C6 astrocytoma radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain-tumor patients often undergo radiation therapy while receiving corticosteroids for the treatment of cerebral edema. Studies have demonstrated that dexamethasone is radioprotective in a number of cell lines. The C6 astrocytoma cell line is well established in vitro and is modulated by dexamethasone treatment. It has therefore been hypothesized that dexamethasone-treated C6 astrocytoma cells would be more resistant to radiation-induced damage. The present study was carried out to assess this hypothesis using both the in vitro C6 astrocytoma monolayer and three-dimensional multicellular spheroid models. Dexamethasone was inhibitory to the C6 astrocytoma cells in the monolayer preparation, increasing their doubling time by 13%. In the spheroid cultures, dexamethasone treatment decreased the number of cells per spheroid by 46%. Dexamethasone did not affect the plating efficiency of either the cells from the monolayer experiment or those dissociated from spheroids, however, suggesting that the inhibitory effect was not tumoricidal. At a clinical concentration (1.94 x 10(-5) M), dexamethasone did not significantly influence plating efficiency of irradiated C6 astrocytoma cells in monolayer or three-dimensional spheroid cultures

  13. Holocord low grade astrocytoma - Role of radical irradiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal intradural tumors, especially those extending along the entire length of the spinal cord, termed as ‘holocord’ tumors are uncommon. Most of these are gliomas, with astrocytomas (low grade) predominating in children and ependymomas in adults. Other histologies, though reported, are even rarer. Management is debatable, with both surgery and radiotherapy of such extensive tumors posing challenges. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with holocord astrocytoma extending from cervicomedullary junction till lumbar spine, who recovered full neurological function following radical irradiation of entire spine followed by temozolomide-based chemotherapy. No grade 3/4 bone marrow morbidity was seen. Five years following treatment, she maintained normal neurological function and apparently normal pubertal and skeletal growth despite residual disease visible on imaging. Literature review of existing reports of holocord astrocytomas highlighting management and outcome is presented.

  14. Mislocalization of the exitatory amino-acid transporters (EAATs) in human astrocytoma and non-astrocytoma cancer cells: effect of the cell confluence

    OpenAIRE

    Varini Karine; Benzaria Amal; Taïeb Nadira; Di Scala Coralie; Azmi Amanda; Graoudi Soraya; Maresca Marc

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Astrocytomas are cancers of the brain in which high levels of extracellular glutamate plays a critical role in tumor growth and resistance to conventional treatments. This is due for part to a decrease in the activity of the glutamate transporters, i.e. the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters or EAATs, in relation to their nuclear mislocalization in astrocytoma cells. Although non-astrocytoma cancers express EAATs, the localization of EAATs and the handling of L-glutamate i...

  15. Intracranial Gossypiboma Mimicking a Recurrent Low Grade Astrocytoma : Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Young; Koo, Joon Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Il-San Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Gossypiboma is an inflammatory pseudomass formed by a retained surgical sponge or gauze with reactive tissue after surgery. Gossypiboma has been reported most frequently after abdominal or thoracic surgery. As such, gossypiboma following brain surgery is very rare. We report a case of gossypiboma mimicking tumor recurrence in the brain after a craniotomy and surgical excision of a low grade astrocytoma.

  16. Long-Term Sequelae after Cerebellar Astrocytoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects on neurologic, neuropsychological, and behavioral functioning in a consecutive series of 23 children treated surgically for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma without additional radio- and chemotherapy are determined in a study at Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and other medical centers.

  17. Expression of delta-catenin is associated with progression of human astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MingHao Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background δ-Catenin (CTNND2, which encodes a scaffold protein in humans, has been found in a few malignancies. However, the expression pattern and contribution of δ-catenin to astrocytoma progression are unclear. Methods We investigated δ-catenin expression in human astrocytoma samples and its function in astrocytoma cell lines using immunohistochemistry, siRNA knockdown, transfection, MTT, transwell migration and Rac1 pulldown techniques. Results δ-Catenin protein expression was detected in cytoplasm of astrocytoma cells by immunohistochemistry. Analysis showed that grade I astrocytoma (0%, 0/11 and glial cells from normal brain tissue exhibited negative staining. δ-Catenin expression was significantly higher in grade III-IV (35%, 29/84 compared to grade II astrocytoma cells (18%, 11/61; p CTNND2 overexpression promoted proliferation, invasion and Rac1 activity of U251 astrocytoma cells. Treatment of δ-catenin-transfected cells with a Rac1 inhibitor decreased Rac1 activity and invasion. δ-Catenin knockdown in U87 glioblastoma cell decreased cell proliferation, invasion and Rac1 activity. Conclusion The results suggest that δ-catenin expression is associated with the malignant progression of astrocytoma and promotes astrocytoma cell invasion through upregulation of Rac1 activity. δ-Catenin expression levels may serve as a useful marker of the biological behavior of astrocytoma cells.

  18. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and p75NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or suppresses intracellular survival signaling cascades. Robust Trk activation blocks p75NTR -induced apoptosis by suppressing the JNK-p53-Bax pathway. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75NTR, and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV) were immunostained following microwave pretreatment. Polyclonal antibodies against TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and monoclonal antibodies against p75NTR and phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were used. The labeling index (LI), defined as the percentage of positive (labeled) cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined. Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (~1%) in some tumors. The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor. Trk immunoreactivity seemed to be localized in some neurons and astrocytes in non-neoplastic tissue. Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were significantly co-expressed in a tumor grade

  19. Expression of delta-catenin is associated with progression of human astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    MingHao Wang; Qianze Dong; Di Zhang; YunJie Wang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background δ-Catenin (CTNND2), which encodes a scaffold protein in humans, has been found in a few malignancies. However, the expression pattern and contribution of δ-catenin to astrocytoma progression are unclear. Methods We investigated δ-catenin expression in human astrocytoma samples and its function in astrocytoma cell lines using immunohistochemistry, siRNA knockdown, transfection, MTT, transwell migration and Rac1 pulldown techniques. Results δ-Catenin protein expression was d...

  20. {sup 201}Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellen, K

    1999-10-01

    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of {sup 201}Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imagingfor astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the

  1. ED-31RECURRENT PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA OF THE CORPUS CALLOSUM IN A PATIENT WITH NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tathireddy, Harshavardana; Lin, Julian; Gujrati, Meena; Zagardo, Michael; Fernandez, Karen; Antony, Reuben

    2014-01-01

    CASE REPORT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) associated pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently in the optic pathway, hypothalamus and brainstem. Astrocytomas of the corpus callosum are relatively rare in this population (about 15% of NF1 associated intracranial tumors) and have not been well characterized. We report a 12 year old boy with a recurrent NF1 associated pilocytic astrocytoma of the corpus callosum. Our patient has ADHD, Tourette's syndrome and hyperplasia of the left optic ne...

  2. Overexpression of vascular adhesion protein-1 is associated with poor prognosis of astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostoro, Joanna; Chang, Shu-Jyuan; Clark Lai, Yen-Chang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chai, Chee-Yin; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2016-06-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is one of the endothelial adhesion molecules that is believed to play a role in tumor progression and metastasis, supporting cancer cell extravasation. Very few studies have been performed on analyzing the contribution of VAP-1 in brain tumor. Astrocytomas are the most common type of brain tumors, which are classified by World Health Organization (WHO) into four grades according to the degree of malignancy. This study was designed to investigate VAP-1 expression level in different astrocytoma grades and its correlation with clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of astrocytoma patients. Eighty-seven patients with different grades of astrocytoma (WHO Grade I-Grade IV) were enrolled in this study. The expression of VAP-1 was assayed by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between VAP-1 expression and clinicopathological features was evaluated by Chi-square test, and overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was applied to analyze the independent influence of each parameter on overall survival. The expression level of VAP-1 was significantly higher in diffuse astrocytoma than those of pilocytic astrocytoma (p astrocytoma and VAP-1(low) tumors in pilocytic astrocytoma (p astrocytoma. PMID:26935340

  3. Expression of aquaporin8 in human astrocytomas: Correlation with pathologic grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shu-juan; Wang, Ke-jian; Gan, Sheng-wei; Xu, Jin; Xu, Shi-ye; Sun, Shan-quan, E-mail: sunsq2151@cqmu.edu.cn

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •AQP8 is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of human astrocytoma cells. •AQP8 over-expressed in human astrocytomas, especially glioblastoma. •The up-regulation of AQP8 is related to the pathological grade of human astrocytomas. •AQP8 may contribute to the growth and proliferation of astrocytomas. -- Abstract: Aquaporin8 (AQP8), a member of the aquaporin (AQP) protein family, is weakly distributed in mammalian brains. Previous studies on AQP8 have focused mainly on the digestive and the reproductive systems. AQP8 has a pivotal role in keeping the fluid and electrolyte balance. In this study, we investigated the expression changes of AQP8 in 75 cases of human brain astrocytic tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that AQP8 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of astrocytoma cells. The expression levels and immunoreactive score of AQP8 protein and mRNA increased in low-grade astrocytomas, and further increased in high-grade astrocytomas, especially in glioblastoma. Therefore, AQP8 may contribute to the proliferation of astrocytomas, and may be a biomarker and candidate therapy target for patients with astrocytomas.

  4. Differential expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 in human astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-tao; ZHANG Zhi-wen; XUE Jing-hui; KONG Hai-bo; LIU Ai-jun; LI Shou-chun; LIU Yu-xiao

    2013-01-01

    Background The RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3),which is transcriptionally induced by low temperature and hypoxia,has recently been found to be upregulated in human tumors.However,its expression status in human astrocytoma is not well defined.This article focuses on the differential expression of RBM3 in human astrocytomas of different grades and normal brain tissues.Methods RBM3 was detected in astrocytomas and normal brain tissues by quantitative real-time PCR,immunohistochemistry,and Western blotting.Analysis of variance was performed on the data from quantitative real-time PCR.The Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the immunohistochemistry results.A P-value of less than 0.05 indicates a statistically significant difference.Results On one hand,the mRNA expression levels of three X-chromosome-related RBM genes (RBMX,RBM3,and RBM10) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR.The results showed that there were no significant differences in RBMX and RBM10 mRNA expression levels in human astrocytomas of different grades and normal brain tissues.However,RBM3 mRNA expression levels were elevated in high-grade (World Health Organization (WHO) Grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ) astrocytomas versus low-grade (WHO Grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ) astrocytomas (5.06±0.66 vs.1.60±0.58; P <0.05) or normal controls (5.06±0.66 vs.1.03±0.22; P <0.05) as determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis.On the other hand,immunohistochemistry showed an increased RBM3 labeling index in astrocytomas of different grades and normal brain tissues (positive staining rate:astrocytoma Grade Ⅳ,92.9%; astrocytoma Grade Ⅲ,81.8%; astrocytoma Grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ,50%;normal brain tissues,37.5%; high-grade astrocytoma versus normal brain tissues,P <0.05; high-grade astrocytoma versus low-grade astrocytoma,P <0.05).The higher protein levels of RBM3 were also validated in high-grade astrocytomas and low-grade astrocytomas compared with normal brain tissues by Western blotting.Conclusions These

  5. Cerebellar cystic hemangioblastoma and cystic astrocytoma : differentiation on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, In Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chi Sung; Lee, Sang Hyung [Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    To determine differential points, if any, on MR imaging between cerebellar cystic hemangioblastoma and cystic astrocytoma. MR images of patients with sugically proven cerebellar cystic hemangioblastomas (n=12) and cystic astrocytomas (n=14) were retrospectively reviewed with regard to the following point: size, location and signal intensity of the tumor ; tumor margin; presence, size and location of the enhancing mural nodule; vascule signal voids, internal septations, enhancing fearure of the cyst wall, secondary findings (degree of peritumoral edema and presence of hydrocephalus ) and the patient's age. The significant (p<.05) differential points were vascular signal voids, which were the most important clue, as well as the presence of an enhancing mural nodule, tumor margin, enhancing featrure of the cyst wall and the patient's age. If the patient was an adult and presented an enhancing mural nodule with adjacent vascular signal voids and smooth tumor margin, then cysitc hemangioblastoma was suggested, while the presence of an irregular-margined thick enhancing cyst wall, mural nodule without adjacent vascular signal voids and pediatric age were suggestive of cystic astrocytoma. On MR imaging, there are certain significant differential points between these similar-appearing tumors and these would be useful for a more accurate diagnosis.

  6. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor originally diagnosed as astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cassol Dozza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT, described in 1988 and introduced in the WHO classification in 1993, affects predominantly children or young adults causing intractable complex partial seizures. Since it is benign and treated with surgical resection, its recognition is important. It has similarities with low-grade gliomas and gangliogliomas, which may recur and become malignant. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether DNT was previously diagnosed as astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or ganglioglioma and to determine its frequency in a series of low-grade glial/glio-neuronal tumors. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and histological aspects of 58 tumors operated from 1978 to 2008, classified as astrocytomas (32, including 8 pilocytic, oligodendrogliomas (12, gangliogliomas (7, and DNT (7, were reviewed. RESULTS: Four new DNT, one operated before 1993, previously classified as astrocytoma (3 and oligodendroglioma (1, were identified. One DNT diagnosed in 2002 was classified once more as angiocentric glioma. Therefore, 10 DNT (17.2% were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical-radiological and histopathological correlations have contributed to diagnose the DNT.

  7. Anticancer activity of glucomoringin isothiocyanate in human malignant astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) released from their glucosinolate precursors have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and they have received significant attention as potential chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. Astrocytoma grade IV is the most frequent and most malignant primary brain tumor in adults without any curative treatment. New therapeutic drugs are therefore urgently required. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor activity of the glycosylated isothiocyanate moringin [4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate] produced from quantitative myrosinase-induced hydrolysis of glucomoringin (GMG) under neutral pH value. We have evaluated the potency of moringin on apoptosis induction and cell death in human astrocytoma grade IV CCF-STTG1 cells. Moringin showed to be effective in inducing apoptosis through p53 and Bax activation and Bcl-2 inhibition. In addition, oxidative stress related Nrf2 transcription factor and its upstream regulator CK2 alpha expressions were modulated at higher doses, which indicated the involvement of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by moringin. Moreover, significant reduction in 5S rRNA was noticed with moringin treatment. Our in vitro results demonstrated the antitumor efficacy of moringin derived from myrosinase-hydrolysis of GMG in human malignant astrocytoma cells. PMID:26882972

  8. Nitroproteins in Human Astrocytomas Discovered by Gel Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Maoyu; Sang, Shushan; Li, Xuejun; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of highly fatal astrocytomas, a type of brain cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of astrocytomas and to discover new biomarkers/therapeutic targets, we sought to identify nitroproteins in human astrocytoma tissue. Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins from a high-grade astrocytoma tissue were detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based nitrotyrosine immunoblots, and identified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fifty-seven nitrotyrosine immunopositive protein spots were detected. A total of 870 proteins (nitrated and non-nitrated) in nitrotyrosine-immunopositive 2D gel spots were identified, and 18 nitroproteins and their 20 nitrotyrosine sites were identified with MS/MS analysis. These nitroproteins participate in multiple processes, including drug-resistance, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, phenotypic dedifferentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Among those nitroproteins that might play a role in astrocytomas was nitro-sorcin, which is involved in drug resistance and metastasis and might play a role in the spread and treatment of an astrocytoma. Semiquantitative immune-based measurements of different sorcin expressions were found among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls, and a semiquantitative increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Nitro-β-tubulin functions in cytoskeleton and cell migration. Semiquantitative immunoreactivity of β-tubulin showed increased expression among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls and semiquantitatively increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Each nitroprotein was rationalized and related to the corresponding functional system to provide new insights into tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the

  9. The pilocytic astrocytoma : immunohistochemical and genetic studies in relation to tumor behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, Clemens Maria Franciscus

    1998-01-01

    The tumors, studied in this thesis, were named "pilocytic astrocytomas" in the WHO classification of 1979, before that time they had been described under different names, such as gliocytoma embryonale and spongioblastoma. Pilocytic astrocytomas account for 6% of all brain tumors and occur mainly in

  10. Expression Profile of MiR-128 in the Astrocytoma Patients and Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Liu, Yuqiong; Guo, Si; Ma, Shengli; Xiao, Lin; Wei, Na; Xue, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors. The critical characterizes of astrocyomas are their aggressive and infiltrative in the brain, which leads to uncontrollable by conventional forms of therapy. MicroRNAs are small RNAs that had been found to regulate their targets by specific binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA. Recent advances in understanding the molecular biology of these tumors have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) disruption may play important roles in the pathogenesis of astrocytomas. And some of the miRNA alterations were found in the serum of astrocytoma patients. In this study, we studied the expression profile of miR-128, in the different stages of astrocytoma tissues and two human astrocytoma cell lines, A172 and T98G cells. We found that the levels of miR-128 are decreased in the A172 and T98G cells when compared to normal human astrocyte (NHA). Furthermore, the levels of miR-128 decreased gradually to the pathological stages of astrocytomas. We also identified that TROVE2 is a novel target of miR-128 by the luciferase reporter system. Furthermore, the expression levels of TROVE2 are dramatically increased with the pathological stages increasing. Finally, the levels of TROVE2 are negatively correlated with miR-128 in astrocytoma tissues. Our data provided novel evidence for the miR-128 and TROVE2 in the development of human astrocytomas. PMID:26307612

  11. STUDY OF DELETION OF P16 GENE IN THE PROGRESSION OF BRAIN ASTROCYTOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Guang; Yuan Xianhou

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between deletion of P16 gene and occurrence and progression of astrocytomas. Methods: The techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the deletion of exon2 of P16 gene and expression of P16 gene in 52 cases of Brain astrocytoma.Results: The deletion rate of exon2 of P16 gene in the tumors analyzed was 34.6%. Most of them with deletion of exon2 of p16 gene were high grade astrocytomas (grade Ⅲ 42%, grade Ⅳ 50%). 61.5% of the tumors were absent from expression of p16 and the deletion rate of p16 protein increased with the grade of astrocytoma (X2=10.83, P<0.005). Conclusion: Deletion of p16 gene and protein may correlate with the malignant progression of astrocytoma.

  12. Temozolomide: The evidence for its therapeutic efficacy in malignant astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman I Omar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayman I Omar1, Warren P Mason21Department of Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaIntroduction: Malignant gliomas are a heterogeneous group of primary central nervous system neoplasms that represent less than 2% of all cancers yet carry a significant burden to society. They are frequently associated with considerable and progressive neurological disability and are ultimately intractable to all forms of treatment. Temozolomide (TMZ is a new second generation DNA alkylating agent that has become part of malignant astrocytoma management paradigms because of its proven efficacy, ease of administration, and favorable toxicity profile. Aims: To review the role of TMZ in the management of malignant astrocytomas (World Health Organization grades III and IV including newly diagnosed (n and recurrent (r anaplastic astrocytomas (AA and glioblastomas.Evidence review: A series of pivotal clinical trials have established a role for TMZ in the treatment of malignant astrocytomas. A large phase II trial examining the role of TMZ in rAA showed a response rate of 35%, and a 6-month progression-free survival of 46%. This led to the accelerated approval of TMZ by the FDA and the EU for the treatment of rAA. Evidence for a role of TMZ in nAA is currently limited but research is ongoing in this area. The role of TMZ in the management of glioblastoma at the time of recurrence (rGBM is less impressive but evidence for its activity was demonstrated in two large phase II trials that led to the approval of TMZ for this indication in Europe and Canada but not in the US. A recent large prospective randomized phase III trial showed that the addition of TMZ during and after radiation therapy (RT in newly diagnosed (nGBM patients prolonged median overall survival by 2.5 months; perhaps more importantly, the 2-year survival rate for patients

  13. PET imaging of brain astrocytoma with 1-{sup 11}C-acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ren-Shyan; Chang, Chi-Wei; Yang, Bang-Hung [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan); National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan); Chang, Cheng-Pei; Chu, Lee-Shing; Chu, Yum-Kung; Hsieh, Hung-Jen; Liao, Su-Quin [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan); Yen, Shan-Hui [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Cancer Center, Taipei (Taiwan); Huang, Min-Chao [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Institute of Neurology, Taipei (Taiwan); Yeh, Shin-Hwa [National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2006-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of 1-{sup 11}C-acetate (ACE) as a metabolic tracer for the detection and characterisation of astrocytomas. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies with ACE and 2-{sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) were performed sequentially in 26 patients with primary astrocytomas. Images were analysed by visual interpretation and determination of the tumour to cortex ratio (T/C ratio) and standardised uptake value (SUV). The tumour uptake was visually scored into three grades as compared with the contralateral cortex: clearly lower (-), almost equal (+) and clearly higher (++). There were 85% of astrocytomas with ++ ACE uptake, 15% with + ACE uptake and none with - ACE uptake. Only 19% of astrocytomas had ++ FDG uptake. Thirty-seven percent of high-grade astrocytomas had + FDG uptake and 37% had - FDG uptake. The sensitivity and specificity of the FDG T/C ratio in discriminating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas were 79% and 100%, respectively, at the cutoff value of 0.75. Using 2.33 as the cutoff value of the ACE T/C ratio, the sensitivity and specificity were 42% and 86%, respectively. FDG was better than ACE in discriminating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas. T/C ratios and SUVs of FDG uptake of tumours correlated with the histological grades, but those of ACE uptake did not. ACE appears to be a promising tracer for use in the detection of primary astrocytomas, but is of limited value in the differentiation of high- and low-grade astrocytomas. ACE is complementary to FDG for the diagnosis and characterisation of astrocytoma. (orig.)

  14. Outcome of Patients With Pilocytic Astrocytoma and Leptomeningeal Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloom, Ali; Hodges, Joseph C.; Teh, Bin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language studies pertaining to PA with LMD was performed using a combination of keywords that included juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma, low-grade glioma, leptomeningeal dissemination, neuraxis spread, and radiotherapy. We found 26 studies with 58 patients between 1976 and 2005 that met these criteria. Results: The median survival for PA patients with LMD was 65 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 81.1%, 75.7%, and 55.5%. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 69.3%, 66.5%, and 34.6%, respectively. Age, gender, primary site location, timing of LMD presentation (synchronous vs. metachronous), and LMD location did not significantly influence OS or PFS. No statistically significant difference was found in OS or PFS between the chemotherapy and radiotherapy groups. Likewise, no difference was found in OS or PFS according to the use of craniospinal irradiation vs. less extensive RT fields. Conclusions: Approximately one-half of PA patients were alive 5 years after the diagnosis of LMD. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have efficacy against LMD. Although the use of craniospinal irradiation did not have an effect on PFS, the patient numbers were small and a larger number treated with craniospinal irradiation is needed to determine its efficacy.

  15. Effect of cognitive rehabilitation in a case of thalamic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Buono, Viviana; Corallo, Francesco; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Chillemi, Antonino; Grugno, Rosario; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We describe the effectiveness of rehabilitative training for a neuropsychological deficit following the removal and treatment of a fibrillary astrocytoma (Grade II) in a young man. The rehabilitative training was based on cognitive and motivational techniques and has been carried out for a period of 3 months (2 times per week). The results, even if limited to a single case, seem to support the idea that cognitive rehabilitation should facilitate the brain's reorganization of basic cognitive functions in the neuro-oncologic field. PMID:26578385

  16. Misdiagnosed Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma Secondary to Cranial Astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Wei; Xian-sheng Liu; Yong-jian Xu

    2009-01-01

    A case of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) which was misdiagnosed as adult Still's disease was presented. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of this case and related literatures were analyzed and reviewed. The patient was finally diagnosed as AITL (Ann Arbor classification: Stage IIIB) secondary to cranial astrocytoma (WHO classification: Stage III), complicated with severe pulmonary infection because of long time treatment of corticosteroid and misdiagnosis (about one and a half year). It is concluded that AITL is a rare disease which was easily misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of AITL should combine the clinical manifestation with pathological biopsy as well as corresponding immunohistochemical tests.

  17. Radical proposal for the treatment of malignant astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional treatment for anaplastic astrocytoma (AAF) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) leads to local relapse. The recurring element is assumed to be previously radioresistant, reorganizing hypoxic cells that require up to three times the traditional photon irradiation dose for inactivation. We are proposing to coagulate the original lesion with high-dose precision brachytherapy, immediately followed by resection to save the patient from secondary effects of the necrotic region. The treatment then continues with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy to the local surrounding brain and concomitant chemotherapy. The approach inverts the traditional regimen. It has the virtue of being precise, avoiding secondary effects of the necrotic tumor, and satisfying accepted radiobiological principles

  18. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the cerebellar vermis in an elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Skovrlj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA has recently been accepted as an aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma with distinct histopathological features. PMAs have been frequently described in the pediatric population with a predilection for the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region. Case Description: A 72-year-old African American male presented with 6 months of memory loss, difficulty expressing himself, and a progressively worsening gait. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a heterogeneously enhancing cystic mass centered within the cerebellar vermis with mass effect on the fourth ventricle and ventriculomegaly. The patient underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt followed by a surgical resection of the lesion, which after immunohistopathologic evaluation, was diagnosed as a World Health Organization grade II PMA. The patient refused further treatment of the lesion and expired 11 months after initial symptom presentation and 4 months after surgery. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of PMA of the cerebellar vermis in a previously unreported age group. This case report describes the natural history of this type of tumor in a patient who refused adjuvant therapy following surgical resection.

  19. [A case of astrocytoma of corpus callosum presented diagnostic dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, K; Takeyama, E; Takeyama, E; Kizuki, H; Tei, H; Kubo, O

    1995-08-01

    A case of astrocytoma whose first clinical presentation was diagnostic dyspraxia was reported. A 38-year-old right-handed male experienced funny motion of his left hand triggered by voluntary movement of his right hand. One day, he tried to insert a coin into the vending machine with his right hand, then the left hand was against the other. One month after that event, he experienced headache and vertigo. On admission, there were no abnormal findings on neurological examination. On neuropsychological examination, he was cooperative, well orientated and attentive, and there were no callosal disconnection symptoms. Frontal lobe function tests were slightly impaired. T1-weighted MRI demonstrated irregular mixed signal intensity mass lesion extending from the genu to the body of the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus. This lesion was slightly enhanced with Gd-DTPA. Biopsy was performed and histological diagnosis was fibrillary astrocytoma. After irradiation and chemotherapy, he was discharged from the hospital without evident neurological deficit. About 20 cases of diagnostic dyspraxia have been reported and almost all of them were caused by cerebro-vascular disease. This is the first case of brain tumor who presented diagnostic dyspraxia. PMID:7546921

  20. Expression and aberrant promoter methylation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in human astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wnt inhibitory factor-1(WIF-1 acts as a Wnt-antagonists and tumor suppressor, but hypermethylation of WIF-1 gene promoter and low expression activate Wnt signaling aberrantly and induce the development of various human tumors. With this work we intended to investigate the expression and promoter methylation status of WIF-1 gene in human astrocytomas. Methods The tissue samples consisted of 53 astrocytomas and 6 normal brain tissues. The expression levels of WIF-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry and semiquantitative RT-PCR. The results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. Methylation status of WIF-1 gene promoter was investigated using methylation specific PCR. The relationship between methylation and expression of the genes was analyzed. Results The average expression levels of WIF-1 protein and mRNA in astrocytomas were decreased significantly compared with normal control tissues. The protein and mRNA expression of WIF-1 gene in astrocytomas was decreased with the increase of pathological grade. Furthermore, WIF-1 promoter methylation was observed by MS-PCR in astrocytomas which showed significant reduction of WIF-1 expression. The WIF-1 promoter hypermethylation was associated with reduced expression of WIF-1 expression. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the WIF-1 gene is frequently down-regulated or silenced in astrocytomas by aberrant promoter methylation. This may be an important mechanism in astrocytoma carcinogenesis.

  1. Neuritin expression and its relation with proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in human astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yonggeng; Wang, Cheng-guo; Fei, Zhou; Wang, Yuan; Li, Lexiang; Li, Liang; Zhen, Hai-ning

    2011-09-01

    Neuritin, a new member of the neurotrophic factor family, plays an important role in promoting neuronal survival, differentiation, function, and repair. However, whether neuritin is expressed in human astrocytoma and involved in their proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis remains unclear. The expression of neuritin messenger RNA, protein and the relationship with proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis were examined in human astrocytoma samples and three glioma cell lines by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR and so on. And neuritin immunoreactivity score (IRS), proliferative index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), overall daily growth (ODG), and microvessel density (MVD) in brain astrocytoma were measured. The results showed that neuritin was overexpressed in human astrocytoma samples, and the overexpression correlated positively with the malignancy of astrocytomas as reflected by changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis markers. In our study, we found neuritin is overexpressed in astrocytoma, which may be an important factor in tumorigenesis and progression of astrocytoma, and can be used as a target for biological therapy. PMID:20405246

  2. Knockdown of STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Mathew M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system tumors. They are frequently associated with genetic mutations that deregulate cell cycle and render these tumors resistant to apoptosis. STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, participates in several human cancers by inducing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis and is frequently activated in astrocytomas. Methods RNA interference was used to knockdown STAT3 expression in human astrocytes and astrocytoma cell lines. The effect of STAT3 knockdown on apoptosis, cell proliferation, and gene expression was then assessed by standard methods. Results We have found that STAT3 is constitutively activated in several human astrocytoma cell lines. Knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA induces morphologic and biochemical changes consistent with apoptosis in several astrocytoma cell lines, but not in primary human astrocytes. Moreover, STAT3 is required for the expression of the antiapoptotic genes survivin and Bcl-xL in the A172 glioblastoma cell line. Conclusion These results show that STAT3 is required for the survival of some astrocytomas. These studies suggest STAT3 siRNA could be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of astrocytomas.

  3. Microvascular permeability of brain astrocytoma with contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging: correlation analysis with histopathologic grade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhong-zheng; GENG Dao-ying; LIU Ying; CHEN Xing-rong; ZHANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree of pathological microvascular proliferation is an important element in evaluation of the astrocytoma grade.This study was aimed to quantitatively assess the microvascular permeability of brain astrocytoma with the volume transfer constant (Ktrans) and volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve) from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and to evaluate the effectiveness of the Ktrans and Ve in the grading of astrocytoma.Methods The highest values of the Ktrans and Ve of 67 patients with astrocytoma (27 with grade Ⅱ,12 with grade Ⅲ,and 28 with grade Ⅳ) were obtained.The comparisons of the differences of the Ktrans and Ve between the different grades were conducted using the Mann-Whitney rank-sum tests.Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were determined between Ktrans values,Ve values and astrocytoma grades.Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the cut-off values for the Ktrans and Ve to distinguish between the different grades of astrocytoma.Results There were significant differences (P<0.001) between the different grades in the Ktrans values and Ve values,except for grades Ⅲ and Ⅳ.The Ktrans values and Ve values were both correlated with astrocytoma grades (both P<0.001).The ROC curve analyses showed that the cut-off values for the Ktrans and Ve provided the best combination of sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ or Ⅳ astrocytomas.Conclusions DCE-MRI can play an important role in assessing the microvascular permeability and the grading of brain astrocytoma.

  4. PM-10CDCA7L FUNCTIONS AS A MALE-SPECIFIC ONCOGENE IN ASTROCYTOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min-Hyung; Reilly, Karlyne

    2014-01-01

    The most common types of primary brain tumors, astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are currently incurable. Both astrocytoma and GBM show male predominance, with a male to female ratio of 1.42:1 and 1.58:1, respectively. We performed linkage analysis in the Nf1-/ + ;Trp53-/ + cis (NPcis) mouse model of astrocytoma/GBM to identify a male-specific gliomagenesis modifier and further used combinatorial bioinformatics approaches as well as cross-species comparisons to prioritize male-sp...

  5. Supratentorial low grade astrocytoma: prognostic factors, dedifferentiation, and the issue of early versus late surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.C. van Veelen; C.J.J. Avezaat (Cees); J.M. Kros (Johan); W.L.J. van Putten (Wim); C. Vecht

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: A retrospective study of patients with low grade astrocytoma was carried out because the best management of such patients remains controversial. Prognostic factors were identified by multivariate analysis. Special attention was paid to the effect

  6. ADAR2 editing activity in newly diagnosed versus relapsed pediatric high-grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas are aggressive malignant brain tumors affecting humans with a high risk of recurrence in both children and adults. To date, limited information is available on the genetic and molecular alterations important in the onset and progression of pediatric high-grade astrocytomas and, even less, on the prognostic factors that influence long-term outcome in children with recurrence. A-to-I RNA editing is an essential post-transcriptional mechanism that can alter the nucleotide sequence of several RNAs and is mediated by the ADAR enzymes. ADAR2 editing activity is particularly important in mammalian brain and is impaired in both adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Moreover, we have recently shown that the recovered ADAR2 activity in high-grade astrocytomas inhibits in vivo tumor growth. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether changes may occur in ADAR2-mediated RNA editing profiles of relapsed high-grade astrocytomas compared to their respective specimens collected at diagnosis, in four pediatric patients. Total RNAs extracted from all tumor samples and controls were tested for RNA editing levels (by direct sequencing on cDNA pools) and for ADAR2 mRNA expression (by qRT-PCR). A significant loss of ADAR2-editing activity was observed in the newly diagnosed and recurrent astrocytomas in comparison to normal brain. Surprisingly, we found a substantial rescue of ADAR2 editing activity in the relapsed tumor of the only patient showing prolonged survival. High-grade astrocytomas display a generalized loss of ADAR2-mediated RNA editing at both diagnosis and relapse. However, a peculiar Case, in complete remission of disease, displayed a total rescue of RNA editing at relapse, intriguingly suggesting ADAR2 activity/expression as a possible marker for long-term survival of patients with high-grade astrocytomas

  7. Expression and aberrant promoter methylation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in human astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jun; Liu Jinfang; Chen Fenghua; Fang Jiasheng; Wang Ying; Yang Zhuanyi; Wang Yanjin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Wnt inhibitory factor-1(WIF-1) acts as a Wnt-antagonists and tumor suppressor, but hypermethylation of WIF-1 gene promoter and low expression activate Wnt signaling aberrantly and induce the development of various human tumors. With this work we intended to investigate the expression and promoter methylation status of WIF-1 gene in human astrocytomas. Methods The tissue samples consisted of 53 astrocytomas and 6 normal brain tissues. The expression levels of WIF-1 were det...

  8. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  9. Spinal pilocytic astrocytoma: MR imaging findings at first presentation and following surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horger, M., E-mail: marius.horger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Ritz, R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Beschorner, R. [Institute for Brain Research, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Calwerstr. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Fenchel, M.; Naegele, T.; Danz, S.; Ernemann, U. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: The objective of this article is to describe MR imaging findings of spinal cord pilocytic astrocytomas at first presentation and following neurosurgery and to discuss briefly some of the most common differential diagnoses. Conclusion: MR imaging findings in medullary pilocytic astrocytomas consist generally of focal or diffuse cord-enlarging masses that are irregularly shaped, accompanied by cystic elements and hydromyelia, present different degrees of contrast enhancement, high water diffusivity and a propensity for the thoracic and cervical cord.

  10. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 and micro vessel density: Grade II vs. Grade III astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhan Priya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological classification and grading are prime procedures in the management of patients with astrocytoma, providing vital data for therapeutic decision making and prognostication. However, it has limitations in assessing biological tumor behavior. This can be overcome by using newer immunohistochemical techniques. This study was carried out to compare proliferative indices using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, extent of p53 expression and micro vessel morphometric parameters in patients with low grade and anaplastic astrocytoma. Twenty-five patients, each of grade II and grade III astrocytoma were evaluated using monoclonal antibodies to PCNA, p53 protein and factor VIII related antigen. PCNA, p53-labeling indices were calculated along with micro vessel morphometric analysis using Biovis Image plus Software. Patients with grade III astrocytoma had higher PCNA and p53 labeling indices as compared with grade II astrocytoma (29.14 plus/minus 9.87% vs. 16.84 plus/minus 6.57%, p 0.001; 18.18 plus/minus 6.14% vs. 6.14 plus/minus 7.23%, p 0.001, respectively. Micro vessel percentage area of patients with grade III astrocytoma was also (4.26 plus/minus 3.70 vs. 1.05 plus/minus 0.56, p 0.001, higher along with other micro vessel morphometric parameters. Discordance between histology and one or more IHC parameters was seen in 5/25 (20% of patients with grade III astrocytoma and 9/25 (36% of patients with grade II disease. PCNA and p53 labeling indices were positively correlated with Pearson′s correlation, p less than 0.001 for both. Increased proliferative fraction, genetic alterations and neovascularization mark biological aggressiveness in astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical evaluation scores over meet the challenge of accurate prognostication of this potentially fatal malignancy.

  11. Diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging in grading diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Jun-lin; Li, Kun-cheng; DU Xiang-ying; LIU Qi-wang; GUO Dao-de; Zhang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in grading diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Methods Forty-three patients with pathologically proven diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas were collected, and underwent preoperative MRI conventional sequences (including axial T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR) and axial SWI. The ability of showing intratumoral small vessels and hemorrhagic focuses were compared between SWI and conventional techniques. The signal intens...

  12. Prevention against diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma: can the Notch pathway be a novel treatment target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-jun Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether the Notch pathway is involved in the development of diffuse spinal cord astrocytomas. BALB/c nude mice received injections of CD133 + and CD133− cell suspensions prepared using human recurrent diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma tissue through administration into the right parietal lobe. After 7-11 weeks, magnetic resonance imaging was performed weekly. Xenografts were observed on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133 + cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was observed in the xenografts. By contrast, no xenografts appeared in the identical position on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133− cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was hardly detected either. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed xenografts on the convex surfaces of the brains of mice that underwent CD133 + astrocytoma transplantation. Some sporadic astroglioma cells showed pseudopodium-like structures, which extended into the cerebral white matter. However, it should be emphasized that the subcortex xenograft with Notch-immunopositive expression was found in the fourth mouse received injection of CD133− astrocytoma cells. However, these findings suggest that the Notch pathway plays an important role in the formation of astrocytomas, and can be considered a novel treatment target for diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma.

  13. Prevention against diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma:can the Notch pathway be a novel treatment target?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-jun Sun; Jin-long Mao; Xiao-hui Lou; Zhen-yu Wang; Ling-song Li; Hai-yan Yu; Yong-sheng Xu; Hai-bo Wu; Yi Luo; Bin Liu; Mei Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the Notch pathway is involved in the develop-ment of diffuse spinal cord astrocytomas. BALB/c nude mice received injections of CD133+and CD133− cell suspensions prepared using human recurrent diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma tissue through administration into the right parietal lobe. After 7–11 weeks, magnetic resonance imaging was performed weekly. Xenografts were observed on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133+ cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was observed in the xenografts. By contrast, no xenografts appeared in the identical position on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133− cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expres-sion was hardly detected either. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed xenografts on the convex surfaces of the brains of mice that underwent CD133+ astro-cytoma transplantation. Some sporadic astroglioma cells showed pseudopodium-like structures, which extended into the cerebral white matter. However,it should be emphasized that the sub-cortex xenograft with Notch-immunopositive expression was found in the fourth mouse received injection of CD133− astrocytoma cells. However, these ifndings suggest that the Notch pathway plays an important role in the formation of astrocytomas, and can be considered a novel treat-ment target for diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma.

  14. Vertebral angiography of cerebellar astrocytoma. Tumor stain, tumor circulation, CT and angiography in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, K.; Ito, T.; Tashiro, K.; Abe, H.; Tsuru, M.; Miyasaka, K. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-05-01

    Thirteen cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were examined primarily for tumor stain and pathological tumor circulation by angiography and CT. Tumor stain was observed in only one case by cerebral angiogram. A tumor was demonstrated as an avascular mass in the remaining 12 cases. It is suggested that mural nodules of cystic lesions should have certain weight and sizes so that they could be demonstrated as tumor stain. In the supratentorial region, five of the 12 low-grade astrocytoma exhibited abnormal tumor stain and tumor circulation by cerebral angiogram. It is considered that supratentorial and posterior fossa astrocytoma must usually exhibit different pathological tumor circulation by cerebral angiogram, since each group has distinctive clinical and biological characteristics. CT was performed in 7 of 13 cases. It appeared to be more useful than cerebral angiography in the morphological diagnosis. Especially in cystic tumors, CT produced minute information concerning peritumoral edema, enhancement of margin of cystic astrocytoma after intravenous contrast medium, and marginal enhancement with layering in the dependent part of the cyst. Neuroradiological differential diagnosis of cerebellar astrocytoma and cerebellar hemagioblastoma by CT was difficult in the cases of tumors. However, both tumors were differentiated from each other with ease by tumor stain and tumor circulation in cerebral angiography. Thus, it is concluded that cerebral angiography is superior to CT in differential diagnosis between cerebellar astrocytoma and cerebellar hemangioblastoma.

  15. Postoperative irradiation of incompletely excised gemistocytic astrocytomas. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak-Sadzikowska, J.; Glinski, B.; Szpytma, T.; Pluta, E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Inst. of Oncology, Cracow (Poland)

    2005-04-01

    Background and purpose: although gemistocytic astrocytomas are considered slow-growing tumors, they often behave aggressively and carry the least favorable prognosis among low-grade astrocytomas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with incompletely excised gemistocytic astrocytomas irradiated postoperatively. Patients and methods: records of 48 patients with incompletely excised gemistocytic astrocytoma, irradiated between 1976 and 1998 at the department of radiation oncology, Maria Sklodowska-curie Memorial Cancer Center, Cracow, Poland, were reviewed. The total dose ranged from 50 to 60 Gy (mean: 59.35, median: 60 Gy) delivered in daily fractions of 2 Gy, 5 days a week. The treatment volume covered the residual tumor with a margin of 1-2 cm. Results: toxicity was acceptable. The overall actuarial survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 30% and 17%, respectively. Age and gender had an influence on overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). Patients {<=} 35 years of age and female patients carried the best prognosis. Conclusion: in most patients with gemistocytic astrocytoma, combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy result in only short-term survival. Older age is the most important unfavorable prognostic factor in patients with gemistocytic astrocytoma. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging in astrocytomas: correlation with histopathology and immunohistochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; HUANG Shu-Lan; LI Tao; CHEN Xi-lan

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging and its relationship with the grading and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis in astrocytomas. Methods: A collection of 34 patients with astrocytomas proved by surgery and pathology were examined by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), with 26 cases of grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ (low-grade) and 8 cases of grade Ⅲ- Ⅳ (high-grade). MR perfusion images were obtained with spin-echo echo planar imaging (SEEPI) techniques. Expression of VEGF was examined by immunohistochemical method of streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase (SP). The vascular development was measured by micro-vascular density (MVD) which was immunostained with anti-factor Ⅷ-related antigen monoclonal antibody. Results: Both of the expression of VEGF and the angiogenesis in 34 cases of astrocytomas were significantly correlated to the maximum relative cerebral blood volume (Max rCBV) (r= 0. 604, P<0. 001 ;r= 0. 625, P<0. 001, respectively). The Max rCBV and the expression of VEGF, MVD in high-grade astrocytomas were significantly higher than that of in low-grade astrocytomas (t= 3.0, P=0.017; t=7.08, P=0.01;t=3.37,P=0. 011, respectively). Conclusion: MR perfusion weighted imaging might be a valuable method in in vivo study of the angiogenesis of astrocytomas and evaluating their malignant degree and prognosis.

  17. Neural precursor cells induce cell death of high-grade astrocytomas via stimulation of TRPV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Kristin; Kumar, Jitender; Synowitz, Michael; Petrosino, Stefania; Imperatore, Roberta; Smith, Ewan St. J.; Wend, Peter; Purfürst, Bettina; Nuber, Ulrike A.; Gurok, Ulf; Matyash, Vitali; Wälzlein, Joo-Hee; Chirasani, Sridhar R.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Momma, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R.; Ligresti, Alessia; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Kettenmann, Helmut; Glass, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Primary astrocytomas of World Health Organization grade 3 and grade 4 (HG-astrocytomas) are preponderant among adults and are almost invariably fatal despite multimodal therapy. Here, we show that the juvenile brain has an endogenous defense mechanism against HG-astrocytomas. Neural precursor cells (NPCs) migrate to HG-astrocytomas, reduce glioma expansion and prolong survival by releasing a group of fatty acid ethanolamides that have agonistic activity on the vanilloid receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1; TRPV1). TRPV1 expression is higher in HG-astrocytomas than in tumor-free brain and TRPV1 stimulation triggers tumor cell death via the activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) controlled branch of the ER stress pathway. The anti-tumorigenic response of NPCs is lost with aging. NPC-mediated tumor suppression can be mimicked in the adult brain by systemic administration of the synthetic vanilloid Arvanil, suggesting that TRPV1 agonists hold potential as new HG-astrocytoma therapeutics. PMID:22820645

  18. Biochemical Signatures of Doppel Protein in Human Astrocytomas to Support Prediction in Tumor Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rognoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppel (Dpl is a membrane-bound glycoprotein mainly expressed in the testis of adult healthy people. It is generally absent in the central nervous system, but its coding gene sequence is ectopically expressed in astrocytoma specimens and in derived cell lines. In this paper, we investigated the expression and the biochemical features of Dpl in a panel of 49 astrocytoma specimens of different WHO malignancy grades. As a result, Dpl was expressed in the majority of the investigated specimens (86%, also including low grade samples. Importantly, Dpl exhibited different cellular localizations and altered glycan moieties composition, depending on the tumor grade. Most low-grade astrocytomas (83% showed a membrane-bound Dpl, like human healthy testis tissue, whereas the majority of high-grade astrocytomas (75% displayed a cytosolic Dpl. Deglycosylation studies with N-glycosidase F and/or neuraminidase highlighted defective glycan moieties and an unexpected loss of sialic acid. To find associations between glial tumor progression and Dpl biochemical features, predictive bioinformatics approaches were produced. In particular, Decision tree and Nomogram analysis showed well-defined Dpl-based criteria that separately clustered low-and high-grade astrocytomas. Taken together, these findings show that in astrocytomas, Dpl undergoes different molecular processes that might constitute additional helpful tools to characterize the glial tumor progression.

  19. Evaluation of invasiveness of astrocytoma using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Chuanfu; Ma, Xiangxing; Meng, Xiangshui; Feng, Dechao [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Qilu Hospital, Jinan (China); Liu, Ying [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Qilu Hospital, Jinan (China); Anhui Provincial Hospital, MRI Department, Hefei (China); Li, Li [Shandong University, Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital, Jinan (China)

    2007-11-15

    Even low-grade astrocytomas infiltrate the entire brain, a feature that precludes their successful therapy. So to assess the invasive potential of astrocytoma is very important. The aim of this study was determine whether there is a significant correlation between the results of {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and tumor invasive potential of astrocytoma, which is reflected by expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The {sup 1}H-MRS spectra of 41 histologically verified astrocytomas were obtained on a 3-T MR scanner. According to the World Health Organization classification criteria for central nervous system tumors, there were 16 low-grade astrocytomas (2 pilocytic astrocytomas, 14 grade II astrocytomas) and 25 high-grade astrocytomas (5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 20 glioblastomas).The choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were calculated. Of the 41 astrocytomas, 19 (8 low-grade and 11 high-grade) were analyzed immunohistochemically. Expression of MMP-2 was determined using streptavidin-peroxidase complex (SP) staining which was quantified by calculating its calibrated opacity density (COD) using an image analysis system. The correlations between metabolite ratios and the quantitative data from the immunohistochemical tests in the 19 astrocytomas were determined. The Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios of high-grade astrocytoma were both significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytoma (t = -6.222, P = 0.000; t = -6.533, P = 0.000, respectively). MMP-2 COD values of high-grade astrocytomas were also significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytomas (t = -5.892, P = 0.000). There were strong positive correlations between Cho/NAA ratio and MMP-2 COD (r = 0.669, P = 0.002), and between Cho/Cr ratio and MMP-2 COD (r = 0.689, P = 0.001). {sup 1}H-MRS is helpful in evaluating the invasiveness of astrocytomas and predicting prognosis preoperatively by determining the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios

  20. A Spinal Cord Astrocytoma and Its Concurrent Osteoblastic Metastases at the Time of the Initial Diagnosis: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Kim, Hyunki; Chung, Tae Sub; Yoon, Choon Sik; Ryu, Young Hoon; Cho, Yong Eun; Moon, Eun Su; Kim, Sung Jin [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Bone metastasis from a spinal cord astrocytoma has been reported only twice in the English medical literature. It is generally known that bone metastasis is found after the initial diagnosis with/without intervening surgery rather than being found at the time of the diagnosis of astrocytoma. The purpose of this article is to report for the first time a case of concurrent bone metastasis from a spinal cord astrocytoma at the time of diagnosing the spinal cord astrocytoma.

  1. Expression patterns of Wnt signaling component, secreted frizzled-related protein 3 in astrocytoma and glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEĆINA-ŠLAUS, NIVES; KAFKA, ANJA; VAROŠANEC, ANA MARIA; MARKOVIĆ, LEON; KRSNIK, ŽELJKA; NJIRIĆ, NIKO; MRAK, GORAN

    2016-01-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (SFRP3) is a member of the family of soluble proteins, which modulate the Wnt signaling cascade. Novel research has identified aberrant expression of SFRPs in different types of cancer. In the present study the expression intensities and localizations of the SFRP3 protein across different histopathological grades of astrocytic brain tumors were investigated by immunohistochemistry, digital scanning and image analysis. The results demonstrated that the differences between expression levels and malignancy grades were statistically significant. Tumors were classified into four malignancy grades according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Moderate (P=0.014) and strong (P=0.028) nuclear expression levels were significantly different in pilocytic (grade I) and diffuse (grade II) astrocytomas demonstrating higher expression values, as compared with anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma (grade IV). When the sample was divided into two groups, the moderate and high cytoplasmic expression levels were observed to be significantly higher in glioblastomas than in the group comprising astrocytoma II and III. Furthermore, the results indicated that high grade tumors were associated with lower values of moderate (P=0.002) and strong (P=0.018) nuclear expression in comparison to low grade tumors. Analysis of cytoplasmic staining demonstrated that strong cytoplasmic expression was significantly higher in the astrocytoma III and IV group than in the astrocytoma I and II group (P=0.048). Furthermore, lower grade astrocytomas exhibited reduced membranous SFRP3 staining when compared with higher grade astrocytomas and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.036). The present results demonstrated that SFRP3 protein expression levels were decreased in the nucleus in higher grade astrocytoma (indicating the expected behavior of an antagonist of Wnt signaling), whereas when the SFRP3 was located in the cytoplasm an

  2. Expression patterns of Wnt signaling component, secreted frizzled‑related protein 3 in astrocytoma and glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećina-Šlaus, Nives; Kafka, Anja; Varošanec, Ana Maria; Marković, Leon; Krsnik, Željka; Njirić, Niko; Mrak, Goran

    2016-05-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (SFRP3) is a member of the family of soluble proteins, which modulate the Wnt signaling cascade. Novel research has identified aberrant expression of SFRPs in different types of cancer. In the present study the expression intensities and localizations of the SFRP3 protein across different histopathological grades of astrocytic brain tumors were investigated by immunohistochemistry, digital scanning and image analysis. The results demonstrated that the differences between expression levels and malignancy grades were statistically significant. Tumors were classified into four malignancy grades according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Moderate (P=0.014) and strong (P=0.028) nuclear expression levels were significantly different in pilocytic (grade I) and diffuse (grade II) astrocytomas demonstrating higher expression values, as compared with anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma (grade IV). When the sample was divided into two groups, the moderate and high cytoplasmic expression levels were observed to be significantly higher in glioblastomas than in the group comprising astrocytoma II and III. Furthermore, the results indicated that high grade tumors were associated with lower values of moderate (P=0.002) and strong (P=0.018) nuclear expression in comparison to low grade tumors. Analysis of cytoplasmic staining demonstrated that strong cytoplasmic expression was significantly higher in the astrocytoma III and IV group than in the astrocytoma I and II group (P=0.048). Furthermore, lower grade astrocytomas exhibited reduced membranous SFRP3 staining when compared with higher grade astrocytomas and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.036). The present results demonstrated that SFRP3 protein expression levels were decreased in the nucleus in higher grade astrocytoma (indicating the expected behavior of an antagonist of Wnt signaling), whereas when the SFRP3 was located in the

  3. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

  4. PHAKOMATOSIS : INTRESTING CASES OF TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS WITH RETINAL ASTROCYTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC or Morbus Bourneville - Pringle disease is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis, first described by Desiree - Magloire Bourneville in 1880. Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous benign tumours in many parts of the body caused by mutations on either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. This rare genetic disorder is usually associated with a triad of seizures, mental retardation and cutaneous lesions. Approximately one half of all patients affected by TS develop at least one retinal astrocytoma in one eye. PRESENTATION OF CASES: In the department of ophthalmology, G.S.L M edical C ollege, Rajahmundry, we came across 3 cases of tuberous sclerosis involving multi organ systems. Out of 3 cases, 2 cases were reported to be familial and 1case is sporadic, with a history of epilepsy with angiofibromatosis lesions over the face, multiple ash - leaf lesions over the abdomen, renal angiomyolipomas, multiple subependymal nodules in brain and retinal astrocytic hamartomas in the retina. CONCLUSION: It is important to be cognizant of the likely presence of systemic and ocular pathology in a child with mental retardation and skin lesions. Identification of retinal phakomatosis during ocular evaluation in any suspected case of Tuberous sclerosis can aid in the establishment of the diagnosis of the disease

  5. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin-dependent motility and cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeton, Martina; Kanski, Regina; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Geerts, Dirk; van Tijn, Paula; Wiche, Gerhard; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein expressed in astrocytes and neural stem cells. The GFAP gene is alternatively spliced, and expression of GFAP is highly regulated during development, on brain damage, and in neurodegenerative diseases. GFAPα is the canonical splice variant and is expressed in all GFAP-positive cells. In the human brain, the alternatively spliced transcript GFAPδ marks specialized astrocyte populations, such as subpial astrocytes and the neurogenic astrocytes in the human subventricular zone. We here show that shifting the GFAP isoform ratio in favor of GFAPδ in astrocytoma cells, by selectively silencing the canonical isoform GFAPα with short hairpin RNAs, induced a change in integrins, a decrease in plectin, and an increase in expression of the extracellular matrix component laminin. Together, this did not affect cell proliferation but resulted in a significantly decreased motility of astrocytoma cells. In contrast, a down-regulation of all GFAP isoforms led to less cell spreading, increased integrin expression, and a >100-fold difference in the adhesion of astrocytoma cells to laminin. In summary, isoform-specific silencing of GFAP revealed distinct roles of a specialized GFAP network in regulating the interaction of astrocytoma cells with the extracellular matrix through laminin.-Moeton, M., Kanski, R., Stassen, O. M. J. A., Sluijs, J. A., Geerts, D., van Tijn, P., Wiche, G., van Strien, M. E., Hol, E. M. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin dependent motility and cell adhesion.

