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Sample records for astrocytomas

  1. Pilocytic astrocytoma

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    Yu-wei CONG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA is a low-grade glioma that occurs mainly in children and young adults. The histomorphology of PA located in the cerebellum (WHOⅠ is very typical. This article is to report one case of PA in the cerebellum of an 8-year-old child, and to discuss the clinical, imaging and pathological features of PA and clinicopathological differentiations from relevant tumors.  Methods and Results An 8-year-old girl presented intermittent headache for one month and the headache was aggravated for 7 d. MRI showed circular space-occupying lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere and cerebellar vermis, and the lesion revealed uneven signals. During the surgery, the tumor was soft and jellylike, with poor blood supply. Histologically, tumor cell nuclei were round or oval; cytoplasmic projections on both ends were slender hair-like, and were arranged around the blood vessels. Part of tumor cells had spindle nuclei, and showed fascicular compact arrangement or loose reticular arrangement. The pathomorphism of this tumro was slightly different from that of typical PA. It had unusually rich blood vessels, and Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granules were not obvious. Tumor cells were diffusely positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, synaptophysin (Syn, vimentin (Vim and P53, but negative for cytokeratin (CK, neuronal nuclei (NeuN and neurofilament protein (NF. Ki-67 index was 2%-5%. Vascular endothelial cells were positive for CD34, and scatteredly expressed CD68. Pathological diagosis was pilocytic astrocytoma (WHOⅠ.  Conclusions Pilocytic astrocytoma usually happens in children and adolescents and often occurs in the cerebellum. Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granules are helpful to make a clear diagnosis, but they are not necessary conditions of diagnosis. Differential diagnoses should be paid attention, such as pilomyxoid astrocytoma, angiocentric glioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT

  2. Prognostic parameters in benign astrocytomas

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    Westergaard, L; Gjerris, F; Klinken, L

    1993-01-01

    astrocytomas treated in the period 1956 to 1991. The pilocytic type of astrocytoma was found to have an outstandingly good prognosis and should be regarded as a distinct nosological entity. For the non-pilocytic supratentorial astrocytomas, a multivariate regression analysis showed that age, tumour site...

  3. Retinal astrocytoma in a dog.

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    Kuroki, Keiichi; Kice, Nathan; Ota-Kuroki, Juri

    2017-09-01

    A miniature schnauzer dog presenting with hyphema and glaucoma of the right eye had a retinal neoplasm. Neoplastic cells stained positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and S-100 and largely negatively for oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 by immunohistochemistry. The clinical and histopathological features of canine retinal astrocytomas are discussed.

  4. Spontaneous anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum.

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    Lach, B; Al Shail, E; Patay, Z

    2003-06-01

    We report a cystic cerebellar astrocytoma with a mural nodule that contained an additional focus of astrocytoma with the histological features of anaplasia, and showed up to 48% of aneuploid and 3% S-phase cells on flow cytometry. This focus was detectable on the enhanced, as well as non-enhanced T1 and T2 images. This appears to be the first case of pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum with focal anaplasia detected on histological and radiological studies.

  5. Postradiation astrocytoma. Report of two cases

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    Kitanaka, C.; Shitara, N.; Nakagomi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Genka, S.; Nakagawa, K.; Akanuma, A.; Aoyama, H.; Takakura, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe two cases of malignant astrocytomas associated with previous radiation therapy in childhood for intracranial germinoma and craniopharyngioma. In both patients, there was no recurrence at the primary tumor site. Because of a geometric coincidence between the tumor location and the radiation field, radiotherapy was strongly implicated as a cause of these two astrocytomas.33 references

  6. Imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytomas in comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas

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    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Ji Hye; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Eo, Hong; Shin, Hyung Jin; Yoo, So-Young; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described astrocytic tumor that has been previously diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). The purpose of this study was to describe the imaging features of PMAs in comparison with PAs. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed CT/MR images and medical records of 10 patients with PMA and 38 patients with PA. The mean ages of patients with PMA and PA were 10 and 15 years, respectively. Imaging features including location, composition, enhancement pattern, presence of calcification, hemorrhage, and leptomeningeal dissemination were compared in patients with two tumor types. Results: Six PMAs (60%) occurred at the suprasellar area and the cerebellum was the most common (45%) site of PA. Solid component was dominant in eight PMAs (80%) and in 19 PAs (50%). All of the PMAs containing solid mass (n = 8) included non-enhancing portion while 12/37 (32%) PAs included non-enhancing solid portion (p < 0.05). Leptomeningeal dissemination was noted in five PMAs (50%) and one PA (3%) (p < 0.05). Other imaging findings were not significantly different. Conclusion: A younger age, more frequent occurrence at the suprasellar area, mainly solid mass containing non-enhancing portion, and more frequent leptomeningeal dissemination are helpful differential features of PMAs as compared to PAs.

  7. Cerebral hemisphere astrocytoma: Treatment results

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    Boyages, J.; Tiver, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty two adult patients with histologically proven cerebral astrocytomas of grades I to IV received post-operative radiotherapy at Westmead Hospital between January 1980 and February 1985. Seventy one patients completed a course of megavoltage irradiation, the majority having received a tumour dose of at least 60 Gy. Patients who underwent surgical resection had a greater median survival than those undergoing biopsy, but the difference was not statistically significant. By grade, the difference reached statistical significance only for grade III tumours. Patients with high grade tumours had a significantly lower survival than those patients with tumours of low grade. After adjustment for grade, various dosage levels did not significantly affect survival, although there was a trend towards improved median survival with higher doses in grade III tumours. When included in a multivariate analysis, the extent of surgery did not significantly influence survival, but increasing tumour grade and increasing age were significant adverse prognostic factors. (Auth.)

  8. MR imaging characteristics of protoplasmic astrocytomas

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    Tay, Kevin L. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Radiology, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Tsui, Alpha [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Pathology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Phal, Pramit M.; Tress, Brian M. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Drummond, Katharine J. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Protoplasmic astrocytomas are a poorly recognized and uncommon subtype of astrocytoma. While usually categorized with other low-grade gliomas, there is literature to suggest that protoplasmic astrocytomas have differences in biology compared to other gliomas in this group. This paper presents the MR imaging characteristics of a series of eight protoplasmic astrocytomas. We retrospectively reviewed MR images and histopathology of eight consecutive cases of histologically proven protoplasmic astrocytomas. Patients ranged from 17 to 51 years of age with a 5:3 male to female ratio. The tumors were located in the frontal or temporal lobes and tended to be large, well defined, and had a very high signal on T2 (close to cerebrospinal fluid). Generally, a large proportion of the tumor showed substantial signal suppression on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Six of the eight lesions also demonstrated a partial or complete rim of reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) around the T2 FLAIR suppressing portion. The possibility that a primary cerebral neoplasm represents a protoplasmic astrocytoma should be considered in a patient with a large frontal or temporal tumor that has a very high signal on T2 with a large proportion of the tumor showing substantial T2 FLAIR suppression. A further clue is a partial or complete rim of reduced ADC. (orig.)

  9. Pilocytic astrocytoma: a retrospective review

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    Wen, B.-C.; Mayr, Nina A.; Hitchon, Patrick W.; Kao, S.; Hussey, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The principle objective of this study is to determine the role of radiation therapy in the management of pilocytic astrocytoma. The specific aims are to assess the results of surgical resection +/- radiation therapy, the dose-response relationships for local tumor control, and the prognostic indicators. Materials and methods: Between Jan. 1970 and Dec. 1995, 60 patients with pilocytic astrocytomas (27 cerebellum, 23 hypothalmus/brain stem, 4 temporal, 3 frontal, and 3 occipital) were seen. All pathologic slides were reviewed and confirmed. Of these, 30 patients had surgery only (8 subtotal resections and 22 total resections), 8 had biopsy followed by radiotherapy (6) or chemotherapy (2), 21 had surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (20 subtotal resections and 1 total resection) and 1 was observed only. The radiation dose was 40.6 Gy/31fr/44ds to 60.2 Gy/35fr/49ds (mean = 52.1 Gy). Results: The overall 5- and 10-year actuarial survival rate was 93% and 93%, and the relapse-free survival rate was 86% and 80%, respectively. Eight patients developed local recurrence and one had leptomeningeal spread. Two patients receiving chemotherapy (vincristine + carboplatin) had persistent but stable disease. The one patient who was observed eventually required surgical resection 25 months later. Subtotal resection without RT: The local recurrence rate was 38% ((3(8))) if no RT was given after subtotal resection. Only 2 of the 3 recurrences were salvaged. All 22 patients who had tumor totally resected had local tumor control. Subtotal resection/biopsy only plus RT: Radiation therapy was effective in controlling the gross disease in 75% ((15(20))) of patients with subtotal resection, and 100% ((6(6))) of patients with biopsy only. In 14 patients receiving a tumor dose ≥ 51 Gy, 13 (93%) had local control, in comparison, to (11(15)) (73%) receiving a tumor dose <51 Gy had tumor control. Location of tumor: Sixty-three percent ((17(27))) of patients with tumor in cerebellum

  10. Prognosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Astrocytoma

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    Minehan, Kiernan J.; Brown, Paul D.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Krauss, William E.; Wright, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic factors for spinal cord astrocytoma and determine the effects of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytoma treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1962 and 2005. Results: A total of 136 consecutive patients were identified. Of these 136 patients, 69 had pilocytic and 67 had infiltrative astrocytoma. The median follow-up for living patients was 8.2 years (range, 0.08-37.6), and the median survival for deceased patients was 1.15 years (range, 0.01-39.9). The extent of surgery included incisional biopsy only (59%), subtotal resection (25%), and gross total resection (16%). Patients with pilocytic tumors survived significantly longer than those with infiltrative astrocytomas (median overall survival, 39.9 vs. 1.85 years; p < 0.001). Patients who underwent resection had a worse, although nonsignificant, median survival than those who underwent biopsy only (pilocytic, 18.1 vs. 39.9 years, p = 0.07; infiltrative, 19 vs. 30 months, p = 0.14). Postoperative radiotherapy, delivered in 75% of cases, gave no significant survival benefit for those with pilocytic tumors (39.9 vs. 18.1 years, p = 0.33) but did for those with infiltrative astrocytomas (24 vs. 3 months; Wilcoxon p = 0.006). On multivariate analysis, pilocytic histologic type, diagnosis after 1984, longer symptom duration, younger age, minimal surgical extent, and postoperative radiotherapy predicted better outcome. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that histologic type is the most important prognostic variable affecting the outcome of spinal cord astrocytomas. Surgical resection was associated with shorter survival and thus remains an unproven treatment. Postoperative radiotherapy significantly improved survival for patients with infiltrative astrocytomas but not for those with pilocytic tumors

  11. Childhood Astrocytoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

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    Childhood astrocytomas can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Learn more about the types of astrocytoma, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of astrocytomas that are newly diagnosed or have come back after treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

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    Maat-Schieman, M.L.C.; Bots, G.T.A.M.; Thomeer, T.W.M.; Vielvoye, G.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Hospital)

    1985-05-01

    The case report describes a boy with a malignant astrocytoma in the mid-line of the cerebellum 14 years after X-ray therapy for craniopharyngioma. In Leiden University Hospital this is the first case of a suspected radiation-induced brain tumour in 66 patients treated for cranial lesions by radiotherapy between 1969 and 1979 who have survived more than 5 years.

  13. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maat-Schieman, M.L.C.; Bots, G.T.A.M.; Thomeer, T.W.M.; Vielvoye, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The case report describes a boy with a malignant astrocytoma in the mid-line of the cerebellum 14 years after X-ray therapy for craniopharyngioma. In Leiden University Hospital this is the first case of a suspected radiation-induced brain tumour in 66 patients treated for cranial lesions by radiotherapy between 1969 and 1979 who have survived more than 5 years. (author)

  14. Effects of diphenylhydantoin on murine astrocytoma radiosensitivity

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    Lordo, C.D.; Stroude, E.C.; Del Maestro, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Diphenylhydantoin is a well known anticonvulsant used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy. The prophylactic use of diphenylhydantoin has been suggested for certain cerebral metastases, and it is routinely administered to prevent seizures induced by intracranial neoplasms and/or surgery. Patients with malignant gliomas treated with diphenylhydantoin frequently receive radiation therapy. The effects of a clinical concentration of diphenylhydantoin in combination with gamma radiation was investigated using the C6 astrocytoma cell line in both monolayer and three dimensional multicellular spheroid cultures. Diphenylhydantoin at 7.2 X 10(-5) M (20 micrograms/ml) significantly increased the doubling time (23%) of the C6 astrocytoma cells in monolayer, but did not affect their survival as measured by plating efficiency. No changes were seen in spheroid growth or plating efficiency of the cells dissociated from spheroids at this concentration. Diphenylhydantoin at the clinical concentration tested was not associated with an alteration in radiation sensitivity of C6 astrocytoma cells in monolayer or three dimensional multicellular spheroid cultures.

  15. 201Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

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    Kaellen, K.

    1999-10-01

    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of 201 Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imaging for astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the anatomical

  16. Cystic astrocytomas in children. The contribution of MRI

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    Vilgrain, V.; Sellier, N.; Lalande, G.; Demange, P.; Kalifa, G.

    1988-01-01

    Three cases of cystic astrocytomas are reported in children. Two are supratentorial and one is a cerebellar tumor. The authors insist on the difficulties of the diagnosis. They emphasize the role of NMR which enables distinction between cystic astrocytomas and other cysts. In agreement with Kjos, the 3 cystic astrocytomas demonstrate an increased T1 and T2 and belong to the group of cystic tumors (type II) [fr

  17. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces astrocytoma cell invasion and constitutive activation of STAT3 predicts poor prognosis in human astrocytoma.

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    Qinchuan Liang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines (U251 and U87, and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell's adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthermore, pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3(Tyr705could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis.

  18. Anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma predicts aggressive behavior.

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    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Burger, Peter C; Jenkins, Sarah; Giannini, Caterina

    2010-02-01

    The clinical significance of anaplastic features, a rare event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), is not fully established. We reviewed 34 PA with anaplastic features (Male = 21, Female = 13; median age 35 y, 5 to 75) among approximately 2200 PA cases (1.7%). Tumors were included which demonstrated brisk mitotic activity [at least 4 mitoses/10 high power fields (400 x )], in addition to hypercellularity and moderate-to-severe cytologic atypia, with or without necrosis. The tumors either had a PA precursor, coexistent (n = 14) (41%) or documented by previous biopsy (n = 10) (29%), or exhibited typical pilocytic features in an otherwise anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10) (29%). Clinical features of neurofibromatosis type-1 were present in 24% and a history of radiation for PA precursor in 12%. Histologically, the anaplastic component was classified as pilocytic like (41%), small cell (32%), epithelioid (15%), or fibrillary (12%). Median MIB1 labeling index was 24.7% in the anaplastic component and 2.6% in the precursor, although overlapping values were present. Strong p53 staining (3+) was limited to areas with anaplasia (19%), with overlapping values for 1 and 2+ in areas without anaplasia. Median overall and progression-free survivals after diagnosis for the entire study group were 24 and 14 months, respectively. Overall and progression-free survivals were shorter in the setting of prior radiation for a PA precursor (P = 0.007, 0.028), increasing mitotic activity (P = 0.03, 0.02), and presence of necrosis (P = 0.02, 0.02), after adjusting for age and site. The biologic behavior of PAs with high-mitotic rates and those with necrosis paralleled that of St Anne-Mayo grades 2 and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, respectively. In summary, PA with anaplastic features exhibits a spectrum of morphologies and is associated with decreased survival when compared with typical PA.

  19. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have a v...... effective in discriminating between tumour progression and radiation necrosis. The research into biomarkers is currently limited with regards to their applications in LGA diagnostics, and therefore further studies including larger patient populations are needed.......Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have...... as the course of disease. The current literature seems to support the idea that treatment with radical tumour resection, where possible, yields better long term outcome for patients with LGA. However, adjuvant therapy is often necessary. Administering early postoperative radiotherapy to patients with partially...

  20. Integrated analysis of mismatch repair system in malignant astrocytomas.

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    Irene Rodríguez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.

  1. astrocytoma – diagnostic pitfalls. A review

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    Ewa Matyja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs are the most frequent primary astroglial tumours affecting children and adolescents. They occur sporadically or in association with a genetically determined syndrome – neurofibromatosis type 1. Classic PA usually manifests as a well-circumscribed, often cystic, slowly growing tumour, which corresponds to WHO grade I. The majority of pilocytic tumours arise along the neuraxis, predominantly in the cerebellum. They are associated with favourable long-term outcome or spontaneous regression, even after incomplete resection. However, the behaviour and prognosis might also be related to tumour histology and location. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA represents a variant of classical PA with more invasive growth and increased risk of recurrences and dissemination. Typically, PAs exhibit distinct histology with biphasic architecture of loose, microcystic and compact, fibrillary areas. However, some tumours arise in an uncommon location and display heterogeneous histopathological appearance. The morphological pattern of PA can mimic some other glial neoplasms, including oligodendroglioma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ependymoma or diffuse astrocytoma. Not infrequently, the advanced degenerative changes, including vascular fibrosis, and recent and old haemorrhages, may mimic vascular pathology. Sometimes, the neoplastic piloid tissue can resemble reactive gliosis, related to long-standing non neoplastic lesions. Not infrequently, PA exhibits histological features typical for anaplasia, including necrosis, mitoses and glomeruloid vascular proliferation that can suggest a diffuse high-grade glioma. However, even those PAs that lack distinct histological features of anaplasia can behave unpredictably, in a more aggressive manner, with leptomeningeal spreading. Genetic alterations resulting in aberrant signalling of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway have been considered to underlie the development of PAs. The most

  2. Pilocytic Astrocytoma Presenting as an Orbital Encephalocele: A Case Report

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    Amy Bruzek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 29-year-old male who presented with new-onset seizures. He was subsequently found to have an orbital encephalocele containing a focus of pilocytic astrocytoma. We believe that this is the first report of a pilocytic astrocytoma located within the orbit that did not originate from the optic pathway. It is also the first case of a pilocytic astrocytoma completely contained within an encephalocele. This case suggests a close pathological examination of encephaloceles for underlying diseases.

  3. Radiotherapy Results of Brain Astrocytoma and Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Chi, Je Geun

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 49 patients with astrocytoma of glioblastoma multiforme of brain who received postoperative radiotherapy in the period between February 1979 and December 1985. Fourteen patients had grade I astrocytoma, 11 patients grade II, 14 patients grade III, and 10 patients glioblastoma multiforme. Three year actuarial survival rates were 85.7%, 44.6% and 23.1% for grade I, II, and III astrocytomas, respectively. One and 2 year actuarial survival rates for patients with glioblastoma multiforme were 54.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Histologic grade, age, extent of operation and tumor location were revealed to be prognosticators

  4. Computed tomography of benign supratentorial astrocytomas of infancy and childhood

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    Pedersen, H.; Gjerris, F.; Klinken, L.

    1981-01-01

    The CT findings of 15 benign supratentorial astrocytomas in children less than 15 years of age are compared with the CT findings of 19 supratentorial tumors of other histological types in the same age group. Astrocytomas were more often hypodense, lacked calcification and showed greater contrast enhancement than other tumors. Seven of the 15 astrocytomas were hypodense, without calcification and showed contrast enhancement of more than 10 Hounsfield units, whereas this coexistence was not present in any of the 19 tumors of the other histological types. (orig.)

  5. DNA methylation analysis of paediatric low-grade astrocytomas identifies a tumour-specific hypomethylation signature in pilocytic astrocytomas.

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    Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Doctor, Gabriel T; Jones, Tania A; Alberman, Samuel N; Tep, Alexander; Haria, Chirag M; Schwalbe, Edward C; Morley, Isabel C F; Hill, Alfred A; LeCain, Magdalena; Ottaviani, Diego; Clifford, Steven C; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Ellison, David W; Sheer, Denise

    2016-05-27

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) account for about a third of all brain tumours in children. We conducted a detailed study of DNA methylation and gene expression to improve our understanding of the biology of pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Pilocytic astrocytomas were found to have a distinctive signature at 315 CpG sites, of which 312 were hypomethylated and 3 were hypermethylated. Genomic analysis revealed that 182 of these sites are within annotated enhancers. The signature was not present in diffuse astrocytomas, or in published profiles of other brain tumours and normal brain tissue. The AP-1 transcription factor was predicted to bind within 200 bp of a subset of the 315 differentially methylated CpG sites; the AP-1 factors, FOS and FOSL1 were found to be up-regulated in pilocytic astrocytomas. We also analysed splice variants of the AP-1 target gene, CCND1, which encodes cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. CCND1a was found to be highly expressed in both pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas, but diffuse astrocytomas have far higher expression of the oncogenic variant, CCND1b. These findings highlight novel genetic and epigenetic differences between pilocytic and diffuse astrocytoma, in addition to well-described alterations involving BRAF, MYB and FGFR1.

  6. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

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    Kamano, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  7. The molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas.

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    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas include pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). As technologies in pharmacologic neo-adjuvant therapy continue to progress and as molecular characteristics are progressively recognized as potential markers of both clinically significant tumor subtypes and response to therapy, interest in the biology of these tumors has surged. An updated review of the current knowledge of the molecular biology of these tumors is needed. We conducted a Medline search to identify published literature discussing the molecular biology of grade I astrocytomas. We then summarized this literature and discuss it in a logical framework through which the complex biology of these tumors can be clearly understood. A comprehensive review of the molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas is presented. The past several years have seen rapid progress in the level of understanding of PA in particular, but the molecular literature regarding both PA and SEGA remains nebulous, ambiguous, and occasionally contradictory. In this review we provide a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic features of both PA and SEGA and provide a logical framework in which these data can be more readily understood.

  8. Multiple solid pilocytic astrocytomas in cerebleiium with neurofibromatosis type: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seo Young; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma usually has a classic imaging manifestation of a solitary, cyst-like mass with a strong contrast-enhancing mural nodule. There is only one published report so far of multiple solid and cyst type pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient from the United States in 2007. We report a case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with only solid, multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in NF1 patient.

  9. Holocord low grade astrocytoma - Role of radical irradiation and chemotherapy

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    Goyal, S.; Puri, T.; Julka, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal intradural tumors, especially those extending along the entire length of the spinal cord, termed as ‘holocord’ tumors are uncommon. Most of these are gliomas, with astrocytomas (low grade) predominating in children and ependymomas in adults. Other histologies, though reported, are even rarer. Management is debatable, with both surgery and radiotherapy of such extensive tumors posing challenges. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with holocord astrocytoma extending from cervicomedullary junction till lumbar spine, who recovered full neurological function following radical irradiation of entire spine followed by temozolomide-based chemotherapy. No grade 3/4 bone marrow morbidity was seen. Five years following treatment, she maintained normal neurological function and apparently normal pubertal and skeletal growth despite residual disease visible on imaging. Literature review of existing reports of holocord astrocytomas highlighting management and outcome is presented.

  10. 13N-NH3 PET in the diagnosis of astrocytomas: preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnosing the astrocytoma with 13N-NH3 PET imaging. Methods 13N-NH3 and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging were performed in seven cases of astrocytomas including 3 anteoperative astrocytomas, 2 recurrent astrocytomas, 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy. The radioactivity ratios of the tumor and normal white matter (T/WM) were calculated. Results: The tumor lesions in 3 anteoperative astrocytomas and 2 recurrent astrocytomas all uptake 13N-NH3. The average T/WM on 13N-NH3 images was 1.82±0.21, and T/WM on 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG images were 1.98 and 0.97 for one case with grade 1 astrocytoma. 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG PET imaging both showed decreased uptake in 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy of astrocytomas. Conclusions: 13N-NH3 was uptaken in astrocytomas. 13N-NH3 can be useful in the diagnosis of astrocytoma, and potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of astrocytoma, especially in low-grade astrocytoma. (authors)

  11. 13N-NH3 PET in the diagnosis of astrocytomas: preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnosing the astrocytoma with 13N-NH3 PET imaging. Methods: 13N-NH3 and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging were performed in seven cases of astrocytomas including 3 anteoperative astrocytomas, 2 recurrent astrocytomas, 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy. The radioactivity ratios of the tumor and normal white matter (T/WM) were calculated. Results: The tumor lesions in 3 anteoperative astrocytomas and 2 recurrent astrocytomas all uptake 13N-NH3 .The average T/WM on 13N-NH3 images was 1.82±0.21, and T/WM on 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG images were 1.98 and 0.97 for one case with grade 1 astrocytoma. 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG PET imaging both showed decreased uptake in 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy of astrocytomas. Conclusions: 13N-NH3 was uptaken in astrocytomas. 13N-NH3 can be useful in the diagnosis of astrocytoma, and potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of astrocytoma, especially in low-grade astrocytoma. (authors)

  12. Identification of astrocytoma associated genes including cell surface markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon, Kathy; Edwards, Jennifer B; Eberhart, Charles G; Riggins, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Despite intense effort the treatment options for the invasive astrocytic tumors are still limited to surgery and radiation therapy, with chemotherapy showing little or no increase in survival. The generation of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) profiles is expected to aid in the identification of astrocytoma-associated genes and highly expressed cell surface genes as molecular therapeutic targets. SAGE tag counts can be easily added to public expression databases and quickly disseminated to research efforts worldwide. We generated and analyzed the SAGE transcription profiles of 25 primary grade II, III and IV astrocytomas [1]. These profiles were produced as part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project's SAGE Genie [2], and were used in an in silico search for candidate therapeutic targets by comparing astrocytoma to normal brain transcription. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for the validation of selected candidate target genes in 2 independent sets of primary tumors. A restricted set of tumor-associated genes was identified for each grade that included genes not previously associated with astrocytomas (e.g. VCAM1, SMOC1, and thymidylate synthetase), with a high percentage of cell surface genes. Two genes with available antibodies, Aquaporin 1 and Topoisomerase 2A, showed protein expression consistent with transcript level predictions. This survey of transcription in malignant and normal brain tissues reveals a small subset of human genes that are activated in malignant astrocytomas. In addition to providing insights into pathway biology, we have revealed and quantified expression for a significant portion of cell surface and extra-cellular astrocytoma genes

  13. Glioblastomas, astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas linked to Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, C; Ladelund, S; Rambech, E

    2015-01-01

    .5%) in MSH2 gene mutation carriers compared to patients with mutations in MLH1 or MSH6. Glioblastomas predominated (56%), followed by astrocytomas (22%) and oligodendrogliomas (9%). MMR status was assessed in 10 tumors, eight of which showed MMR defects. None of these tumors showed immunohistochemical...

  14. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma in children. Get detailed information about the clinical features, molecular and diagnostic evaluation, classification, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent disease low-grade and high-grade gliomas in this comprehensive summary for clinicians.

  15. Anorexia: an early sign of fourth ventricle astrocytoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Henri-Arthur; Baroncini, Marc; Delestret, Isabelle; Florent, Vincent; Vinchon, Matthieu

    2014-12-01

    Paediatric low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle are rare tumours, generally revealed by hydrocephalus. However, some patients present with a history of severe anorexia. It might be a harbinger, which if recognized, could lead to earlier diagnosis. We decided to examine our database in order to evaluate the incidence and signification of anorexia in this context. Retrospective monocentric study of cases of low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle operated between 1991 and 2012 in our paediatric neurosurgery department. We particularly observed the clinical presentation and long-term clinical, oncological and radiological evolution. Non-parametrical tests were used (Mann-Whitney, Fisher). We reviewed 34 cases, 31 pilocytic astrocytomas and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, 16 boys and 18 girls, (M/F ratio 0.89). Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years old. Seven presented with notable anorexia, the average BMI in this group was ≤2 standard deviation (SD); with clinical signs evolving for 11.5 months. Twenty-seven children had no anorexia; average BMI in this group was +1 SD, with clinical evolution for 6 months on an average of p anorexia, body mass index improved markedly in the postoperative follow-up, which lasted, on average, for 6 years. Anorexia with stunted body weight curve is a non-exceptional presentation in children with low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle. Unexplained or atypical anorexia with negative etiologic assessment should prompt cerebral imaging. Clinical improvement after surgical resection, could suggest a possible interaction between tumour tissue and appetite-suppressing peptide secretion.

  16. Expression of delta-catenin is associated with progression of human astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MingHao, Wang; Qianze, Dong; Di, Zhang; YunJie, Wang

    2011-01-01

    δ-Catenin (CTNND2), which encodes a scaffold protein in humans, has been found in a few malignancies. However, the expression pattern and contribution of δ-catenin to astrocytoma progression are unclear. We investigated δ-catenin expression in human astrocytoma samples and its function in astrocytoma cell lines using immunohistochemistry, siRNA knockdown, transfection, MTT, transwell migration and Rac1 pulldown techniques. δ-Catenin protein expression was detected in cytoplasm of astrocytoma cells by immunohistochemistry. Analysis showed that grade I astrocytoma (0%, 0/11) and glial cells from normal brain tissue exhibited negative staining. δ-Catenin expression was significantly higher in grade III-IV (35%, 29/84) compared to grade II astrocytoma cells (18%, 11/61); p < 0.01). In addition, CTNND2 overexpression promoted proliferation, invasion and Rac1 activity of U251 astrocytoma cells. Treatment of δ-catenin-transfected cells with a Rac1 inhibitor decreased Rac1 activity and invasion. δ-Catenin knockdown in U87 glioblastoma cell decreased cell proliferation, invasion and Rac1 activity. The results suggest that δ-catenin expression is associated with the malignant progression of astrocytoma and promotes astrocytoma cell invasion through upregulation of Rac1 activity. δ-Catenin expression levels may serve as a useful marker of the biological behavior of astrocytoma cells

  17. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraziotis Theodore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and p75NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or suppresses intracellular survival signaling cascades. Robust Trk activation blocks p75NTR -induced apoptosis by suppressing the JNK-p53-Bax pathway. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75NTR, and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV were immunostained following microwave pretreatment. Polyclonal antibodies against TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and monoclonal antibodies against p75NTR and phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK and c-Jun (pc-Jun were used. The labeling index (LI, defined as the percentage of positive (labeled cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined. Results Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (~1% in some tumors. The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor. Trk immunoreactivity seemed to be localized in some neurons and astrocytes in non-neoplastic tissue. Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK and c-Jun (pc-Jun were

  18. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assimakopoulou, Martha; Kondyli, Maria; Gatzounis, George; Maraziotis, Theodore; Varakis, John

    2007-01-01

    Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and p75 NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75 NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or suppresses intracellular survival signaling cascades. Robust Trk activation blocks p75 NTR -induced apoptosis by suppressing the JNK-p53-Bax pathway. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75 NTR , and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV) were immunostained following microwave pretreatment. Polyclonal antibodies against TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and monoclonal antibodies against p75 NTR and phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were used. The labeling index (LI), defined as the percentage of positive (labeled) cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined. Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75 NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (~1%) in some tumors. The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor. Trk immunoreactivity seemed to be localized in some neurons and astrocytes in non-neoplastic tissue. Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were significantly co-expressed in a tumor

  19. Astrocytoma of the pituitary gland (pituicytoma): case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, T.; Miyazono, M.; Nishio, S.; Iwaki, T.

    2002-01-01

    A 34-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of visual obscuration. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid, discrete, contrast-enhancing pituitary mass with suprasellar extension. Surgery, which was performed via a transsphenoidal approach, disclosed the pituitary tumor to be a fibrillary astrocytoma (pituicytoma). This case report contains the clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare tumor of the neurohypophysis, which masqueraded as a pituitary adenoma. (orig.)

  20. Tuberous schlerosis complex and astrocytoma: a case report, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, P A; Hoshino, N; Kitaoka, T; Miura, M

    1961-02-10

    This case report concerned a young woman with cutaneous, osseous, and retinal changes of tuberous sclerosis, referred to ABCC for evaluation of blindness and increased intracranial pressure. A right lateral ventricle astrocytoma was successfully removed, but the patient's sight was not restored. The development of cerebral neoplasms in these patients is discussed. A careful search for resectable brain lesions should be made in all patients with tuberous sclerosis who have signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. 14 references, 6 figures.

  1. {sup 201}Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellen, K

    1999-10-01

    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of {sup 201}Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imagingfor astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the

  2. Expression of aquaporin8 in human astrocytomas: Correlation with pathologic grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shu-juan; Wang, Ke-jian; Gan, Sheng-wei; Xu, Jin; Xu, Shi-ye; Sun, Shan-quan, E-mail: sunsq2151@cqmu.edu.cn

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •AQP8 is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of human astrocytoma cells. •AQP8 over-expressed in human astrocytomas, especially glioblastoma. •The up-regulation of AQP8 is related to the pathological grade of human astrocytomas. •AQP8 may contribute to the growth and proliferation of astrocytomas. -- Abstract: Aquaporin8 (AQP8), a member of the aquaporin (AQP) protein family, is weakly distributed in mammalian brains. Previous studies on AQP8 have focused mainly on the digestive and the reproductive systems. AQP8 has a pivotal role in keeping the fluid and electrolyte balance. In this study, we investigated the expression changes of AQP8 in 75 cases of human brain astrocytic tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that AQP8 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of astrocytoma cells. The expression levels and immunoreactive score of AQP8 protein and mRNA increased in low-grade astrocytomas, and further increased in high-grade astrocytomas, especially in glioblastoma. Therefore, AQP8 may contribute to the proliferation of astrocytomas, and may be a biomarker and candidate therapy target for patients with astrocytomas.

  3. Malignant transformation of a chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytoma in a patient with diencephalic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wal, Ester P.J. van der; Edwards-Brown, Mary; Azzarelli, Biagio

    2003-01-01

    Chiasmatic gliomas with metastatic spread are rare in children and are usually associated with diencephalic syndrome. They are mostly pilocytic astrocytomas and their transformation to high-grade astrocytomas has never previously been reported in the pediatric population. We report leptomeningeal spread of a chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytoma in a child presenting with diencephalic syndrome. He was treated with chemotherapy and radiation. The tumor recurred with transformation into a high-grade astrocytoma. Radiation therapy may have played a role in transformation of the tumor, but more research is needed to further clarify the biological behavior of this tumor. (orig.)

  4. Expression of aquaporin8 in human astrocytomas: Correlation with pathologic grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shu-juan; Wang, Ke-jian; Gan, Sheng-wei; Xu, Jin; Xu, Shi-ye; Sun, Shan-quan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •AQP8 is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of human astrocytoma cells. •AQP8 over-expressed in human astrocytomas, especially glioblastoma. •The up-regulation of AQP8 is related to the pathological grade of human astrocytomas. •AQP8 may contribute to the growth and proliferation of astrocytomas. -- Abstract: Aquaporin8 (AQP8), a member of the aquaporin (AQP) protein family, is weakly distributed in mammalian brains. Previous studies on AQP8 have focused mainly on the digestive and the reproductive systems. AQP8 has a pivotal role in keeping the fluid and electrolyte balance. In this study, we investigated the expression changes of AQP8 in 75 cases of human brain astrocytic tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that AQP8 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of astrocytoma cells. The expression levels and immunoreactive score of AQP8 protein and mRNA increased in low-grade astrocytomas, and further increased in high-grade astrocytomas, especially in glioblastoma. Therefore, AQP8 may contribute to the proliferation of astrocytomas, and may be a biomarker and candidate therapy target for patients with astrocytomas

  5. Nitroproteins in Human Astrocytomas Discovered by Gel Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Maoyu; Sang, Shushan; Li, Xuejun; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of highly fatal astrocytomas, a type of brain cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of astrocytomas and to discover new biomarkers/therapeutic targets, we sought to identify nitroproteins in human astrocytoma tissue. Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins from a high-grade astrocytoma tissue were detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based nitrotyrosine immunoblots, and identified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fifty-seven nitrotyrosine immunopositive protein spots were detected. A total of 870 proteins (nitrated and non-nitrated) in nitrotyrosine-immunopositive 2D gel spots were identified, and 18 nitroproteins and their 20 nitrotyrosine sites were identified with MS/MS analysis. These nitroproteins participate in multiple processes, including drug-resistance, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, phenotypic dedifferentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Among those nitroproteins that might play a role in astrocytomas was nitro-sorcin, which is involved in drug resistance and metastasis and might play a role in the spread and treatment of an astrocytoma. Semiquantitative immune-based measurements of different sorcin expressions were found among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls, and a semiquantitative increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Nitro-β-tubulin functions in cytoskeleton and cell migration. Semiquantitative immunoreactivity of β-tubulin showed increased expression among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls and semiquantitatively increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Each nitroprotein was rationalized and related to the corresponding functional system to provide new insights into tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the

  6. Outcome of Patients With Pilocytic Astrocytoma and Leptomeningeal Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloom, Ali; Hodges, Joseph C.; Teh, Bin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language studies pertaining to PA with LMD was performed using a combination of keywords that included juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma, low-grade glioma, leptomeningeal dissemination, neuraxis spread, and radiotherapy. We found 26 studies with 58 patients between 1976 and 2005 that met these criteria. Results: The median survival for PA patients with LMD was 65 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 81.1%, 75.7%, and 55.5%. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 69.3%, 66.5%, and 34.6%, respectively. Age, gender, primary site location, timing of LMD presentation (synchronous vs. metachronous), and LMD location did not significantly influence OS or PFS. No statistically significant difference was found in OS or PFS between the chemotherapy and radiotherapy groups. Likewise, no difference was found in OS or PFS according to the use of craniospinal irradiation vs. less extensive RT fields. Conclusions: Approximately one-half of PA patients were alive 5 years after the diagnosis of LMD. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have efficacy against LMD. Although the use of craniospinal irradiation did not have an effect on PFS, the patient numbers were small and a larger number treated with craniospinal irradiation is needed to determine its efficacy.

  7. Radical proposal for the treatment of malignant astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, U.; Black, P.; Nair, S.; Yablon, J.S.; Brady, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    The traditional treatment for anaplastic astrocytoma (AAF) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) leads to local relapse. The recurring element is assumed to be previously radioresistant, reorganizing hypoxic cells that require up to three times the traditional photon irradiation dose for inactivation. We are proposing to coagulate the original lesion with high-dose precision brachytherapy, immediately followed by resection to save the patient from secondary effects of the necrotic region. The treatment then continues with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy to the local surrounding brain and concomitant chemotherapy. The approach inverts the traditional regimen. It has the virtue of being precise, avoiding secondary effects of the necrotic tumor, and satisfying accepted radiobiological principles

  8. Management of Pediatric Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Outcomes With Adjuvant Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Zachary D.; Moningi, Shalini; Jallo, George I.; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Wharam, Moody D.; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are exceedingly rare; in the United States, 100 to 200 cases are recognized annually, of these, most are astrocytomas. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at a tertiary care center. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective single-institution study was performed for pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at our hospital from 1990 to 2010. The patients were evaluated on the extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and development of radiation-related toxicities. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression model methods were used for analysis. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study, 24 with grade 1 or 2 (low-grade) tumors and 5 with grade 3 or 4 (high-grade) tumors. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range, 1-215 months) for patients with low-grade tumors and 17 months (range, 10-52 months) for those with high-grade tumors. Thirteen patients in the cohort received chemotherapy. All patients underwent at least 1 surgical resection. Twelve patients received radiation therapy to a median radiation dose of 47.5 Gy (range, 28.6-54.0 Gy). Fifteen patients with low-grade tumors and 1 patient with a high-grade tumor exhibited stable disease at the last follow-up visit. Acute toxicities of radiation therapy were low grade, whereas long-term sequelae were infrequent and manageable when they arose. All patients with low-grade tumors were alive at the last follow-up visit, compared with 1 patient with a high-grade tumor. Conclusion: Primary pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas vary widely in presentation and clinical course. Histopathologic grade remains a major prognostic factor. Patients with low-grade tumors tend to have excellent disease control and long-term survival compared to those with high-grade tumors. This experience suggests that radiation therapy

  9. Management of Pediatric Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Outcomes With Adjuvant Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Zachary D.; Moningi, Shalini [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Jallo, George I. [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cohen, Kenneth J. [Division of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wharam, Moody D. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Terezakis, Stephanie A., E-mail: stereza1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are exceedingly rare; in the United States, 100 to 200 cases are recognized annually, of these, most are astrocytomas. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at a tertiary care center. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective single-institution study was performed for pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at our hospital from 1990 to 2010. The patients were evaluated on the extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and development of radiation-related toxicities. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression model methods were used for analysis. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study, 24 with grade 1 or 2 (low-grade) tumors and 5 with grade 3 or 4 (high-grade) tumors. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range, 1-215 months) for patients with low-grade tumors and 17 months (range, 10-52 months) for those with high-grade tumors. Thirteen patients in the cohort received chemotherapy. All patients underwent at least 1 surgical resection. Twelve patients received radiation therapy to a median radiation dose of 47.5 Gy (range, 28.6-54.0 Gy). Fifteen patients with low-grade tumors and 1 patient with a high-grade tumor exhibited stable disease at the last follow-up visit. Acute toxicities of radiation therapy were low grade, whereas long-term sequelae were infrequent and manageable when they arose. All patients with low-grade tumors were alive at the last follow-up visit, compared with 1 patient with a high-grade tumor. Conclusion: Primary pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas vary widely in presentation and clinical course. Histopathologic grade remains a major prognostic factor. Patients with low-grade tumors tend to have excellent disease control and long-term survival compared to those with high-grade tumors. This experience suggests that radiation therapy

  10. Tuberous schlerosis complex and astrocytoma: a case report, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, P.A.; Hoshino, N.; Kitaoka, T.; Miura, M.

    1961-02-10

    This case report concerned a young woman with cutaneous, osseous, and retinal changes of tuberous sclerosis, referred to ABCC for evaluation of blindness and increased intracranial pressure. A right lateral ventricle astrocytoma was successfully removed, but the patient's sight was not restored. The development of cerebral neoplasms in these patients is discussed. A careful search for resectable brain lesions should be made in all patients with tuberous sclerosis who have signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. 14 references, 6 figures.

  11. Evaluation of miR-362 Expression in Astrocytoma of Human Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kheirollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients affected by gliomas have a poor prognosis. Astrocytoma is a subtype of glioma. Identification of biomarkers could be an effective way to an early diagnosis of tumor or to distinguish more aggressive tumors that need more intensive therapy. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of miR-362 was increased or decreased in patients with different grades of astrocytoma. Materials and Methods: miR-362 expression was compared in 25 patients with astrocytoma with that of 4 normal nonneoplastic brain tissues. Results: In all tumor tissues, the expression of miR-362 was significantly decreased relative to its expression in normal brain tissues. However, there was no significant difference between miR-362 expressions in high and low grades of astrocytoma. Conclusions: In conclusion, miR-362 showed a down-regulation pattern in astrocytoma tissues that was different from the pattern obtained from previously published microarray studies.

  12. Optic nerve pilomyxoid astrocytoma in a patient with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sushmita; Fort, John A; Yachnis, Anthony T; Williams, Charles A

    2015-06-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS; MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant syndrome which is clinically diagnosed by the distinct facial features, short stature, cardiac anomalies and developmental delay. About 50% of cases are associated with gain of function mutations in PTPN11 gene which leads to activation of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. This is known to have a role in tumorigenesis. Despite this, only limited reports of solid tumors (Fryssira H, Leventopoulos G, Psoni S, et al. Tumor development in three patients with Noonan syndrome. Eur J Pediatr 2008;167:1025-1031; Schuettpelz LG, McDonald S, Whitesell K et al. Pilocytic astrocytoma in a child with Noonan syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:1147-1149; Sherman CB, Ali-Nazir A, Gonzales-Gomez I, et al. Primary mixed glioneuronal tumor of the central nervous system in a patient with Noonan syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2009;31:61-64; Sanford RA, Bowman R, Tomita T, et al. A 16 year old male with Noonan's syndrome develops progressive scoliosis and deteriorating gait. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999;30:47-52) and no prior reports of optic gliomas have been described in patients with NS. We present here a patient with NS with a PTPN11 mutation and an optic pathway pilomyxoid astrocytoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High dose rate brachytherapy in treatment of high grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Alejo, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Cerro, E. del; Torres, J.J.; Martinez, R.

    1996-01-01

    From May 1994 to June 1995, 18 patients with high grade astrocytomas were entered prospectively on a selective protocol combining surgery, external beam radiotherapy, stereotactic interstitial implantation with HDR Iridium 192 and chemotherapy. Only those patients with tumor size 100cc or less average dimension, high grade astrocytoma, Karnofsky 70 or greater, unilateral, circumscribed, unifocal, tumor stable or responding to external radiation and supratentorial were included in the study. Ages ranged from 16 to 69 years. There were 13 males and 5 females. Surgery consisted of biopsy only in 3 patients, subtotal resection in 11, and gross total resection in 4 patients. Focal external beam radiation portals included the contrast enhancing mass on CT scan plus a 3 cm margin. The protocol called for minimum tumor dose of 60 Gy to be given in 2 Gy daily fractions. An interstitial brachytherapy boost was to be performed two weeks after the conclusion of external beam radiation. The dose was 30 Gy in 4 fractions. The authors analyze on basis on their personal experience, the possibilities and the limits offered by this therapeutic procedure in neuro-oncology. Using stereotactic techniques, interstitial brachytherapy of brain tumors was technically possible with negligible acute morbidity and mortality, and appeared to be effective and may provide for an increase in tumor control in selected cases

  14. Leptomeningeal dissemination of an astrocytoma causing hypophyseal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzan, S.; Cigdem, O.; Furkan, U.; Baki, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hypophyseal insufficiency is an unusual clinical presentation of metastatic disease. Objectives: In this report, a case of leptomeningeal metastasis of an astrocytoma to the infundibular recess, causing hypophyseal insufficiency is presented with its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Materials and methods: A 27-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting and generalized weakness. Her laboratory results were consistent with hypopituitarism. She had an operation history for astrocytoma. She was referred to radiology department for brain MRI study. Contrast-enhanced MRI scan showed extensive wall enhancement of ventricles consistent with leptomeningeal metastases. A nodular mass with pronounced contrast enhancement was also detected at the infundibular stalk. Results: Because suprasellar cistern was normal and extensive leptomeningeal metastases was detected, the nodular mass at the infundibular stalk thought to be secondary to leptomeningeal involvement of the infundibular recess. Conclusion: When a patient with a known malignancy presented with hypophyseal insufficiency, it should be thought that leptomeningeal metastases to the infundibular recess may also be a cause. The neuroimaging, especially contrast-enhanced studies, is necessary for the confirmation

  15. RTEL1 and TERT polymorphisms are associated with astrocytoma risk in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Jia-Yi; Li, Gang; Du, Shu-Li; Geng, Ting-Ting; Gao, Jing; Liu, Qian-Ping; Gao, Guo-Dong; Kang, Long-Li; Chen, Chao; Li, Shan-Qu

    2013-12-01

    Common variants of multiple genes play a role in glioma onset. However, research related to astrocytoma, the most common primary brain neoplasm, is rare. In this study, we chose 21 tagging SNPs (tSNPs), previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in a Chinese case-control study from Xi'an, China, and identified their contributions to astrocytoma susceptibility. We found an association with astrocytoma susceptibility for two tSNPs (rs6010620 and rs2853676) in two different genes: regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), respectively. We confirmed our results using recessive, dominant, and additive models. In the recessive model, we found two tSNPs (rs2297440 and rs6010620) associated with increased astrocytoma risk. In the dominant model, we found that rs2853676 was associated with increased astrocytoma risk. In the additive model, all three tSNPs (rs2297440, rs2853676, and rs6010620) were associated with increased astrocytoma risk. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the potential roles of RTEL1 and TERT in astrocytoma development.

  16. Conformal proton radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, E.B.; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA; Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Muenter, M.W.; Archambeau, J.O.; DeVries, A.; Loredo, L.N.; Grove, R.I.; Slater, J.D.; Liwnicz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at time of treatment ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 8.7 years). Tumors were located centrally (diencephatic) in 15 patients, in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in seven patients, and in the brainstem in five patients. 25/27 patients (92%) were treated for progressive, unresectable, or residual disease following subtotal resection. Tissue diagnosis was available in 23/27 patients (85%). Four patients with optic pathway tumors were treated without histologic confirmation. Target doses between 50.4 and 63.0 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent, mean: 55.2 CGE) were prescribed at 1.8 CGE per fraction, five treatments per week. Results: At a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years (0.6-6.8 years), 6/27 patients experienced local failure (all located within the irradiated field), and 4/27 patients had died. By anatomic site these data translated into rates of local control and survival of 87% (13/15 patients) and 93% (14/15 patients) for central tumors, 71% (5/7 patients) and 86% (6/7 patients) for hemispheric tumors, and 60% (3/5 patients) and 60% (3/5 patients) for tumors located in the brainstem. Proton radiation therapy was generally well tolerated. All children with local control maintained their performance status. One child with associated neurofibromatosis, Type 1, developed Moyamoya disease. All six patients with optic pathway tumors and useful vision maintained or improved their visual status. Conclusions: This report on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas confirms proton radiation therapy as a safe and efficacious 3-D conformal treatment

  17. Expression and prognostic impact of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Rahimsan K.; Sørensen, Mia D.; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    with diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma were stained immunohistochemically using a monoclonal MMP-2 antibody. The MMP-2 intensity in cytoplasm/membrane was quantified by a trained software-based classifier using systematic random sampling in 10% of the tumor area. We found MMP-2...... of this tumor. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an extracellular matrix degrading enzyme which has been shown to play important roles in different cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic potential of MMP-2 in astrocytomas. Tissue samples from 89 patients diagnosed...

  18. Fast neutron boost for the treatment of grade IV astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breteau, N.; Destembert, B.; Favre, A.; Pheline, C.; Schlienger, M.

    1989-01-01

    A previous study, on grade IV astrocytomas, compared a combination of photons and fast neutron boost to photons only, both treatments being delivered following a concentrated irradiation schedule. A slight improvement in survival was observed after neutron boost for non operated patients, but not for operated patients. Since death was always related to local recurrence and since no complication occurred after neutron boost, the neutron dose was increased from 6 to 7 Gy in January 1985. No improvement in survival was observed for patients treated with neutron boost after complete resection. After subtotal resection, the group that was treated with the higher neutron boost (7 Gy) showed a significant benefit in survival at twelve months. When patients had only a biopsy before irradiation, there was a benefit in survival after neutron boost, but no additional benefit was gained when the size of the neutron boost was increased from 6 to 7 Gy. (orig.) [de

  19. Prognostic significance of multiple kallikreins in high-grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, Kristen L.; Gianinni, Caterina; Decker, Paul A.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2015-01-01

    Kallikreins have clinical value as prognostic markers in a subset of malignancies examined to date, including kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in prostate cancer. We previously demonstrated that kallikrein 6 is expressed at higher levels in grade IV compared to grade III astrocytoma and is associated with reduced survival of GBM patients. In this study we determined KLK1, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9 and KLK10 protein expression in two independent tissue microarrays containing 60 grade IV and 8 grade III astrocytoma samples. Scores for staining intensity, percent of tumor stained and immunoreactivity scores (IR, product of intensity and percent) were determined and analyzed for correlation with patient survival. Grade IV glioma was associated with higher levels of kallikrein-immunostaining compared to grade III specimens. Univariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that elevated KLK6- or KLK7-IR was associated with poor patient prognosis. In addition, an increased percent of tumor immunoreactive for KLK6 or KLK9 was associated with decreased survival in grade IV patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with KLK6-IR < 10, KLK6 percent tumor core stained < 3, or KLK7-IR < 9 had a significantly improved survival. Multivariable analysis indicated that the significance of these parameters was maintained even after adjusting for gender and performance score. These data suggest that elevations in glioblastoma KLK6, KLK7 and KLK9 protein have utility as prognostic markers of patient survival. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1566-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. High concentration of Daunorubicin and Daunorubicinol in human malignant astrocytomas after systemic administration of liposomal Daunorubicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, K. W.; de Witt Hamer, P. C.; Leenstra, S.; Bakker, P. J.; Beijnen, J. H.; Troost, D.; Kaaijk, P.; Bosch, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    The value of chemotherapy in patients with malignant astrocytoma remains controversial. In our laboratories in vitro experiments with organotypic spheroid cultures showed superior effectiveness of anthracyclines. Systemic administration did not provide in therapeutic concentrations so far. Because

  1. Study on the correlation between VEGF and peritumoral edema and tumor border in astrocytoma by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuxiang; Tan Siping; Liu Bo; Liu Guorui; Zhen Zhichao; Fan Miao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between VEGF and peritumoral edema and tumor border in human astrocytoma, investigate the significance of its CT features in molecular-biology. Methods: The VEGF was examined by means of SP immunohistochemical technique in 52 cases of astrocytoma proved by pathology. The correlation of tumor VEGF with peritumoral edema, and tumor border was analyzed. Results: The peritumoral edema, tumor border and mass effect of astrocytoma was positively correlated with its VEGF. The VEGF increased with peritumoral edema and mass effect (P<0.01). VEGF were significantly higher in uncertain border group than those the clear border group (P<0.05), which VEGF were 69.2 ± 19.0. Conclusion: The over expression of VEGF obviously effect CT features in astrocytoma, such as peritumoral edema and tumor border

  2. ADAR2 editing activity in newly diagnosed versus relapsed pediatric high-grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, Sara; Galeano, Federica; Massimi, Luca; Di Rocco, Concezio; Lauriola, Libero; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Locatelli, Franco; Gallo, Angela

    2013-01-01

    High-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas are aggressive malignant brain tumors affecting humans with a high risk of recurrence in both children and adults. To date, limited information is available on the genetic and molecular alterations important in the onset and progression of pediatric high-grade astrocytomas and, even less, on the prognostic factors that influence long-term outcome in children with recurrence. A-to-I RNA editing is an essential post-transcriptional mechanism that can alter the nucleotide sequence of several RNAs and is mediated by the ADAR enzymes. ADAR2 editing activity is particularly important in mammalian brain and is impaired in both adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Moreover, we have recently shown that the recovered ADAR2 activity in high-grade astrocytomas inhibits in vivo tumor growth. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether changes may occur in ADAR2-mediated RNA editing profiles of relapsed high-grade astrocytomas compared to their respective specimens collected at diagnosis, in four pediatric patients. Total RNAs extracted from all tumor samples and controls were tested for RNA editing levels (by direct sequencing on cDNA pools) and for ADAR2 mRNA expression (by qRT-PCR). A significant loss of ADAR2-editing activity was observed in the newly diagnosed and recurrent astrocytomas in comparison to normal brain. Surprisingly, we found a substantial rescue of ADAR2 editing activity in the relapsed tumor of the only patient showing prolonged survival. High-grade astrocytomas display a generalized loss of ADAR2-mediated RNA editing at both diagnosis and relapse. However, a peculiar Case, in complete remission of disease, displayed a total rescue of RNA editing at relapse, intriguingly suggesting ADAR2 activity/expression as a possible marker for long-term survival of patients with high-grade astrocytomas

  3. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  4. Postoperative irradiation of incompletely excised gemistocytic astrocytomas. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak-Sadzikowska, J.; Glinski, B.; Szpytma, T.; Pluta, E.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: although gemistocytic astrocytomas are considered slow-growing tumors, they often behave aggressively and carry the least favorable prognosis among low-grade astrocytomas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with incompletely excised gemistocytic astrocytomas irradiated postoperatively. Patients and methods: records of 48 patients with incompletely excised gemistocytic astrocytoma, irradiated between 1976 and 1998 at the department of radiation oncology, Maria Sklodowska-curie Memorial Cancer Center, Cracow, Poland, were reviewed. The total dose ranged from 50 to 60 Gy (mean: 59.35, median: 60 Gy) delivered in daily fractions of 2 Gy, 5 days a week. The treatment volume covered the residual tumor with a margin of 1-2 cm. Results: toxicity was acceptable. The overall actuarial survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 30% and 17%, respectively. Age and gender had an influence on overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). Patients ≤ 35 years of age and female patients carried the best prognosis. Conclusion: in most patients with gemistocytic astrocytoma, combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy result in only short-term survival. Older age is the most important unfavorable prognostic factor in patients with gemistocytic astrocytoma. (orig.)

  5. Prevention against diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma: can the Notch pathway be a novel treatment target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-jun Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether the Notch pathway is involved in the development of diffuse spinal cord astrocytomas. BALB/c nude mice received injections of CD133 + and CD133− cell suspensions prepared using human recurrent diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma tissue through administration into the right parietal lobe. After 7-11 weeks, magnetic resonance imaging was performed weekly. Xenografts were observed on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133 + cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was observed in the xenografts. By contrast, no xenografts appeared in the identical position on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133− cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was hardly detected either. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed xenografts on the convex surfaces of the brains of mice that underwent CD133 + astrocytoma transplantation. Some sporadic astroglioma cells showed pseudopodium-like structures, which extended into the cerebral white matter. However, it should be emphasized that the subcortex xenograft with Notch-immunopositive expression was found in the fourth mouse received injection of CD133− astrocytoma cells. However, these findings suggest that the Notch pathway plays an important role in the formation of astrocytomas, and can be considered a novel treatment target for diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma.

  6. [Diagnostic imaging of high-grade astrocytoma: heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, image characteristics, and histopathological findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Kaoru; Ohta, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments in diagnostic radiology, which have enabled accurate differential diagnoses of brain tumors, have been well described in the last three decades. MR and PET imaging can also provide information to predict histological grades and prognoses that might influence treatment strategies. However, high-grade astrocytomas consist of many different subtypes that are associated with different imaging and histological characteristics. Hemorrhage and necrosis results in a variety of imaging features, and infiltrative tumor growth entrapping normal neurons may cause different clinical manifestations. We reviewed patients with high-grade astrocytomas that showed various imaging characteristics, with special emphasis on initial symptoms and histological features. Clinicopathological characteristics of astrocytomas were also compared with other malignant tumors. Neurological deficits were not notable in patients with grade 3-4 astrocytomas when they showed infiltrative tumor growth, while brain metastases with compact cellular proliferation caused more neurological symptoms. Infiltrative tumors did not show any enhancing masses on MR imaging, but these tumors may show intratumor heterogeneity. Seizures were reported to be more frequent in low-grade glioma and in secondary glioblastoma. Tumor heterogeneity was also reported in molecular genetic profile, and investigators identified some subsets of astrocytomas. They investigated IHD1/2 mutation, EGFR amplification, TP53 mutation, Ki-67 index, etc. In summary, high-grade astrocytomas are not homogenous groups of tumors, and this is associated with the heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, image characteristics, and histopathological findings. Molecular studies may explain the tumor heterogeneity in the near future.

  7. Evaluation of invasiveness of astrocytoma using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Chuanfu; Ma, Xiangxing; Meng, Xiangshui; Feng, Dechao; Liu, Ying; Li, Li

    2007-01-01

    Even low-grade astrocytomas infiltrate the entire brain, a feature that precludes their successful therapy. So to assess the invasive potential of astrocytoma is very important. The aim of this study was determine whether there is a significant correlation between the results of 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and tumor invasive potential of astrocytoma, which is reflected by expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The 1 H-MRS spectra of 41 histologically verified astrocytomas were obtained on a 3-T MR scanner. According to the World Health Organization classification criteria for central nervous system tumors, there were 16 low-grade astrocytomas (2 pilocytic astrocytomas, 14 grade II astrocytomas) and 25 high-grade astrocytomas (5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 20 glioblastomas).The choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were calculated. Of the 41 astrocytomas, 19 (8 low-grade and 11 high-grade) were analyzed immunohistochemically. Expression of MMP-2 was determined using streptavidin-peroxidase complex (SP) staining which was quantified by calculating its calibrated opacity density (COD) using an image analysis system. The correlations between metabolite ratios and the quantitative data from the immunohistochemical tests in the 19 astrocytomas were determined. The Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios of high-grade astrocytoma were both significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytoma (t = -6.222, P = 0.000; t = -6.533, P = 0.000, respectively). MMP-2 COD values of high-grade astrocytomas were also significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytomas (t = -5.892, P 0.000). There were strong positive correlations between Cho/NAA ratio and MMP-2 COD (r = 0.669, P = 0.002), and between Cho/Cr ratio and MMP-2 COD (r = 0.689, P = 0.001). 1 H-MRS is helpful in evaluating the invasiveness of astrocytomas and predicting prognosis preoperatively by determining the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios. (orig.)

  8. Complement activation in astrocytomas: deposition of C4d and patient outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Katri; Helén, Pauli; Haapasalo, Hannu; Paavonen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    C4d is a cleavage product of complement component C4 and is considered to serve as a marker for the site of complement activation. In this study C4d staining of grade I-IV astrocytic tumors was studied to explore if there is an association between complement activation and the grade of tumor, or patient survival. Tissue micro-array samples of 102 astrocytomas were stained immunohistochemically. The material consisted of 9 pilocytic astrocytomas and 93 grade II-IV astrocytomas, of which 67 were primary resections and 26 recurrent tumors. The intensity of C4d staining as well as extent of C4d and CD34 staining were evaluated. The intensity of C4d staining was scored semiquantitatively. The extent of the staining was counted morphometrically with a point counting grid yielding a percent of C4d and CD34 positive area of the sample. The intensity and extent of C4d staining increased in grade II-IV diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma tumors in line with the malignancy grade (p = 0.034 and p = 0.016, respectively, Kruskal-Wallis test). However, C4d positive tumor area percentages were higher in grade I pilocytic astrocytomas than in grade II-IV diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (p = 0.041, Mann–Whitney test). There was a significant correlation between CD34 positive and C4d positive endothelial area fraction in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (p < 0.001, Pearson correlation). In these tumors, the increasing intensity of C4d staining was also associated with worsened patient outcome (p = 0.014, log-rank test). The worsening of patient outcome and malignant progression of tumor cells seem to be connected to microenvironmental changes evoked by chronically activated complement

  9. Astrocytoma in the medulla oblongata diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Shin-ichiro; Sonobe, Makoto; Koshu, Keiji; Hirota, Shigeru; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Fujii, Kyoichi; Namiki, Tsuneo.