  6. Correlation of Altered Expression of the Autophagy Marker LC3B with Poor Prognosis in Astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Winardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most serious malignant brain tumors and is characterized by resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Recent studies suggest that autophagy may play an important role not only in the regulation of cancer development and progression but also in determining the response of cancer cells to anticancer therapy. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between protein expressions of two autophagy markers, LC3B and Beclin-1, with clinical parameters in astrocytoma patients. Furthermore, the expression of CD133, a marker of the cancer stem-like cells, in astrocytoma patients was also investigated. A total of 106 thin-section slides were retrospectively collected from astrocytoma patients. LC3B, but not Beclin-1, protein expression was found to significantly correlate with resistance to radiation- or chemotherapy. In addition, high intensity of LC3B staining was predictive of poor prognosis. Furthermore, survival time of patients with high-level expression in both CD133 and LC3B was significantly shorter than those with weak expression in both CD133 and LC3B. These results suggest that astrocytoma cancer stem-like cells together with enhanced autophagy may cause resistance to radiation therapy/chemotherapy and that targeting the cancer stem-like cell in astrocytoma may offer a viable therapeutic approach.

  7. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in association with neovascularization in human primary astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jian-wei; ZHAN Ren-ya; TONG Ying; ZHOU Yong-qing; ZHANG Ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis in primary astrocytoma. Methods: Thirty-seven primary astrocytomas and 4 astrocytic hyperplasia samples were collected and divided into three groups according to histological grade. The expression of eNOS, VEGF and factor Ⅷ related antigen (FVIIIRAg) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Microvascular density was assessed by FVIIIRAg immunoreactivity. The intensity of immunoreactivity was graded according to the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results: No eNOS and VEGF were expressed in the astrocytes and vascular endothelium in astrocytic hyperplasia.The expression of eNOS or VEGF was light in low-grade astrocytoma and strong in glioblastoma. eNOS expression in astrocytoma was very positively correlated with VEGF. eNOS and VEGF expression in anaplastic astrocytoma was median in contrast to the low grade astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Lower microvascular density was found in low grade astrocytoma than that in higher grade malignant ones. The expressions of eNOS and VEGF were correlated with microvascular density and tumor malignancy.Conclusion: This finding suggests that eNOS and VEGF may have cooperative effect in tumor angiogenesis and play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary astrocytoma.

  8. Inhibition of formyl peptide receptor in high-grade astrocytoma by CHemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. C.; Domanska, U. M.; Timmer-Bosscha, H.; Boer, I. G. J.; de Haas, C. J. C.; Joseph, J. V.; Kruyt, F. A. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.; van Strijp, J. A. G.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-grade astrocytomas are malignant brain tumours that infiltrate the surrounding brain tissue and have a poor prognosis. Activation of formyl peptide receptor (FPR1) on the human astrocytoma cell line U87 promotes cell motility, growth and angiogenesis. We therefore investigated the F

  9. Holocord low grade astrocytoma – Role of radical irradiation and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal intradural tumors, especially those extending along the entire length of the spinal cord, termed as ‘holocord’ tumors are uncommon. Most of these are gliomas, with astrocytomas (low grade predominating in children and ependymomas in adults. Other histologies, though reported, are even rarer. Management is debatable, with both surgery and radiotherapy of such extensive tumors posing challenges. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with holocord astrocytoma extending from cervicomedullary junction till lumbar spine, who recovered full neurological function following radical irradiation of entire spine followed by temozolomide-based chemotherapy. No grade 3/4 bone marrow morbidity was seen. Five years following treatment, she maintained normal neurological function and apparently normal pubertal and skeletal growth despite residual disease visible on imaging. Literature review of existing reports of holocord astrocytomas highlighting management and outcome is presented.

  10. Management of optic chiasmatic/hypothalamic astrocytomas in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbok, P.; Hentschel, S.; Almqvist, P.; Cochrane, D.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, British Columbia' s Children' s Hospital, Div. of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dept. of Surgery, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Poskitt, K. [Univ. of British Columbia, British Columbia' s Children' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    The management of optic chiasmatic gliomas is controversial, partly related to failure to separate out those tumors involving the optic chiasm only (chiasmatic tumors) from those also involving the hypothalamus (chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors). The purpose of this study was: (i) to analyze the outcomes of chiasmatic and chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors separately; and (ii) to determine the appropriateness of recommending radical surgical resection for the chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors. A retrospective chart review of all newly diagnosed tumors involving the optic chiasm from 1982-1996 at British Columbia's Children's Hospital was performed. There were 32 patients less than 16 years of age, 14 with chiasmatic and 18 with chiasmatic/hypothalamic astrocytomas, with an average duration of follow-up of 5.8 years and 6.3 years, respectively. Ten of the patients with chiasmatic tumors and none with chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors had neurofibromatosis I. Thirteen of the 14 chiasmatic tumors were managed with observation only, and none had progression requiring active intervention. For the chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors. eight patients had subtotal resections (>95% resection), six had partial resections (50-95%), three had limited resections (<50%), and one had no surgery. There were fewer complications associated with the limited resections, especially with respect to hypothalamic dysfunction. There was no correlation between the extent of resection (subtotal, partial, or limited) and the time to tumor progression (average 18 months). In conclusion, chiasmatic and chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors are different entities, which should be separated out for the Purposes of any study. For the chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors, there was more morbidity and no prolongation of time to progression when radical resections were compared to more limited resections. Therefore, if surgery is performed, it may be appropriate to do a surgical procedure that strives only to provide a

  11. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Recurrent or Unresectable Pilocytic Astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Pollock, Bruce E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Schomberg, Paula J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Stafford, Scott L., E-mail: Stafford.scott@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes in patients with recurrent or unresectable pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 18 patients (20 lesions) with biopsy-confirmed PA having SRS at our institution from 1992 through 2005. Results: The median patient age at SRS was 23 years (range, 4-56). Thirteen patients (72%) had undergone one or more previous surgical resections, and 10 (56%) had previously received external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The median SRS treatment volume was 9.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.7-26.7). The median tumor margin dose was 15 Gy (range, 12-20). The median follow-up was 8.0 years (range, 0.5-15). Overall survival at 1, 5, and 10 years after SRS was 94%, 71%, and 71%, respectively. Tumor progression (local solid progression, n = 4; local solid progression + distant, n = 1; distant, n = 2; cyst development/progression, n = 4) was noted in 11 patients (61%). Progression-free survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 65%, 41%, and 17%, respectively. Prior EBRT was associated with inferior overall survival (5-year risk, 100% vs. 50%, p = 0.03) and progression-free survival (5-year risk, 71% vs. 20%, p = 0.008). Nine of 11 patients with tumor-related symptoms improved after SRS. Symptomatic edema after SRS occurred in 8 patients (44%), which resolved with short-term corticosteroid therapy in the majority of those without early disease progression. Conclusions: SRS has low permanent radiation-related morbidity and durable local tumor control, making it a meaningful treatment option for patients with recurrent or unresectable PA in whom surgery and/or EBRT has failed.

  12. Clinical significance of B7-H6 protein expression in astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo JG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jian-gui Guo,1,* Cheng-cheng Guo,2,* Zhen-qiang He,2 Zhi-gang Liu,3 Yang Wang,2 Yong-gao Mou21Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Key Laboratory of Translational Radiation Oncology, Hunan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workAbstract: Currently, immunotherapy by blocking the immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1, has been carried out in many clinical studies on recurrent glioma, and the preliminary results are satisfactory, which provides a rationale for the exploration of immune checkpoint inhibitors in glioma. B7-H6 is a newly discovered member of the B7 family, which triggers antitumor of natural killer cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion by binding the NKp30 receptor. B7-H6 mRNA and protein expressions, which are not detected in normal tissues, are expressed mainly on the cell surface of various primary tumors and cell lines. However, up until now, there is no data about the clinical significance of B7-H6 expression in astrocytoma patients. The present study provides an investigation on the relationship between prognostic and clinical value of B7-H6 protein in astrocytoma tissues. All the astrocytic glioma tissues were stained for B7-H6. Immunohistochemistry stain of 122 astrocytoma samples showed that immunoreactivity of B7-H6 was seen predominantly in the cytoplasm. The B7-H6 expression did not show significant relevance with patient age, sex distribution, Karnofsky performance status score, extent of resection, and tumor location in astrocytoma patients, but B7-H6 positive expression is significantly associated with World Health

  13. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Christensen, Karina; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte;

    aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of LAMP-1, a membrane bound protein in lysosomes, in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue from 23 diffuse astrocytomas, 17 anaplastic astrocytomas and 72 glioblastomas. The LAMP-1 expression was scored and compared with......Targeting lysosomes is a novel approach in cancer therapy providing a possible way of killing the otherwise apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Recent research has thus shown that lysosome targeting compounds induce cell death in a cervix cancer cell line. Tumor stem cells in glioblastomas have...

  14. A case report on development of CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumour from astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnia Gupta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CNS PNET are infrequent in children and very rare in adults. Even rarer is the development of PNET from low grade astrocytoma. We hereby report a case of PNET arising from astrocytoma. Some similar cases have been reported in the past in which radiation was considered to be the etiological factor in the development of PNET from glial neoplasms but in this case the duration of conversion does not go in favour of radiation as the cause. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1726-1728

  15. [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptomatic non operable grade II fibrillary astrocytoma in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, C; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Chanalet, S; Bourg, V; Frénay, M; Alchaar, H; Bleuse, A; Bondiau, P Y; Brunetto, J L; Chatel, M; Courdi, A; Darcourt, J; Fauchon, F; Guibert, F; Grellier, P; Lanteri-Minet, M; Lonjon, M; Michiels, J F; Paquis, P; Paquis, V; Ramaioli, A; Rasendrarijao, D

    2004-05-01

    We collected 6 case-reports of symptomatric non removable low grade fibrillary astrocytoma of adults treated with a procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine chemotherapy regimen. All patients had drug-resistant epilepsy but brain imaging was stable. Total gross resection was rejected because of Volume or tumor location. After 4 to 7 cycles of chemotherapy, 2 patients had partial response and one minor response on brain MRI. All of them were seizure-free. Progression free survival was not reached at 5 Years. Up-front chemotherapy for low-grade astrocytomas may be useful and has to be prospectively evaluated. PMID:15269670

  16. IDH1 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas predict survival but not response to temozolomide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbink, H. J.; Taal, W.; van Marion, R.; Kros, J. M.; van Heuvel, I.; Bromberg, J. E.; Zonnenberg, B. A.; Zonnenberg, C. B. L.; Postma, T. J.; Gijtenbeek, J. M. M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F. H.; Smitt, P. A. E. Sillevis; Dinjens, W. N. M.; van den Bent, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) have been implicated in tumorigenesis of gliomas. Patients with high-grade astrocytomas with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were reported to have a better survival, but it is unknown if this improved survival also holds for low-grade

  17. IDH1 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas predict survival but not response to temozolomide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbink, H.J.; Taal, W.; Marion, R. van; Kros, J.M.; Heuvel, I. van; Bromberg, J.E.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Zonnenberg, C.B.; Postma, T.J.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F.H.; Smitt, P.A.; Dinjens, W.N.; Bent, M.J. van den

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) have been implicated in tumorigenesis of gliomas. Patients with high-grade astrocytomas with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were reported to have a better survival, but it is unknown if this improved survival also holds for low-grade

  18. Multicentric Astrocytoma Presenting withSupra- and Infratentorial Involvement: ACase Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Borhanihaghighi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the case of a 56 year-old man with a history of diplopia. Hisbrain imaging showed multiple lesions with a metastatic appearance, however allinvestigations to determine the primary source of malignancy were negative. Thepatient underwent a brain biopsy, which was positive for anaplastic astrocytoma, arare tumor that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of secondary braintumors.

  19. Recurrent delayed brain hemorrhage over years after irradiation and chemotherapy for astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillemanns, Andreas; Skalej, Martin; Krapf, Hilmar [Department of Neuroradiology, Eberhard Karls University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiooncology, Eberhard Karls University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Herrlinger, Ulrich [Department of Neurology, Eberhard Karls University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    We report on an adult patient with a right frontal astrocytoma, classification WHO II, who suffered from radionecrosis 3.5 years after surgery and combined radio- and chemotherapy. Beginning 8 years after initial diagnosis, repeated episodes of bilateral cerebral hemorrhage and cavitation occurred. This case description emphasizes the possibility of repeated hemorrhage as a delayed reaction to brain irradiation and chemotherapy. (orig.)

  20. Astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoplasms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems of wild animals are extremely rare. Described are clinical signs, pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in an adult female raccoon (Procyon lotor) with an astrocytoma which involved brainstem, cervical spinal cord and roots of the ...

  1. Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Scherpen, F. J. G.; Hoving, E. W.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children. Because of their high vascularity, this study aimed to obtain insights into potential angiogenic related therapeutic targets in these tumours by characterization of the vasculature and the angiogenic profile. In this study

  2. Identification of Tumor Progression-Related Genes in Astrocytoma cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zeng; Zhong Yang; Chao You; Yangyun Han

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify progression-related genes that lead to astrocytoma progression from a low to a high grade by analyzing the gene expression profiles from different tumor grades, and all-trans retinoic acid-treated astrocytoma cell lines.METHODS In this study, all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA) was used to induce differentiation of SHG-44 cells.Then,by using a cDNA microarray, we compared gene expression profiling in different grades of astrocytoma cell lines(CHG-5,WHo Grade II and SHG-44,WHO Grade IV)and in ATRA-induced differentiation in SHG-44 cells.A panel of overlapped genes that might be related to tumor progression was identified,and the cell line individual variation was avoided as well. RESUIJTS In the 31 overlapped genes,the stable over-expression of MDM2 and UGB as well as the repression of SOD2,G3BP, and CSTB in parental SHG-44 ceils was observed and their possible roles in tumor progression were discussed.Moreover, validation of some differentially expressed genes was confirmed by Northern blots.CONCLUSl0N The overlapped genes reported in this study might relate to progression of astrocytoma.Further study of progression-related genes may be helpful to explore the genetic pathways that are involved in astrocytoma progress from a low to a high grade.

  3. Tuberous sclerosis complex complicated with extraventricular cystic giant cell astrocytoma: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xu-zhu; DAI Jian-ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one of the most commonly identified neurocutaneous disorders with a prevalence of 1/6000 to 1/9000 in general population1,2 In the patients with TSC, 10%-15% have subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA) .3

  4. Tracer transport and metabolism in a patient with juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Radu, EW; Hausmann, O; Vontobel, P; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL

    1998-01-01

    We studied a patient with juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) using positron emission tomography (PET), F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), C-11-methionine (MET), and (82)Rubidium (RUB). Non-linear fitting and multiple time graphical plotting of the dynamic PET data revealed values for tumor plasma volu

  5. Diffuse spinal leptomeningeal spread of a pilocytic astrocytoma in a 3-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Alyeldien

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to lowgrade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow- up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated.

  6. Posterior fossa vermian cystic schwannoma mimicking as pilocytic astrocytoma: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Umredkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraparenchymal schwannomas are rare and most of the reported cases are in supratentorial region with frontal lobe being most common. Infratentorial location is very rare. We report a posterior fossa midline large cystic schwannoma with mural nodule mimicking as pilocytic astrocytoma. The pathogenesis and neuroradiological findings of intraparenchymal schwannomas are discussed with review of the related literature.

  7. Impaired tooth root development after treatment of a cerebellar astrocytoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckles, T.A.; Kalkwarf, K.L.

    1989-10-01

    A young man, previously treated by surgical resection of a grade III cerebellar astrocytoma in combination with irradiation and chemotherapy, was found to display severe generalized root agenesis. This patient also exhibited secondary hypothyroidism and decreased levels of growth hormone. These factors are discussed in relation to their possible role in impaired root development.

  8. Identification of transcriptional regulatory networks specific to pilocytic astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutmann David H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pilocytic Astrocytomas (PAs are common low-grade central nervous system malignancies for which few recurrent and specific genetic alterations have been identified. In an effort to better understand the molecular biology underlying the pathogenesis of these pediatric brain tumors, we performed higher-order transcriptional network analysis of a large gene expression dataset to identify gene regulatory pathways that are specific to this tumor type, relative to other, more aggressive glial or histologically distinct brain tumours. Methods RNA derived from frozen human PA tumours was subjected to microarray-based gene expression profiling, using Affymetrix U133Plus2 GeneChip microarrays. This data set was compared to similar data sets previously generated from non-malignant human brain tissue and other brain tumour types, after appropriate normalization. Results In this study, we examined gene expression in 66 PA tumors compared to 15 non-malignant cortical brain tissues, and identified 792 genes that demonstrated consistent differential expression between independent sets of PA and non-malignant specimens. From this entire 792 gene set, we used the previously described PAP tool to assemble a core transcriptional regulatory network composed of 6 transcription factor genes (TFs and 24 target genes, for a total of 55 interactions. A similar analysis of oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM gene expression data sets identified distinct, but overlapping, networks. Most importantly, comparison of each of the brain tumor type-specific networks revealed a network unique to PA that included repressed expression of ONECUT2, a gene frequently methylated in other tumor types, and 13 other uniquely predicted TF-gene interactions. Conclusions These results suggest specific transcriptional pathways that may operate to create the unique molecular phenotype of PA and thus opportunities for corresponding targeted therapeutic

  9. The state of the art of pre-treatment evaluation of high-grade astrocytoma with DTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-grade astrocytoma is one of the high-profile cerebral neoplasms. Although conventional MRI remains the major method for pre-treatment evaluation of high-grade astrocytoma at present, its use can be limited by lacking of functional information. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which based on the self-diffusion of water molecules in tissues, can provide the information about microscopic structures and pathological changes, including tumor cellularity, peritumoral edema and pathological changes of peritumoral white matter fiber tracts. This review focuses on the progress on pre-treatment evaluation of high-grade astrocytoma with DTI, including tumor grading, peritumoral margins, preoperative planning and radiation planning. (authors)

  10. Expression and significance of sonic hedgehog signaling pathway-related components in brainstem and supratentorial astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Yu; HAO Shu-yu; TIAN Yong-ji; ZHANG Jun-ting; WU Zhen; WAN Hong; LI Jun-hua; JIANG Jian; ZHANG Li-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that abnormal activation of the sonic hedgehog pathway is closely related to tumorigenesis in central nervous system.This study aimed to investigate the role of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the occurrence of brainstem and supratentorial glioma.Methods Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of sonic hedgehog-related components in 5 specimens of normal brain tissue,10 of grade Ⅱ brainstem glioma,and 10 of grade Ⅱ supratentorial glioma.The significance of differences between two groups was determined using the Mann-Whitney U test or the two-sample test according to the results of normality distribution tests.Results The mRNA expression levels of sonic hedgehog-related genes were higher in brainstem astrocytomas than in supratentorial astrocytomas and normal brain tissue.The level of protein patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) was significantly higher in brainstem astrocytomas than in supratentorial astrocytomas and normal brain tissue (P <0.01).Immunohistochemistry semi-quantitative analysis was consistent with the qRT-PCR result that PTCH1 expression was increased significantly in brainstem astrocytomas at the protein level (P <0.05).Conclusions Enhanced PTCH1 expression and activation of the sonic hedgehog pathway are involved in brainstem glioma.This may be related to the difference in malignant biological behavior between brainstem and hemispheric glioma,and could be an ideal therapeutic target in brainstem glioma.

  11. Effect of PSC 833, a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, on the growth of astrocytoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanand, V; Kankesan, J; Yusuf, A; Stewart, C; Rutka, J T; Thiessen, J J; Ling, V; Rao, P M; Rajalakshmi, S; Sarma, D S R

    2003-07-30

    Malignant astrocytomas have been found to express P-glycoprotein (Pgp, mdr1 gene product). It was hypothesized that in addition to conferring multidrug resistance, Pgp is intimately associated with the development of astrocytomas. Accordingly, we studied the effect of PSC 833 (PSC, Novartis), a potent inhibitor of Pgp, on the growth of Pgp-expressing astrocytoma cells. The results showed that in all the cell lines tested, PSC (10-60 microM) inhibited the growth as well as induced cell death. Cells exposed to PSC exhibited DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. PSC-induced cell death could be reversed by Z-VAD-fmk, a general caspase inhibitor, indicating that PSC-induced cell death was characteristic of caspase-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of malignant astrocytomas by inhibitors of Pgp.

  12. An infant with hyperalertness, hyperkinesis, and failure to thrive: a rare diencephalic syndrome due to hypothalamic anaplastic astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Stival, Alessia; Lucchesi, Maurizio; Farina, Silvia; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Castiglione, Francesca; Genitori, Lorenzo; de Martino, Maurizio; Sardi, Iacopo

    2015-01-01

    Background Diencephalic Syndrome is a rare clinical condition of failure to thrive despite a normal caloric intake, hyperalertness, hyperkinesis, and euphoria usually associated with low-grade hypothalamic astrocytomas. Case presentation We reported an unusual case of diencephalic cachexia due to hypothalamic anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO-grade III). Baseline endocrine function evaluation was performed in this patient before surgery. After histological diagnosis, he enrolled to a chemotherapy p...

  13. Reexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein rescues the ability of astrocytoma cells to form processes in response to neurons

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Astroglial cells play an important role in orchestrating the migration and positioning of neurons during central nervous system development. Primary astroglia, as well as astrocytoma cells will extend long stable processes when co-cultured with granule neurons. In order to determine the function of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate filament protein in astroglia and astrocytoma cells, we suppressed the expression of GFAP by stable transfection of an anti- sense...

  14. Is Upregulation of Aquaporin 4-M1 Isoform Responsible for the Loss of Typical Orthogonal Arrays of Particles in Astrocytomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallier-Becker, Petra; Nieser, Maike; Wenzel, Ulrike; Ritz, Rainer; Noell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The astrocytic endfoot membranes of the healthy blood-brain barrier-contacting the capillary-are covered with a large number of the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). They form orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs), which consist of AQP4 isoform M1 and M23. Under pathologic conditions, AQP4 is distributed over the whole cell and no or only small OAPs are found. From cell culture experiments, it is known that cells transfected only with AQP4-M1 do not form OAPs or only small ones. We hypothesized that in astrocytomas the situation may be comparable to the in vitro experiments expecting an upregulation of AQP4-M1. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of different graded astrocytomas revealed an upregulation of both isoforms AQP4 M1 and M23 in all astrocytomas investigated. In freeze fracture replicas of low-grade malignancy astrocytomas, more OAPs than in high-grade malignancy astrocytomas were found. In vitro, cultured glioma cells did not express AQP4, whereas healthy astrocytes revealed a slight upregulation of both isoforms and only a few OAPs in freeze fracture analysis. Taken together, we found a correlation between the decrease of OAPs and increasing grade of malignancy of astrocytomas but this was not consistent with an upregulation of AQP4-M1 in relation to AQP4 M23. PMID:27483250

  15. Gemistocytic astrocytoma in the spinal cord in a dog: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Chaves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper reports a case of a rare variant of the cervical spinal cord astrocytoma diagnosed in a dog with progressive neurological signs, initially asymmetrical, not ambulatory tetraparesis, segmental reflexes and normal muscle tone in all four limbs and absence of pain upon palpation of the cervical spine. Myelography revealed attenuation of the ventral and dorsal contrast line in the third region of the fifth cervical vertebra. At necropsy intramedullary cylindrical mass that stretched from the third to the sixth cervical vertebra, which replaced all the gray matter of the spinal cord was observed. In the histological study, there was the replacement of the substance by neoplastic cells mantle arranged loosely. The cells were large and slightly rounded. The eosinophilic cytoplasm was well defined, sometimes forming processes interconnecting cells. The nucleus was eccentric, round, oval or kidney-shaped, and the nucleolus was evident. Thus, the microscopic changes observed in the cervical spinal cord were consistent with gemistocytic astrocytoma.

  16. Stereotaxic gamma knife surgery in treatment of critically located pilocytic astrocytoma: preliminary result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Raef FA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-grade gliomas are uncommon primary brain tumors, located more often in the posterior fossa, optic pathway, and brain stem and less commonly in the cerebral hemispheres. Case presentations Two patients with diagnosed recurrent cystic pilocytic astrocytoma critically located within the brain (thalamic and brain stem were treated with gamma knife surgery. Gamma knife surgery (GKS did improve the patient's clinical condition very much which remained stable later on. Progressive reduction on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies of the solid part of the tumor and almost disappearance of the cystic component was achieved within the follow-up period of 36 months in the first case with the (thalamic located lesion and 22 months in the second case with the (brain stem located lesion. Conclusion Gamma knife surgery represents an alternate tool in the treatment of recurrent and/or small postoperative residual pilocytic astrocytoma especially if they are critically located

  17. Parietal pilomyxoid astrocytoma with recurrence in 10 months: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Thotakura, Amit K; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary; Nukavarapu, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a new entity described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and PMA share many histopathological features with a few differences in histopathology and behavior of the tumor. This tumor is commonly located in the hypothalamic chiasmatic region. PMA behaves more aggressively than PA, with shorter progression-free survival as well as a higher rate of recurrence and CNS dissemination. We describe a case of PMA in a 10-year-old male involving left parietal lobe presenting with raised ICP features along with the follow-up. Patient was symptom free after 7 months of postoperative and 5½ months of post-radiation. The unusual site and atypical Magnetic resonance imaging features are distinctive in this case report. PMID:27366287

  18. Primary Spinal Cord Astrocytoma Presenting as Intracranial Hypertension: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sungryong; Lee, Seung Joo; Rhim, Seung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure (IICP) is rarely seen in association with primary spinal tumors. We describe a 58-year-old man who was diagnosed with a primary spinal cord astrocytoma, who first presented with hypesthesia, followed by intracranial hypertension, papilledema and blurred vision. On first admission, he presented with hypesthesia but without paraparesis, headache or blurred vision. Spinal MRI showed a relatively well-enhanced solid mass with a cystic portion at the cervico-thoraci...

  19. Specific localization of thallium 201 in human high-grade astrocytoma by microautoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountz, J M; Raymond, P A; McKeever, P E; Modell, J G; Hood, T W; Barthel, L K; Stafford-Schuck, K A

    1989-07-15

    The ability to accurately distinguish remaining or recurrent high-grade astrocytoma from necrosis or edema following treatment is essential to optimal patient management. Thallium 201 planar gamma-camera imaging has been shown to be helpful in detecting recurrent high-grade astrocytoma; however, due to tissue heterogeneity adjacent to and within tumor, the cellular specificity and quantification of 201Tl uptake are largely unknown. In order to determine which tissues are responsible for the radioisotope uptake, microautoradiographic techniques were used to examine multiple tissue sections from five patients with high-grade astrocytoma. Each patient received 5 mCi of 201Tl i.v. 1 h prior to tumor removal. Additionally, all patients received computerized tomographic and 201Tl planar gamma-camera scans prior to surgery. Following surgery, the excised tissue specimens were tentatively classified by gross pathological examination and then immediately processed for dry mount autoradiography; grain density was determined over regions containing tumor, adjacent and uninvolved brain tissue, necrotic tissue, and background. Highly significant differences were found in grain densities (201Tl uptake) between tumor and uninvolved brain tissue, as well as between uninvolved brain tissue and necrotic tissue; there was no significant difference between background grain density and that in necrotic tissue. Mean grain densities (grains/cm2 +/- 1 SD) across patients were: tumor, 102 +/- 23; adjacent, uninvolved brain tissue, 29 +/- 11; necrotic tissue, 6.2 +/- 1.1; and background, 7.0 +/- 4.1. We conclude that the ability of 201Tl to selectively image high-grade astrocytoma is due to its preferential uptake into tumor cells.

  20. Focused Ultrasound Surgery for the Treatment of Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Wuk; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol

    2006-05-01

    Anaplastic glioma is a highly aggressive tumor in the central nervous system. The conventional treatment for patients with anaplstic glioma consists of the combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the effect of the currently available therapies is limited, and the prognosis is very poor in these patients. The purpose of this abstract is to introduce our preliminary experience of using focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) for the treatment of patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma.

  1. MR Findings of Desmoplastic Cerebral Astrocytoma of Infancy. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Kim, K.H.; Park, C. M.; Yeon, K.M. [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2003-11-01

    Desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma of infancy (DCAI) presents as a large supratentorial mass consisting of a central cystic component and an enhancing solid component associated with peripheral dural attachment. We report the unusual MR findings of a DCAI that differed from previously reported cases in terms of the presence of calcification, which is not considered a feature of this tumor, and the absence of an enhancing peripheral dural component.

  2. Supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in a young adult with Silver-Russell syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, E

    2008-12-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder in which patients demonstrate intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, triangular facies, excessive sweating during early childhood, late closure of the anterior fontanelle and skeletal asymmetry. An association with malignancy exists and only one previous intracranial tumour has been reported, a craniopharyngioma. We report the first case of Silver-Russell syndrome associated with a supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.

  3. Genomic deletions correlate with underexpression of novel candidate genes at six loci in pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Potter; Aikaterini Karakoula; Phipps, Kim P.; William Harkness; Richard Hayward; Thompson, Dominic N P; Jacques, Thomas S.; Brian Harding; Thomas, David G.T.; Palmer, Rodger W; Jeremy Rees; John Darling; Warr, Tracy J.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is not well defined. Previous cytogenetic and molecular studies have not identified nonrandom genetic aberrations. To correlate differential gene expression and genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) in PA, we have used Affymetrix GeneChip HG_U133A to generate gene expression profiles of 19 pediatric patients and the SpectralChip 2600 to investigate CNAs in 11 of these tumors. Hierarchical clustering according to expression pr...

  4. Mutation Analysis of PTEN Gene in Human Astrocytoma%人脑星形细胞瘤PTEN基因的突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 杨卫忠; 石松生; 杨发端

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten(PTEN) gene mutations in carcinogenesis and progression of human astrocytoma. Methods The exon 5 of PTEN gene in human astrocytoma was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR),and its mutations was detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism(SSCP) with silver staining. Results There was no PTEN gene mutations found in 10 cases of normal brain samples and 10 cases of benign meningioma,while it was found in 7 out of 62 astrocytomas(11.29%). In human astrocytoma,PTEN gene mutations was related to grade of pathology(P<0.05). The expression of PTEN gene mutations in high malignant(grade Ⅲ,Ⅳ) astrocytoma was significantly higher than those in low malignant(grade Ⅰ,Ⅱ) astrocytoma(P<0.05). Conclusion PTEN gene mutations detected in human astrocytoma indicates that the PTEN gene mutations is obviously correlated to histological grade in astrocytoma. PTEN gene mutations is a late event in astrocytoma carcinogenesis. It plays an important role in progression of astrocytoma.%目的探讨phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten(PTEN)基因突变在人星形细胞瘤发生和恶性进展中的作用。方法应用聚合酶链反应-单链构象多态性结合银染技术检测星形细胞瘤PTEN基因第5外显子区域的突变情况。结果 10例正常脑组织和10例良性脑膜瘤均无点突变发生,62例星形细胞瘤中7例(11.29%)有点突变发生,并且点突变发生与星形细胞瘤病理分级明显相关(P<0.05),其中高恶性度星形细胞瘤(Ⅲ~Ⅳ级)突变率(18.91%)明显高于低恶性度(Ⅰ~Ⅱ级)星形细胞瘤(P<0.05)。结论 PTEN基因突变与星形细胞瘤病理分级关系密切,属于星形细胞瘤恶性进展的后期事件。

  5. Expression of the neurotrophin receptors Trk A and Trk B in adult human astrocytoma and glioblastoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashi Wadhwa; Tapas C Nag; Anupam Jindal; Rahul Kushwaha; Ashok K Mahapatra; Chitra Sarkar

    2003-03-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors of the Trk family play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation and survival of the developing neurons. There are reports on their expression in neoplasms too, namely, the primitive neuroectodermal tumours of childhood, and in adult astrocytic gliomas. The involvement of Trk receptors in tumour pathogenesis, if any, is not known. With this end in view, the present study has examined 10 tumour biopsy samples (identified as astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and glioblastoma) and peritumoral brain tissue of adult patients, for the presence of Trk A and Trk B receptors, by immunohistochemistry. The nature of the tumour samples was also confirmed by their immunoreactivity (IR) to glial fibrillary acidic protein. In the peritumoral brain tissue, only neurons showed IR for Trk A and Trk B. On the contrary, in the tumour sections, the IR to both receptors was localized in the vast majority of glia and capillary endothelium. There was an obvious pattern of IR in these gliomas: high levels of IR were present in the low-grade (type I and II) astrocytoma; whereas in the advanced malignant forms (WHO grade IV giant cell glioblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme) the IR was very weak. These findings suggest that Trk A and Trk B are involved in tumour pathogenesis, especially in the early stage, and may respond to signals that elicit glial proliferation, and thus contribute to progression towards malignancy.

  6. Congenital irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation associated with cervical intramedullary astrocytoma causing progressive spastic quadriparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatley Anooj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous presence of congenital irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD and cervical intramedullary astrocytoma has not been previously described and may cause disabling myelopathy. This 55-year-old lady presented with suboccipital pain, spastic quadriparesis, Lhermitte′s phenomenon and sphincteric disturbances. Lateral radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed irreducible AAD, occipitalized atlas, C2-3 fusion, and,an intramedullary tumor from C2-5 level iso-to-hypointense, non-enhancing, except in a small segment in the dorsal C2 level. A suboccipital craniectomy with C2-5 laminectomy revealed a greyish-white tenacious tumor. The tumor was decompressed using a C2-5 midline myelotomy and duroplasty. An occipitocervical lateral mass fixation was performed. Histopathology revealed a low-grade astrocytoma. At three-month follow-up, her spasticity had decreased and quadriparesis and sphincteric disturbances were persisting. Postoperative lateral radiographs and intrathecal contrast CT scan showed a stable occipitocervical construct. Thus, the suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy with midline myelotomy and duroplasty facilitated space for progressively expanding intramedullary astrocytoma with irreducible AAD; the lateral mass fixation provided stability at the craniovertebral junction.

  7. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of pilomyxoid astrocytoma:a report of six cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zixuan Yang; Fei Yan; Li Meng; Qilin Ao; Pengcheng Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to study the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of pilo-myxoid astrocytoma (PMA). Methods:The clinical and pathologic features in six cases of PMA were analyzed. Immunohisto-chemical staining for glial fibril ary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin (Syn), Chromogranin A (CgA), cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and Ki67 was performed on paraf in-embedded sections. Results:Among the six cases, five occurred in female patients, one was male, the age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years. Four cases were located in the hypothalamic area and optic pathway, one case in the third ventricle, and one case in left parietal lobe. On imaging, PMAs often appears as wel-circumscribed mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of monomorphous bipolar (piloid) cells setting in a prominent myxoid background with an angiocentric radiating growth pattern in some areas. PMA lacked biphasic pattern, Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granular bodies which were usual y typical in a classic pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Immunohistochemcal study showed that the tumor cel s were dif usely positive for GFAP. Syn positive staining was observed in one case. The Ki67 labeling index measured less than 5%. Conclusion:PMA is a distinct aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma with special histological and immunohistochemical features. It is typically a rare tumor of early childhood. Im-munohistochemical staining for GFAP and Syn is helpful in dif erential diagnosis.

  8. Long-term molecular changes in WHO grade Ⅱ astrocytomas following radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ying Yu; Ke Sai; Qiu-Liang Wu; Yun-Fei Xia; Su-Huan Yu; Zhong-Ping Chen

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the long-term radiotherapy-associated molecular changes in low-grade gliomas (LGGs)facilitates the understanding of LGG response to radiotherapy. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of Ki-67,tumor protein P53 (TP53),P21,and P27 in 8paired WHO grade Ⅱ astrocytoma samples.The interval between radiotherapy (RT) and the second surgery was more than 3 months in all cases.The average Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was 5.3% in pre-RT samples and 11.54% in post-RT samples.Ki-67 LI was higher in the primary tumors that underwent malignant transformation observed at the second surgery after radiation.Post-RT Ki-67 LI decreased in 2 cases with an interval of less than 12 months between RT and the second surgery.TP53 expression was found in 3 out of 4 pre-RT samples with malignant transformation and in 1 out of 4 pre-RT samples without malignant transformation.Post-RT TP53 increased in 2 cases in which increased expression of P21 or P27 was also observed.Our study suggests that radiotherapy can inhibit WHO grade Ⅱ astrocytoma proliferation as reflected by Ki-67 LI,but the effect attenuates with time.In addition,there is a tendency of malignant transformation for WHO grade Ⅱ astrocytomas with a high Ki-67 level or TP53 expression in initial samples.

  9. Growth promoting effect of recombinant interleukin I and tumor necrosis factor for human astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human IL I has been demonstrated to stimulate the growth of rat astrocytes in vitro. To determine if IL I has a similar growth promoting effect upon human brain cells, two astrocytoma cell lines were tested for their ability to incorporate 3H-thymidine in response to various types of IL I and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The U373 astrocytoma was found to respond mitogenically to human native IL I, human recombinant IL I, rat IL I and murine recombinant IL I. The cell line failed to respond to recombinant IL 2 and recombinant α and γ interferon. The sensitivity of the U373 cells paralleled the murine thymocyte assay for IL I. Interestingly, the U373 responded mitogenically to recombinant TNF prepared by two different companies, thus indicating that TNF stimulates proliferation of this cell line and does not lead to cell death. In the murine thymocyte assay for IL I, TNF was not active. The results indicate that 1) both IL I and TNF are mitogenic for a human astrocytoma cell line and 2) the U373 cells may be used to assay both IL I and TNF in a highly sensitive mitogenic assay

  10. Anatomical Involvement of the Subventricular Zone Predicts Poor Survival Outcome in Low-Grade Astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ has been implicated in the origination, development, and biological behavior of gliomas. Tumor-SVZ contact is also postulated to be a poor prognostic factor in glioblastomas. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic consequence of the anatomical involvement of low-grade gliomas with the SVZ. To that end, we reviewed 143 patients with diffuse astrocytomas, and tumor lesions were manually delineated on magnetic resonance images. We initially investigated the prognostic role of SVZ contact in all patients. Additionally, we investigated the influence of the anatomical proximity of the tumor lesion centroids to the SVZ in the SVZ-involved patient cohorts, as well as location within the SVZ. We found SVZ contact with tumors to be a significant prognostic factor of overall survival in all patients with diffuse astrocytomas (p = 0.027. In the SVZ-involved cohort, a shorter distance from the tumor centroid to the SVZ (≤30 mm correlated with shorter overall survival (p = 0.022 on univariate analysis. However, there was no significant difference in overall survival with respect to the SVZ region involved with the tumor (p = 0.930. Multivariate analysis showed that a shorter distance between the tumor centroid and the SVZ (p = 0.039 was significantly associated with poor overall survival in SVZ-involved patients. Hence, this study helps establish the prognostic role of the anatomical interaction of tumors with the SVZ in low-grade astrocytomas.

  11. In vivo research in astrocytoma cell proliferation with {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with histopathology and immunohistochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Tao; Chen, Xi-Lan [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Department of Radiology, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Huang, Shu-Lan [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China)

    2006-05-15

    Assessment of brain tumor proliferative potential provides important prognostic information that supplements standard histopathologic grading. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) gives completely different information, relating to cell membrane proliferation, neuronal damage, energy metabolism and necrotic transformation of brain or tumor tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between {sup 1}H-MRS and tumor proliferative potential in astrocytomas. We studied 34 patients with histologically verified astrocytomas using the {sup 1}H-MRS protocol following routine MRI preoperatively. The tumor in 26 of these patients was classified as grade I/II (low grade), and the tumor in the remaining patients as grade III/IV (high grade) according to the World Health Organization classification criteria of nervous system tumors (2000). The tumor in 21 patients was homogeneous astrocytoma, and of these 17 were classified as low grade and 4 as high grade. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was determined immunohistochemically using streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SP) staining. The ratios of choline (Cho) to N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and Cho to creatine (Cr) in those with high-grade astrocytomas (n=4) were significantly higher than in those with low-grade astrocytomas (n=17) (t=2.899, P=0.009; t=3.96, P=0.001, respectively), and were found to be significantly correlated with the expression of PCNA in 21 patients with homogeneous astrocytomas (r=0.455, P=0.038; r=0.633, P=0.002, respectively). (orig.)

  12. P04.23PROMOTOR HYPERMETHYLATION OF MGMT, P15, P16 AND RB1 IN PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Urbschat, S.; Kim, Y.J.; Oertel, J.; Ketter, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pilocytic astrocytomas are WHO grade I gliomas occurring mainly in the childhood and adolescent ages. Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is a very common mechanism in CNS neoplasias which is generally associated with their transcriptional silencing. MATERIAL & METHODS: Using MS-PCR, we analyzed the methylation status of the tumor suppressor genes p15, p16, RB1, and MGMT in n = 18 pilocytic astrocytomas. Furthermore, all tumour samples were tested for the R132H mutation of the IDH1 gene by use of immunohistochemical staining. The results of the MGMT methylation analysis were correlated with the individual clinical and demographical data as well as with the progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Each of the 18 pilocytic astrocytoma specimen presented unmethylated in the investigated promoter regions of p16 and RB1. For the p15 gene, 1/18 tumor sample showed a positive methylation signal (5.6%). This single case presented with an extraordinary aggressive clinical course including frequent local recurrences with meningeal metastases but without tumor upgrading. For the MGMT gene, however, methylation frequency was 44.5% (8/18). Interestingly, when stratified for the MGMT methylation status, the group of methylated pilocytic astrocytomas showed a significantly shortened PFS in the Kaplan-Meier curve compared to their unmethylated counterparts (11.75 Months vs. 74.0 Months; p = 0.041; univariate log rank test). CONCLUSION: Epigenetic mechanisms, in particular the promoter methylation of the MGMT and p15 genes, contrary to the perception of literatur that pilocytic astrocytomas are commonly unmethylated, may obviously have an impact on the clinical course in pilocytic astrocytoma disease.

  13. Outcome and patterns of failure following limited-volume irradiation for malignant astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, A.S.; Maor, M.H.; Yung, W.K.A.; Bruner, J.M.; Woo, Shiao Y.; Moser, R.P.; Lee, Ya-Yen (Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Between January 1982 and June 1986, 60 consecutive patients with high-grade astrocytomas (39 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 21 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)) were treated with radiation therapy after biopsy (13 patients) or resection (47 patients). 53 patients were treated with limited-volume irradiation, 7 received whole-brain irradiation. The mean tumor dose was 65.4 Gy. In 35 patients, chemotherapy was given as part of their initial treatment. The 1- and 2-year survivals for GBM patients were 40 and 14 percent, respectively. Survival figures for AA patients were 76 and 52 percent at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The progression-free rate at 1 year was 13 percent in GBM and 29 percent in AA patients. 34 of 48 patients who received limited-volume irradiation had evidence of progression on postirradiation CT scans. 6 patients (3 GBM, 3 AA) had evidence of a new intracranial metastatic site on CT scan. In 3 patients the metastasis was within the previously irradiated volume, and in 3 other patients, it was outside this volume. All 6 had evidence of progression of their primary tumor at the original location on CT scan prior to the discovery of the metastatic site. 21 patients (15 GBM, 6 AA) had at least 1 postirradiation reoperation for a recurrent mass. 19 patients had recurrent tumors in the primary site, and 2 patients had necrosis but no tumor. Patients who received limited-volume irradiation for high-grade astrocytomas achieved the same survival results as patients treated previously with whole brain irradiation. New intra-cranial metastases did not influence the outcome, since these were always antedated by tumor progression at the primary site. (author). 16 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs.

  14. Leksell Gamma Knife treatment for pilocytic astrocytomas: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova, Gabriela; Kozubikova, Petra; Liscak, Roman; Novotny, Josef

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term treatment results, radiation-related toxicity, and prognostic factors for the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with pilocytic astrocytomas treated by means of stereotactic radiosurgery with a Leksell Gamma Knife. METHODS A total of 25 patients with pilocytic astrocytomas underwent Gamma Knife surgery during the period 1992-2002. The median target volume was 2700 mm(3) (range 205-25,000 mm(3)). The 18 patients treated with 5 daily fractions received a median minimum target dose of 25 Gy. Doses for the 2 patients treated with 10 fractions over 5 days (2 fractions delivered on the same day at least 6 hours apart) were 23 and 28 Gy. For the 5 patients treated with a single fraction, the minimum target dose ranged from 13 to 20 Gy (median 16 Gy). RESULTS Complete regression occurred in 10 patients (40%) and partial regression in 10 patients (40%). The 10-year overall survival rate was 96% and the 10-year PFS rate was 80%. Target volume appeared to be a significant prognostic factor for PFS (p = 0.037). Temporary Grade 3 toxicity appeared in 2 patients (8%), and these patients were treated with corticosteroids for 2 months. Permanent Grade 4 toxicity appeared in 2 patients (8%) and was associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. In these 2 individuals, the neurocognitive dysfunction was also felt to be in part the result of the additional therapeutic interventions (4 in one case and 6 in the other) required to achieve durable control of their tumors. CONCLUSIONS Radiosurgery represents an alternative treatment modality for small residual or recurrent volumes of pilocytic astrocytomas and provides long-term local control. Target volume appears to be the most important factor affecting PFS. PMID:26991883

  15. Classification of astrocyto-mas and meningiomas using statistical discriminant analysis on MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of Multivariate Discriminant Analysis for classifying two groups of primary brain tumours, astrocytomas and meningiomas, from Magnetic Resonance Images. Discriminant analysis is a multivariate technique concerned with separating distinct sets of objects and with allocating new objects to previously defined groups. Allocation or classification rules are usually developed from learning examples in a supervised learning environment. Data from signal intensity measurements in the multiple scan performed on each patient in routine clinical scanning was analysed using Fisher's Classification, which is one method of discriminant analysis

  16. Astrocytoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Makoto; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Itou, Takuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takeo

    2011-10-01

    A 28-month-old African hedgehog was referred to our hospital with progressive tetraparesis. On the first presentation, the hedgehog was suspected as having wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) and the animal was treated with medication and rehabilitation. The animal died 22 days after onset. Pathological examination revealed that the animal was involved in astrocytoma between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord (C1). This report indicates that a primary central nervous system tumor should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses for hedgehogs presenting with progressive paresis, together with WHS. PMID:21628867

  17. A case report on paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with astrocytoma - An unknown entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeshwari S Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic encephalitis is a multifocal inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS that is associated with remote neoplasias. The most common malignancy associated with it is bronchial carcinoma, typically small cell carcinoma of lung. It has never been described in association with intracranial neoplasm. We present and discuss the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings of paraneoplastic encephalitis with intracranial space-occupying lesions (SOLs in a 55-year-old man. He was thoroughly investigated and biopsy revealed presence of astrocytoma with changes of paraneoplastic encephalitis.

  18. Anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C J; Parry, N M A; Jakowski, R M; Eshar, D

    2008-11-01

    A 2-year-old, female hedgehog presented with an 8-month history of progressive, ascending paresis/paralysis and was tentatively diagnosed with wobbly hedgehog syndrome. She died awaiting further diagnostic tests, and the owners consented to postmortem examination. Grossly, the bladder was large and flaccid and the cervical and lumbar spinal cord were regionally enlarged, light grey, and friable with multifocal hemorrhages. The thoracic spinal cord was grossly normal. Microscopically all regions of the spinal cord had similar changes, although the cervical and lumbar sections were most severely affected. These regions were completely effaced by a moderately cellular infiltration of highly pleomorphic polygonal to spindle shaped cells, mineralization, and necrosis, which were most consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma. The thoracic spinal cord white matter was similarly infiltrated by the neoplastic cells, with perivascular extension into the otherwise normal grey matter. A diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma was confirmed using immunohistochemical stains that were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100. PMID:18984799

  19. The role of MRI in patients with astrocytoma WHO II treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian; Zuna, Ivan [Division of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, INF 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Division of Diagnostic Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, INF 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Lichy, Matthias Philipp; Bachert, Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, INF 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of pre-therapeutic and follow-up MRI in the clinical treatment and outcome in patients with astrocytoma WHO grade II after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT). One hundred thirty-nine patients with histologically proven astrocytoma WHO grade II were treated with FSRT and retrospectively evaluated. All patients had follow-up MRI studies (Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted MR images). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed on five potential MRI related prognosticators. Median follow-up was 3.8 years. Positive contrast enhancement (CM+) prior to FSRT proved to be a significant prognosticator for PFS and OS (p<0.01). Pre-therapeutic oedema on T2-weighted images and multifocality of contrast medium (CM) enhancement did not prove to be significant prognosticators. Also, diameter and volume of CM enhancement showed no significance on clinical outcome. Negative contrast enhancing (CM-) patients developing a de novo CM enhancement during follow-up showed a significantly worse clinical outcome compared with generally CM- patients (p<0.05). Pre-therapeutic CM enhancement and the development of CM-enhancing areas during follow-up are negative prognosticators for PFS and OS. They must be interpreted as signs of secondary malignity. (orig.)

  20. Neural precursor cells induce cell death of high-grade astrocytomas through stimulation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Kristin; Kumar, Jitender; Synowitz, Michael; Petrosino, Stefania; Imperatore, Roberta; Smith, Ewan St J; Wend, Peter; Purfürst, Bettina; Nuber, Ulrike A; Gurok, Ulf; Matyash, Vitali; Wälzlein, Joo-Hee; Chirasani, Sridhar R; Dittmar, Gunnar; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Momma, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R; Ligresti, Alessia; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Kettenmann, Helmut; Glass, Rainer

    2012-08-01

    Primary astrocytomas of grade 3 or 4 according to the classification system of the World Health Organization (high-grade astrocytomas or HGAs) are preponderant among adults and are almost invariably fatal despite the use of multimodal therapy. Here we show that the juvenile brain has an endogenous defense mechanism against HGAs. Neural precursor cells (NPCs) migrate to HGAs, reduce glioma expansion and prolong survival time by releasing endovanilloids that activate the vanilloid receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 or TRPV1) on HGA cells. TRPV1 is highly expressed in tumor and weakly expressed in tumor-free brain. TRPV1 stimulation triggers tumor cell death through the branch of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway that is controlled by activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3). The antitumorigenic response of NPCs is lost with aging. NPC-mediated tumor suppression can be mimicked in the adult brain by systemic administration of the synthetic vanilloid arvanil, suggesting that TRPV1 agonists have potential as new HGA therapeutics. PMID:22820645

  1. Dexamethasone acts as a radiosensitizer in three astrocytoma cell lines via oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martínez, Sylvia

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs), which act on stress pathways, are well-established in the co-treatment of different kinds of tumors; however, the underlying mechanisms by which GCs act are not yet well elucidated. As such, this work investigates the role of glucocorticoids, specifically dexamethasone (DEXA), in the processes referred to as DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR), establishing a new approach in three astrocytomas cell lines (CT2A, APP.PS1 L.1 and APP.PS1 L.3). The results show that DEXA administration increased the basal levels of gamma-H2AX foci, keeping them higher 4h after irradiation (IR) of the cells, compared to untreated cells. This means that DEXA might cause increased radiosensitivity in these cell lines. On the other hand, DEXA did not have an apparent effect on the formation and disappearance of the 53BP1 foci. Furthermore, it was found that DEXA administered 2h before IR led to a radical change in DNA repair kinetics, even DEXA does not affect cell cycle. It is important to highlight that DEXA produced cell death in these cell lines compared to untreated cells. Finally and most important, the high levels of gamma-H2AX could be reversed by administration of ascorbic acid, a potent blocker of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that DEXA acts by causing DNA damage via oxidative stress. These exiting findings suggest that DEXA might promote radiosensitivity in brain tumors, specifically in astrocytoma-like tumors.

  2. Experience With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for WHO Grade 2 Diffuse Astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Azusa [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizoe, Jun-Etsu, E-mail: junetsumizoe@gmail.com [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Jingu, Keiichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Iwadate, Yasuo [Department of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Nakazato, Youichi [Department of Human Pathology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsutani, Masao [Department of Neurological Surgery, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Takakura, Kintomo [Department of Neurological Surgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess outcomes of carbon ion radiotherapy for diffuse astrocytomas in adults. Methods and Materials: Between October 1994 and February 2002, 14 patients with diffuse astrocytoma, identified as eligible for carbon ion radiotherapy, were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial. Carbon ion radiotherapy was administered in 24 fractions over 6 weeks. The normal tissue morbidity was monitored carefully, and the carbon ion dose was escalated from 50.4 Gy equivalent (GyE) to 55.2 GyE. Patients were divided into two groups according to their carbon ion doses: a low-dose group in which 2 patients were irradiated with 46.2 GyE and 7 patients were irradiated with 50.4 GyE, and a high-dose group in which 5 patients were irradiated with 55.2 GyE. Results: Toxicities were within acceptable limits, and none of the patients developed Grade 3 or higher acute or late reactions. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 18 months for the low-dose group and 91 months for the high-dose group (p = 0.0030). The median overall survival (OS) time was 28 months for the low-dose group and not reached for the high-dose group (p = 0.0208). Conclusion: High-dose group patients showed significant improvement in PFS and OS rates compared to those in the low-dose group, and both dose groups showed acceptable toxicity.

  3. Experience With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for WHO Grade 2 Diffuse Astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess outcomes of carbon ion radiotherapy for diffuse astrocytomas in adults. Methods and Materials: Between October 1994 and February 2002, 14 patients with diffuse astrocytoma, identified as eligible for carbon ion radiotherapy, were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial. Carbon ion radiotherapy was administered in 24 fractions over 6 weeks. The normal tissue morbidity was monitored carefully, and the carbon ion dose was escalated from 50.4 Gy equivalent (GyE) to 55.2 GyE. Patients were divided into two groups according to their carbon ion doses: a low-dose group in which 2 patients were irradiated with 46.2 GyE and 7 patients were irradiated with 50.4 GyE, and a high-dose group in which 5 patients were irradiated with 55.2 GyE. Results: Toxicities were within acceptable limits, and none of the patients developed Grade 3 or higher acute or late reactions. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 18 months for the low-dose group and 91 months for the high-dose group (p = 0.0030). The median overall survival (OS) time was 28 months for the low-dose group and not reached for the high-dose group (p = 0.0208). Conclusion: High-dose group patients showed significant improvement in PFS and OS rates compared to those in the low-dose group, and both dose groups showed acceptable toxicity.

  4. Pilocytic Astrocytoma of the Optic Pathway: A Tumour Deriving from Radial Glia Cells with a Specific Gene Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoghandjian, Aurelie; Fernandez, Carla; Colin, Carole; El Ayachi, Ikbale; Voutsinos-Porche, Brigitte; Fina, Frederic; Scavarda, Didier; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Intagliata, Dominique; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Fraslon-Vanhulle, Caroline; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in childhood. They share features of both astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages. These tumours affect preferentially the cerebellum (benign clinical course) and the optic pathway, especially the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region (poor prognosis). Understanding the molecular…

  5. First-line temozolomide chemotherapy in progressive low-grade astrocytomas after radiotherapy: molecular characteristics in relation to response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, W.; Dubbink, H.J.; Zonnenberg, C.B.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Postma, T.J.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F.H.; Kros, J.M.; Kouwenhoven, M.C.; Marion, R. van; Heuvel, I. van; Holt, B. van der; Bromberg, J.E.; Sillevis Smitt, P.A.; Dinjens, W.N.; Bent, M.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies examined the effect of temozolomide (TMZ) in recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) after surgery, none of which included a homogeneous and sufficiently sized group of patients with progression after radiotherapy (RT). We evaluated a cohort of 58 patients treated with TMZ for progr

  6. Drug/diet synergy for managing malignant astrocytoma in mice: 2-deoxy-D-glucose and the restricted ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Purna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytomas are largely dependent on glycolysis to satisfy their bioenergetic requirements for growth and survival. Therapies that target glycolysis can potentially manage astrocytoma growth and progression. Dietary restriction of the high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD-R reduces glycolysis and is effective in managing experimental mouse and human astrocytomas. The non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, is a potent glycolytic inhibitor that can mimic effects of energy restriction both in vitro and in vivo, but can also produce adverse effects when administered at doses greater than 200 mg/kg. The goal here was to determine if low doses of 2-DG could act synergistically with the KD-R to better manage growth of the CT-2A malignant mouse astrocytoma. Methods The therapeutic effect of a KD-R supplemented with a low dose of 2-DG (25 mg/kg was examined in adult C57BL/6J mice bearing the syngeneic CT-2A malignant astrocytoma grown orthotopically. Mice were fed the standard unrestricted diet for the first 3 days after tumor implantation prior to their separation into one of four diet groups fed either a standard rodent diet in unrestricted amounts (SD-UR or a KD-R with or without 2-DG for 10 days. The KD-R was restricted to reduce body weight by about 20%. 2-DG was initiated 6 days after tumor implantation and was continued for 7 days. Brain tumors were excised and weighed. Results Energy intake, body weights, and CT-2A tumor weights were similar in the SD-UR and the SD-UR+2-2DG mouse groups over the dietary treatment period (days 3–13. Tumor weights were about 48% and 80% lower in the KD-R and in the KD-R+2-DG groups, respectively, than in the SD-UR group. Mouse health and vitality was better in the KD-R group than in the KD-R+2-DG group. Conclusion Astrocytoma growth was reduced more in the KD-R mouse group supplemented with 2-DG than in the mouse groups receiving either dietary restriction or 2-DG

  7. Screening feature genes of astrocytoma using a combined method of microarray gene expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Zhong, Xingming; Wang, Yiqi; Yang, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find feature genes associated with astrocytoma and correlative gene functions which can distinguish cancer tissue from adjacent non-tumor astrocyte tissues. Gene expression profile GSE15824 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database which included 8 astrocytoma tissues and 3 adjacent non-tumor astrocyte samples. The raw data were first transformed into probe-level data and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tissues of patients with astrocytoma and normal specimen were identified using T-test in samr package of R. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was applied to analyze the gene ontology (GO) enrichment on gene functions and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Finally, corresponding protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of DEGs was constructed using the Cytoscape based on the data collected from STRING online datasets. A total of 3072 genes, including 1799 up-regulated genes and 1273 down-regulated genes, were filtered as DEGs, and we learnt that the DEGs including AQP4, PMP2, SRARCL1 and SLC1A2CAMs etc and that AQP4 was most significantly related to cell osmotic pressure. Three feature genes in KEGG pathway are highly enriched in cancer specimen while two genes are in the normal tissues. The discovery of featured genes significantly related to the regulation of cell osmotic pressure, has the potential to use in clinic for diagnosis of astrocytoma in future. In addition, it has a great significance on studying mechanism, distinguishing normal and cancer tissues, and exploring new treatments for astrocytoma. However, further experiments were needed to confirm our result. PMID:26770395

  8. MicroRNA-124-3p regulates cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and bioenergetics by targeting PIM1 in astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danni; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yao; Li, Bowen; Xue, Lian; Shao, Naiyuan; Wang, Qiang; Xia, Xiwei; Yang, Yilin; Zhi, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The PIM1 protein is an important regulator of cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism in various human cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful post-transcriptional gene regulators that function through translational repression or transcript destabilization. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether a close relationship exists between PIM1 and miRNAs. PIM1 protein levels and mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in astrocytoma tissues, indicating the oncogenic role of PIM1 in astrocytoma. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that miR-124-3p targeted the 3'-UTR of PIM1. We also observed an inverse correlation between the miR-124-3p levels and PIM1 protein or mRNA levels in astrocytoma samples. Next, we experimentally confirmed that miR-124-3p directly recognizes the 3'-UTR of the PIM1 transcript and regulates PIM1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, we examined the biological consequences of miR-124-3p targeting PIM1 in vitro. We showed that the repression of PIM1 in astrocytoma cancer cells by miR-124-3p suppressed proliferation, invasion, and aerobic glycolysis and promoted apoptosis. We observed that the restoration or inhibition of PIM1 activity resulted in effects that were similar to those induced by miR-124-3p inhibitors or mimics in cancer cells. Finally, overexpression of PIM1 rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-124-3p. In summary, these findings aid in understanding the tumor-suppressive role of miR-124-3p in astrocytoma pathogenesis through the inhibition of PIM1 translation. PMID:27088547

  9. SWI对星形细胞瘤分级及与单发转移瘤鉴别诊断的价值%SWI study on astrocytoma grading and differential diagnosis of astrocytoma and solitary metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王微微; 牛田力; 苗延巍; 宋清伟; 魏强; 贺振飞; 刘爱连

    2015-01-01

    移瘤的鉴别诊断。%Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the value of the intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) in grading of astrocytoma and in differential diagnosis of astrocytomas and metastases. Materials and Methods:Forty-two recruited patients with brain tumors conifrmed pathologically, including 14 solitary metastases and 28 astrocytomas(WHO grade Ⅰ=3, grade Ⅱ=8, grade Ⅲ=9 and gradeⅣ=8) underwent conventional MRI examinations and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity(ITSS)in tumor parenchyma was obtained. The ITSS values were further compared between different grades of astrocytoma and between astrocytomas and metastases by Wilcoxon test. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to determine the differentiation ability of ITSS number for astrocytoma grading and brain tumors differential diagnosis. Spearman coefficient correlation analysis was used to analyze the relation between ITSS and astrocytoma grade. Results: The mean values of ITSS in grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ,Ⅲ, Ⅳ astrocytomas and metastases were respectively (3.0±2.67), (4.12±0.64),(18.11±2.15), (18.75±2.48) and (6.14±1.56). Significant difference was observed in high-grade (ⅢandⅣ) and low-grade (ⅠandⅡ) astrocytomas (H=13.156, P<0.01), and even between the gradesⅡandⅢastrocytomas (H=7.835, P<0.01), while no signiifcant difference was found between grade ⅢandⅣastrocytomas(H=0.021, P=0.885). Positive correlation was observed between ITSS and astrocytoma grade (r=0.746,P=0.000). Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.912 in differentiation of the high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas when the cutoff value was set as 7.5, and the sensitivity and speciifcity were 88.2% and 81.8%. AUC was 0.903 in differentiation of the gradeⅡand gradeⅢastrocytomas when the cutoff value was set as 6.0, and the sensitivity and speciifcity were 100% and 87.5%. Signiifcant differences of ITSS were observed between the metastases (mean rank=9

  10. External Beam Radiotherapy in the Management of Low Grade Astrocytoma of the Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ha Jung [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy for patients with low-grade astrocytomas and to define an optimal radiotherapeutic regimen and prognostic factors. A total of 69 patients with low-grade astrocytomas underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy immediately following surgery at our institution between October 1989 and September 2006. The median patient age was 36 years. Forty-one patients were 40 years or younger and 28 patients were 41 years or older. Fourteen patients underwent a biopsy alone and the remaining 55 patients underwent a subtotal resection. Thirty-nine patients had a Karnofsky performance status of less than 80% and 30 patients had a Karnofsky performance status greater than 80%. Two patients were treated with whole brain irradiation followed by a coned down boost field to the localized area. The remaining 67 patients were treated with a localized field with an appropriate margin. Most of the patients received a dose of 50{approx}55 Gy and majority of the patients were treated with a dose of 54 Gy. The overall 5-year and 7-year survival rates for all of the 69 patients were 49% and 44%, respectively. Corresponding disease free survival rates were 45% and 40%, respectively. Patients who underwent a subtotal resection showed better survival than patients who underwent a biopsy alone. The overall 5-year survival rates for patients who underwent a subtotal resection and patients who underwent a biopsy alone were 57% and 38%, respectively (p<0.05). Forty-one patients who were 40 years or younger showed a better overall 5-year survival rate as compared with 28 patients who were 41 years or older (56% versus 40%, p<0.05). The overall 5-year survival rates for 30 patients with a Karnofsky performance status greater than 80% and 39 patients with a Karnofsky performance status less than 80% were 51% and 47%, respectively. This finding was not statistically significant. Although one patient was not able to

  11. Low-grade astrocytomas: treatment with unconventionally fractionated external beam stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen patients with nonoperable low-grade astrocytomas were treated with unconventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. The target volume was defined with computed tomography (CT) performed under stereotactic conditions. The treatment was carried out with a technique producing multiple noncoplanar arc irradiation, with the center of the target volume placed at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. A total dose of 16-50 Gy was administered in either one fraction or two fractions 8 days apart. The concentration of dose within the target volume allowed reduction of dose absorbed by adjacent critical structures of the intact brain. Patients were followed up for 11-48 months. Twelve of 14 patients had a partial or complete response to treatment, as demonstrated by CT. Stereotactic radiation therapy appears to be effective in the control of small radioresistant cerebral neoplasms, without damaging surrounding healthy tissues

  12. Low-grade astrocytomas: treatment with unconventionally fractionated external beam stereotactic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozza, F.; Colombo, F.; Chierego, G.; Avanzo, R.C.; Marchetti, C.; Benedetti, A.; Casentini, L.; Danieli, D.

    1989-05-01

    Fourteen patients with nonoperable low-grade astrocytomas were treated with unconventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. The target volume was defined with computed tomography (CT) performed under stereotactic conditions. The treatment was carried out with a technique producing multiple noncoplanar arc irradiation, with the center of the target volume placed at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. A total dose of 16-50 Gy was administered in either one fraction or two fractions 8 days apart. The concentration of dose within the target volume allowed reduction of dose absorbed by adjacent critical structures of the intact brain. Patients were followed up for 11-48 months. Twelve of 14 patients had a partial or complete response to treatment, as demonstrated by CT. Stereotactic radiation therapy appears to be effective in the control of small radioresistant cerebral neoplasms, without damaging surrounding healthy tissues.

  13. Induction of high grade astrocytoma (HGA) by protons: Molecular mechanisms and RBE considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. V.; Leichner, P. K.; Harrison, K. A.; Cox, A. B.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1994-10-01

    Protons of a specific energy, 55 MeV, have been found to induce primary high grade astrocytomas (HGA) in the Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Brain tumors of this type were not induced by protons of other energies (32-2,300 MeV). Induction of HGA has been identified in human patients who have had radiation therapy to the head. We believe that the induction of HGA in the monkey is a consequence of dose distribution, not some unique ``toxic'' property of protons. Comparison of the human experience with the monkey data indicates the RBE for induction of brain tumors to be about one. It is unlikely that protons cause an unusual change in oncogenic expression, as compared to conventional electromagnetic radiation.

  14. Granular cell astrocytoma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporalini, Chiara; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Scoccianti, Silvia; Moscardi, Selene; Simoni, Antonella; Pansini, Luigi; Bordi, Lorenzo; Ammannati, Franco; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man with no remarkable past medical history was referred to our hospital for the appearance of generalized tonic clonic seizures with loss of consciousness, preceded by phosphenes at the right eye. On magnetic resonance imaging, a contrast-enhanced tumor in the left occipital lobe with peripheral edema was noted. He underwent craniotomy, and the entire mass was removed. Microscopic examination revealed infiltrative atypical astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, positive) with discrete borders and granular cytoplasm. Ki-67 labeling index was 40%. The tumor was diagnosed as a high-grade granular cell astrocytoma (GCA). Postoperative radiotherapy combined with temozolomide was administered. GCAs are aggressive lesions and should not to be confused with localized, benign granular cell tumors or with other non neoplastic granular cell changes in the central nervous system (CNS). GCAs are rare tumors. At this time, only 63 supratentorial/ hemispheric cases, including our case, have been reported in literature. PMID:27125869

  15. Non-random aneuploidy specifies subgroups of pilocytic astrocytoma and correlates with older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontebasso, Adam M; Shirinian, Margret; Khuong-Quang, Dong-Anh; Bechet, Denise; Gayden, Tenzin; Kool, Marcel; De Jay, Nicolas; Jacob, Karine; Gerges, Noha; Hutter, Barbara; Şeker-Cin, Huriye; Witt, Hendrik; Montpetit, Alexandre; Brunet, Sébastien; Lepage, Pierre; Bourret, Geneviève; Klekner, Almos; Bognár, László; Hauser, Peter; Garami, Miklós; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Montes, Jose-Luis; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Lambert, Sally; Kwan, Tony; Korshunov, Andrey; Tabori, Uri; Collins, V Peter; Albrecht, Steffen; Faury, Damien; Pfister, Stefan M; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin; Jones, David T W; Jabado, Nada

    2015-10-13

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common brain tumor in children but is rare in adults, and hence poorly studied in this age group. We investigated 222 PA and report increased aneuploidy in older patients. Aneuploid genomes were identified in 45% of adult compared with 17% of pediatric PA. Gains were non-random, favoring chromosomes 5, 7, 6 and 11 in order of frequency, and preferentially affecting non-cerebellar PA and tumors with BRAF V600E mutations and not with KIAA1549-BRAF fusions or FGFR1 mutations. Aneuploid PA differentially expressed genes involved in CNS development, the unfolded protein response, and regulators of genomic stability and the cell cycle (MDM2, PLK2),whose correlated programs were overexpressed specifically in aneuploid PA compared to other glial tumors. Thus, convergence of pathways affecting the cell cycle and genomic stability may favor aneuploidy in PA, possibly representing an additional molecular driver in older patients with this brain tumor. PMID:26378811

  16. Dexamethasone acts as a radiosensitizer in three astrocytoma cell lines via oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Ortega-Martínez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs, which act on stress pathways, are well-established in the co-treatment of different kinds of tumors; however, the underlying mechanisms by which GCs act are not yet well elucidated. As such, this work investigates the role of glucocorticoids, specifically dexamethasone (DEXA, in the processes referred to as DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR, establishing a new approach in three astrocytomas cell lines (CT2A, APP.PS1 L.1 and APP.PS1 L.3. The results show that DEXA administration increased the basal levels of gamma-H2AX foci, keeping them higher 4 h after irradiation (IR of the cells, compared to untreated cells. This means that DEXA might cause increased radiosensitivity in these cell lines. On the other hand, DEXA did not have an apparent effect on the formation and disappearance of the 53BP1 foci. Furthermore, it was found that DEXA administered 2 h before IR led to a radical change in DNA repair kinetics, even DEXA does not affect cell cycle. It is important to highlight that DEXA produced cell death in these cell lines compared to untreated cells. Finally and most important, the high levels of gamma-H2AX could be reversed by administration of ascorbic acid, a potent blocker of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that DEXA acts by causing DNA damage via oxidative stress. These exiting findings suggest that DEXA might promote radiosensitivity in brain tumors, specifically in astrocytoma-like tumors.

  17. High accuracy of arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging in differentiation of pilomyxoid from pilocytic astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, S.A.; Assadsangabi, R.; Hajmomenian, M.; Vossough, A. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Santi, M. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a relatively new tumor entity which has been added to the 2007 WHO Classification of tumors of the central nervous system. The goal of this study is to utilize arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to differentiate PMA from pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pulsed ASL and conventional MRI sequences of patients with PMA and PA in the past 5 years were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with history of radiation or treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs were excluded. A total of 24 patients (9 PMA, 15 PA) were included. There were statistically significant differences between PMA and PA in mean tumor/gray matter (GM) cerebral blood flow (CBF) ratios (1.3 vs 0.4, p < 0.001) and maximum tumor/GM CBF ratio (2.3 vs 1, p < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for differentiation of PMA from PA was 0.91 using mean tumor CBF, 0.95 using mean tumor/GM CBF ratios, and 0.89 using maximum tumor/GM CBF. Using a threshold value of 0.91, the mean tumor/GM CBF ratio was able to diagnose PMA with 77 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity, and a threshold value of 0.7, provided 88 % sensitivity and 86 % specificity. There was no statistically significant difference between the two tumors in enhancement pattern (p = 0.33), internal architecture (p = 0.15), or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (p = 0.07). ASL imaging has high accuracy in differentiating PMA from PA. The result of this study may have important applications in prognostication and treatment planning especially in patients with less accessible tumors such as hypothalamic-chiasmatic gliomas. (orig.)

  18. Epithelial Cell Transforming 2 and Aurora Kinase B Modulate Formation of Stress Granule-Containing Transcripts from Diverse Cellular Pathways in Astrocytoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Adrienne; Agnihotri, Sameer; Lymer, Jennifer; Chalil, Alan; Diaz, Roberto; Isik, Semra; Smith, Christian; Rutka, James T

    2016-06-01

    Stress granules are small RNA-protein granules that modify the translational landscape during cellular stress to promote survival. The RhoGTPase RhoA is implicated in the formation of RNA stress granules. Our data demonstrate that the cytokinetic proteins epithelial cell transforming 2 and Aurora kinase B (AurkB) are localized to stress granules in human astrocytoma cells. AurkB and its downstream target histone-3 are phosphorylated during arsenite-induced stress. Chemical (AZD1152-HQPA) and siRNA inhibition of AurkB results in fewer and smaller stress granules when analyzed using high-throughput fluorescent-based cellomics assays. RNA immunoprecipitation with the known stress granule aggregates TIAR and G3BP1 was performed on astrocytoma cells, and subsequent analysis revealed that astrocytoma stress granules harbor unique mRNAs for various cellular pathways, including cellular migration, metabolism, translation, and transcriptional regulation. Human astrocytoma cell stress granules contain mRNAs that are known to be involved in glioma signaling and the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. These data provide evidence that RNA stress granules are a novel form of epigenetic regulation in astrocytoma cells, which may be targetable by chemical inhibitors and enhance astrocytoma susceptibility to conventional therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy. PMID:27106762

  19. Methylation profiles of thirty four promoter-CpG islands and concordant methylation behaviours of sixteen genes that may contribute to carcinogenesis of astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yifei

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytoma is a common aggressive intracranial tumor and presents a formidable challenge in the clinic. Association of altered DNA methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands with the expression profile of cancer-related genes, has been found in many human tumors. Therefore, DNA methylation status as such may serve as an epigenetic biomarker for both diagnosis and prognosis of human tumors, including astrocytoma. Methods We used the methylation specific PCR in conjunction with sequencing verification to establish the methylation profile of the promoter CpG island of thirty four genes in astrocytoma tissues from fifty three patients (The WHO grading:. I: 14, II: 15, III: 12 and IV: 12 cases, respectively. In addition, compatible tissues (normal tissues distant from lesion from three non-astrocytoma patients were included as the control. Results Seventeen genes (ABL, APC, APAF1, BRCA1, CSPG2, DAPK1, hMLH1, LKB1, PTEN, p14ARF, p15INK4b, p27KIP1, p57KIP2, RASSF1C, RB1, SURVIVIN, and VHL displayed a uniformly unmethylated pattern in all the astrocytoma and non-astrocytoma tissues examined. However, the MAGEA1 gene that was inactivated and hypermethylated in non-astrocytoma tissues, was partially demethylated in 24.5% of the astrocytoma tissues (co-existence of the hypermethylated and demethylated alleles. Of the astrocytoma associated hypermethylated genes, the methylation pattern of the CDH13, cyclin a1, DBCCR1, EPO, MYOD1, and p16INK4a genes changed in no more than 5.66% (3/53 of astrocytoma tissues compared to non-astrocytoma controls, while the RASSF1A, p73, AR, MGMT, CDH1, OCT6,, MT1A, WT1, and IRF7 genes were more frequently hypermethylated in 69.8%, 47.2%, 41.5%, 35.8%, 32%, 30.2%, 30.2%, 30.2% and 26.4% of astrocytoma tissues, respectively. Demethylation mediated inducible expression of the CDH13, MAGEA1, MGMT, p73 and RASSF1A genes was established in an astrocytoma cell line (U251, demonstrating that expression of

  20. Congenital segmental lymphedema in tuberous sclerosis complex with associated subependymal giant cell astrocytomas treated with Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Giulia; Mancardi, Maria Margherita; Baglietto, Maria Giuseppina; Janis, Sara; Vercellino, Nadia; Rossi, Andrea; Consales, Alessandro; Raso, Alessandro; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic, multisystemic disorder characterized by circumscribed benign lesions (hamartomas) in several organs, including brain. This is the result of defects in the TSC1 and/or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes, encoding the hamartin-tuberin complex that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Specific inhibitors of this pathway have been shown to reduce the volume of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas associated with tuberous sclerosis. Congenital lymphedema is rarely seen in association with tuberous sclerosis, with only a few reported cases. Although this association can be coincidental, the dysgenetic lymphatic system can represent a hamartia as a consequence of gene mutation. We describe a child with congenital lymphedema in tuberous sclerosis and associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma who experienced lymphangitis under treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Because our patient did not show worsening of lymphedema, congenital lymphedema does not seem to be a contraindication for this therapy. PMID:24056156

  1. Screening of differentially expressed genes related to differentiation and proliferation by gene expression profiling of different grade astrocytoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zeng; Zhong Yang; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detection of differential gene expression in brain is possible by cDNA microarray technology, and the screening of differentially expressed genes might provide a biological basis for gene-targeted therapy for tumors. OBJECTIVE: To detect the differential expression of genes among astrocytoma SHG-44 (WHO grade IV), CHG-5 (WHO grade II), and ATRA-treated SHG-44 cell lines by cDNA microarray. DESIGN: Laboratory experiments in vitro.SETTING: Department of Neurobiology, the Third Military Medical University. MATERIALS: The experiment was performed at the Department of Neurobiology in the Third Military Medical University of the Chinese PLA from January to October 2007. The SHG-44 cell line (WHO grade Ⅳ) was established by Prof. Ziwei Du, and the CHG-5 cell line (WHO grade II) was set up by Prof. Xiuwu Bian from the Third Military Medical University of the Chinese PLA. The cDNA microarray containing 9182 known genes was prepared and provided by Dr. Yang Zhong at the City University of Hong Kong. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The identification of genes that were similarly regulated (overlapping) during tumor progression and differentiation, by comparison of gene expression profiles between CHG-5 and SHG-44 cells, and between SHG-44 cells with or without treatment with ATRA. RESULTS: Thirty-one overlapping genes were found to have similar regulatory effects on astrocytomas; among them, twenty genes were up-regulated and eleven were down-regulated in both comparisons between CHG-5 and SHG-44 cells, and between SHG-44 cells with or without treatment with ATRA. The four reported genes, SERPINF1, MAPK11, HIF1A and SOD2, were up-regulated in this study.CONCLUSION: The differentially expressed genes in different grade astrocytoma cell lines were revealed primarily by cDNA microarray; among them, five identified overlapping genes, SERPINF1, MAPK11, DCTN2, HIF1A and SOD2, were related to the malignant progression of astrocytoma cells.

  2. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation profiles and gene expression profiles to identify genes associated with pilocytic astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ruigang; MAN, YIGANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study performed an integral analysis of the gene expression and DNA methylation profile of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was also performed to examine and identify the genes correlated to PAs, to identify candidate therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAs. The DNA methylation profile and gene expression profile were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following screening of the differentially expressed gene...

  3. Genomic Deletions Correlate with Underexpression of Novel Candidate Genes at Six Loci in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytoma1

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Nicola; Karakoula, Aikaterini; Phipps, Kim P.; Harkness, William; Hayward, Richard; Thompson, Dominic N P; Jacques, Thomas S.; Harding, Brian; Thomas, David G.T.; Palmer, Rodger W; Rees, Jeremy; Darling, John; Warr, Tracy J.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is not well defined. Previous cytogenetic and molecular studies have not identified nonrandom genetic aberrations. To correlate differential gene expression and genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) in PA, we have used Affymetrix GeneChip HG_U133A to generate gene expression profiles of 19 pediatric patients and the SpectralChip 2600 to investigate CNAs in 11 of these tumors. Hierarchical clustering according to expression pr...

  4. The expression level of CB1 and CB2 receptors determines their efficacy at inducing apoptosis in astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiron Cudaback

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids represent unique compounds for treating tumors, including astrocytomas. Whether CB(1 and CB(2 receptors mediate this therapeutic effect is unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated astrocytoma subclones that express set levels of CB(1 and CB(2, and found that cannabinoids induce apoptosis only in cells expressing low levels of receptors that couple to ERK1/2. In contrast, cannabinoids do not induce apoptosis in cells expressing high levels of receptors because these now also couple to the prosurvival signal AKT. Remarkably, cannabinoids applied at high concentration induce apoptosis in all subclones independently of CB(1, CB(2 and AKT, but still through a mechanism involving ERK1/2. SIGNIFICANCE: The high expression level of CB(1 and CB(2 receptors commonly found in malignant astrocytomas precludes the use of cannabinoids as therapeutics, unless AKT is concomitantly inhibited, or cannabinoids are applied at concentrations that bypass CB(1 and CB(2 receptors, yet still activate ERK1/2.

  5. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53 gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

  6. First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C

    2005-09-01

    At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT. PMID:16128869

  7. Progesterone Induces the Growth and Infiltration of Human Astrocytoma Cells Implanted in the Cerebral Cortex of the Rat

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    Liliana Germán-Castelán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 promotes cell proliferation in several types of cancer, including brain tumors such as astrocytomas, the most common and aggressive primary intracerebral neoplasm in humans. In this work, we studied the effects of P4 and its intracellular receptor antagonist, RU486, on growth and infiltration of U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, implanted in the motor cortex of adult male rats, using two treatment schemes. In the first one, fifteen days after cells implantation, rats were daily subcutaneously treated with vehicle (propylene glycol, 160 μL, P4 (1 mg, RU486 (5 mg, or P4 + RU486 (1 mg and 5 mg, resp. for 21 days. In the second one, treatments started 8 weeks after cells implantation and lasted for 14 days. In both schemes we found that P4 significantly increased the tumor area as compared with the rest of the treatments, whereas RU486 blocked P4 effects. All rats treated with P4 showed tumor infiltration, while 28.6% and 42.9% of the animals treated with RU486 and P4 + RU486, respectively, presented it. Our data suggest that P4 promotes growth and migration of human astrocytoma cells implanted in the motor cortex of the rat through the interaction with its intracellular receptor.

  8. Everolimus in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, angiomyolipomas, and pulmonary and skin lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis complex

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    Franz DN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David Neal Franz Department of Pediatrics, Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. It is characterized by the development of multiple, benign tumors in several organs throughout the body. Lesions occur in the brain, kidneys, heart, liver, lungs, and skin and result in seizures and epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, and renal and pulmonary organ system dysfunction, as well as other complications. Elucidation of the molecular pathways and etiological factors responsible for causing TSC has led to a paradigm shift in the management and treatment of the disease. TSC1 or TSC2 mutations lead to constitutive upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, which affects many cellular processes involved in tumor growth. By targeting mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, an orally active rapamycin derivative, clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in tumor burden have been achieved for the main brain (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal manifestations (angiomyolipoma associated with TSC. This review provides an overview of TSC, everolimus, and the clinical trials that led to its approval for the treatment of TSC-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. Keywords: everolimus, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, angiomyolipomas, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, facial angiofibromas, tuberous sclerosis complex

  9. Rapid increase in cystic volume of an anaplastic astrocytoma misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Jiang; Han, Hong-Xiu; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids. A period of 25 days later, the patient's condition had deteriorated, and MRI revealed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe; thereafter, the cystic lesion was removed and a diagnosis of AA was established. The tumor was soft, ivory white and gelatinous due to myxoid degeneration. In this case, tumor-related angiogenesis and microvascular extravasation (blood-brain barrier disruption) may have been the main cause of the rapid increase in the cystic volume in such a short time frame. The similarity of the glioma and cysticercus antigens may have been the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid. The present study reports the rare occurrence of a rapid increase of cystic volume and potential diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27698865

  10. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

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    Arai Hajime

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  11. Enlarged piloid astrocytoma of the midbrain: recurrence or pseudoprogression? A clinical case

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    Yu. Yu. Trunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piloid astrocytoma (PA is a glioma that is most frequently encountered in children (WHO grade I. According to most authors, stereotactic radiation (radiotherapy and radiosurgery is an effective method to control tumor growth in patients with incomplete removal of PA and its recurrence. The authors describe a clinical case of a female patient with PA of the midbrain; during the first 7 months after radiation she showed an obvious enlargement of the tumor, as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, with its further regression without any antitumor treatment. A follow-up of the patient and a regular evaluation of her clinical status and MRI changes, as compared to the similar clinical cases and literature data, may suggest that PA enlargement early after radiotherapy is generally pseudoprogression rather than true progression of the tumor. An understanding of this phenomenon will be able to improve the assessment of radiotherapy results in patients with PA and to rule out unnecessary antitumor treatment in this category of patients. 

  12. Cytotoxicity Effects of Different Surfactant Molecules Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes on Human Astrocytoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lifeng; Witkowski, Colette M.; Craig, Michael M.; Greenwade, Molly M.; Joseph, Katherine L.

    2009-12-01

    Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL) for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC) and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system.

  13. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

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    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  14. Cytotoxicity Effects of Different Surfactant Molecules Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes on Human Astrocytoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Colette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood–brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system.

  15. MR signal of the solid portion of pilocytic astrocytoma on T2-weighted images: is it useful for differentiation from medulloblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Kiyokazu; Yagi, Akiko; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Morita, Hideo; Koyama, Yoshinori; Endo, Keigo [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Jun [Gunma General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Oba, Hiroshi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ishiuchi, Shogo; Saito, Nobuhito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    Background and purpose: Although imaging features of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma have been described in many texts, original comparisons of magnetic resonance intensity between these two tumours are limited. In the present study the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed, focusing especially on the signal intensity of the solid portion of these neoplasms. Methods: MR images of ten cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and ten medulloblastomas were reviewed. The signal intensities of the solid components were graded on a scale of 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating a signal intensity closer to that of water. The degree of enhancement, tumour cysts and peripheral oedema were evaluated on MR images. When the solid portion was heterogeneous (i.e. mixed signal intensity or degree of enhancement), the dominant area was selected for evaluation. On T2-weighted images, the signal intensity of the solid portion was equal to that of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 50% of pilocytic astrocytomas. No medulloblastomas showed such hyperintensity. Most medulloblastomas (80%) were isointense to grey matter. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity varied widely in pilocytic astrocytomas; however, all medulloblastomas were iso- or hypointense to grey matter. The MR enhancement pattern, cystic component and peripheral oedema all varied in both tumour types and no specific features were identified. A signal intensity of the solid portion isointense to CSF on T2-weighted images was characteristic of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas; this was not observed in medulloblastomas. Attention to T2-weighted imaging of the solid portions of a tumour is easy and helpful in differentiating between cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  16. Model-Based Evaluation of Spontaneous Tumor Regression in Pilocytic Astrocytoma.

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    Thomas Buder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA is the most common brain tumor in children. This tumor is usually benign and has a good prognosis. Total resection is the treatment of choice and will cure the majority of patients. However, often only partial resection is possible due to the location of the tumor. In that case, spontaneous regression, regrowth, or progression to a more aggressive form have been observed. The dependency between the residual tumor size and spontaneous regression is not understood yet. Therefore, the prognosis is largely unpredictable and there is controversy regarding the management of patients for whom complete resection cannot be achieved. Strategies span from pure observation (wait and see to combinations of surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to investigate the growth and progression behavior of PA. In particular, we propose a Markov chain model incorporating cell proliferation and death as well as mutations. Our model analysis shows that the tumor behavior after partial resection is essentially determined by a risk coefficient γ, which can be deduced from epidemiological data about PA. Our results quantitatively predict the regression probability of a partially resected benign PA given the residual tumor size and lead to the hypothesis that this dependency is linear, implying that removing any amount of tumor mass will improve prognosis. This finding stands in contrast to diffuse malignant glioma where an extent of resection threshold has been experimentally shown, below which no benefit for survival is expected. These results have important implications for future therapeutic studies in PA that should include residual tumor volume as a prognostic factor.

  17. Histologically benign, clinically aggressive: Progressive non-optic pathway pilocytic astrocytomas in adults with NF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Rodriguez, Fausto J; McLendon, Roger E; Vredenburgh, James J; Chance, Aaron B; Jallo, George; Olivi, Alessandro; Ahn, Edward S; Blakeley, Jaishri O

    2016-06-01

    Although optic pathway gliomas are the most common brain tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), extra-optic gliomas occur and may behave more aggressively with outcomes that differ by age. A retrospective case-control study was designed to describe the clinical course of adult NF1 patients with progressive extra-optic pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and compare to a pediatric cohort. Data for patients treated at the Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Neurofibromatosis Center from 2003 to 2013 were reviewed to identify cases (adults, age >18) and controls (pediatric, age <18) with clinically or radiographically progressive extra-optic PAs. Demographic, clinical, histologic, and radiographic data were collected. Three adult NF1 cases and four pediatric NF1 controls were identified. Mean age was 32.3 ± 9.5 years, 66% male (cases); 12.8 ± 4.2 years, 100% male (controls). Symptomatic progression occurred in two-of-three adults (67%) while the majority of pediatric patients presented with isolated radiographic progression (n = 3, 75%). Onset tended to be more rapid in adults (4 ± 1 vs. 14 ± 8.3 months, P = 0.10). Subtotal resection was the treatment for all pediatric patients. Radiotherapy (n = 2), chemotherapy (n = 2), and targeted, biologic agents (n = 2) were administered in adults. Although all pediatric patients are living, outcomes were universally poor in adults with progression to death in all (median survival 17.1 months, range 6.6-30.3). In conclusion, despite grade I histology, all three adult NF1 patients with progressive extra-optic PAs suffered an aggressive clinical course which was not seen in pediatric patients. Clinicians should be aware of this clinico-histologic discrepancy when counseling and managing adult NF1 patients with progressive extra-optic PAs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26992069

  18. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

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    Mollace Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  19. Genomic Deletions Correlate with Underexpression of Novel Candidate Genes at Six Loci in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytoma

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    Nicola Potter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA is not well defined. Previous cytogenetic and molecular studies have not identified nonrandom genetic aberrations. To correlate differential gene expression and genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs in PA, we have used Affymetrix GeneChip HG_U133A to generate gene expression profiles of 19 pediatric patients and the SpectralChip 2600 to investigate CNAs in 11 of these tumors. Hierarchical clustering according to expression profile similarity grouped tumors and controls separately. We identified 1844 genes that showed significant differential expression between tumor and normal controls, with a large number clearly influencing phosphatidylinositol and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in PA. Most CNAs identified in this study were single-clone alterations. However, a small region of loss involving up to seven adjacent clones at 7q11.23 was observed in seven tumors and correlated with the underexpression of BCL7B. Loss of four individual clones was also associated with reduced gene expression including SH3GL2 at 9p21.2-p23, BCL7A (which shares 90% sequence homology with BCL7B at 12q24.33, DRD1IP at 10q26.3, and TUBG2 and CNTNAP1 at 17q21.31. Moreover, the down-regulation of FOXG1B at 14q12 correlated with loss within the gene promoter region in most tumors. This is the first study to correlate differential gene expression with CNAs in PA.

  20. Primary anaplastic astrocytoma of the brain after prophylactic cranial irradiation in a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Case report and review of the literature

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    Imtiaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6½-year-old boy had developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was treated with systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal triple drug regimen and prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 10 years he developed anaplastic astrocytoma of the postero-superior cerebellum on the left side while leukemia was in remission. He was treated with surgical excision, followed by adjuvant three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and is on salvage chemotherapy with temozolamide. It is possible that the anaplastic astrocytoma may be a radiation induced malignancy.

  1. Study of chemosensitivity testing in vitro on astrocytoma%星形细胞瘤体外化疗药物敏感程度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕晓华; 刘波; 周蓉; 曾年菊; 卢明

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解星形细胞瘤对常用化疗药物的敏感程度,探讨化疗药物体外敏感试验对于胶质瘤化疗的指导意义,比较不同WHO分级星形细胞瘤对化疗药物敏感度的差异,为临床治疗提供依据.方法 收集手术切除的新鲜星形细胞瘤标本共142例,其中低级别星形细胞瘤(Ⅰ、Ⅱ级)55例,高级别星形细胞瘤(Ⅲ、Ⅳ级)87例,分别进行星形细胞瘤细胞分离培养,采用MTT法检测临床常用11种化疗药物对肿瘤细胞的生长抑制情况,判定药物敏感程度.结果 142例患者中有78例(54.93%)获临床推荐使用药物,其中低级别星形细胞瘤为41.82%(23/55),而高级别星形细胞瘤为63.22%(55/87).不同WHO分级星形细胞瘤敏感化疗药物基本相似,以替尼泊苷、卡铂、长春新碱更为敏感.结论 化疗药物体外敏感试验对于胶质瘤的化疗药物筛选具有一定的指导意义,恶性程度越高,作用越突出.不同WHO分级的星形细胞瘤在化疗药物的选择上差异不明显.%Objective To observe the sensitivity ofastrocytoma to chemotherapeutic drugs, in order to explore the drug selection using chemosensitivity testing in vitro on astrocytoma. Comparing different WHO grade astrocytoma to chemotherapeutic drugs sensitivity differences,providing the basis data for clinical treatment. Methods The astrocytoma cells were seperated and cultured in vitro from 142 tumor tissues by glioma resection, including 55 cases of low-grade astrocytoma (WHO grade Ⅰ , Ⅱ) and 87 cases of high-grade astrocytoma (WHO grade Ⅲ, Ⅳ). The proliferation inhibition and chemosensitivity of tumor cells to 11 drugs were investigated by using MTT method. Results There were 54.93% (78/142) patients recommended chemotherapeutic drug in 142 cases. The percentage was 41.82%(23/55) in the low-grade astrocytoma, and 63.22% (55/87) in the high-grade astrocytoma respectively. Teniposide,carboplatin,vincristine as the sensitive drugs were similar in

  2. Increased expression of stefin B in the nucleus of T98G astrocytoma cells delays caspase activation

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    Tao eSun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stefin B (cystatin B is an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteinases localized in the nucleus and the cytosol. Loss-of-function mutations in the stefin B gene (CSTB gene were reported in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1. Our previous results showed that thymocytes isolated from stefin B-deficient mice are more sensitive to apoptosis induced by the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporin (STS than the wild-type control cells. We have also shown that the increased expression of stefin B in the nucleus of T98G astrocytoma cells delayed cell cycle progression through the S phase. In the present study we examined if the nuclear or cytosolic functions of stefin B are responsible for the accelerated induction of apoptosis observed in the cells from stefin B-deficient mice. We have shown that the overexpression of stefin B in the nucleus, but not in the cytosol of astrocytoma T98G cells, delayed caspase-3 and-7 activation. Pretreatment of cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe-fluoromethylketone completely inhibited caspase activation, while treatment with the inhibitor of calpains- and papain-like cathepsins (2S,3S-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-3-methyl-butane ethyl ester did not prevent caspase activation. We concluded that the delay of caspase activation in T98G cells overexpressing stefin B in the nucleus is independent of cathepsin inhibition.

  3. Preliminary mechanistic research on STAT3 and ErbB2 RNAi as targets for radiation sensitization in astrocytoma cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constitutively activated STAT3 and ErbB2 are involved in pathogenesis of many tumors including astrocytoma. The effects of plasmid vector mediated STAT3 and ErbB2 RNAi on growth of U251 astrocytoma cell line were examined. Increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation were induced by STAT3 and ErbB2 RNAi in U251 cell. STAT3 and ErbB2 RNAi showed synergetic effect. Combination of RNAi and irradiation showed synergetic effect. However, STAT3 and ErbB2 RNAi showed no obvious effects on NA cell. At the same time, an U251 xenograft model was used to determine the in vivo effect of combined therapy of RNAi and irradiation. The result suggested that both STAT3 RNAi and ErbB2 RNAi could inhibit the tumor growth. The effect was more pronounced when the two genes were both down regulated. Comparing STAT3 RNAi or ErbB2 RNAi alone respectively, STAT3 RNAi plus 2 Gy radiotherapy or ErbB2 RNAi plus 2 Gy radiotherapy further inhibited the tumor growth. Among the different treatment, combining STAT3 and ErbB2 RNAi with 2 Gy radiotherapy lead to the most significant inhibition of tumor growth. (author)

  4. A model of a patient-derived IDH1 mutant anaplastic astrocytoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodovsky, Alexandra; Meeker, Alan K; Kirkness, Ewen F; Zhao, Qi; Eberhart, Charles G; Gallia, Gary L; Riggins, Gregory J

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have been found in the vast majority of low grade and progressive infiltrating gliomas and are characterized by the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate. Recent investigations of malignant gliomas have identified additional genetic and chromosomal abnormalities which cluster with IDH1 mutations into two distinct subgroups. The astrocytic subgroup was found to have frequent mutations in ATRX, TP53 and displays alternative lengthening of telomeres. The second subgroup with oligodendrocytic morphology has frequent mutations in CIC or FUBP1, and is linked to co-deletion of the 1p/19q arms. These mutations reflect the development of two distinct molecular pathways representing the majority of IDH1 mutant gliomas. Unfortunately, due to the scarcity of endogenously derived IDH1 mutant models, there is a lack of accurate models to study mechanism and develop new therapy. Here we report the generation of an endogenous IDH1 anaplastic astrocytoma in vivo model with concurrent mutations in TP53, CDKN2A and ATRX. The model has a similar phenotype and histopathology as the original patient tumor, expresses the IDH1 (R132H) mutant protein and exhibits an alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype. The JHH-273 model is characteristic of anaplastic astrocytoma and represents a valuable tool for investigating the pathogenesis of this distinct molecular subset of gliomas and for preclinical testing of compounds targeting IDH1 mutations or alternative lengthening of telomeres. PMID:25471051

  5. Phytometabolite Dehydroleucodine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Human Astrocytoma Cells through p73/p53 Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bailon-Moscoso

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence supports the idea that secondary metabolites obtained from medicinal plants (phytometabolites may be important contributors in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce the occurrence or recurrence of cancer. Our study focused on Dehydroleucodine (DhL, a sesquiterpene found in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this study, we showed that DhL displayed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on the human cerebral astrocytoma D384 cell line. With lactone isolated from Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd, a medicinal plant from Ecuador, we found that DhL induced cell death in D384 cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis and DNA damage. We further found that the cell death resulted in the increased expression of CDKN1A and BAX proteins. A marked induction of the levels of total TP73 and phosphorylated TP53, TP73, and γ-H2AX proteins was observed in D384 cells exposed to DhL, but no increase in total TP53 levels was detected. Overall these studies demonstrated the marked effect of DhL on the diminished survival of human astrocytoma cells through the induced expression of TP73 and phosphorylation of TP73 and TP53, suggesting their key roles in the tumor cell response to DhL treatment.

  6. BRAIN ASTROCYTOMAS : A STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FINDINGS, TREATMENT RESULTS AND PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN TEHRAN CANCER INSTITUTE'S RADIOTHERAPY PATIENTS

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    F. Amouzegar - Hashemi

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available - Astrocytomas, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, arc the most common brain tumors. Post-operative radiotherapy plays an important rote in their treatment. Records of all patients with a pathologic diagnosis of astrocytoma referred for radiotherapy from 1987-1992 were reviewed and prognostic factors with regard to recurrences were analyzed."nDuring the study period, 162 astrocytoma patients were treated by radiation in our department. Malc-to~fcmalc ratio was 1.4:1. Tlic disease was most prevalent in the 3rd ami 4th decades of life. Most tumors were in cerebral hemispheres and grade IV. In nearly all patients only CT scan had been used for diagnosis, and total resection had been performed."nRadiation dose was mostly 5,000-5,500 cGy by standard fractionation. Follotv-up was available for 91 patients, and in these patients CCNU (tomustine chemotherapy was prescribed for high-grade tumors. Tltrec-year local control was 77% . Grade, extent of surgery, and use of CCNU were statistically significant as prognostic factors. Also 4 GBM long-term survivors were found. Treatment of brain astrocytomas by radiation in our department was concluded to he reasonably successful.

  7. The proliferative potential of the pilocytic astrocytoma : The relation between MIB-1 labeling and clinical and neuro-radiological follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, CMF; Koudstaal, J; Mooij, JJA; Molenaar, WM

    1998-01-01

    The proliferative potential of 39 pilocytic and 5 low grade astrocytomas was studied in relation to the Ki-67 activity as measured by the MIB-1 Labelings Index. The results were correlated to the biological behaviour of the tumor as measured by clinical and neuro-radiological (CT- or MRI-scans) foll

  8. Diffuse astrocytomaの疾患概念と病理学的鑑別診断(<特集>Diffuse astrocytoma grade 2の治療)

    OpenAIRE

    中里, 洋一; 金城, 佐和子; 田中, 優子

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse astrocytoma(DA)は,頻度の高いlow grade gliomaである.増殖は緩徐であるが,強い浸潤性格を持つため治療は困難である.組織学的には3亜型に分類され,その中ではfibrillary astrocytomaの頻度が高い.Pilocytic astrocytoma,anaplastic astrocytoma,oligoastrocytomaおよびoligodendroliomaとの鑑別を要する.鑑別にあたっては,臨床所見,画像所見,病理組織学的所見,免疫組織化学的所見などを総合して判断することが求められる.DAとoligoastrocytoma,oligodendrogliomaは一連のスペクトラムをなす腫瘍であり,共通の母細胞からの発生が強く示唆される.このような観点から,DAは病理学的にも境界の不明瞭な腫瘍であるということができる.Diffuse astrocytoma (DA) is the most common tumor among the low grade gliomas. This tumor grows slowly an...

  9. Errantum: Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins

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    Lai JCK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lai JCK, Ananthakrishnan G, Jandhyam S, et al. Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins. Int J Nanomedicine. 2010;5:715–723.The wrong image was used in Figure 5 on page 719.

  10. CT and MR findings in pilocytic astrocytomas; Computertomographische und magnetresonanztomographische Befunde des pilozytischen Astrozytoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Glas, B. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hermes, M. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    1997-02-01

    Purpose: In a retrospective study we examined the predilection sites, the CT and MR morphology and the contrast behaviour of intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) in a large number of patients. Material and methods: The study consists of 47 patients (18 male, 29 female, mean age 10.1 years) with histologically proven PA. Results: The chief predilection site turned out to be the hypothalamic region (15/47=32%). The other regions involved were (in descending order): Brain hemispheres 8/47=17%; cerebellar vermis 7/47=15%, cerebellar hemispheres; thalamic nuclei and pontomedullar region 4/47=8.5% each; pineal gland 2/47=4%; pons, lamina tecti and optic fascicle 1/47=2% each. The PA presented 24/47=51% cysts; 7/47=15% calcifications; 2/47=4% necrosis and 1/47=2% perifocal oedema. In three cases (3/47=6%) CT and MRI showed no contrast enhancement. Conclusion: PA appear in almost all brain regions but there is a clear preference of the hypothalamic region. PA of the hypothalamic region are a special subgroup. They are often associated with neurofibromatosis 1, tend to infiltrate surrounding structures, and to dissiminate into the intracranial and spinal subarachnoid space. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Retrospectiv sollen an einem groesseren Patientenklientel Praedilektionsorte, CT- und MR-Morphologie sowie das Kontrastmittelverhalten intrakranieller pilozytischer Astrozytome untersucht werden. Material und Methode: Die Studie stuetzt sich auf die CT- und MR-Befunde von 47 Patienten (18 m, 27 w) mit einem mittleren Alter von 10,1 Jahren, bei denen jeweils ein pilozytisches Astrozytom histologisch gesichert war. Ergebnisse: Als eindeutiger Praedilektionsort erwies sich die Hypothalamusregion (15/47=32%). Die Grosshirnhemisphaeren waren 8mal (8/47=17%), der Kleinhirnwurm 7mal (7/47=15%), die Kleinhirnhemisphaeren, das Thalamuskerngebiet und die pontomedullaere Region je 4mal (4/47=8,5%), die Glandula pinealis zweimal (2/47=4%), der Pons, die Lamina tecti und der Fasciculus

  11. A review of current and future treatment strategies for malignant astrocytomas in adults

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    Nieder, C. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Experimental Radiation Oncology; Nestle, U. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2000-06-01

    This review discusses available laboratory and clinical data as well as recent advances in our knowledge about prognostic factors and their implications for the design of future clinical trials. Results: Elucidation of the biology of malignant astrocytomas allowed for development of rational new approaches, such as gene therapy and immunotherapy, which could interfere with established treatment regimens or being used independently. Possible strategies include the restoration of defective cancer-inhibitory genes, cell transduction or transfection with antisense DNA corresponding to genes coding for growth factors and their receptors, or with the so-called suicide genes. Several antiangiogenic approaches such as administration of thalidomide, protamine, or monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor have been developed, too. Further treatment possibilities include modulation of drug resistance, e.g. by P-glycoprotein antagonists or O6-alkyl-guanine-DNA-transferase inhibitors, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, inhibition of protein kinase C, and administration of agents such as phenylbutyrate or valproic acid that showed promising antiproliferative effects in vitro. Conclusions: Several rational new approaches are now entering clinical trials. In the light of limited survival after standard treatment it is recommended that patients should be offered participation in such trials. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit werden sowohl die verfuegbaren Labor- und klinischen Daten als auch die aktuellen Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet prognostischer Faktoren und deren Bedeutung fuer das Design kuenftiger klinischer Studien diskutiert. Ergebnisse: Die Aufklaerung der Biologie dieser Tumoren ermoeglichte die Entwicklung rationaler neuer Strategien, zum Beispiel basierend auf der Gen- und Immuntherapie, die entweder zusammen mit etablierten Methoden oder allein anwendbar sind. Moegliche Strategien bestehen in der Wiederherstellung defekter

  12. miR-106a-5p inhibits the proliferation and migration of astrocytoma cells and promotes apoptosis by targeting FASTK.

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    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Astrocytomas are common malignant intracranial tumors that comprise the majority of adult primary central nervous system tumors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs (20-24 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression by negatively regulating the stability or translational efficiency of their target mRNAs. In our previous studies, we found that the downregulation of miR-106a-5p in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis. However, its specific gene target(s and underlying functional mechanism(s in astrocytomas remain unclear. In this study, we used mRNA microarray experiments to measure global mRNA expression in the presence of increased or decreased miR-106a-5p levels. We then performed bioinformatics analysis based on multiple target prediction algorithms to obtain candidate target genes that were further validated by computational predictions, western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, and the luciferase reporter assay. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK was identified as a direct target of miR-106a-5p. In human astrocytomas, miR-106a-5p is downregulated and negatively associated with clinical staging, whereas FASTK is upregulated and positively associated with advanced clinical stages, at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the reduced expression of miR-106a-5p or the increased expression of FASTK is significantly associated with poor survival outcome. These results further supported the finding that FASTK is a direct target gene of miR-106a-5p. Next, we explored the function of miR-106a-5p and FASTK during astrocytoma progression. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that miR-106a-5p can significantly inhibit cell proliferation and migration and can promote cell apoptosis in vitro. The knockdown of FASTK induced similar effects on astrocytoma cells as those induced by the overexpression of miR-106a-5p. These

  13. p27kip1在星形细胞瘤中表达的意义%Significance of p27kip1 expression in astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳琳; 李士瑛; 梁晓燕; 张乃珍

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of p27kip1 in astrocytoma and to investigate the effect in the occurrence and devel-opment of astrocytoma. Method p27kipl expression was determined by immunohistochemistry S-P technique in 59 patients with as-trocytoma. Results p27kipl expression was present in 30/39(76.9% )benign astrocytoma(grade Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ )higher than in 10/20(50.0 % )malignant astrocytoma(grade Ⅲ, grade Ⅳ)(P〈 0.05). p27kipl expression level showed a negative correlation with thehistopathological grading( r = - 0. 487, P<0.000 1). Conclusion As an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase, p27kip1 plays a veryimportant role in the occurrence and development of astrocytoma, and it may be used as a supplementary differentiation diagnosticmarker between benign and malignant astrocytoma.%目的检测p27kipl在星形细胞瘤中的表达并探讨其在星形细胞瘤发生、发展中的作用。方法采用免疫组化S-P法检测了59例星形细胞瘤的表达。结果 p27kipl在星形细胞瘤良性组(I级、Ⅱ级)表达阳性率76.9%(30/39)高于恶性组(Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级)50.0%(10/20)(P<0.05)。p27kipl表达水平与星形细胞瘤分级呈负相关(r=-0.487,P<0.000 1)。结论细胞周期蛋白依赖性激酶抑制剂p27kipl在星形细胞瘤发生、发展中起重要作用;p27kip1可作为良恶性星形细胞瘤辅助鉴别诊断标记物。

  14. 磁敏感成像在脑星形细胞瘤分级中的价值%The Value of Susceptibility-weighted Imaging in Evaluating the Histopathologic Grade of Cerebral Astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易自生; 刘一平; 郭文彬; 吴剑飞; 李华良

    2009-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the value of susceptibility-weighted imaging(SWI)in evaluating the histopathologic grade of cerebral astrocytomas.Materials and Methods: 18 patients with histologically proven cerebral astrocytomas,including 7 diffuse astrocytomas,3 ana-plastic astrocytomas and 8 glioblastomas before treatment were involved in this study.The features on SWI were analyzed in 18 cerebral astrocytomas.Results: The veins in the tumors were not detected in 7 diffuse astrocytomas.Slight edema round tumors appeared in all the diffuse astrocytomas.Plenty veins in the tumors and severe edema round the tumors appeared in 3 anaplastic astrocytomas and 8 glioblastomas.The hemorrhagic foci were detected in 1 anaplastic astrocytomas and 6 glioblastomas.The edema round the tumors were moderate or severe in all the anaplastic astrocytomas or glioblastomas.Conclusions: Susceptibility-weighted imaging can provide the informations about blood supply,hemorrhagic focus and edema round the tumors.SWI is very useful for preoperative evaluation of the histopathologic grade of cerebral astrocytomas,especially for evaluation of high or low grade astrocytomas.%目的:探讨磁敏感成像(SWI)在脑星形细胞瘤分级中的价值.材料和方法:分析18例经病理证实的脑星形细胞瘤,低级别弥漫性星形细胞瘤7例、间变性星形细胞瘤级3例和多形性胶质母细胞瘤级8例的SWI特点.结果:7例低级别弥漫性星形细胞瘤均未见瘤内静脉血管影,肿瘤周围均轻度水肿.3例间变性星形细胞瘤与8例多形性胶质母细胞瘤内均见丰富静脉血管影.1例间变性星形细胞瘤和6例多形性胶质母细胞瘤内均见出血灶,所有间变性星形细胞瘤与多形性胶质母细胞瘤瘤周中至重度水肿.结论:磁敏感成像能提供瘤内出血、瘤周水肿及瘤体血供等特点,对星形细胞瘤分级尤其是高、低级别的判断有重要价值.