    1987-01-01

    A 22-year-old male was admitted to Mito National Hospital with complaints of persistent, progressive dysphagia, hoarseness, and numbness over his entire body. Neurological examination showed bilateral 7th, 9th, and 10th nerve paralysis, tetraparesis, sensory disturbance of the whole body, and hyper-reflexia of all extremities. Pale, low-density areas in the medulla oblongata and upper cervical spinal cord were detected by conventional computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed low-signal masses involving those areas and in the lower cervical cord. Suboccipital craniotomy exposed a solid, firm, well demarcated intramedullary tumor in the medulla oblongata. The tumor was removed en bloc and was histologically diagnosed as a pilocytic astrocytoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient's symptoms improved dramatically. Postoperative MRI revealed no residual tumor in the medulla oblongata or upper cervical cord. This case illustrates the value of preoperative MRI, which precisely delineates the location and extent of the tumor and greatly facilitates direct surgery of the medulla oblongata. (author)

  10. Everolimus Alleviates Obstructive Hydrocephalus due to Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moavero, Romina; Carai, Andrea; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Marciano, Sara; Graziola, Federica; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low-grade tumors affecting up to 20% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Early neurosurgical resection has been the only standard treatment until few years ago when a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of TSC led to the use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Surgical resection of SEGAs is still considered as the first line treatment in individuals with symptomatic hydrocephalus and intratumoral hemorrhage. We describe four patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic hydrocephalus who were successfully treated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. We collected the clinical data of four consecutive patients presenting with symptomatic or asymptomatic hydrocephalus due to a growth of subependymal giant cell atrocytomas and who could not undergo surgery for different reasons. All patients experienced a clinically significant response to everolimus and an early shrinkage of the SEGA with improvement in ventricular dilatation. Everolimus was well tolerated by all individuals. Our clinical series demonstrate a possible expanding indication for mTOR inhibition in TSC, which can be considered in patients with asymptomatic hydrocephalus or even when the symptoms already appeared. It offers a significant therapeutic alternative to individuals that once would have undergone immediate surgery. Everolimus might also allow postponement of a neurosurgical resection, making it elective with an overall lower risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro

    1992-01-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. 18 F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author)

  12. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

  13. PHAKOMATOSIS : INTRESTING CASES OF TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS WITH RETINAL ASTROCYTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC or Morbus Bourneville - Pringle disease is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis, first described by Desiree - Magloire Bourneville in 1880. Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous benign tumours in many parts of the body caused by mutations on either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. This rare genetic disorder is usually associated with a triad of seizures, mental retardation and cutaneous lesions. Approximately one half of all patients affected by TS develop at least one retinal astrocytoma in one eye. PRESENTATION OF CASES: In the department of ophthalmology, G.S.L M edical C ollege, Rajahmundry, we came across 3 cases of tuberous sclerosis involving multi organ systems. Out of 3 cases, 2 cases were reported to be familial and 1case is sporadic, with a history of epilepsy with angiofibromatosis lesions over the face, multiple ash - leaf lesions over the abdomen, renal angiomyolipomas, multiple subependymal nodules in brain and retinal astrocytic hamartomas in the retina. CONCLUSION: It is important to be cognizant of the likely presence of systemic and ocular pathology in a child with mental retardation and skin lesions. Identification of retinal phakomatosis during ocular evaluation in any suspected case of Tuberous sclerosis can aid in the establishment of the diagnosis of the disease

  14. Geometrical study of astrocytomas through fractals and scaling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres H, F.; Baena N, R.; Vergara V, J.; Guerrero M, M.

    2017-10-01

    The tumor growth is a complex process characterized by the proliferation of uncontrollable cells which invade neighbor tissues. The understanding process of this type of phenomena is very relevant in order to establish diagnosis and proper therapy strategies and to start the valorization of its complexity with proper descriptors produced by the scaling analysis, which define the tumor growth geometry. In this work, obtained results through the scaling analysis for pilocytic astrocytomas, anaplastic and diffuse, are shown, which tumors of primary origin are. On them, it is calculated the fractal dimension and critic exponents of local roughness to characterize in vivo three-dimensional tumor growth. The acquisition of the images for this type of injuries was carried out according to the standard protocol used for brain radiotherapy and radiosurgery, i.e., axial, coronal and sagittal magnetic resonance T1 weighted images and comprising the brain volume for image registration. Image segmentation was performed by the application the K-means procedure upon contrasted images. The results show significant variations of the parameters depending on the tumor stage and its histological origin. (Author)

  15. Epigenetic Silencing of the Protocadherin Family Member PCDH-γ-All in Astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Waha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In a microarray-based methylation analysis of astrocytomas [World Health Organization (WHO grade II], we identified a CpG island within the first exon of the protocadherin-γ subfamily A11 (PCDH-γ-A11 gene that showed hypermethylation compared to normal brain tissue. Bisulfite sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA was performed to screen low- and high-grade astrocytomas for the methylation status of this CpG island. Hypermethylation was detected in 30 of 34 (88% astrocytomas (WHO grades II and III, 20 of 23 (87% glioblastomas (WHO grade IV, 8 of 8 (100% glioma cell lines. There was a highly significant correlation (P = .00028 between PCDH-γ-A11 hypermethylation and decreased transcription as determined by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in WHO grades II and III astrocytomas. After treatment of glioma cell lines with a demethylating agent, transcription of PCDH-γ-A11 was restored. In summary, we have identified PCDH-γ-A11 as a new target silenced epigenetically in astrocytic gliomas. The inactivation of this cell-cell contact molecule might be involved in the invasive growth of astrocytoma cells into normal brain parenchyma.

  16. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Recurrent or Unresectable Pilocytic Astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Pollock, Bruce E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Schomberg, Paula J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Stafford, Scott L., E-mail: Stafford.scott@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes in patients with recurrent or unresectable pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 18 patients (20 lesions) with biopsy-confirmed PA having SRS at our institution from 1992 through 2005. Results: The median patient age at SRS was 23 years (range, 4-56). Thirteen patients (72%) had undergone one or more previous surgical resections, and 10 (56%) had previously received external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The median SRS treatment volume was 9.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.7-26.7). The median tumor margin dose was 15 Gy (range, 12-20). The median follow-up was 8.0 years (range, 0.5-15). Overall survival at 1, 5, and 10 years after SRS was 94%, 71%, and 71%, respectively. Tumor progression (local solid progression, n = 4; local solid progression + distant, n = 1; distant, n = 2; cyst development/progression, n = 4) was noted in 11 patients (61%). Progression-free survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 65%, 41%, and 17%, respectively. Prior EBRT was associated with inferior overall survival (5-year risk, 100% vs. 50%, p = 0.03) and progression-free survival (5-year risk, 71% vs. 20%, p = 0.008). Nine of 11 patients with tumor-related symptoms improved after SRS. Symptomatic edema after SRS occurred in 8 patients (44%), which resolved with short-term corticosteroid therapy in the majority of those without early disease progression. Conclusions: SRS has low permanent radiation-related morbidity and durable local tumor control, making it a meaningful treatment option for patients with recurrent or unresectable PA in whom surgery and/or EBRT has failed.

  17. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Recurrent or Unresectable Pilocytic Astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallemeier, Christopher L.; Pollock, Bruce E.; Schomberg, Paula J.; Link, Michael J.; Brown, Paul D.; Stafford, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes in patients with recurrent or unresectable pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 18 patients (20 lesions) with biopsy-confirmed PA having SRS at our institution from 1992 through 2005. Results: The median patient age at SRS was 23 years (range, 4–56). Thirteen patients (72%) had undergone one or more previous surgical resections, and 10 (56%) had previously received external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The median SRS treatment volume was 9.1 cm 3 (range, 0.7–26.7). The median tumor margin dose was 15 Gy (range, 12–20). The median follow-up was 8.0 years (range, 0.5–15). Overall survival at 1, 5, and 10 years after SRS was 94%, 71%, and 71%, respectively. Tumor progression (local solid progression, n = 4; local solid progression + distant, n = 1; distant, n = 2; cyst development/progression, n = 4) was noted in 11 patients (61%). Progression-free survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 65%, 41%, and 17%, respectively. Prior EBRT was associated with inferior overall survival (5-year risk, 100% vs. 50%, p = 0.03) and progression-free survival (5-year risk, 71% vs. 20%, p = 0.008). Nine of 11 patients with tumor-related symptoms improved after SRS. Symptomatic edema after SRS occurred in 8 patients (44%), which resolved with short-term corticosteroid therapy in the majority of those without early disease progression. Conclusions: SRS has low permanent radiation-related morbidity and durable local tumor control, making it a meaningful treatment option for patients with recurrent or unresectable PA in whom surgery and/or EBRT has failed.

  18. Conformal proton radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, E.B. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics and Dept. of Pathology; Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States). Section of Radiation Oncology; Muenter, M.W.; Archambeau, J.O.; DeVries, A.; Loredo, L.N.; Grove, R.I.; Slater, J.D. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine; Liwnicz, B. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    2002-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at time of treatment ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 8.7 years). Tumors were located centrally (diencephatic) in 15 patients, in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in seven patients, and in the brainstem in five patients. 25/27 patients (92%) were treated for progressive, unresectable, or residual disease following subtotal resection. Tissue diagnosis was available in 23/27 patients (85%). Four patients with optic pathway tumors were treated without histologic confirmation. Target doses between 50.4 and 63.0 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent, mean: 55.2 CGE) were prescribed at 1.8 CGE per fraction, five treatments per week. Results: At a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years (0.6-6.8 years), 6/27 patients experienced local failure (all located within the irradiated field), and 4/27 patients had died. By anatomic site these data translated into rates of local control and survival of 87% (13/15 patients) and 93% (14/15 patients) for central tumors, 71% (5/7 patients) and 86% (6/7 patients) for hemispheric tumors, and 60% (3/5 patients) and 60% (3/5 patients) for tumors located in the brainstem. Proton radiation therapy was generally well tolerated. All children with local control maintained their performance status. One child with associated neurofibromatosis, Type 1, developed Moyamoya disease. All six patients with optic pathway tumors and useful vision maintained or improved their visual status. Conclusions: This report on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas confirms proton radiation therapy as a safe and efficacious 3-D conformal treatment

  19. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléciton Braga Tavares

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression.

  20. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Cléciton Braga; Gomes-Braga, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Conde, Airton Mendes; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Sousa, Emerson Brandão; da Rocha Barros, Lorena; Martins, Luana Mota; Facina, Gil; da-Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression. PMID:27626480

  1. Association of invasive breast carcinoma and multicentric high grade astrocytoma: a case report with a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, P Hossein; Forouzandeh, M; Beni, A Naderi; Beni, Z Naderi; Hoseinpour, P

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Multicentric gliomas are uncommon lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) with an unprecise rate of occurrence that diffusely infiltrate large portions of the brain. High grade astrocytoma is the most agressive form of gliomas and often has a distinct neuroimaging pattern with a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman patient with primary breast carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma subsequently developed. The woman was treated by mastectomy and 20 months post-diagnosis of the cancer she exhibited a transient facial paralysis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed two cranial masses suspicious of metastasis. A complete tumor removal from the brain was performed. On histological examination, this tumor was a high grade astrocytoma.

  2. Rab23 is overexpressed in human astrocytoma and promotes cell migration and invasion through regulation of Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Dong, Qianze; Wang, Yunjie

    2016-08-01

    Rab23 overexpression has been implicated in several human cancers. However, its biological roles and molecular mechanism in astrocytoma have not been elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore clinical significance and biological roles of Rab23 in astrocytoma. We observed negative Rab23 staining in normal astrocytes and positive staining in 39 out of 86 (45 %) astrocytoma specimens using immunohistochemistry. The positive rate of Rab23 was higher in grades III and IV (56.5 %, 26/46) than grades I + II astrocytomas (32.5 %, 13/40, p Rac1 activity. Treatment of transfected cells with a Rac1 inhibitor decreased Rac1 activity and invasion. In conclusion, Rab23 serves as an important oncoprotein in human astrocytoma by regulating cell invasion and migration through Rac1 activity.

  3. Prognostic relevance of gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma: gemistocytic component and MR imaging features compared to non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Ji Ye; Jung, Seung Chai; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soo Jeong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To determine if gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (GemA) and its MR imaging characteristics are associated with a shorter time-to-progression (TTP) compared with non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (non-GemA). We enrolled 78 patients who were followed up more than 5 years (29 pathologically proven GemA and 49 non-GemA) during a 10-year period. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and MR imaging features were analyzed as possible prognostic factors of high-grade transformation, and multivariate analysis of TTP was performed using Cox proportional modeling. GemA showed more frequent high-grade features than non-GemA, including diffusion restriction (P <.001), increased choline/creatine (P =.02), and increased choline/NAA ratio (P =.015). Patients with GemA had a significantly shorter median TTP (53.1 vs 68 months; P <.001). A gemistocytic histopathology (hazard ratio = 3.42; P =.015) and low ADC (hazard ratio = 3.61; P =.001) were independently associated with a shorter TTP. GemA can present with MR imaging findings mimicking high-grade glioma at initial diagnosis and transforms to high-grade disease earlier than non-GemA. Low ADC on DWI might be useful in stratifying the risk of progression in patients with grade II astrocytoma. (orig.)

  4. Clinical Implications of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor overexpression in the High-grade Astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Eon; Kang, Jin Oh; Lee, Hye Kyoung; Yang, Moon Ho; Leem, Won; Cho, Kyung Sam

    1996-01-01

    To determine the incidence and prognostic effects of EGFR overexpression in the high-grade astrocytomas. With 23 paraffin blocks of the high-garde astrocytomas, expression of EGFR were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining employing polyclonal antibody raised to short cytoplasmic domain of the molecule. Two out of 7 anaplastic astrocytomas and 9 out of 16 glioblastoma multiform patients showed overexpression of EGFR(p=0.44). Three out of 11 patients of age below 55 and 8 out of 12 patients of age over 54 showed EGFR overexpression(p=0.141). Median survival of the EGFR negative anaplastic astrocytoma patient was 37 months. Median survival of the glioblastoma multiform patients were 11 months in EGFR negative group and 7 months in EGFR positive group. But survival difference was not significant(p=0.17). There was a marked trend of increasing overexpression of EGFR in older patients. But survival of the glioblastoma multiform decreased by the overexpression of the EGFR without significant

  5. EMMPRIN expression positively correlates with WHO grades of astrocytomas and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Li-Chun; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Ma, Hsin-I; Huang, Shih-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    High-grade primary brain tumors possessed poor outcome due to invasiveness. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates peri-tumoral fibroblasts to secrete matrix metalloproteinase and promote invasiveness. This study hypothesized that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN. Analyzing the public delinked database from the Gene Expression Omnibus profile, the results showed that the EMMPRIN mRNA level was higher in WHO grade IV (n = 81) than in grade III (n = 19, p EMMPRIN levels positively correlated with WHO grades for astrocytomas (p = 0.008) and meningiomas (p = 0.048). EMMPRIN mRNA levels in conventional glioma cell lines (n = 36) was not less than those in glioma primary culture cells (n = 27) and glioblastoma stem-like cells (n = 12). The GBM8401, U87MG, and LN229 human glioma cell lines also overexpressed EMMPRIN. Hematoxylin and eosin, IHC, and immunofluorescence staining of xenografts confirmed that high-grade brain tumors overexpressed EMMPRIN. Lastly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed poorer survival in WHO grade IV (n = 56) than in grade III astrocytomas (n = 21, by log-rank test; p = 0.0001, 95 % CI: 1.842-3.053). However, in high-grade astrocytomas, there was no difference in survival between high and low EMMPRIN mRNA levels. Thus, this study identified that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN, which positively correlates with WHO grades in human astrocytomas and meningiomas, and suggests that EMMPRIN may be a therapeutic target of brain tumor.

  6. Clinical significance of changes of serum expression of IGF-I in patients with astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbo; Ding Dongmei; Yang Fubing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum expression of IGF-I in patients with astrocytoma of different degrees of malignancy as well as the changes of levels after operative removal of the tumor. Methods: Serum IGF-I contents were measured with IRMA in 16 patients with Grade I-II astrocytoma and 14 patients with Grade III-IV astrocytoma both before and after operation as well as in 30 controls. Results: The serum contents of IGF-I in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The levels in Grade III-IV patients were significantly higher than those in Grade I-II patients (P < 0.05 ). After operation, the levels dropped significantly (vs before operation, P<0.05). Conclusion: The serum contents of IGF - I in patients with astrocytoma were positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. Post-operative decrease of IGF-I contents was related to the decrease of tumor burden. (authors)

  7. Sustained response to weekly vinblastine in 2 children with pilomyxoid astrocytoma associated with diencephalic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Wei, Xing Chang; Hader, Walter; Chan, Jennifer A; Bouffet, Eric; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie

    2013-03-01

    Diencephalic syndrome (DS) related to hypothalamic/chiasmatic region tumor has mainly been reported with low-grade glioma. We described 2 young children with DS related to pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Despite the recognized more agressive clinical behavior of this histologic subtype, we report successful resolution of DS and sustained tumor response with prolonged use of single-agent vinblastine.

  8. Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Scherpen, F. J. G.; Hoving, E. W.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children. Because of their high vascularity, this study aimed to obtain insights into potential angiogenic related therapeutic targets in these tumours by characterization of the vasculature and the angiogenic profile. In this study

  9. Ammonium-induced calcium mobilization in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmann, Petra; Koese, Meryem; Soehl, Kristina; Mueller, Christa E.

    2008-01-01

    High blood levels of ammonium/ammonia (NH 4 + /NH 3 ) are associated with severe neurotoxicity as observed in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Astrocytes are the main targets of ammonium toxicity, while neuronal cells are less vulnerable. In the present study, an astrocytoma cell line 1321N1 and a neuroblastoma glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 were used as model systems for astrocytes and neuronal cells, respectively. Ammonium salts evoked a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in astrocytoma (EC 50 = 6.38 mM), but not in NG108-15 cells. The ammonium-induced increase in [Ca 2+ ] i was due to an intracellular effect of NH 4 + /NH 3 and was independent of extracellular calcium. Acetate completely inhibited the ammonium effect. Ammonium potently reduced calcium signaling by G q protein-coupled receptors (H 1 and M3) expressed on the cells. Ammonium (5 mM) also significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. While mRNA for the mammalian ammonium transporters RhBG and RhCG could not be detected in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, both transporters were expressed in NG108-15 cells. RhBG and RhBC in brain may promote the excretion of NH 3 /NH 4 + from neuronal cells. Cellular uptake of NH 4 + /NH 3 was mainly by passive diffusion of NH 3 . Human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells appear to be an excellent, easily accessible human model for studying HE, which can substitute animal studies, while NG108-15 cells may be useful for investigating the role of the recently discovered Rhesus family type ammonium transporters in neuronal cells. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of pathologic ammonium effects in different brain cells, and to the treatment of hyperammonemia

  10. Treatment results of non-pilocytic cerebral astrocytomas in adults treated by surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Masao; Nishikawa, Ryo; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Fujimaki, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    Non-pilocytic cerebral astrocytomas in adults are oncopathologically defined as well-differentiated carcinoma of the brain. They grow invasively and can not be cured by extensive surgery followed by radiation therapy. We performed multidisciplinary treatments consisting of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy in 26 adult patients with non-pilocytic cerebral astrocytomas. The 5- and 10-year survival rates of the patients were 90.9% and 75.6%, respectively; these were better than reported survival rates of patients treated by postoperative radiation therapy alone. Precise analysis of clinical findings of astrocytic tumors suggested that glioblastomas growing superficially might be derived from preexisting astrocytomas. This hypothesis proposes that multidisciplinary treatments for astrocytomas in early stages could cure the disease and could ultimately decrease a number of glioblastomas. (author)

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression positively correlates with angiogenesis and peritumoural brain oedema in astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, F.F.; Wei, W.

    2008-01-01

    Astrocytoma is the most malignant intracranial neoplasm and is characterized by high neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. Angiogenesis is a complicated process in oncogenesis regulated by the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. The expression of two angiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were investigated using immunohistochemistry for astrocytoma from 82 patients and 11 normal human tissues. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor positively correlate with the pathological grade of astrocytoma, microvessel density numbers and brain oedema, which may be responsible for the increased tumour neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. The results support the idea that inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are useful for the treatment of human astrocytoma and to improve patient's clinical outcomes and prognosis. (author)

  12. Low-Grade Astrocytoma Associated with Abscess Formation: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsin Tsai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of low-grade astrocytoma associated with abscess formation occurred in a 52-year-old man presenting with Broca's aphasia. He underwent craniotomy and tumor removal under the impression of brain tumor with necrotic cystic change. Abscess accumulation within the intra-axial tumor was found intraoperatively. Literature related to brain abscess with brain tumor is reviewed, with an emphasis on abscesses with astrocytoma. We discuss the common brain tumors that are associated with abscess, pathogens that coexist with brain tumor, and the pathogeneses of coexisting brain abscess and tumor. It is very important to know how to differentiate between and diagnose a brain abscess and tumor, or brain abscess with tumor, preoperatively from clinical presentation and through the use of computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging or magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  13. Gemistocytic astrocytoma in the spinal cord in a dog: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Chaves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper reports a case of a rare variant of the cervical spinal cord astrocytoma diagnosed in a dog with progressive neurological signs, initially asymmetrical, not ambulatory tetraparesis, segmental reflexes and normal muscle tone in all four limbs and absence of pain upon palpation of the cervical spine. Myelography revealed attenuation of the ventral and dorsal contrast line in the third region of the fifth cervical vertebra. At necropsy intramedullary cylindrical mass that stretched from the third to the sixth cervical vertebra, which replaced all the gray matter of the spinal cord was observed. In the histological study, there was the replacement of the substance by neoplastic cells mantle arranged loosely. The cells were large and slightly rounded. The eosinophilic cytoplasm was well defined, sometimes forming processes interconnecting cells. The nucleus was eccentric, round, oval or kidney-shaped, and the nucleolus was evident. Thus, the microscopic changes observed in the cervical spinal cord were consistent with gemistocytic astrocytoma.

  14. FLAIR MR sequence in the diagnosis and follow-up of low-grade astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić-Opinćal Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the sensitivity of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR sequence in the diagnosis and follow-up of the patients with low-grade astrocytomas compared with T2-weighted (T2W sequence. Methods. Twenty-four patients with biopsy- confirmed low-grade astrocytoma (age range, 15-66 years underwent T1- weighted (T1W, T2W and FLAIR imaging with a superconducting unit 1.0 T. FLAIR images were qualitatively evaluated by comparison with T2W images by the three experienced neuroradiologists. To evaluate the diagnostic value of FLAIR, the neuroradiologists individually assessed the possibilities of the detection of lesions, as well as the possibilities of the differentiation of tumor from the surrounding edema on FLAIR vs. T2W images. Every examiner ranked FLAIR sequence vs. T2W in three degrees: worse, equal and better. Results. The comparison of FLAIR with T2W spin-echo (SE images with regard to the detection of the lesions showed that 82.8% of FLAIR studies were superior, 17.2% were of similar diagnostic value, and none was inferior to the T2W images. The comparison of images with regard to the differentiation of tumor boundaries vs. surrounding edema showed that 92.5% of FLAIR studies were superior, 7.5% were of similar diagnostic value, and none was inferior to the T2W images. Conclusion. Our results were similar to the previous studies' results concerning the advantages of FLAIR sequence in the diagnosis of low grade astrocytomas over T2W sequence. FLAIR was better at showing different tumor components, and at distinguishing CSF from the cystic component, and the postoperative cavity, compared with T2W images. Our conclusion was that FLAIR could be routinely used in the evaluation and follow-up of low-grade astrocytomas.

  15. MR Findings of Desmoplastic Cerebral Astrocytoma of Infancy. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Kim, K.H.; Park, C. M.; Yeon, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma of infancy (DCAI) presents as a large supratentorial mass consisting of a central cystic component and an enhancing solid component associated with peripheral dural attachment. We report the unusual MR findings of a DCAI that differed from previously reported cases in terms of the presence of calcification, which is not considered a feature of this tumor, and the absence of an enhancing peripheral dural component

  16. Exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields and proliferation of human astrocytoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M; Guizzetti, M; Yost, M; Costa, L G

    2000-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to electric and magnetic fields (EMF) may be associated with an increased incidence of brain tumors, most notably astrocytomas. However, potential cellular or molecular mechanisms involved in these effects of EMF are not known. In this study we investigated whether exposure to 60-Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields (0.3-1.2 G for 3-72 h) would cause proliferation of human astrocytoma cells. Sixty-Hertz magnetic fields (MF) caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in proliferation of astrocytoma cells, measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and by flow cytometry, and strongly potentiated the effect of two agonists (the muscarinic agonist carbachol and the phorbol ester PMA). However, MF had no effect on DNA synthesis of rat cortical astrocytes, i.e., of similar, nontransformed cells. To determine the amount of heating induced by MF, temperatures were also recorded in the medium. Both 1.2 G MF and a sham exposure caused a 0.7 degrees C temperature increase in the medium; however, (3)H-thymidine incorporation induced by sham exposure was significantly less than that caused by MF. GF 109203X, a rather specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and down-regulation of PKC inhibited the effect of MF on basal and on agonist-stimulated (3)H-thymidine incorporation. These data indicate that MF can increase the proliferation of human astrocytoma cells and strongly potentiate the effects of two agonists. These findings may provide a biological basis for the observed epidemiological associations between MF exposure and brain tumors. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. An acid phosphatase in the plasma membranes of human astrocytoma showing marked specificity toward phosphotyrosine protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Leis, J F; Kaplan, N O

    1982-01-01

    The plasma membrane from the human tumor astrocytoma contains an active acid phosphatase activity based on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Other acid phosphatase substrates--beta-glycerophosphate, O-phosphorylcholine, and 5'-AMP--are not hydrolyzed significantly. The phosphatase activity is tartrate insensitive and is stimulated by Triton X-100 and EDTA. Of the three known phosphoamino acids, only free O-phosphotyrosine is hydrolyzed by the membrane phosphatase activity. Other acid pho...

  18. Supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in a young adult with Silver-Russell syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, E

    2008-12-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder in which patients demonstrate intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, triangular facies, excessive sweating during early childhood, late closure of the anterior fontanelle and skeletal asymmetry. An association with malignancy exists and only one previous intracranial tumour has been reported, a craniopharyngioma. We report the first case of Silver-Russell syndrome associated with a supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.

  19. MRS of pilocytic astrocytoma: The peak at 2 ppm may not be NAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrazi, Benita; Nelson, Marvin D; Blüml, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether the chemical shift of residual N-acetylaspartate (NAA) signal in pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) is consistent with the position of the NAA peak in controls. MR spectra from 27 pediatric World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytoma patients, fifteen patients with WHO grade II and high-grade (III-IV) astrocytomas, and 36 controls were analyzed. All spectra were acquired with a short echo time (35 ms), single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy sequence on clinical 3 tesla scanners. Fully automated LCModel software was used for processing, which included the fitting of peak positions for NAA and creatine (Cr). The chemical shift difference between the NAA and Cr peaks was significantly smaller (by 0.016 ± 0.005 parts per million, P NAA peak in PAs is not consistent with NAA. The signal likely originates from an N-acetyl group of one or more other chemicals such as N-acetylated sugars. Magn Reson Med 78:452-456, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Flávio Key; Alves, Maria Jose Ferreira; Rocha, Mussya Cisotto; da Silva, Roseli; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2010-03-01

    Astrocytic gliomas are the most common intracranial central nervous system neoplasias, accounting for about 60% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Despite advances in the treatment of gliomas, no effective therapeutic approach is yet available; hence, the search for a more realistic model to generate more effective therapies is essential. To develop an experimental malignant astrocytoma model with the characteristics of the human tumor. Primary cells from subcutaneous xenograft tumors produced with malignant astrocytoma U87MG cells were inoculated intracerebrally by stereotaxis into immunosuppressed (athymic) Rowett rats. All four injected animals developed non-infiltrative tumors, although other glioblastoma characteristics, such as necrosis, pseudopalisading cells and intense mitotic activity, were observed. A malignant astrocytoma intracerebral xenograft model with poorly invasive behavior was achieved in athymic Rowett rats. Tumor invasiveness in an experimental animal model may depend on a combination of several factors, including the cell line used to induce tumor formation, the rat strains and the status of the animal's immune system.

  1. [Familial astrocytoma associated with von Recklinghausen's disease: report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Oki, S; Mikami, T; Ogasawara, H; Kawamoto, Y; Sato, H; Yamaguchi, S; Hayashi, Y; Shindo, H

    1997-03-01

    Two cases of astrocytoma associated with von Recklinghausen's disease (neurofibromatosis type; NF-1) were reported. The first case wes a 60-year-old man who had been diagnosed as von Recklinghausen's disease on the basis of skin findings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a tumor in the left temporal lobe. Partial removal was performed with neuronavigator, and because of the existence of Rosenthal fiber the histological diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma. Radiation therapy was performed. The second case was a 6-year-old boy suffering from headache and left hemiparesis including his face. MRI showed a tumor with a cyst in the right thalamus and obstructive hydrocephalus. Initially CT-guided stereotactic biopsy was performed, and the histological diagnosis, on the basis of increased cellularity, pleomorphism and nuclear atypia without necrosis or vascular proliferation, was anaplastic astrocytoma. Radiation and chemo-immuno therapy were carried out after V-P shunt. It is well known that von Recklinghausen's disease (NF-1) is often associated with optic glioma (5-36%). In the literature, the glioma seldom occurs in other parts of the brain, supratentorial glioma especially is rare. Only two familial cases of supratentorial glioma associated with von Recklinghausen's disease have been reported. The prognosis of supratentorial glioma associated with NF-1 was poor in these reports. In this paper, the diagnostic and therapeutic problems are discussed.

  2. Primary ciliogenesis defects are associated with human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattner Jerome B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that have been implicated in signal transduction, cell to cell communication, left and right pattern embryonic development, sensation of fluid flow, regulation of calcium levels, mechanosensation, growth factor signaling and cell cycle progression. Defects in the formation and/or function of these structures underlie a variety of human diseases such as Alström, Bardet-Biedl, Joubert, Meckel-Gruber and oral-facial-digital type 1 syndromes. The expression and function of primary cilia in cancer cells has now become a focus of attention but has not been studied in astrocytomas/glioblastomas. To begin to address this issue, we compared the structure and expression of primary cilia in a normal human astrocyte cell line with five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines. Methods Cultured normal human astrocytes and five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines were examined for primary cilia expression and structure using indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Monospecific antibodies were used to detect primary cilia and map the relationship between the primary cilia region and sites of endocytosis. Results We show that expression of primary cilia in normal astrocytes is cell cycle related and the primary cilium extends through the cell within a unique structure which we show to be a site of endocytosis. Importantly, we document that in each of the five astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines fully formed primary cilia are either expressed at a very low level, are completely absent or have aberrant forms, due to incomplete ciliogenesis. Conclusions The recent discovery of the importance of primary cilia in a variety of cell functions raises the possibility that this structure may have a role in a variety of cancers. Our finding that the formation of the primary cilium is disrupted in cells derived from astrocytoma/glioblastoma tumors provides the first

  3. The emerging role of m-TOR up-regulation in brain Astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskalin, Larisa; Limanaqi, Fiona; Biagioni, Francesca; Frati, Alessandro; Esposito, Vincenzo; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Lenzi, Paola; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    The present manuscript is an overview of various effects of mTOR up-regulation in astrocytoma with an emphasis on its deleterious effects on the proliferation of Glioblastoma Multiforme. The manuscript reports consistent evidence indicating the occurrence of mTOR up-regulation both in experimental and human astrocytoma. The grading of human astrocytoma is discussed in relationship with mTOR up-regulation. In the second part of the manuscript, the biochemical pathways under the influence of mTOR are translated to cell phenotypes which are generated by mTOR up-regulation and reverted by its inhibition. A special section is dedicated to the prominent role of autophagy in mediating the effects of mTOR in glioblastoma. In detail, autophagy inhibition produced by mTOR up-regulation determines the fate of cancer stem cells. On the other hand, biochemical findings disclose the remarkable effects of autophagy activators as powerful inducers of cell differentiation with a strong prevalence towards neuronal phenotypes. Thus, mTOR modulation acts on the neurobiology of glioblastoma just like it operates in vivo at the level of brain stem cell niches by altering autophagy-dependent cell differentiation. In the light of such a critical role of autophagy we analyzed the ubiquitin proteasome system. The merging between autophagy and proteasome generates a novel organelle, named autophagoproteasome which is strongly induced by mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma cells. Remarkably, when mTOR is maximally inhibited the proteasome component selectively moves within autophagy vacuoles, thus making the proteasome activity dependent on the entry within autophagy compartment.