  15. Effects of monotherapy versus combination therapy on overall and disease-free survival in high-grade astrocytoma

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    Amouzegar Hashemi F.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The standard treatment for high-grade astrocytoma (grades 3 and 4 is surgery followed by radiotherapy (post-op RT. Adjuvant chemotherapy increases disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. There are several drugs used for this purpose, each of which have shown benefits and shortcomings. The superiority of combination therapies such as PVC (procarbazine, CCNU and vincristine over single agents such as BCNU (carmustine and CCNU (lumostin has not been definitively established. Single agent CCNU could be a very convenient treatment, as it only involves oral prescription every six weeks. Thus, in this study, we compare CCNU alone with PCV to establish any potential superiority with regard to DFS and OS."nMethods: From 2003-2006, patients with high-grade astrocytoma who had undergone surgery and radiotherapy in the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were randomized to CCNU alone or PCV. Chemotherapy was repeated every six weeks for six cycles. Six weeks after the end of sixth cycle, a CT scan was performed. New neurologic signs and symptoms or increases in the previous signs and symptoms and/or new masses in imaging and/or growth of the residual tumor (> 25% and/or enhancement of any inactive mass from the previous imaging was considered a recurrence. DFS was considered to be the duration from the end of RT to the date of recurrence or last follow-up. OS was taken as the duration from the end of RT to date of death or last follow-up."nResults: After informed consent, of the 70 patients included in this study, 38 were treated with PCV and 32 were treated with CCNU. The mean age was 44 years, ranging from 16 to 78 years, and 51 of the patients were male. Nineteen patients had grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma and 51 patients had grade 4 glioblastoma multiforme. There were no significant differences with regard to patient age, gender and pathology between the CCNU and PCV groups. DFS and OS were 26 and 27 months

  16. Spontaneous Involution of a Non-Optic Astrocytoma in Neurofibromatosis Type I: Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakirer, S. [Istanbul Sisli Etfal Hospital (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Karaarslan, E. [VKV American Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-10-01

    A patient with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) was followed-up with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies over a period of 6 years. A contrast-enhancing lesion of the internal capsule, histologically proven to be pilocytic astrocytoma through stereotactic brain biopsy with mass effect and associated edema, was detected to reveal spontaneous involution on follow-up MRI studies. Although spontaneous regression of gliomas of the optic pathway-hypothalamus in patients with NF1 is relatively common in the literature, spontaneous involution of non-optic (i.e. areas other than optic pathways and hypothalamus) gliomas is rarely reported. Conservative management with follow-up MRI studies should be considered for non-optic glial tumors and tumor-like masses in patients with NF1, and surgical treatment should not be considered unless the lesions exhibit a rapid or unrelenting growth on serial MRI studies or produce significant clinical deterioration.

  17. Identification and characterization of estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha and gamma in human glioma and astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhari, Mukesh K; Frazier, Chester R; Hartenstein, Julia S; Cloix, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Michel; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine expression and function of estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) in human glioma and astrocytoma cell lines. These estrogen receptor-negative cell lines expressed ERRalpha and ERRgamma proteins to varying degree in a cell context dependent manner, with U87MG glioma cells expressing both orphan nuclear receptors. Cell proliferation assays were performed in the presence of ERR isoform-specific agonists and antagonists, and the calculated EC(50) and IC(50) values were consistent with previous reported values determined in other types of cancer cell lines. Induction of luciferase expression under the control of ERR isoform-specific promoters was also observed in these cells. These results indicate that ERRalpha and ERRgamma are differentially expressed in these tumor cell lines and likely contribute to agonist-dependent ERR transcriptional activity. PMID:19822186

  18. Microwave-assisted antigen retrieval and incubation with cox-2 antibody of archival paraffin-embedded human oligodendroglioma and astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Sehime G; Minbay, F Zehra; Kahveci, Zeynep; Jennes, Lothar

    2006-09-30

    Immunohistochemistry is an important tool that is often used for the diagnosis of pathologies; however, the length of time required to process the tissue is relatively long. Furthermore, the quality and sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining is affected by formalin fixation which results in variable loss of antigenicity, known as masking effect. Here we assess the effect of microwave irradiation on the incubation time required to obtain high quality immunohistochemical staining for cox-2 using archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. The results show that intermittent microwave irradiation during the incubation with the primary antibody reduced the time requirement to 5 min while the staining quality was indistinguishable from 1 or 24 h long incubations. Thus, the use of this procedure results in a significant saving of time which is important for a timely diagnosis of pathological conditions that await treatment.

  19. Paradoxical role of 3-methyladenine in pyocyanin-induced toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Amelia J; Grant, Gary D; Perkins, Anthony V; Flegg, Cameron; Davey, Andrew K; Allsopp, Tristan J; Renshaw, Gillian; Kavanagh, Justin; McDermott, Catherine M; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2013-01-01

    The role of autophagy in pyocyanin (PCN)-induced toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear, with only evidence from our group identifying it as a mechanism underlying toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further examine the role of autophagy in PCN-induced toxicity in the CNS. To achieve this, we exposed 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to PCN (0-100 μmol/L) and tested the contribution of autophagy by measuring the impact of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) using a series of biochemical and molecular markers. Pretreatment of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells with 3-MA (5 mmol/L) decreased the PCN-induced acidic vesicular organelle and autophagosome formation as measured using acridine orange and green fluorescent protein-LC3 -LC3 fluorescence, respectively. Furthermore, 3-MA (5 mmol/L) significantly protected 1321N1 astrocytoma cells against PCN-induced toxicity. In contrast pretreatment with 3-MA (5 mmol/L) increased PCN-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Given the influence of autophagy in inflammatory responses, we investigated whether the observed effects in this study involved inflammatory mediators. The PCN (100 μmol/L) significantly increased the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂), and leukotriene B4 (LTB₄) in both cell lines. Consistent with its paradoxical role in modulating PCN-induced toxicity, 3-MA (5 mmol/L) significantly reduced the PCN-induced production of IL-8, PGE₂, and LTB₄ in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells but augmented their production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, we show here for the first time the paradoxical role of autophagy in mediating PCN-induced toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and provide novel evidence that these actions may be mediated by effects on IL-8, PGE₂, and LTB₄ production.

  20. Expression of Livin, Survivin and Caspase-3 in human brain astrocytoma%Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3在星形细胞瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树鹏; 靳彩玲; 赵新利; 周文科

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3在星形细胞瘤中的表达.方法 采用免疫组织化学法检测50例星形细胞瘤标本及10例正常脑组织中Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3的表达,分析Livin、Survivin的表达与Caspase-3表达的关系.结果 Caspase-3在正常脑组织中的阳性表达率显著高于在星形细胞瘤(P<0.05),且在Ⅰ~Ⅱ级星形细胞瘤中的阳性表达率高于Ⅲ~Ⅳ级(P<0.05).Livin和Survivin在星形细胞瘤中的阳性表达率显著高于正常脑组织(P<0.05),且在Ⅲ~Ⅳ级星形细胞瘤中的阳性表达率明显高于Ⅰ~Ⅱ级(P<0.05).星形细胞瘤中Livin和Survivin 的表达与Caspase-3蛋白的表达均呈负相关(r分别为-0.520和-0.360,P<0.05).结论 Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3的表达可能与星形细胞瘤的发生及发展有关.%Objective To explore the expression of Livin, Survivin and Caspase-3 in human brain astrocytoma. Methods The expressions of Livin, Survivin and Caspase-3 in fifty astrocytomas and ten normal brain tissues were detected with immunohistochemical method,and the relationships of Caspase-3 with Livin,Survivin were analyzed. Results The positive rate of Caspase-3 in normal tissue was significantly higher than that in human brain astrocytoma (P <0. 05) ,it was higher in gradeⅠand II than in grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ(P <0. 05) . The positive rates of Livin and Survivin in human brain astrocytoma were significantly higher than those in normal brain tissue(P <0. 05) ,and they were higher in grade Ⅲ and IV than in grade I andII (P <0. 05) . The expressions of Livin and Survivin were negatively correlated with those of Caspase-3 in human brain astro-cytoma( r = - 0.520,r = - 0.360 ,P < 0.05). Conclusion Livin,Survivin and Caspase-3 may play an important role in incidence and development of human brain astrocytoma.

  1. Pre-surgical integration of FMRI and DTI of the sensorimotor system in transcortical resection of a high-grade insular astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea eEkstrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report on a patient with a WHO Grade III astrocytoma in the right insular region in close proximity to the internal capsule who underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy. Total gross resection of insular gliomas remains surgically challenging based on the possibility of damage to the corticospinal tracts. However, maximizing the extent of resection has been shown to decrease future adverse outcomes. Thus, the goal of such surgeries should focus on maximizing extent of resection while minimizing possible adverse outcomes. In this case, pre-surgical planning included integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, to localize motor and sensory pathways. Novel fMRI tasks were individually developed for the patient to maximize both somatosensory and motor activation simultaneously in areas in close proximity to the tumor. Information obtained was used to optimize resection trajectory and extent, facilitating gross total resection of the astrocytoma. Across all three motor-sensory tasks administered, fMRI revealed an area of interest just superior and lateral to the astrocytoma. Further, DTI analyses showed displacement of the corona radiata around the superior dorsal surface of the astrocytoma, extending in the direction of the activation found using fMRI. Taking into account these results, a transcortical superior temporal gyrus surgical approach was chosen in order to avoid the area of interest identified by fMRI and DTI. Total gross resection was achieved and minor post-surgical motor and sensory deficits were temporary. This case highlights the utility of comprehensive pre-surgical planning, including fMRI and DTI, to maximize surgical outcomes on a case-by-case basis.

  2. Patterns of failure following 3-D conformal dose escalation radiotherapy for high grade astrocytomas - a quantitative dosimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It is well known that the predominate pattern of failure of high grade astrocytomas is local recurrence. Using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) high dose radiation can be delivered to a more precisely defined target while sparing normal tissue. However, if smaller target volumes are used to reduce morbidity, the risk for marginal misses may increase. The purpose of this study is to analyze the patterns of failure of high grade astrocytomas following high dose 3DCRT using a novel quantitative technique to calculate the dose received by the radiographically defined recurrence. Materials and Methods: From (4(89)) to (10(95)), 71 patients with supratentorial high grade astrocytomas have been entered in a dose escalation study. All patients were treated using 3DCRT to 70 - 80 Gy in conventional daily fractionation of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy. The clinical target volumes (CTV) consisted of successive cone downs with the final CTV defined as the enhancing lesion plus 0.5 cm margin. As of (10(95)), 45 patients have radiographic evidence of disease recurrence/progression. This is defined as 25% increase in the sum of products of measurable lesion over the smallest sum observed, reappearance of any lesion which had previously disappeared, or appearance of any new lesion. Of the 45 patients, 28 have recurrent scans (CT or MRI) that can be entered into our planning system and registered onto the treatment planning scans. Once the recurrent tumors were defined, dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the recurrent tumors were generated so that the dose delivered to the recurrent tumor volume from previous irradiation could be calculated. The recurrences were divided into 3 categories: 1) in-field recurrence, if ≥95% of the recurrence volume received ≥95% of the final prescribed dose, 2) marginal recurrence, if 26% - 94% of the recurrence volume received ≥95% of the final prescribed dose, and 3) distant recurrence, if ≤25% of the recurrence volume received ≥95% of

  3. Influence of caloric restriction on constitutive expression of NF-κB in an experimental mouse astrocytoma.

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    Tiernan J Mulrooney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many of the current standard therapies employed for the management of primary malignant brain cancers are largely viewed as palliative, ultimately because these conventional strategies have been shown, in many instances, to decrease patient quality of life while only offering a modest increase in the length of survival. We propose that caloric restriction (CR is an alternative metabolic therapy for brain cancer management that will not only improve survival but also reduce the morbidity associated with disease. Although we have shown that CR manages tumor growth and improves survival through multiple molecular and biochemical mechanisms, little information is known about the role that CR plays in modulating inflammation in brain tumor tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phosphorylation and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB results in the transactivation of many genes including those encoding cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 and allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1, both of which are proteins that are primarily expressed by inflammatory and malignant cancer cells. COX-2 has been shown to enhance inflammation and promote tumor cell survival in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In the current report, we demonstrate that the p65 subunit of NF-κB was expressed constitutively in the CT-2A tumor compared with contra-lateral normal brain tissue, and we also show that CR reduces (i the phosphorylation and degree of transcriptional activation of the NF-κB-dependent genes COX-2 and AIF-1 in tumor tissue, as well as (ii the expression of proinflammatory markers lying downstream of NF-κB in the CT-2A malignant mouse astrocytoma, [e.g. macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2]. On the whole, our date indicate that the NF-κB inflammatory pathway is constitutively activated in the CT-2A astrocytoma and that CR targets this pathway and inflammation. CONCLUSION: CR could be effective in reducing malignant brain tumor growth in part by

  4. A fraction of neurofibromin interacts with PML bodies in the nucleus of the CCF astrocytoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godin, Fabienne; Villette, Sandrine; Vallee, Beatrice; Doudeau, Michel; Morisset-Lopez, Severine [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UPR 4301, Universite d' Orleans et INSERM, rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Ardourel, Maryvonne; Hevor, Tobias [Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, Universite d' Orleans, BP 6759, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Pichon, Chantal [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UPR 4301, Universite d' Orleans et INSERM, rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Benedetti, Helene, E-mail: helene.benedetti@cnrs-orleans.fr [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UPR 4301, Universite d' Orleans et INSERM, rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We validate the use of specific anti-Nf1 antibodies for immunofluorescence studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detect Nf1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus of CCF cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that Nf1 partially colocalizes with PML nuclear bodies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that there is a direct interaction between a fraction of Nf1 and the PML bodies. -- Abstract: Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a common genetic disease that causes nervous system tumors, and cognitive deficits. It is due to mutations within the NF1 gene, which encodes the Nf1 protein. Nf1 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of Ras, cAMP and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. In this study, using immunofluorescence experiments, we have shown a partial nuclear localization of Nf1 in the astrocytoma cell line: CCF and we have demonstrated that Nf1 partially colocalizes with PML (promyelocytic leukemia) nuclear bodies. A direct interaction between Nf1 and the multiprotein complex has further been demonstrated using 'in situ' proximity ligation assay (PLA).

  5. Hypoxia-induced transcription of dopamine D3 and D4 receptors in human neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvari-Szekely Maria

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopaminergic pathways that influence mood and behaviour are severely affected in cerebral hypoxia. In contrast, hypoxia promotes the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons. In order to clarify the hypoxic sensitivity of key dopaminergic genes, we aimed to study their transcriptional regulation in the context of neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines exposed to 1% hypoxia. Results Quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that the transcription of both type D3 and D4 postsynaptic dopamine receptors (DRD3 and DRD4 was induced several fold upon 2-day hypoxia in a cell-specific manner, while the vascular endothelial growth factor gene was activated after 3-hr incubation in hypoxia. On the other hand, mRNA levels of type 2 dopamine receptor, dopamine transporter, monoamino oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase were unaltered, while those of the dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF were decreased by hypoxia. Notably, 2-day hypoxia did not result in elevation of protein levels of DRD3 and DRD4. Conclusion In light of the relatively delayed transcriptional activation of the DRD3 and DRD4 genes, we propose that slow-reacting hypoxia sensitive transcription factors might be involved in the transactivation of DRD3 and DRD4 promoters in hypoxia.

  6. The sarin-like organophosphorus agent bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate induces ER stress in human astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yosuke; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Saito, Atsushi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Murata, Kazuhiro; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Nagao, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds such as sarin are toxic agents that irreversibly inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. A recent study showed that OP compounds also have multiple toxicity mechanisms, and another suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction contributes to OP toxicity. However, the signaling pathway and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We examined whether the sarin-like OP agent bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), which exhibits toxicity similar to that of sarin, induced ER stress in human astrocytoma CCF-STTG1 cells. Our results demonstrate that BIMP exposure reduced cell viability. Moreover, it induced changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cleavage of caspase 3. Treatment with BIMP increased the mRNA levels of the ER stress marker genes binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Furthermore, BIMP increased the protein expressions and phosphorylation of BiP, CHOP, and protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2. Compared to BIMP treatment alone, pretreatment with the CHOP siRNA, siCHOP, decreased BIMP-dependent CHOP expression and improved CCF-STTG1 cell viability. Our findings suggest that BIMP induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death event mediated by ER stress in CCF-STTG1 cells and that treatment targeted at managing ER stress has the potential to attenuate the toxicity of OP nerve agents. PMID:27665771

  7. Uptake of radioactive octanoate in astrocytoma cells. Basic studies for application of =11C=octanoate as a PET tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acids are taken up and metabolized in the brain. In vitro uptake experiments on astrocytoma cells were carried out to assess the potential use of =1-11C=octanoate as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for astroglial functions. Uptake of =1-14C=octanoate increased in a time-dependent fashion until 60 min after application. The uptake of =1-11C=octanoate showed similar results to that of =1-14C=octanoate until 10 min. As for medium pH, =1-14C=octanoate uptake increased gradually with the decrease in pH. We also examined the effects of glutamate, glucose deprivation and hypoxia on the uptake of octanoate and found that these conditions did not bring about any change in the extent of =1-14C=octanoate uptake. These results show that the octanoate uptake was not influenced by any of several pathological conditions. When the number of astrocytes increases in the area of hypoglycemia or hypoxia near a brain lesion, the amount of octanoate uptake also increases, so this indicates the possibility that 11C-octanoate will detect a brain lesion. (author)

  8. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation profiles and gene expression profiles to identify genes associated with pilocytic astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruigang; Man, Yigang

    2016-04-01

    The present study performed an integral analysis of the gene expression and DNA methylation profile of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was also performed to examine and identify the genes correlated to PAs, to identify candidate therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAs. The DNA methylation profile and gene expression profile were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following screening of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs), respectively, integrated analysis of the DEGs and DMRs was performed to detect their correlation. Subsequently, the WGCNA algorithm was applied to identify the significant modules and construct the co‑expression network associated with PAs. Furthermore, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the associated genes was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. A total number of 2,259 DEGs and 235 DMRs were screened out. Integrated analysis revealed that 30 DEGs were DMRs with prominent negative correlation (cor=‑0.82; P=0.02). Based on the DEGs, the gene co‑expression network was constructed, and nine network modules associated with PAs were identified. The functional analysis results showed that genes relevant to PAs were closely associated with cell differentiation modulation. The screened PA-associated genes were significantly different at the expression and methylation levels. These genes may be used as reliable candidate target genes for the treatment of PAs. PMID:26934913

  9. 磁共振弥散成像评价星形细胞瘤细胞密度的价值%Value of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Evaluating Cellular Density of Astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 夏军; 周义成

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of apparent diffusion coefficients(ADC) in Magnetic Resonance diffusion weighted imaging (MR DWI) with echo-planar technique in depicting the tumor cellularity and grading of astrocytomas. Methods: Thirty-four patients with astrocytomas( 18 male, 16 female, ages from 10-73 with average of 38.41 ) were examined by MRI and proved by surgery and pathology, and the number of grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ (low-grade) and grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ (high-grade) is 26 and 8 respectively. ADC values of astrocytomas were determined on MR DWI. Cellularity of astrocytomas was analyzed with Adobe Photoshop 7. 0 software. Results: Mean ADC values of high-grade astrocytomas( 7. 34 ± 2. 95) × 10-4mm2/s were significantly different from that of lowgrade astrocytomas(13. 76 ± 3. 31 ) × 10-4 mm2/s ( t = 4. 913, P < 0. 001 ). Cellularity of high-grade astrocytomas (19. 81 ±9. 73 ) % were significantly higher than that of low-grade astrocytomas (4. 74 ± 2.96 ) % ( t = 4. 32,P =0. 003 ). ADC values of astrocytomas significantly negatively correlated with their cellularities ( r = - 0. 535, P =0. 001 ). Conclusion: The cellularities of astrocytomas contribute very much to ADC values in MR DWI. MR DWI is very valuable in predicting and evaluating the cellularity of astrocytomas. MR DWI might have a potential in predicting the degree of astrocytomas.%目的:运用磁共振弥散加权成像技术(MRDWI)评估近似弥散系数(ADC)在星形细胞瘤的细胞密度和病理分级中的作用.方法:术前进行MRI和MR DWI检查且经手术病理证实的34例星形细胞瘤患者,其中Ⅰ~Ⅱ级(低级别)26例,Ⅲ~Ⅳ级(高级别)8例.在MRI上计算瘤体的ADC值,运用Adobe Photoshop 7.0软件分析星形细胞瘤的细胞密度,用SPSS 10.0软件对资料进行处理.结果:高级别星形细胞瘤的ADC为(7.34±2.95)×10-4mm2/s,低级别星形细胞瘤的ADC(13.76±3.31)×10-4mm2/s,两者之间差异有显著性(t=4.913,P<0.001);高级别星形

  10. [Supra-tentorial low-grade astrocytomas in adults. Prognostic factors and therapeutic indications. Apropos of a series of 141 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, H; Bousquet, P; Rivel, J; Vital, C; Kantor, G; Rougier, A; Dartigues, J F; Cohadon, F

    1995-01-01

    An abundant literature provides informations upon the prognosis of supratentorial low grade (grade II) astrocytomas, but the series are quite heterogeneous in terms of clinical material, neuropathological evaluation and statistical methods of analysis. So, outcome, prognostic factors and therapeutical indications are poorly defined. A retrospective study of 141 adults patients suffering ordinary low grade astrocytoma diagnosed in our unit between 1978 and 1988 was conducted. A follow up of 5 years or more, since neuropathological diagnosis, was mandatory for inclusion. Endpoint of statistical analysis was duration of survival. Results were expressed after uni and multivariates analysis. Clinical and morphological features of our series were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. Median survival time was 52 months. Considering age at diagnosis, survival curve analysis showed highly significant differences (p Analysis of a clinical condition using a functional scale is more powerful, from a statistical point of view, than an individual analysis of each constituting parameters. In this series a good correlation was found between functional status and age at diagnosis. Neurological deficit was more correlated to age than to tumor location. Multivariate analysis, using the Cox model, defined some parameters acting independently on duration of survival: fronto-parietal location (p time before diagnosis, age of onset, sex, contrast enhancement on CT scan. Our results are in agreement with previously reported data confirmed literature data concerning prognostic factors characteristics of the host (age), characteristics of the tumor (location) and expressing the influence of the tumor on the host (functional status). Our series documented prognostic clinical forms of these tumors (function of age, of performance status, and of tumor location). Our results confirm the relative inefficacy of therapeutic weapons, considering the population as a whole, on

  11. Patterns of failure following high-dose 3-D conformal radiotherapy for high-grade astrocytomas: a quantitative dosimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the failure patterns for patients with high-grade astrocytomas treated with high-dose conformal radiotherapy (CRT) using a quantitative technique to calculate the dose received by the CT- or MR-defined recurrence volume and to assess whether the final target volume margin used in the present dose escalation study requires redefinition before further escalation. Methods and Materials: Between 4/89 and 10/95, 71 patients with high-grade supratentorial astrocytomas were entered in a phase I/II dose escalation study using 3-D treatment planning and conformal radiotherapy. All patients were treated to either 70 or 80 Gy in conventional daily fractions of 1.8-2.0 Gy. The clinical and planning target volumes (CTV, PTV) consisted of successively smaller volumes with the final PTV defined as the enhancing lesion plus 0.5 cm margin. As of 10/95, 47 patients have CT or MR evidence of disease recurrence/progression. Of the 47 patients, 36 scans obtained at the time of recurrence were entered into the 3-D radiation therapy treatment planning system. After definition of the recurrent tumor volumes, the recurrence scan dataset was registered with the pretreatment CT dataset so that the actual dose received by the recurrent tumor volumes during treatment could be accurately calculated and then analyzed dosimetrically using dose-volume histograms. Recurrences were divided into several categories: 1) 'central', in which 95% or more of the recurrent tumor volume (Vrecur) was within D95, the region treated to high dose (95% of the prescription dose); 2) ''in-field,'' in which 80% or more of Vrecur was within the D95 isodose surface; 3) ''marginal,'' when between 20 and 80% of Vrecur was inside the D95 surface; 4) 'outside', in which less than 20% of Vrecur was inside the D95 surface. Results: In 29 of 36 patients, a solitary lesion was seen on recurrence scans. Of the 29 solitary recurrences, 26 were central, 3 were marginal, and none were outside. Multiple

  12. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor Induced Complete Remission of a Recurrent Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in a Patient Without Features of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalla, Deepika; Depalma, Andres; Calderwood, Stanley

    2016-07-01

    The majority of patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) have tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). In such patients, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus has been shown to induce responses. Isolated SEGA have been reported in patients without clinical or genetic features of TSC. The treatment of these patients with everolimus has not previously been reported. We treated a patient with a recurrent isolated SEGA with an mTOR inhibitor. The patient tolerated therapy well and had a sustained complete remission. MTOR inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of isolated SEGA. Further study is warranted. PMID:26929034

  13. Methylmercury alters glutathione homeostasis by inhibiting glutaredoxin 1 and enhancing glutathione biosynthesis in cultured human astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Stephan; Mailloux, Ryan J; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-08-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that binds strongly to thiol residues on protein and low molecular weight molecules like reduced glutathione (GSH). The mechanism of its effects on GSH homeostasis particularly at environmentally relevant low doses is not fully known. We hypothesized that exposure to MeHg would lead to a depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and an accumulation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) leading to alterations in S-glutathionylation of proteins. Our results showed exposure to low concentrations of MeHg (1μM) did not significantly alter GSH levels but increased GSSG levels by ∼12-fold. This effect was associated with a significant increase in total cellular glutathione content and a decrease in GSH/GSSG. Immunoblot analyses revealed that proteins involved in glutathione synthesis were upregulated accounting for the increase in cellular glutathione. This was associated an increase in cellular Nrf2 protein levels which is required to induce the expression of antioxidant genes in response to cellular stress. Intriguingly, we noted that a key enzyme involved in reversing protein S-glutathionylation and maintaining glutathione homeostasis, glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1), was inhibited by ∼50%. MeHg treatment also increased the S-glutathionylation of a high molecular weight protein. This observation is consistent with the inhibition of Grx1 and elevated H2O2 production however; contrary to our original hypothesis we found few S-glutathionylated proteins in the astrocytoma cells. Collectively, MeHg affects multiple arms of glutathione homeostasis ranging from pool management to protein S-glutathionylation and Grx1 activity. PMID:27180086

  14. Emotional Functioning and School Contentment in Adolescent Survivors of Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Infratentorial Astrocytoma, and Wilms Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannsdóttir, Inga M; Moum, Torbjørn; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Wesenberg, Finn; Hjorth, Lars; Schrøder, Henrik; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Jónmundsson, Gudmundur; Loge, Jon H

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Cancer in childhood may disrupt normal developmental processes and cause psychosocial problems in adolescent survivors of childhood cancers (ACCSs). Previous studies report inconsistent findings. Study aims were to assess subjective well-being (SWB), psychological distress, and school contentment in survivors of three dissimilar childhood cancers. Patients and methods: Nordic patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), infratentorial astrocytoma (IA), and Wilms tumor (WT) in childhood from 1985 to 2001, aged ≥1 year at diagnosis, and aged 13-18 years at the time of study were eligible for this questionnaire-based survey that included items on SWB, psychological distress, school contentment, self-esteem, and personality traits; 65% (151/231) responded. An age-equivalent group from a Norwegian health survey (n=7910) served as controls. Results: The median age of ACCSs was 16 years; 52% were males. ACCSs reported better SWB (p=0.004) and self-esteem (p<0.001). They had fewer social problems in school (p=0.004) and their school contentment tended to be higher than controls. SWB and school contentment were positively influenced by self-esteem. However, ACCSs reported higher levels of psychological distress (p=0.002), mostly attributable to general worrying. No significant differences in outcomes were found across diagnoses, and time since diagnosis did not significantly affect the results. Conclusion: The overall emotional functioning of ACCSs was good, possibly due to changes in their perception of well-being after having survived a life-threatening disease. However, they seemed more worried than their peers. This may cause an additional strain at a vulnerable period in life.

  15. Differentiation of hemangioblastomas from pilocytic astrocytomas using 3-T magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, D.J.; Xing, Z.; Zeng, Z.; Cao, D.R. [First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Department of Radiology, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Shang, X.Y. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Medicine and the Moores UCSD Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) present similar imaging features on conventional MR imaging, making differential diagnosis a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the differentiation of hemangioblastomas and PAs. A 3.0-T MR imaging unit was used to perform DSC-PWI and conventional MR imaging on 14 patients with hemangioblastomas and 22 patients with PAs. Four patients with hemangioblastomas and 10 PA patients also underwent proton MR spectroscopy. Parameters of relative peak height (rPH) and relative percentage of signal intensity recovery (rPSR) were acquired by DSC-PWI and variables of N-acetylaspasrtate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, and lactate-lipid (Lac-Lip)/Cr by MR spectroscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of all analyzed parameters at respective cutoff values were determined. Higher rPH but lower rPSR values were detected in hemangioblastomas compared to PAs. The NAA/Cr ratio was significantly lower in hemangioblastomas compared with PAs. The threshold values ≥3.2 for rPH provide sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 85.7, 95.5, 92.3, and 91.3 %, respectively, for differentiating hemangioblastomas from PAs. The optimal threshold values were ≤0.9 for rPSR and ≤1.5 for NAA/Cr ratios in tumor. Significantly higher rPH and lower NAA/Cr were seen in patients with hemangioblastomas when compared with PA patients, suggesting that DSC-PWI and proton MR spectroscopy are helpful in the characterization and differentiation of these two types of tumors. (orig.)

  16. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: a lesion with activated mTOR pathway and constant expression of glutamine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Caporalini, Chiara; Giordano, Flavio; Mussa, Federico; Scagnet, Mirko; Moscardi, Selene; Baroni, Gianna; Genitori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a rare tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC mainly involves the central nervous system (CNS) where SEGA, subependymal nodules, and cortical tubers may be present. First studies suggested the astrocytic nature of SEGA while successive studies demonstrated the mixed glio-neuronal nature. There are similarities between TSC-associated CNS lesions and type IIb focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). In all these pathologies, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation has been demonstrated. Recent data evidenced that balloon cells in FCD IIb express glutamine synthetase (GS). GS is involved in the clearance of glutamate. Cells expressing GS might exert an antiepileptic role. We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilaments (NF), and GS expression and the mTOR status (mTOR and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6) in 16 SEGAs and 2 cortical tubers. Our purpose was to emphasize the mixed nature of SEGA and to further investigate the similarities between TSC-related CNS lesions (in particular SEGA) and FCD IIb. We confirm the glio-neuronal nature and the common activation of the mTOR pathway in SEGAs. In addition, we report for the first time that these tumors, analogously to FCD IIb, commonly express GS. Notably, the expression of mTOR, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, and GS was restricted to gemistocytic-like GFAP-negative cells. GS expression and mTOR pathway activation were also documented in cortical tubers. Further studies are necessary to understand the significance of GS expression in SEGAs as well as in cortical tubers.

  17. Differentiation of hemangioblastomas from pilocytic astrocytomas using 3-T magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) present similar imaging features on conventional MR imaging, making differential diagnosis a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the differentiation of hemangioblastomas and PAs. A 3.0-T MR imaging unit was used to perform DSC-PWI and conventional MR imaging on 14 patients with hemangioblastomas and 22 patients with PAs. Four patients with hemangioblastomas and 10 PA patients also underwent proton MR spectroscopy. Parameters of relative peak height (rPH) and relative percentage of signal intensity recovery (rPSR) were acquired by DSC-PWI and variables of N-acetylaspasrtate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, and lactate-lipid (Lac-Lip)/Cr by MR spectroscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of all analyzed parameters at respective cutoff values were determined. Higher rPH but lower rPSR values were detected in hemangioblastomas compared to PAs. The NAA/Cr ratio was significantly lower in hemangioblastomas compared with PAs. The threshold values ≥3.2 for rPH provide sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 85.7, 95.5, 92.3, and 91.3 %, respectively, for differentiating hemangioblastomas from PAs. The optimal threshold values were ≤0.9 for rPSR and ≤1.5 for NAA/Cr ratios in tumor. Significantly higher rPH and lower NAA/Cr were seen in patients with hemangioblastomas when compared with PA patients, suggesting that DSC-PWI and proton MR spectroscopy are helpful in the characterization and differentiation of these two types of tumors. (orig.)

  18. Mechanisms of U87 astrocytoma cell uptake and trafficking of monomeric versus protofibril Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Li

    Full Text Available A significant hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the formation of senile plaques in the brain due to the unbalanced levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ. However, although how Aβ is produced from amyloid precursor proteins is well understood, little is known regarding the clearance and metabolism of various Aβ aggregates from the brain. Similarly, little is known regarding how astrocytes internalize and degrade Aβ, although astrocytes are known to play an important role in plaque maintenance and Aβ clearance. The objective of this study is to investigate the cellular mechanisms that mediate the internalization of soluble monomeric versus oligomeric Aβ by astrocytes. We used a combination of laser confocal microscopy and genetic and pharmacological experiments to dissect the internalization of sAβ42 and oAβ42 and their postendocytic transport by U87 human brain astrocytoma cell line. Both Aβ42 species were internalized by U87 cells through fluid phase macropinocytosis, which required dynamin 2. Depleting LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 decreased sAβ42 uptake more significantly than that of oAβ42. We finally show that both Aβ42 species were rapidly transported to lysosomes through an endolytic pathway and subjected to proteolysis after internalization, which had no significant toxic effects to the U87 cells under relatively low concentrations. We propose that macropinocytic sAβ42 and oAβ42 uptake and their subsequent proteolytic degradation in astroglial cells is a significant mechanism underlying Aβ clearance from the extracellular milieu. Understanding the molecular events involved in astrocytic Aβ internalization may identify potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Screening genes crucial for pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma using weighted gene coexpression network analysis combined with methylation data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Cai, W; Su, S; Zhi, D; Lu, J; Liu, S

    2014-10-01

    To identify novel genes associated with pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) for better understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the pediatric PA pathogenesis. Gene expression profile data of GSE50161 and GSE44971 and the methylation data of GSE44684 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PA and normal control samples were screened using the limma package in R, and then used to construct weighted gene coexpression network (WGCN) using the WGCN analysis (WGCNA) package in R. Significant modules of DEGs were selected using the clustering analysis. Function enrichment analysis of the DEGs in significant modules were performed using the WGCNA package and clusterprofiler package in R. Correlation between methylation sites of DEGs and PA was analyzed using the CpGassoc package in R. Totally, 3479 DEGs were screened in PA samples. Thereinto, 3424 DEGs were used to construct the WGCN. Several significant modules of DEGs were selected based on the WGCN, in which the turquoise module was positively related to PA, whereas blue module was negatively related to PA. DEGs (for example, DOCK2 (dedicator of cytokinesis 2), DOCK8 and FCGR2A (Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIa)) in blue module were mainly involved in Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis pathway and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway. Methylations of 14 DEGs among the top 30 genes in blue module were related to PA. Our data suggest that DOCK2, DOCK8 and FCGR2A may represent potential therapeutic targets in PA that merits further investigation. PMID:25257306

  20. 瘤内磁敏感信号对脑星形细胞瘤术前分级诊断的价值%The Preoprative Diagnostic Value of Intratumoral Susceptibility Signals Level in Grading Cerebral Astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂清; 龙晚生; 龙昉; 周红英; 吴国昌; 罗学毛; 李伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨瘤内磁敏感信号(ITSS)级别对脑星形细胞瘤术前分级诊断的价值.方法 分析39例经手术病理证实为脑星形细胞瘤患者的磁敏感加权成像(SWI)的影像表现,对瘤内ITSS进行分级并判断肿瘤的高、低级别,与病理结果进行对照.结果 11例低级别组星形细胞瘤中,ITSS评分0级6例,1级5例.28例高级别组星形细胞瘤中,ITSS评分1级2例,2级7例,3级19例.高低级别组星形细胞瘤的ITSS级别有统计学差异(Z=-4.986,P<0.01),ITSS级别与星形细胞瘤的病理级别呈正相关(r=0.958,P<0.01).结论 不同级别脑星形细胞瘤内ITSS级别有明显差异,ITSS级别对星形细胞瘤术前分级有重要价值.%Objective To explore the preoprative diagnostic value of intratumoral susceptibility signals(ITSS) level in grading cerebral astrocytomas.Methods The imaging findings of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of 39 patients with pathologically confirmed cerebral astrocytomas were analyzed,scored the intratumoral ITSS level and judged the histopathologic grade of the tumor,then compared with pathological findings.Results Astrocytomas in 11 cases of low grade group,ITSS scored 0 in 6 cases,1 in 5 cases.28 cases of high grade group astrocytomas,ITSS scored 1 in 2 cases,2 in 7 cases and 3 in 19 cases.There was statistical significance in intratumoral ITSS levels between high and low grade group astrocytomas(Z=-4.986,P<0.01),there was positive correlation between the levels of intratumoral ITSS and the grade of astrocytomas(r=0.958,P<0.01).Conclusion Different grades of brain astrocytomas show significantly difference on intratumoral ITSS levels,probably be helpful for evaluation of astrocytomas grading preoperatively.

  1. 磁敏感加权成像对脑星形细胞瘤术前分级的诊断价值%The preoprative diagnostic value of susceptibility weighted imaging in grading cerebral astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂清; 龙晚生; 龙昉; 周红英; 吴国昌; 罗学毛; 李伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the preoprative diagnostic value of susceptibility weighted imaging in grading cerebral astrocytomas. Methods The imaging findings of susceptibility weighted imaging(SWI) of 39 patients with pathologically confirmed cerebral astrocytomas were analyzed, scored the intratumoral susceptibility signals(ITSS) level and judged the histopathologic grade of the tumor, then compared with pathological findings. Results Astrocytomas in 11 cases of low grade group, ITSS scored 0 in 6 cases, 1 in 5 cases. 28 cases of high grade group astrocytomas, ITSS scored 1 in 2 cases, 2 in 7 cases and 3 in 19 cases. There was statistical significance in intratumoral ITSS levels between high and low grade group astrocytomas(Z=-4.986,P<0.01), there was positive correlation between the levels of intratumoral ITSS and the grade of astrocytomas(r=0.958, P<0.01). Conclusion Different grades of brain astrocytomas show significantly difference on intratumoral ITSS levels, probably be helpful for evaluation of astrocytomas grading preoperatively.%  目的探讨磁敏感加权成像对脑星形细胞瘤术前分级诊断的价值.方法分析39例经手术病理证实为脑星形细胞瘤患者的磁敏感加权成像(SWI)的影像表现,对瘤内磁敏感信号(ITSS)级别进行分级并判断肿瘤的高、低级别,与病理结果进行对照.结果11例低级别组星形细胞瘤中,ITSS评分0级6例,1级5例.28例高级别组星形细胞瘤中,ITSS评分1级2例,2级7例,3级19例.高低级别组星形细胞瘤的ITSS级别有统计学差异(Z=-4.986,P<0.01),ITSS级别与星形细胞瘤的病理级别呈正相关(r=0.958, P<0.01).结论不同级别脑星形细胞瘤内ITSS级别有明显差异,ITSS级别对星形细胞瘤术前分级有重要价值.

  2. A low-frequency variant at 8q24.21 is strongly associated with risk of oligodendroglial tumors and astrocytomas with IDH1 or IDH2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert B; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Sicotte, Hugues; Decker, Paul A; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Hansen, Helen M; Kosel, Matthew L; Zheng, Shichun; Walsh, Kyle M; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige; McCoy, Lucie S; Smirnov, Ivan; Patoka, Joseph S; Hsuang, George; Wiemels, Joe L; Tihan, Tarik; Pico, Alexander R; Prados, Michael D; Chang, Susan M; Berger, Mitchel S; Caron, Alissa A; Fink, Stephanie R; Halder, Chandralekha; Rynearson, Amanda L; Fridley, Brooke L; Buckner, Jan C; O'Neill, Brian P; Giannini, Caterina; Lachance, Daniel H; Wiencke, John K; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2012-10-01

    Variants at 8q24.21 have been shown to be associated with glioma development. By means of tag SNP genotyping and imputation, pooled next-generation sequencing using long-range PCR and subsequent validation SNP genotyping, we identified seven low-frequency SNPs at 8q24.21 that were strongly associated with glioma risk (P=1×10(-25) to 1×10(-14)). The most strongly associated SNP, rs55705857, remained highly significant after individual adjustment for the other top six SNPs and two previously published SNPs. After stratifying by histological and tumor genetic subtype, the most significant associations of rs55705857 were with oligodendroglial tumors and gliomas with mutant IDH1 or IDH2 (odds ratio (OR)=5.1, P=1.1×10(-31) and OR=4.8, P=6.6×10(-22), respectively). Strong associations were observed for astrocytomas with mutated IDH1 or IDH2 (grades 2-4) (OR=5.16-6.66, P=4.7×10(-12) to 2.2×10(-8)) but not for astrocytomas with wild-type IDH1 and IDH2 (smallest P=0.26). The conserved sequence block that includes rs55705857 is consistently modeled as a microRNA. PMID:22922872

  3. A low frequency variant at 8q24.21 is strongly associated with risk of oligodendroglial tumors and IDH1 or IDH2 mutated astrocytomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert B.; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Sicotte, Hugues; Decker, Paul A.; Kollmeyer, Thomas M.; Hansen, Helen M.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Zheng, Shichun; Walsh, Kyle M.; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige; McCoy, Lucie S.; Smirnov, Ivan; Patoka, Joseph S.; Hsuang, George; Wiemels, Joe L.; Tihan, Tarik; Pico, Alexander R.; Prados, Michael D.; Chang, Susan M.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Caron, Alissa A.; Fink, Stephanie R.; Halder, Chandralekha; Rynearson, Amanda L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Buckner, Jan C.; O’Neill, Brian P.; Giannini, Caterina; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wiencke, John K.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2013-01-01

    SNPs mapped to 8q24.21 have been shown to be associated with glioma development. By means of tag SNP genotyping/imputation, pooled next-generation sequencing (NGS) using long-range PCR, and subsequent validation SNP genotyping we identified seven low-frequency SNPs that were consistently and highly associated with glioma risk (p=10−25 to 10−14). The most associated SNP, rs55705857, remained highly significant after individual adjustment for the other top six and two previously published SNPs. After stratifying by histologic and tumor genetic subtype, the most significant associations were with oligodendroglial tumors and IDH1 or IDH2 mutated gliomas, (ORrs55705857 = 5.1, p=1.1x10−31 and ORrs55705857 = 4.8, p=6.6 x10−22, respectively). Strong associations were observed for IDH1 or IDH2 mutated astrocytomas (grades II–IV) (OR rs55705857=5.16–6.66; p=4.7x10−12 to 2.2x10−8), but not IDH1 or IDH2 wild-type astrocytomas (smallest p=0.26). The conserved sequence block that includes rs55705857 is consistently modeled as a microRNA. PMID:22922872

  4. Somatic BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E Mosaicism syndrome characterized by a linear syringocystadenoma papilliferum, anaplastic astrocytoma, and ocular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Shido, Kosuke; Niihori, Tetsuya; Niizuma, Hidetaka; Katata, Yu; Iizuka, Chie; Oba, Daiju; Moriya, Kunihiko; Saito-Nanjo, Yuka; Onuma, Masaei; Rikiishi, Takeshi; Sasahara, Yoji; Watanabe, Mika; Aiba, Setsuya; Saito, Ryuta; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Teiji; Aoki, Yoko; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mosaicism for somatic mutations of oncogenes is common in genodermatoses, which can be complicated with extra-cutaneous abnormalities. Here we describe an infant with a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma, a linear syringocystadenoma papilliferum, and ocular abnormalities. The BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E mutation was detected in both the brain and skin tumor cells but not in the blood or normal skin cells, suggesting somatic mosaicsism for the mutation. Clinically, the brain tumor gradually became life threatening without any response to conventional chemotherapies including carboplatin, etoposide, and temozolomide. Vemurafenib, a BRAF p.V600E inhibitor, was administered daily after the detection of the BRAF mutation. This single-agent therapy was dramatically effective against the anaplastic astrocytoma; the tumor regressed, the cerebrospinal fluid cell count and protein levels decreased to normal levels, and hydrocephalus resolved. Moreover, other lesions including a corneal cyst also responded to vemurafenib. The brain tumor continued shrinking after 6 months of treatment. We present a genodermatosis syndrome associated with BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E mosaicism. This syndrome may represent a new entity in the mosaic RASopathies, partly overlapping with Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, which is driven by mosaicism of HRAS and/or KRAS activating mutations. Screening for BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E is especially useful for those with malignant tumors, because it is one of the most-druggable targets. PMID:26360803

  5. MRI feature analysis of intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma%颅内毛细胞星形细胞瘤的MRI特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李白鸽; 许乙凯; 陈瑞莹

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结颅内毛细胞星形细胞瘤的MR特点.方法 回顾性分析经手术、病理证实15例毛细胞星形细胞瘤的MRI表现,MRI扫描包括平扫T1WI、T2 WI、水抑制和T1WI增强.结果 鞍区(n=5),小脑(n=4),基底节(n=3),侧脑室、脑干、四脑室各1例.在MRI上实性肿瘤(n=4)T1WI为低、等信号,T2WI为稍高、高信号,呈不均匀明显强化.囊实性肿瘤(n=11)的实性成分(包括合并壁结节的3例)T1WI呈不均匀低、稍低信号,T2WI为不均匀等、稍高、高信号,呈不均匀明显强化或不规则环形强化;囊性成分T1WI为均匀低信号,T2WI为均匀高信号,囊液可被抑制(n=7)或不被抑制(n=4),囊壁为明显、轻度强化或不强化.伴出血、钙化各1例.粘液性毛细胞星形细胞瘤1例.结论 该病多见于小脑和鞍区,实性或囊实性,可有出血、钙化;若合并周围组织侵犯、脑脊液播散,要考虑粘液性毛细胞星形细胞瘤.%Objective To summarize the magnetic resonance imaging features of pilocytic astrocytoma. Methods The MR imaging documents of fifteen patients, who were pathologically diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma, were analyzed retrospectively in this article. MRI scans included plain T2 WI, water suppression T2 WI, T1WI sequences and T1WI enhanced sequence. Results The tumors were located at the saddle area (n= 5), cerebellum (n=4), basal ganglia (n=3), lateral cerebral ventricle (n=1), brain stem (n=1), the fourth cerebral ventricle (n=1). In MRI finding, the solid tumors (n= 4) showed hypo-/isointensity on T, WI and isointense, slight hyperintense and hyperintense on T2 WI and enhanced obviously inhomogeneously. Eleven were solid-cystic tumors and three of them with mural nodules. The solid components showed uneven hypointense on T2 WI, inhomogeneous hyerintense on T2WI, and nonuniformly obvious enhancement or irregular ring enhancement. The cystic components showed even hypointense on T, Wl, homogeneous hyerintense on T2WI. The cystic

  6. 高分化星形细胞瘤的蛋白质组学研究%Proteomic study of well-differentiated astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠生; 熊光仲; 路俊仙; 梁宋平; 袁峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究高分化星形细胞瘤差异蛋白质表达,为星形细胞瘤的治疗及预后的判断提供依据.方法 取经病理证实的29例正常脑组织及36例高分化的星形细胞瘤(KernohanⅡ级),经蛋白电泳、染色,采用PDQUEST和2-DE分析系统软件进行分析.以MALDI-TFO质谱或MALDI-TOF/TOF串联质谱技术结合数据库检索对蛋白质进行鉴定.结果 通过双向电泳得到正常脑组织和高分化星形细胞瘤标本的双向凝胶电泳图谱;生物质谱技术鉴定了24个差异蛋白质点,与正常脑组织相比,高分化星形细胞瘤有9个蛋白质下调,15个蛋白质上调.结论 以蛋白质组学技术鉴定了正常脑组织和高分化星形细胞瘤的差异蛋白质,其中部分蛋白质有助于深入研究星形细胞瘤的发生、发展机制并对进一步发现肿瘤标记物及治疗靶点有重要的参考价值.%Objective To study the differential proteins of well-differentiated astrocytoma and identify tumor-associated protein markers for diagnosis and prognosis. Methods The specimen of normal brain tissue (29 cases) and well-differentiated astrocytoma (36 cases, Kemohan Ⅱ) identified by pathological method were electrophoresed and dyed, and then were analyzed by PDQUEST and two-dimentional electrophoresig(2-DE) softwares. The proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry or MALDI-TOF/ TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Results We obtained 2-DE gel atlas of normal brain and well-differentiated astrocytoma by 2-DE and 24 prominent different proteins spots by mass spectrometry. Compared with normal brain tissue, 9 down-regulated and IS up-regulated proteins were found in astrocytoma. Conclusion We have got different proteins from normal brain and well-differentiated astrocytoma by proteomics. Some proteins are useful for discovering the molecular mechanisms of genesis development and helpful to find the markers of tumor and treatment target.