  4. [The heterogeneity of blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging: a biomarker for grading cerebral astrocytomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revert Ventura, A J; Sanz Requena, R; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Pallardó, Y; Jornet, J; Gaspar, C

    2014-01-01

    To study whether the histograms of quantitative parameters of perfusion in MRI obtained from tumor volume and peritumor volume make it possible to grade astrocytomas in vivo. We included 61 patients with histological diagnoses of grade II, III, or IV astrocytomas who underwent T2*-weighted perfusion MRI after intravenous contrast agent injection. We manually selected the tumor volume and peritumor volume and quantified the following perfusion parameters on a voxel-by-voxel basis: blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), mean transit time (TTM), transfer constant (K(trans)), washout coefficient, interstitial volume, and vascular volume. For each volume, we obtained the corresponding histogram with its mean, standard deviation, and kurtosis (using the standard deviation and kurtosis as measures of heterogeneity) and we compared the differences in each parameter between different grades of tumor. We also calculated the mean and standard deviation of the highest 10% of values. Finally, we performed a multiparametric discriminant analysis to improve the classification. For tumor volume, we found statistically significant differences among the three grades of tumor for the means and standard deviations of BV, BF, and K(trans), both for the entire distribution and for the highest 10% of values. For the peritumor volume, we found no significant differences for any parameters. The discriminant analysis improved the classification slightly. The quantification of the volume parameters of the entire region of the tumor with BV, BF, and K(trans) is useful for grading astrocytomas. The heterogeneity represented by the standard deviation of BF is the most reliable diagnostic parameter for distinguishing between low grade and high grade lesions. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulati Michel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family, consisting of four tyrosine kinase receptors, c-erbB1-4, seems to be influential in gliomagenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections from 31 cases were investigated by standard immunohistochemical procedures for expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins using commercial antibodies. EGFR gene amplification was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, NCL-EGFR-384 and NCL-EGFR, were used for EGFR detection and they displayed positive immunoreactivity in 97% and 71%, respectively. For c-erbB2 detection three monoclonal antibodies, CB11, 3B5, and 5A2, were applied and they displayed positive immunoreactivity in 45%, 100%, and 52%, respectively. Positive immunostaining for c-erbB3 and c-erbB4 was encountered in 97% and 74%, respectively. The EGFR gene was amplified in 9 out of 31 tumors (29%. After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance status, and extent of surgical resection, Cox multiple regression analysis with overall survival as the dependent variable revealed that c-erbB2 overexpression detected by the monoclonal antibody clone CB11 was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor (P = 0.004. This study shows the convenience and feasibility of immunohistochemistry when determining the expression of receptor proteins in tissue sections of human astrocytomas. The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Further, c-erbB2 overexpression seems to predict aggressive behaviour.

  6. Outcome and patterns of failure following limited-volume irradiation for malignant astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, A.S.; Maor, M.H.; Yung, W.K.A.; Bruner, J.M.; Woo, Shiao Y.; Moser, R.P.; Lee, Ya-Yen (Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Between January 1982 and June 1986, 60 consecutive patients with high-grade astrocytomas (39 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 21 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)) were treated with radiation therapy after biopsy (13 patients) or resection (47 patients). 53 patients were treated with limited-volume irradiation, 7 received whole-brain irradiation. The mean tumor dose was 65.4 Gy. In 35 patients, chemotherapy was given as part of their initial treatment. The 1- and 2-year survivals for GBM patients were 40 and 14 percent, respectively. Survival figures for AA patients were 76 and 52 percent at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The progression-free rate at 1 year was 13 percent in GBM and 29 percent in AA patients. 34 of 48 patients who received limited-volume irradiation had evidence of progression on postirradiation CT scans. 6 patients (3 GBM, 3 AA) had evidence of a new intracranial metastatic site on CT scan. In 3 patients the metastasis was within the previously irradiated volume, and in 3 other patients, it was outside this volume. All 6 had evidence of progression of their primary tumor at the original location on CT scan prior to the discovery of the metastatic site. 21 patients (15 GBM, 6 AA) had at least 1 postirradiation reoperation for a recurrent mass. 19 patients had recurrent tumors in the primary site, and 2 patients had necrosis but no tumor. Patients who received limited-volume irradiation for high-grade astrocytomas achieved the same survival results as patients treated previously with whole brain irradiation. New intra-cranial metastases did not influence the outcome, since these were always antedated by tumor progression at the primary site. (author). 16 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs.

  7. An infant with hyperalertness, hyperkinesis, and failure to thrive: a rare diencephalic syndrome due to hypothalamic anaplastic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stival, Alessia; Lucchesi, Maurizio; Farina, Silvia; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Castiglione, Francesca; Genitori, Lorenzo; de Martino, Maurizio; Sardi, Iacopo

    2015-09-04

    Diencephalic Syndrome is a rare clinical condition of failure to thrive despite a normal caloric intake, hyperalertness, hyperkinesis, and euphoria usually associated with low-grade hypothalamic astrocytomas. We reported an unusual case of diencephalic cachexia due to hypothalamic anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO-grade III). Baseline endocrine function evaluation was performed in this patient before surgery. After histological diagnosis, he enrolled to a chemotherapy program with sequential high-dose chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell rescue. The last MRI evaluation showed a good response. The patient is still alive with good visual function 21 months after starting chemotherapy. Diencephalic cachexia can rarely be due to high-grade hypothalamic astrocytoma. We suggest that a nutritional support with chemotherapy given to high doses without radiotherapy could be an effective strategy for treatment of a poor-prognosis disease.

  8. Differential prefrontal-like deficit in children after cerebellar astrocytoma and medulloblastoma tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero Eliana A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was realized thanks to the collaboration of children and adolescents who had been resected from cerebellar tumors. The medulloblastoma group (CE+, n = 7 in addition to surgery received radiation and chemotherapy. The astrocytoma group (CE, n = 13 did not receive additional treatments. Each clinical group was compared in their executive functioning with a paired control group (n = 12. The performances of the clinical groups with respect to controls were compared considering the tumor's localization (vermis or hemisphere and the affectation (or not of the dentate nucleus. Executive variables were correlated with the age at surgery, the time between surgery-evaluation and the resected volume. Methods The executive functioning was assessed by means of WCST, Complex Rey Figure, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (letter and animal categories, Digits span (WISC-R verbal scale and Stroop test. These tests are very sensitive to dorsolateral PFC and/or to medial frontal cortex functions. The scores for the non-verbal Raven IQ were also obtained. Direct scores were corrected by age and transformed in standard scores using normative data. The neuropsychological evaluation was made at 3.25 (SD = 2.74 years from surgery in CE group and at 6.47 (SD = 2.77 in CE+ group. Results The Medulloblastoma group showed severe executive deficit (≤ 1.5 SD below normal mean in all assessed tests, the most severe occurring in vermal patients. The Astrocytoma group also showed executive deficits in digits span, semantic fluency (animal category and moderate to slight deficit in Stroop (word and colour tests. In the astrocytoma group, the tumor's localization and dentate affectation showed different profile and level of impairment: moderate to slight for vermal and hemispheric patients respectively. The resected volume, age at surgery and the time between surgery-evaluation correlated with some neuropsychological executive variables

  9. FGFR1 tyrosine kinase domain duplication in pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Leomar Y; Penas-Prado, Marta; Leeds, Norman E; Huse, Jason T; Fuller, Gregory N

    2018-04-01

    We report the case of a 27-yr-old male with visual field loss who had a 4.9-cm complex cystic mass in the right occipital lobe. Histologic examination showed pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with anaplasia, and molecular characterization revealed FGFR1 duplication with additional variants of unknown significance in several genes ( ARID1A, ARID1B, CHEK2, EPHA5, and MLL2 ). This is one of only a very few reported cases of anaplastic PA with characterization of molecular alterations. © 2018 Ballester et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Classification of astrocyto-mas and meningiomas using statistical discriminant analysis on MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siromoney, Anna; Prasad, G.N.S.; Raghuram, Lakshminarayan; Korah, Ipeson; Siromoney, Arul; Chandrasekaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of Multivariate Discriminant Analysis for classifying two groups of primary brain tumours, astrocytomas and meningiomas, from Magnetic Resonance Images. Discriminant analysis is a multivariate technique concerned with separating distinct sets of objects and with allocating new objects to previously defined groups. Allocation or classification rules are usually developed from learning examples in a supervised learning environment. Data from signal intensity measurements in the multiple scan performed on each patient in routine clinical scanning was analysed using Fisher's Classification, which is one method of discriminant analysis

  11. An acid phosphatase in the plasma membranes of human astrocytoma showing marked specificity toward phosphotyrosine protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, J F; Kaplan, N O

    1982-11-01

    The plasma membrane from the human tumor astrocytoma contains an active acid phosphatase activity based on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Other acid phosphatase substrates--beta-glycerophosphate, O-phosphorylcholine, and 5'-AMP--are not hydrolyzed significantly. The phosphatase activity is tartrate insensitive and is stimulated by Triton X-100 and EDTA. Of the three known phosphoamino acids, only free O-phosphotyrosine is hydrolyzed by the membrane phosphatase activity. Other acid phosphatases tested from potato, wheat germ, milk, and bovine prostate did not show this degree of specificity. The plasma membrane activity also dephosphorylated phosphotyrosine histone at a much greater rate than did the other acid phosphatases. pH profiles for free O-phosphotyrosine and phosphotyrosine histone showed a shift toward physiological pH, indicating possible physiological significance. Phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation activity was nearly 10 times greater than that seen for phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation, and Km values were much lower for phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (0.5 microM vs. 10 microM). Fluoride and zinc significantly inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation. Vanadate, on the other hand, was a potent inhibitor of phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (50% inhibition at 0.5 microM) but not of phosphoserine histone. ATP stimulated phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (160-250%) but inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation (95%). These results suggest the existence of a highly specific phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase activity associated with the plasma membrane of human astrocytoma.

  12. Quality of life and neuropsychological evaluation for patients with malignant astrocytomas: RTOG 91-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choucair, Ali K.; Scott, Charles; Urtasun, Raul; Nelson, Diana; Mousas, Benjamin; Curran, Walter

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: With increasingly aggressive neurosurgical and radiation therapy modalities (gamma knife, external beam stereotactic radiation and interstitial brachytherapy with or without hyperthermia) offered to patients with malignant astrocytomas (MA), increasing national demand for medical outcome studies and rising health care costs amidst public, business, and governmental debate to cut spending, we as physicians are obligated to continue our research to find effective treatments for malignant astrocytoma (MA) and a cost-effective means to study their impact upon the patient's quality of life (QOL). Purpose: We report data that was collected within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) on 126 patients with MA who were enrolled in RTOG 91-14. This study was undertaken to prospectively test the feasibility of performing quality of life (QOL) and neuropsychological evaluation (NPE) and collecting this data within the RTOG. Results: The NPE and QOL parameters that were used in this study are cost effective. They are not only much cheaper than formal cognitive and memory testing, but also provide additional information regarding the patients' day to day functional abilities that are not provided by the current routinely used means, such as KPS. The Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) provides greater sensitivity to patients' differences in neurological status and may be preferable to NFS as an eligibility criteria

  13. Cloning of a novel transcription factor-like gene amplified in human glioma including astrocytoma grade I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, U.; Heckel, D.; Michel, A.; Janka, M.; Hulsebos, T.; Meese, E.

    1997-01-01

    Gene amplification, which is generally considered to occur late in tumor development, is a common feature of high grade glioma. Up until now, there have been no reports on amplification in astrocytoma grade I. In this study, we report cloning and sequencing of a cDNA termed glioma-amplified sequence

  14. Impaired RNA splicing of 5'-regulatory sequences of the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 in human astrocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Münch, C.; Penndorf, A.; Schwalenstöcker, B.; Troost, D.; Ludolph, A. C.; Ince, P.; Meyer, T.

    2001-01-01

    A loss of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 has been reported in the neoplastic transformation of astrocytic cells and astrocytoma. The RNA expression of EAAT2 and five 5'-regulatory splice variants was investigated to identify alterations of the post-transcriptional EAAT2 gene regulation in human

  15. Lack of prognostic significance of C-erbB-2 expression in low- and high- grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallaoglu, Saik; Besen, Ali Ayberk; Ata, Alper; Mertsoylu, Huseyin; Arican, Ali; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Ozyilkan, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic tumors, the most common primary glial tumors of the central nervous system, are classified from low to high grade according to the degree of anaplasia and presence of necrosis. Despite advances in therapeutic management of high grade astrocytic tumors, prognosis remains poor. In the present study, the frequency and prognostic significance of c-erb-B2 in astrocytic tumors was investigated. Records of 72 patients with low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors were evaluated. The expression of C-erbB-2 was determined immunohistochemically and intensity was recorded as 0 to 3+. Tumors with weak staining (1+) or no staining (0) were considered Her-2 negative, while tumors with moderate (2+) and strong (3+) staining were considered Her-2 positive. Of the 72 patients, 41 (56.9%) had glioblastoma (GBM), 10 (13.9%) had diffuse astrocytoma, 15 (20.8%) had anaplastic astrocytoma, 6 (8.3%) had pilocytic astrocytoma. C-erbB-2 overexpression was detected in the tumor specimens of 17 patients (23.6%). Six (8.3%) tumors, all GBMs, exhibited strong staining, 2 (2.7%) specimens, both GBMs, exhibited moderate staining, and 9 specimens, 5 of them GBMs (12.5%), exhibited weak staining. No staining was observed in diffuse astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma specimens. Median overall survival of patients with C-erbB-2 negative and C-erbB-2 positive tumors were 30 months (95%CI: 22.5-37.4 months) and 16.9 months (95%CI: 4.3-29.5 months), respectively (p=0.244). Although there was no difference in survival, C-erbB-2 overexpression was observed only in the GBM subtype.

  16. External Beam Radiotherapy in the Management of Low Grade Astrocytoma of the Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ha Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy for patients with low-grade astrocytomas and to define an optimal radiotherapeutic regimen and prognostic factors. A total of 69 patients with low-grade astrocytomas underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy immediately following surgery at our institution between October 1989 and September 2006. The median patient age was 36 years. Forty-one patients were 40 years or younger and 28 patients were 41 years or older. Fourteen patients underwent a biopsy alone and the remaining 55 patients underwent a subtotal resection. Thirty-nine patients had a Karnofsky performance status of less than 80% and 30 patients had a Karnofsky performance status greater than 80%. Two patients were treated with whole brain irradiation followed by a coned down boost field to the localized area. The remaining 67 patients were treated with a localized field with an appropriate margin. Most of the patients received a dose of 50∼55 Gy and majority of the patients were treated with a dose of 54 Gy. The overall 5-year and 7-year survival rates for all of the 69 patients were 49% and 44%, respectively. Corresponding disease free survival rates were 45% and 40%, respectively. Patients who underwent a subtotal resection showed better survival than patients who underwent a biopsy alone. The overall 5-year survival rates for patients who underwent a subtotal resection and patients who underwent a biopsy alone were 57% and 38%, respectively (p<0.05). Forty-one patients who were 40 years or younger showed a better overall 5-year survival rate as compared with 28 patients who were 41 years or older (56% versus 40%, p<0.05). The overall 5-year survival rates for 30 patients with a Karnofsky performance status greater than 80% and 39 patients with a Karnofsky performance status less than 80% were 51% and 47%, respectively. This finding was not statistically significant. Although one patient was not able to

  17. Pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas: a retrospective study of 348 patients from the SEER database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksik, Andrew S; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Yang, Wuyang; Huang, Judy; Jallo, George I

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Intramedullary spinal cord tumors comprise 1%-10% of all childhood central nervous system neoplasms, with astrocytomas representing the most common subtype. Due to their rarity and poor prognosis, large population-based studies are needed to assess the epidemiology and survival risk factors associated with these tumors in the hope of improving outcome. The authors undertook this retrospective study to explore factors that may influence survival in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas. METHODS Utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, a prospective cancer registry, the authors retrospectively assessed survival in histologically confirmed, primary spinal cord astrocytomas in patients 21 years of age and younger. Survival was described with Kaplan-Meyer curves, and a multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the association of several variables with survival while controlling for confounding variables. RESULTS This analysis of 348 cases showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09, p = 0.017), nonwhite race (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.11-2.74, p = 0.014), high-grade tumor status (HR 14.67, 95% CI 6.69-32.14, p < 0.001), distant or invasive extension of the tumor (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.02-5.49, p = 0.046), and radiation therapy (HR 3.74, 95% CI 2.18-6.41, p < 0.001) were associated with decreased survival. Partial resection (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.83, p = 0.017) and gross-total resection (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.95, p = 0.039) were associated with improved survival. CONCLUSIONS Younger age appears to be protective, while high-grade tumors have a much worse prognosis. Early diagnosis and access to surgery appears necessary for improving outcomes, while radiation therapy has an unclear role. There is still much to learn about this disease in the hope of curing children with the misfortune of having one of these rare tumors.

  18. Approach to the irradiation of extensive cervical and upper thoracic spinal astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, E.

    1981-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord tumors are relatively rare, especially to the extent presented in this report. A 31-year-old woman had been diagnosed as having an inoperable astrocytoma, grade I-II, involving the entire cervical spinal cord and two upper thoracic segments. After decompressive laminectomy, she was referred for a radical course of radiation therapy. An irradiation technique was devised which allowed treatment of a single cylindrical volume of tissue encompassing the known tumor. Field fractionation with undesirable gaps and/or excessive dose to overlying normal structures was avoided. To the cervical spinal cord she received 5590 cGy in 29 fractions over 42 days. By this schedule she received at the same time 4820 cGy to the medulla oblongata and 4880 cGy to the upper thoracic cord. Partial neurological improvement occurred at the end of the treatment. The treatment approach is discussed in the background of the literature data. (orig.) [de

  19. Effect of chemoradiotherapy using ACNU, vincristine, and nicardipine with high-dose irradiation on malignant astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genka, Shigeru; Shitara, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Takakura, Kintomo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1993-05-01

    Fifty-two patients with malignant astrocytoma were treated with cellular synchronization radiation therapy at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 1977 and 1989. Twenty-five patients (Group 1) received 1 - (4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl - 3 - (2-chloroethyl) - 3 - nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), vincristine, and 60 Gy of irradiation, and 27 patients (Group 2) ACNU, vincristine, the Ca-channel blocker nicardipine, and 72 Gy of irradiation. Median survival times for Groups 1 and 2 were 15 and 30 months, respectively. Although there was no significant difference, Group 2 achieved longer survival with 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates of 85.2, 65.8, and 46.9% compared to rates of 66.7, 40.0, and 26.7%, respectively, for Group 1. (author).

  20. A case of paraventricular anaplastic astrocytoma following radiation therapy for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Kitahara, Masakazu (Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital, Miyagi (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    A 20-year-old man received 60 Gy of radiation therapy after partial removal of craniopharyngioma. The patient had been well and follow-up CT scans did not show any aggravation for 16 years. Since his activity gradually diminished, he underwent an MRI at the age of 36 which revealed and abnormal mass on the corpus callosum. The mass lesion progressively enlarged thereafter, and was diagnosed as anaplastic astrocytoma by a stereotactic biopsy. He was treated with interferon, however, died at the age of 37. Review of the literature disclosed 19 other cases of glioma following radiation therapy for sellar/parasellar tumors. Characteristic features of these cases included (1) lowness of age compared to common glioma cases, (2) tendency to be malignant, (3) tendency to occur in areas where significant doses of radiation had been received previously. (author).

  1. Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Lulla, Rishi R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes.

  2. Effect of chemoradiotherapy using ACNU, vincristine, and nicardipine with high-dose irradiation on malignant astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, Shigeru; Shitara, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Takakura, Kintomo

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with malignant astrocytoma were treated with cellular synchronization radiation therapy at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 1977 and 1989. Twenty-five patients (Group 1) received 1 - (4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl - 3 - (2-chloroethyl) - 3 - nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), vincristine, and 60 Gy of irradiation, and 27 patients (Group 2) ACNU, vincristine, the Ca-channel blocker nicardipine, and 72 Gy of irradiation. Median survival times for Groups 1 and 2 were 15 and 30 months, respectively. Although there was no significant difference, Group 2 achieved longer survival with 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates of 85.2, 65.8, and 46.9% compared to rates of 66.7, 40.0, and 26.7%, respectively, for Group 1. (author)

  3. High accuracy of arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging in differentiation of pilomyxoid from pilocytic astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, S.A.; Assadsangabi, R.; Hajmomenian, M.; Vossough, A. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Santi, M. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a relatively new tumor entity which has been added to the 2007 WHO Classification of tumors of the central nervous system. The goal of this study is to utilize arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to differentiate PMA from pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pulsed ASL and conventional MRI sequences of patients with PMA and PA in the past 5 years were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with history of radiation or treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs were excluded. A total of 24 patients (9 PMA, 15 PA) were included. There were statistically significant differences between PMA and PA in mean tumor/gray matter (GM) cerebral blood flow (CBF) ratios (1.3 vs 0.4, p < 0.001) and maximum tumor/GM CBF ratio (2.3 vs 1, p < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for differentiation of PMA from PA was 0.91 using mean tumor CBF, 0.95 using mean tumor/GM CBF ratios, and 0.89 using maximum tumor/GM CBF. Using a threshold value of 0.91, the mean tumor/GM CBF ratio was able to diagnose PMA with 77 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity, and a threshold value of 0.7, provided 88 % sensitivity and 86 % specificity. There was no statistically significant difference between the two tumors in enhancement pattern (p = 0.33), internal architecture (p = 0.15), or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (p = 0.07). ASL imaging has high accuracy in differentiating PMA from PA. The result of this study may have important applications in prognostication and treatment planning especially in patients with less accessible tumors such as hypothalamic-chiasmatic gliomas. (orig.)

  4. Pion radiation for high grade astrocytoma: results of a randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Tom; Goodman, George B.; Rheaume, Dorianne E.; Duncan, Graeme G.; Fryer, Chris J.; Bhimji, Shamim; Ludgate, Charles; Syndikus, Isabel; Graham, Peter; Dimitrov, Mario; Bowen, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempted to compare within a randomized study the outcome of pion radiation therapy vs. conventional photon irradiation for the treatment of high-grade astrocytomas. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients were randomized to pion therapy (33-34.5 Gyπ), or conventional photon irradiation (60 Gy). Entry criteria included astrocytoma (modified Kernohan high Grade 3 or Grade 4), age 18-70, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥50, ability to start irradiation within 30 days of surgery, unifocal tumor, and treatment volume < 850 cc. The high-dose volume in both arms was computed tomography enhancement plus a 2-cm margin. The study was designed with the power to detect a twofold difference between arms. Results: Eighty-one eligible patients were equally balanced for all known prognostic variables. Pion patients started radiation 7 days earlier on average than photon patients, but other treatment-related variables did not differ. There were no significant differences for either early or late radiation toxicity between treatment arms. Actuarial survival analysis shows no differences in terms of time to local recurrence or overall survival where median survival was 10 months in both arms (p = 0.22). The physician-assessed KPS and patient-assessed quality of life (QOL) measurements were generally maintained within 10 percentage points until shortly before tumor recurrence. There was no apparent difference in the serial KPS or QOL scores between treatment arms. Conclusion: In contrast to high linear energy transfer (LET) therapy for central nervous system tumors, such as neutron or neon therapy, the safety of pion therapy, which is of intermediate LET, has been reaffirmed. However, this study has demonstrated no therapeutic gain for pion therapy of glioblastoma

  5. The role of radiotherapy in the management of supratentorial low grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. H.; Chang, H. S.; Lee, K. J.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the role of radiotherapy in the management of incompletely resected supratentorial low grade astrocytoma with the analysis of the survival, the pattern of failure, and the prognostic variables affecting survival. Between January 1990 and December 1995, fifty-one patients with supratentorial low grade astrocytoma received radiotherapy after subtotal resection (16 patients) or stereotactic biopsy(35 patients)at Asan Medical Center. External radiotherapy was done by conventional fractionation with the total dose of 4820cGy to 6000cGy(median 5580cGy) and partial brain volume. The follow-up was done from 6 to 79 months(median 48 months). Overall actuarial survival rate at 2 and 5 years were 83.4% and 54.8T, respectively. Progression free survival at 2 and 5 years were 67.4% and 48.7%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors affecting overall survival rate were the performance status, T stage, histologic subtype, radiation field and radiation response. The major pattern of failure was local failure, such as progressive disease and primary site recurrence in 23 patients (45.1%). Progression free survivors excluding 2 patients were physically and intellectually intact without major neurologic deficit. Although the follow-up period of this study was relatively short, overall actuarial and progression free survival rate were encouraging. Patients with good performance status, lower T stage, pilocytic subtype, patients treated with small radiation field and radiation responder showed better survival. As the local failure was the major pattern of failure, the various efforts to decrease the local failure is necessary. (author)

  6. Molecular analysis of pediatric brain tumors identifies microRNAs in pilocytic astrocytomas that target the MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tania A; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Forshew, Tim; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Lawson, Andrew R J; Patel, Sheena N; Doctor, Gabriel T; Mumin, Muhammad A; Picker, Simon R; Phipps, Kim P; Michalski, Antony; Jacques, Thomas S; Sheer, Denise

    2015-12-18

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are slow-growing tumors that usually occur in the cerebellum or in the midline along the hypothalamic/optic pathways. The most common genetic alterations in pilocytic astrocytomas activate the ERK/MAPK signal transduction pathway, which is a major driver of proliferation but is also believed to induce senescence in these tumors. Here, we have conducted a detailed investigation of microRNA and gene expression, together with pathway analysis, to improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in pilocytic astrocytomas. Pilocytic astrocytomas were found to have distinctive microRNA and gene expression profiles compared to normal brain tissue and a selection of other pediatric brain tumors. Several microRNAs found to be up-regulated in pilocytic astrocytomas are predicted to target the ERK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways as well as genes involved in senescence-associated inflammation and cell cycle control. Furthermore, IGFBP7 and CEBPB, which are transcriptional inducers of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), were also up-regulated together with the markers of senescence and inflammation, CDKN1A (p21), CDKN2A (p16) and IL1B. These findings provide further evidence of a senescent phenotype in pilocytic astrocytomas. In addition, they suggest that the ERK/MAPK pathway, which is considered the major driver of these tumors, is regulated not only by genetic aberrations but also by microRNAs.

  7. Phase II trial of carmustine, cisplatin, and oral etoposide chemotherapy before radiotherapy for grade 3 astrocytoma (anaplastic astrocytoma): Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial 98-72-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ravi D.; Krishnan, Sunil; Fitch, Tom R.; Schomberg, Paula J.; Dinapoli, Robert P.; Nordstrom, Kathleen; Scheithauer, Bernd; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Maurer, Matthew J. M.S.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of preradiotherapy (RT) chemotherapy with carmustine, cisplatin, and oral etoposide combined with RT in the treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma. Methods and materials: Therapy consisted of carmustine (40 mg/m 2 /d) on Days 1-3, oral etoposide (50 mg/d) on Days 1-21 and 29-49, and cisplatin (20 mg/m 2 /d i.v.) on Days 1-3 and 29-31. The regimen was repeated every 8 weeks for three cycles, with conventionally fractionated RT (5000 cGy with a 1000-cGy boost) delivered concurrently with the third cycle. Results: A total of 29 patients were enrolled between December 1999 and March 2001. For varying reasons (e.g., progression, refusal, death, or toxicity), only 48% completed the chemotherapy regimen and 76% completed RT. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 14 patients (48%). The primary study endpoint was the 23-month (700-day) survival, the median survival of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma in a previous North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial. To be considered an active treatment, a maximum of 9 patient deaths (of the first 25) were allowed before 700 days. However, 14 patients had died by 700 days after therapy. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that pre-RT chemotherapy with this regimen is insufficiently active in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma

  8. Methylation profiles of thirty four promoter-CpG islands and concordant methylation behaviours of sixteen genes that may contribute to carcinogenesis of astrocytoma

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    Wang Yifei

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytoma is a common aggressive intracranial tumor and presents a formidable challenge in the clinic. Association of altered DNA methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands with the expression profile of cancer-related genes, has been found in many human tumors. Therefore, DNA methylation status as such may serve as an epigenetic biomarker for both diagnosis and prognosis of human tumors, including astrocytoma. Methods We used the methylation specific PCR in conjunction with sequencing verification to establish the methylation profile of the promoter CpG island of thirty four genes in astrocytoma tissues from fifty three patients (The WHO grading:. I: 14, II: 15, III: 12 and IV: 12 cases, respectively. In addition, compatible tissues (normal tissues distant from lesion from three non-astrocytoma patients were included as the control. Results Seventeen genes (ABL, APC, APAF1, BRCA1, CSPG2, DAPK1, hMLH1, LKB1, PTEN, p14ARF, p15INK4b, p27KIP1, p57KIP2, RASSF1C, RB1, SURVIVIN, and VHL displayed a uniformly unmethylated pattern in all the astrocytoma and non-astrocytoma tissues examined. However, the MAGEA1 gene that was inactivated and hypermethylated in non-astrocytoma tissues, was partially demethylated in 24.5% of the astrocytoma tissues (co-existence of the hypermethylated and demethylated alleles. Of the astrocytoma associated hypermethylated genes, the methylation pattern of the CDH13, cyclin a1, DBCCR1, EPO, MYOD1, and p16INK4a genes changed in no more than 5.66% (3/53 of astrocytoma tissues compared to non-astrocytoma controls, while the RASSF1A, p73, AR, MGMT, CDH1, OCT6,, MT1A, WT1, and IRF7 genes were more frequently hypermethylated in 69.8%, 47.2%, 41.5%, 35.8%, 32%, 30.2%, 30.2%, 30.2% and 26.4% of astrocytoma tissues, respectively. Demethylation mediated inducible expression of the CDH13, MAGEA1, MGMT, p73 and RASSF1A genes was established in an astrocytoma cell line (U251, demonstrating that expression of

  9. Promoter hypermethylation of mismatch repair gene hMLH1 predicts the clinical response of malignant astrocytomas to nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Takao; Katayama, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Ogino, Akiyoshi; Ohta, Takashi; Komine, Chiaki

    2005-02-15

    In certain types of human cancers, transcriptional inactivation of hMLH1 by promoter hypermethylation plays a causal role in the loss of mismatch repair functions that modulate cytotoxic pathways in response to DNA-damaging agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of promoter methylation of the hMLH1 gene in malignant astrocytomas. We examined the hMLH1 promoter methylation in a homogeneous cohort of patients with 41 malignant astrocytomas treated by 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-2(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea chemotherapy in combination with radiation and interferon therapy, and assessed the correlation of such methylation with clinical outcome. hMLH1 promoter methylation was found in 6 (15%) of the 41 newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter corresponded closely with a loss of immunohistochemical staining for hMLH1 protein (P = 0.0013). Patients with hMLH1-methylated tumors displayed a greater chance of responding to adjuvant therapy as compared with those with hMLH1-unmethylated tumors (P = 0.0150). The presence of hMLH1 hypermethylation was significantly associated with a longer progression-free survival on both univariate analysis (P = 0.0340) and multivariate analysis (P = 0.0161). The present study identified hMLH1 methylation status as a predictor of the clinical response of malignant astrocytomas to chloroethylnitrosourea-based adjuvant therapy. The findings obtained suggest that determination of the methylation status of hMLH1 could provide a potential basis for designing rational chemotherapeutic strategies, as well as for predicting prognosis.

  10. Preliminary individualized chemotherapy for malignant astrocytomas based on O6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takao; Katayama, Yoichi; Ogino, Akiyoshi; Ohta, Takashi; Yoshino, Atsuo; Fukushima, Takao

    2006-08-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase gene (MGMT) methylation is apparently correlated with responsiveness to nitrosourea chemotherapy, suggesting this alkylating agent should be effective against MGMT-methylated tumors. MGMT appears not to be linked to platinum resistance, so platinum chemotherapy should be used for MGMT-unmethylated tumors. This study was a preliminary trial of individualized chemotherapy based on MGMT methylation status in a total of 20 patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas (9 anaplastic astrocytomas and 11 glioblastomas multiforme). The procarbazine, 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-2(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea, and vincristine (PAV) regimen was administered to seven patients with MGMT-methylated tumors, and the carboplatin and etoposide (CE) regimen was administered to 13 patients with MGMT-unmethylated tumors. Objective response to the PAV therapy was noted in all three patients with measurable residual tumor (2 complete responses and 1 partial response). Five of the seven patients continued to be disease-free after initiation of the PAV therapy. Objective response to the CE therapy was seen in only one of seven patients with measurable residual tumor (1 partial response). Three of the 13 patients were free from progression, whereas the remaining 10 patients showed early progression. The PAV regimen is effective against MGMT-methylated malignant astrocytomas, but the CE regimen is not useful at the given dose and schedule in MGMT-unmethylated tumors.

  11. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

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    Maher Kurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53 gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

  12. First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C

    2005-09-01

    At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT.

  13. Surgical Management of Pilocytic Astrocytoma of the Optic Nerve: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Ifeoluwa Apanisile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve astrocytomas (ONAs are frequent types of optic nerve gliomas (ONGs, which can affect the visual pathway. An 18-year-old male patient was admitted to our department with right-sided intraorbital/retrobulbar swelling, which progressively grew over several months. Clinical examination showed right-sided diplopia, mydriasis, low visual acuity (0.4, exophthalmus (3 cm, epiphora, and severe retrobulbar pain. There was a family history of high-grade (IV astrocytomas in which two of the family members died due to the disease. Preoperative MRI scan revealed a soft tissue mass around the retrobulbar area of the right eye with intact orbital bony walls. Surgery was performed whereby it was dissected freely from the muscles and was separated from the optic nerve and the globe. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a benign astrocytoma. The follow-up examination revealed no recurrent or residual tumor. A systemic review of the literature indicates that early diagnosis and experienced multidisciplinary management are required in case of unilateral, resectable forms of ONAs with no distant metastasis, in order to provide a long-time survival of patients. Surgical intervention of unilateral ONAs is a relatively safe procedure, allowing complete or partial tumor removal with minimal morbidity and low recurrence rate.

  14. Combined value of susceptibility weighted imaging and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MR perfusion-weighted imaging in brain astrocytoma grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaochun; Zhang Hui; Qin Jiangbo; Wang Le; Wu Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of combination of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in astrocytoma grading. Methods: SWI and DSC scans were performed in 82 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytoma. The patient group consisted of grade Ⅱ (15), grade Ⅲ (10), and grade Ⅳ (57). The intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) max were used to determine the grade of astrocytomas by Kruskal Wallis test, Welch test, Spearman correlation coefficients, Pearson correlation coefficients, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC)statistic methods. Results: There were no ITSS in 14 cases of low-grade astrocytomas, the degree of ITSS were grade 1 to 3 in anaplastic astrocytomas, the degree of ITSS were grade 3 in all of the glioblastomas, the degree of ITSS were significant difference in all grades (H=71.96, P<0.01). rCBV max in grade Ⅱ, grade Ⅲ and grade Ⅳ astrocytomas were 1.26 ± 0.42, 3.59 ± 2.09 and 8.34 ± 1.16 respectively, rCBV max were significant difference in all grades (F'=681.72, P<0.01). ITSS showed significant correlation with rCBV max (r=0.72, P<0.01) and tumor grades (r=0.89, P<0.01), and rCBV and tumor grades showed significant correlation (r=0.78, P<0.01). Area under the ROC curve application SWI, DSC, SWI and DSC in differentiation of the grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ astrocytomas were 0.99, 0.93, 1.00, differentiate grade Ⅲ from grade Ⅳ were 0.70, 0.94, 0.94, and differentiate high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas were 1.00, 0.99, 1.00. Conclusions: ITSS is helpful to determine the grade of astrocytomas. The use of SWI in combination with DSC may improve the diagnostic accuracy of astrocytoma grading. (authors)

  15. The value of diffusion weighted imaging in differentiating intracranial tuberculomas from high-grade astrocytomas and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Juan; Luo Tianyou; Lv Fajin; Fang Weidong; Wu Jingquan; Ouyang Yu; Li Yongmei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating intracranial tuberculomas from high-grade astrocytomas and metastases. Methods: The conventional MR imaging and DWI were performed in 50 eases (14 cases with intracranial tuberculomas, 15 cases with high- grade astrocytomas, and 21 cases with metastases) before treatment or operation. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) values were calculated from the mass as well as from the peripheral edema regions of intracranial lesions. Results: The mean ADC values and rADC values were (1.2±0.2) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.6±0.3 in the mass of intracranial tuberculomas respectively; (0.8±0.1) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.1±0.1 in the parenehyma of high-grade astrocytomas; (0.8±0.1) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.0±0.2 in the parenchyma of metastases. There was significant difference of the mean ADC values (F=33.57, P -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 2.5±0.2 in the peripheral edema regions of intracranial tuberculomas respectively; (1.4±0.2) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 1.8±0.3 in the peripheral edema regions of high-grade astrocytomas; and (1.9±0.2) x 10 -3 mm 2 ·s -1 and 2.3±0.5 in the peripheral edema regions of metastases. There was also significant difference in the mean ADC values (F23.17, P<0.01) or rADC values (F=5.94, P<0.01) among the peripheral edema regions of the three groups. Conclusion: The ADC values and rADC values are quite effective in differentiating intracranial tuberculoma from high-grade astrocytoma and metastasis. (authors)

  16. Malignant astrocytoma: hyperfractionated and standard radiotherapy with chemotherapy in a randomized prospective clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, D.G.; Simpson, W.J.; Keen, C.; Platts, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A prospective randomized trial of 157 patients with malignant astrocytomas (Grade III or IV) was carried out at a single institution. The minimization technique ensured balanced distribution of prognostic factors between the treatment groups. All received oral lomustine (CCNU, 80 mg/m 2 ) six weekly and hydroxyurea (HU, 3.5 gm/m 2 over 5 days) three weekly, for one year or until recurrence, with doses adjusted for myelosuppression. Patients were randomized to daily (5000 rad in 25 fractions (fr) in 5 weeks) or Q3h (every 3 hours) Cobalt 60 irradiation (3600-4000 rad in 36-40 fr of 100 rad each, given 4 fr per day at 3-hour intervals over two weeks). Steroid therapy (up to 16 mg day dexamethasone) was permitted. Complications were moderate and equivalent in the two groups. No significant survival or toxicity differences were seen between the two groups. Age, initial performance status, and extent of surgical resection were found to be significant (P<0.01) prognostic factors for survival. Median survival of the whole group was 48 weeks with a minimum follow-up of one year. There was no advantage to large radiation fields. The hyperfractionation and daily regimes had similar efficacy and toxicity. Hyperfractionation with chemotherapy offers a useful alternative approach in the management of this disease

  17. Cytotoxicity Effects of Different Surfactant Molecules Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes on Human Astrocytoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lifeng; Witkowski, Colette M.; Craig, Michael M.; Greenwade, Molly M.; Joseph, Katherine L.

    2009-12-01

    Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL) for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC) and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system.

  18. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

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    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  19. A case of late presentation of precocious puberty due to pituitary astrocytoma

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    Fahimeh Soheilipour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of assessing precocious puberty, especially in boys, is not only due to the great complications it has for the affected patients, but also to the fatal underlying diseases. Therefore, children with central precocious puberty should first undergo neuroimaging. In this case study, we present a 9.5-year-old boy who was referred to Rasoul-e-Akram Medical Center with increased intracranial pressure, nausea/vomiting, and severe headache having begun three months earlier. The development of secondary sexual changes had started two years earlier, and had been neglected. His testes, penis, and pubic hair were at the fourth Tanner stage. He had elevated luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones. Microscopic evaluation confirmed low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade 1. Emergency brain surgery was conducted in which the brain was decompressed, and chemotherapy was started postoperatively. Two years after the surgery, he remains under chemotherapy, with obvious sexual maturation and a height of 154 cm. Training families and medical staff efficiently can help prevent the late diagnosis and treatment of precocious puberty and, as a result, help patients in their social life.

  20. Rapid increase in cystic volume of an anaplastic astrocytoma misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Jiang; Han, Hong-Xiu; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids. A period of 25 days later, the patient's condition had deteriorated, and MRI revealed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe; thereafter, the cystic lesion was removed and a diagnosis of AA was established. The tumor was soft, ivory white and gelatinous due to myxoid degeneration. In this case, tumor-related angiogenesis and microvascular extravasation (blood-brain barrier disruption) may have been the main cause of the rapid increase in the cystic volume in such a short time frame. The similarity of the glioma and cysticercus antigens may have been the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid. The present study reports the rare occurrence of a rapid increase of cystic volume and potential diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27698865

  1. The Characteristics of Astrocytomas and Oligodendrogliomas Are Caused by Two Distinct and Interchangeable Signaling Formats

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    Chengkai Dai

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF signaling in glial progenitors leads to the formation of oligodendrogliomas in mice, whereas chronic combined Ras and Akt signaling leads to astrocytomas. Different histologies of these tumors imply that the pathways activated by these two oncogenic stimulations are different, and that the apparent lineage of the tumor cells may result from specific signaling activity. Therefore, we have investigated the signaling effects of PDGF in culture and in gliomas in vivo. In culture, PDGF transiently activates ERK1/2 and Akt, and subsequently elevates p21 and PCNA expression similar to chronic PDGF autocrine signaling in cultured astrocytes and PDGF-induced oligodendrogliomas in vivo. Culture experiments show that autocrine PDGF stimulation, and combined active Ras and Akt generate signaling patterns that are in some ways mutually exclusive. Furthermore, forced Akt activity in the context of chronic PDGF stimulation results in cells with an astrocytic differentiation pattern both in culture and in vivo. These data imply that these two interconvertible signaling motifs are distinct in mice and lead to gliomas resembling the two major glioma histologies found in humans. The ability of signaling activity to convert tumor cells from one lineage to another presents a mechanism for the development of tumors apparently comprised of cells from multiple lineages.

  2. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

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    Arai Hajime

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  3. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

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    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B. [Isotope Centre, Havana (Cuba). Radiation Protection Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with {sup 188} Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of {sup 188} Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  4. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with 188 Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of 188 Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  5. TREATMENT OF PROGRESSION OF DIFFUSE ASTROCYTOMA BY HERBAL MEDICINE: CASE REPORT.

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    Trogrlić, Ivo; Trogrlić, Dragan; Trogrlić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the use of phytotherapy in a 33-year-old woman who, after finishing the oncological treatment of diffuse astrocytoma, had tumour progression. Phytotherapy was introduced after the tumour had progressed. It consisted of 4 types of herbal medicine which the subject was taking in form of tea once a day at regular intervals. The patient started phytotherapy along with temozolomide, which was the only oncological treatment she was under after the tumour had progressed. Following the finished chemotherapy, the patient continued the treatment with herbal medicine only. She regularly took phytotherapy without interruption and to the fullest extent for 30 months, and the results of treatment were monitored by periodic scanning using nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The control scanning that was conducted after the end of combined treatment with temozolomide and phytotherapy showed tumour regression. The patient continued with phytotherapy after finishing chemotherapy and, during the following 24 months, it was the sole treatment option. In that period, the regression of the tumour continued, until a control examination 30 months after the introduction of phytotherapy showed no clinical and radiological signs of tumour. The results presented in this research paper clearly indicate the potential of phytotherapy in the treatment of some types of brain tumours. A complete regression of tumour following the treatment with nothing but herbal medicine offers support for such claim. Future research should demonstrate the effectiveness of phytotherapy, as a supplementary form of brain tumour treatment, and the results of this research should be compared with the existing information on the effectiveness of the protocols currently used in the treatment of these types of tumour.

  6. Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunny, Roxana S.; Saunders, Dawn E.; Hayward, Richard D.; Phipps, Kim P.; Harding, Brian N.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) of childhood are benign tumours and are usually curable by surgical resection alone or combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. To undertake a retrospective study of our children with CLGA to determine the optimum schedule for surveillance imaging following initial surgery. In this report we describe the phenomenon of spontaneous regression of residual tumour and discuss its prognostic significance regarding future imaging. A retrospective review was conducted of children treated for histologically proven CLGA at Great Ormond Street Hospital from 1988 to 1998. Of 83 children with CLGA identified, 13 (15.7%) had incomplete resections. Two children with large residual tumours associated with persistent symptoms underwent additional treatment. Eleven children were followed by surveillance imaging alone for a mean of 6.83 years (range 2-13.25 years). Spontaneous tumour regression was seen in 5 (45.5%) of the 11 children. There were no differences in age, gender, symptomatology, histological grade or Ki-67 fractions between those with spontaneous tumour regression and those with progression. There was a non-significant trend that larger volume residual tumours progressed. Residual tumour followed by surveillance imaging may either regress or progress. For children with residual disease we recommend surveillance imaging every 6 months for the first 2 years, every year for years 3, 4 and 5, then every second year if residual tumour is still present 5 years after initial surgery. This would detect not only progressive or recurrent disease, but also spontaneous regression which can occur later than disease progression. (orig.)

  7. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

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    Mollace Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  8. Genomic Deletions Correlate with Underexpression of Novel Candidate Genes at Six Loci in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytoma

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    Nicola Potter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA is not well defined. Previous cytogenetic and molecular studies have not identified nonrandom genetic aberrations. To correlate differential gene expression and genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs in PA, we have used Affymetrix GeneChip HG_U133A to generate gene expression profiles of 19 pediatric patients and the SpectralChip 2600 to investigate CNAs in 11 of these tumors. Hierarchical clustering according to expression profile similarity grouped tumors and controls separately. We identified 1844 genes that showed significant differential expression between tumor and normal controls, with a large number clearly influencing phosphatidylinositol and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in PA. Most CNAs identified in this study were single-clone alterations. However, a small region of loss involving up to seven adjacent clones at 7q11.23 was observed in seven tumors and correlated with the underexpression of BCL7B. Loss of four individual clones was also associated with reduced gene expression including SH3GL2 at 9p21.2-p23, BCL7A (which shares 90% sequence homology with BCL7B at 12q24.33, DRD1IP at 10q26.3, and TUBG2 and CNTNAP1 at 17q21.31. Moreover, the down-regulation of FOXG1B at 14q12 correlated with loss within the gene promoter region in most tumors. This is the first study to correlate differential gene expression with CNAs in PA.

  9. Surgical resection of grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraud, Aurelia; Meschede, Magnus; Eisner, Wilhelm; Ilmberger, Josef; Reulen, Hans-Jürgen

    2002-05-01

    Surgery in the superior frontal gyrus partially involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) may be followed by contralateral transient weakness and aphasia initially indistinguishable from damage to the primary motor cortex. However, recovery is different, and SMA deficits may resolve completely within days to weeks. No study has assessed the distinct postoperative deficits after tumor resection in the SMA on a homogeneous patient group. Twenty-four patients with World Health Organization Grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus consecutively treated by surgery were studied. Degree and duration of postoperative deficits were evaluated according to tumor location and boundaries via magnetic resonance imaging scans, intraoperative neuromonitoring results, and extent of tumor resection. Postoperatively, motor deficits were evident in 21 of 24 and speech deficits in 9 of 12 patients. Motor function quickly recovered in 11 and speech function in 3 patients. None of the 12 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 0.5 cm from the precentral sulcus experienced persistent motor deficits. Eight of these patients developed typical SMA syndrome with transient initiation difficulties. Seven of 12 patients in whom the tumor extended to the precentral sulcus still had motor deficits at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Surgery for Grade II gliomas in the superior frontal gyrus is more likely to result in permanent morbidity when the resection is performed at a distance of less than 0.5 cm from the precentral gyrus or positive stimulation points. Therefore, cortical mapping of motor and speech function, in critical cases under local anesthesia with the patient as his or her own monitor, is recommended; resection should be tailored to obtain good functional outcome and maintain quality of life.

  10. A dangerous liaison: Leptin and sPLA2-IIA join forces to induce proliferation and migration of astrocytoma cells.

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    Rubén Martín

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of primary brain tumour, shows worse prognosis linked to diabetes or obesity persistence. These pathologies are chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by altered profiles of inflammatory mediators, including leptin and secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA. Both proteins, in turn, display diverse pro-cancer properties in different cell types, including astrocytes. Herein, to understand the underlying relationship between obesity and brain tumors, we investigated the effect of leptin, alone or in combination with sPLA2-IIA on astrocytoma cell functions. sPLA2-IIA induced up-regulation of leptin receptors in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Leptin, as well as sPLA2-IIA, increased growth and migration in these cells, through activation/phosphorylation of key proteins of survival cascades. Leptin, at concentrations with minimal or no activating effects on astrocytoma cells, enhanced growth and migration promoted by low doses of sPLA2-IIA. sPLA2-IIA alone induced a transient phosphorylation pattern in the Src/ERK/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/rS6 pathway through EGFR transactivation, and co-addition of leptin resulted in a sustained phosphorylation of these signaling regulators. Mechanistically, EGFR transactivation and tyrosine- and serine/threonine-protein phosphatases revealed a key role in this leptin-sPLA2-IIA cross-talk. This cooperative partnership between both proteins was also found in primary astrocytes. These findings thus indicate that the adipokine leptin, by increasing the susceptibility of cells to inflammatory mediators, could contribute to worsen the prognosis of tumoral and neurodegenerative processes, being a potential mediator of some obesity-related medical complications.

  11. Transcriptional profiles of pilocytic astrocytoma are related to their three different locations, but not to radiological tumor features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewski, Krzysztof; Jarząb, Michał; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Jarząb, Barbara; Liberski, Paweł P.; Zakrzewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in the pediatric population, with a generally favorable prognosis, although recurrences or leptomeningeal dissemination are sometimes also observed. For tumors originating in the supra-or infratentorial location, a different molecular background was suggested, but plausible correlations between the transcriptional profile and radiological features and/or clinical course are still undefined. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles related to the most frequent locations of this tumor, subtypes based on various radiological features, and the clinical pattern of the disease. Eighty six children (55 males and 31 females) with histologically verified pilocytic astrocytoma were included in this study. Their age at the time of diagnosis ranged from fourteen months to seventeen years, with a mean age of seven years. There were 40 cerebellar, 23 optic tract/hypothalamic, 21 cerebral hemispheric, and two brainstem tumors. According to the radiological features presented on MRI, all cases were divided into four subtypes: cystic tumor with a non-enhancing cyst wall; cystic tumor with an enhancing cyst wall; solid tumor with central necrosis; and solid or mainly solid tumor. In 81 cases primary surgical resection was the only and curative treatment, and in five cases progression of the disease was observed. In 47 cases the analysis was done by using high density oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) with subsequent bioinformatic analyses and confirmation of the results by independent RT-qPCR (on 39 samples). Bioinformatic analyses showed that the gene expression profile of pilocytic astrocytoma is highly dependent on the tumor location. The most prominent differences were noted for IRX2, PAX3, CXCL14, LHX2, SIX6, CNTN1 and SIX1 genes expression even within different compartments of the supratentorial region. Analysis of the genes potentially associated with radiological

  12. MR signal of the solid portion of pilocytic astrocytoma on T2-weighted images: is it useful for differentiation from medulloblastoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kiyokazu; Yagi, Akiko; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Morita, Hideo; Koyama, Yoshinori; Endo, Keigo; Sato, Noriko; Aoki, Jun; Oba, Hiroshi; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Saito, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although imaging features of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma have been described in many texts, original comparisons of magnetic resonance intensity between these two tumours are limited. In the present study the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed, focusing especially on the signal intensity of the solid portion of these neoplasms. Methods: MR images of ten cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and ten medulloblastomas were reviewed. The signal intensities of the solid components were graded on a scale of 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating a signal intensity closer to that of water. The degree of enhancement, tumour cysts and peripheral oedema were evaluated on MR images. When the solid portion was heterogeneous (i.e. mixed signal intensity or degree of enhancement), the dominant area was selected for evaluation. On T2-weighted images, the signal intensity of the solid portion was equal to that of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 50% of pilocytic astrocytomas. No medulloblastomas showed such hyperintensity. Most medulloblastomas (80%) were isointense to grey matter. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity varied widely in pilocytic astrocytomas; however, all medulloblastomas were iso- or hypointense to grey matter. The MR enhancement pattern, cystic component and peripheral oedema all varied in both tumour types and no specific features were identified. A signal intensity of the solid portion isointense to CSF on T2-weighted images was characteristic of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas; this was not observed in medulloblastomas. Attention to T2-weighted imaging of the solid portions of a tumour is easy and helpful in differentiating between cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  13. Phytometabolite Dehydroleucodine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Human Astrocytoma Cells through p73/p53 Regulation.

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    Natalia Bailon-Moscoso

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence supports the idea that secondary metabolites obtained from medicinal plants (phytometabolites may be important contributors in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce the occurrence or recurrence of cancer. Our study focused on Dehydroleucodine (DhL, a sesquiterpene found in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this study, we showed that DhL displayed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on the human cerebral astrocytoma D384 cell line. With lactone isolated from Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd, a medicinal plant from Ecuador, we found that DhL induced cell death in D384 cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis and DNA damage. We further found that the cell death resulted in the increased expression of CDKN1A and BAX proteins. A marked induction of the levels of total TP73 and phosphorylated TP53, TP73, and γ-H2AX proteins was observed in D384 cells exposed to DhL, but no increase in total TP53 levels was detected. Overall these studies demonstrated the marked effect of DhL on the diminished survival of human astrocytoma cells through the induced expression of TP73 and phosphorylation of TP73 and TP53, suggesting their key roles in the tumor cell response to DhL treatment.

  14. Phytometabolite Dehydroleucodine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Human Astrocytoma Cells through p73/p53 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon-Moscoso, Natalia; González-Arévalo, Gabriela; Velásquez-Rojas, Gabriela; Malagon, Omar; Vidari, Giovanni; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Ratovitski, Edward A; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the idea that secondary metabolites obtained from medicinal plants (phytometabolites) may be important contributors in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce the occurrence or recurrence of cancer. Our study focused on Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene found in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this study, we showed that DhL displayed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on the human cerebral astrocytoma D384 cell line. With lactone isolated from Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd, a medicinal plant from Ecuador, we found that DhL induced cell death in D384 cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis and DNA damage. We further found that the cell death resulted in the increased expression of CDKN1A and BAX proteins. A marked induction of the levels of total TP73 and phosphorylated TP53, TP73, and γ-H2AX proteins was observed in D384 cells exposed to DhL, but no increase in total TP53 levels was detected. Overall these studies demonstrated the marked effect of DhL on the diminished survival of human astrocytoma cells through the induced expression of TP73 and phosphorylation of TP73 and TP53, suggesting their key roles in the tumor cell response to DhL treatment.

  15. Estimation of radiotherapy and MCNU versus radiotherapy and MCNU plus interferon-[beta] for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiya, Katsuzo; Uozumi, Tohru; Kurisu, Kaoru; Ogasawara, Hidenori; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Hitoshi; Harada, Kunyu (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    The efficacy of radiotherapy and MCNU (MR) was estimated in comparison with radiotherapy and MCNU plus interferon-[beta] (IMR) in 25 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma. The MR group received irradiation with 50[approx]60 Gy and intravenous administration of 2 mg/kg of MCNU on the initial day of irradiation and following every 6[approx]8 weeks interval. The IMR group also received the same regimen in addition to intravenous infusion of 2 x 10[sup 6] IU/m[sup 2] of interferon-[beta] for 5 serial days every eight weeks and following once every two weeks. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of background. The response rates of MR and IMR group were 38.5% and 66.7%, respectively. The times to tumor progression (TTP) in the two groups were 11.9[+-]5.8 months and 13.6[+-]7.7 months, respectively. Thus, IMR therapy seems to be more efficacious for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma than MR therapy, but further trials are necessary. (author).

  16. Errantum: Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins

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    Lai JCK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lai JCK, Ananthakrishnan G, Jandhyam S, et al. Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins. Int J Nanomedicine. 2010;5:715–723.The wrong image was used in Figure 5 on page 719.

  17. A Sensitive and Specific Diagnostic Panel to Distinguish Diffuse Astrocytoma from Astrocytosis: Chromosome 7 Gain with Mutant Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Jansen, Michael; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Kim, J. ChulMin; Cosper, Arjola K.; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Nutt, Catherine L.; Iafrate, A. John; Louis, David N.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges of surgical neuropathology is the distinction of diffuse astrocytoma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade II) from astrocytosis. The most commonly used ancillary tool to solve this problem is p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC), but this is neither sensitive nor specific. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations are common in lower grade gliomas, with most causing a specific amino acid change (R132H) that can be detected with a monoclonal antibody. IDH2 mutations are rare, but also occur in gliomas. In addition, gains of chromosome 7 are common in gliomas. In this study we assessed the status of p53, IDH1/2 and chromosome 7 to determine the most useful panel to distinguish astrocytoma from astrocytosis. We studied biopsy specimens from 21 WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas and 20 reactive conditions. The single most sensitive test to identify astrocytoma is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome 7 gain (76.2%). The combination of p53 and mutant IDH1 IHC provides a higher sensitivity (71.4%) than either test alone (47.8%); this combination offers a practical initial approach for the surgical pathologist. The best overall sensitivity (95%) is achieved when FISH for chromosome 7 gain is added to the p53-mutant IDH1 IHC panel. PMID:21343879

  18. miR-106a-5p inhibits the proliferation and migration of astrocytoma cells and promotes apoptosis by targeting FASTK.

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    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Astrocytomas are common malignant intracranial tumors that comprise the majority of adult primary central nervous system tumors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs (20-24 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression by negatively regulating the stability or translational efficiency of their target mRNAs. In our previous studies, we found that the downregulation of miR-106a-5p in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis. However, its specific gene target(s and underlying functional mechanism(s in astrocytomas remain unclear. In this study, we used mRNA microarray experiments to measure global mRNA expression in the presence of increased or decreased miR-106a-5p levels. We then performed bioinformatics analysis based on multiple target prediction algorithms to obtain candidate target genes that were further validated by computational predictions, western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, and the luciferase reporter assay. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK was identified as a direct target of miR-106a-5p. In human astrocytomas, miR-106a-5p is downregulated and negatively associated with clinical staging, whereas FASTK is upregulated and positively associated with advanced clinical stages, at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the reduced expression of miR-106a-5p or the increased expression of FASTK is significantly associated with poor survival outcome. These results further supported the finding that FASTK is a direct target gene of miR-106a-5p. Next, we explored the function of miR-106a-5p and FASTK during astrocytoma progression. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that miR-106a-5p can significantly inhibit cell proliferation and migration and can promote cell apoptosis in vitro. The knockdown of FASTK induced similar effects on astrocytoma cells as those induced by the overexpression of miR-106a-5p. These

  19. The microRNA and messengerRNA profile of the RNA-induced silencing complex in human primary astrocyte and astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Joanna J; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2010-10-18

    GW/P bodies are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein-rich foci involved in microRNA (miRNA)-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) silencing and degradation. The mRNA regulatory functions within GW/P bodies are mediated by GW182 and its binding partner hAgo2 that bind miRNA in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). To date there are no published reports of the profile of miRNA and mRNA targeted to the RISC or a comparison of the RISC-specific miRNA/mRNA profile differences in malignant and non-malignant cells. RISC mRNA and miRNA components were profiled by microarray analysis of malignant human U-87 astrocytoma cells and its non-malignant counterpart, primary human astrocytes. Total cell RNA as well as RNA from immunoprecipitated RISC was analyzed. The novel findings were fourfold: (1) miRNAs were highly enriched in astrocyte RISC compared to U-87 astrocytoma RISC, (2) astrocytoma and primary astrocyte cells each contained unique RISC miRNA profiles as compared to their respective cellular miRNA profiles, (3) miR-195, 10b, 29b, 19b, 34a and 455-3p levels were increased and the miR-181b level was decreased in U-87 astrocytoma RISC as compared to astrocyte RISC, and (4) the RISC contained decreased levels of mRNAs in primary astrocyte and U-87 astrocytoma cells. The observation that miR-34a and miR-195 levels were increased in the RISC of U-87 astrocytoma cells suggests an oncogenic role for these miRNAs. Differential regulation of mRNAs by specific miRNAs is evidenced by the observation that three miR34a-targeted mRNAs and two miR-195-targeted mRNAs were downregulated while one miR-195-targeted mRNA was upregulated. Biological pathway analysis of RISC mRNA components suggests that the RISC plays a pivotal role in malignancy and other conditions. This study points to the importance of the RISC and ultimately GW/P body composition and function in miRNA and mRNA deregulation in astrocytoma cells and possibly in other malignancies.

  20. The microRNA and messengerRNA profile of the RNA-induced silencing complex in human primary astrocyte and astrocytoma cells.

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    Joanna J Moser

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GW/P bodies are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein-rich foci involved in microRNA (miRNA-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA silencing and degradation. The mRNA regulatory functions within GW/P bodies are mediated by GW182 and its binding partner hAgo2 that bind miRNA in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. To date there are no published reports of the profile of miRNA and mRNA targeted to the RISC or a comparison of the RISC-specific miRNA/mRNA profile differences in malignant and non-malignant cells.RISC mRNA and miRNA components were profiled by microarray analysis of malignant human U-87 astrocytoma cells and its non-malignant counterpart, primary human astrocytes. Total cell RNA as well as RNA from immunoprecipitated RISC was analyzed. The novel findings were fourfold: (1 miRNAs were highly enriched in astrocyte RISC compared to U-87 astrocytoma RISC, (2 astrocytoma and primary astrocyte cells each contained unique RISC miRNA profiles as compared to their respective cellular miRNA profiles, (3 miR-195, 10b, 29b, 19b, 34a and 455-3p levels were increased and the miR-181b level was decreased in U-87 astrocytoma RISC as compared to astrocyte RISC, and (4 the RISC contained decreased levels of mRNAs in primary astrocyte and U-87 astrocytoma cells.The observation that miR-34a and miR-195 levels were increased in the RISC of U-87 astrocytoma cells suggests an oncogenic role for these miRNAs. Differential regulation of mRNAs by specific miRNAs is evidenced by the observation that three miR34a-targeted mRNAs and two miR-195-targeted mRNAs were downregulated while one miR-195-targeted mRNA was upregulated. Biological pathway analysis of RISC mRNA components suggests that the RISC plays a pivotal role in malignancy and other conditions. This study points to the importance of the RISC and ultimately GW/P body composition and function in miRNA and mRNA deregulation in astrocytoma cells and possibly in other malignancies.