  7. Caveolin-1 Regulates the P2Y2 Receptor Signaling in Human 1321N1 Astrocytoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Namyr A; Ayala, Alondra M; Martinez, Magdiel; Martinez-Rivera, Freddyson J; Miranda, Jorge D; Silva, Walter I

    2016-06-01

    Damage to the CNS can cause a differential spatio-temporal release of multiple factors, such as nucleotides, ATP and UTP. The latter interact with neuronal and glial nucleotide receptors. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) has gained prominence as a modulator of gliotic responses after CNS injury. Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in glia are not fully understood. Membrane-raft microdomains, such as caveolae, and their constituent caveolins, modulate receptor signaling in astrocytes; yet, their role in P2Y2R signaling has not been adequately explored. Hence, this study evaluated the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in modulating P2Y2R subcellular distribution and signaling in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Recombinant hP2Y2R expressed in 1321N1 cells and Cav-1 were found to co-fractionate in light-density membrane-raft fractions, co-localize via confocal microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitate. Raft localization was dependent on ATP stimulation and Cav-1 expression. This hP2Y2R/Cav-1 distribution and interaction was confirmed with various cell model systems differing in the expression of both P2Y2R and Cav-1, and shRNA knockdown of Cav-1 expression. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown of Cav-1 expression decreased nucleotide-induced increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in 1321N1 and C6 glioma cells without altering TRAP-6 and carbachol Ca(2+) responses. In addition, Cav-1 shRNA knockdown also decreased AKT phosphorylation and altered the kinetics of ERK1/2 activation in 1321N1 cells. Our findings strongly suggest that P2Y2R interaction with Cav-1 in membrane-raft caveolae of 1321N1 cells modulates receptor coupling to its downstream signaling machinery. Thus, P2Y2R/Cav-1 interactions represent a novel target for controlling P2Y2R function after CNS injury. PMID:27129210

  8. Superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) degrades methylmercury to inorganic mercury in human astrocytoma cell line (CCF-STTG1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global pollutant that is affecting the health of millions of people worldwide. However, the mechanism of MeHg toxicity still remains somewhat elusive and there is no treatment. It has been known for some time that MeHg can be progressively converted to inorganic mercury (iHg) in various tissues including the brain. Recent work has suggested that cleavage of the carbon-metal bond in MeHg in a biological environment is facilitated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the oxyradical species that actually mediates this process has not been identified. Here, we provide evidence that superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) can convert MeHg to iHg. The calculated second-order rate constant for the degradation of 1μM MeHg by O2(-) generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase was calculated to be 2×10(5)M(-1)s(-1). We were also able to show that this bioconversion can proceed in intact CCF-STTG1 human astrocytoma cells exposed to paraquat (PQ), a O2(-) generating viologen. Notably, exposure of cells to increasing amounts of PQ led to a dose dependent increase in both MeHg and iHg. Indeed, a 24h exposure to 500μM PQ induced a ∼13-fold and ∼18-fold increase in intracellular MeHg and iHg respectively. These effects were inhibited by superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTBAP. In addition, we also observed that a 24h exposure to a biologically relevant concentration of MeHg (1μM) did not induce cell death, oxidative stress, or even changes in cellular O2(-) and H2O2. However, co-exposure to PQ enhanced MeHg toxicity which was associated with a robust increase in cell death and oxidative stress. Collectively our results show that O2(-) can bioconvert MeHg to iHg in vitro and in intact cells exposed to conditions that simulate high intracellular O2(-) production. In addition, we show for the first time that O2(-) mediated degradation of MeHg to iHg enhances the toxicity of MeHg by facilitating an accumulation of both MeHg and iHg in the intracellular

  9. Expression and clinical sionificance of IL-13Rα2, VEGF and PTEN in astrocytoma%IL-13Rα2、VEGF和PTEN在星形细胞瘤中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂明; 郑伟明; 李建敏; 黄卡特

    2012-01-01

    目的:测定白细胞介素13受体α2 (IL-13R α2)、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)和PTEN在星形细胞瘸中的表达,探讨三者与星形细胞瘸的临床病理学特征及生物学行为的关系,对预后进行评估.方法:采用免疫组化法对37例人脑星形细胞瘤石蜡标本中的IL-13Rα2、VEGF和PTEN的表达进行检测.结果:①IL-13Rα2、VEGF和PTEN在不同级别星形细胞瘤中的阳性表达率差异有统计学意义.②IL-13Rα2和VEGF的表达之间存在正相关关系,IL-13Rα2、VEGF分别与PTEN的表达之间存在负相关关系.③IL-13R α2、VEGF和PTEN的表达在不同病人性别和肿瘤大小之间差异无统计学意义.结论:检测IL-13Rα2、VEGF和PTEN对判定肿瘤恶性程度有一定的临床意义,IL-13Rα2、VEGF和PTEN这三种因子在肿瘤发生、发展的作用机制上存在某种联系.%Objective: To determine the expression of IL-13Rα2, VEGF and FTEN in astrocytoma, to analyze the relationship among the expression of IL-138α2, VEGF and PTEN in astrocytoma with the clinical pathology and the biological behaviors of astrocytoma, and to evaluate the prognosis of astrocytoma. Methods: Applying SF immunohistochemical technique, Examination and statistical research were performed on the expression in 37 cases of astrocytoma. Results: ①There was significant difference in IL-13Rα2, VEGF and PTEN expressions among the astrocytomas of different grades. ②The expression of IL-13Rα2 was positively related to the expression of VEGF in human astrocytomas, but the expressions of IL-13Rα2 and VEGF were negatively related to the expression of PTEN in the astrocytomas. ③The IL-13Ra2, VEGF and PTEN expressions were not significantly correlated with gender or tumor size. Conclusion: IL-13Rα2, VEGF and FTEN may serve as a biomarker of the astrocytoma malignancy and may be involved in the progression of astrocytoma. There is relationship between the expression of IL-13Rα2, VEGF and PTEN and pathological

  10. Prognostic value of the extent of resection in supratentorial WHO grade II astrocytomas stratified for IDH1 mutation status: a single-center volumetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungk, Christine; Scherer, Moritz; Mock, Andreas; Capper, David; Radbruch, Alexander; von Deimling, Andreas; Bendszus, Martin; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Current evidence supports a maximized extent of resection (EOR) in low-grade gliomas (LGG), regardless of different histological subtypes and molecular markers. We therefore evaluated the prognostic impact of extensive, mainly intraoperative (i)MRI-guided surgery in low-grade astrocytomas stratified for IDH1 mutation status. Retrospective assessment of 46 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed supratentorial WHO grade II astrocytomas treated during the last decade was performed. IDH1 mutation status was obtained for all patients. Volumetric analysis of tumor volumes was performed pre-, intra-, early postoperatively and at first follow-up. Survival analysis was conducted with uni-and multivariate regression models implementing clinical parameters and continuous volumetric variables. Median EOR was 90.4 % (range 17.5-100 %) and was increased to 94.9 % (range 34.8-100 %) in iMRI-guided resections (n = 33). A greater EOR was prognostic for increased progression-free survival (HR 0.23, p = 0.031) and time to re-intervention (TTR) (HR 0.23, p = 0.03). In IDH1 mutant patients, smaller residual tumor volumes were associated with increased TTR (HR 1.01, p = 0.03). IDH1 mutation (38/46 cases) was an independent positive prognosticator for overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (HR 0.09, p = 0.002), while extensive surgery had limited impact upon OS. In a subgroup of patients with ≥40 % EOR (n = 39), however, initial and residual tumor volumes were prognostic for OS (HR 1.03, p = 0.005 and HR 1.08, p = 0.007, respectively), persistent to adjustment for IDH1. No association between EOR and neurologic morbidity was found. In this analysis of low-grade astrocytomas stratified for IDH1, extensive tumor resections were prognostic for progression and TTR and, in patients with ≥40 % EOR, for OS. PMID:27344556

  11. The expression and significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in primary and recurrent astrocytoma%环氧合酶-2在原发及复发星形细胞瘤中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 薛彦; 宋浩青; 杨廷舰; 张贺; 刘伟; 刘冰

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过免疫组织化学方法,观察环氧合酶(COX)-2在不同恶性程度星形细胞瘤中的表达,从而对COX-2在星形细胞瘤中可能的侵袭作用做出初步判定.方法 选择行手术治疗的星形细胞瘤患者55例,共行63次手术,其中8例复发行二次手术.选择同期9例重度颅脑外伤必须行减压手术的患者作为对照.将术中取出的星形细胞瘤组织标本及切除的减压组织标本立即使用10%甲醛缓冲溶液固定,采用免疫组织化学方法检测COX-2的表达情况.结果 星形细胞瘤组织COX-2阳性表达率[69.84% (44/63)]高于正常脑组织(1/9),差异有统计学意义(r=11.589,P<0.01).复发星形细胞瘤组织COX-2阳性表达率(8/8)高于原发星形细胞瘤组织[65.45%(36/55)],差异有统计学意义(X2=3.957,P< 0.05).随星形细胞瘤恶性程度增高,COX-2阳性表达率也随之增高,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05).结论 COX-2可能与星形细胞瘤的侵袭有一定关系,从而导致了肿瘤病理分级的增高以及复发.%Objective To observe the expression of cyclooxygenase(COX)-2 in different malignancy astrocytoma by immunohistochemistry,so as to judge the invasive action of COX-2 in astrocytoma.Methods A total of 55 cases with astrocytoma underwent 63 times operation including 8 recurrent cases were selected,and 9 cases with severe brain injury who needed decompression surgery were selected as control group.The astrocytoma tissues and decompression surgery to remove tissues removed immediately fixed in 10% formalin buffer solution.The expression of COX-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry.Results The positive expression rate of COX-2 in astrocytoma tissues was higher than that in decompression surgery to remove tissues[69.84% (44/63) vs.1/9],and there was significant difference (x2 =11.589,P < 0.01).The positive expression rate of COX-2 in recurrent astrocytoma tissues was higher than that in primmy astrocytoma tissues [8/8 vs.65

  12. 上皮-钙粘素和粘着斑激酶在星形细胞瘤中的表达及意义%Expressions and significances of E-cadherin and FAK in human astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志明; 张贺; 王健

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the expressions and significances of E-cadherin and FAK in human astrocytoma.Methods The expressions of E-cadherin and FAK in 48 cases of astrocytoma tissues and 12 cases of normal brain tissues were detected by immunohistochemical S-P technique.Results The positive expressions rates of E-cadherin and FAK in human astrocytoma of grades Ⅰ-Ⅱ were significantly higher than those in normal brain tissue (P<0.05),The positive expression rate of E- cadherin was decreased with the elevated levels of astrocytoma,and The positive expression rate of FAK was rised with the elevated levels of astrocytoma,and the expression of E- cadherin was negatively correlated with the expressions of FAK (r=-0.354,P<0.01).Conclusion The over expressions of FAK and the low expression of E- cadherin may play an important role in the invasion and malignant progress of human astrocytoma,The expressions of E- cadherin and FAK were closely related with the prognoses of the patients with astrocytomas,and may act as valuable indicators of the malignant degree of astrocytoma and the prognosis in the patients with astrocytomas.%目的 探讨上皮-钙粘素(E-cadherin)和粘着斑激酶(FAK)在星形瘤中的表达及临床意义.方法 采用S-P免疫组化方法检测E-cadherin、FAK在48例不同级别星形细胞瘤及12例正常脑组织中的表达.结果 E-cadherin和FAK在正常脑组织与星形细胞瘤之间及星形细胞瘤高低级别组之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),E-cadherin的表达随着星形细胞瘤级别的升高而降低,FAK的表达随着星形细胞瘤级别的升高而升高,且二者在星形细胞瘤中的表达呈负相关(r=-0.354,P<0.01).结论 FAK的过度表达和E-cadherin的表达下调在星形细胞瘤的侵袭及恶性进展中起着重要作用,两者的表达可能与星形细胞瘤患者的预后密切相关,提示可作为反映星形细胞瘤恶性程度及预后的指标.

  13. 颅内毛细胞星形细胞瘤的MRI表现%MRI Imaging Features of Intracranial Pilocytic Astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一萍; 徐凯; 路莉; 席建宁; 程丽; 刘小华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the MRI imaging features of intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma. Methods A retrospective analysis was made to the MRI manifestations of pilocytic astrocytoma in 17 cases confirmed by operation and pathologic study. Results Of all the 17 patients,11 cases were children,6 cases were adults,11 cases were in infratentorial region(64.7%).12 cases were cystic-solid, 4 cases were completely cystic degeneration,1 case was solid. The tumors had clear edges, 6 cases had peritumoral edema and 12 cases had obstructive hydrocephalus,3 cases presented with hemorrhage. The cystic part appeared as hypointensity on T1WI and hyperintensity on T2WI. The solid part of the tumors, the cystic wall manifested iso-hypointensity on T1WI, and iso-hyperintensity on T2WI. After the injection of contrast media, the solid part showed significant enhancement while the cystic wall showed no enhancement or slight enhancement, the cystic part showed no enhancement. Conclusion The pilocytic astrocytoma is usually seen in children and teenagers, adults are relatively less. Most of tumors are cystic-solid, MRI of pilocytic astrocytoma has characteristic imaging findings, which may improve the accurate diagnosis for preoperative clinic.%目的:分析颅内毛细胞星形细胞瘤MRI表现及特点。方法回顾性分析经手术、病理证实的17例毛细胞星形细胞瘤MRI表现。结果17例中,小儿11例,成人6例。其中幕下11例(64.7%)。肿瘤12例为囊实性,4例为囊性,1例为实性。肿瘤边缘光整,伴有轻度水肿者6例,梗阻性脑积水12例,瘤内出血3例。肿瘤囊性成分T1WI呈低信号,T2WI呈高信号;肿瘤实性部分、囊壁T1WI呈等、稍低信号,T2WI呈等、稍高信号。增强后,实性部分明显强化,囊壁不强化或轻度强化,囊性部分不强化。结论毛细胞星形细胞瘤好发于小儿,成人患者发病相对较少,肿瘤多为囊实性,MRI表现有一定的特征性,可

  14. MRI Diagnosis of Pilocytic Astrocytoma in Intra-calvarium%颅内毛细胞星形细胞瘤的MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存祥; 朱庆强; 王中秋; 程广军; 吴昆鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨毛细胞星形细胞瘤的MRI学特点.方法:回顾性分析经手术、病理证实的13例毛细胞星形细胞瘤的MRI学表现,探讨肿瘤的部位、形态、信号等特点,并和病理做对比分析.结果:13例毛细胞星形细胞瘤,儿童及青少年8例(61.5%),幕下8例(61.5),其中小脑蚓部5例(39%).MRI扫描:肿瘤完全囊变者1例(7%),囊实性者9例(70%),实性者3例(23%),伴附壁结节者1例(7%).T1WI上囊性部分呈低信号,实性部分呈等低信号,T2WI上囊性部分呈高信号,实性部分呈等高信号.增强扫描囊性部分不强化,实性部分及附壁结节呈明显强化.肿瘤DWI低信号11例(84.6%),等低混杂样信号2例(15.4%),SWI可见低信号2例(15.4%).伴有轻度瘤周水肿者及梗阻性脑积水各3例(46%).结论:毛细胞星形细胞瘤好发于儿童及青少年,小脑蚓部多见,多为囊实性,占位效应较轻,MRI表现有其一定的特征性,可为临床术前提供信息.%Objective To evaluate the MRI features of pilocytic astrocytoma. Methods MRI manifestations of 13 cases of pilocytic astrocytoma proved by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively, and features like site, morphology, and signal characteristics of tumor were discussed and compared with the pathology results. Results Of all the 13 patients, 8 cases were children or teenagers(61.5%), 8 cases were in infratentorial region(61.5%), including 5 cases in cerebellar vermis (39%). Tumor MRI manifestations: 1 case was completely cystie degeneration(7%), 9 cases were cystic-parenchyma(70%), 3 cases were parenchyma(23%), with mural nodules in 1 case(7%). The cystic part was hypo-intensity and parenchymal part was iso-intensity or hypo-intesity on Ti-weighted image, the cystic part was hyper-intensity and parenchymal part was iso-intensity or hyper-intensity on T2-weighted image. After the administration of Gd-DTPA intravenously, the parenchymal part and episporium nodule showed marked

  15. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Naidich, Thomas P. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  16. Effects of La0.2Ce0.6Eu0.2F3 nanoparticles capped with polyethylene glycol on human astrocytoma cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Nathan J.; Brandt, Yekaterina; Rivera, Antonio C.; Armijo, Leisha M.; Cook, Nathaniel C.; Osiński, Marek

    2012-03-01

    Lanthanide fluoride colloidal nanocrystals offer a way to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer through the enhanced absorption of ionizing radiation, as well as providing visible luminescence. In order to explore this possibility, cytotoxicity assays need to be performed on mammalian cells in vitro, to show minimum levels of biocompatibility for future experiments. 20% lanthanum 60% cerium and 20% europium lanthanide fluoride nanocrystals were capped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 4000 and suspended in deionized water. These nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, muffle furnace ashing, absorbance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Visible light microscopy and trypan blue staining was performed on the cells to assay the cytotoxicity of the nanocrystal on the human astrocytoma line U-87 MG, purchased from ATCC.

  17. Identification of tumor invasion-related differentially expressed genes in different grades and all-trans retinoic acid-treated astrocytoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zeng; Zhong Yang; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several genetic aberrations and gene expressional changes have been shown to exist in tumors and different grades of astrocytomas, as well as in normal tissues, the gene profiling and genetic pathways associated with malignant transformation and progression remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identity differentially expressed genes related to tumor invasion from various grades and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated astrocytoma cell lines by cDNA microarray. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: In vitro gene experiment was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from January to October 2007. MATERIALS: Two different grades of astrocytoma cell lines CHG-5 (WHO grade Ⅱ) and SHG-44 (WHOgrade Ⅳ) were developed by our laboratory; a cell differentiation-inducing agent ATRA and a human cDNA microarray technology were used to determine differentially expressed genes (City University of Hong Kong). METHODS: Total RNA was extracted using the Trizol test kit. Reverse transcription was performed using Superscript Ⅱ reverse transcriptase. The eDNA product (target DNA) was marked with fluorochromes Cy3 (normal SHG-44) and Cy5 (CHG-5 or ATRA-treated SHG-44), followed by chip hybridization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gene expression profiles of CHG-5 vs. SttG-44 and ATRA-treated vs. Normal SHG-44 were performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Several of these genes were randomly selected for Northern Blot analysis. The identification of genes that were similarly regulated (overlapping) was performed by comparing gene expression profiles between CHG-5 and SHG-44 cells, and between SHG-44 cells with or without treatment with ATRA. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between CHG5 and SHG-44 cell line morphology. Under confocal microscopy. GFAP staining intensity of CHG5 cells was greater than SHG-44 cells (t = 6.078, P = 0.004). Growth curve analysis demonstrated that the speed of SHG-44 cell

  18. Segmental pedicle screw fixation for a scoliosis patient with post-laminectomy and post-irradiation thoracic kyphoscoliosis of spinal astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal deformity is an important clinical manifestation after surgery for spinal cord tumors. One-third of patients who receive laminectomies and irradiation of the spinal column develop scoliosis, kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis. Recent reports indicate good results after scoliosis surgery using segmental pedicle screws and a navigation system, but these reported studies have not included surgery for post-laminectomy kyphosis. Hooks and wires are ineffective in such patients who undergo laminectomy, and there are also high perioperative risks with insertion of pedicle screws because landmarks have been lost. Here, we report on the 5-year follow-up of a 13-year-old male patient with post-laminectomy and post-irradiation thoracic kyphoscoliosis after surgical treatment of spinal astrocytoma. Posterior segmental pedicle screw fixation was performed safely using a computer-assisted technique. The authors present the first case report for treatment of this condition using a navigation system. (author)

  19. Adjuvant temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in patients with WHO III astrocytoma. The Mainz experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Arnulf; Schwanbeck, Carina; Stockinger, Marcus; Vaupel, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Medical Center, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Mainz (Germany); Sommer, Clemens [University Medical Center, Department of Neuropathology, Mainz (Germany); Giese, Alf; Renovanz, Mirjam [University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    It is currently unclear whether adjuvant therapy for WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) should be carried out as combined chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) - analogous to the approach for glioblastoma multiforme - or as radiotherapy (RT) alone. A retrospective analysis of data from 90 patients with AA, who were treated between November 1997 and February 2014. Assessment of overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was performed according to treatment categories: (1) 50 %, RT + TMZ according to protocol, (2) 11 %, RT + TMZ with dose reduction, (3) 26 %, RT alone, and (4) 13 %, individualized, primarily palliative therapy. No dose reduction was necessary in the RT alone group. Median OS was 85, 69, and 43 months for treatment categories 1/2, 3, and 4, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. PFS was 35, 29, 48, and 33 months for categories 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively; again without significant differences between categories. In a subgroup of 39 patients with known IDH1 R132H status, the presence of this mutation correlated with significantly longer OS (p = 0.01) and PFS (p = 0.002). Complete or partial tumor resection and younger age also correlated with a significantly better prognosis, and this influence persisted in multivariate analysis. In the IDH1 R132H subgroup analysis, only this marker retained an independent prognostic value. A general superiority of combined chemoradiotherapy compared to RT alone could not be demonstrated. Biomarkers for predicting the benefits of combination therapy using RT and TMZ are needed for patients with AA. (orig.) [German] Es ist derzeit unklar, ob bei anaplastischen Astrozytomen (AA) vom WHO-Grad III eine adjuvante Therapie analog zur Therapiestrategie beim Glioblastoma multiforme als kombinierte Radiochemotherapie mit Temozolomid (TMZ) oder als alleinige Radiotherapie (RT) durchgefuehrt werden sollte. Retrospektiv wurden die Daten von 90 Patienten mit AA, die zwischen November

  20. Stages of Childhood Astrocytomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to grow. If fluid builds up around the brain and spinal cord, a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure may be done. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion is a method used to drain fluid that has built up around the brain ...

  1. Application study of combining CE-MR with DWI in evaluating the biological behavior of astrocytoma%联合增强MR与DWI评估星形细胞瘤生物学特性的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡臻; 刘芳兵; 赵鸿飞; 李莉莉; 李玉恩; 吕悦雷; 王少卿; 王滨

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过分析星形细胞瘤强化及DWI成像特点与临床病理指标,探讨MR评估星形细胞瘤生物学特性的价值.方法:应用GE Signa EXCITE HD 3.0T超导型磁共振扫描仪及头部八通道线圈,对67例星形细胞瘤术前进行增强MR和DWI成像检查,利用Functiontool软件对获得图像进行处理,记录肿瘤组织强化率和ADC值.根据术后HE病理图片进行细胞密度分析和WHO分级.对强化率、ADC值、细胞密度及WHO分级进行统计分析.结果:高级别星形细胞瘤强化率为(66±12)%,高于低级别星形细胞瘤强化率(36±8)%,P=0.00.高级别星形细胞瘤的ADC为(1.11±0.10)×10-3mm2/s,低级别星形细胞瘤的ADC为(1.55±0.31)×10-3 mm2/s,P=0.00;高级别星形细胞瘤的细胞密度为(11.85±4.36)%,大于低级别星形细胞瘤的细胞密度(4.74±2.96)%,P=0.00;肿瘤的ADC值与细胞密度、WHO分级和强化率呈负相关,P值分别为0.00、0.00和0.01;肿瘤强化率与WHO分级正相关,P=0.04.结论:增强MR和DWI能从不同角度反映星形细胞瘤生物学特性,肿瘤强化率与ADC相关性从影像学角度反映出组织灌注水平与微观结构的内在关系.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze the value of combining contrast-enhance MR (CE-MR) with DWI in evaluating the biological behavior of astrocytoma. METHODS: The clinic and pathologic information of 67 patients with histologically proven astrocytoma were studied. CE-MR and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were carried out on a GE Signa EXCITE HD 3. OT MR. All of the data was transferred to GE Advanced Workstation 4. 2. The enhancement rate and ADC values of astrocytoma were recorded. The WHO grade and cellular density of astrocytoma were anlyzed according to HE stians. The relationship among enhancement rate, ADC values WHO grades and cellular density of astrocytoma were studied. RESULTS: The enhancement rate of high-grade astrocytoma [(66+12)%] was higher than that of low-grade astrocytoma C(36+8)%, (P =0

  2. Radiotherapy in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas. A subgroup analysis within the prospective multicenter study HIT-LGG 1996 by the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Gnekow, A.; Falkenstein, F. [General Hospital of Augsburg (Germany). Hospital for Children and Adolescents] [and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: We evaluated clinical outcomes in the subset of patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT) due to progressive pilocytic astrocytoma within the Multicenter Treatment Study for Children and Adolescents with a Low Grade Glioma HIT-LGG 1996. Patients and methods: Eligibility criteria were fulfilled by 117 patients. Most tumors (65 %) were located in the supratentorial midline, followed by the posterior fossa (26.5 %) and the cerebral hemispheres (8.5 %). Median age at the start of RT was 9.2 years (range 0.7-17.4 years). In 75 cases, external fractionated radiotherapy (EFRT) was administered either as first-line nonsurgical treatment (n = 58) or after progression following primary chemotherapy (n = 17). The median normalized total dose was 54 Gy. Stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) was used in 42 selected cases. Results: During a median follow-up period of 8.4 years, 4 patients (3.4 %) died and 33 (27.4 %) experienced disease progression. The 10-year overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 97 and 70 %, respectively. No impact of the RT technique applied (EFRT versus SBT) on progression was observed. The 5-year PFS was 76 {+-} 5 % after EFRT and 65 {+-} 8 % after SBT. Disease progression after EFRT was not influenced by gender, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) status, tumor location (hemispheres versus supratentorial midline versus posterior fossa), age or prior chemotherapy. Normalized total EFRT doses of more than 50.4 Gy did not improve PFS rates. Conclusion: EFRT plays an integral role in the treatment of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma and is characterized by excellent tumor control. A reduction of the normalized total dose from 54 to 50.4 Gy appears to be feasible without jeopardizing tumor control. SBT is an effective treatment alternative. (orig.)

  3. Influence of an oligodendroglial component on the survival of patients with anaplastic astrocytomas: a report of radiation therapy oncology group 83-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Seven percent of patients with high grade gliomas enrolled in RTOG 83-02 had mixed astrocytoma/oligodenroglial elements on central pathology review. It has often been assumed that the most aggressive histologic component of a tumor determines biologic behavior; however in this trial, the survival of patients who had mixed glioblastomas/oligodenrogliomas was significantly longer than that of patients with pure glioblastomas (GBM). We therefore evaluated the effect of an oligodendroglial component on the survival of patients who had anaplastic astrocytomas (AAF) treated in the same trial. Methods and Materials: One hundred nine patients who had AAF and 24 patients with mixed AAF/oligodendrogliomas (AAF/OL) were enrolled in a Phase I/II trial of randomized dose-escalation hyper fractioned radiotherapy plus BCNU. AAF/OL patients were older and more likely to have had more aggressive surgery than AAF patients. Other pretreatment characteristics were balanced between groups, as was assigned treatment. Results: The median survival time for AAF was 3.0 years versus 7.3 years for AAF/OL (p = 0.019). In a multivariate analysis, adjusting for extent of surgical resection and age, an oligodendroglial component was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Conclusion: The results support the concept that AAFs with an oligodendroglial component have a better prognosis than pure AAF tumors, similar to the effect seen among patients with glioblastoma multiforme tumors. This better survival outcome should be taken into consideration in the design and stratification of future trials. Additionally, in contrast to patients with GBMs, patients who have AAF/OL have the potential for prolonged survival; therefore, late sequelae of treatment (both radiation and chemotherapy) must be weighed more heavily in the benefits to risks analysis

  4. 星形细胞瘤预后与血清中基质金属白酶-2表达的关系%The relationship of expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in blood serum and prognostic of astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向晖; 刘如恩

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)在血清中的表达与星形细胞瘤预后的关系.方法 随机选取46例经病理证实的星形细胞瘤患者,分为两组:A组为星形细胞瘤Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,B组为星形细胞瘤Ⅲ~Ⅳ级.分别对比两组患者术前,术后3、6、12个月的血清中MMP-2的含量,观察两组患者术前的差异以及复发前后之间的变化.结果 低级别星形细胞瘤术后血清中MMP-2水平为(9.7 ±3.1)g/L,高级别星形细胞瘤术后复发血清中MMP-2水平为(276.0 ±21.0)g/L,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 MMP-2在血清中的表达与星形细胞瘤术后复发密切相关.%Objective The aim of this article is to discuss the relationship of Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in blood serum and prognostic of astrocytoma.Methods 46 patients sufferd from astrocytoma are devided into 2 groups:group A contains patients of astrocytoma of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ ; group B of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ.The serum total level of MMP-2 are detected separately before surgery and in the 3rd,6th,12th month after surgery.Results Serum MMP-2 level in low grade Astrocytoma was (9.7 ± 3.1) g/L,serum MMP-2 level in high grade Astrocytoma Postoperative recurrence was (276.0 ± 21.0) g/L.The Expression was significant (P < 0.0l).Conclusion Expression of MMP-2 in blood serum is closely related to the grade and postoperative recurrence of astrocytoma.

  5. Fas系统在星形细胞瘤的表达及其与细胞凋亡的关系%Expressions of Fas system and its relationship with apoptosisin astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安民; 钟志光; 邓跃飞; 蔡望青; 李方成; 谭平国; 林吉惠

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Fas or FasL and their relationship with apoptosis in astrocytomas. Meth-ods Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Fas and FasL by TUNEL technique and apoptosis index (AI) wascalculated in 41 astrocytomas. Results Twenty- seven of the astrocytoms(66% ) expressed Fas. The amount of cells positive for Faswas small. 83% astrocytomas(34 of 41 ) showed complete loss of Fas expression or expression in 5%)。4I例星形细胞瘤凋亡指数为1.09±0.48。星形细胞瘤Fas和FasL阳性与否和细胞凋亡指数无明显相关性。结论Fas和FasL在星形细胞瘤的发生和发展中可能起重要作用;星形细胞瘤的发生和发展与细胞凋亡异常有关;星形细胞瘤Fas的表达水平低下可能导致肿瘤细胞逃脱机体对其的清除作用,Fas系统介导细胞凋亡的机制有待于进一步研究。

  6. Imaging diagnosis and clinical pathology of WHO gradeⅡ diffuse astrocytoma%WHOⅡ级弥漫性星形细胞瘤影像诊断与临床病理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 陈桂玲; 盛会雪; 张宗军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore imaging features of WHO grade Ⅱ diffuse astrocytoma. Methods The CT and MRI findings were retrospectively analyzed in 38 cases with WHO grade Ⅱ diffuse astrocytoma proved by operation and pathology. Results In this group of 38 diffuse astrocytomas, 36 supratehtorial cases were inoted. 29 located in the frontal and temporal lobes, 1 case in cerebellar hemisphere, 2 involved corpus callosum. 31 diffuse astrocytomas were solitary, and 7 located in two lobes or more. The lesions were demonstrated abnormal signal or density with obscure margin, mild peritu-moral edma and mass effect. Patchy enhancement, nodular enhancement, or irregular ring-like enhancement or no appreciable enhancement was noted on post-contrast MR or CT scan. Conclusion Imaging findings of WHO grade Ⅱ diffuse astrocytoma are characteristic, which is helpful for preoperative diagnosis and prognosis assessment.%目的 探讨WHOⅡ级弥漫性星形细胞瘤的影像学特征.方法 回顾性分析38例经手术及病理证实的WHOⅡ级弥漫性星形细胞瘤的CT、MRI表现,结合文献分析其影像学特征.结果 36例(94.7%)位于幕上,累及额叶、颞叶者29例(76.3%),1例位于小脑半球,另见有2例累及胼胝体;病灶位于单个脑叶者31例(81.6%),两个以上脑叶7例(18.4%).肿瘤呈边界不清的异常信号或密度影,周围水肿及占位效应轻,36例增强检查中20例无明显强化,另16例表现为小斑片状、结节样、不规则环状强化.结论 WHOⅡ级弥漫性星形细胞瘤的影像学表现具有一定特征性,结合临床和影像学检查有助于术前鉴别诊断和预后判断.

  7. 脑星形细胞瘤近瘤周远瘤周白质区的扩散张量成像参数分析%DTI analysis of immediate and distant peritumoral regions in brain astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢铁明; 邵国良; 俞炎平; 石磊

    2011-01-01

    目的 旨在探讨脑星形细胞瘤近瘤周、远瘤周白质区的扩散张量成像(DTI)特征.方法 37例脑星形细胞瘤术前行DTI扫描,其中Ⅰ级6例,Ⅱ级12例,Ⅲ级10例,Ⅳ级9例.重建FA图和FA编码彩色图,评价FA图像中近瘤周(IPR)白质、远瘤周 (DPR)白质及对侧正常脑白质区的信号特点,并测定相应平均称散率(MD)值及各向异性分数(FA)值.结果 Ⅳ级星形细胞瘤IPR白质的MD值高于其他三组(P<0.05),Ⅲ级星形细胞瘤IPR白质的FA值低于Ⅰ、Ⅱ级星形细胞瘤组(P<0.05).Ⅳ级星形细胞瘤IPR、DPR的白质FA值低于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ级星形细胞瘤组(P<0.05).结论 DTI能够较为直观的、准确地反映IPR及DPR白质区受肿瘤侵犯的情况.%Objective To investigate the DTI features of white matters at immediate and distance peritumoral regions in brain astrocytoma. Methods 37 patients with brain astrocytoma received pre-surgical DTI scanning. A-mong them, there were 6 cases of gradeⅠ , 12 of grade Ⅱ, 10 of grade Ⅲ and 9 of grade Ⅳ tumor. FA maps and color-coded FA maps were reconstructed. White matters at immediate peritumoral region (IPR), distance peritumoral region (DPR) and normal contralateral regions were evaluated for signal features and measured for MD and FA values. Results The IPR MD value of grade Ⅳ astrocytoma was remarkably higher than those of tumor with other 3 grades (P< 0.05); the IPR FA value of grade Ⅲ astrocytoma was lower that those of grades Ⅰ and Ⅱ tumors (P<0.05); and the IPR and DPR FA values of grade Ⅳ astrocytoma were significantly lower than those of grades Ⅰ , Ⅱ and Ⅲ tumors (P<0.05). Conclusion DTI provides intuitive and accurate visualization of tumor invasion at IPR and DPR.

  8. Differential expression of miR-181 b in astrocytoma and clinical significance%miR-181b在星形细胞瘤中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏锡伟; 支枫; 王强; 王榕; 王穗暖

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析星形细胞瘤中miR-181b的表达及其与临床意义.方法 选取星形细胞瘤标本84例,以20例癌旁组织为对照,采用Real-time PCR对组织中miR-181b的含量进行测定.结果 miR-181b在星形细胞瘤组织中含量显著下调,差异有统计学意义(P =0.0087).miR-181b的表达与患者预后密切相关,低表达miR-181b的患者预后较差,而高表达miR-181b的患者预后良好(P =0.035).miR-181b的表达与患者年龄、性别和WHO分级无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 miR-181b在星形细胞瘤组织中表达显著降低,且其表达量与患者的存活时间密切相关,提示其可能为抑癌基因参与了星形细胞瘤的发生与发展,具有重要临床诊疗意义.%Objective To determine the miR-181b expression in astrocytomas and analyze the relationship between miR-181b and clinical features. Methods Real-time PCR was used to quantify the miR-181b expression in 84 astrocytomas and 20 normal adjacent tissues, and the relationship of miR-181b expression and clinical pathology features was analyzed. Results The rm'R-181b expression in astrocytomas was down-regulated compared to normal adjacent tissues (P =0.0087). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that low expression of rm'R-181b was significantly associated with poor patient survival (P =0.035). There was no relationship between miR-181b and gender, age and WHO grade. Conclusion miR-181b was down-regulated in astrocytomas and its low expression was closely correlated with poor patient survival which indicates that miR-181b may represent a potential indicator in the diagnosis, therapeutic effect and prognosis of astrocytoma.

  9. Expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and PTEN in human brain astrocytoma%MMP-2及PTEN在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏大勇; 徐善水; 江晓春; 李真保; 戴易; 毛捷; 包正夫; 方兴根; 朱明峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基质金属蛋白酶2(MMP-2)及抑癌基因PTEN在人脑星形瘤中的表达及二者与人脑星形细胞瘤侵袭性的关系.方法 用免疫组织化学SABC法检测50例人脑星形细胞瘤组织和10例正常人脑组织中的MMP-2和PTEN蛋白的表达,并且分析二者与人脑星形细胞瘤临床病理分级的关系.结果 MMP-2和PTEN在低度恶性星形细胞瘤和高度恶性星形细胞瘤组织中表达差别有统计学意义(p<0.05).随着星形细胞瘤恶性度增高,MMP-2的表达强度呈上升趋势而PTEN表达强度逐渐下降;Spearman等级相关分析表明人脑星形细胞瘤中MMP-2和PTEN之间呈负相关(Rs=-0.518,P<0.01).结论 MMP-2和PTEN是人脑星形细胞瘤分化程度和转移的潜在生物学指标,联合检测MMP-2和PTEN更有利于判断星形细胞瘤生物学行为和病理分级.%Objective To investigate the expressions of MMP-2 and the tumor suppressor genes PTEN in human brain astrocytoma and their relationships between the expressions and tumor invasion. Methods The expressions of MMP-2 and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) protein were examined by immunohistochemistry ( SABC method) in 50 human brain astrocytoma tissues and 10 nomal brain tissues,and their relationships of clinicopathological factors of human brain astrocytoma were analyzed. Results The expression rates of MMP-2 and PTEN had significantly difference between low grade human brain astrocytoma tissues and high human brain astrocytoma tissues. In nomal brain tissues (P<0.01),as the tumor's malignancy degree increased, the expression of MMP-2 increased but the expression of PTEN decreased. The expression of MMP-2 was negatively correlation with the expression of PTEN in hunman brain astrocytoma ( Rs =-0.518 , P <0.01). Conclusions MMP-2 and PTEN are potential markers for differentiation and metastasis of human brain astrocytoma. Combined detection of MMP-2 and PTEN can estimate the biological

  10. The expressions of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in human astrocytoma and its significances%CXCL12和CXCR4在人星形细胞瘤中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海巍; 陶胜忠; 牛光明; 周兴; 牛国策; 孙所辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in human astrocytoma and its significances. Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry SP were used to de-tected the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in non-tumor brain tissues and human astrocytoma tissues, their expression in differ-ent pathological grades of human astrocytoma tissues and the correlation between CXCL12 and CXCR4 were analysed. Results By satistical analysis, the difference between the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in non-tumor brain tissues and human astrocytoma tissues was statistically significant(P<0. 05) , and the difference between the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in WHO I ~Ⅱ grades human astrocytoma tissues and WHO Ⅲ -Ⅳgrades human astrocytoma tissues was statistically significant(P<0. 05). The expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 showed a significant positive correlation (P<0. 05). Conclusion The expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in human astrocytoma tissue is higher than the expression in non-tumor brain tissue,it increases with increasing pathological grades and there is a significant positive correlation between CXCL12 and CXCR4.%目的 探讨趋化因子CXCL12及其受体CXCR4在人星形细胞瘤中的表达及意义.方法 应用逆转录聚合酶链反应法(RT-PCR)、免疫组化SP法检测CXCL12和CXCR4在非瘤脑组织和人星形细胞瘤组织中的表达,分析CXCL12和CXCR4在不同病理级别人星形细胞瘤组织中的表达和它们之间的相关性.结果 经统计学分析,CXCL12和CXCR4在非瘤脑组织和人星形细胞瘤组织中表达比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);在WHOⅠ~Ⅱ级人星形细胞瘤组织和WHOⅢ~Ⅳ级人星形细胞瘤组织中表达比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).CXCL12和CXCR4表达呈现明显的正相关(P<0.05).结论 CXCL12和CXCR4在人星细胞瘤中的表达高于在非瘤脑组织中的表达,其表达水平随病理级

  11. 脑星形细胞肿瘤的MR灌注成像与病理对照%Comparison of perfusion-weighted MR imaging and pathology of intracranial astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐康廉; 魏新华; 王月干; 何纯; 李勤; 于锡章; 龙莉玲

    2005-01-01

    [Objective] To study the value of the perfusion MR in the preoperative assessment of histological grade of astrocytoma. [Methods] Thirty-two patients were confirmed with astrocytomas underwent MR plain scanning, perfusion MR and post contrast scanning respectively. Dynamic contrast enhancement T2*-weight gradient-echo echoplanar sequence was used to produce perfusion MR. The use of contrast agent volume was 0.2 mmol/kg and the flow rate of injection was 3~4 mL/sec. Firstly, the signal over time curves were described and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were produced. Then the maximum relative rCBV ratios were calculated as the following formula: maximum rCBV ratios= maximum rCBV of ipsilateral tumor/rCBV of contralateral white matter. Independence samples T-test was used to evaluate the difference of the maximum rCBV ratios between two groups. (P <0.05) was considered statistically significant. [Results] All cases were divided into two groups according to the histological grades. 18 cases were designed to low-grade astrocytomas (Ⅰ~Ⅱ) group and 14 to high grade astrocytomas (Ⅲ~Ⅳ)group. The maximum rCBV ratio was (2.57±0.78) (range 1.44~4.88) in low grade astrocytomas group, (5.40±0.63) (range 4.76~7.07) in high grade astrocytomas group. The differences in maximum rCBV ratio between two groups were statistically significant (P <0.01). [Conclusion] Perfusion MR is very useful in the preoperative assessment of astrocytomas of histological grades.%目的研究MR灌注成像在脑星形细胞肿瘤术前分级中的应用价值.方法32例脑星形细胞肿瘤病人依次行常规MRI平扫、MR灌注成像及增强MRI.MR灌注成像采用动态增强T2*WI梯度回波-回波平面成像序列(T2*WI GRE-EPI),造影剂用量为0.2mmol/kg,注射流率为3~4 mL/s.首先得到信号强度-时间曲线,并合成相对脑血流容积(rCBV)图,计算出最大rCBV比率.独立样本t检验用于评价两组数据的差异,P<0.05认为有

  12. Uptake of radioactive octanoate in astrocytoma cells. Basic studies for application of ={sup 11}C=octanoate as a PET tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Shunji; Kawashima, Hidefumi; Kuge, Yuji; Miyake, Yoshihiro [Institute for Biofunctional Research Co. Ltd., Suita, Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Kiyoshi; Kangawa, Kenji

    1996-11-01

    Fatty acids are taken up and metabolized in the brain. In vitro uptake experiments on astrocytoma cells were carried out to assess the potential use of =1-{sup 11}C=octanoate as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for astroglial functions. Uptake of =1-{sup 14}C=octanoate increased in a time-dependent fashion until 60 min after application. The uptake of =1-{sup 11}C=octanoate showed similar results to that of =1-{sup 14}C=octanoate until 10 min. As for medium pH, =1-{sup 14}C=octanoate uptake increased gradually with the decrease in pH. We also examined the effects of glutamate, glucose deprivation and hypoxia on the uptake of octanoate and found that these conditions did not bring about any change in the extent of =1-{sup 14}C=octanoate uptake. These results show that the octanoate uptake was not influenced by any of several pathological conditions. When the number of astrocytes increases in the area of hypoglycemia or hypoxia near a brain lesion, the amount of octanoate uptake also increases, so this indicates the possibility that {sup 11}C-octanoate will detect a brain lesion. (author)

  13. AUTOCOUNTER, an ImageJ JavaScript to analyze LC3B-GFP expression dynamics in autophagy-induced astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, L; Magenes, G; Inzaghi, A; Palumbo, S; Allavena, G; Miracco, C; Pirtoli, L; Biggiogera, M; Comincini, S

    2012-10-11

    An ImageJ JavaScript, AUTOCOUNTER, was specifically developed to monitor and measure LC3B-GFP expression in living human astrocytoma cells, namely T98G and U373-MG. Discrete intracellular GFP fluorescent spots derived from transduction of a Baculovirus replication-defective vector (BacMam LC3B-GFP), followed by microscope examinations at different times. After viral transgene expression, autophagy was induced by Rapamycin administration and assayed in ph-p70S6K/p70S6K and LC3B immunoblotting expression as well as by electron microscopy examinations. A mutated transgene, defective in LC3B lipidation, was employed as a negative control to further exclude fluorescent dots derived from protein intracellular aggregation. The ImageJ JavaScript was then employed to evaluate and score the dynamics changes of the number and area of LC3B-GFP puncta per cell in time course assays and in complex microscope examinations. In conclusion, AUTOCOUNTER enabled to quantify LC3B-GFP expression and to monitor dynamics changes in number and shapes of autophagosomal-like vesicles: it might therefore represent a suitable algorithmic tool for in vitro autophagy modulation studies.

  14. A novel mutation in NF1 is associated with diverse intra-familial phenotypic variation and astrocytoma in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santasree; Dai, Yi; Liang, Shengran; Chen, Huishuang; Wang, Yanyan; Tang, Lihui; Wu, Jing; Huang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dysregulated neurocutaneous disorder, characterized by neurofibromas and café-au-lait spots. NF1 is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, encoding neurofibromin. Here, we present a clinical molecular study of a three-generation Chinese family with NF1. The proband was a male patient who showed café-au-lait spots and multiple subcutaneous neurofibromas over the whole body, but his siblings only had regional lesions. The man's daughter presented with severe headache and vomiting. Neurological examination revealed an intracranial space occupying lesion. Surgery was undertaken and the histopathological examination showed a grade I-II astrocytoma. Next-Generation sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2500 Analyzers; Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) and Sanger sequencing (ABI PRISM 3730 automated sequencer; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) identified the c.227delA mutation in the NF1 gene in the man. The mutation is co-segregated with the disease phenotypes among the affected members of this family and was absent in 100 healthy controls. This novel mutation results in a frameshift (p.Asn78IlefsX7) as well as truncation of neurofibromin by formation of a premature stop codon. Our results not only extended the mutational and phenotypic spectra of the gene and the disease, but also highlight the importance of the other genetic or environmental factors in the development and severity of the disease. PMID:27234610

  15. IDH1 mutation is prognostic for diffuse astrocytoma but not low-grade oligodendrogliomas in patients not treated with early radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Matsutani, Tomoo; Hirono, Seiichiro; Ikegami, Shiro; Shinozaki, Natsuki; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-09-01

    Despite accumulating knowledge regarding molecular backgrounds, the optimal management strategy for low-grade gliomas remains controversial. One reason is the marked heterogeneity in the clinical course. To establish an accurate subclassification of low-grade gliomas, we retrospectively evaluated isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) mutation in clinical specimens of diffuse astrocytomas (DA) and oligodendroglial tumors separately. No patients were treated with early radiotherapy, and modified PCV chemotherapy was used for postoperative residual tumors or recurrence in oligodendroglial tumors. Immunohistochemical evaluation of IDH status, p53 status, O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase expression, and the MIB-1 index were performed. The 1p and 19q status was analyzed with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Ninety-four patients were followed for a median period of 8.5 years. For DAs, p53 was prognostic for progression- free survival (PFS) and IDH1 was significant for overall survival (OS) with multivariate analysis. In contrast, for oligodendroglial tumors, none of the parameters was significant for PFS or OS. Thus, the significance of IDH1 mutation is not clear in oligodendroglial tumors that are homogeneously indolent and chemosensitive. In contrast, DAs are heterogeneous tumors including some potentially malignant tumors that can be predicted by examining the IDH1 mutation status.

  16. Comparative study of peritumoral area of high- and low-grade astrocytoma with CTP%高、低级别脑星形细胞瘤瘤周区CTP研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁涛; 王巍巍; 全冠民; 赵宁; 高丽娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨高、低级别星形细胞瘤瘤周区CT灌注成像(CTP)参数的差异及其病理基础.方法:对30例手术与病理证实的脑星形细胞瘤(低级别星形细胞瘤10例、高级别星形细胞瘤20例)行术前CT平扫、增强及CTP检查,测量强化区近侧1cm处或低强化区距边缘1cm处的脑血流量(CBF)、脑血容量(CBV)、平均通过时间(MTT)及脑血管表面通透性(PS)值.比较高、低级别脑星形细胞瘤瘤周区CTP参数差异.对照影像学,采用肿瘤切除前活检的方法取得标本,观察瘤周区病理表现.结果:高级别星形细胞瘤瘤周区CBF、CBV、MTT及PS值高于低级别星形细胞瘤瘤周区.CBF、CBV、MTT及PS值,高级别星形细胞瘤瘤周区分别为(50.05士14.05)ml/(min· 100g)、(3.50士1.79)ml/100g、( 5.84±2.95)s及(1.23±1.75)ml/(min.100g),低级别星形细胞瘤瘤周区分别为(25.20±8.67)ml/(min·100g)、(1.61±0.68)ml/100g、(4.83±1.63)s及(0.33±0.27)ml/(min·100g),二组间CBF、CBV差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).组织学上,高级别与低级别星形细胞瘤瘤周区均可见散在肿瘤细胞,前者肿瘤细胞密度较大、血管较多.结论:高级别与低级别脑星形细胞瘤瘤周区CBF、CBV有明显差别,其病理基础不同.%Objective: To probe the difference of CT perfusion (CTF) parameters of peritumoral area between high- and low-grade intracranial astrocytoma, and to explore the pathologic basis. Methods: Thirty cases of intracranial asytrocytoma, proven by surgery and pathologic examination, including 10 cases of low-grade tumors (WHO grade I and II) and 20 cases of high-grade tumors, were examined for precontrast CT, postcontrast CT and CTP. We mearsured the CTP parameters, including CBF, CBV, MTT and PS at the area of lcm from the margin of enhancement or the margin of the non-enhanced lesion. Paired t test was made for comparison of the CTP parameters of high- and low-grade astrocytoma with the software SPSS 17.0 for refering CTP

  17. Expression and significance of TIP30, VEGF and CD34 in brain astrocytoma%脑星形细胞瘤中TIP30、VEGF和CD34的表达及其相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉红; 张杰英; 崔爱荣; 马毓梅; 王恒树; 李月红; 吴文新; 张祥宏

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and relationship of TIP30(HIV-1 Tat interactive protein 2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MVD (detected by CD34) in the angiogenesis of human brain astrocytomas. Methods Expression of TIP30, VEGF and CD34 in 19 cases of normal brain tissue and 71 cases of astrocytoma were immunohistochemically examined with Elivision plus two-step method. Results The positive expression of TIP30 could be seen in cytoplasm of neuroglial cells and neurons of 19 normal brain tissues. The positive expression rate of TIP30 in 71 cases of astrocytoma was 33.80 % (24/ 71). The positive expression rate of TIP30 in astrocytoma of different grades was 52 % for grade Ⅱ, 34.78 % for grade Ⅲ and 13.04 % for grade Ⅳ. The positive expression rate of TIP30 in high grade (Ⅲ+Ⅳ) of astrocytoma was found significantly lower than that in low grade(Ⅱ) (χ2=5.71, P <0.05); The expression of VEGF and MVD detected by CD34 in astrocytomas were higher than that in normal brain tissue and increased as the tumor grade increased; In astrocytoma, the negtive correlation was found between the expression of TIP30 and VEGF (r=-0.428, P<0.05); no correlation was found between TIP30 and MVD(r=-0.065, P 0.05); the positive correlation was found between VEGF and MVD(r=0.684, P<0.01). Conclusion The positive expression rate of TIP30 in normal brain tissue is significantly higher than that in astrocytoma. The positive expression rate of TIP30 significantly decreases as the pathological grade of the astrocytoma increases; The expression of TIP30 and VEGF is negatively correlated in astrocytoma.%目的 探讨脑星形细胞瘤中TIP30、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)、CD34的表达情况及其病理意义.方法 采用免疫组织化学Elivision plus两步法,检测19例正常腑组织及71例星形细胞瘤组织中TIF30、VEGF及CD34的表达.结果 TIP30在19例正常脑组织神经胶质细胞及神经元胞质内均呈阳性表达;71

  18. Application value of DTI and DTT in diagnosis of different grades astrocytoma%磁共振DTI与DTT在星形细胞瘤分级诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏璇; 金国宏; 哈若水

    2012-01-01

    Objective To measure and analysis ADC and FA of the high-grade and low-grade intracranial astrocytoma, to discuss the values of DTI and diffusion tensor tractography ( DTT) in the diagnosis of different grades astrocytoma. Methods A total of 30 cases astrocytoma were performed by pathology (including 14 cases of WHO Ⅰ -Ⅱ ,16 cases of WHO Ⅲ-Ⅳ). Average ADC and FA values were measured in the tumor parenchyma region, peri-tumoral region (with a distant of 1. 5 cm which outside the tumor parenchyma region) and corresponding contralateral normal brain tissue. The impact of morphology and struction about white matter fiber bundle was observed in the different grades astrocytoma. Results Signal intensity of 30 cases astrocytoma about ADC and FA maps in tumor parenchyma region, peri-tumoral region and normal brain tissue were obviously different. FA and ADC values of tumor parenchyma and peri-tumoral region were obviously lower than normal brain tissue. On FA and DTT map of Ⅰ and Ⅱ grade astrocytoma, the white matter fiber bundle mainly showed significant rarefaction and displacement of fiber bundles, with clear boundary adjacent to the white matter. Whereas invasion and infiltration of the white matter fiber bundles with relatively ill-defined border were showed in Ⅲ and Ⅳgrade astrocytoma. On DTT map of Ⅲ-Ⅳgrade astrocytoma,showd partial disruption, compression, deviation and displacement fiber bundles. Compared with the contralateral normal brain tissue, FA values of tumor parenchyma and peri-tumoral region were obvious lower( P 0.05). Conclusions DTI can help define different grades astrocytoma and can distinguish tumor parenchyma between peri-tumoral region. DTT can clearly show the destructive degree of cerebral white matter fiber bundle in different grades astrocytoma.%目的 通过对高级别及低级别星形细胞瘤的表观扩散系数(ADC值)及各向异性分数(FA值)的测量分析,探讨磁共振扩散张量成像(DTI)及纤维束成

  19. 星形细胞瘤周水肿区CD105、VEGF的表达及意义%Expression of CD105 and VEGF in Edematus Areas of Human Astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 胡继良; 俆菲; 魏强国; 翟宝进

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of CD105 and VEGF in the edematus areas around human astrocytomas and analyze its clinical significance. Methods: Fifty-one cases with astrocytomas and nine normal controls were recruited. According to their data of T2WI, the degree of brain edema was categorized into 3 grades. The expression of CD105 and VEGF in the edematous areas around astrocytomas were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The mi-crovessel density (MVD) was calculated and the relation between CD105-MVD, VEGF and degree of edema was analyzed. Results: No CD105 or VEGF was detected in normal brain tissue. In cases with astrocytomas, CD105-MVD was positively related to the degree of brain edema (r = 0. 997,P<0. 05) , the expression of VEGF was positively related to CD105-MVD and the degree of brain edema (r = 0. 923,r=0. 929,P<0. 05). Conclusion: The expression of VEGF may promote the expression of CD105 ( + ) microvessels, which contribute to the vasogenic brain edema around astrocytomas. The edematous area may be invaded by astrocytomas easily due to large number of new blood vessels marked by CD105.%目的:探讨CD105及VEGF在星形细胞瘤周水肿区表达情况及临床意义.方法:星形细胞瘤患者51例,依据其术前MRI T2 WI序列图像将瘤周水肿分为3度,术中取对应水肿组织后行CD105及VEGF免疫组化染色,计算微血管密度(MVD),并分析其表达水平与水肿程度的关系;正常脑组织标本9例为对照.结果:正常脑组织无CD105及VEGF表达;瘤周水肿区CD105-MVD与水肿分度正相关(r=0.997,P<0.05);VEGF表达与CD105-MVD正相关(r=0.923,P<0.05),同时与水肿分度正相关(r=0.929,P<0.05).结论:瘤周VEGF表达和持续存在可能是促进CD105阳性微血管的形成,进而造成血管源性瘤周水肿的始动因素.水肿区大量CD105标记新生血管出现提示该区可能是瘤细胞易于发生浸润的区域.

  20. Expression and significance of p27kip 1 and PCNA in human brain astrocytomas%人脑星形细胞瘤中p27kip1蛋白和增殖细胞核抗原PCNA表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽红; 齐蕾; 单丽辉; 柴翠翠; 韩伟; 王立峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expression of the p27kipl and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA )in human brain astrocytomas and relationship with the pathology grade and discuss the value of p27kipl in astrocytoma development. Methods: SP immunohistochemical analysis was used for detection the expression of p27kipl and PCNA in 64 astrocytomas. Results: The percents of p2Tkipl positive labeling cells decreased along with the growing of pathology grade in human astrocytomas. However, PCNA was on the contrary, a significant negative correlation is observed between the p27kipl and PCNA. Conclusion: The decreased p2Tkipl protein expression might play an important role in the genesis and development of human brain astrocytomas, immuohistochemical analysis of PCNA might be useful in deciding the grade of malignant of astrocytoma.%目的:研究p27kip1蛋白和增殖细胞核抗原(proliferating cell nuclear antigen,PCNA)在星形细胞瘤中的表达与肿瘤病理分级的关系,探讨p27kip1蛋白在星形细胞瘤演变过程中的意义.方法:SP免疫组化法对64例星形细胞瘤的p27kip1蛋白和PCNA表达进行观察.结果:随着病理级别的升高,p27kip1阳性细胞百分率降低,而PCNA则相反,两者的表达成显著负相关.结论:p27kip1表达的缺失可能与星形细胞瘤的发生发展密切相关,PCNA能较客观地反映肿瘤的恶性程度.

  1. Correlation of 64-slices CT Features with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Brain Astrocytoma%VEGF在脑星形细胞瘤中的表达与64排CT征象的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡胜艳; 孙妍; 胡嘉航

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨脑星形细胞瘤64排CT征象与VEGF表达之间的关系.方法:搜集经手术证实的脑星形细胞瘤30例,分析其CT表现,术后对肿瘤组织标本进行免疫组化染色,分析其VEGF表达的程度与CT征象之间的关系.结果:星形细胞瘤的VEGF表达程度与肿瘤的分级、瘤周水肿的范围及肿瘤的强化程度有相关性.结论:星形细胞瘤的CT表现可以反映VEGF的表达程度,能对临床治疗方案的选择和患者预后的评估起到重要作用.%Objective To study the correlation of 64-slices CT features with vascular endolhelial growth factor(VEGF) expression in brain astrocytoma. Methods CT findings in 30 cases with surgically and pathologically proved astrocytoma were retrospectively analyzed. VEGF was stained with immuno- histochemical technique, and VEGF expression levels were compared with CTfeatures. Results VEGF expression levels were with correlated with pathological grade, the extent of per tumor edema and the degree of contrast enhancement. Conclusion CT features of astrocytoma can reflect VEGF expression levels. It is important for the choice of clinical treatment and prognostic evaluation of patients. [Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(6):67-68

  2. Notch家族成员在星形细胞瘤及髓母细胞瘤中的表达%Expression of Notch family members in astrocytomas and medulloblastomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鹏; 浦佩玉; 康春生; 贾志凡; 张安玲; 韩磊; 王广秀

    2010-01-01

    Objective To detect the differential expression of Notch family members in human astrocytomas and medulloblastomas and to evaluate the role of Notch 1,2,3,4 in the development of both tumor types.MethodImmunohistochemical staining SP method and Western blot analysis were used to detect Notch 1,2,3,4 expression in tissue arrays and freshly resected samples of normal brain tissues,astrocytomas and medulloblastomas respectively.ResultsThere was no expression of Notch family members in normal brain tissues.Notch 1,3 and 4 were highly expressed but Notch 2 was not expressed in astrocytomas.The percentage of positive tumor cells and expression level of Notchl were increased just as the increase of tumor grade.On the other hand,overexpression of Notch 2 was detected in medulloblastoma in contrast with low or no expression of Notch 1,3,4.Conclusions Different expressions of Notch 1,2,3,4were found in astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.This may be related to their different functional activities during the process of brain development.%目的 检测Notch家族成员Notchl~4蛋白在人脑星形细胞瘤及髓母细胞瘤中的表达,探讨其在肿瘤生成中的作用.方法 应用组织芯片免疫组化染色及Western Blot检测正常脑组织、不同级别大脑星形细胞瘤、小脑髓母细胞瘤中Notch 1、2、3、4蛋白的表达.结果 正常脑组织中Notch 1、2、3、4蛋白均无表达;星形细胞瘤中Notch 1、3、4蛋白的阳性表达率及表达强度随肿瘤病理级别的增高而增高,Notch 2无表达;髓母细胞瘤中Notch 1、3、4低或无表达,Notch 2呈高表达.结论 Notch 1、2、3、4在星形细胞瘤及髓母细胞瘤中表达有所差异,可能与Notch家族成员在脑发育过程中的作用不同有关.