  1. The value of multi ultra high-b-value DWI in grading cerebral astrocytomas and its association with aquaporin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Qin, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Le

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the value of multi-ultrahigh-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (UHBV-DWI) in differentiating high-grade astrocytomas (HGAs) from low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs), analyze its association with aquaporin (AQP) expression. 40 astrocytomas divided into LGAs (N = 15) and HGAs (N = 25) were studied. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and UHBV-ADC values in solid parts and peritumoral edema were compared between LGAs and HGAs groups by the t-test. Using receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the better parameter. Using real time polymerase chain reaction to assess AQP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Using spearman correlation analysis to assess the correlation of AQP mRNA with each parameter. ADC values in solid parts of HGAs were significantly lower than LGAs (p = 0.02), while UHBV-ADC values of HGAs were significantly higher than LGAs (p  0.05); ADC value showed a negative correlation with AQP4 mRNA (r = -0.357; p = 0.024). UHBV-ADC value positively correlated with the AQP4 mRNA (r = 0.646; p value may be related with the AQP4 mRNA levels. UHBV-DWI could be of value in the assessment of astrocytoma. Advances in knowledge: UHBV-DWI generated by multi UHBV could have particular value for astrocytoma grading, and the level of AQP4 mRNA might be potentially linked to the change of UHBV-DWI parameter, and we might find the exact reason for the difference of UHBV-ADC between the LGAs and HGAs.

  2. Subventricular zone predicts high velocity of tumor expansion and poor clinical outcome in patients with low grade astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bing; Fu, Feixian; Hu, Liangbo; Cai, Qiuyi; Xie, Junshi

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the association between subventricular zone (SVZ) involvement and velocity of diametric expansion(VDE) in patients with low-grade astrocytoma and also assessed the clinical outcome of those patients. A total of 168 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma were studied retrospectively. There were 73 patients had SVZ involvement. Patients with SVZ involvement(7.16 ± 6.53 mm/y) had a higher VDE than patients without SVZ involvement(4.38 ± 5.35 mm/y). VDE was modeled as a categorical variable(<4, ≥4 and, <8, ≥8 and, <12, ≥12 mm/y). Logistic regression showed that SVZ involvement was associated with high VDE after adjusting by confounding variables. On the univariate analysis, the results showed that tumor involved with SVZ, VDE ≥ 4 mm/y, VDE ≥ 8 mm/y, and VDE ≥ 8 mm/y were significant predictors of a shorter OS, progression-free survival (PFS) and malignant progression-free survival (MFS)(all p <0.05). The categorical variables of VDE (<4 mm/y, ≥4 mm/y and, <8 mm/y, ≥8 mm/y and, <12 mm/y, ≥12 mm/y) were adjusted by confounding variables in multivariate analysis, respectively. The results indicated that VDE ≥ 8 mm/y, VDE ≥ 12 mm/y were worse prognostic factors for OS, while VDE ≥ 4 mm/y, VDE ≥ 8 mm/y and VDE ≥ 12 mm/y were related to shorter PFS and MFS. In addition, SVZ involvement was prognostic factors in predicting OS and PFS except MFS. Our results demonstrated that SVZ involvement predicted high VDE and worse clinical outcome, and high VDE was associated with poor prognosis in patients with low-grade astrocytoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuronavigation-guided intubated wake-up craniotomy for a patient with a brain astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Kuei Fang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer-assisted neuronavigation (an image-guided technique that facilitates brain tumor surgery reduces the risk of neurological morbidity. Postoperative neurological dysfunction is also minimized by performing intraoperative neurological testing during awake craniotomy with proper surgical resection of a brain tumor. However, when the patient's airway is not secured, an awake craniotomy can be hazardous if emergent intubation is necessary. The present report describes a young man with a brain tumor who underwent neuronavigation-guided wake-up craniotomy and surgical resection of an astrocytoma. The patient was intubated throughout the course of the procedure, during which modified intraoperative neurological tests were performed for cortical mapping. The patient recovered well after the operation and without any neurological deficits.

  4. Pre-surgical integration of FMRI and DTI of the sensorimotor system in transcortical resection of a high-grade insular astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea eEkstrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report on a patient with a WHO Grade III astrocytoma in the right insular region in close proximity to the internal capsule who underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy. Total gross resection of insular gliomas remains surgically challenging based on the possibility of damage to the corticospinal tracts. However, maximizing the extent of resection has been shown to decrease future adverse outcomes. Thus, the goal of such surgeries should focus on maximizing extent of resection while minimizing possible adverse outcomes. In this case, pre-surgical planning included integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, to localize motor and sensory pathways. Novel fMRI tasks were individually developed for the patient to maximize both somatosensory and motor activation simultaneously in areas in close proximity to the tumor. Information obtained was used to optimize resection trajectory and extent, facilitating gross total resection of the astrocytoma. Across all three motor-sensory tasks administered, fMRI revealed an area of interest just superior and lateral to the astrocytoma. Further, DTI analyses showed displacement of the corona radiata around the superior dorsal surface of the astrocytoma, extending in the direction of the activation found using fMRI. Taking into account these results, a transcortical superior temporal gyrus surgical approach was chosen in order to avoid the area of interest identified by fMRI and DTI. Total gross resection was achieved and minor post-surgical motor and sensory deficits were temporary. This case highlights the utility of comprehensive pre-surgical planning, including fMRI and DTI, to maximize surgical outcomes on a case-by-case basis.

  5. Analysis of difference of association between polymorphisms in the XRCC5, RPA3 and RTEL1 genes and glioma, astrocytoma and glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tianbo; Wang, Yuan; Li, Gang; Du, Shuli; Yang, Hua; Geng, Tingting; Hou, Peng; Gong, Yongkuan

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common aggressive brain tumors and have many complex pathological types. Previous reports have discovered that genetic mutations are associated with the risk of glioma. However, it is unclear whether uniform genetic mutations exist difference between glioma and its two pathological types in the Han Chinese population. We evaluated 20 SNPs of 703 glioma cases (338 astrocytoma cases, 122 glioblastoma cases) and 635 controls in a Han Chinese population using χ(2) test and genetic model analysis. In three case-control studies, we found rs9288516 in XRCC5 gene showed a decreased risk of glioma (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P = 0.042) and glioblastoma (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92; P = 0.001) in the allele model. We identified rs414805 in RPA3 gene showed an increased risk of glioblastoma in allele model (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.00-1.89; P = 0.047) and dominant model (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05-2.35; P = 0.027), analysis respectively. Meanwhile, rs2297440 in RTEL1 gene showed an increased risk of glioma (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.54; P = 0.002) and astrocytoma (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54; P = 0.029) in the allele model. In addition, we also observed a haplotype of "GCT" in the RTEL1 gene with an increased risk of astrocytoma (P = 0.005). Polymorphisms in the XRCC5, RPA3 and RTEL1 genes, combinating with previous reaserches, are associated with glioma developing. However, those genes mutations may play different roles in the glioma, astrocytoma and glioblastoma, respectively.

  6. Middle Temporal Gyrus Versus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Transcortical Approaches to High-Grade Astrocytomas in the Mediobasal Temporal Lobe: A Comparison of Outcomes, Functional Restoration, and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Raza, Shaan M; Ahmed, Ishrat; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Chaichana, Kaisorn; Olivi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    High-grade astrocytomas of the mesial temporal lobe may pose surgical challenges. Several approaches (trans-sylvian, subtemporal, and transcortical) have been designed to circumnavigate the critical neurovascular structures and white fiber tracts that surround this area. Considering the paucity of literature on the transcortical approach for these lesions, we describe our institutional experience with transcortical approaches to Grade III/IV astrocytomas in the mesial temporal lobe. Between 1999 and 2009, 23 patients underwent surgery at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions for Grade III/IV astrocytomas involving the mesial temporal lobe (without involvement of the temporal neocortex). Clinical notes, operative records, and imaging were reviewed. Thirteen patients had tumors in the dominant hemisphere. All patients underwent surgery via a transcortical approach (14 via the inferior temporal gyrus and 9 via the middle temporal gyrus). Gross total resection was obtained in 92 % of the cohort. Neurological outcomes were: clinically significant stroke (2 patients), new visual deficits (2 patients), new speech deficit (1 patient); seizure control (53 %). In comparison to reported results in the literature for the transylvian and subtemporal approaches, the transcortical approach may provide the access necessary for a gross total resection with minimal neurological consequences. In our series of patients, there was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between the middle temporal gyrus versus the inferior temporal gyrus trajectories.

  7. The effect of everolimus on renal angiomyolipoma in pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis being treated for subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissler, John J; Franz, David N; Frost, Michael D; Belousova, Elena; Bebin, E Martina; Sparagana, Steven; Berkowitz, Noah; Ridolfi, Antonia; Kingswood, J Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) often have multiple TSC-associated hamartomas, particularly in the brain and kidney. This was a post hoc analysis of pediatric patients being treated for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) during the phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled EXIST-1 trial. Patients were initially randomly assigned to receive everolimus 4.5 mg/m 2 /day (target blood trough 5-15 mg/dl) or placebo and could continue in an open-label extension phase. Angiomyolipoma response rates were analyzed in patients aged 20% increase in kidney volume from nadir, and angiomyolipoma-related bleeding ≥ grade 2. Tolerability was also assessed. Overall, this analysis included 33 patients. Renal angiomyolipoma response was achieved by 75.8% of patients (95% confidence interval, 57.7-88.9%), with sustained mean reductions in renal angiomyolipoma volume over nearly 4 years of treatment. In addition, most (≥80%) achieved clinically relevant reductions in angiomyolipoma volume (≥50%), beginning at week 24 and continuing for the remainder of the study. Everolimus was generally well tolerated in this subgroup, with most adverse events being grade 1 or 2 in severity. Although everolimus is currently not indicated for this use, this analysis from EXIST-1 demonstrates its long-term efficacy and safety for the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma in pediatric patients undergoing treatment for TSC-associated SEGA.

  8. Long-term results of postoperative radiotherapy in adult patients with incompletely excised infratentorial low grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, E.; Glinski, B.; Szpytma, T.; Nowak-Sadzikowska, J.

    2002-01-01

    lnfratentorial low grade astrocytoma (ILGA) occurs rarely in adult patients and accounts for about 3% of all intracranial tumors.The basic method of treatment for ILGA is surgery. Complete resection results in high local control rate and the role of postoperative irradiation in management of partially resected tumors is not clearly determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative irradiation in adult patients with incompletely excised ILGA. Between 1975 and 1995, thirty one adult patients with incompletely excised ILGA received postoperative irradiation with curative intent. All patients were treated with megavoltage gamma rays ( 60C o). The total dose ranged from 50 to 60 Gy (mean; 54 Gy) and was delivered with daily fraction of 1.8-2 Gy. The treatment volume covered the tumor being area with a margin of 1-2 cm. Tolerance to treatment has been found to be good in 30 patients (97%). The overall 15-year actuarial survival rate was 62% in the entire group. Young patients, up to twenty years of age achieved a 15-year overall actuarial survival rate of 85%, older patients - 46%. This difference was statistically significant (p =0. 0205). Conventionally fractionated postoperative radiotherapy with doses of 50 to 60 Gy may improve long term results of adult patients with ILGA after uncomplete resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor - young patients, up to twenty years of age, show best survival. (author)

  9. Comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) on human neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yongchang; Venkatraj, Jijayanagaram; Barhoumi, Rola; Pal, Ranadip; Datta, Aniruddha; Wild, James R.; Tiffany-Castiglioni, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon, which is acutely neurotoxic, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), which induces OPIDN, in the human neuroblastoma SY5Y and the human astrocytoma cell line CCF-STTG1. SY5Y cells have been studied extensively as a model for OP-induced neurotoxicity, but CCF cells have not previously been studied. We conducted a preliminary human gene array assay of OP-treated SY5Y cells in order to assess at the gene level whether these cells can distinguish between OP compounds that do and do not cause OPIDN. Paraoxon and DFP induced dramatically different profiles of gene expression. Two genes were upregulated and 13 downregulated by at least 2-fold in paraoxon-treated cells. In contrast, one gene was upregulated by DFP and none was downregulated at the 2-fold threshold. This finding is consistent with current and previous observations that SY5Y cells can distinguish between OPs that do or do not induce OPIDN. We also examined gene array results for possible novel target proteins or metabolic pathways for OP neurotoxicity. Protein levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) revealed that paraoxon exposure at 3 μM for 24 h significantly reduced GRP78 levels by 30% in neuroblastoma cells, whereas DFP treatment had no effect. In comparison with SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, paraoxon and DFP (3 μM for 24 h) each significantly increased GRP78 levels by 23-24% in CCF astrocytoma cells. As we have previously evaluated intracellular changes in Ca 2+ levels in SY5Y cells, we investigated the effects of paraoxon and DFP on cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis in CCF by studying cytosolic and mitochondrial basal calcium levels. A significant decrease in the ratio of mitochondrial to cytosolic Ca 2+ fluorescence was detected in CCF cultures treated for either 1 or 3 days with 1, 3, 10, or 30 μM paraoxon. In contrast, treatment with DFP for 1 day had no significant effect on the ratio of

  10. Differentiation of hemangioblastomas from pilocytic astrocytomas using 3-T magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, D.J.; Xing, Z.; Zeng, Z.; Cao, D.R. [First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Department of Radiology, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Shang, X.Y. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Medicine and the Moores UCSD Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) present similar imaging features on conventional MR imaging, making differential diagnosis a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the differentiation of hemangioblastomas and PAs. A 3.0-T MR imaging unit was used to perform DSC-PWI and conventional MR imaging on 14 patients with hemangioblastomas and 22 patients with PAs. Four patients with hemangioblastomas and 10 PA patients also underwent proton MR spectroscopy. Parameters of relative peak height (rPH) and relative percentage of signal intensity recovery (rPSR) were acquired by DSC-PWI and variables of N-acetylaspasrtate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, and lactate-lipid (Lac-Lip)/Cr by MR spectroscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of all analyzed parameters at respective cutoff values were determined. Higher rPH but lower rPSR values were detected in hemangioblastomas compared to PAs. The NAA/Cr ratio was significantly lower in hemangioblastomas compared with PAs. The threshold values ≥3.2 for rPH provide sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 85.7, 95.5, 92.3, and 91.3 %, respectively, for differentiating hemangioblastomas from PAs. The optimal threshold values were ≤0.9 for rPSR and ≤1.5 for NAA/Cr ratios in tumor. Significantly higher rPH and lower NAA/Cr were seen in patients with hemangioblastomas when compared with PA patients, suggesting that DSC-PWI and proton MR spectroscopy are helpful in the characterization and differentiation of these two types of tumors. (orig.)

  11. Post-treatment changes of tumour perfusion parameters can help to predict survival in patients with high-grade astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Hospital Quironsalud Valencia, Radiology Department, Valencia (Spain); Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Grupo de Investigacion Biomedica en Imagen, Valencia (Spain); Revert-Ventura, Antonio J.; Salame-Gamarra, Fares [Hospital de Manises, Radiology Department, Manises (Spain); Garcia-Marti, Gracian [Hospital Quironsalud Valencia, Radiology Department, Valencia (Spain); Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Grupo de Investigacion Biomedica en Imagen, Valencia (Spain); CIBER-SAM, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Perez-Girbes, Alexandre [Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Grupo de Investigacion Biomedica en Imagen, Valencia (Spain); Molla-Olmos, Enrique [Hospital La Ribera, Radiology Department, Alzira (Spain)

    2017-08-15

    Vascular characteristics of tumour and peritumoral volumes of high-grade gliomas change with treatment. This work evaluates the variations of T2*-weighted perfusion parameters as overall survival (OS) predictors. Forty-five patients with histologically confirmed high-grade astrocytoma (8 grade III and 37 grade IV) were included. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment T2*-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Tumour, peritumoral and control volumes were segmented. Relative variations of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), K{sup trans-T2*}, k{sub ep-T2*}, v{sub e-T2*} and v{sub p-T2*} were calculated. Differences regarding tumour grade and surgical resection extension were evaluated with ANOVA tests. For each parameter, two groups were defined by non-supervised clusterisation. Survival analysis were performed on these groups. For the tumour region, the 90th percentile increase or stagnation of CBV was associated with shorter survival, while a decrease related to longer survival (393 ± 189 vs 594 ± 294 days; log-rank p = 0.019; Cox hazard-ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.74). K{sup trans-T2*} showed similar results (414 ± 177 vs 553 ± 312 days; log-rank p = 0.037; hazard-ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.03-4.65). The peritumoral area values showed no relationship with OS. Post-treatment variations of the highest CBV and K{sup trans-T2*} values in the tumour volume are predictive factors of OS in patients with high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  12. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in manganese toxicity in rat astrocytoma C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Kotler, Mónica L

    2011-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a trace element known to be essential for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. However, chronic exposure to high levels of Mn in occupational or environmental settings can lead to its accumulation in the brain resulting in a degenerative brain disorder referred to as Manganism. Astrocytes are the main Mn store in the central nervous system and several lines of evidence implicate these cells as major players in the role of Manganism development. In the present study, we employed rat astrocytoma C6 cells as a sensitive experimental model for investigating molecular mechanisms involved in Mn neurotoxicity. Our results show that C6 cells undergo reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic cell death involving caspase-8 and mitochondrial-mediated pathways in response to Mn. Exposed cells exhibit typical apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, caspase-3 activation and caspase-specific cleavage of the endogenous substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Participation of the caspase-8 dependent pathway was assessed by increased levels of FasL, caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway was demonstrated by the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation and the increased mitochondrial levels of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In addition, our data also shows for the first time that mitochondrial fragmentation plays a relevant role in Mn-induced apoptosis. Taking together, these findings contribute to a deeper elucidation of the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying Mn-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Value of 18F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine PET/MR image fusion in pediatric supratentorial infiltrative astrocytomas: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Giovanni; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Milanaccio, Claudia; Puntoni, Matteo; Nozza, Paolo; Cama, Armando; Zefiro, Daniele; Cabria, Massimo; Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2014-05-01

    Infiltrative astrocytomas (IAs) represent a group of astrocytic gliomas ranging from low-grade to highly malignant, characterized by diffuse invasion of the brain parenchyma. When compared with their adult counterpart, pediatric IAs may be considered biologically distinct entities; nevertheless, similarly to those in adults they represent a complex oncologic challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role, clinical contribution, and prognostic value of fused (18)F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET/MR images in pediatric supratentorial IAs. Pediatric patients with supratentorial IAs involving at least 2 cerebral lobes, either newly diagnosed or with suspected disease progression, prospectively underwent (18)F-DOPA PET and conventional MR imaging, performed within 10 d of each other. (18)F-DOPA PET data were interpreted qualitatively and semiquantitatively, fusing images with MR images. PET scans were classified as positive if tumors identified on MR imaging exhibited tracer uptake above the level of the corresponding contralateral normal brain. Maximum standardized uptake values, tumor-to-normal contralateral tissue ratios, and tumor-to-normal striatum ratios were calculated for all tumors. Correlations between the degree and extent of (18)F-DOPA uptake, MR imaging tumor characteristics, and histologic results were investigated. The contribution of (18)F-DOPA PET/MR image fusion was considered relevant if it enabled one to select the most appropriate biopsy site, discriminate between disease progression and treatment-related changes, or influence treatment strategy. The patient's outcome was finally correlated with (18)F-DOPA uptake. Thirteen patients (8 boys and 5 girls) were included (5 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, 5 gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 glioblastoma multiforme). The (18)F-DOPA uptake pattern was heterogeneous in all positive scans (9/13), revealing metabolic heterogeneities within each tumor. Significant

  14. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the base of the brain. It controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst. Visual pathway : The group of ... the tumor may cause severe physical, emotional, or learning problems, a biopsy is done and more treatment ...

  15. Regulation of sonic hedgehog-GLI1 downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, PAX6 and NKX2.2 and their epigenetic status in medulloblastoma and astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhart Charles G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway is critical for cell growth and differentiation. Impairment of this pathway can result in both birth defects and cancer. Despite its importance in cancer development, the Shh pathway has not been thoroughly investigated in tumorigenesis of brain tumors. In this study, we sought to understand the regulatory roles of GLI1, the immediate downstream activator of the Shh signaling pathway on its downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, NKX2.2 and PAX6 in medulloblastoma and astrocytic tumors. Methods We silenced GLI1 expression in medulloblastoma and astrocytic cell lines by transfection of siRNA against GLI1. Subsequently, we performed RT-PCR and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to assay the expression of downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, NKX2.2 and PAX6. We also attempted to correlate the pattern of expression of GLI1 and its regulated genes in 14 cell lines and 41 primary medulloblastoma and astrocytoma tumor samples. We also assessed the methylation status of the Cyclin D2 and PTCH1 promoters in these 14 cell lines and 58 primary tumor samples. Results Silencing expression of GLI1 resulted up-regulation of all target genes in the medulloblastoma cell line, while only PTCH1 was up-regulated in astrocytoma. We also observed methylation of the cyclin D2 promoter in a significant number of astrocytoma cell lines (63% and primary astrocytoma tumor samples (32%, but not at all in any medulloblastoma samples. PTCH1 promoter methylation was less frequently observed than Cyclin D2 promoter methylation in astrocytomas, and not at all in medulloblastomas. Conclusions Our results demonstrate different regulatory mechanisms of Shh-GLI1 signaling. These differences vary according to the downstream target gene affected, the origin of the tissue, as well as epigenetic regulation of some of these genes.

  16. Regulation of sonic hedgehog-GLI1 downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, PAX6 and NKX2.2 and their epigenetic status in medulloblastoma and astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahi, Mehdi H; Afzal, Mohammad; Sinha, Subrata; Eberhart, Charles G; Rey, Juan A; Fan, Xing; Castresana, Javier S

    2010-01-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is critical for cell growth and differentiation. Impairment of this pathway can result in both birth defects and cancer. Despite its importance in cancer development, the Shh pathway has not been thoroughly investigated in tumorigenesis of brain tumors. In this study, we sought to understand the regulatory roles of GLI1, the immediate downstream activator of the Shh signaling pathway on its downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, NKX2.2 and PAX6 in medulloblastoma and astrocytic tumors. We silenced GLI1 expression in medulloblastoma and astrocytic cell lines by transfection of siRNA against GLI1. Subsequently, we performed RT-PCR and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to assay the expression of downstream target genes PTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, NKX2.2 and PAX6. We also attempted to correlate the pattern of expression of GLI1 and its regulated genes in 14 cell lines and 41 primary medulloblastoma and astrocytoma tumor samples. We also assessed the methylation status of the Cyclin D2 and PTCH1 promoters in these 14 cell lines and 58 primary tumor samples. Silencing expression of GLI1 resulted up-regulation of all target genes in the medulloblastoma cell line, while only PTCH1 was up-regulated in astrocytoma. We also observed methylation of the cyclin D2 promoter in a significant number of astrocytoma cell lines (63%) and primary astrocytoma tumor samples (32%), but not at all in any medulloblastoma samples. PTCH1 promoter methylation was less frequently observed than Cyclin D2 promoter methylation in astrocytomas, and not at all in medulloblastomas. Our results demonstrate different regulatory mechanisms of Shh-GLI1 signaling. These differences vary according to the downstream target gene affected, the origin of the tissue, as well as epigenetic regulation of some of these genes

  17. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Naidich, Thomas P. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  18. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A.; Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad; Naidich, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  19. Radiotherapy in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas. A subgroup analysis within the prospective multicenter study HIT-LGG 1996 by the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Gnekow, A.; Falkenstein, F. [General Hospital of Augsburg (Germany). Hospital for Children and Adolescents] [and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: We evaluated clinical outcomes in the subset of patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT) due to progressive pilocytic astrocytoma within the Multicenter Treatment Study for Children and Adolescents with a Low Grade Glioma HIT-LGG 1996. Patients and methods: Eligibility criteria were fulfilled by 117 patients. Most tumors (65 %) were located in the supratentorial midline, followed by the posterior fossa (26.5 %) and the cerebral hemispheres (8.5 %). Median age at the start of RT was 9.2 years (range 0.7-17.4 years). In 75 cases, external fractionated radiotherapy (EFRT) was administered either as first-line nonsurgical treatment (n = 58) or after progression following primary chemotherapy (n = 17). The median normalized total dose was 54 Gy. Stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) was used in 42 selected cases. Results: During a median follow-up period of 8.4 years, 4 patients (3.4 %) died and 33 (27.4 %) experienced disease progression. The 10-year overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 97 and 70 %, respectively. No impact of the RT technique applied (EFRT versus SBT) on progression was observed. The 5-year PFS was 76 {+-} 5 % after EFRT and 65 {+-} 8 % after SBT. Disease progression after EFRT was not influenced by gender, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) status, tumor location (hemispheres versus supratentorial midline versus posterior fossa), age or prior chemotherapy. Normalized total EFRT doses of more than 50.4 Gy did not improve PFS rates. Conclusion: EFRT plays an integral role in the treatment of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma and is characterized by excellent tumor control. A reduction of the normalized total dose from 54 to 50.4 Gy appears to be feasible without jeopardizing tumor control. SBT is an effective treatment alternative. (orig.)

  20. Prognostic factors and survival in primary malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord: a population-based analysis from 1973 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hadie; Avendaño, Javier; Raza, Shaan M; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Jallo, George I; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2012-05-20

    Observational cross-sectional study. Using data from the population-based cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, we analyzed demographic features, tumor and treatment characteristics, as well as survival rates in patients with primary malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord (PMASC). PMASC is a rare neoplasm and is considered to carry the same dismal outcome as their cerebral counterparts. Our current knowledge is incomplete, and understanding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and optimal treatment still poses challenges. The SEER data from 1973 to 2007 were reviewed for pathologically confirmed primary anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and glioblastomas of the spinal cord (C72.0). We compared the clinical features and outcomes of the cohort in uni- and multivariate fashion. Survival was calculated and compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank analysis. Our search criteria retrieved 135 patients diagnosed with PMASC. The median survival for PMASC was 13 months with 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates of 51.8%, 32.2%, and 18.7%. Patient diagnosed with AA had a median survival time of 17 months versus 10 months in patients diagnosed with glioblastomas. Adult patients observed markedly prolonged survival compared with the pediatric group, with a 16-month versus 9-month median survival, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed age at diagnosis, pediatric and adult age groups, sex, tumor histology, and extent of resection as significant predictors of survival. Interestingly, outcomes did not significantly change throughout the last decades or by receiving radiotherapy. Outcome for patients diagnosed with PMASC remains poor and presents an ongoing challenge for professionals in the field of neurospinal medicine and surgery. In our analyses of AA, adult patients, males, and patients undergoing radical resections were associated with increased survival. However, incidence of these lesions is low; hence, building strong

  1. Guanine nucleotide-dependent, pertussis toxin-insensitive, stimulation of inositol phosphate formation by carbachol in a membrane preparation from astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepler, J.R.; Harden, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    Formation of the inositol phosphates (InsP), InsP 3 , InsP 2 , and InsP 1 was increased in a concentration dependent manner (K/sub 0.5/ ∼ 5 μM) by GTPΣS in washed membranes prepared from 3 H-inositol-prelabelled 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Both GTPγS and GppNHp stimulated InsP formation by 2-3 fold over control; GTP and GDP were much less efficacious and GMP had no effect. Although the muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol had no effect in the absence of guanine nucleotide, in the presence of 10 μM GTPγS, carbachol stimulated (K/sub 0.5/ ∼ 10 μ M) the formation of InsP above the level achieved with GTPγS alone. The effect of carbachol was completely blocked by atropine. The order of potency for a series of nucleotides for stimulation of InsP formation in the presence of 500 μM carbachol was GTPγS > GppNHp > GTP = GDP. Pertussis toxin, at concentrations that fully ADP-ribosylate and functionally inactivate G/sub i/, had no effect on InsP formation in the presence of GTPγS or GTPγS plus carbachol. Histamine and bradykinin also stimulated InsP formation in the presence of GTPγS in washed membranes from 1321N1 cells. These data are consistent with the idea that a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein that is not G/sub i/ is involved in receptor-mediated stimulation of InsP formation in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells

  2. Constitutional chromosomal events at 22q11 and 15q26 in a child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascelli, Samantha; Severino, Mariasavina; Raso, Alessandro; Nozza, Paolo; Tassano, Elisa; Morana, Giovanni; De Marco, Patrizia; Merello, Elisa; Milanaccio, Claudia; Pavanello, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Cama, Armando; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Capra, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 9-years-old patient with mild intellectual disability, facial dimorphisms, bilateral semicircular canal dysplasia, periventricular nodular heterotopias, bilateral hippocampal malrotation and abnormal cerebellar foliation, who developed mild motor impairment and gait disorder due to a pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord. Array-CGH analysis revealed two paternal inherited chromosomal events: a 484.3 Kb duplication on chromosome 15q26.3 and a 247 Kb deletion on 22q11.23. Further, a second de novo 1.5 Mb deletion on 22q11.21 occurred. Chromosome 22 at q11.2 and chromosome 15 at q24q26 are considered unstable regions subjected to copy number variations, i.e. structural alterations of genome, mediated by low copy repeat sequences or segmental duplications. The link between some structural CNVs, which compromise fundamental processes controlling DNA stability, and genomic disorders suggest a plausible scenario for cancer predisposition. Evaluation of the genes at the breakpoints cannot account simultaneously for the phenotype and tumour development in this patient. The two paternal inherited CNVs arguably are not pathogenic and do not contribute to the clinical manifestations. Similarly, although the de novo large deletion at 22q11.21 overlaps with the Di George (DGS) critical region and results in haploinsufficiency of genes compromising critical processes for DNA stability, this case lacks several hallmarks of DGS.

  3. Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma in the Medulla Oblongata: Molecular Biological Analyses Including H3F3A Mutation of Histone H3.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekawa, Ken; Nakamura, Hideo; Shinojima, Naoki; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Yano, Shigetoshi; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    Unlike in children, brain stem gliomas in adult are rare and still poorly understood. In addition, most adult brain stem gliomas result predominantly in the pons and are less often found in the medulla oblongata. Here, we report a case of an adult glioma in the medulla oblongata and its molecular biological features. A 46-year-old male presented with gait disturbance, paresthesia, and dysphagia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a diffuse hyper-intensive lesion in the medulla oblongata on a T 2 -weighted image without gadolinium contrast enhancement. We performed an open biopsy and the lesion was pathologically diagnosed as a diffuse astrocytoma. Molecular biological analyses revealed the absence of histone H3.3 mutation (H3F3A K27M), and presence of methylation of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and a mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH-1). The patient received local radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy. The patient's symptoms were ameliorated, and MRI showed no tumor growth at 6 months after the initial treatment. Biopsy for brain stem lesions is generally thought to have risk of complications, but if performed minimally, it is useful to diagnose and determine treatment strategy. Obtaining patient characteristics and molecular biological features will provide insight towards therapeutic treatment for adult brain stem gliomas.

  4. AUTOCOUNTER, an ImageJ JavaScript to analyze LC3B-GFP expression dynamics in autophagy-induced astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, L; Magenes, G; Inzaghi, A; Palumbo, S; Allavena, G; Miracco, C; Pirtoli, L; Biggiogera, M; Comincini, S

    2012-10-11

    An ImageJ JavaScript, AUTOCOUNTER, was specifically developed to monitor and measure LC3B-GFP expression in living human astrocytoma cells, namely T98G and U373-MG. Discrete intracellular GFP fluorescent spots derived from transduction of a Baculovirus replication-defective vector (BacMam LC3B-GFP), followed by microscope examinations at different times. After viral transgene expression, autophagy was induced by Rapamycin administration and assayed in ph-p70S6K/p70S6K and LC3B immunoblotting expression as well as by electron microscopy examinations. A mutated transgene, defective in LC3B lipidation, was employed as a negative control to further exclude fluorescent dots derived from protein intracellular aggregation. The ImageJ JavaScript was then employed to evaluate and score the dynamics changes of the number and area of LC3B-GFP puncta per cell in time course assays and in complex microscope examinations. In conclusion, AUTOCOUNTER enabled to quantify LC3B-GFP expression and to monitor dynamics changes in number and shapes of autophagosomal-like vesicles: it might therefore represent a suitable algorithmic tool for in vitro autophagy modulation studies.

  5. (-)[125I]-iodopindolol, a new highly selective radioiodinated beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist: measurement of beta-receptors on intact rat astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barovsky, K.; Brooker, G.

    1980-01-01

    (-)-Pindolol, one of the most potent beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, was radioiodinated using chloramine-T oxidation of carrier-free Na 125I and separated from unreacted pindolol to yield 2200 Ci/mmole (-)-[125I]-iodopindolol ((-)-[125I]-IPin). Mass and ultraviolet spectra confirmed that the iodination occurred on the indole ring, presumably at the 3 position. The binding of radiolabeled (-)-[125I]-IPin to beta-adrenergic receptors has been studied using intact C6 rat astrocytoma cells (2B subclone) grown in monolayer cultures. Binding of (-)[125IPin was saturable with time and concentration. Using 13 pM (-)-[125I]IPin, binding equilibrium was reached in 90 min at 21-22 degrees C. The reverse rate constant was 0.026 min-1 at 21 0 C. Specific binding (expressed as 1 microM(-)-propranolol displaceable counts) of (-)-[125I]-IPin was 95% of total binding. Scatchard analysis of (-)-[125I]-I]Pin binding revealed approximately 4300 receptors/cell and a dissociation constant of 30 pM. This was in excellent agreement with the kinetically determined dissociation constant of 35 pM. Displacement by propranolol and isoproterenol showed that (-)-[125I]-IPin binding sites were pharmacologically and stereospecifically selective. These results indicate that (-)-[125I]-IPin, a pure (-)-stereoisomer, high specific activity radioligand, selectively binds to beta-adrenergic receptors in whole cells with a high percentage of specific binding and should therefore be useful in the study and measurement of cellular beta-adrenergic receptors

  6. Pilocytic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma: case report Astrocitoma pilocítico pós-radioterapia para tratamento de craniofaringioma: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO BONILHA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Administration of fractionated doses of irradiation is part of the adjutant therapy for CNS tumours such as craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas. It can maximise cure rates or expand symptom-free period. Among the adverse effects of radiotherapy, the induction of a new tumour within the irradiated field has been frequently described. The precise clinical features that correlate irradiation and oncogenesis are not completely defined, but some authors have suggested that tumors are radiation induced when they are histologically different from the treated ones, arise in greater frequency in irradiated patients than among normal population and tend to occur in younger people with an unusual aggressiveness. In this article, we report a case of a papillary astrocytoma arising in a rather unusual latency period following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma.A administração de doses fracionadas de radiação é parte do tratamento adjuvante de tumores do sistema nervoso central como craniofaringiomas ou adenomas hipofisários. A radioterapia pode aumentar as chances de cura ou expandir o período livre de sintomas. Dentre seus efeitos adversos, é conhecida a possibilidade de aparecimento de novo tumor na região irradiada. Os critérios que definem se um novo tumor é de fato induzido por radiação ainda não são completamente definidos. Adimite-se, no entanto, que se o novo tumor é histologicamente diferente do primeiro, aparece em indivíduos mais jovens e é mais agressivo que o habitual, provavelmente sua origem é devida à oncogênese da irradiação. Descrevemos um caso de astrocitoma pilocítico possivelmente induzido por radioterapia, com surgimento em tempo de latência inesperadamente curto.

  7. Effects of γ-radiation on cell growth, cell cycle and promoter methylation of 22 cell cycle genes in the 1321NI astrocytoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamian, Yaman; Abou Alchamat, Ghalia; Murad, Hossam; Madania, Ammar

    2017-09-01

    DNA damage caused by radiation initiates biological responses affecting cell fate. DNA methylation regulates gene expression and modulates DNA damage pathways. Alterations in the methylation profiles of cell cycle regulating genes may control cell response to radiation. In this study we investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on the methylation levels of 22 cell cycle regulating genes in correlation with gene expression in 1321NI astrocytoma cell line. 1321NI cells were irradiated with 2, 5 or 10Gy doses then analyzed after 24, 48 and 72h for cell viability using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliu bromide) assay. Flow cytometry were used to study the effect of 10Gy irradiation on cell cycle. EpiTect Methyl II PCR Array was used to identify differentially methylated genes in irradiated cells. Changes in gene expression was determined by qPCR. Azacytidine treatment was used to determine whether DNA methylation affectes gene expression. Our results showed that irradiation decreased cell viability and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M. Out of 22 genes tested, only CCNF and RAD9A showed some increase in DNA methylation (3.59% and 3.62%, respectively) after 10Gy irradiation, and this increase coincided with downregulation of both genes (by 4 and 2 fold, respectively). with azacytidine confirmed that expression of CCNF and RAD9A genes was regulated by methylation. 1321NI cell line is highly radioresistant and that irradiation of these cells with a 10Gy dose increases DNA methylation of CCNF and RAD9A genes. This dose down-regulates these genes, favoring G2/M arrest. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  9. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted

  10. From the Cover: Vulnerability of C6 Astrocytoma Cells After Single-Compound and Joint Exposure to Type I and Type II Pyrethroid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Delfina M; Berardino, Bruno G; Wolansky, Marcelo J; Kotler, Mónica L

    2017-01-01

    A primary mode-of-action of all pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) is the disruption of the voltage-gated sodium channel electrophysiology in neurons of target pests and nontarget species. The neurological actions of PYRs on non-neuronal cells of the nervous system remain poorly investigated. In the present work, we used C6 astrocytoma cells to study PYR actions (0.1-50 μM) under the hypothesis that glial cells may be targeted by and vulnerable to PYRs. To this end, we characterized the effects of bifenthrin (BF), tefluthrin (TF), α-cypermethrin (α-CYP), and deltamethrin (DM) on the integrity of nuclear, mitochondrial, and lysosomal compartments. In general, 24- to 48-h exposures produced concentration-related impairment of cell viability. In single-compound, 24-h exposure experiments, effective concentration (EC) 15 s 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay) were computed as follows (in μM): BF, 16.1; TF, 37.3; α-CYP, 7.8; DM, 5.0. We found concentration-related damage in several C6-cell subcellular compartments (mitochondria, nuclei, and lysosomes) at ≥ 10 -1 μM levels. Last, we examined a mixture of all PYRs (ie, Σ individual EC 15 ) using MTT assays and subcellular analyses. Our findings indicate that C6 cells are responsive to nM levels of PYRs, suggesting that astroglial susceptibility may contribute to the low-dose neurological effects caused by these insecticides. This research further suggests that C6 cells may provide relevant information as a screening platform for pesticide mixtures targeting nervous system cells by expected and unexpected toxicogenic pathways potentially contributing to clinical neurotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of amentoflavone isolated from Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) on production of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated rat astrocytoma cell line (C6) and THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, I O; Chaturvedi, J P; Rai, S; Rajasekar, N; Adeyemi, O O; Shukla, R; Narender, T

    2013-03-27

    Cnestisferruginea (CF) Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) is a shrub widely used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of various psychiatric illness and inflammatory conditions. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of amentoflavone isolated from methanolic root extract of CF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory cascade of events associated to the oxidative and nitrative stress, and TNF-α production in rat astrocytoma cell line (C6) and human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1), respectively. Rat astrocytoma cells (C6) were stimulated with LPS (10μg/ml) alone and in the presence of different concentrations of amentoflavone (0.1-3μg/ml) for 24h incubation period. Nitrite release, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced-glutathione (GSH) in C6 cells were estimated; while the TNF-α level was estimated in THP-1 cell lysate. In vivo analgesic activity was evaluated using mouse writhing and hot plate tests while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan-induced oedema test. LPS (10μg/ml) significantly (PTHP-1 cells. Amentoflavone (6.25-50mg/kg) significantly (Ptest. It produced time course significant (P<0.05) decrease in oedema formation in rodents. Findings in this study demonstrate the anti-neuroinflammatory and antinoceptive effects of amentoflavone which may suggest its beneficial roles in neuroinflammation associated disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of sequential versus concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy on survival and toxicity in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinberg, Lawrence; Grossman, Stuart A.; Piantadosi, Steven; Zeltzman, Michel; Wharam, Moody

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of sequential versus concurrent administration of cranial radiotherapy and cisplatin/carmustine (BCNU) chemotherapy on survival and toxicity in newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytomas. Methods and Materials: From 1988 to 1996, 101 patients were treated on 2 therapeutic protocols for malignant glioma that used the identical chemotherapy regimen but differed in the timing of cranial radiotherapy. The eligibility criteria for the 2 protocols were identical. In the first protocol (1988-1991, 52 patients), cisplatin 120 mg/BCNU 120 mg i.v. over 72 h, was given for 3 monthly cycles prior to cranial radiotherapy. After a response rate of 42%, with a median survival of 13 months was achieved with this sequential regimen, a successor protocol (1992-1996, 49 patients) was developed in which cranial radiotherapy began concurrently with the start of the identical chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy was delayed but not discontinued if prolonged grade III/IV hematologic toxicity was experienced, but protocol therapy was discontinued if disease progression or thromboembolic events occurred. Survival outcome and hematologic toxicity were compared for the patients treated on these protocols. Results: Seventy-seven percent of sequentially-treated patients and 68% of concurrently-treated patients completed all planned therapy. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar to concurrent or sequential administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (median 12.8 months vs. 13.8 months, respectively). Hematologic toxicity was significantly less in sequentially- versus concurrently-treated patients, with median nadir per cycle (2.9 vs. 1.8 x 10 3 /mm 3 ) (p < 0.001), and incidence of grade 3/4 leukopenia 40% versus 77% (p = 0.002). There was also an increase in platelet transfusion requirements in concurrently-treated patients, but no significant worsening of anemia. We postulate that the worsened leukopenia results from the effects of concurrent radiotherapy on

  13. Huge heterogeneity in survival in a subset of adult patients with resected, wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase status, WHO grade II astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulen, Gaëtan; Gozé, Catherine; Rigau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues

    2018-04-20

    OBJECTIVE World Health Organization grade II gliomas are infiltrating tumors that inexorably progress to a higher grade of malignancy. However, the time to malignant transformation is quite unpredictable at the individual patient level. A wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-wt) molecular profile has been reported as a poor prognostic factor, with more rapid progression and a shorter survival compared with IDH-mutant tumors. Here, the oncological outcomes of a series of adult patients with IDH-wt, diffuse, WHO grade II astrocytomas (AII) who underwent resection without early adjuvant therapy were investigated. METHODS A retrospective review of patients extracted from a prospective database who underwent resection between 2007 and 2013 for histopathologically confirmed, IDH-wt, non-1p19q codeleted AII was performed. All patients had a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Information regarding clinical, radiographic, and surgical results and survival were collected and analyzed. RESULTS Thirty-one consecutive patients (18 men and 13 women, median age 39.6 years) were included in this study. The preoperative median tumor volume was 54 cm 3 (range 3.5-180 cm 3 ). The median growth rate, measured as the velocity of diametric expansion, was 2.45 mm/year. The median residual volume after surgery was 4.2 cm 3 (range 0-30 cm 3 ) with a median volumetric extent of resection of 93.97% (8 patients had a total or supratotal resection). No patient experienced permanent neurological deficits after surgery, and all patients resumed a normal life. No immediate postoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy was given. The median clinical follow-up duration from diagnosis was 74 months (range 27-157 months). In this follow-up period, 18 patients received delayed chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for tumor progression. Five patients (16%) died at a median time from radiological diagnosis of 3.5 years (range 2.6-4.5 years). Survival from diagnosis was 77.27% at 5 years. None of the

  14. Phase III randomized study of radiation and temozolomide versus radiation and nitrosourea therapy for anaplastic astrocytoma: results of NRG Oncology RTOG 9813.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Susan; Zhang, Peixin; Cairncross, J Gregory; Gilbert, Mark R; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Dolinskas, Carol A; Chakravarti, Arnab; Aldape, Kenneth D; Bell, Erica H; Schiff, David; Jaeckle, Kurt; Brown, Paul D; Barger, Geoffrey R; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shih, Helen; Brachman, David; Penas-Prado, Marta; Robins, H Ian; Belanger, Karl; Schultz, Christopher; Hunter, Grant; Mehta, Minesh

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the overall survival (OS) of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) treated with radiotherapy (RT) and either temozolomide (TMZ) or a nitrosourea (NU). Secondary endpoints were time to tumor progression (TTP), toxicity, and the effect of IDH1 mutation status on clinical outcome. Eligible patients with centrally reviewed, histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AA were randomized to receive either RT+TMZ (n = 97) or RT+NU (n = 99). The study closed early because the target accrual rate was not met. Median follow-up time for patients still alive was 10.1 years (1.9-12.6 y); 66% of the patients died. Median survival time was 3.9 years in the RT/TMZ arm (95% CI, 3.0-7.0) and 3.8 years in the RT/NU arm (95% CI, 2.2-7.0), corresponding to a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.94 (P = .36; 95% CI, 0.67-1.32). The differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and TTP between the 2 arms were not statistically significant. Patients in the RT+NU arm experienced more grade ≥3 toxicity (75.8% vs 47.9%, P < .001), mainly related to myelosuppression. Of the 196 patients, 111 were tested for IDH1-R132H status (60 RT+TMZ and 51 RT+NU). Fifty-four patients were IDH negative and 49 were IDH positive with a better OS in IDH-positive patients (median survival time 7.9 vs 2.8 y; P = .004, HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.81). RT+TMZ did not appear to significantly improve OS or TTP for AA compared with RT+ NU. RT+TMZ was better tolerated. IDH1-R132H mutation was associated with longer survival. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Institute of Basic Medicine Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Hsing-Chun [Institute of Nursing and Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ho-Chen [Department of General Education, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, CGUST, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ting-Chung [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chia-Yi Center, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taiwan (China); Sze, Chun-I, E-mail: szec@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Basic Medicine Science, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Pathology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 μM CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr{sup 15} and Cdc25cSer{sup 216}. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer{sup 216} expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ► We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ► ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ► CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  16. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Cheng, Ho-Chen; Wang, Ting-Chung; Sze, Chun-I

    2012-01-01

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 μM CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr 15 and Cdc25cSer 216 . Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer 216 expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer 216 in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer 216 cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ► We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ► ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ► CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  17. Leptomeningeal dissemination of pilocytic astrocytoma at diagnosis in childhood: two cases report Disseminação leptomeníngea de astrocitoma pilocítico ao diagnóstico: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA is a benign tumor that rarely spread along the neuraxis. At the moment there are no more than five cases of leptomeningeal dissemination (LD from PA at diagnosis described in the literature. Different patterns of presentation or recurrence may be noted: local recurrence, malignant transformation, multicentric disease or metastatic disease. LD and multicentric disease can be distinct pathological entities. We report two cases and analyse literature, emphasizing leptomeningeal spread at presentation. Hydrocephalus, biopsy and parcial ressection are likely to be favorable factors to the occurrence of LD. Otherwise, LD may be part of natural history of PA, as evidenced by its ocurrence in non-treated cases.Astrocitoma pilocítico (AP é tumor benigno que raramente se dissemina ao longo do neuroeixo. Até o momento não há mais que cinco casos de AP que se tenham apresentado com disseminação leptomeníngea (DL descritos na literatura. Diferentes padrões de apresentação ou recorrência podem ser observados: recorrência local, transformação maligna, doença multicêntrica ou doença metastática. DL e doença multicêntrica podem ser entidades diferentes. Relatamos dois casos e analisamos a literatura. Hidrocefalia, biópsia e ressecção parcial são provavelmente fatores predisponentes à DL. Por outro lado, DL pode ser parte da história natural de AP, como pode ser evidenciado pela sua ocorrência em casos não tratados.

  18. A pediatric trial of radiation/cetuximab followed by irinotecan/cetuximab in newly diagnosed diffuse pontine gliomas and high-grade astrocytomas: A Pediatric Oncology Experimental Therapeutics Investigators' Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Margaret E; Kieran, Mark W; Chi, Susan N; Cohen, Kenneth J; MacDonald, Tobey J; Smith, Amy A; Etzl, Michael M; Kuei, Michele C; Donson, Andrew M; Gore, Lia; DiRenzo, Jennifer; Trippett, Tanya M; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Narendran, Aru; Foreman, Nicholas K; Dunkel, Ira J

    2017-11-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and high-grade astrocytomas (HGA) continue to have dismal prognoses. The combination of cetuximab and irinotecan was demonstrated to be safe and tolerable in a previous pediatric phase 1 combination study. We developed this phase 2 trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of cetuximab given with radiation therapy followed by adjuvant cetuximab and irinotecan. Eligible patients of age 3-21 years had newly diagnosed DIPG or HGA. Patients received radiation therapy (5,940 cGy) with concurrent cetuximab. Following radiation, patients received cetuximab weekly and irinotecan daily for 5 days per week for 2 weeks every 21 days for 30 weeks. Correlative studies were performed. The regimen was considered to be promising if the number of patients with 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) for DIPG and HGA was at least six of 25 and 14 of 26, respectively. Forty-five evaluable patients were enrolled (25 DIPG and 20 HGA). Six patients with DIPG and five with HGA were progression free at 1 year from the start of therapy with 1-year PFS of 29.6% and 18%, respectively. Fatigue, gastrointestinal complaints, electrolyte abnormalities, and rash were the most common adverse events and generally of grade 1 and 2. Increased epidermal growth factor receptor copy number but no K-ras mutations were identified in available samples. The trial did not meet the predetermined endpoint to deem this regimen successful for HGA. While the trial met the predetermined endpoint for DIPG, overall survival was not markedly improved from historical controls, therefore does not merit further study in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation induced gliomas are uncommon. Occurrence of glioma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngiomas is extremely uncommon and only eight case reports have been so far published. We present our experience with one similar case of temporal gliomas occurring twelve years following radiotherapy for a sub totally excised craniopharyngioma. Although the exact mechanism of gliomas formation is unclear, their occurrence following conventional radiotherapy is a distinct possibility and signifies a poor prognosis.

  20. Complejo nódulo subependimario-astrocitoma subependimario gigantocelular en niños con esclerosis tuberosa Subependymal nodules-subependymal giant cell astrocytoma complex in children with tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bongiorni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue describir las características clínico imagenológicas de niños con esclerosis tuberosa que presentaron el complejo Nódulo Subependimario (NS-Astrocitoma Subependimario Gigantocelular(ASGC y analizar el comportamiento evolutivo de dicho "complejo" para detectar precozmente su crecimiento y evitar las complicaciones de la hipertensión endocraneana (HTE. Evaluamos 22 pacientes con diagnóstico anátomo patológico de ASGC. El diagnóstico del tumor se realizó a una media de 10.1 años. Pudimos observar la evolución de NS a ASGC; estos NS se ubicaron adyacentes al agujero de Monro y con el tiempo tuvieron un importante crecimiento con intensa captación de contraste e hidrocefalia. La aceleración en el crecimiento de estos NS y su "transformación" en ASGC se produjo a los 10 años de edad promedio, con un diámetro medio de 9 mm. Ningún NS alejado de los forámenes de Monro evolucionó a ASGC. Quince pacientes (68% fueron operados con síntomas de hipertensión endocraneana. La edad media de la cirugía fue 10.8 años. Seis pacientes presentaron déficit visual. En estos últimos, el diámetro medio mayor del tumor fue 31.5 mm, mayor que los 18.7 mm del grupo de pacientes que no presentó secuela visual. El seguimiento clínico imagenológico periódico de toda lesión subependimaria próxima a los agujeros de Monro, permitiría en etapa presintomática anticipar un tratamiento quirúrgico, que reduciría la incidencia de HTE. Estudios prospectivos podrían determinar si el complejo NS-ASGC corresponde a una misma entidad en distinta etapa evolutiva, o son dos lesiones con diferente potencial de crecimiento.The object of this paper is to describe the imaging and clinical characteristics of subependymal nodule (SN - subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA complex in tuberous sclerosis and analyze its evolution in order to attempt early detection and the prevention of intracranial hypertension. We evaluated 22 patients with

  1. Treatment of progression of diffuse astrocytoma by herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  2. Nasal heterotopia versus pilocytic astrocytoma: A narrow border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, N; Born, J; Hoyoux, C; Michotte, A; Retz, C; Tebache, M; Piette, C

    2015-08-01

    Failure of the anterior neuropore can lead to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, encephalocele and nasal glioma or heterotopia. In this report, we describe a case of intracranial and extracranial glial heterotopia that probably resulted from a common failure of anterior neuropore development. We describe the prenatal radiological assessment based on ultrasound and MRI results, and consider their limitation for early fetal diagnosis. We also discuss the embryogenesis and the possible pathogenic mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of progression of diffuse astrocytoma by herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It consisted of 4 types of herbal medicine which the subject was taking in form of tea once a day at regular intervals. The patient started phytotherapy along with temozolomide, which was the only oncological treatment she was under after the tumour had progressed. Following the finished chemotherapy, the patient ...

  4. Astrocitoma subependimário de células gigantes em pacientes com esclerose tuberosa: achados em ressonância magnética de dez casos Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in patients with tuberous sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging findings in ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Takata

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os achados de ressonância magnética (RM em 10 casos de astrocitoma subependimário de células gigantes (ASCG em pacientes com esclerose tuberosa (ET. MÉTODO: Foram estudados de forma retrospectiva 10 pacientes com ET e diagnóstico histológico comprovado de ASCG. Quatro pacientes eram do sexo masculino e seis do feminino, com idade média de 15,7 anos. Todos os pacientes foram investigados com RM, sendo os exames revisados por dois radiologistas, havendo decisão por consenso sobre os achados de imagem. Foram analisados os seguintes achados: localização, dimensões, intensidade de sinal em T1/T2, realce pós-contraste e outros achados associados. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes apresentaram lesão única sugestiva de ASCG, medindo entre 1,5 cm e 8 cm em seu maior diâmetro. Oito lesões foram encontradas junto ao forame de Monro (80% e duas adjacentes ao corpo do ventrículo lateral (20%. Os tumores apresentavam nas imagens pesadas em T1 médio sinal (70% e em T2 alto sinal (100%, com realce intenso após a administração do gadolínio (100%. CONCLUSÃO: Os astrocitomas subependimários de células gigantes em pacientes com ET em geral apresentam-se como lesão única próxima ao forame de Monro, com médio sinal nas imagens ponderadas em T1, alto sinal em T2 e realce intenso após a administração de contraste.OBJECTIVE: To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in 10 patients with subependimal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA and tuberous sclerosis (TS. METHOD: Ten patients were retrospectively studied, presenting TS and histologically proven SGCA. Four patients were male and six female, with mean age 15.7 years. All patients underwent MRI, which was analyzed by two radiologists, final diagnosis was reached by consensus. The following findings were studied: topography, size, signal intensity on T1/T2-weighted images, contrast enhancement and associated findings. RESULTS: All patients presented a single lesion

  5. Crossed Aphasia in a Patient with Anaplastic Astrocytoma of the Non-Dominant Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Stephanie; Anand, Neil; Wei, Lawrence; Horner, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Aphasia describes a spectrum of speech impairments due to damage in the language centers of the brain. Insult to the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant cerebral hemisphere results in Broca's aphasia - the inability to produce fluent speech. The left cerebral hemisphere has historically been considered the dominant side, a characteristic long presumed to be related to a person's "handedness". However, recent studies utilizing fMRI have shown that right hemispheric dominance occurs more frequently than previously proposed and despite a person's handedness. Here we present a case of a right-handed patient with Broca's aphasia caused by a right-sided brain tumor. This is significant not only because the occurrence of aphasia in right-handed-individuals with right hemispheric brain damage (so-called "crossed aphasia") is unusual but also because such findings support dissociation between hemispheric linguistic dominance and handedness.

  6. Using a preclinical mouse model of high-grade astrocytoma to optimize p53 restoration therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchors, Ksenya; Persson, Anders I; Rostker, Fanya; Tihan, Tarik; Lyubynska, Natalya; Li, Nan; Swigart, Lamorna Brown; Berger, Mitchel S; Hanahan, Douglas; Weiss, William A; Evan, Gerard I

    2013-04-16

    Based on clinical presentation, glioblastoma (GBM) is stratified into primary and secondary types. The protein 53 (p53) pathway is functionally incapacitated in most GBMs by distinctive type-specific mechanisms. To model human gliomagenesis, we used a GFAP-HRas(V12) mouse model crossed into the p53ER(TAM) background, such that either one or both copies of endogenous p53 is replaced by a conditional p53ER(TAM) allele. The p53ER(TAM) protein can be toggled reversibly in vivo between wild-type and inactive conformations by administration or withdrawal of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), respectively. Surprisingly, gliomas that develop in GFAP-HRas(V12);p53(+/KI) mice abrogate the p53 pathway by mutating p19(ARF)/MDM2 while retaining wild-type p53 allele. Consequently, such tumors are unaffected by restoration of their p53ER(TAM) allele. By contrast, gliomas arising in GFAP-HRas(V12);p53(KI/KI) mice develop in the absence of functional p53. Such tumors retain a functional p19(ARF)/MDM2-signaling pathway, and restoration of p53ER(TAM) allele triggers p53-tumor-suppressor activity. Congruently, growth inhibition upon normalization of mutant p53 by a small molecule, Prima-1, in human GBM cultures also requires p14(ARF)/MDM2 functionality. Notably, the antitumoral efficacy of p53 restoration in tumor-bearing GFAP-HRas(V12);p53(KI/KI) animals depends on the duration and frequency of p53 restoration. Thus, intermittent exposure to p53ER(TAM) activity mitigated the selective pressure to inactivate the p19(ARF)/MDM2/p53 pathway as a means of resistance, extending progression-free survival. Our results suggest that intermittent dosing regimes of drugs that restore wild-type tumor-suppressor function onto mutant, inactive p53 proteins will prove to be more efficacious than traditional chronic dosing by similarly reducing adaptive resistance.

  7. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Christensen, Karina; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    Targeting lysosomes is a novel approach in cancer therapy providing a possible way of killing the otherwise apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Recent research has thus shown that lysosome targeting compounds induce cell death in a cervix cancer cell line. Tumor stem cells in glioblastomas have...

  8. A case of late presentation of precocious puberty due to pituitary astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Soheilipour; Hossein Ghalaenov; Seyyed-Hossein Samedanifard; Fatemeh Jesmi

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assessing precocious puberty, especially in boys, is not only due to the great complications it has for the affected patients, but also to the fatal underlying diseases. Therefore, children with central precocious puberty should first undergo neuroimaging. In this case study, we present a 9.5-year-old boy who was referred to Rasoul-e-Akram Medical Center with increased intracranial pressure, nausea/vomiting, and severe headache having begun three months earlier. ...

  9. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine S; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina G

    2013-01-01

    Targeting of lysosomes is a novel therapeutic anti-cancer strategy for killing the otherwise apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Such strategies are urgently needed for treatment of brain tumors, especially the glioblastoma, which is the most frequent and most malignant type. The aim of the present...... study was to investigate the presence of lysosomes in astrocytic brain tumors focussing also on the therapy resistant tumor stem cells. Expression of the lysosomal marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 112 formalin fixed paraffin embedded...... in the individual tumor grades. LAMP-1/GFAP showed pronounced co-expression and LAMP-1/CD133 was co-expressed as well suggesting that tumor cells including the proposed tumor stem cells contain lysosomes. The results suggest that high amounts of lysosomes are present in glioblastomas and in the proposed tumor stem...

  10. Cellular responses of human astrocytoma cells to dust from the Acheson process: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, Yke Jildouw; Ervik, Torunn Kringlen; Berlinger, Balazs; Kero, Ida; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh

    2018-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is largely used in various products such as diesel particulate filters and solar panels. It is produced through the Acheson process where aerosolized fractions of SiC and other by-products are generated in the work environment and may potentially affect the workers' health. In this study, dust was collected directly on a filter in a furnace hall over a time period of 24h. The collected dust was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and found to contain a high content of graphite particles, and carbon and silicon containing particles. Only 6% was classified as SiC, whereof only 10% had a fibrous structure. To study effects of exposure beyond the respiratory system, neurotoxic effects on human astrocytic cells, were investigated. Both low, occupationally relevant, and high doses from 9E-6μg/cm 2 up to 4.5μg/cm 2 were used, respectively. Cytotoxicity assay indicated no effects of low doses but an effect of the higher doses after 24h. Furthermore, investigation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated no effects with low doses, whereas a higher dose of 0.9μg/cm 2 induced a significant increase in ROS and DNA damage. In summary, low doses of dust from the Acheson process may exert no or little toxic effects, at least experimentally in the laboratory on human astrocytes. However, higher doses have implications and are likely a result of the complex composition of the dust. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of aquaporin-4 isoform interaction on supramolecular water channel assembly in astrocytoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often complicated by the development of brain edema. Despite its clinical importance, the underlying pathological mechanisms are poorly understood. Nevertheless, a central role for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been suggested. AQP4 is the predominant water channel of the central nervous system, where it forms supramolecular structures named orthogonal arrays of particles (OAP). This organization is essential for channel opening. OAP formation is regulated by the diffe...

  12. Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  13. A new NFIA:RAF1 fusion activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christina Westmose; Sehested, Astrid; Regué, Àngels Mateu

    2016-01-01

    of a comprehensive genomic tumor profiling. We show that the NFIA:RAF1 fusion results in constitutive Raf1 kinase activity, leading to activation of downstream MEK1/2 cascade and increased proliferation of cancer cells. The NFIA:RAF1 fusion displayed distinct subcellular localization towards the plasma membrane...... in order to refine diagnostics of PA and to unravel potential treatment options, e.g. with MEK inhibitors....

  14. Double isotopic method using dansyl chloride for the determination of GABA in rat C6 astrocytoma cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, R.L.; Quay, W.B.; Perez-Polo, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Methods are described for the quantitative measurement of GABA in culture. The method can be adapted to any amino acid or dansyl-chloride-reactive species. The sensitivity and selectivity of the procedure result from the double isotopic design in which (/sup 14/C)-labeled internal standard was added to the samples before reaction with (3M)-labeled dansyl chloride. Values obtained by ion-exchange amino acid analysis of cultures agree closely with the values obtained by the double isotopic method. This method is sensitive enough to measure GABA intracellularly and the condition medium.

  15. Postoperative neoadjuvant temozolomide before radiotherapy versus standard radiotherapy in patients 60 years or younger with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Annika; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Grønberg, Bjørn Henning

    2017-01-01

    ) days 1-5 every 28 days, followed by RT 60 Gy in 30 fractions or RT only. Patients without progressive disease after two TMZ cycles, received the third cycle. From March 2005, TMZ 75 mg/m(2) was administered daily concomitant with RT. TMZ was recommended first-line treatment at progression. Primary...

  16. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    Key words: -Pilocytic astrocytoma • pilomyxoid astrocytoma • diagnosis • cerebellar ... of cerebellar Pilocytic astrocytoma, he was operated on 07/05/2015 midline .... initial therapy in the treatment of PMAs.16Whereas the literature is replete ...