  3. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted

  4. Exploratory evaluation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods of FDG PET quantification in pediatric anaplastic astrocytoma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gethin; Treves, S. Ted [Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Fahey, Frederic H. [Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Kocak, Mehmet; Boyett, James M.; Kun, Larry E. [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Pollack, Ian F. [Children' s Hospital Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Young Poussaint, Tina [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The rationale of this study was to investigate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) methods to analyze {sup 18}F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) uptake in children with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a multi-institutional trial, to compare 3D and two-dimensional (2D) methods and explore data associations with progression-free survival (PFS). 3D tumor volumes from pretreatment MR images (fluid attenuation inversion recovery and postgadolinium) of children with recurrent AA on a phase I trial of imatinib mesylate were coregistered to FDG positron emission tomography (PET) images. PET data were normalized. Four metrics were defined: the maximum ratio (maximum pixel value within the 3D tumor volume, normalized), the total ratio (cumulative pixel values within the tumor volume, normalized) and tumor mean ratio (total pixel value divided by volume, normalized). 2D analysis methods were compared. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between these methods and PFS. Strongest correlations between 2D and 3D methods were with analyses using postcontrast T1 images for volume of interest (VOI). The analyses suggest 3D maximum tumor and mean tumor ratios, whether normalized by gray matter or white matter, were associated with PFS. This study of a series of pretreatment AA patients suggests that 3D PET methods using VOIs based on postcontrast T1 correlate with 2D methods and are related to PFS. These methods yield an estimate of metabolically active tumor burden and may add prognostic information after tumor grade is determined. Future rigorous multi-institutional protocols with larger numbers of patients will be required for validation. (orig.)

  5. Expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 in astrocytoma: A prospective study in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeep Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the tumor grade is a key factor influencing the choice of therapies, particularly determining the use of adjuvant radiation and specific chemotherapy protocols, role of abnormality in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN expression and variation in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR labeling index (LI and Ki-67 LI in survival and clinical outcome have been studied by many researchers in the recent past. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the expression of PTEN, EGFR and Ki-67 in different grades of astrocytic tumors by means of immunohistochemistry and to judge their role in overall survival (OS. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 57 cases of different grades of astrocytomas. Expression of PTEN, EGFR and Ki-67 was assessed by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded sections and the OS was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test for 2.5 years from the date of primary resection. Results: Most of the tumors (59.6%; 34 cases out of 57 displayed WHO Grade IV features. Distribution of age, EGFR LI and Ki-67 LI expressed strong positive (≥0.5 correlation with the grade of tumors. However, the PTEN positivity was inversely related with the grade of the tumors. Lower WHO grades, lower values of Ki-67 LI, EGFR LI and PTEN positivity were associated with better survival. Conclusion: Expression of PTEN, EGFR LI and Ki-67 LI should be combined with the basic histopathological features including WHO grade to predict the prognosis and therapeutic outcome.

  6. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  7. Muerte súbita en un varón con astrocitoma no diagnosticado Sudden death in a male due to undiagnosed astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Subirana Domènech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico de tumoraciones cerebrales en los servicios de patología forense es muy poco frecuente y suelen llegar a ellos ya sea como consecuencia de muertes súbitas o en el contexto de denuncias por mala praxis médica. Dentro de la escasa frecuencia, la mayoría de ellos son únicamente hallazgos incidentales de autopsia, como en el caso de muchos meningiomas, pero en otros puede ser la causa de muerte. Presentamos el caso de un varón paquistaní de 40 años, con barrera idiomática, que consultó en un servicio de urgencias por un cuadro de cefalea, náuseas y vómitos y que falleció después del alta médica con el diagnóstico de cuadro respiratorio de vías altas. La autopsia y los estudios anatomopatológicos evidenciaron un astrocitoma grado II.Brain tumors are seldom studied in forensic pathology services and they are seen in circumstances such as sudden unexpected death or in malpractice complaints. In most cases they are incidental findings, like meningioma, and in few cases they are the cause of death. We present the case of a 40 years old male Pakistani with linguistic barrier suffering from headache and vomiting who was diagnosed as a flue and died suddenly. Forensic autopsy and histopathologic studies showed a grade II astrocytoma.

  8. 超分割放射治疗178例脑星形细胞瘤的护理观察%The Nursing Observation of 178 Patients with Brain Astrocytoma Treated with Hyperfractional Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽艳; 尤莉; 张巍巍; 李东; 庄立丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨超分割放射治疗脑星形细胞瘤的护理观察要点。方法回顾性分析178例脑星形细胞瘤患者在放射治疗前、治疗期间、出院前所采取的护理措施。结果178例患者,由于护理措施得当,使放射治疗计划顺利实施。结论针对患者特点,有效的全程心理护理与放射治疗期间的护理观察是确保治疗计划圆满完成的重要环节。%Objective To explore the nursing observation points of brain astrocytoma treated with hyperfractional radiotherapy. Methods The clinical nursing measures for 178 cases of brain astrocytoma during the period of pre-radiotherapy, intra-radiotherapy and pre-discharge were analyzed retrospectively. Results The radiation treatment plan was carried out smoothly for 178 cases due to proper nursing measures. Conclusion According to, specific and effective psychological nursing, based on patients' individual fea-tures, as well as careful observation is the key to the successful radiation treatment.

  9. Expression of p73 and p53 protein in brain astrocytoma%脑星形细胞瘤组织p73和p53蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟广; 宋来君; 王树凯; 张志强; 冯祖荫

    2001-01-01

    To explore the expression of p73 and p53 protein in brainastrocytoma and to investigate the role of p73 inthe genesis of brain astrocytoma. Meffocd: The expression of p73 and p53 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in 63cases of asttrocytoma (grade I 8,grade 1I 21,grade 1II 24 and grade 1V 10) and 10 normal brain tissue samples. Res ult: A totalof 17 out of the 63 cases of brain astrocytomas appeared p73 positive. The positivity rate in high pathological grade astrocytornas(grade 1Ⅲ and Ⅳ, 38.2 % ) was higher than that in low grade astrocytomas ( grade I and II, 13.8 % ) ( x2 = 4.75, P < 0. 05 ).None of the 10 normal brain tissues was found p73 positive. Out of the 17 p73 - positive astrocytomas, 12 cases overexpressed p53protein. C onclusion: Abnormal expression of wild p73 may involve in the genesis of astrocytoma. Abnormal expression of p73may be due to mutation of 153.%目的:探讨脑星形细胞瘤组织P73和P5蛋白的表达及其与星形细胞瘤的病理发生的关系。方法:利用免疫组化方法检测了63例脑星形细胞瘤组织(I级8例,Ⅱ级21例,Ⅲ级24例,Ⅳ级10例)及10例正常脑组织P73、P53蛋白表达。结果:17例脑星形细胞瘤组织呈P73蛋白阳性表达,高病理级别的星形细胞瘤组织P73蛋白阳性表达率(Ⅲ、Ⅳ级,38.2%)明显高于低病理级别的星形细胞瘤组织(I、Ⅱ级,13.8%)(x2=4.75,P<0.05),10例正常脑组织均呈阴性表达。在17例P73蛋白阳性表达的脑星形细胞瘤组织中,12例呈P53蛋白过度表达。结论:野生型P73蛋白表达异常可能参与脑星形细胞瘤的病理发生,P53突变可能与P73表达异常有关。

  10. Comparative observation on MRI features of intramedullary ependymoma and astrocytoma%对比观察髓内室管膜瘤及星形细胞瘤的MRI特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘豪; 刘斌; 钱银锋; 王海宝

    2011-01-01

    Objective To improve the diagnostic accuracy by comparative observation on MRI features of intramedullary ependymoma and astrocytoma. Methods MRI and clinical data of 40 patients (28 with intramedullary ependymomas and 12 with intramedullary astrocytomas) confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. MRI features were compared between the two diseases. Results The signal of intramedullary ependymoma and astrocytoma on plain MRI were similar, which showed iso- or hypo-intensity on T1WI and heterogeneous hyper-intensity on T2WI. Among 28 cases of intramedullary ependymomas. 26 were found with expansive growth surrounding the cord, 18 with clear boundary, 21 with cysts in tumors or adjacent to tumors. Significant enhancement happened in 21 cases of intramedullary ependymomas, homogeneous enhancement happened in 19 cases, and "cap sign" was found in 4 cases. Among 12 cases of intramedullary astrocytomas, eccentric growth was noticed in 9 cases, 9 cases were found with unclear boundary, 5 cases with visible cysts, and mild enhancement was found in 8 cases, mainly with patchy and nodular enhancement. There were significant differences in the growth pattern, border, degree and manner of enhancement between the two tumors (P<0. 05). Conclusion MRI features are helpful to differential diagnosis between intramedullary ependymomas and astrocytomas.%目的 对比观察髓内室管膜瘤及星形细胞瘤的MRI特征,以提高诊断准确率.方法 回顾性分析经手术病理证实的28例髓内室管膜瘤及12例星形细胞瘤的MRI及相关临床资料,对比分析二者MRI表现的差异.结果 髓内室管膜瘤及星形细胞瘤的平扫MRI信号类似,T1WI呈等或低信号,T2WI以不均匀高信号为主.28例髓内室管膜瘤中,中心性膨胀性生长26例,边界清楚18例,21例可见瘤内及瘤周囊变,明显强化21例,均匀强化19例,4例出现“帽征”;12例星形细胞瘤中,偏心性生长9例,边界不清9例,出现囊变5

  11. 星形细胞瘤中血管生成拟态的鉴定及其临床意义%Identification of vasculogenic mimicry in astrocytoma and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熙; 郭世文; 尉春艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in astrocytoma and its clinical significance. Methods Three-dimensional culture system of U87 cells was constructed to observe VM. The presence of VM in 65 specimens of astrocytoma was observed by immunohistochemical and histological double staining of CD34 and PAS. Results After three-dimensional culture, U87 cells remolded and fused with each other, forming wreath and network structure. The immunohistochemical and histological double staining showed that VM was present in astrocytoma. VM was not found in grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ astrocytoma. The positive rate of VM in grade Ⅳ group (7/25) was significantly higher than that in grade Ⅲ group (3/18). VM density was 8.81±2.84/HP in grade Ⅳ group and 5.55± 3.13/HP in grade Ⅲ group; it increased with the increase of malignancy. There were significant differences between the groups. Conclusion VM is present in astrocytoma and it is correlated with the malignancy.%目的 明确星形细胞瘤中是否存在血管生成拟态及其临床意义.方法 应用三维培养技术、HE染色、免疫组织化学与组织化学双重染色方法,观察星形细胞瘤中拟态血管的存在情况.结果 星形细胞瘤细胞株三维培养后发生细胞重塑,彼此融合,相互连接形成网状结构;免疫组织化学与组织化学双重染色可见,Ⅰ、Ⅱ级星形细胞瘤中均未发现血管生成拟态;Ⅲ级星形细胞瘤中发现有3例存在血管生成拟态(3/18),血管生成拟态密度为(5.55±3.13)个/HP;Ⅳ级星形细胞瘤中发现有7例存在血管生成拟态(7/25),血管生成拟态密度为(8.81±2.84)个/HP;血管生成拟态随着恶性程度的增加明显增加,各组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 星形细胞瘤中存在血管生成拟态现象,血管生成拟态与肿瘤的恶性程度呈正相关.

  12. Survival improvement in anaplastic astrocytoma, combining external radiation with halogenated pyrimidines: final report of RTOG 86-12, phase I-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study evaluated the toxicity and tumor efficacy of the halopyrimidine IUdR as a chemical modifier of radiation response in patients with malignant glioma. The preliminary results published in 1993 demonstrated no real advantage in the group of patients with glioblastoma. However, a benefit appeared to be evolving in the group of patients with Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AA). We are now presenting the results on the long-term follow-up of patients with AA. Methods and Materials: Between August 1987 and October 1991, 79 patients were entered in a prospective study with newly diagnosed malignant glioma. Twenty-one of 79 were AA. The study was designed to have a fixed dose of radiation consisting of 60.16 Gy in 32 fractions in 6.5 weeks but varying the dose schedule of IUdR, delivered in a continuous intravenous infusion of long (96 h) or short (48 and 24 h) duration, every week for the 6.5 weeks of radiation treatment. Results: The last AA patient was entered in March 1991. Ninety-five percent of the AA patients were under 59 years of age and 86% had a Karnofsky score 80. Thirty-eight percent had a tumor diameter of less than 5 cm and 52% had a tumor diameter between 5-10 cm. Seventy-six percent had partial or total tumor resection. The toxicity of this treatment was acceptable and has already been published elsewhere. At the time of this report, 14 out of 21 patients with AA are dead. The median survival, calculated from the Kaplan-Meier, is 3.2 years. Thirty-three percent of the patients have survived 5 years. These results compare favorably with the best results reported in the literature with postoperative external radiation plus chemotherapy, median survival time (MST) of 3 years, and previous Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) experience with radiation alone, MST of 2 years. Conclusions: Our findings in patients with AA corroborate the improved therapeutic results published recently when combining external radiation with 'long' infusion of i

  13. Heterogeneity of chemosensitivity in six clonal cell lines derived from a spontaneous murine astrocytoma and its relationship to genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, R; Koppel, H; Pilkington, G J; Thomas, D G; Darling, J L

    1997-09-01

    Heterogeneity in drug sensitivity must, in part, account for the relative lack of success with single agent chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In order to develop in vitro model systems to investigate this, clones derived from the VM spontaneous murine astrocytoma have been characterised with regard to drug sensitivity. Six clonal cell lines have been tested for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs using an intermediate duration 35S-methionine uptake assay. These lines have previously been extensively characterised with regard to morphological, antigenic, kinetic, tumourigenic potential in syngeneic animals and chromosomal properties and display considerable heterogeneity. The present study indicates that heterogeneity extends to sensitivity to all classes of cytotoxic drugs. The greatest difference in sensitivity between the clones was seen in response to cell cycle-specific drugs like the Vinca alkaloids (14-fold and 20-fold for vincristine (VCR) and vindesine (VIND) respectively), while the nitrosoureas, CCNU and BCNU displayed a smaller fold difference in sensitivity (4.3 and 3.6-fold difference respectively). All the clones were considerably more resistant to the adriamycin (ADM), cis-platinum (C-PLAT) and the Vinca alkaloids than the parental cell line although the difference in sensitivity between the clones and parental cell line were less marked for the nitrosoureas and procarbazine (PCB). It has also been possible to examine the relationship between drug sensitivity and the phenotypic and genotypic properties of these clonal cell lines. There is a relationship between chromosome number and sensitivity of a wide variety of cytotoxic drugs including the nitrosoureas, Vinca alkaloids, PCB, C-PLAT, BLEO but not ADR or 5-FU. Clones with small numbers of chromosomes were more resistant than clones with gross polyploidy. Similarly, sensitivity to Vinca alkaloids and ADM, but not other classes of drugs, was greatest in cells with numerous

  14. 人脑星形细胞瘤中Wiskott-Aldrich综合征蛋白质与T淋巴瘤侵袭转移诱导因子1蛋白表达的意义%Possible role of WASP and Tiam1 proteins in progression of astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯景辉; 曾敬; 卢佳斌; 吴惠瑜; 符珈; 吴秋良

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同病理学级别人脑星形细胞瘤中Rho GTPases相关信号通路蛋白Wiskott-Aldrich综合征蛋白质(WASP)与T淋巴瘤侵袭转移诱导因子1(Tiam1)所扮演的可能角色.方法 应用免疫组织化学法检测60例不同病理级别人脑星形细胞瘤组织中WASP、Tiam1蛋白表达,评估其与星形细胞瘤的病理分级及临床特征的关系.结果 (1)Tiam1蛋白高级别组的阳性率和高表达率均高于瘤旁脑组织和低级别组(P0.05).(3)WASP蛋白为阴性表达.结论 WASP蛋白与星形细胞瘤发生和进展的相关性不明确;Tiam1蛋白在了解星形细胞瘤恶性进展方面有参考价值,且可能是有预后价值因子之一.%Objective To explore the role of WASP and Tiaml proteins in progression of astrocytomas. Methods We Examined the expression of WASP and Tiaml proteins byimmmunohistochemical methods , and to analysis the correlation of WASP and Tiam 1 expression with clinicopathological factors in the 60 patients with astrocytomas. Results ( 1 ) The positivity rate and overexpression rate of Tiaml protein were significantly higher in the high -grade astrocytomas group than in the low-grade astrocytomas group or the brain tissues around tumor group ( P 0. 05 ). (3) WASP protein expression was negative in each group. Conclusions WASP probably is not correlated with the carcinogenesis and progression in astrocytomas . Tiaml may serve as a parameter for evaluating the carcinogenesis and progression in astrocytomas ,and work as a prognostic factor for astrocytomas patients.

  15. Expression of HPA in human astrocytoma and its effects on invasiveness of tumor cells%脑星形细胞瘤中HPA的表达及其对肿瘤细胞侵袭力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏雷; 易力; 翟晓莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of heparanase ( HPA) in human astrocytoma and its effects on invasiveness of tumor cells .Methods The expression levels of HPA were detected by immunohistochemical assay and Real time-PCR in 75 cases of human astrocytoma tissues and 40 cases of normal brain tissues .The small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown technique was used to silence the expressions of PHA protein and mRNA in astrocytoma U 87 cells.The expression levels of HPA,vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP) as well as the changes of invasiveness of tumor cells were detected by Real time-PCR, Western Blot and Transwell assay .Results The expressions of PHA were not observed in normal brain tissues .The positive expression rate of HPA protein was 78.67%(59/75) in astrocytoma tissues, which was significantly higher than that [0(0/40)] in normal brain tissues ( P <0.05), moreover, the positive expression rate of HPA mRNA was significantly higher than that in normal brain tissues ( P <0.05). The positive expression rate of HPA at gradeⅡ~Ⅳof astrocytoma was gradually increased ,and the positive rate was 60.00%(15/25), 79.31% (23/29), 90.48% (19/21),respectively,and there was a significant difference among them ( P <0.05).Furthermore the positive expression rate of HPA in tumor metastasis group was significantly higher than that in non-metastasis group ( P <0.05).The siRNA could effectively inhibit the expressions of HPA in U 87 cells and could down-regulate the expressions of VEGF , MMP-9, at the same time, which could obviously decrease the cell counts of permeating cell membrane ( P <0.05).Conclusion The high-expressions of HPA exist in astrocytoma tissues ,moreover, which are gradually increased with the malignant degree of tumor .The invasiveness of tumor cells is obviously decreased afterHPA is silenced by siRNA ,thus,PHA may become a potential target point in treatment of astrocytoma .%目

  16. MRI新技术对星形细胞瘤术前分级的临床价值%The clinical value of new technology of MRI in grading diagnosis of cerebral astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 任转琴; 陈涛; 张雷; 李莉; 苟晓光

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of enhanced gradient echo T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN) in grading diagnosis of cerebral actrocytoma by analyzing the association between the grade of astrocytoma and its quantities of the micrangium and hemorrhage showed in ESWAN. Methods ESWAN of 30 cases with cerebral astrocytoma surgically and pathologically confirmed were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had been examined with non-enhanced CT, non-enhanced routine MRI, contract enhanced Ti weighted imaging, and ESWAN pre-operation. The quantities of the micrangium and hemorrhage showed in ESWAN were measured by two experienced radiologists blindly. The diagnosis validity and reliability of ESWAN, by judging the present of hemorrhage, in diagnosing the malignant astrocytoma, were calculated contrary to pathology results. Differences of the rateiof blooding and the microvessel count and hemorrhage volume in highly and low malignant astrocytoma groups were also compared using Fisher's exact probability test and independent samples t-test in SPSS 13. 0, abeing 0. 05. Results The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of hemorrhage showed in ESWAN in diagnosing the malignant astrocytoma were 80% (12/15) , 53.3% (8/15), 66.7% (20/30), 63.2% (12/19), and 72. 7% (8/11) respectively. The rate of bleeding of highly malignant group (93. 3%) was greater than that of low grade group (33. 3%) , which was statistically significant (x2 =13. 41, P <0. 001). The microvessel count and hemorrhage volume of highly malignant group were greater than those of low one. The difference was statistically significant ( t =2. 569 , P <0. 001). Conclusion ESWAN is sensitive to show the micrangium and hemorrhage in a tumor and is useful in grading diagnosis of cerebral astrocytoma, which should be performed before the operation of astrocytoma resection.%目的 分析脑星形细胞瘤磁敏感加权成像(ESWAN)内微血管数量及出血量

  17. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 μM CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr15 and Cdc25cSer216. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer216 expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer216 in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer216 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ► We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ► ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ► CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  18. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Institute of Basic Medicine Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Hsing-Chun [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ho-Chen [Department of General Education, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ting-Chung [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chia-Yi Center, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan (China); Sze, Chun-I, E-mail: szec@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Basic Medicine Science, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Pathology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 μM CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr{sup 15} and Cdc25cSer{sup 216}. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer{sup 216} expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ► We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ► ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ► CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  19. 过氧化物酶1,6和GFAP在人脑星形胶质细胞瘤中的表达及临床意义%Expressions of peroxiredoxin 1, peroxiredoxin 6 and GFAP in human brain astrocytoma and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金桥; 刘秋红; 王景涛; 郭新宾; 宋来君

    2012-01-01

    目的 确定星形胶质细胞瘤中过氧化物酶1(Prxl)、过氧化物酶6(Prx6)和胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的表达情况,探讨其表达水平与星形胶质细胞瘤恶性程度的关系.方法 采用Western blot、RT-PCR和免疫组化检测52例星形胶质细胞瘤(Ⅱ级23例、Ⅲ级15例、Ⅳ级14例)和12例正常脑组织标本中Prx1、Prx6和GFAP的表达情况.结果 Prx1、Prx6在正常脑组织、Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级星形胶质细胞瘤中蛋白和mRNA的表达水平逐渐升高,具有统计学意义(P<0.05);GFAP在Ⅲ、Ⅳ级星形胶质细胞瘤中蛋白和mRNA的表达水平低于Ⅱ级星形胶质细胞瘤和正常脑组织(P<0.05).结论 Prx1、Prx6和GFAP可能是临床评价星形胶质细胞瘤恶性程度和侵袭性的潜在生物标志物,可作为星形胶质细胞瘤生物治疗的潜在靶分子.%Objective To characterize the expressions of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in human brain astrocytoma and explore their clinical significance. Methods The protein and mRNA expression levels of Prxl, Prx6 and GFAP in human brain astrocytoma and normal brain tissue specimens were determined by Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results The protein and mRNA expressions of Prxl and Prx6 increased significantly in the order of normal brain tissue, grade II astrocytoma, grade III astrocytoma and grade IV astrocytoma (P< 0.05). The protein and mRNA expressions of GFAP decreased significantly in grade III and IV astrocytoma compared with those in grade II astrocytoma and normal brain tissues (P<0.05). Conclusion Prxl and Prx6 may play important roles in the invasion and malignant development of human brain astrocytoma, and may serve as biomarkers for evaluating the invasiveness, malignancy and prognosis of the tumor as well as potential molecular targets in astrocytoma therapy.

  20. The Value of SWAN and 1H-MR Spectroscopy 3D Multi-voxel Imaging in Grading Astrocytoma%联合磁敏感加权成像及多体素质子波谱成像对脑星形细胞瘤分级诊断的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向荣; 许淑惠; 蔡建忠; 曹代荣

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the grading effectiveness of combined MR T2 star weighted angiography (SWAN) and 'H- MR spectroscopy 3D multi-voxel imaging in patients with astrocytoma. Materials and Methods 57 patients with primary astrocytoma underwent pre-operative MR examination. The astrocytomas were graded as low or high based on conventional MR imaging findings and compared to histopathologic grading. The sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR examination for identifying high-grade astrocytoma were calculated. These patients also underwent SWAN and 3D multi-voxel 'H-MRS examination on a 1.5T scanner (GE, HD) for grading and compared to histopathologic grading. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine optimum thresholds for astrocytoma grading. The sensitivity and specificity were the combined SWAN and MRS imaging for identifying high-grade astrocytoma were calculated. Results Sensitivity and specificity for determining high-grade astrocytoma using conventional MR were 75.3% and 70.8%. A threshold value of grade two of intratumor susceptibility signal intensity on SWAN had sensitivity and specificity of 84.8% and 90.9% in determining high-grade astrocytoma. A threshold value of Cho/NAA=2.35 provided sensitivity and specificity of 86.4% and 81.2%. The combination of Cho/ NAA and the degree of intratumor susceptibility signal intensity on SWAN resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 93.2% and 81.0% respectively. Conclusion Compared with conventional MR imaging, combined Cho/NAA and the degree of intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity on SWAN can significantly increase sensitivity and decrease false negative rate in grading astrocytoma.%目的 探讨联合磁敏感加权成像和多体素质子波谱成像对脑低、高级星形细胞瘤的鉴别诊断价值.资料与方法 57例星形细胞瘤患者术前行MR平扫+增强扫描作出分级诊断,并与病理分级对照,计算敏感度、特异度;行磁

  1. 星形细胞瘤中PTEN、p53及Ki-67的表达与肿瘤细胞增殖及分级的关系%Expression of PTEN, p53, Ki-67 and its relationship with tumor histopathological grade and proliferation in astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳花; 温文; 关弘; 宋建明; 钟雪云

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨星形细胞瘤中PTEN、p53及Ki-67的表达水平及其与肿瘤细胞增殖及分级的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学方法检测68例星形细胞瘤中PTEN、p53及Ki-67的表达水平.结果 星形细胞瘤中PTEN、p53及Ki-67的表达率分别是54.4%、45.6%及48.5%,随着肿瘤级别增加,PTEN的表达率下降,而p53、Ki-67的表达率上升,Spearman等级相关分析显示PTEN的表达与星形细胞瘤的分级呈负相关,p53、Ki-67的表达与分级呈正相关.PTEN阳性表达的37例星形细胞瘤标本中,Ki-67的阳性率是24.3%;而在PTEN阴性的31例标本中,Ki-67的阳性率是77.4%,PTEN表达与Ki-67表达呈负相关.结论 PTEN的表达与星形细胞瘤的分级呈负相关,Ki-67、p53的表达与星形细胞瘤组织病理分级呈正相关.PTEN在一定程度上可以抑制肿瘤细胞的增殖.%Objective To study the incidence of PTEN, p53 and Ki-67 expression in astrocytoma and show the relationship between PTEN, p53 expression and the proliferation activity. Methods The surgical specimens from 68 brain astrocytoma patients were analysed to detect PTEN, p53 and Ki-67 expression with immunohistochemical method. Results The incidence of PTEN, p53 and Ki-67 expression was 54.4 %,45.6 % and 48.5 % respectively in astrocytoma. With the grade of astrocytoma increasing the levels of PTEN protein decreased, on the other hand the levels of p53, Ki-67 increased. There was a negative correlation between PTEN expression and grade of astrocytoma while there was a positive correlation between p53, Ki-67 expression and grade of astrocytoma by using the Spearman Correlation test to analyse the data. The incidence of Ki-67 positive expression was 24.3 % in 37 cases exhibiting PTEN positive staining, whereas the incidence of Ki-67 positive expression was 77.4 % in 31 cases exhibiting PTEN negative staining. In statistics, there was an inverse correlation between PTEN and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion There is an inverse

  2. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT-Negative Recurrent High-Grade Anaplastic Astrocytoma Detected by {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunanithi, Sellam; Singh, Harmandeep; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2013-12-15

    A 37-year-old woman with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of the left frontal lobe, underwent surgical excision, chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in 2004. After being in remission for 5 years, recurrence was suspected clinically when she presented with seizures. The result of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was equivocal for recurrence and radiation necrosis (not available ). The patient was then referred for {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), as the initial primary tumour was high grade in nature. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT was negative for recurrence and demonstrated only post-operative changes in the left frontal region (Fig. 1a, b, arrow). Due to strong clinical suspicion, 3,4-dihydroxy-6-{sup 18}F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-FDOPA) PET-CT was done, 5 days after {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. The study revealed an {sup 18}F-FDOPA-avid mass lesion in the left frontal region (Fig. 1c, d, arrow), thereby confirming the presence of recurrent disease. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, and it was confirmed by histopathology as grade 3 AA. However, after a short asymptomatic period of 4 months the patient became symptomatic again. Follow-up MRI after 6 months of surgery revealed presence of ipsilateral and contralateral multifocal contrast enhancing recurrent mass lesions (Fig. 1e, f, arrow), suggesting the progression of disease. The patient was started on temozolamide but she died after 8 months' follow-up. Though MRI is routinely used in assessment of brain tumours, its ability to differentiate between treatment-induced changes and residual or recurrent tumour is limited. {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the first tracer used for assessment of brain tumours; however, it has a low tumour-to-background ratio in brain, limiting its utility. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correlates with tumour grade, with high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV) showing higher uptake

  3. Treatment Options for Childhood Astrocytomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to grow. If fluid builds up around the brain and spinal cord, a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure may be done. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion is a method used to drain fluid that has built up around the brain ...

  4. General Information about Childhood Astrocytomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to grow. If fluid builds up around the brain and spinal cord, a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure may be done. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion is a method used to drain fluid that has built up around the brain ...

  5. Correlation analysis on MRI Diffusion Weighted Imaging(DWI),peritumoral edema and expression level of HIF-1αin cerebral astrocytoma%星形细胞瘤MRI弥散成像、瘤周水肿与HIF-1α表达水平的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永鹏; 舒畅; 王静; 代研; 郁文芝; 李云超

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过磁共振成像(MRI)和MRI定量指标来研究星形细胞瘤弥散成像、瘤周水肿与肿瘤缺氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)表达水平的相关性,以及星形细胞瘤在缺氧环境下的浸润、生长、增殖能力及恶性度,更好地指导临床治疗及预后评估。方法选取经手术病理证实的33例星形细胞瘤患者,术前均进行磁共振弥散加权成像(DWI)检查,并计算肿瘤实质部分的ADC值;计算MRI水肿指数(EI),采用免疫组化法检测HIF-1α的表达情况。结果低级别星形细胞瘤(WHOⅠ~Ⅱ级)的平均ADC值高于高级别星形细胞瘤(WHOⅢ~Ⅳ级),低级别星形细胞瘤平均EI值低于高级别星形细胞瘤,高、低级别星形细胞瘤中HIF-1α均有表达,且星形细胞瘤的HIF-1α表达水平随着星形细胞瘤临床病理程度增高而加强,低级别星形细胞瘤内部平均HIF-1α指数低于高级别星形细胞瘤;肿瘤区ADC值与HIF-1α呈显著负相关,肿瘤区ADC值和EI值呈负相关,HIF-1α和EI值无明显相关性。结论核磁共振定量参数ADC值、EI值与常规MRI联合应用及HIF-1α的表达可显著提高星形细胞瘤术前分级的准确性,进而指导治疗方案的选择;MRI虽然能很好地间接反应星形细胞瘤的分子生物学行径,但瘤周水肿不能用单一理论解释。%Objective To explore the value of the relationship among different MRI quantitative parameters,peritumoral edema and the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha(HIF-1α)in the preoperative diagnosis of cerebral astrocytoma. The ability of growth ,invasion and generation in the hypoxia condition will be better expressed by the diagnosis of MRI level ,which will be very helpful for evaluating pathological grade,preferably guiding clinical theraphy and the evaluating prognosis in cerebral astrocytoma. Methods Thirty-three cases of astrocytoma proved by operation and pathology were

  6. 原癌基因Wip1在星形细胞瘤组织中的表达及其临床意义%Expression of proto-oncogene Wip1 in astrocytoma and its correlation with p53

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁朝辉; 焦保华; 郭二坤; 卢圣奎; 何心

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1)in astrocytomas and its clinical significance. Methods In 32 cases of high-grade astrocytomas, 35 cases of low-grade astrocytomas and 10 cases of normal brain tissues the expression of Wip1 mRNA and protein was detected by using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and Western blotting. The expression of p53 was assayed in Wip1 positive tissues by using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The relationship between the Wip1 expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. Results ( 1 ) Immunohistochemistry : The positve expression rate of Wip1 in highgrade astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma and normal brain tissues was 24/32 (75.0%), 11/35(31.4%) and 1/10 (10.0%) respectively. There was significant difference among three tissues (P<0. 05 ). (2) RT-PCR: The expression level of Wip1 mRNA in high-grade astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma and normal brain tissues was 0. 35 ±0. 07, 0. 07±0. 03 and 0. 05 ±0. 02 respectively. The expression level of Wip1 mRNA in high-grade astrocytoma was higher than that in low-grade astrocytoma and normal brain tissues (P <0. 05). (3) Western blotting: The relative expression of Wipl protein in high-grade astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma and normal brain tissues was 1.67 ±0. 12, 1.05 ±0.25 and 0.41 ±0. 16 respectively, p53 immunohistochemical staining revealed that only 13 were positive for p53 in 36Wip1 positive tissues. The high expression rate of Wip1 protein was negatively correlated with the expression of p53 ( r = - 0. 29). The relative expression of p53 protein in high-grade astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma and normal brain tissues was 0. 77 ±0. 09, 0. 63 ±0. 13 and 0. 21 ±0. 11 respectively. They was no statistically significant difference between high-grade astrocytoma and low-grade astrocytoma (P >0. 05), but the relative expression of p53 protein in high-grade astrocytoma

  7. 星形细胞瘤MRI扩散加权成像、肿瘤细胞密度与缺氧诱导因子-1α表达水平的相关性%Correlation Between Diffusion Weighted Imaging, Tumor Cellularity and Expression Level of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1αin Cerebral Astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永鹏; 舒畅; 朱雁兵; 王欢; 郁文芝

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation among diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), tumor Cellularity and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for the high and low grade astrocytoma. Materials and Methods DWI was applied with 33 patients with astrocytoma confirmed by pathology, and ADC value was measured. Tumor Cellularity was measured using Scion Image 4.0.3.2. The expression of HIF-1α was tested using immunohistochemisty. Results Mean ADC value was higher in the low grade astrocytoma than that in the high grade astrocytoma (t=7.300, P<0.001). The tumor Cellularity was higher in the high grade astrocytoma than that in the low grade astrocytoma (t=-3.845, P<0.01). HIF-1αexpression could be demonstrated in the low grade [(20.08±10.01)%] and high grade [(47.91±19.03)%] astrocytoma. The negative correlation was demonstrated between ADC value and HIF-1αand tumor Cellularity (r=-0.756,-0.617;P<0.001). The positive correlation was demonstrated between HIF-1αand tumor Cellularity (r=0.622, P<0.001). Conclusion ADC value can be used to discriminate the low and high grade astrocytoma, and the role of HIF-1αshould be further to study with enlarged sample.%目的探讨高级别和低级别星形细胞瘤MRI DWI、肿瘤细胞密度与缺氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)表达水平的相关性。资料与方法对术后病理确诊的33例星形细胞瘤患者术前行MRI DWI检查,并计算肿瘤实质部分的ADC值;用Scion Image 4.0.3.2软件计算肿瘤细胞密度;采用免疫组化检测HIF-1α的表达情况。结果低级别星形细胞瘤的平均ADC值高于高级别星形细胞瘤,差异有统计学意义(t=7.300, P<0.001)。高级别星形细胞瘤平均细胞密度值明显大于低级别星形细胞瘤,差异有统计学意义(t=-3.845, P<0.01)。低级别和高级别星形细胞瘤中均有HIF-1α表达,其表达强度分别为(20.08±10.01)%、(47.91±19.03)%。肿瘤ADC值与HIF-1α标记指数、肿瘤细胞密

  8. 冬凌草甲素诱导C6脑胶质瘤细胞凋亡的初步研究%Apoptosis of C6 astrocytoma cells induced by oridonin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹波; 俞利生; 林坚; 盛汉松; 张弩

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the proliferation suppression and apoptosis inducing effect of oridonin on Rat C6 astrocytoma cells. Methods: C6 cells were treated with different concentrations of oridonin for various time intervals. Oridonin concentration-time viability curve were used to test the effect of oridonin on the C6 cells. The distribution of cell cycle and percentage of apoptosis cells was analyzed with flow cytotnetry. Results: The results of viability curve demonstrated that oridonin induced suppression of prolifera tion in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. Hochest 33258 staining and flow cytometry revealed that oridonin induced apoptosis and arrested the entry into G2/M phase of C6 cells. Conclusion: Oridonin can cause the suppression of proliferation and the cell apoptosis in C6 astrocytoma cells.%目的:研究冬凌草甲素对大鼠C6脑胶质瘤细胞的抑制增殖及诱导凋亡的作用.方法:不同浓度的冬凌草甲素在不同的时间间隔内作用于C6脑胶质瘤细胞,用冬凌草甲素浓度时间生存曲线来测试冬凌草甲素对C6脑胶质瘤细胞的作用.用流式细胞技术来分析细胞周期的分布情况及凋亡细胞的百分数.结果:生存曲线结果证实冬凌草甲素诱导增殖抑制呈浓度依赖和时间依赖.Hochest 33258斑点染色及流式细胞技术揭示冬凌草甲素诱导C6脑胶质瘤细胞凋亡及抑制其进入细胞周期的G2/M相.结论:冬凌草甲素能够抑制C6脑胶质瘤细胞增殖,诱导细胞凋亡.

  9. 血管内皮生长因子和Ki-67在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达及相关性%Expression and correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor and Ki-67 antigen in human brain astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志东; 谢寿城; 匡亚玲

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)和Ki-67抗原在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达及二者的相关性.方法 应用免疫组化S-P法检测30例正常脑组织和60例人脑星形细胞瘤(Ⅰ~Ⅱ级28例,Ⅲ级20例,Ⅳ级12例)中VEGF和Ki-67的表达.结果 VEGF和Ki-67在正常脑组织中均不表达,而在各级别的人脑星形细胞瘤中均有表达,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).VEGF和Ki-67的表达在高级别星形细胞瘤中均明显高于低级别星形细胞瘤,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),且VEGF与Ki-67的表达呈正相关(r=0.310,P<0.05).结论 VEGF和Ki-67的表达可为人脑星形细胞瘤的恶性程度和临床病理分级提供重要的依据.%Objective To study the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ki-67 antigen and their correlation in human brain astrocytorna. Methods Immunohistochemistry with SP method was employed to detect the expressions of VEGF and Ki-67 in 60 human brain astrocytoma tissue (grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ 28 cases, grade Ⅲ 20 cases, grade Ⅳ 12 cases) and 30 normal tissues adjacent to the tumors. Results VEGF and Ki-67 were not expressed in the normal brain tissues adjacent to the astrocytoma, but their expressions were detected in all the astroeytoma tissues of different grades (P<0.05). High-grade astrocytomas showed significantly higher VEGF and Ki-67 expression than low-grade astrocytomas (P<0.05), and a positive correlation was noted between VEGF and Ki-67 expressions (r=0.310, P<0.05). Conclusion VEGF and Ki-67 expressions can provide important evidence for evaluating the malignancy and clinicopathologieal grading of human astrocytoma.

  10. The expression of p53, Fas/FasL and their correlation with apoptosis in human brain astrocytomas%人脑星形细胞瘤中p53,Fas/FasL的表达及其与凋亡关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽红; 齐蕾; 单丽辉; 柴翠翠; 韩伟; 王立峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of apoptosis in the progression of astrocytomas and its correlation with the expression of p53 and Fas/FasL. Methods: Histopathological analysis, TUNEL labeling and immunohistochemical staining of p53 and Fas/FasL. Results: Apoptosis was not significantly different in the two groups( P>0.05); Expression of p53, Fas and FasL was significantly higher in the high-grade astrocytomas than the low-grade ones (P<0.05). Conclusion: p53 can serve as an informative parameter to evaluate the biological behavior of astrocytomas, Apoptosis may be suppressed in high-grade astrocytomas, the expression of the Fas/FasL aslo exert remarkable influence on apoptosis in the astrocytomas.%目的:探讨细胞凋亡在星形细胞瘤中的作用及其与p53、Fas和Fas配体(Fas ligand,FasL)的关系.方法:对43例星形细胞瘤的标本分别进行HE染色,TUNEL及免疫组化分别标记p53,Fas和FasL.结果:高级别肿瘤和低级别肿瘤间的凋亡无显著差异(P>0.05).高级别星形细胞瘤的p53,Fas和FasL的表达均显著高于低级别肿瘤(P均<0.05).结论:突变型p53可作为评价星形细胞瘤生物学行为的参考指标.与低级别星形细胞瘤相比,高级别肿瘤中的细胞凋亡受到了抑制,且Fas与FasL的过表达对细胞凋亡可产生明显影响.

  11. 侧脑室内胶质瘤与脑膜瘤的碰撞瘤一例并文献复习%Cocurrent meningioma after recurrent astrocytoma in the lateral ventricle: one case report of collision tumors and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金录; 曲丽梅; 许冰; 黄海燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report one case of a collision tumor composed of intraventricular meningioma and astrocytoma and explore the cause.Methods A 39 - year - old male patient previously underwent excision of astrocytoma in the triangle area of the lateral ventricle and had good postsurgery recovery.The astrocytoma recurred in situ 6 years after the surgery,and it was also complicated with another lesion. The pathological results confirmed a collision tumor composed of intraventricular malignant meningioma and glioma In addition to reporting this case,we also performed a literature review of collision tumors.Results The patient recovered well after surgery to treat the recurrence and was given radiotherapy after discharge.Based on this literature review,we proposed several hypotheses on the formation of collision tumors.Conclusions We conclude that one possible reason of the collision tumor formed between the intracranial meningioma and the astrocytoma was the recurrence of astrocytoma - induced malignancy of arachnoid cells in the choroid plexus.%目的 报告1例罕见的侧脑室内胶质瘤与脑膜瘤的碰撞瘤,并探讨其发生原因.方法 39岁男性,6年前曾行侧脑室内胶质瘤切除术;此次以头痛及头晕发病,MRI示胶质瘤原位复发,且同时合并另一占位性病变,予以手术切除.术后病理证实为胶质瘤与脑膜瘤的碰撞瘤;本文同时也对这种碰撞瘤进行文献复习.结果 术后患者恢复满意,并行伽玛刀放射治疗,随访1年时患者状态良好.本文在复习侧脑室内胶质瘤与脑膜瘤的碰撞瘤发生原因后,总结了几种假设.结论 复发的胶质瘤诱发脉络丛内的蛛网膜细胞恶性转化可能是导致脑膜瘤的原因,同时胶质瘤的刺激也可能诱导了脑膜瘤的生长.

  12. Correlation analysis on MRI quantitative parameters and expression level of HIF-1α in cerebral astrocytoma%星形细胞瘤MRI定量参数与HIF-1α表达水平的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒畅; 阚志生; 朱雁兵; 曹立瀛

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨星形细胞瘤MRI定量参数与缺氧诱导因子1α (HIF-1α)表达水平的相关性,阐明MRI定量参数与星形细胞瘤相关指标的关系.方法:收集手术病理证实的脑星形细胞瘤33例,计算MRI定量分析指标水肿指数(EI)、T1W1增强后相对信号强度(RSIGd)及信号强度增加百分率(EP).采用免疫组织化学法检测HIF-1α的表达情况.结果:低级别星形细胞瘤(WHO Ⅰ-Ⅱ级)的平均RSIGd值、EP值均低于高级别星形细胞瘤(WHOⅢ-Ⅳ级)(均P<0.01).低级别星形细胞瘤平均EI值低于高级别星形细胞瘤(P<0.01);正常脑组织中未见HIF-1α表达,各级星形细胞瘤中均有HIF-1α表达,其表达强度随星形细胞瘤病理级别增高而加强,低级别星形细胞瘤平均HIF-1α表达水平低于高级别星形细胞瘤(P<0.001); HIF-1α表达水平与RSIGd和EP值呈正相关关系(r=0.431,P<0.05; r=0.651,P<0.001),HIF-1α表达水平与EI值无明显相关性(r=0.317,P>0.05).结论:RSLGd、EP可以较好地反映脑星形细胞瘤新生血管的通透性和病理分级,病理级别高的肿瘤易伴瘤周水肿,但瘤周水肿不能用单一一种理论解释.%Objective To clarify the relationship between MRI quantitative parameters and astrocytoma related indexes by analyzing the correlation between MRI quantitative parameters and the expression level of hypoxia inducible factor-la (HIF-la) in cerebral astrocytoma. Methods A total of 33 cases of astrocytoma proved by operation and pathology were collected. The MRI quantitative parameters, such as edema index (El), relative signal intensity on Gd-enhanced T1WI (RSIGd) and enhancement percentage (EP) were measured. The expression of HIF-la in tumor tissues was detected with immunohistochemical method. Results The values of RSIGd and EP of low grade astrocytoma (WHO grade I - Ⅱ ) were significantly lower than those of high grade astrocytoma (WHO grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ) (P0. 05). Conclusion RSIGd and EP are very

  13. Correlational Research on the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2,Metalloproteinase-9 of Cerebral Astrocytoma and Peritumorous Edema%脑星形细胞瘤基质金属蛋白酶2、9(MMPs-2,MMPs-9)的表达与瘤周水肿相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李齐勇; 梁社富; 林国成; 曹劲松; 毛建平

    2014-01-01

    目的:对脑星形细胞瘤中基质金属蛋白酶2(MMPs-2)及基质金属蛋白酶9(MMPs-9)的表达水平与瘤周水肿的相关性进行探讨,为该肿瘤的临床合理诊断与治疗提供一定的科学依据。方法采用免疫组织化学染色法,在68例脑星形细胞瘤组织标本中用抗MMPs-2抗体及抗MMPs-9抗体进行标记和分析,同时采用磁共振成像技术对肿瘤瘤周水肿情况进行观察与分析,再利用数据分析软件对基质金属蛋白酶的表达量与瘤周水肿指数进行相关性分析。结果脑星形细胞瘤基质金属蛋白酶2、9的表达都随着肿瘤恶性程度的增大而增加;另外,脑星形细胞瘤基质金属蛋白酶2、9的表达水平与瘤周水肿呈现正相关的关系(p<0.05),随着MMPs-2及MMPs-9表达量的增高,瘤周水肿范围越大,且脑星形细胞瘤恶性程度越大。结论脑星形细胞瘤基质金属蛋白酶2、9的表达与瘤周水肿联系紧密,呈现正相关,这说明肿瘤分泌的MMPs-2及MMPs-9与肿瘤生长与侵袭的速度相关,这对于脑星形细胞瘤侵袭能力、恶性程度的准确预判以及治疗具有比较重要的参考意义。%Objective To investigate the correlation between the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMPs-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMPs-9) of cerebral astrocytoma and peritumoral edema, providing a scientific basis for the proper tumor diagnosis and clinical treatment. Methods In 68 cases of astrocytoma tissues, anti-MMPs-2 antibody and anti-MMPs-9 antibody were marked and analysis via Immunohistochemical staining, while tumor peritumoral edema were observed with analysis via magnetic resonance imaging, to make correlation analysis between the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and peritumoral edema index by data analysis software. Results With the increasing malignancy degree of tumor, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2,9 in astrocytoma was increasing. In addition

  14. 葡萄糖转运蛋白-3及缺氧诱导因子1α在星形细胞瘤中的表达%Expressions of glucose transporter-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 杨福兵; 刁正文; 刘卫平; 费舟; 章翔

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the expressions and clinical significances of glucose transporter protein-3 (GLUT-3) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in astrocytoma. Methods The astrocytoma tissues from 80 patients with astrocytoma were chosen as experimental group; and the normal cerebral tissues from another 10 patients performed depression around the astrocytoma were chosen as control group. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were employed to detect the GLUT-3 and HIF-1α expressions in these tissues. Results The protein of GLUT-3 in grade Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ, grade Ⅲ and grade Ⅳ astrocytomas were positively expressed, respectively, as 35%, 60%, 80% and 100% by immunohistochemistry; the protein of HIF-1α in grade Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ, grade Ⅲ and grade Ⅳ astrocytomas were positively expressed, respectively, as 20%, 50%, 75% and 95% by immunohistochemistry; positive correlation was noted between the protein levels of GLUT-3 and HIF-1α (r=0.550, P=0.000). The mRNA levels of GLUT-3 in grade Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ, grade Ⅲ and grade Ⅳ astrocytomas were expressed, respectively,as 0.19±0.03, 0.45±0.12, 0.67±0.11 and 0.89±0.19 by RT-PCR; the mRNA levels of HIF-1α were expressed, respectively, as 0.21 ±0.06, 0.48±0.11, 0.72±0.16 and 0.93±0.12 by RT-PCR; and the mRNA expression level of GLUT-3 were positively correlated to that of HIF-1α (r=0.530, P=0.000).Significant difference between each 2 different pathological grades of astrocytoma was noted (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of GLUT-3 and HIF-1α were positively correlated to the pathological grades of astrocytomas (r=0.887, P=0.000; r=0.813, P=0.000). Conclusion The expression of GLUT-3 and HIF-1α in astrocytoma are significantly correlated to tumors' pathology grade, which can be taken as a useful marker for predicting the biological behavior.%目的 探讨葡萄糖转运蛋白-3(GLUT-3)和缺氧诱导因子(HIF)-1α在星形细胞瘤中的表达及其临床意义.方法 应用免疫

  15. 星形细胞瘤患者癌组织和血清miR-497表达下降及其临床意义%Decreased expression and clinical significance of miR-497 in cancer tissues and serum of patients with astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管晓翠; 张春妮; 王成; 杨翠华; 陈熹; 曾科; 张辰宇; 支枫

    2013-01-01

    目的 检测星形细胞瘤患者癌组织和血清中miR-497的表达水平及治疗前后血清miR-497的变化,探讨其作为分子标志物的可能性.方法 采集8例星形细胞瘤患者癌组织、4例癌旁组织、3例正常脑组织以及133例治疗前患者的(WHOⅡ级55例、Ⅲ级45例和Ⅳ级33例)血清样本,用实时荧光定量RT-PCR法检测miR-497含量,并以80例年龄、性别匹配的健康人作对照.对其中14例患者进行术前、术后血清miR-497含量的比较,ROC曲线分析miR-497对星形细胞瘤的诊断价值.结果 miR-497在癌组织中的表达量明显低于癌旁组织和正常脑组织(F=13.78,P<0.05),在患者血清中的浓度也显著降低[(112.69±54.58) fmol/L vs(254.32±142.12) fmol/L,t =10.31,P<0.01].用于星形细胞瘤诊断的miR-497 ROC曲线下面积(AUCROC)为0.894 (95% CI,0.853~0.935),敏感性为82%,特异性为90%.血清miR-497在患者术后明显上升[术后(165.69±56.87) fmol/L vs术前(93.77±38.50) fmol/L,=3.92,P<0.01].结论 星形细胞瘤患者癌组织和血清miR-497低表达,miR-497有望作为该病诊断及预后评价的检测指标.%Objective To determine the levels of miR-497 in cancer tissues and serum of patients with astrocytoma, analyze the change of serum miR-497 before and after surgical treatment and evaluate the potential of miR-497 as a biomarker of astrocytoma. Methods The cancer tissues from 8 astrocytoma patients, the adjacent non-tumor tissues from 4 astrocytoma patients, the normal tissues from 3 controls, the serum samples from 133 untreated astrocytoma patients (WHO Ⅱ grade55 cases, grade Ⅲ 33 cases, grade IV 45 cases) and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were collected to determine the level of miR-497 by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). miR-497 levels in the paired serum samples before and after operation from 14 astrocytoma patients were determined to observe the effect of surgical treatment on miRNA. The

  16. 中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤和高级别星形细胞瘤MR灌注成像的对比研究%The comparative study of perfusion MR imaging in primary central nervous system lymphomas and high grade astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飚; 梁长虹; 刘红军; 王广谊; 周正根

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of perfusion MR imaging in differential diagnosis between primary central nervous system lymphomas(PCNSL)and high grade astrocytomas.Methods Twelve patients with PCNSL and 23 patients with high grade astrocytomas were preoperatively examined using a 1.5T MR unit.Routine MR sequences were performed followed by dynamic susceptibility contrastenhanced MR perfusion imaging.The perfusion color images and the time-signal intensity curves of the two tumor groups were compared.The relative cerebral blood volume(rCBV)within the tumor parenchyma was measured and the data were analyzed with unpaired Student's t-test.Results The rCBVs within the tumor parenchyma of the PCNSL and high grade astrocytomas were 1.78±0.5 1 and 3.87±0.87 respectively.The rCBV in the PCNSL was significantly lower than that of the high grade astrocytoma(P<0.05).When the time-signal intensity curves were compared,the PCNSL showed a trend towards the baseline after the first pass and the curves even overshot above the baseline in 7 out of 12 cases,whereas the high grade astrocytoma showed a trend to be close to the baseline but couldn't return to the baseline completely.Conclusion The MR perfusion imaging can be very useful in distinguishing the PCNSL from high grade astrocytomas.%目的 探讨MR灌注成像鉴别中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤(PCNSL)和高级别星形细胞瘤的价值.方法 PCNSL患者12例,高级别星形细胞肿瘤患者23例,手术前行常规MR检查及MR灌注检查,比较其MR灌注伪彩图像和灌注曲线,测量肿瘤实质部分最大相对脑血容量(rCBV),将所测量数值进行t检验.结果 PCNSL实质部分rCBV平均为1.8±0.5;高级别星形细胞瘤实质部分rCBV平均为3.9±0.9,二者之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).PCNSL实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐接近基线,12例中有7例超过基线水平.高级别星形细胞瘤实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐

  17. 扩散张量成像及扩散张量纤维束成像在星形细胞瘤与脑膜瘤诊断中的价值%Value of diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion tensor tractography in diagnosis of astrocytoma and meningioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏璇; 金国宏; 张国栋; 马金宇; 李德刚; 朱凯; 赵建国; 李宁富; 张伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨DTI及扩散张量纤维束成像(DTT)诊断星形细胞瘤与脑膜瘤的价值.方法 对22例经病理证实的脑肿瘤患者(不同级别星形细胞瘤12例,良性脑膜瘤10例),测量肿瘤实质区与健侧正常脑组织的平均ADC值和FA值,比较测值,并观察两种脑肿瘤对白质纤维束的影响.结果 星形细胞瘤及脑膜瘤患者肿瘤实质区FA值均较健侧正常脑组织降低(P均<0.05);星形细胞瘤患者肿瘤实质区ADC值较健侧正常脑组织高(P<0.05),脑膜瘤患者肿瘤实质区ADC值与健侧正常脑组织差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).星形细胞瘤与脑膜瘤患者比较,肿瘤实质区ADC值、FA值差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).在DTT图中,星形细胞瘤多数表现为纤维束部分中断、受压、偏移或变形、移位;脑膜瘤纤维束呈现为稀疏、移位.结论 测量肿瘤实质区ADC值和FA值可鉴别脑内和脑外肿瘤如星形细胞瘤与脑膜瘤.DTT可清晰显示脑肿瘤对白质纤维束浸润、破坏和推移,有利于术前制定手术方案.%Objective To observe the value of DTI and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of astrocytoma and meningioma. Methods Twenty-two patients with pathologically proven brain tumor (12 different grade astrocytomas, 10 benign meningiomas) were enrolled. ADC value and FA value in the tumor parenchyma and corresponding contralateral normal brain tissue were measured and analyzed. Impact of the two kinds of tumors on cerebral white matter fiber bundles were observed. Results Compared with the contralateral normal brain tissue, FA values of parenchyma of astrocytoma and meningioma were lower (all P0. 05) compared with the contralateral normal part. ADC and FA values were significantly different between parenchyma of astrocytoma and meningioma (all P<0. 05). On DTT, astrocytoma showed partial disruption, compression, deviation and displacement fiber bundles, while meningioma showed

  18. The Value of Short Echo Time Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Differential Diagnosing Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions and Astrocytomas%短TE1H-MRS β,γ-Glx峰鉴别脑内脱髓鞘假瘤和星形细胞瘤的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海营; 黄飚; 刘红军; 张水兴; 王广谊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of short echo time(TE)proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H MRS)in differential diagnosing tmefactive demyelinating lesions(TDLs) and astrocytomas.Materials and Methods 42 cases were collected in this study.Of the 42 patients,23 patients with pathologically proved astrocytoma(7 WHO grade Ⅱ and 16 WHO grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ )and 19 patients with TDLs( 11 cases pathologically proved and 8 cases clinically proved with TDLs).Single voxel spectra at TE 35 ms( short TE)was used in all cases.Peak heights of creatine( Cr)and glutamate( Glu)/glutamine ( Gln ) ( β, γ-Glx) were measured, then β, γ-Glx/Cr ratios of corresponding regions in TDLs and astrocytoma were compared to pathological and clinic results.Results The mean ratio β,γ-Glx/Cr was 0.6205 ±0.15050 in TDLs group and 0.3048 ± 0.09563 in astrocytoma group.The mesnβ,γ-Glx/Cr ratio in TDLs was significantly higher than that of astrocytoma statistically(P < 0.05).Conclusion The ratios of β, γ-Glx/Cr at short TE provide valuable information to discriminate between TDLs and astrocytomas.%目的 采用短回波时间(TE)氢质子磁共振波谱(1H-MRS)提高对脑内脱髓鞘假瘤和星形细胞瘤鉴别诊断的准确性.资料与方法 19例脑内脱髓鞘假瘤,其中11例经手术证实,8例经临床证实;经手术证实的23例星形细胞瘤(其中WHOⅡ级8例,WHOⅢ-Ⅳ级15例),均行常规MRI和单体素短TE1H-MRS检查,分析短TE1H-MRS检查中病灶的β,γ-谷氨酸复合物(Glx)/肌酸(Cr)值,结果与病灶病理诊断或临床诊断结果进行相关分析.结果 脑内脱髓鞘假瘤组病灶区平均β,γ-Glx/Cr值为0.6205±0.15050;星形细胞瘤组病灶区的平均β,γ-Glx/Cr 值为0.3048±0.09563,两者之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 脑内脱髓鞘假瘤组病灶区的β,γ-Glx/Cr 值明显高于星形细胞瘤组,短TE1H-MRS中β,γ-Glx峰的升高可以作为鉴别脑内脱髓鞘假瘤和星形细胞瘤的补充手段,据此有助

  19. Leptomeningeal dissemination of pilocytic astrocytoma at diagnosis in childhood: two cases report Disseminação leptomeníngea de astrocitoma pilocítico ao diagnóstico: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA is a benign tumor that rarely spread along the neuraxis. At the moment there are no more than five cases of leptomeningeal dissemination (LD from PA at diagnosis described in the literature. Different patterns of presentation or recurrence may be noted: local recurrence, malignant transformation, multicentric disease or metastatic disease. LD and multicentric disease can be distinct pathological entities. We report two cases and analyse literature, emphasizing leptomeningeal spread at presentation. Hydrocephalus, biopsy and parcial ressection are likely to be favorable factors to the occurrence of LD. Otherwise, LD may be part of natural history of PA, as evidenced by its ocurrence in non-treated cases.Astrocitoma pilocítico (AP é tumor benigno que raramente se dissemina ao longo do neuroeixo. Até o momento não há mais que cinco casos de AP que se tenham apresentado com disseminação leptomeníngea (DL descritos na literatura. Diferentes padrões de apresentação ou recorrência podem ser observados: recorrência local, transformação maligna, doença multicêntrica ou doença metastática. DL e doença multicêntrica podem ser entidades diferentes. Relatamos dois casos e analisamos a literatura. Hidrocefalia, biópsia e ressecção parcial são provavelmente fatores predisponentes à DL. Por outro lado, DL pode ser parte da história natural de AP, como pode ser evidenciado pela sua ocorrência em casos não tratados.