  17. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  18. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  19. Human U87 astrocytoma cell invasion induced by interaction of βig-h3 with integrin α5β1 involves calpain-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ma

    Full Text Available It is known that βig-h3 is involved in the invasive process of many types of tumors, but its mechanism in glioma cells has not been fully clarified. Using immunofluorescent double-staining and confocal imaging analysis, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 in U87 cells. We sought to elucidate the function of this interaction by performing cell invasion assays and gelatin zymography experiments. We found that siRNA knockdowns of βig-h3 and calpain-2 impaired cell invasion and MMP secretion. Moreover, βig-h3, integrins and calpain-2 are known to be regulated by Ca(2+, and they are also involved in tumor cell invasion. Therefore, we further investigated if calpain-2 was relevant to βig-h3-integrin α5β1 interaction to affect U87 cell invasion. Our data showed that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 to enhance the invasion of U87 cells, and that calpain-2, is involved in this process, acting as a downstream molecule.

  20. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and 3D conformal radiotherapy in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. A dosimetric comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeberg, S.; Debus, J. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Harrabi, S.B.; Bougatf, N.; Rieber, J.; Koerber, S.A.; Herfarth, K.; Rieken, S. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bernhardt, D.; Syed, M.; Sprave, T.; Mohr, A. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Abdollahi, A. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, T. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, S.E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institut fuer Innovative Radiotherapie (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients is poor; thus, treatment-related side effects need to be minimized to conserve quality of life and functionality. Advanced techniques such as proton radiation therapy (PRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may potentially further reduce the frequency and severity of radiogenic impairment. We retrospectively assessed 12 HGG patients who had undergone postoperative intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). VMAT and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans were generated and optimized for comparison after contouring crucial neuronal structures important for neurogenesis and neurocognitive function. Integral dose (ID), homogeneity index (HI), and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC) were calculated from dose statistics. Toxicity data were evaluated. Target volume coverage was comparable for all three modalities. Compared to 3D-CRT and VMAT, PRT showed statistically significant reductions (p < 0.05) in mean dose to whole brain (-20.2 %, -22.7 %); supratentorial (-14.2 %, -20,8 %) and infratentorial (-91.0 %, -77.0 %) regions; brainstem (-67.6 %, -28.1 %); pituitary gland (-52.9 %, -52.5 %); contralateral hippocampus (-98.9 %, -98.7 %); and contralateral subventricular zone (-62.7 %, -66.7 %, respectively). Fatigue (91.7 %), radiation dermatitis (75.0 %), focal alopecia (100.0 %), nausea (41.7 %), cephalgia (58.3 %), and transient cerebral edema (16.7 %) were the most common acute toxicities. Essential dose reduction while maintaining equal target volume coverage was observed using PRT, particularly in contralaterally located critical neuronal structures, areas of neurogenesis, and structures of neurocognitive functions. These findings were supported by preliminary clinical results confirming the safety and feasibility of PRT in HGG. (orig.) [German] Die Prognose bei ''High-grade''-Gliomen (HGG) ist infaust. Gerade bei diesen Patienten sollten therapieassoziierte Nebenwirkungen minimiert werden, um die Lebensqualitaet und Funktionalitaet zu erhalten. Moderne Radiotherapietechniken, wie die Protonenradiotherapie (PRT) und die volumenmodulierte Arc-Therapie (VMAT), haben das Potential, die Dosisbelastung von Risikoorganen weiter zu reduzieren. 12 HGG-Patienten, die eine postoperative intensitaetsmodulierten Protonentherapie (IMPT) erhalten hatten, wurden retrospketiv bewertet. Zum Vergleich wurden VMAT- und 3D-konformale Radiotherapieplaene (3D-CRT) generiert, in denen die Dosisverteilung in wichtigen Arealen der Neurogenese und neurokognitiven Funktion bestimmt wurden. Anhand von Dosisstatistiken wurden die Integraldosis (ID), der Homogenitaetsindex (HI) und der Inhomogenitaetskoeffizient (IC) berechnet und die therapieassoziierte Toxizitaet bestimmt. Fuer alle drei Techniken war die Zielvolumenabdeckung vergleichbar gut. PRT reduzierte die D{sub mean} im Vergleich zur 3D-CRT und VMAT im Ganzhirn (-20,2 %; -22,7 %), im supratentoriellen (-14,2 %; -20,8 %) und infratentoriellen Hirn (-91 %; -77,0 %), im Hirnstamm (-67,6 %; -28, %), in der Hypophyse (-52,9 %; -52,5 %), im kontralateralen Hippokampus (-98,9 %; -98,7 %) und in der kontralateralen subventrikulaeren Zone (-62,7 %; -66,7 %) signifikant (p < 0,05). Die haeufigsten akuten Nebenwirkungen waren Fatigue (91,7 %), radiogene Dermatitis (75,0 %), fokale Alopezie (100,0 %), Nausea (41,7 %), Cephalgien (58,3 %) und voruebergehende zerebrale Oedeme (16,7 %). Durch die PRT konnte bei Aufrechterhaltung der Zielvolumenabdeckung eine signifikante Dosisreduktion insbesondere in kontralateralen kritischen neuronalen Strukturen sowie in essentiellen Arealen fuer die neurokognitiven Funktionen und Neurogenese beobachtet werden. Die vorlaeufigen klinischen Ergebnisse bestaetigen die sichere Durchfuehrbarkeit und Praktikabilitaet der PRT bei HGG. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in 1,320 nervous system tumors reveals high mutation frequencies in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma and extra-cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindler, G.; Capper, D.; Meyer, J.; Janzarik, W.; Omran, H.; Herold-Mende, C.; Schmieder, K.; Wesseling, P.; Mawrin, C.; Hasselblatt, M.; Louis, D.N.; Korshunov, A.; Pfister, S.; Hartmann, C.; Paulus, W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von

    2011-01-01

    Missense mutations of the V600E type constitute the vast majority of tumor-associated somatic alterations in the v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene. Initially described in melanoma, colon and papillary thyroid carcinoma, these alterations have also been observed in primary

  2. Assessment of molecular markers demonstrates concordance between samples acquired via stereotactic biopsy and open craniotomy in both anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Florian; Baumgarten, Peter; Bernstock, Joshua D; Harter, Patrick; Lescher, Stephanie; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; Marquardt, Gerhard; Weise, Lutz

    2017-06-01

    The classification, treatment and prognosis of high-grade gliomas has been shown to correlate with the expression of molecular markers (e.g. MGMT promotor methylation and IDH1 mutations). Acquisition of tumor samples may be obtained via stereotactic biopsy or open craniotomy. Between the years 2009 and 2013, 22 patients initially diagnosed with HGGs via stereotactic biopsy, that ultimately underwent open craniotomy for resection of their tumor were prospectively included in an institutional glioma database. MGMT promotor analysis was performed using methylation-specific (MS)-PCR and IDH1R132H mutation analysis was performed using immunohistochemistry. Three patients (13.7%) exhibited IDH1R132H mutations in samples obtained via stereotactic biopsy. Tissue derived from stereotaxic biopsy was demonstrated to have MGMT promotor methylation in ten patients (45.5%), while a non-methylated MGMT promotor was demonstrated in ten patients (45.5%); inconclusive results were obtained for the remaining two patients (9%) within our cohort. The initial histologic grading, IDH1R132H mutation and MGMT promotor methylation results were confirmed using samples obtained during open craniotomy in all but one patient; here inconclusive MGMT promotor analysis was obtained in contrast to that which was obtained via stereotactic biopsy. Tumor samples acquired via stereotactic biopsy provide accurate information with regard to clinically relevant molecular markers that have been shown to impact patient care decisions. The profile of markers analyzed in our cohort was nearly concordant between those samples obtained via stereotactic biopsy or open craniotomy thereby suggesting that clinical decisions may be based on the molecular profile of the tumor samples obtained via stereotactic biopsy.

  3. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst prevents apoptotic cell death in a human astrocytoma cell line incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perno Carlo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has shown to contribute in the mechanisms underlying apoptotic cell death occuring in AIDS-dementia complex. Here we investigated the role of peroxynitrite in apoptosis occurring in astroglial cells incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected human primary macrophages (M/M. Results Flow cytometric analysis (FACS of human cultured astrocytes shortly incubated with HIV-1-infected M/M supernatants showed apoptotic cell death, an effect accompanied by pronounced staining for nitrotyrosine (footprint of peroxynitrite and by abnormal formation of malondialdehyde (MDA. Pretreatment of astrocytes with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTMPS antagonized HIV-related astrocytic apoptosis, MDA formation and nitrotyrosine staining. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that inibition of peroxynitrite leads to protection against peroxidative stress accompanying HIV-related apoptosis of astrocytes. Overall results support the role of peroxynitrite in HIV-related programmed death of astrocytes and suggest the use of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst to counteract HIV-1-related neurological disorders.

  4. Assessing Biological Response to Bevacizumab Using 18F-Fluoromisonidazole PET/MR Imaging in a Patient with Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Barajas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our initial experience in using single modality fluoromisonidazole (FMISO PET/MR imaging to noninvasively evaluate the biological effects induced by bevacizumab therapy in a patient treated for recurrent high grade glioma. In this index patient, bevacizumab therapy resulted in the development of nonenhancing tumor characterized by reduced diffusion and markedly decreased FMISO uptake in the setting of maintained CBF and CBV. These observations suggest that the dynamic biological interplay between tissue hypoxia and vascular normalization occurring within treated recurrent high grade glioma can be captured utilizing FMISO PET/MR imaging.

  5. Identification of time-to-peak on dynamic 18F-FET-PET as a prognostic marker specifically in IDH1/2 mutant diffuse astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska, Bogdana; Giese, Armin; Biczok, Annamaria; Unterrainer, Marcus; Weller, Michael; Drexler, Mark; Bartenstein, Peter; Schüller, Ulrich; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Albert, Nathalie L

    2018-01-22

    Stratification of glioma according to isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status has gained major importance in the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Parameters derived from uptake dynamics of 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine PET (18F-FET-PET) such as minimal time-to-peak (TTPmin) allow discrimination between different prognostic glioma subgroups, too. The present study is aimed at exploring whether TTPmin analysis provides prognostic information beyond the WHO classification. Three hundred patients with newly diagnosed WHO 2007 grades II-IV gliomas with 18F-FET-PET imaging at diagnosis were grouped into 4 subgroups (IDH1/2 mut-1p/19q codel; IDH1/2 mut-1p/19q non-codel; IDH1/2 wildtype WHO grade II and III tumors; and glioblastoma). Clinical and imaging factors such as age, Karnofsky performance score, treatment, TTPmin, and maximal tumor-to-brain ratio (TBRmax) were analyzed with regard to progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS) via univariate and multivariate regression analysis. PFS and OS were longest in the IDH1/2 mut-1p/19q codel subgroup, followed by IDH1/2 mut-1p/19q non-codel, IDH1/2 wildtype, and GBM (P 17.5 minutes (P PET-derived dynamic analysis defines prognostically distinct subgroups of IDH1/2 mutant-1p/19q non-codel gliomas which cannot be distinguished as yet by molecular marker analysis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  7. Clinical evidence of the role of the cerebellum in the suppression of overt articulatory movements during reading. A study of reading in children and adolescents treated for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Khelifa-Gallois, N; Puget, S; Longaud, A; Laroussinie, F; Soria, C; Sainte-Rose, C; Dellatolas, G

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that the cerebellum is involved in reading acquisition and in particular in the progression from automatic grapheme-phoneme conversion to the internalization of speech required for silent reading. This idea is in line with clinical and neuroimaging data showing a cerebellar role in subvocal rehearsal for printed verbalizable material and with computational "internal models" of the cerebellum suggesting its role in inner speech (i.e. covert speech without mouthing the words). However, studies examining a possible cerebellar role in the suppression of articulatory movements during silent reading acquisition in children are lacking. Here, we report clinical evidence that the cerebellum plays a part in this transition. Reading performances were compared between a group of 17 paediatric patients treated for benign cerebellar tumours and a group of controls matched for age, gender, and parental socio-educational level. The patients scored significantly lower on all reading, but the most striking difference concerned silent reading, perfectly acquired by almost all controls, contrasting with 41 % of the patients who were unable to read any item silently. Silent reading was correlated with the Working Memory Index. The present findings converge with previous reports on an implication of the cerebellum in inner speech and in the automatization of reading. This cerebellar implication is probably not specific to reading, as it also seems to affect non-reading tasks such as counting.

  8. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  9. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  10. Noninvasive perfusion imaging of human brain tumors with EPISTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaa, J. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Warach, S. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wen, P. [Department of Neurology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Thangaraj, V. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wielopolski, P. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Edelman, R.R. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A total of 17 patients with histologically proven diagnoses of low-grade astrocytoma (n = 4), high-grade astrocytoma (n = 8), lymphoma (n = 3), and meningioma (n = 2) were examined by using EPISTAR MR imaging. Meningiomas had the highest EPISTAR tumor/white matter contrast and low-grade astrocytomas and lymphomas the lowest. High-grade astrocytomas demonstrated elevated EPISTAR signal with marked regional heterogeneity. There was agreement between tumor vascularity by SPECT and EPISTAR in the five cases where both were done. Our results show that tumor vascularity can be assessed qualitatively by using EPISTAR without the need for contrast medium injection. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  11. Bevacizumab and Irinotecan in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Ependymoma, or Low Grade Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma

  12. Role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the second overall most common pediatric brain tumor. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used in the diagnosis and follow up of pediatric patients with pilocytic astrocytomas because of its ability to provide anatomical detail. However conventional MR imaging does not ...

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Kagawa Children`s Hospital, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Since 1968, we have treated 149 patients and performed boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on 164 occasions using 5 reactors in Japan. There were 64 patients with glioblastoma, 39 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and 17 patients with low grade astrocytoma (grade 1 or 2). There were 30 patients with other types of tumor. The overall response rate in the glioma patients was 64%. Seven patients (12%) of glioblastoma, 22 patients (56%) of anaplastic astrocytoma and 8 patients (62%) of low grade astrocytoma lived more than 2 years Median survival time of glioblastoma was 640 days. Median survival times of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma was 1811 days, and 1669 days in low grade astrocytoma. Six patients (5 glioblastoma and one anaplastic astrocytoma) died within 90 days after BNCT. Six patients lived more than 10 years. Histological grading, age of the patients, neutron fluence at the target point and target depth or size of the tumor were proved to be important factors. BNCT is an effective treatment for malignant brain tumors. We are now became able to radiate the tumor more correctly with a high enough dose of neutron beam even if we use thermal neutron beam. (author)

  14. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system.

  15. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul; Choi, Kyu Ho; Byun, Hong Sik; Choi, Woo Suk

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system

  16. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  17. Brain Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancers of the brain and spinal cord include anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumors, schwannomas, ependymomas, and sarcomas. Find evidence-based information on brain cancer treatment, research, genetics, and statistics.

  18. INTRACRANIAL NEOPLASMS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA B.J. OLASODE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Results: Two hundred and ten intracronial neoplasms comprising 172 ... accounted for the largest group of tumours followed by metastases to the brain. ..... Percentage .... astrocytomas may be attributed to the increasing use.

  19. Evolution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy practice in malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusheel Munshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas of the brain carry a poor prognosis. This article traces the evolution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy practice including the development of concurrent chemo-radiation schedules in the context of these tumors.

  20. Tuberous sclerosis Anaesthetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    Communication with the patient may be difficult since mental retardation is common (about ... This visual impairment may be caused by retinal astrocytomas or choroid hamartomas which .... Affected first degree relative. Cardiac rhabdomyoma.

  1. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  2. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  3. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibits glioma cell growth independent of its enzymatic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Busek, P.; Stremeňová, J.; Sromová, L.; Hilser, M.; Balaziová, E.; Kosek, D.; Trylcová, J.; Strnad, Hynek; Křepela, E.; Šedo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2012), s. 738-747 ISSN 1357-2725 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : protease * tumour suppression * primary cell cultures * astrocytoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2012

  5. Cathepsin D and Its Prognostic Value in Neuroepithelial Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Pigac, Biserka; Dmitrović, Branko; Marić, Svjetlana; Mašić, Silvija

    2012-01-01

    Expression of Cathepsin D (Cath D) in some primary neuroepithelial brain tumors and its prognostic value were studied. The research included 65 samples of human primary neuroepithelial brain tumors. There were 50 glial tumors (10 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 15 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 25 glioblastomas (GB), 15 embryonic tumors (15 medulloblastomas (MB) as well as 5 samples of normal brain tissue. Immunohistochemical method was applied to monitor diffuse positive reaction in the cytoplasm ...

  6. Dolor cervical incoercible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  7. Arterial spin-labeling assessment of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity as a predictor of histologic grade of astrocytic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtner, J; Schöpf, V; Schewzow, K; Kasprian, G; Weber, M; Woitek, R; Asenbaum, U; Preusser, M; Marosi, C; Hainfellner, J A; Widhalm, G; Wolfsberger, S; Prayer, D

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed arterial spin-labeling is a noninvasive MR imaging perfusion method performed with the use of water in the arterial blood as an endogenous contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the inversion time with the largest difference in normalized intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. Thirty-three patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade (n = 7) or high-grade astrocytomas (n = 26) according to the World Health Organization brain tumor classification, were included. A 3T MR scanner was used to perform pulsed arterial spin-labeling measurements at 8 different inversion times (370 ms, 614 ms, 864 ms, 1114 ms, 1364 ms, 1614 ms, 1864 ms, and 2114 ms). Normalized intratumoral signal intensity was calculated, which was defined by the signal intensity ratio of the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue for all fixed inversion times. A 3-way mixed ANOVA was used to reveal potential differences in the normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. The difference in normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas obtained the most statistically significant results at 370 ms (P = .003, other P values ranged from .012-.955). The inversion time by which to differentiate high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas by use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity was 370 ms in our study. The normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values at this inversion time mainly reflect the labeled intra-arterial blood bolus and therefore could be referred to as normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity. Our data indicate that the use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values allows differentiation between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas and thus may serve as a new, noninvasive marker for astrocytoma grading.

  8. The role of radiotherapy in the management of spinal cord glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Hiroki; Kamada, Tadashi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Koyanagi, Izumi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Abe, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of radiotherapy in the management of spinal cord gliomas. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with spinal cord glioma treated between 1979 and 1993 were examined. The patients had 13 astrocytic tumors (7 astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic astrocytomas, 2 glioblastomas), 22 ependymal tumors (18 ependymomas, 4 myxopapillary ependymomas), and 1 unclassified glioma. Fifteen of the patients were treated by surgery alone, but the remaining 21 patients also received postoperative radiotherapy. Total resection was performed on 1 astrocytoma and 13 ependymomas. In general, 40-50 Gy/16-20 fractions/4-5 weeks were given after parital resection, but no radiotherapy was given after total resection. Results: Actuarial survival was significantly better for patients with ependymal tumors than for those with astrocytic tumors (p = 0007), 5-year actuarial survival rates being 96% and 50% for patients with ependymal tumors and astrocytic tumors, respectively. For patients with ependymal tumors, there was no difference in motor function and survival between those with total resection and those with partial resection followed by radiotherapy. Actuarial 3-year survival was 80% for patients with astrocytomas and 40% for those with anaplastic astrocytomas plus glioblastomas. The difference in the degree of motor function between the patients treated with radiotherapy and those without radiotherapy was not statistically significant. One anaplastic astrocytoma and one glioblastoma patient have lived longer than 4 years after radical treatment including radiocordectomy, or irradiation using doses larger than the tolerance threshold of the spinal cord. Conclusion: Postoperative conventional radiotherapy is indicated after less than total resection of low-grade ependymal tumors and astrocytomas but not after total resection of ependymomas. Radiocordectomy may be an option for certain cases with high-grade astrocytic tumors

  9. Delayed enhanced MRI in intraparenchymal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Takahiko; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Toshikazu

    1991-01-01

    Delayed enhanced MRI was performed on 20 intraparenchymal tumors, and these findings were compared with those of early enhanced MRI. Using the spin-echo technique (SE: 400-500/20 msec), early scans were obtained 5 minutes, and delayed scans were obtained 60 minutes, after the intravenous injection of 0.1 nmol of gadolinium-DTPA/Kg. We discussed the changes in the delayed scan with regard to the change in the pattern of enhancement and the boundary of enhancement. In these twenty intraparenchymal tumors, there were three low-grade astrocytomas, two anaplastic astrocytomas, seven glioblastomas, and eight metastatic tumors. The changes in the enhanced pattern showed three types as follows: Type I: heterogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans; Type II: heterogeneous enhancement in early scan and homogeneous enhancement in delayed scan; Type III: homogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans. Most malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas (6/8), anaplastic astrocytomas (2/2), and metastatic tumors (7/8), revealed Type I, although low-grade astrocytomas showed Type II (3/2) and Type III (1/3). The heterogeneous enhancement in delayed scan was found in malignant tumors and in low-grade astrocytoma; even if the early scan revealed heterogeneous enhancement, the delayed scan showed homogeneous enhancement. In the delayed scan, most enhanced boundaries spread out of the boundaries in the early scan. Glioblastomas spread markedly in the delayed scan, although none of the low-grade astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, or metastases revealed marked spreading. We called these marked increases in the delayed scan a 'spreading sign' and thought that this sign was specific to glioblastomas. Recently some authors have emphasized the usefulness of serial scans. Delayed enhanced MRI 60 minutes after the administration of a contrast medium was here found also to be useful for the accurate diagnosis for brain tumors. (author)

  10. Treatments of intramedullary spinal cord tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, Kazumasa; Okada, Akihiro; Echigoya, Naoki; Yokoyama, Toru; Harata, Seiko [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    In order to establish a treatment for intramedullary spinal cord tumors, histology, symptoms (preoperative, upon discharge from the hospital, and at the final follow-up examination), postoperative combination therapy, postoperative complications, and recurrence were assessed in patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors treated in the author's hospital during the past 19 years. There were 26 subjects (astrocytoma in 8, ependymoma in 6, intramedullary neurinoma in 3, lipoma in 3, hemangioblastoma in 3, cavernous angioma in 1, capillary hemangioma in 1, and enterogenous cyst in 1). Surgery had been performed in 24 of them, and 7 of the tumors were completely resected, 6 were incompletely resected, and 3 were partially resected. Radiotherapy had been performed to treat 7 astrocytomas and 2 ependymomas. Kyphosis was noted as a postoperative complication in 1 patient with an astrocytoma who had received postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative improvement was better in the patients who had the ependymomas, lipoma, and angioma, and in 1 patient with an astrocytoma. The astrocytomas were very difficult to completely remove surgically, and postoperative radiotherapy was thought to be indispensable. The ependymomas, hemangioblastomas, and angiomas could be surgically resected, but the surgeon must has to exercise sufficient care during the operation. The lipomas were also difficult to resect surgically and intratumoral decompression or decompression should be performed. For adolescents spinal deformity should be considered as one of the postoperative complications. (K.H.)

  11. Brain scintigraphy (SPECT) using 201thallium in patients with primary tumors of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzen, G.; Schubert, C.; Richter, W.; Calder, D.; Eichstaedt, H.; Felix, R.; Baerwald, M.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the role of thallium 201 Single-Photon-Emission-Computed-Tomography (SPECT) in diagnosis, differential diagnosis and follow-up of 33 patients with primary brain tumors. 27 of 33 lesions were detectable by Tl-201-SPECT because only two of eight low-grade (grade 1 and 2) astrocytomas showed Tl-201 accumulation up to a tumor to nontumor ratio of 2.6. High grade (grade 3 and 4) astrocytomas showed Tl-201 accumulation in the range of 2.2 up to 13.0 and were different from low-grade astrocytomas. Noninvasive grading of astrocytomas is therefore possible, whereas differential diagnosis of oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas or meningeomas was not possible with Tl-201. In the follow-up of six patients, we could demonstrate, that tumor progression is correlated with increasing and tumor regression with decreasing Tl-201 accumulations. This functional changings proceed morphological findings in CT. But vanishing of Tl-201 accumulation during therapy does not mean vanishing of tumor as could be demonstrated by follow-up. (orig.) [de

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy for children with malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Komatsu, Hisao; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Tsuji, Fumio; Matsumoto, Keizo; Kitamura, Katsuji; Hatanaka, Hiroshi; Minobe, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    Among the 131 cases with brain tumors treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT), seventeen were children. Eight supratentorial tumors included five astrocytomas(grade 2-4), two primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and one rhabdomyosarcoma. Seven pontine tumors included one astrocytoma, one PNET and 5 unverified gliomas. Two cerebellar tumors (PNET and astrocytoma) were also treated. All pontine tumors showed remarkable decrease in size after BNCT. However, most of them showed regrowth of the tumors because the neutrons were insufficient due to the depth. Four cases with cerebral tumor died of remote cell dissemination, although they all responded to BNCT. One of them survived 7 years after repeated BNCTs. An 11 years old girl with a large astrocytoma in the right frontal lobe has lived more than 11 years and is now a draftswoman at a civil engineering company after graduating from a technical college. An 8 years old girl with an astrocytoma in the left occipital lobe has no recurrence of the tumor for 2 years and attends on elementary school without mental and physical problems. Two children (one year old girl and four years old boy) with cerebellar tumors have shown showed an excellent growth after BNCT and had no neurological deficits. Mental and physical development in patients treated by BNCT is usually better than that in patients treated by conventional radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Treatments of intramedullary spinal cord tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, Kazumasa; Okada, Akihiro; Echigoya, Naoki; Yokoyama, Toru; Harata, Seiko [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    In order to establish a treatment for intramedullary spinal cord tumors, histology, symptoms (preoperative, upon discharge from the hospital, and at the final follow-up examination), postoperative combination therapy, postoperative complications, and recurrence were assessed in patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors treated in the author's hospital during the past 19 years. There were 26 subjects (astrocytoma in 8, ependymoma in 6, intramedullary neurinoma in 3, lipoma in 3, hemangioblastoma in 3, cavernous angioma in 1, capillary hemangioma in 1, and enterogenous cyst in 1). Surgery had been performed in 24 of them, and 7 of the tumors were completely resected, 6 were incompletely resected, and 3 were partially resected. Radiotherapy had been performed to treat 7 astrocytomas and 2 ependymomas. Kyphosis was noted as a postoperative complication in 1 patient with an astrocytoma who had received postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative improvement was better in the patients who had the ependymomas, lipoma, and angioma, and in 1 patient with an astrocytoma. The astrocytomas were very difficult to completely remove surgically, and postoperative radiotherapy was thought to be indispensable. The ependymomas, hemangioblastomas, and angiomas could be surgically resected, but the surgeon must has to exercise sufficient care during the operation. The lipomas were also difficult to resect surgically and intratumoral decompression or decompression should be performed. For adolescents spinal deformity should be considered as one of the postoperative complications. (K.H.)

  14. Open-ring enhancement sign in diagnosing demyelinating pseudotumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Liting; Wang Zhiping; Wang Linyou

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe open-ring enhancement sign on MRI of demyelinating pseudotumor. Methods: Contrast-enhanced MRI of histologically confirmed demyelinating pseudotumors (14 patients) and astrocytomas (21) was reviewed. Results: Of the 14 cases of demyelinating pseudotumor, open-ring enhancement pattern was observed in 6; closed ring enhancement in 2; nodular enhancement in 3; patchy enhancement in 1; slight enhancement in 1; and no enhancement in 1. Of the 21 cases of astrocytoma, there was complete ring or lace-like enhancement in 13, no contrast enhancement in 6, patchy enhancement in 2, and none with open-ring enhancement pattern. Conclusion: Open-ring enhancement is a valuable sign in differential diagnosis between demyelinating pseudotumor and astrocytoma. (authors)

  15. EG-03EXPRESSION OF PRMT5 CORRELATES WITH MALIGNANT GRADE IN GLIOMAS AND PLAYS A PIVOTAL ROLE IN TUMOR GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaosi; Li, Rong; Zhang, Wenbin; Yang, Xiuhua; Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan; Gillespie, Yancey; Nabors, Burt

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the formation of ω-NG,N′G-symmetric dimethylarginine residues on histones as well as other proteins. The modification play an important role in cell differentiation and tumor cell growth. However, the role of PRMT5 in human glioma cells has not been characterized. In this study, we assessed protein expression profiles of PRMT5 in control brain, WHO grade II astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) by immunohistochemistry. PRMT5 was low in glial cells in control brain tissues and low grade astrocytomas. Its expression increased in parallel with malignant progression, and was highly expressed in GBM. Knockdown of PRMT5 by small hairpin RNA caused alterations of p-ERK1/2 and significantly repressed the clonogenic potential and viability of glioma cells. These findings indicate that PRMT5 is a marker of malignant progression in glioma tumors and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth.

  16. Increased Inhibitor of Differentiation 4 (Id4 Expression in Glioblastoma: A Tissue Microarray Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifin Zeng, Elisabeth J. Rushing, Daniel P. Hartmann, Norio Azumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding protein family (Id1-4 is involved in cell cycle control, tumorigenesis and angiogenesis through the negative regulation of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Of these proteins, Id4 is known to play an important role in neural stem cell differentiation, and deregulation has been implicated in glial neoplasia. However, the expression and significance of Id4 in astrocytomas has not been fully addressed. Herein we report the differential expression of Id4 in astrocytomas of various grades using tissue microarrays (TMA and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Design: The GBM TMA was constructed from 53 archival cases at Georgetown University Hospital and a TMA with normal brain controls and grades II-III astrocytoma was obtained from Cybrdi (Rockville, MD. TMA sections were stained with Id4 antibody and the slides were scored according to the percentage of staining astrocytic nuclei (<9% -, 10-50% +, >51% ++. The Fisher Exact test was used to test for statistical significance. Results: Nuclear staining for Id4 was seen in 73.58% GBMs, 25% grade III, and 12.5% grade II astrocytomas; staining was absent in normal brain tissue. There was a statistically significant difference between GBM and grades II, III astrocytoma (p <0.01. Significant Id4 expression was not detected in normal brain. Conclusions: Our study confirms the frequent upregulation of Id4 expression in GBM, which lends support to its role in tumorigenesis, possibly in the transformation of low to high-grade astrocytoma (i.e. GBM. Further studies are warranted to determine the precise role of Id4 in glial neoplasia and its potential use in targeted therapy for GBM.

  17. Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Hamerlik, P; Stockhausen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors. Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low...... and indicate that replication stress, rather than oxidative stress, fuels the DNA damage signalling in early stages of astrocytoma development.......Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure. Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA...

  18. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.

    1983-12-01

    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  19. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT for the detection of brain tumor. Comparison with {sup 201}Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Motoo; Sasaki, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Yoshirou; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Furui, Shigeru [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Konoeda, Kouichi; Karigome, Masato; Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    For the evaluation of brain tumor (n=15), we performed both dynamic and static {sup 99m}Tc-ECD (ECD) SPECT studies. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was also used for comparison with the results of ECD SPECT. Dynamic ECD SPECT was obtained following the injection of 600 MBq of ECD. Five min after the injection of ECD, static ECD SPECT was performed. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was obtained 10 min after the injection of 74 MBq. Abnormal uptake was recognized in 7 of 15 tumors with dynamic ECD; 5 of 7 meningiomas, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 astrocytoma. However, no abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 low grade astrocytoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 craniopharyngioma) and in 2 of 2 brain metastases. In contrast abnormal uptake was seen in 11 of 15 tumors with {sup 201}Tl; 7 of 7 meningiomas, 2 of 2 brain metastases, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 craniopharyngioma. No abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 hemangioma and 2 low grade astrocytomas). Equivocal uptake was seen in 1 low grade astrocytoma with dynamic ECD and {sup 201}Tl. The mechanism of the accumulation of dynamic ECD to brain tumor is unclear. However, it may reflect not only blood flow, but also metabolism. (author)

  20. Radiation-induced cerebellar chondrosarcoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, M.; Perrin, R.G.; Platts, M.E.; Simpson, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report a case of chondrosarcoma arising in the