  20. Notch1和Notch2在星形细胞瘤及髓母细胞瘤中的表达及其意义%Differential expression of Notch1 and Notch2 in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鹏; 浦佩玉; 康春生; 贾志凡; 周旋; 王广秀

    2008-01-01

    highly expressed (total positive rate 80. 0%, 48/60) while Notch2 was not detected ingrade Ⅳ astrocytomas and sporadically observed in lower grade astrocytomas (total positive rate 10. 0%,6/60). The percentage of positive tumor cells and expression level of Notch1 increased with higher histologicgrade (r = 0. 859 ,P < 0. 05). On the other hand, overexpression of Notch2 was detected in medulloblastoma(9/10) in contrast with lower expression of Notch1 (2/10). Conclusions Notch1 and Notch2 showdifferential expression in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma. This may be related to their different functionalactivities during the process of brain development.

  1. 脑星型细胞瘤磁共振波谱与肿瘤细胞的Ki-67、bcl-2相关性研究%MR spectroscopy of human astrocytoma and the correlation with the expression of Ki-67 and bcl-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗红; 刘文源; 宋福林

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the MRS and the Ki-67, bcl-2 expression of human astrocytoma. Methods: Fifty-two patients of astrocytoma proved by surgery and pathology were included. MRS was performed in all the patients. After surgical operation, the specimen was examined for Ki-67 and bcl-2. The NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr were recorded and the relationship with tumor grade was analyzed. The relationship between the above indices and Ki-67,bcl-2 were investigated respectively. Results: There was significant correlation between NAA/Ct, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho and the pathological grading of astrocytoma. Positive expression of Ki-67 and bcl-2 in astrocytoma. Positve expression of Ki-67, bcl-2 increased with increasing clinicopathologic grades (r=0.600, P<0.01). The Cho/Cr was strongly positively correlated with expression of bcl-2 and Ki-67 (r=0.736, P<0.01; r=0.809, P<0.01 respectively). The NAA/Cho was markedly negative correlated with the expression of bcl-2(r=-0.253, P<0.01), and had markedly negative correlation with Ki-67(r=-0.501, P<0. 01). The NAA/Cr of astrocytoma was negatively related with the expression of bcl-2(r=-0.369, P<0.01) and Ki-67(r=-0.416, P<0.01). Conclusion: MRS can reflect the protein manifestation of Ki-67 and bcl-2 of astrocytoma noninvasively, being helpful in the preoperative assessment of apoptosis, metabolic information, reproductive activity, invasive activity and can predict prognosis of astrocytomas. The Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho reflected pathologic grade of astrocytoma relatively steadily. The Cho/Cr and NAA/Cho are more useful than NAA/Cr.%目的:探讨脑星形细胞瘤磁共振波谱(MRS)与肿瘤细胞的细胞核增殖抗原(Ki-67)蛋白、bcl-2蛋白表达的相关性.方法:对照观察52例脑星形细胞瘤MRS检查结果与免疫组化染色检测术后标本的Ki-67和bcl-2蛋白表达,分析肿瘤实质内NAA/Cho、Cho/Cr和NAA/Cr值与肿瘤级别的关系,并分别与Ki-67、bcl-2进行相关性分

  2. 星形细胞瘤中P53、VEGF及PCNA表达的相关性及其与预后的关系%Expressions of P53, vascular endothelial growth factor and proliferating cell number antigen in astrocytomas and prognosis of these patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志东; 朱文标; 谢寿城; 黄艳芳; 郑少秋

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究星形细胞瘤中P53、血管内皮因子(VEGF)及增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)表达的相关性及其与预后的关系.方法 免疫组化染色SP法检测梅州市人民医院自2002年5月至2010年5月首次手术切除的126例不同级别原发性星形细胞瘤标本P53、VEGF及PCNA的表达,分析其相关性及其预后意义.结果 P53、VEGF及PCNA在不同级别的星形细胞瘤中表达不同,随着级别的提高而表达强度增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);P53与PCNA、P53与VEGF之间表达呈正相关关系(r=0.608,P=0.000; r=0.432,P=0.001).相同级别星形细胞瘤中,P53阳性表达患者预后较差,生存率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),VEGF及PCNA与预后无关.结论 星形细胞瘤级别提高,P53、VEGF及PCNA的表达强度增加;P53可作为判断肿瘤预后的指标之一.%Objective To study the expressions of P53,vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in astrocytomas and their relationships with prognosis of these patients.Methods Immunohistochemical SP method was employed to detect the P53,VEGF and PCNA expression in 126 cases of human brain astrocytomas of different grades,collected in our hospital from May 2002 to May 2010; their correlations and their significance in the prognosis in these patients were analyzed.Results P53,VEGF,and PCNA expressed differently in astrocytomas of different grades,enjoying a positive relation with grades (P<0.05); positive correlations of between P53 expression and both VEGF and PCNA expressions (r=0.608,P=0.000; r=0.432,P=0.001).In patients with the same grade of astrocytoma,those having positive P53 expression enjoyed poorer prognosis and lower survival rate with significant difference (P<0.05); while VEGF and PCNA expressions had no correlation with the progonosis.Conclusion The expressions of PCNA,VEGF and P53 are closely associated with grade of the astrocytomas,and only P53 expression is an indicator of

  3. The Differential Value of DWI and ADC between Viral Encephalitis and Low Grade Astrocytomas%磁共振DWI值对病毒性脑炎和脑低级星形细胞瘤的鉴别诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 王振海; 陈兵; 王国玮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the differential value of diffusion weighted imaging ( DWI) between viral encephalitis and low grade astrocytomas. Methods The conventional MR imaging and DWI were performed in 70 cases (28 cases with acute or subacute viral encephalitis and 19 cases with low grade astrocytomas) before treatments or operations. The diagnosis was made clinically in cases with viral encephalitis and were confirmed surgically and pathologically in cases with low grade astrocytomas. The apparent difiusion coefficient (ADC) values and relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) values of the two group were calculated and analyzed. Results The mean ADC values and rADC values were (1.07 ±0. 19) × 10-3mm2/s and (1.26 ±0.21) ×l0-3 mm2/s respectively in the viral encephalitis; (1.60 ±0.28) × 10-3mm2/s and (2.04 ± 0.41 ) × 10-3mm2/s respectively in the low grade astrocytomas. There was significant ifferencein the mean ADC values (P < 0.05 ) and rADC values (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion The ADC value and rADC value of DWI play important roles in the differential diagnosis between viral encephalitis and low grade astrocytomas.%目的 探讨扩散加权成像(DWI)和表观扩散系数(ADC)值对病毒性脑炎和脑低级星形细胞瘤的鉴别诊断价值.方法 28例病毒性脑炎和27例脑低级星形细胞瘤在治疗前或手术前接受了常规MRI、DWI检查.病毒性脑炎经临床及治疗随访证实,脑低级星形细胞瘤病例经手术及病理证实.测量并计算两组病例DWI的表观扩散系数(ADC)值和相对表观扩散系数(rADC)值.结果 病毒性脑炎平均ADC值和rADC值分别为(1.07±0.19)×10-3mm2/s和(1.26±0.21)×10-3mm2/s,脑低级星形细胞瘤平均ADC值和rADC值分别为(1.60±0.28)×10-3mm2/s和(2.04±0.41)×10-3mm2/s,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 DWI的ADC值和rADC值能较好地鉴别病毒性脑炎和脑低级星形细胞瘤.

  4. The role of temozolomide in the management of patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma: a comparison of survival in the era prior to and following the availability of temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuali, Inas; Ye, Xiaobu; Lu, Yao; Grossman, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Adding temozolomide (TMZ) to radiation for patients with newly-diagnosed anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) is common clinical practice despite the lack of prospective studies demonstrating a survival advantage. Two retrospective studies, each with methodologic limitations, provide conflicting advice regarding treatment. This single-institution retrospective study was conducted to determine survival trends in patients with AA. All patients ≥18 years with newly-diagnosed AA treated at Johns Hopkins from 1995 to 2012 were included. As we incorporated TMZ into high-grade glioma treatment regimens in 2004, patients were divided into pre-2004 and post-2004 groups for analysis. Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data were collected. Median overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier estimates. A total of 196 patients were identified; 74 pre-2004 and 122 post-2004; mean age 47 ± 15 years; 57 % male; 87 % white, 69 % surgical debulking. Mean RT dose 5676 + 746 cGy; duration of concurrent chemoradiation 5.8 ± 0.8 weeks; and mean adjuvant chemotherapy 4.3 + 2.8 cycles. Baseline prognostic factors did not differ between groups. Chemotherapy was administered to 12 % of patients pre-2004 (TMZ = 1, procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine = 2, carmustine wafer = 6) and 94 % post-2004 (TMZ in all, p < 0.001). Median OS was 32 months (95 % CI 23–43). Survival was longer in the post-2004 cohort (37 mo, 24–64) than pre-2004 (27 mo, 19–40; HR 0.75, 0.53–1.06, p = 0.11). Multivariate analysis controlling for age, Karnofsky performance status, and extent of resection revealed a 36 % reduced risk of death (HR 0.64, 0.44–0.91, p = 0.015) in patients treated post-2004. This retrospective review found survival in newly diagnosed patients with AA improved with the addition of temozolomide to standard radiation. Until prospective randomized phase III data are available, these data support the practice of incorporating TMZ in the management of newly-diagnosed AA

  5. Significance of molecular genetic alterations of chromosome 1p/19q in differential diagnosis of oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma%1p/19q分子遗传学改变在少突胶质细胞瘤和星形细胞瘤鉴别诊断中意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊芝; 侯国胜; 蒋茂芬; 张巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the significance of molecular genetic alterations of chromosome 1p/ 19q in differential diagnosis of oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma. Methods Molecular genetic alterations of chromosome lp/19q were detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization in 63 patients with oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma. Results Polyploid of lp/19q was in 5 cases (3 cases of astrocytoma and 2 cases of oligodendroglioma). Loss lp/19q heterozygosity was in 58 cases (41 cases oligodendroglioma and 17 cases of astrocytoma). The loss rates of chromosome lp, 19q and lp/19q were 65.9%, 68. 5% and 58. 5% respectively in 41 cases of oligodendroglioma, and were 17. 6%, 29.4% and 17. 6% respectively in 17 cases of astrocytoma, which showed significant differences between two groups(P = 0. 001, P = 0. 006, P = 0. 004). Twenty-one cases (87. 5%) and 9 cases (52.9%) had typical oligodendrocyte morphological characteristics in 24 oligodendroglioma cases of lp/19q heterozygosity loss and 17 oligodendroglioma cases of no lp/19q heterozygosity loss resprctively, which showed significant differences between two groups (P = 0. 014). Conclusion Loss rate of lp/19q heterozygosity is higher in oligodendroglioma than that in astrocytoma, and more likely to occur in oligodendroglioma with typical histological features. Polyploidy of chromosome lp/19q is more common in astrocytoma subtypes.%目的:探讨1p/19q分子遗传学改变在少突胶质细胞瘤和星形细胞瘤鉴别诊断中的意义。方法:少突胶质细胞瘤和星形细胞瘤共63例,采用荧光原位杂交技术检测染色体1p/19q分子遗传学改变。结果:1p/19q呈多倍体改变5例,其中星形细胞瘤3例,少突胶质细胞瘤2例;1p和19q杂合性缺失58例,其中少突胶质细胞肿瘤41例,星形细胞肿瘤17例。少突胶质细胞瘤染色体1p,19q及1p/19q缺失率分别为65.9%,68.3%和58.5%,星形细胞瘤分别为17.6%,29.4%和1 7.6%,

  6. Índice de astrócitos gemistocíticos e imuno-expressão da proteína p53 em astrocitomas, grau II e III OMS Fraction of gemistocytic astrocytes and immunoexpression of p53 protein in astrocytomas grade II and III (WHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dely Cristina Martins

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 22 pacientes com diagnóstico de astrocitomas grau II (n=17 e III (n=5, OMS, no período de 1990 a 1998, cujos laudos histopatológicos descreviam a presença gemistocitos com o objetivo de determinar o índice de astrócitos gemistocíticos, investigar a imuno-expressão da proteína p53 e confrontá-los com o intervalo até a recorrência da neoplasia. O índice de astrócitos gemistocíticos, em cada caso, foi calculado a partir da razão entre o número de gemistocitos e o número total de células neoplásicas contadas, no mínimo 1000. Imuno-expressão nuclear da proteína p53 foi avaliada em astrócitos e gemistocitos neoplásicos; tanto a freqüência (7/22, como o índice de imuno-expressão positiva da p53 em gemistocitos, independentemente do grau histológico da neoplasia, foram inferiores aos relatados na literatura. Não se observou correlação entre o índice de astrócitos gemistocíticos e a imuno-expressão positiva da p53.Twenty-two patients with astrocytomas, grade II or III WHO, were studied from 1990 to 1998. In all cases, histopathology showed that the astrocytomas had a gemistocytic component. The aims of this study were to establish the fraction of gemistocytic astrocytes, to investigate p53 protein immunoexpression and to evaluate correlations between these two parameters with the tumour outcome. Tumor cells were quantified at high-power magnification (x400. At least 1000 neoplastic cells (small neoplastic astrocytes plus gemistocytes were counted in each specimen. The percentage of gemistocytes was defined as the gemistocytic index. Nuclear expression of p53 protein was evaluated in neoplastic astrocytes and gemistocytes. Both the frequency (7/22 as well the p53 immunoexpression indices in gemistocytes, regardless of the grade of the astrocytomas, were inferior from those reported in the literature. No correlation was found between the gemistocytic indices and the p53

  7. Combined value of susceptibility weighted imaging and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MR perfusion-weighted imaging in brain astrocytoma grading%磁敏感加权成像与动态磁敏感加权对比增强MR灌注加权成像联合应用在脑星形细胞瘤分级中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效春; 张辉; 秦江波; 王乐; 吴晓峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of combination of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in astrocytoma grading.Methods SWI and DSC scans were performed in 82 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytoma.The patient group consisted of grade Ⅱ (15),grade Ⅲ (10),and grade Ⅳ (57).The intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) max were used to determine the grade of astrocytomas by Kruskal Wallis test,Welch test,Spearman correlation coefficients,Pearson correlation coefficients,and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC)statistic methods.Results There were no ITSS in 14 cases of low-grade astrocytomas,the degree of ITSS were grade 1 to 3 in anaplastic astrocytomas,the degree of ITSS were grade 3 in all of the glioblastomas,the degree of ITSS were significant difference in all grades (H =71.96,P < 0.01).rCBV max in grade Ⅱ,grade Ⅲ and grade Ⅳ astrocytomas were 1.26 ± 0.42,3.59 ± 2.09 and 8.34 ± 1.16 respectively,rCBV max were significant difference in all grades (F' =681.72,P < 0.01).ITSS showed significant correlation with rCBV max (r =0.72,P <0.01) and tumor grades (r =0.89,P <0.01),and rCBV and tumor grades showed significant correlation (r =0.78,P < 0.01).Area under the ROC curve application SWI,DSC,SWI and DSC in differentiation of the grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ astrocytomas were 0.99,0.93,1.00,differentiate grade Ⅲ from grade Ⅳ were 0.70,0.94,0.94,and differentiate high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas were 1.00,0.99,1.00.Conclusions ITSS is helpful to determine the grade of astrocytomas.The use of SWI in combination with DSC may improve the diagnostic accuracy of astrocytoma grading.%目的 探讨磁敏感加权成像(SWI)与动态磁敏感加权对比增强(DSC) MR灌注加权成像联合应用在脑星形细胞瘤分级诊断中的价值.方法 82例经手术病理证实

  8. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas Astrocitoma de baixo grau: resultado cirúrgico em área eloquente versus não eloquente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Macedo Bianco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo em 81 pacientes com astrocitoma de baixo grau (LGA comparando a eficácia da ressecção cirúrgica com cirurgia menos agressiva em relação à área eloquente e não eloquente do cérebro. A extensão da ressecção cirúrgica foi analisada para avaliar a sobrevida geral (OS e o tempo livre de doença (PFS. O grau da ressecção cirúrgica foi classificado como ressecção total (GTR, subtotal (STR e biópsia. Nos pacientes com lesão em área não eloquente foram realizadas GTR, STR e biópsia em 31, 48 e 21% dos casos, enquanto, naqueles com lesão em área eloquente, em 22,5, 35 e 42,5%, respectivamente. A sobrevida geral foi de 4,7 e 1,9 anos em pacientes com lesões em área não eloquente submetidos à GTR/STR e biópsia (p=0,013. Nos pacientes com lesão em áreas eloquentes, a sobrevida geral foi de 4,5 e 2,1 anos (p=0,33, respectivamente. A extensão da ressecção é fator preditivo de sobrevida tanto nas lesões em áreas eloquentes quanto nas n

  9. Complejo nódulo subependimario-astrocitoma subependimario gigantocelular en niños con esclerosis tuberosa Subependymal nodules-subependymal giant cell astrocytoma complex in children with tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bongiorni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue describir las características clínico imagenológicas de niños con esclerosis tuberosa que presentaron el complejo Nódulo Subependimario (NS-Astrocitoma Subependimario Gigantocelular(ASGC y analizar el comportamiento evolutivo de dicho "complejo" para detectar precozmente su crecimiento y evitar las complicaciones de la hipertensión endocraneana (HTE. Evaluamos 22 pacientes con diagnóstico anátomo patológico de ASGC. El diagnóstico del tumor se realizó a una media de 10.1 años. Pudimos observar la evolución de NS a ASGC; estos NS se ubicaron adyacentes al agujero de Monro y con el tiempo tuvieron un importante crecimiento con intensa captación de contraste e hidrocefalia. La aceleración en el crecimiento de estos NS y su "transformación" en ASGC se produjo a los 10 años de edad promedio, con un diámetro medio de 9 mm. Ningún NS alejado de los forámenes de Monro evolucionó a ASGC. Quince pacientes (68% fueron operados con síntomas de hipertensión endocraneana. La edad media de la cirugía fue 10.8 años. Seis pacientes presentaron déficit visual. En estos últimos, el diámetro medio mayor del tumor fue 31.5 mm, mayor que los 18.7 mm del grupo de pacientes que no presentó secuela visual. El seguimiento clínico imagenológico periódico de toda lesión subependimaria próxima a los agujeros de Monro, permitiría en etapa presintomática anticipar un tratamiento quirúrgico, que reduciría la incidencia de HTE. Estudios prospectivos podrían determinar si el complejo NS-ASGC corresponde a una misma entidad en distinta etapa evolutiva, o son dos lesiones con diferente potencial de crecimiento.The object of this paper is to describe the imaging and clinical characteristics of subependymal nodule (SN - subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA complex in tuberous sclerosis and analyze its evolution in order to attempt early detection and the prevention of intracranial hypertension. We evaluated 22 patients with

  10. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    resected LGA yields a longer period of progression-free survival, whereas patients with radically resected tumours should receive radiotherapy at the time of progression. Regarding chemotherapy, we found evidence to suggest that patients respond to both temozolomide (TMZ) and the combination...

  11. Espectroscopia multivoxel com tempo de eco curto: a razão colina/N-acetil-aspartato e a graduação dos astrocitomas cerebrais Multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time: choline/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio and the grading of cerebral astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Vasco Aragão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação colina/N-acetil-aspartato (Co/NAA, obtida pela espectroscopia multivoxel com tempo de eco (TE curto, na graduação histológica dos astrocitomas encefálicos (graus I, II e III-IV, comparando com o parênquima cerebral normal. Observou-se aumento significativo (pThe choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA ratio, obtained by the multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time (TE, was evaluated, in the histological grading of the brain astrocytomas (grades I, II and III-IV in comparison with the normal cerebral parenchyma. A significant increase (p<0.05 in the average ratios of Cho/NAA was observed in the three astrocytoma groups studied in relation to normal tissue, having a tendency to increase with the increase in grading, without any statistic significance, which corresponded to: 0.53±0.24 in the control group, 1.19±0.49 in grade I, 1.58±0.65 in grade II and 5.13±8.12 in the high grade group (grades III-IV, with variation in the values encountered. There was an increase in the Cho/NAA ratio in 4/5 (80% in grade I, 5/6 (83% in grade II and 10/20 (50% in grades III and IV. We conclude that multivoxel spectroscopy with short TE can be used in discriminating between normal parenchyma and neoplasm tissue. However, not all neoplasm tissue studied presented an increase in Cho/NAA, especially in the group with higher grade of malignancy.

  12. 组蛋白去乙酰化酶2在脑胶质瘤中的表达及其临床意义%Expression and significance of histone deacetylase 2 in astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊文; 李俊; 韩林; 胡玲; 吴志敏; 陈智; 熊左隽; 陈文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and significance of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in astrocvtomas.Methods Samples from 283 cases of primary gliomas with WHO Ⅱ-Ⅳ and 52 eases of recurrent tumors were collected.Histopathologically,there were 59 cases of low-grade gliomas (grade Ⅱ) and 276 cases of high-grade gliomas (26 cases of grade Ⅲ and 250 cases of glioblastomas).The expression of HDAC1 was immunohistochemicallv detected and its correlation with tumor differentiation,tumor proliferation and survival was analyzed.Results Totally,85.6% of the tumors showed nuclear expression,and about 33.5% of them showed more than 75.0% nuclear expression.In these individuals who underwent tumor relapse with increasing in WHO grade,10 of them could be evaluated after stainning procedure.The immunoreactivity was decreased with tumor progression only in 1 case,remained stable immunoreactivity in 2 cases,and increased in 7 cases.In these individuals who underwent tumor relapse without increasing in WHO grade,23 of them could be evaluated,and HDAC2 immunoreactivitv was decreased in 6 cases,remained stable in 7 cases and increased in the other 10 cases.HDAC2 was not expressed in endothelial or microglia cells,and only expressed in tumor cells.There was significant association between HDAC2 and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (Ki-67) expression.In WHO grade Ⅳ subgroup,HDAC2 expression showed a horderline significance with shortened overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) =0.7343,95 % confidence interval (CI) (0.5152 to 1.0470) ; P > 0.05].And the median survival in GBM patients with less than 75.0% nuclear HDAC2 expression was 425 days as compared to 350 days in GBM patients with more nuclear HDAC2 expression.Conclusion There was a significant association between HDAC2 expression and astrocytoma proliferation.%目的 探讨组蛋白去乙酰化酶2(HDAC2)在星形细胞瘤中的表达及其临床意义.方法 收集283例WHO Ⅱ~Ⅳ级原

  13. Rapamycin treatment in subependymal giant cell astrocytomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: four case reports and literature review%雷帕霉素治疗结节性硬化症合并室管膜下巨细胞型星形细胞瘤四例报告及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛; 李春德; 葛明; 甲戈; 马振宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of rapamycin treatment in subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) patients associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).Method Four patients who were diagnosed with SEGA associated with TSC in Beijing Tiantan hospital received rapamycin treatment.One case had facial angiofibromas,epilepsy,and kidney lesions; one epilepsy,trunk plaque,et al; one facial angiofibromas and kidney lesions; one facial angiofibromas and kidney lesions whose SEGA was operated three years before.They were definitely diagnosed as TSC according to diagnostic criteria.Results SEGAs in three out of four patients were shrunk after the rapamycin treatment.The frequency of epileptic seizures in two patients was also decreased.There was also positive response of facial angiofibromas in three patients.The adverse events were mild with oral ulcer,acute tonsillitis,hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.The rapamycin treatment was well tolerated in four patients.Conclusion Rapamycin was safe and effective in the treatment of SEGA associated with TSC with mild adverse events.It was also effective in the treatment of TSC related epilepsy and other diseases.When and who should receive rapamycin treatment in TSC patients were still unknown.%目的 探讨雷帕霉素治疗结节性硬化症合并室管膜下巨细胞型星形细胞瘤的安全性和有效性,并介绍该领域的相关进展.方法 对4例使用雷帕霉素治疗的结节性硬化症合并室管膜下巨细胞型星形细胞瘤患者进行总结分析.1例合并面部血管纤维瘤、癫痫及肾脏病变;1例合并癫痫、躯干白斑;1例合并面部血管纤维瘤及肾脏病变;1例为既往术后残留合并有面部血管纤维瘤、肾脏病变,均采用口服雷帕霉素治疗.结果 4例患者中3例颅内肿瘤明显缩小,1例无明显改变;2例癫痫部分缓解,3例面部皮疹有好转,患者对药物的耐受性较好.不良反应主要为口腔溃疡、扁桃体炎、血

  14. Astrocitoma subependimário de células gigantes em pacientes com esclerose tuberosa: achados em ressonância magnética de dez casos Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in patients with tuberous sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging findings in ten cases

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    Karina Takata

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os achados de ressonância magnética (RM em 10 casos de astrocitoma subependimário de células gigantes (ASCG em pacientes com esclerose tuberosa (ET. MÉTODO: Foram estudados de forma retrospectiva 10 pacientes com ET e diagnóstico histológico comprovado de ASCG. Quatro pacientes eram do sexo masculino e seis do feminino, com idade média de 15,7 anos. Todos os pacientes foram investigados com RM, sendo os exames revisados por dois radiologistas, havendo decisão por consenso sobre os achados de imagem. Foram analisados os seguintes achados: localização, dimensões, intensidade de sinal em T1/T2, realce pós-contraste e outros achados associados. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes apresentaram lesão única sugestiva de ASCG, medindo entre 1,5 cm e 8 cm em seu maior diâmetro. Oito lesões foram encontradas junto ao forame de Monro (80% e duas adjacentes ao corpo do ventrículo lateral (20%. Os tumores apresentavam nas imagens pesadas em T1 médio sinal (70% e em T2 alto sinal (100%, com realce intenso após a administração do gadolínio (100%. CONCLUSÃO: Os astrocitomas subependimários de células gigantes em pacientes com ET em geral apresentam-se como lesão única próxima ao forame de Monro, com médio sinal nas imagens ponderadas em T1, alto sinal em T2 e realce intenso após a administração de contraste.OBJECTIVE: To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in 10 patients with subependimal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA and tuberous sclerosis (TS. METHOD: Ten patients were retrospectively studied, presenting TS and histologically proven SGCA. Four patients were male and six female, with mean age 15.7 years. All patients underwent MRI, which was analyzed by two radiologists, final diagnosis was reached by consensus. The following findings were studied: topography, size, signal intensity on T1/T2-weighted images, contrast enhancement and associated findings. RESULTS: All patients presented a single lesion

  15. Glioblastomas, astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas linked to Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, C; Ladelund, S; Rambech, E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain tumors represent a rare and relatively uncharacterized tumor type in Lynch syndrome. METHODS: The national Danish Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Register was utilized to estimate the cumulative life-time risk for brain tumors in Lynch syndrome...... staining suggestive of the IDH1 R132H mutation. CONCLUSION: In Lynch syndrome brain tumors occurred in 14% of the families with significantly higher risks for individuals with MSH2 gene mutations and development of childhood brain tumors in individuals with constitutional MMR defects....

  16. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Progressive Malignant Glioma or Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Childhood Cerebellar Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

  17. Intrinsic tectal low grade astrocytomas: is surgical removal an alternative treatment? Long-term outcome of eight cases Astrocitomas tectais de baixo grau: o tratamento cirúrgico é uma alternativa? Análise de oito casos com longa evolução

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    Ricardo Ramina

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade gliomas arising in dorsal midbrain in children and young patients usually present few neurological symptoms and findings, and patients´ management is controversial. Some authors propose only clinical observation until the patient present signs of increased intracranial pressure when a shunt with or without biopsy, is inserted; others recommend radiotherapy after stereotactic or open biopsy. Microsurgical total removal of tumor may be curative. We present a retrospective analysis of eight patients (mean age 16.6 ±11.5 years-old with low-grade astrocytoma of the tectal region operated on using an infratentorial/ supracerebellar approach between 1981 and 2002. All patients presented hydrocephalus and had a shunt insertion before surgical resection of the lesion. The tumour could be totally resected in seven patients. In one case radical removal was not possible due to infiltrative pattern of the lesion. Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in two cases, one patient at the beginning of this series and in the case with infiltrative tumor. This patient presented progressive tumor growth and died five years after surgery. No recurrence occurred after total removal. Post-surgical follow-up time ranged from 2 1/2 to 22 1/2 years (mean 9.9 ± 5.9 years. Radical microsurgical removal of non invasive tumors is possible without mortality or significant morbidity. It may be curative and should remain as an alternative to be discussed with the patient.Gliomas de baixo grau originários da porção dorsal do mesencéfalo ocorrem em crianças e adultos jovens. Geralmente apresentam pouca sintomatologia e tardia, com hipertensão intracraniana por hidrocefalia não-comunicante. O seu tratamento é controverso. Alguns autores propõem somente observação clínica até o aparecimento de sintomas decorrentes de hipertensão intracraniana, quando é realizada derivação ventrículo-peritoneal (DVP, com ou sem biópsia da lesão. Outros recomendam

  18. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  19. Survival Rates for Selected Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type of Tumor 5-Year Survival Rate Pilocytic astrocytoma About 95% Fibrillary (diffuse) astrocytoma About 80% to 85% Anaplastic astrocytoma About 30% Glioblastoma About 20% Oligodendroglioma About 90% ...

  20. A Phase I Study of Mebendazole for the Treatment of Pediatric Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-08

    Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Glioma, Astrocytic; Optic Nerve Glioma; Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Gliosarcoma; Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; DIPG; Low-grade Glioma; Brainstem Glioma

  1. 18F FDOPA PET/CT or PET/MRI in Measuring Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood

  2. Bevacizumab and temozolomide in secondary gliomatosis from gemistocytic astrocytoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Trevisan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare diffuse glioma with a growth pattern consisting of exceptionally extensive infiltration of the CNS with involvement of at least three lobes. It may appear de novo (primary gliomatosis or result from the spreading of a focal glioma (secondary gliomatosis. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody anti-VEGF active against recurrent high grade gliomas after standard therapy. We report the case of a 41-year-old man with a secondary gliomatosis treated with bevacizumab and temozolomide who responded and the response lasted 17 months. Moreover, we focus on the side effects (hypertension, deep vein thrombosis induced by bevacizumab and their effective treatments.

  3. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin-dependent motility and cell adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeton, Martina; Kanski, Regina; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Geerts, Dirk; van Tijn, P.; Wiche, Gerhard; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein expressed in astrocytes and neural stem cells. The GFAP gene is alternatively spliced, and expression of GFAP is highly regulated during development, on brain damage, and in neurodegenerative diseases. GFAPα is the canonical

  4. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine S; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina G;

    2013-01-01

    Targeting of lysosomes is a novel therapeutic anti-cancer strategy for killing the otherwise apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Such strategies are urgently needed for treatment of brain tumors, especially the glioblastoma, which is the most frequent and most malignant type. The aim of the present...... study was to investigate the presence of lysosomes in astrocytic brain tumors focussing also on the therapy resistant tumor stem cells. Expression of the lysosomal marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 112 formalin fixed paraffin embedded...... individual tumor grades. LAMP-1/GFAP showed pronounced co-expression and LAMP-1/CD133 was co-expressed as well suggesting that tumor cells including the proposed tumor stem cells contain lysosomes. The results suggest that high amounts of lysosomes are present in glioblastomas and in the proposed tumor stem...

  5. Expression manner of 5-lipoxygenase in human traumatic brain injury and astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeiZhang; HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; Ke-DaChen; Wen-WenShen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is a key enzyme of arachidonic acid metabolism. The metabolites, leuklotrienes, are important mediators in asthma, inflammatory and allergic disorders. The activation of 5-LO includes the gathering of 5-LO,adhering onto the membranes of nuclei and entrance to the nuclei. In the central nervous system, 5-LO is widely expressed

  6. Long-term neuropsychologic outcome in children diagnosed with a low-grade astrocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Aarsen (Femke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCentral nervous system (CNS) tumors in children have a relatively high frequency. They are the second most common form of cancer in childhood only exceeded by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, prognosis is more severe and at present more children die because of CNS tumor than

  7. A Report of Two Cases of Tuberous Sclerosis Combined with Subependymal Giant-Cell Astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanhu Li; Haiying Yu; Zhaoqiu Chen; Aiqin Song

    2006-01-01

    @@ Case Report Case 1, was a 23 year old female. The chief complaints were headache,vomiting for over 20 days, which was aggravated upon exercising, and confusion for 5 days. The patient was retarded and had a history of epilepsy for 20 years. Her family said her intelligence was that of a 3 year-old child. Many red papules were dispersed on her cheeks. A highly thick 2.2 cm by 2.3 cm by 2.4 cm round-like neoplasm was found by CT scanning in the body of the left ventricle near the interventricle foramen, and there was a spot-like calcification in the tumor. There was also a spot-like calcification (Fig.1) in a shuttlelike slightly high thickness node at the same place on the opposite side. The above-mentioned neoplasms enhanced evenly (Fig.2).

  8. Treatment of Glioma, Glioblastoma, and Astrocytoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute on Aging, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize the use of fenoterol and fenoterol analogs in the front line and adjuvant treatment of CNS tumors and other B2 AR expressing tumors.

  9. ABERRANT P53 EXPRESSION DOES NOT CORRELATE WITH THE PROGNOSIS IN ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DANKS, RA; CHOPRA, G; GONZALES, MF; ORIAN, JM; KAYE, AH

    1995-01-01

    MUTATIONS OF THE p53 tumor-suppressor gene, as determined by the immunohistochemistry of archival formalin-fixed specimens, have been correlated with the prognosis for patients with many different types of malignancy. Similar correlations have been shown in series including patients with all grades

  10. Low-grade glioma: supratentorial astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Lynn S; Shapiro, William R

    2004-05-01

    Low-grade glioma is not a single diagnosis but a category of biologically diverse neoplasms. They are indolent, progressive, and, following anaplastic transformation, invariably fatal. Neuro-oncologists have not established a treatment standard for these tumors. However, it is clear that "low-grade" is not synonymous with "benign," and treatment is required sometime in the course of the disease. Previously, achieving a consensus had been limited by a lack of class I evidence. Physicians treated patients based on retrospective series and personal experience. Currently, results from prospective clinical trials are becoming available. These studies have provided data that may serve as treatment guidelines. Additional results regarding the identification of prognostic variables have raised more questions to be answered. Attention is now directed to the importance of translational research to better define these neoplasms. In the future, it will be necessary to distinguish among low-grade gliomas and identify therapies that may differ between them.

  11. [Response to everolimus in patients with giant cell astrocytoma associated to tuberous sclerosis complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-González, M Elena; López-Laso, Eduardo; Vicente-Rueda, Josefina; Camino-León, Rafael; Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; Baena-Gómez, M Auxiliadora; Peña-Rosa, M José

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. Los astrocitomas subependimarios de celulas gigantes (SEGA) se presentan en el 5-20% de los pacientes con complejo esclerosis tuberosa (CET) y son los tumores cerebrales mas comunes en el CET. Son tumores benignos, de estirpe glioneural, que se desarrollan fundamentalmente en las primeras dos decadas de la vida, en general cercanos al foramen de Monro, y pueden ocasionar hidrocefalia e hipertension intracraneal. Constituyen la principal causa de muerte en el CET. Recientemente, los inhibidores mTOR han demostrado ser una alternativa terapeutica a la reseccion quirurgica. Objetivo. Describir nuestra experiencia con everolimus para el tratamiento de pacientes con SEGA y CET. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio prospectivo de la respuesta de los pacientes con CET y al menos un SEGA en crecimiento. Resultados. Recibieron tratamiento tres mujeres y tres varones con una edad media de 12,3 años. Un paciente habia sido previamente intervenido quirurgicamente por SEGA con hidrocefalia. El diametro maximo medio del SEGA al inicio del tratamiento era de 15,3 mm (rango: 11,3-24,8 mm). Se inicio tratamiento con everolimus, 2,5 mg/dia por via oral en pacientes con superficie corporal 1,2 m2. Dos pacientes presentaron hipertrigliceridemia; uno, anorexia; otro, un afta; y una paciente, amenorrea. La reduccion media del volumen del SEGA a los tres meses de tratamiento fue del 46%, y la reduccion se mantuvo estable en controles posteriores (6-25 meses). Conclusiones. El tratamiento con everolimus disminuye el tamaño de los SEGA asociados a CET con un perfil de seguridad adecuado, y constituye una alternativa a la cirugia en casos seleccionados.

  12. CD133 identifies perivascular niches in grade II-IV astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina; Schrøder, Henrik; Kristensen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    expression of CD133 in paraffin sections was analysed using morphometry. In all grades, CD133 was expressed on tumour and endothelial cells. Tumour cells were found in perivascular niches, as dispersed single cells and in pseudopalisade formations around necrosis. There was no correlation between the mean...

  13. Successful Management of Intraoperative Acute Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism in a High Grade Astrocytoma Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraise, Wail N; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Hiasat, Mohammad Y; Said, Raed S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intraoperative pulmonary embolism (PE) is a rare life-threatening complication in patients undergoing surgical intervention. Generally, cancer patients have a higher risk for developing this complication. Unfortunately, there is no standard procedure for its management. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with high-grade glioma in the right frontal lobe who was admitted to the surgical theater for craniotomy and excision of the tumor. During the general anesthesia procedure and just before inserting the central venous line, her end-tidal CO2 and O2 saturation dropped sharply. The anesthesiologist quickly responded with an aggressive resuscitation procedure that included aspiration through the central venous line, 100% O2, and IV administration of ephedrine 6 mg, colloid 500 mL, normal saline 500 mL, and heparin 5000 IU. The patient was extubated and remained in the supine position until she regained consciousness and her vital signs returned to normal. Subsequent radiological examination revealed a massive bilateral PE. A retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was inserted, and enoxaparin anticoagulant therapy was prescribed to stabilize the patient's condition. After 3 weeks, she underwent an uneventful craniotomy procedure and was discharged a week later under the enoxaparin therapy. CONCLUSIONS The successful management of intraoperative PE requires a quick, accurate diagnosis accompanied with an aggressive, fast response. Anesthesiologists are usually the ones who are held accountable for the diagnosis and early management of this complication. They must be aware of the possibility of such a complication and be ready to react properly and decisively in the operation theater. PMID:27578311

  14. Pilocytic Astrocytomas Have Telomere-Associated Promyelocytic Leukemia Bodies without Alternatively Lengthened Telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Slatter, Tania; Gifford-Garner, Jennifer; Wiles, Anna; Tan, Xin; Chen, Yu-Jen; MacFarlane, Martin; Sullivan, Michael; Royds, Janice; Hung, Noelyn

    2010-01-01

    Telomere maintenance by either telomerase activity or the recombination-mediated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism is a hallmark of cancer. Tumors that use ALT as their telomere maintenance mechanism are characterized by long telomeres of great heterogeneity in length and by specific nuclear structures of co-localized promyelocytic leukemia protein and telomere DNA, called ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (APBs). Recent advances have revealed a direct role for A...

  15. World Health Organization grade II-III astrocytomas consist of genetically distinct tumor lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Natsuki; Hirose, Yuichi; Sasaki, Hikaru; Nakae, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Saeko; Ohba, Shigeo; Adachi, Kazuhide; Hayashi, Takuro; Nishiyama, Yuya; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Abe, Masato

    2016-08-01

    Recent investigations revealed genetic analysis provides important information in management of gliomas, and we previously reported grade II-III gliomas could be classified into clinically relevant subgroups based on the DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs). To develop more precise genetic subgrouping, we investigated the correlation between CNAs and mutational status of the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) of those tumors. We analyzed the IDH status and CNAs of 174 adult supratentorial gliomas of astrocytic or oligodendroglial origin by PCR-based direct sequencing and comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. We analyzed the relationship between genetic subclassification and clinical features. We found the most frequent aberrations in IDH mutant tumors were the combined whole arm-loss of 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) followed by gain on chromosome arm 7q (+7q). The gain of whole chromosome 7 (+7) and loss of 10q (-10q) were detected in IDH wild-type tumors. Kaplan-Meier estimates for progression-free survival showed that the tumors with mutant IDH, -1p/19q, or +7q (in the absence of +7p) survived longer than tumors with wild-type IDH, +7, or -10q. As tumors with +7 (IDH wild-type) showed a more aggressive clinical nature, they are probably not a subtype that developed from the slowly progressive tumors with +7q (IDH mutant). Thus, tumors with a gain on chromosome 7 (mostly astrocytic) comprise multiple lineages, and such differences in their biological nature should be taken into consideration during their clinical management. PMID:27196377

  16. Postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm after craniotomy for astrocytoma--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Taomoto, K

    1989-09-01

    The authors present the first reported case of a glioma associated with a right posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. A 37-year-old male underwent craniotomy and total removal of the glioma, which appeared, according to encephalographic findings, to be responsible for the initial symptom of loss of consciousness. The risk of craniotomy-induced bleeding from the aneurysm was thought to be low, since it was unruptured and was packed with coagulum. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of the PCA aneurysm occurred just after craniotomy, and clipping was performed 15 days after the first operation. PMID:2480546

  17. A human astrocytoma cell line is highly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Vargas-Zambrano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play a vital role in neuronal protection, homeostasis, vascular interchange and the local immune response. Some viruses and parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier and infect glia. Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, can seriously compromise the central nervous system, mainly in immune-suppressed individuals, but also during the acute phase of the infection. In this report, the infective capacity of T. cruzi in a human astrocyte tumour-derived cell line was studied. Astrocytes exposed to trypomastigotes (1:10 ratio produced intracellular amastigotes and new trypomastigotes emerged by day 4 post-infection (p.i.. At day 6 p.i., 93% of the cells were infected. Using flow cytometry, changes were observed in both the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules and the chemokine secretion pattern of astrocytes exposed to the parasite. Blocking the low-density lipoprotein receptor on astrocytes did not reduce parasite intracellular infection. Thus, T. cruzi can infect astrocytes and modulate the immune response during central nervous system infection.

  18. Ecthyma gangrenosum caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with astrocytoma treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.Y.F.L. de Vos; T.A. Middelburg (Tom); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEcthyma gangrenosum, presenting as embolic lesions caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, has distinct pathognomonic features and a high mortality rate in patients with bacteremia, but when recognized early is easily treated. In this case report we describe this disseminated infecti

  19. Alisertib and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  20. Fluorine F 18 Fluorodopa-Labeled PET Scan in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High- or Low-Grade Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-10

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  1. Cilengitide in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma That Has Not Responded to Standard Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-05

    Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  2. Pilocytic astrocytomas of the optical nerve - indication for combined surgery and radiotherapy while considering morphological and functional vision conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment results from literature and those of the authors suggested the following combined therapy concept: 1) Mere surgery is the method of choice in cases of isolated optical nerve involvement; 2) radiotherapy is indicated after confirming biopsy: a) in chiasm and hypothalamus involvement; b) in isolated optical nerve involvement, if the end near to the chiasma is not tumour-free; c) isolated optical nerve involvement with a slight vision reduction only is a relative indication for irradiation depending from the patient's general condition and wishes. Adoption of a conservative approach in inoperable cases seems to be no longer justified in the light of the potentially aggressive character of these tumours. (orig./MG)

  3. Identification of a novel inactivating mutation in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1-R314C) in a high grade astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, Sanne A M; Navis, Anna C; Lenting, Krissie; Verrijp, Kiek; Schepens, Jan T G; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Schubert, Nil A; Venselaar, Hanka; Wevers, Ron A; van Rooij, Arno; Wesseling, Pieter; Molenaar, Remco J; van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Pusch, Stefan; Tops, Bastiaan; Leenders, William P J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of low-grade and secondary high-grade gliomas carry heterozygous hotspot mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or the mitochondrial variant IDH2. These mutations mostly involve Arg132 in IDH1, and Arg172 or Arg140 in IDH2. Whereas IDHs convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) with simultaneous reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, these IDH mutants reduce α-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) while oxidizing NADPH. D-2-HG is a proposed oncometabolite, acting via competitive inhibition of α-KG-dependent enzymes that are involved in metabolism and epigenetic regulation. However, much less is known about the implications of the metabolic stress, imposed by decreased α-KG and NADPH production, for tumor biology. We here present a novel heterozygous IDH1 mutation, IDH1(R314C), which was identified by targeted next generation sequencing of a high grade glioma from which a mouse xenograft model and a cell line were generated. IDH1(R314C) lacks isocitrate-to-α-KG conversion activity due to reduced affinity for NADP(+), and differs from the IDH1(R132) mutants in that it does not produce D-2-HG. Because IDH1(R314C) is defective in producing α-KG and NADPH, without concomitant production of the D-2-HG, it represents a valuable tool to study the effects of IDH1-dysfunction on cellular metabolism in the absence of this oncometabolite. PMID:27460417

  4. A model of a patient-derived IDH1 mutant anaplastic astrocytoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Borodovsky, Alexandra; Meeker, Alan K.; Ewen F Kirkness; Zhao, Qi; Eberhart, Charles G.; Gallia, Gary L.; Riggins, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have been found in the vast majority of low grade and progressive infiltrating gliomas and are characterized by the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate. Recent investigations of malignant gliomas have identified additional genetic and chromosomal abnormalities which cluster with IDH1 mutations into two distinct subgroups. The astrocytic subgroup was found to have frequent mutations in ATRX, TP53 and displays alternative lengthen...

  5. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and fiber-tracking diffusion tensor tractography in the management of spinal astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Alessandro; Palmarini, Valeria; D'Elia, Alessandro; Marotta, Nicola; Salvati, Maurizio; Santoro, Antonio; Delfini, Roberto

    2016-01-16

    Some specially imaging of magnetic resonance imaging, the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the diffusion tensor imaging and fractional anisotropy (FA), are useful to described, detect, and map the extent of spinal cord lesions. FA measurements may are used to predicting the outcome of patients who have spinal cord lesions. Fiber tracking enable to visualizing the integrity of white matter tracts surrounding some lesions, and this information could be used to formulating a differential diagnosis and planning biopsies or resection. In this article, we will describe the current uses for DWI and fiber tracking and speculate on others in which we believe these techniques will be useful in the future.

  6. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  7. Veliparib, Radiation Therapy, and Temozolomide in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Pontine Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Childhood Mixed Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma

  8. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  9. Lenalidomide in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory CNS Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  10. Temozolomide and O6-Benzylguanine in Treating Children With Recurrent Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  11. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  12. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  13. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst prevents apoptotic cell death in a human astrocytoma cell line incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perno Carlo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has shown to contribute in the mechanisms underlying apoptotic cell death occuring in AIDS-dementia complex. Here we investigated the role of peroxynitrite in apoptosis occurring in astroglial cells incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected human primary macrophages (M/M. Results Flow cytometric analysis (FACS of human cultured astrocytes shortly incubated with HIV-1-infected M/M supernatants showed apoptotic cell death, an effect accompanied by pronounced staining for nitrotyrosine (footprint of peroxynitrite and by abnormal formation of malondialdehyde (MDA. Pretreatment of astrocytes with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTMPS antagonized HIV-related astrocytic apoptosis, MDA formation and nitrotyrosine staining. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that inibition of peroxynitrite leads to protection against peroxidative stress accompanying HIV-related apoptosis of astrocytes. Overall results support the role of peroxynitrite in HIV-related programmed death of astrocytes and suggest the use of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst to counteract HIV-1-related neurological disorders.

  14. Assessing Biological Response to Bevacizumab Using 18F-Fluoromisonidazole PET/MR Imaging in a Patient with Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Pampaloni, Miguel H.; Clarke, Jennifer L.; Seo, Youngho; Savic, Dragana; Hawkins, Randall A.; Behr, Spencer C.; Chang, Susan M.; Berger, Mitchel; Dillon, William P.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    We present our initial experience in using single modality fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET/MR imaging to noninvasively evaluate the biological effects induced by bevacizumab therapy in a patient treated for recurrent high grade glioma. In this index patient, bevacizumab therapy resulted in the development of nonenhancing tumor characterized by reduced diffusion and markedly decreased FMISO uptake in the setting of maintained CBF and CBV. These observations suggest that the dynamic biological interplay between tissue hypoxia and vascular normalization occurring within treated recurrent high grade glioma can be captured utilizing FMISO PET/MR imaging. PMID:25793136

  15. Assessing Biological Response to Bevacizumab Using 18F-Fluoromisonidazole PET/MR Imaging in a Patient with Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Barajas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our initial experience in using single modality fluoromisonidazole (FMISO PET/MR imaging to noninvasively evaluate the biological effects induced by bevacizumab therapy in a patient treated for recurrent high grade glioma. In this index patient, bevacizumab therapy resulted in the development of nonenhancing tumor characterized by reduced diffusion and markedly decreased FMISO uptake in the setting of maintained CBF and CBV. These observations suggest that the dynamic biological interplay between tissue hypoxia and vascular normalization occurring within treated recurrent high grade glioma can be captured utilizing FMISO PET/MR imaging.

  16. A low frequency variant at 8q24.21 is strongly associated with risk of oligodendroglial tumors and IDH1 or IDH2 mutated astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Robert B.; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Sicotte, Hugues; Decker, Paul A.; Kollmeyer, Thomas M.; Hansen, Helen M.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Zheng, Shichun; Walsh, Kyle M.; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige; McCoy, Lucie S.; Smirnov, Ivan; Patoka, Joseph S.; Hsuang, George

    2012-01-01

    SNPs mapped to 8q24.21 have been shown to be associated with glioma development. By means of tag SNP genotyping/imputation, pooled next-generation sequencing (NGS) using long-range PCR, and subsequent validation SNP genotyping we identified seven low-frequency SNPs that were consistently and highly associated with glioma risk (p=10−25 to 10−14). The most associated SNP, rs55705857, remained highly significant after individual adjustment for the other top six and two previously published SNPs....

  17. Human U87 astrocytoma cell invasion induced by interaction of βig-h3 with integrin α5β1 involves calpain-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ma

    Full Text Available It is known that βig-h3 is involved in the invasive process of many types of tumors, but its mechanism in glioma cells has not been fully clarified. Using immunofluorescent double-staining and confocal imaging analysis, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 in U87 cells. We sought to elucidate the function of this interaction by performing cell invasion assays and gelatin zymography experiments. We found that siRNA knockdowns of βig-h3 and calpain-2 impaired cell invasion and MMP secretion. Moreover, βig-h3, integrins and calpain-2 are known to be regulated by Ca(2+, and they are also involved in tumor cell invasion. Therefore, we further investigated if calpain-2 was relevant to βig-h3-integrin α5β1 interaction to affect U87 cell invasion. Our data showed that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 to enhance the invasion of U87 cells, and that calpain-2, is involved in this process, acting as a downstream molecule.

  18. Growth-Factor-Driven Rescue to Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) Inhibitors through Akt and Erk Phosphorylation in Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma and Ependymoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Mariska; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Lourens, Harm Jan; Meeuwsen-de Boer, Tiny G. J.; Scherpen, Frank J. G.; Zomerman, Walderik W.; Kampen, Kim R.; Hoving, Eelco W.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, several clinical studies have been started investigating the relevance of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors upon progression free survival in various pediatric brain tumors. However, single targeted kinase inhibition failed, possibly due to tumor resistance mechanisms. The present

  19. Radiotherapy of astrocytomas and encephalic oligodendrogliomas in the adult; La radiotherapie des astrocytomes et des oligodendrogliomes encephaliques de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeron, J.J.; Simon, J.M.; Noel, G.; Proudhom, M.A.; Renard, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Centre des Tumeurs, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-12-01

    Gliomas are moderately radiosensitive. The main prognostic factors are the anatomic-pathological type and grade of glioma, the performance status, age of the patient and the extent of the surgery. According to data from the literature, high-grade gliomas should be given 60 Gy in five weekly fractions of 1.7 to 2 Gy in a volume including tumor or tumor bed, edema and a 2- to 3-cm margin. A dose of 45 Gy would be sufficient for low-grade gliomas, according to the results of a recent randomized EORTC trial. Brachytherapy and radiosurgery techniques may be indicated in selected cases. (authors)

  20. Proton Beam Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Melanocytic Lesion; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  1. AZD2171 in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Primary CNS Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  2. RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

  3. ABT-888 and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory CNS Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  4. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  5. P16.16INFLUENCE OF DETERMINATION OF PROGRESSION ON PATTERNS OF FLAIR FAILURE ANALYSIS IN PATIENTS WITH GRADE III ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA (AA) AND ASSOCIATION OF PATTERN OF FAILURE (POF) WITH SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, T.; Hardie, J.G.; Pafundi, D.H.; Brinkmann, D.H.; Laack, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: RANO criteria have recently been proposed as response guidelines for contrast-enhancing high grade gliomas, but the utility of these guidelines has not been established in AA. In this report we evaluated the utility of RANO criteria in determining progression and POF in AA and evaluated the association of POF with overall survival (OS). MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of MR images for 21 consecutive patients with AA and radiologically-proven recurrence after irradiation at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). Three different criteria for identification of progression were used for each patient: 1) standard RANO-based criteria (RANO-C; most often met by development of new contrast enhancement or enlargement of contrast-enhancing lesion), 2) RANO criteria for progression based on significant FLAIR increase (RANO-F) and 3) clinical progression based on oncologist interpretation of imaging and clinical status usually resulting in change in treatment (Clinical). Time to progression was assessed among the three criteria using Friedman's test, and pairwise criteria using a sign test. After subtraction of tumor volume occurring on the best-response MR study, final structure was dosimetrically analyzed and different POF were characterized by the % volume encompassed within the 95% dose as follows: central (V95% ≥ 95%), in-field (80% ≤ V95% < 95%), marginal (20% ≤ V95% < 80%), or distant (V95% < 20%). RESULTS: Time to progression based on RANO criteria preceeded the clinical diagnosis of progression by a median of 3.13 months (9.2 vs 12.6 mo p < 0.0001, Sign test). New or progressive contrast enhancement (RANO-C) was almost entirely central or in-field (95% and 5%, respectively). POF of FLAIR component differed based on timepoint used to determine progression. FLAIR POF was significantly more often marginal or distant when progression was defined clinically compared to either RANO-C or RANO-F criteria (p = .03 and .007 respectively). POF for FLAIR abnormality at the time of RANO-C was 33% central, 24% in-field and 43% marginal; at RANO-F was 47%, 16% and 37% respectively, and at the time of Clinical recurrence were more often peripheral with 19% central, 24% in-field, 52% marginal and 1 patient (5%) distant. No association with POF and OS was seen when evaluated at the time of RANO defined progression. Central POF at Clinical determination of progression was associated with poorer OS (9.8 vs 29.7 months, p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: POF analysis in AA is dependent on method of progression determination. Time to progression based on RANO criteria generally preceeded clinician impression. POF at the time of RANO determination of progression was not associated with survival. Central recurrence as evaluated at the time of clinical progression is strongly associated with poorer OS.

  6. Expression and the clinical significance of MGMT and MMP-7 in human astrocytoma%MGMT和MMP-7在星形细胞瘤中表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏赓; 周志宇; 李国成; 莫秋荣; 温伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究星形细胞瘤组织中甲基鸟嘌呤DNA甲基转移酶(methylguanine-DNA methyhransferase,MGMT)和基质金属蛋白酶-7(matrix metalloproteinase-7,MMP-7)基因蛋白的表达和意义.方法:应用免疫组化SP法检测49例星形细胞瘤中MGMT和MMP-7基因蛋白的表达.结果:MGMT、MMP-7蛋白在星形细胞瘤中的表达率分别为55.10%(27/49)和51.02%(25/49),MGMT和MMP-7的表达与星形细胞瘤组织病理分级有关(P<0.05),与其他临床因素无关(P>0.05);MGMT和MMP-7蛋白在星形细胞瘤中的表达率复发组与无复发组有明显差异(P<0.05),MMP-7抗原与MGMT表达呈负相关(rs=-0.488,P<0.01).结论:MGMT和MMP-7可能共同参与了星形细胞瘤的发生与发展,MGMT的低表达甚至缺失和MMP-7高表达对星形细胞瘤的恶性程度及预后有指导意义.

  7. δ-catenin在星形细胞瘤中过表达并促进其增殖与侵袭能力%Overexpression of δ-catenin in Astrocytoma Enhanced Tumor Proliferation and Invasiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明昊; 仇波; 王勇; 王军; 班允超; 崔晓; 景治涛; 王运杰

    2013-01-01

    背景与目的:δ-catenin是连环蛋白家族中的新成员,其表达与星形细胞瘤的病理分级、细胞增殖与侵袭能力的关系尚不清楚.本研究通过检测δ-catenin在星形细胞瘤中的表达和模式与病理分级的关系,并应用胶质瘤细胞系探讨δ-catenin对其生物学行为的影响.方法:应用免疫组织化学方法对156例I~Ⅳ级星形细胞瘤进行了δ-catenin表达检测,并分别采用转染和siRNA干扰的方法调控U251和U87胶质瘤细胞系中δ-catenin的表达,通过Western blotting、MTT、Transwell和克隆形成实验等对δ-catenin的功能进行研究.结果:δ-catenin表达于正常脑组织的神经元中,但正常胶质细胞和I级毛细胞型星形细胞瘤中无表达(0%,0/11);在Ⅱ级星形细胞瘤中的表达阳性率仅为18%(11/61),明显低于Ⅲ~Ⅳ级的35%(29/84),差异显著(P<0.01).转染δ-catenin可明显上调Rac1的活性,促进U251细胞的增殖和克隆形成数量,明显增强细胞的侵袭能力,使用Rac1抑制剂则明显抑制U251细胞的侵袭力;使用siRNA沉默U87细胞中δ-catenin的表达后则显著降低细胞侵袭力.结论:δ-catenin的表达与星形细胞瘤的组织学分级正相关.δ-catenin可能通过上调Rac1的活性促进胶质瘤细胞的增殖与侵袭.δ-catenin可作为星形细胞瘤生物学行为的标志物,并有望成为治疗该肿瘤的新靶点.

  8. 扩散张量成像在星形细胞瘤术前分级的应用研究%Application of Diffusion Tensor Imaging on Preoperative Grading of Astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少武; 田胜勇; 李子孝; 张迅; 戴建平; 高培毅

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨扩散张量成像测量水分子扩散状态的参数相对值与星形细胞瘤恶性程度之间的相关性.方法:对43例经组织病理学证实的患者术前均行DTI序列检查.数据经工作站处理生成平均扩散系数(MD)、部分各向异性(FA)图和扩散加权成像(DWI)参数图.计算相对MD值(rMD)和相对FA(rFA)(瘤实体区值/对侧正常白质区值).采用单因素方差分析LSD检测法分别分析不同星形细胞瘤病理学级别间rMD和rFA值的差异.结果:43例星形细胞瘤患者中:星形细胞瘤(WHOⅡ级)19例,间变性星形细胞瘤(WHOⅢ级)12例和胶质母细胞瘤(WHOⅣ级)12例.WHOⅡ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ级的rMD值分别为1.220±0.227、1.599±0.416和2.264±0.565.统计学检验出现WHOⅡ和Ⅲ级(P<0.001)、Ⅲ和Ⅳ级(P=0.047)、Ⅱ和Ⅳ级(P<0.001)的rMD任意两两组间有显著性差异.WHOⅡ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ级的rFA值分别为0.439±0.120、0.333±0.100和0.268±0.090.统计学检验出现Ⅲ和Ⅳ级(P=0.015)、Ⅱ和Ⅳ级(P<0.001)的rFA任意两两组间有显著性差异.WHOⅡ级与Ⅲ级间rFA值无显著性差异(P=0.88).结论:DTI测量的rMD和rFA的值术前能区分不同病理级别星形细胞瘤.

  9. Diffusion-tensor Imaging of Immediate Peritumoral Region in Brain Astrocytoma%脑星形细胞瘤近瘤周白质区的DTI征象及参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢铁明; 邵国良; 俞炎平; 石磊

    2011-01-01

    [目的]应用磁共振弥散张量成像(DTI)技术探讨脑星形细胞瘤近瘤周白质区DTI征象,以及不同级别星形细胞瘤近瘤周区(IPR)平均弥散系数(MD)值、各向异性分数(FA)值改变的意义.[方法] 48例脑星形细胞瘤术前行DTI扫描,重建FA图,评价FA图像中IPR的信号特点,并测定IPR及对侧正常脑白质区的MD值及FA值,计算相对MD(rMD)和相对FA值(rFA).[结果]星形细胞瘤IPR白质区的FA图及彩色FA图能显示出白质纤维各向异性降低和走形方向的改变.星形细胞瘤IPR白质区MD值高于对侧正常脑白质组(t=11.423,P<0.001);除Ⅱ级与Ⅲ级星形细胞瘤组间MD值和rMD无统计学差异外,其余级别星形细胞瘤组间MD值和rMD均有统计学差异(P<0.05).星形细胞瘤IPR白质FA值低于对侧正常脑白质组(t=-22.611, P<0.001);Ⅲ~Ⅳ级星形细胞瘤IPR白质的FA值、rFA降低,明显低于Ⅰ~Ⅱ级星形细胞瘤组(P<0.05).[结论] FA图及彩色FA图能较为直观准确地反映IPR白质受肿瘤侵犯的情况;MD值、FA值能够一定程度定量反映不同级别星形细胞瘤对IPR造成的病理影响.

  10. Correlation between MGMT hypermethylation and IDH1 mutation and their prognostic value in astrocytoma%星形细胞瘤中MGMT甲基化与IDH1突变的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵立伟; 李永笑; 潘怡; 齐雪岭; 钟延丰; 常青

    2014-01-01

    目的 检测星形细胞瘤中DNA修复酶O-6-甲基鸟嘌呤-DNA-甲基转移酶(O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase,MGMT)的甲基化状态,分析其与IDH1突变的关系并评估二者对患者预后的影响.方法 采用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)法检测176例星形细胞瘤中MGMT的甲基化状态;采用直接测序法和免疫组化法检测IDH1突变,并应用Log-rank检验比较不同分子标记对患者生存曲线的影响.结果 138例星形细胞瘤进行MGMT基因甲基化检测,72.46% (100/138)病例检测结果有效,57%肿瘤发生MGMT高甲基化.Ⅱ、Ⅲ级星形细胞瘤与继发性胶质母细胞瘤(glioblastoma,GBM)中MGMT的甲基化率显著高于原发性GBM(P=0.023 2).伴有IDH1突变的星形细胞瘤中MGMT的高甲基化率(29/37)显著高于无IDH1基因突变(28/63)病例(P=0.000 9).MGMT甲基化结合IDH1突变是患者预后较好的分子标记(P=0.000 0).结论 星形细胞瘤中MGMT的高甲基化状态与IDH1突变呈明显正相关;IDH1突变结合MGMT甲基化状态检测能更好地预测胶质瘤患者的预后.

  11. Abnormal expression of TAP gene and its clinical significant in astrocytoma%星形细胞瘤抗原处理相关转运蛋白异常表达的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋维舒; 王昂; 郭立兵

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究星形细胞瘤中抗原处理相关处理蛋白(TAP)分子表达及其临床意义,探讨星形细胞瘤的治疗对策.方法:采用免疫组织化学技术检测50例星形细胞瘤患者肿瘤组织和15例正常脑组织中TAP的表达.结果:50例星形细胞瘤患者中27例TAP蛋白表达阳性,23例TAP蛋白表达阴性,TAP蛋白阳性细胞百分率为29.1%±27.24%;正常组15例,全部表现为TAP蛋白表达阳性,TAP蛋白阳性细胞百分率为58.4%±21.69%,两组均数比较差异有统计学意义,t=3.811 0,P<0.05.低级别星形细胞瘤(Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级)25例,TAP蛋白平均阳性细胞百分率为37.4%±29.13%;高级别星形细胞瘤(Ⅲ级和Ⅳ级)25例,TAP蛋白平均阳性细胞百分率为22.8%±20.08%;两组均数比较差异有统计学意义,t=2.063 1,P<0.05.结论:星形细胞瘤患者存在TAP分子低表达,这可能促使星形细胞瘤患者肿瘤细胞逃避免疫监视,TAP蛋白缺失率可作为预测脑星形细胞瘤的发生及其恶性程度的指标之一.

  12. Phase II study of 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy with radiotherapy for treating malignant glioma in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, V A; Lamborn, K.; Wara, W.; R. Davis; Edwards, M.; Rabbitt, J.; Malec, M.; Prados, M D

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a single-arm phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine (TPDCV) chemotherapy for treating malignant astrocytoma in children and anaplastic ependymoma in patients of all ages. Between 1984 and 1992, 42 patients who had malignant astrocytomas (glioblastomas multiforme, anaplastic astrocytomas, or mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytomas) were treated with TPDCV chemotherapy and ...

  13. Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluorine F 18 EF5 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Meningeal Melanocytoma

  14. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  15. Ispinesib in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  16. FR901228 in Treating Children With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors or Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. Combined O-(2-[18F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Follow-up in Re-irradiated Recurrent Glioblastoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    Glioblastoma; Nervous System Neoplasms; Central Nervous System Neoplasms; Astrocytoma; Glioma; Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial; Neuroectodermal Tumors; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue

  18. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  19. Oxaliplatin in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent Solid Tumors That Have Not Responded to Previous Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Hepatoblastoma; Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer

  20. Bevacizumab and Irinotecan in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Ependymoma, or Low Grade Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma

  1. p28 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Teratoid Tumor, Atypical; Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brainstem Tumors; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Medulloblastoma; Neuroectodermal Tumor, Primitive

  2. WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 and Local Radiation Therapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma

  3. Astroglial c-Myc overexpression predisposes mice to primary malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Aagaard; Pedersen, Karen-Marie; Lihme, Frederikke;

    2003-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are common human primary brain tumors that result from neoplastic transformation of astroglia or their progenitors. Here we show that deregulation of the c-Myc pathway in developing astroglia predisposes mice to malignant astrocytomas within 2-3 weeks of age. The geneticall...

  4. Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kim, In-One; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Moon, Sung Gyu; Kim, Tae Jung; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Wang, Kyu-Chang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea); Chung, June Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    MRI and FDG-PET may predict the histological grading of paediatric brain-stem gliomas. To assess MRI findings and metabolic imaging using FDG-PET of brain-stem gliomas based on histological grading. Included in the study were 20 paediatric patients (age 3-14 years, mean 8.2 years) with brain-stem glioma (five glioblastomas, ten anaplastic astrocytomas and five low-grade astrocytomas). MR images were assessed for the anatomical site of tumour origin, focality, pattern of tumour growth, and enhancement. All glioblastomas were located in the pons and showed diffuse pontine enlargement with focally exophytic features. Eight anaplastic astrocytomas were located in the pons and demonstrated diffuse pontine enlargement without exophytic features. Low-grade astrocytomas were located in the pons, midbrain or medulla and showed focally exophytic growth features and peripheral enhancement. In 12 patients in whom FDG-PET was undertaken, glioblastomas showed hypermetabolic or hypometabolic lesions, anaplastic astrocytomas showed no metabolic change or hypometabolic lesions and low-grade astrocytomas showed hypometabolism compared with the cerebellum. MRI findings correlated well with histological grading of brain-stem gliomas and MRI may therefore predict the histological grading. FDG-PET may be helpful in differentiating between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastomas among high-grade tumours. (orig.)

  5. Study of LOXO-101 in Subjects With NTRK Fusion Positive Solid Tumors (NAVIGATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Thyroid Neoplasms; Sarcoma; Colorectal Neoplasms; Salivary Gland Neoplasms; Biliary Tract Neoplasms; Brain Neoplasm, Primary; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast; Melanoma; Solid Tumors; Glioblastoma; Bile Duct Neoplasms; Astrocytoma; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Pontine Glioma

  6. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... result from a sudden change in how the cells of the brain send electrical signals to each ... due to the presence of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), a non-cancerous tumor that occurs ...

  7. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  8. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a small region of the brain and their appearance depends on where they begin. Since TSC can ... subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), a non-cancerous tumor that occurs in about 15% of individuals with ...

  9. Evolution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy practice in malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusheel Munshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas of the brain carry a poor prognosis. This article traces the evolution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy practice including the development of concurrent chemo-radiation schedules in the context of these tumors.

  10. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  11. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  12. Experiment list: SRX1177288 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177288 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  13. Experiment list: SRX1177290 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177290 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  14. Experiment list: SRX377965 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX377965 hg19 Input control Input control Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyt...oma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhem

  15. Experiment list: SRX1177327 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177327 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  16. Experiment list: SRX1177326 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177326 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  17. Experiment list: SRX1177312 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177312 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  18. Experiment list: SRX377966 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX377966 hg19 Input control Input control Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyt...oma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhem

  19. Experiment list: SRX1177293 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177293 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  20. Experiment list: SRX1177292 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177292 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  1. Experiment list: SRX1177328 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177328 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  2. Experiment list: SRX1177315 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177315 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  3. Experiment list: SRX1177322 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177322 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  4. Experiment list: SRX1177306 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177306 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  5. Experiment list: SRX1177316 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177316 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  6. Experiment list: SRX1177360 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177360 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  7. Experiment list: SRX377964 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX377964 hg19 Input control Input control Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyt...oma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhem

  8. Experiment list: SRX1177309 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177309 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  9. Experiment list: SRX1177324 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177324 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  10. Experiment list: SRX1177323 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177323 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  11. Experiment list: SRX1177348 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177348 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  12. Experiment list: SRX1177356 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177356 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  13. Experiment list: SRX1177302 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177302 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  14. Experiment list: SRX1177357 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177357 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  15. Experiment list: SRX1177310 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177310 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  16. Experiment list: SRX1177350 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177350 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  17. Experiment list: SRX1177359 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177359 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  18. Experiment list: SRX1177320 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177320 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  19. Experiment list: SRX1177311 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177311 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  20. Experiment list: SRX1177300 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177300 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  1. Experiment list: SRX1177325 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177325 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  2. Experiment list: SRX1177362 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177362 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  3. Experiment list: SRX1177307 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177307 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  4. Experiment list: SRX1177321 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177321 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  5. Experiment list: SRX1177363 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177363 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  6. Experiment list: SRX1177317 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177317 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  7. Experiment list: SRX1177358 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177358 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  8. Experiment list: SRX1177364 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177364 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  9. Experiment list: SRX1177314 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177314 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  10. Experiment list: SRX1177304 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177304 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  11. Experiment list: SRX1177294 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177294 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  12. Experiment list: SRX1177355 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177355 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  13. Experiment list: SRX1177361 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177361 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  14. Experiment list: SRX1177319 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177319 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  15. Experiment list: SRX1177343 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177343 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  16. Experiment list: SRX1177308 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177308 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  17. Experiment list: SRX1177345 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177345 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  18. Experiment list: SRX1177305 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177305 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  19. Experiment list: SRX1177301 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177301 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  20. Phase II Pediatric Study With Dabrafenib in HGG Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Glioblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Choroid Plexus Carcinoma; Anaplastic Ganglioglioma; Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Pineoblastoma; Medulloblastoma; PNET; Rhabdoid Tumor; Perineurioma; MPNST; Malignant Meningloma; Anaplastic Hemangiopericytoma

  1. Experiment list: SRX1177313 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177313 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  2. Experiment list: SRX1177298 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177298 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  3. Experiment list: SRX1177318 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177318 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  4. Experiment list: SRX1177303 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177303 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  5. Experiment list: SRX1177296 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX1177296 hg19 Unclassified Unclassified Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocyto...ma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemo

  6. Experiment list: SRX377961 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage...SRX377961 hg19 TFs and others ZFHX4 Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocytoma his

  7. Experiment list: SRX103002 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage,...SRX103002 hg19 TFs and others CTCF Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocytoma hist

  8. Experiment list: SRX377962 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage,...SRX377962 hg19 TFs and others CHD4 Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocytoma hist

  9. Experiment list: SRX377960 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage...SRX377960 hg19 TFs and others ZFHX4 Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocytoma his

  10. Experiment list: SRX377963 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage,...SRX377963 hg19 TFs and others CHD4 Neural Glioblastoma MeSH Description=A malignant form of astrocytoma hist

  11. Espectroscopia multivoxel com tempo de eco curto: a razão colina/N-acetil-aspartato e a graduação dos astrocitomas cerebrais Multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time: choline/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio and the grading of cerebral astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Vasco Aragão; Maria Concepción García Otaduy; Roberto Vieira de Melo; Hildo Rocha Cirne de Azevedo Filho; Edgar Guimarães Victor; José Laércio Silva; Nelson Araújo; Claudia da Costa Leite; Marcelo Moraes Valença

    2007-01-01

    Avaliou-se a relação colina/N-acetil-aspartato (Co/NAA), obtida pela espectroscopia multivoxel com tempo de eco (TE) curto, na graduação histológica dos astrocitomas encefálicos (graus I, II e III-IV), comparando com o parênquima cerebral normal. Observou-se aumento significativo (p

  12. Índice de astrócitos gemistocíticos e imuno-expressão da proteína p53 em astrocitomas, grau II e III OMS Fraction of gemistocytic astrocytes and immunoexpression of p53 protein in astrocytomas grade II and III (WHO)

    OpenAIRE

    Dely Cristina Martins; João Norberto Stávale; Suzana Maria Fleury Malheiros; Lucila Heloisa Simardi Santiago; Leonor Cristina Manoja Roman; Kátia Cilene Carozzi Aguiar

    2001-01-01

    Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 22 pacientes com diagnóstico de astrocitomas grau II (n=17) e III (n=5), OMS, no período de 1990 a 1998, cujos laudos histopatológicos descreviam a presença gemistocitos com o objetivo de determinar o índice de astrócitos gemistocíticos, investigar a imuno-expressão da proteína p53 e confrontá-los com o intervalo até a recorrência da neoplasia. O índice de astrócitos gemistocíticos, em cada caso, foi calculado a partir da razão entre o número de gemistocit...

  13. Expression and Clinical Significance of HIF-1α、 VEGF and EphB4/ephrinB2 in Human Brian Astrocytoma%HIF-1α、VEGF、EphB4/ephrinB2在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云华; 古金海; 王玲

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究HIF-1α、VEGF、EphB4及其配体ephrinB2在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达,探讨其与星形细胞瘤临床病理特征的关系.方法 应用组织芯片技术及免疫组化SP法检测60例人脑星形细胞瘤和13例正常脑组织中HIF-1α、 VEGF、EphB4/ephrinB2表达及微血管密度(MVD).结果 HIF-1α、VEGF、EphB4/ephrinB2蛋白在星形细胞瘤表达水平及MVDs与肿瘤临床病理分级显著相关(P<0.05),与患者年龄、性别及肿瘤的大小无关.HIF-1α、VEGF、EphB4/ephrinB2两两间均呈正相关.结论 HIF-1α、 VEGF、EphB4/ephrinB2过表达与肿瘤临床病理分级关系密切,可能成为判断星形细胞瘤恶性进展和预后的重要指标.

  14. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Arnoud

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is roughly 12 months and only 5 % of the patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis. Fifty % of astrocytomas are ryped as glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant form of glioma. Glioblast...

  15. Optimization of High Grade Glioma Cell Culture from Surgical Specimens for Use in Clinically Relevant Animal Models and 3D Immunochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselbach, Laura A.; Susan M. Irtenkauf; Lemke, Nancy W.; Nelson, Kevin K.; Artem D. Berezovsky; Carlton, Enoch T.; Andrea D. Transou; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas, the most common and aggressive form of astrocytoma, are refractory to therapy, and molecularly heterogeneous. The ability to establish cell cultures that preserve the genomic profile of the parental tumors, for use in patient specific in vitro and in vivo models, has the potential to revolutionize the preclinical development of new treatments for glioblastoma tailored to the molecular characteristics of each tumor. Starting with fresh high grade astrocytoma tumors dissociated i...

  16. THE ROLE OF GAP JUNCTIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASTROCYTIC HUMAN BRAIN TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grankina A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention is paid to research the role of cell-cell interactions by gap junctions in the process of malignant transformation and mechanisms of antitumor resistance. Meanwhile, the greatest interest is astrocytic tumors. Depending on the degree of malignancy, astrocytomas are divided into: pilocytic astrocytoma (Grade I, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (Grade I, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (Grade II, diffuse astrocytoma (Grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma (Grade III, glioblastoma (Grade IV gliomatosis cerebri (Grade IV. Information of literature devoted to astrocytic tumors (gliomas - the most common brain tumor in large part obtained in studies in cell cultures and different contradictions. Along with data on the reduction of glial tumors cells communicability through GJ, there is evidence of an opposite character - a functionally active GJ in gliomas and inhibition of tumor growth by reducing intercellular communicability by GJ. However, up to now there have been no studies of the effect and function of hemichannels in cancer cells, which would provide detailed information on: 1 the characteristic of presence and relative abundance of hemichannels in cancer cells; 2 evaluation of absorption / release of hemichannels mediated molecules in tumor cells than in non-tumor cells; 3 functional consequences of activation and blocking of hemichannels in tumor cells and 4 the prognostic value of the expression / activation of hemichannels in human malignancies

  17. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in pediatric low-grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, using normalized concentrations of total choline (tCho) and total creatine (tCr), can differentiate between World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and diffuse, fibrillary WHO grade II astrocytoma (DA) in children. Data from 16 children with astrocytomas (11 children with PA and 5 children with DA) were evaluated retrospectively. MR spectroscopy (MRS) was performed before treatment in all patients with histologically proven low-grade astrocytomas. Metabolite concentrations of tCho and tCr were normalized to the respective concentration in contralateral brain tissue. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to evaluate differences between these two groups. Normalized tCho did not show any statistically significant difference between the two groups. There was a strong trend (P=0.07) toward higher values of normalized tCr in the DA group. For 3 of 5 children with DA, lactate was detectable, but only 1 of 11 children with PA showed lactate. We concluded that choline as a single parameter is not reliable in the differential diagnosis of low-grade astrocytomas in children. Our results suggest that tCr concentrations combined with lactate will be helpful in the differential diagnosis of PA and DA in children. (author)

  18. Tumour blood flow and partition coefficients: correlation with grade of cerebral gliomas using xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to underestimate the grade of nonenhancing cerebral tumours on conventional contrast-enhanced MRI or CT. Differentiation of high- and low-grade gliomas by measurement of the brain-blood partition coefficient lambda (Tλ) with Xe-enhanced CT (XeCT) has been reported. We assessed the practical applications of XeCT in suspected low-grade astrocytomas. We examined 15 patients with tumours which showed no contrast enhancement on conventional MRI and CT, using XeCT. Tumour blood flow (TBF) and Tλ were calculated. Fourteen patients underwent surgery, one patient had a biopsy. We recognised three histological groups. While Tλ differed significantly between them, TBF did not. Group 1 contained grade II-III astrocytomas and Tλ was 0.77; group 2 contained grade I-II astrocytomas with Tλ 1.14, and group 3 four oligodendrogliomas in which a Tλ of 1.50 was found. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. ANALYSIS OF VARIABLES AFFECTING SURVIVAL OF PATIENTS WITH ASTRACYTOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志敏; 吴涛; 袁先厚; 陈卫国; 江普查

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that affect the survival of patients with astrocytomas. Methods: We reviewed the clinical and radiological features of 104 patients operated during 1995(2000. The features were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Univariate statistical analysis revealed that tumor localization, enhancement, edema, tumor invasion, seizure as the first symptom recurrence, edema, tumor invasion, seizure as the first symptom and recurrence of astrocytomas significantly affected the survival, In multivariate analysis four factors showed significant danger to long survival: necrosis, pathological grade, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score before operation, extent of resection. The rest factors appeared to be of no benefit to survival. Conclusion: The important factors that affect the long survival of patients with astrocytomas are necrosis, pathological grade, KPS score before operation and extent of resection.

  20. Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Hamerlik, P; Stockhausen, Marie;

    2010-01-01

    damage signalling in low- and high-grade human gliomas, and analyze the sources of such endogenous genotoxic stress. Based on analyses of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, normal astrocytes and clinical specimens from grade II astrocytomas (n=41) and grade IV GBM (n=60), we conclude that...... brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors. Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low......-oxygen culture conditions and in clinical specimens of both low- and high-grade tumors. The observed global checkpoint signaling, in contrast to only focal areas of overabundant p53 (indicative of p53 mutation) in grade II astrocytomas, are consistent with DDR activation being an early event in gliomagenesis...

  1. Serum protein fingerprinting coupled with artificial neural network distinguishes glioma from healthy population or brain benign tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; ZHENG Shu; YU Jie-kai; ZHANG Jian-min; CHEN Zhe

    2005-01-01

    To screen and evaluate protein biomarkers for the detection of gliomas (Astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅳ) from healthy individuals and gliomas from brain benign tumors by using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) coupled with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. SELDI-TOF-MS protein fingerprinting of serum from 105 brain tumor patients and healthy individuals, included 28 patients with glioma (Astrocytoma Ⅰ-Ⅳ), 37 patients with brain benign tumor, and 40 age-matched healthy individuals. Two thirds of the total samples of every compared pair as training set were used to set up discriminating patterns, and one third of total samples of every compared pair as test set were used to cross-validate; simultaneously, discriminate-cluster analysis derived SPSS 10.0 software was used to compare Astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ with grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ ones. An accuracy of 95.7%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% were obtained in a blinded test set comparing gliomas patients with healthy individuals; an accuracy of 86.4%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 84.6%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 85.7% were obtained when patient's gliomas was compared with benign brain tumor. Total accuracy of 85.7%, accuracy of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ Astrocytoma was 86.7%, accuracy ofⅢ-Ⅳ Astrocytoma was 84.6% were obtained when grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ Astrocytoma was compared with grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ ones (discriminant analysis). SELDI-TOF-MS combined with bioinformatics tools, could greatly facilitate the discovery of better biomarkers. The high sensitivity and specificity achieved by the use of selected biomarkers showed great potential application for the discrimination of gliomas patients from healthy individuals and glioma from brain benign tumors.

  2. PDGFRA gain in low-grade diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kazuya; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Pierscianek, Daniela; Kim, Young-Ho; Mariani, Luigi; Vital, Anne; Perry, Arie; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas with a proneural expression signature are characterized by frequent IDH1 mutations (i.e. genetic hallmarks of secondary glioblastomas) and PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) amplification. Mutations in IDH1/2 are frequent and early genetic events in diffuse astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade II), precursor to secondary glioblastomas, but little is known about the role and timing of PDGFRA amplification in these tumors. We assessed PDGFRA gain in 342 low-grade diffuse gliomas by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gain in PDGFRA was detected in 27 (16.3%) of 166 diffuse astrocytomas, significantly more frequent than in oligodendrogliomas (3 [2.6%] of 115, p < 0.0001). Analyses using previously published data from our laboratory showed an inverse correlation between PDGFRA gain and IDH1/2 mutations (p = 0.018) or 1p/19q loss (p < 0.0001). The vast majority of diffuse astrocytomas showed IDH1/2 mutations and/or PDGFRA gain (154 [93%] of 166). Mean survival of diffuse astrocytoma patients with PDGFRA gain was 8.8 ± 1.6 years, similar to that with IDH1/2 mutations (7.8 ± 0.5 years) or TP53 mutations (7.6 ± 0.6 years) but significantly longer than those with MET gain (4.4 ± 0.7 years). Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization in 6 diffuse astrocytomas with PDGFRA/MET co-gain identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that PDGFRA and MET were typically amplified in different tumor cell populations. Tumor cells with coamplification were also focally observed, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity, even in diffuse astrocytomas.

  3. Irinotecan in Treating Children With Refractory Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  4. Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Hamerlik, P; Stockhausen, Marie;

    2010-01-01

    brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors. Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low...... and indicate that replication stress, rather than oxidative stress, fuels the DNA damage signalling in early stages of astrocytoma development.......Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure. Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA...

  5. Primary spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme presenting with transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhan Cerci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal cord tumors are rarely encountered in childhood period. Ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas comprise the majority of spinal cord tumors in children. Spinal glioblastoma multiforme (GM (grade IV astrocytoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 1-3% of all pediatric intramedullary tumors. We report a 3- year-8- month-old male with primary spinal cord GM who presented with back pain, paraparesis, gait disturbance and loss of sphincter control and initially diagnosed as transverse myelitis. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 606-610

  6. Flavopiridol in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors or Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Retinoblastoma; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  7. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  8. 黏液性毛细胞型星形细胞瘤影像学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟

    2010-01-01

    @@ 黏液性毛细胞型星形细胞瘤(pilomyxoid astrocytomas,PMA)又称毛细胞黏液样型星形细胞瘤,是2007年WHO关于中枢神经系统肿瘤分类中新增加的一种肿瘤亚型[1].毛细胞型星形细胞瘤(pilocytic astrocytoma,PA)是儿童中枢神经系统肿瘤中最常见的一种良性肿瘤,其生长较缓慢,属WHO Ⅰ级.

  9. 毛细胞黏液型星形细胞瘤(附五例报告并文献复习)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易亚辉; 耿道颖; 姚振威; 吴劲松; 陆忠烈

    2011-01-01

    @@ 毛细胞黏液型星形细胞瘤(pilomyxoid astrocytomas,PMA)是近来才被提出的一种星形细胞肿瘤,具有独特的组织病理学特点和临床特征.一些学者认为PMA是毛细胞型星形细胞瘤(pilocytic astrocytoma,PA)的一种变异,称之为PA的幼稚型;另一些学者认为PMA是一种独立的病变,或者是PA的不典型变异.

  10. EMP3 methylation and expression analysis and evaluation as a putative tumour suppressor gene located at 19q13.3 in human gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Kunitz, Annegret

    2010-01-01

    Allelic losses on 19q are found in the majority of oligodendroglial tumors and approximately one-third of diffuse astrocytomas. However, the tumor suppressor genes (TSG) on 19q are still elusive. Using cDNA microarray expression profiling, EMP3 at 19q13.3 was among those genes showing the most pronounced expression differences. In line with this, other authors reported EMP3 as being epigenetically silenced in neuroblastomas and astrocytomas. To further investigate EMP3 as a TSG candidate on 1...

  11. Connexin43 confers Temozolomide resistance in human glioma cells by modulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, P.R.; Aftab, Q.; Ma, N.; Chen, V.C.; Hong, X.; Lozinsky, S.; Naus, C.C.; Sin, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive astrocytoma, and therapeutic options are generally limited to surgical resection, radiotherapy, and Temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. TMZ is a DNA alkylating agent that causes DNA damage and induces cell death. Unfortunately, glioma cells often dev

  12. [Theory and practice in developing a system of artificial intelligence for recognizing histologic specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereznaia, I Ia; Gurevich, E Ia; Matsko, D E; Mikhal'chenko, A I

    1993-01-01

    A system is described for an automatic analysis and recognition of a fresh and reference histologic material. The system includes a microscope, TV camera and personal computer. The system proved applicable in identification of two tumor types: astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. The system can be used in pathology, histology, embryology, cytology, histochemistry, clinical laboratory microscopy and in borderline fields.

  13. The pathogenesis of cysts accompanying intra-axial primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohle, PNM; Wurzer, HAL; Seelen, PJ; Kingma, LM; Go, KG

    1998-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that cyst formation accompanying astrocytomas in the central nervous system (CNS) is due to an edematous process caused by blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and not a result of necrosis. This study is performed to investigate whether the hypothesis of cyst formation

  14. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H

    1990-01-01

    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  15. Neurology; Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlienger, M.; Nataf, F.; Foulquier, J.N.; Gres, B.; Keraudy, K.; Orthuon, A.; Huguet, F.; Ghossoub, M.; Roux, F.X.; Touboul, E.; El Morjani, T.; Mharrech, A.; Benchakroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A.; Berges, O.; Abrous, S.; Lang, P.; Toubiana, T.; Ontkova, M.; Boustany, R.; Lopez, S.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Simon, J.M.; Toledano, I.; Khalil, T.; Gilliot, O.; Durando, X.; Bay, J.O.; Tortochaux, J.; Bourry, N.; Kemeny, J.L.; Lapeyre, M.; Verrelle, P.; Malkoun-Mongenot, N.; Greve, E.; Schmitt, T.; Mazloum, W.; Mazzola, L.; Duthel, R.; Brunon, J.; Sunyach, M.S.; Ghesquiere, H.G.; Carrie, C.C.; Blay, J.Y

    2007-11-15

    7 articles concern cerebral metastases, medulloblastomas, glioblastomas,astrocytomas, cerebral lymphomas and study the different therapies between radiotherapy and chemotherapy, concomitant or adjuvant with different drugs as carbo-platin, etoposide, temozolomid, methotrexate. Tolerance and toxicity are noticed. (N.C.)

  16. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.

    1983-12-01

    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  17. Low expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in glioblastoma predicts longer patient survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær;

    2009-01-01

    but whether TIMP-1 is a prognostic marker in gliomas has not previously been investigated. In the present study, the TIMP-1 expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 112 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded astrocytomas and related to tumour grade and overall patient survival by scoring the TIMP-1...

  18. Astrocitoma de grado I en glándula pineal

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1985-01-01

    Tres imágenes de un astrocitoma de grado I situado en la glándula pineal de un paciente de 10 años. Three pictures of a grade I astrocytoma located in the pineal gland of a 10-year-old male patient.

  19. Kynurenic acid synthesis by human glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzani, A; Gramsbergen, J B; Versari, P;

    1990-01-01

    , 200 or 1000 microM L-kynurenine, the immediate bioprecursor of KYNA, freshly prepared tissue slices in a dose-dependent fashion produced KYNA which was detected in the incubation medium. De novo synthesized KYNA was identified by several chromatographic procedures. Astrocytomas produced significantly...

  20. The Study of Glioblastoma Differentiation Possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medyanik I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the possibility of glioblastoma differentiation using infrared spectroscopy, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods. 22 patients with glioblastomas and 21 patients with anaplastic astrocytomas were examined. All the patients underwent infrared spectroscopy of blood serum. 16 patients with glioblastomas were examined preoperatively and postoperatively, and in both cases 7 of them underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tumors and identical peritumoral areas. All diagnoses were morphologically confirmed, and 10 cases with glioblastomas and 15 cases with anaplastic astrocytomas were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Glioblastoma differentiation (Grade IV into anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade III was revealed postoperatively, in total glioblastoma resection and confirmed by the findings of infrared spectroscopy in blood serum, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of identical peritumoral areas performed preoperatively and postoperatively, as well as by immunohistochemical investigation of peritumoral area. Conclusion. The complex of the techniques applied (infrared spectroscopy, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, immunohistochemistry enables to assess how effective and total the surgery was, and if it promoted glioblastoma differentiation postoperatively, and determine how the tumor will develop after the surgery: as glioblastoma — with early continuous tumor growth, or as anaplastic astrocytoma — with the longer recurrence-free period. The findings are in agreement with tissue theory of tumor genesis; and change the understanding of the role and significance of surgical resection of glioblastomas in tumor differentiation.

  1. The long-term risk of malignant astrocytic tumors after structural brain injury--a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Gørtz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    Discharge Register. Diagnoses of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (World Health Organization grades III and IV) were retrieved from the Danish Cancer Registry. Rate ratios (RR's) were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression. RESULTS: In a cohort of 8.2 million individuals, 404 812...

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...

  3. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930591 Immunohistochemical study on astrocy-toma.LUO Xinming(罗欣鸣),et al.DeptPathol,2nd Affili Hosp,Guangzhou Med Coll,Guangzhou,510260.Chin J Pathol 1993;22(2):95-97.Seventy-four cases of human astrocytoma

  4. Health-related quality of life in stable, long-term survivors of low-grade glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Boele; L. Douw; J.C. Reijneveld; R. Robben; M.J.B. Taphoorn; N.K. Aaronson; J.J. Heimans; M. Klein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) often experience long periods of stable disease, emphasizing the importance of maintaining good health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We assessed the changes in HRQOL in long-term survivors of WHO grade I or II astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or oligoa

  5. Gliomatosis cerebri--an appropriate diagnosis? Case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, E; Skriver, E; Herning, Gudrun Margrethe;

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the premises for the diagnosis gliomatosis cerebri in relation to diffuse astrocytomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CT, MR images and pathological analyses were used to assess the cases of 4 patients with diffusely infiltrating astrocytic tumours that radiologically, clinically...

  6. Disease: H00042 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (...ytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients a...ncies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of P...for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malign

  7. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... centers in a large city and/or an academic center near you (for a listing of epilepsy ... due to the presence of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), a ... MN 55416 Phone: 888-525-6232 952-525-4526 Minneapolis, MN ...

  8. Rare mutations of the DMBT1 gene in human astrocytic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Wolf; Mollenhauer, Jan; Stockhammer, Florian;

    2002-01-01

    of the entire coding region of DMBT1, employing SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing in a series of 79 astrocytic gliomas. Five somatic mutations were detected. Two mutations, one of which resulted in an amino acid exchange, occurred in glioblastomas. One pilocytic astrocytoma carried two missense mutations...

  9. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  10. Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osztie, Eva [National Institute of Neurosurgery, Amerikai ut 57, 1145 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: osztie@oiti.hu; Hanzely, Zoltan [National Institute of Neurosurgery, Amerikai ut 57, 1145 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: han_zol@yahoo.com; Afra, Denes [National Institute of Neurosurgery, Amerikai ut 57, 1145 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: afraden@hotmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Neuroimaging data of lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas diagnosed in one institution were reviewed and compared to the corresponding literature data. CT and MRI imaging characteristics of the two tumour types are rather different, both in reported cases as well as in our material. In our series ventricular ependymomas (eight cases) were mostly hyperdense with pronounced contrast uptake. Thirteen subependymomas were hypodense, mostly without enhancement, but occasionally mild or moderate enhancement was noted. Eight subependymal giant cell astrocytomas also displayed hypodense, rarely hyperdense or mixed imaging characteristics, and always showed significant degree of contrast enhancement. Nineteen central neurocytomas showed hypo- or mixed density, but mostly mild to moderate enhancement. Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones. In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK. WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007] were hypodense without contrast uptake. Our data support those of previous studies in that MRI has been found to be superior to CT for a more precise imaging of lateral ventricle gliomas. However, it is of note that for the verification of an intraventricular tumour CT is also satisfactory. Survival data were available in 65 cases, which have confirmed a favourable outcome in most of the patients with subependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, central neurocytomas or pilocytic astrocytoma. Survival of patients with other types of glial tumour was similar to that of patients with a similar tumour, but in an extraventricular localisation.

  11. 脑星形细胞瘤3T MRI 3D多体素1H-MRS术前分级及病理对照研究%Brain Astrocytoma:3T MRI 3D Multivoxel 1H-MRS in Preoperative Grading and Pathological Findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼晓剑; 蒋定尧; 倪丽欣; 俞高龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究脑星形细胞瘤的3T MRI 3D多体素1H-MRS表现,通过分析 NAA,Cho,Cr,Lac and Lip,NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr比值变化,初步探讨脑星形细胞瘤1H-MRS术前分级诊断及与其病理级别相关性。方法收集浙江大学医学院附属第二医院和解放军第一一三医院经手术及病理证实的45例脑星形细胞瘤患者MRI资料,其中高级别脑星形细胞瘤组28例,低级别脑星形细胞瘤组17例。通过计算NAA/Cr,NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr等比值,分析脑星形细胞瘤波谱表现及高低级别组间差异。结果脑星形细胞瘤肿瘤组织与对照侧正常脑组织的NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr,NAA/Cr比值存在显著性差异(P<0.05); NAA/Cho、NAA/Cr比值在高低级别脑星形细胞瘤瘤周近区存在显著性差异(P<0.05);NAA/Cho、NAA/Cr比值在高级别脑星形细胞瘤和低级别脑星形细胞瘤的肿瘤组织有统计学差异(P<0.05),肿瘤瘤体区NAA/Cho比值与肿瘤的级别呈负相关(r=-0.542,P<0.05),NAA/Cr与肿瘤级别负相关(r=-0.502,P<0.05),Cho/Cr比值与肿瘤的级别呈正相关(r=0.420,P<0.05)。结论3D多体素1H-MRS能够为术前肿瘤分级提供定量诊断依据,脑星形细胞瘤的病理级别与其代谢物比值有相关性,具有重要临床应用价值。%Objective This study was designed to approach the characteritics of astrocytoma 3D Mult-ivoxel1H-MRS and the correlation with grading diagnosis in preoperative grading by analyzing the contents changes of major metabolites such as NAA, Cho, Cr,Lac and Lip in astrocytoma1H-MRS, and jointly measuring ratio changes of NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr.Methods A total of 45 patients of brain astrocytoma which were confirmed by postoperative pathological results were gathered in the Second Affiliated hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine and PLA NO.113 hospital. Seventeen cases of low-grade astrocytoma (Ⅰ-Ⅱgrade),28 cases of high-grade astrocytoma (Ⅲ-Ⅳ grade). NAA

  12. 星形细胞瘤中微血管图像定量分析及其病理意义的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖平

    2014-01-01

    应用免疫组织化学方法和图像分析技术,对21例星形细胞瘤中微血管进行图象定量分析和病理研究。结果显示:星形细胞瘤内微血管各参数组间比较均有极显著意义(P<0.01,P<0.01)。微血管面积、直径、形状因子、CD31相对含量变化均与星形细胞瘤恶性程度及分级呈正比;微血管面积、直径、形状因子、CD31相对含量,在客观评价星形细胞瘤恶性程度中具有重要意义。并为星形细胞瘤诊断分级、良恶性鉴别、预后的判断及指导临床治疗提供了有用的参数。%application immunity organizes chemistry method and the analytical technology of image in astrocytoma ,micromodule carries out image quantitative analysis and pathological mechanism research on 21 in regular astrocytoma.Result is demonstrated:Micromodule has extremely notable meaning comparatively without exception within astrocytoma among every parameter group (P <0.01,P <0.01).Micromodule area ,diameter ,form factor ,contents relative CD31 change assume direct proportion without exception with malignant degree of astrocytoma and classification;Micromodule area ,diameter ,form factor ,relative contents of CD31,in the objective estimates that astrocytoma has importance in malignant degree.And in order the astrocyto-ma diagnose classifies ,the good people is distinguished malignantly ,prognosis judgement and direction treat clinical y have provided a useful parameter.

  13. EGFR as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Siebert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tyrosine kinase receptor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR can be activated by several ligands, thus triggering downstream pathways regulating cell growth and survival. Its dysregula­tion is particularly important for the development and progression of astrocytomas. After the description of its role in glioblastomas (WHO grade IV astrocytomas, an overview on the therapeutic strategies target­ing EGFR is provided. It analyzes the past and ongoing trials concerning the small molecule tyro­sine kinase inhibitors, i.e. gefitinib, erlotinib and the combination therapies, the EGFR vaccina­tion strategies, the antibodies directed against EGFR and finally the intracranially administered EGFR-targeted therapies. As our understanding of the underlying molecular aberrancies in glioblastoma grows, our ability to better target specific subtypes of glioblastoma should improve. Molecular biomarker enriched clinical trials may lead to improved patient outcomes.

  14. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  15. Research progress of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-shan ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gene mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2 mainly occur in astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma and secondary glioblastoma. The IDH1/2 gene mutation can alter proteinase function, consume α-ketoglutarate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-reduced (NADPH and thus produce carcinogenic metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate. The intracellular accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate will induce a series of downstream effects which may result in the development of gliomas mentioned above. Both IDH1/2 mutations and other concomitant hereditary variations are biomarkers for differential diagnosis and IDH1/2 mutations are also independent factors for the prognosis of gliomas. The molecular targeting therapy for IDH1/2 mutations has become the research focus of glioma treatment. This review summarizes the recent progress of this field. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.017

  16. Expression and significance of Survivin, PTEN and mutant type P53 in human brain astrocytom%Survivin和PTEN与P53在人脑星形细胞瘤的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张信芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of apoptosis inhibitor gene-Survivin and tumor suppressor gene-PTEN ,mutant type P53 in human brain astrocytoma and the relationship between these genes and the pathological features of astrocytoma. Methods SP immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Survivin,PTEN and mutant type P53 gene in 15 cases of normal brain tissue and 40 cases of cerebral astrocytoma. Results The positive rates of Survivin,PTEN and mutant type P53 in normal brain tissue were 0%,100% and 0% respectively. The positive rates in astrocytoma were 52.5% ,60.0% and 45.0% respectively. There was a significant difference in the expressions of Survivin,PTEN and mutant type P53 between normal brain tissue and astrocytoma. The expressions of Survivin,P53 were increased with the increase of tumor's grade,however,the expression of PTEN was decreased. Conclusion Survivin, PTEN and mutant type P53 in the occurrence and development of astrocytoma play an important role and the positive rates of Survivin, PTEN and mutant type P53 in astrocytoma are correlated with astrocytoma's grade.%目的 探讨凋亡抑制基因Survivin和抑癌基因PTEN、P53在人脑星形细胞瘤中的表达及与临床病理特征之间的关系.方法 应用SP免疫组织化学法,检测Survivin、PTEN与P53基因在15例正常脑组织(对照组)、40例脑星形细胞瘤(脑星形细胞瘤组)中的表达情况.结果 在正常脑组织和脑星形细胞瘤中 Survivin的阳性率为0%、52.5%;PTEN的阳性率为100%、60.0%;P53的阳性率为0%,45%.2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05 或<0.01).Survivin、PTEN与P53在脑星形细胞瘤不同分级中有不同的表达,Survivin、P53随着分级的增加表达的阳性率增加,而PTEN随着分级的增加其表达的阳性率降低.结论 Survivin、PTEN与P53在其发生发展过程中起着一定的作用,并与人脑星形细胞瘤的分级相关.

  17. The Cancer Genome Atlas expression profiles of low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, David D; Cheung, Vincent J; Muller, Karra A; Goyal, Amit; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2014-04-01

    Differentiating between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of astrocytic and oligodendroglial origin remains a major challenge in neurooncology. Here the authors analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) profiles of LGGs with the goal of identifying distinct molecular characteristics that would afford accurate and reliable discrimination of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. They found that 1) oligodendrogliomas are more likely to exhibit the glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), relative to low-grade astrocytomas; 2) relative to oligodendrogliomas, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit a higher expression of genes related to mitosis, replication, and inflammation; and 3) low-grade astrocytic tumors harbor microRNA profiles similar to those previously described for glioblastoma tumors. Orthogonal intersection of these molecular characteristics with existing molecular markers, such as IDH1 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p19q status, should facilitate accurate and reliable pathological diagnosis of LGGs.

  18. [A medical image semantic modeling based on hierarchical Bayesian networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunyi; Ma, Lihong; Yin, Junxun; Chen, Jianyu

    2009-04-01

    A semantic modeling approach for medical image semantic retrieval based on hierarchical Bayesian networks was proposed, in allusion to characters of medical images. It used GMM (Gaussian mixture models) to map low-level image features into object semantics with probabilities, then it captured high-level semantics through fusing these object semantics using a Bayesian network, so that it built a multi-layer medical image semantic model, aiming to enable automatic image annotation and semantic retrieval by using various keywords at different semantic levels. As for the validity of this method, we have built a multi-level semantic model from a small set of astrocytoma MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) samples, in order to extract semantics of astrocytoma in malignant degree. Experiment results show that this is a superior approach.

  19. Slit2/Robo1 signaling in glioma migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Li, Wen-Liang; Fu, Li; Gu, Feng; Ma, Yong-Jie

    2010-12-01

    Slit2/Robo1 is a conserved ligand-receptor system, which greatly affects the distribution, migration, axon guidance and branching of neuron cells. Slit2 and its transmembrane receptor Robo1 have different distribution patterns in gliomas. The expression of Slit2 is at very low levels in pilocytic astrocytoma, fibrillary astrocytoma and glioblastoma, while Robo1 is highly expressed in different grades of gliomas at both mRNA and protein levels. Acquisition of insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways. Although the specific mechanisms of tumor-suppressive effect of Slit2/Robo1 have not been elucidated, it has been proved that Slit2/Robo1 signaling inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion by inactivation of Cdc42-GTP. With the research development on the molecular mechanisms of Slit2/Robo1 signaling in glioma invasion and migration, Slit2/Robo1 signaling may become a potential target for glioma prevention and treatment.

  20. Busulfan, Melphalan, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and a Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Relapsed Solid Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Solid Tumor; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Ewing Sarcoma; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific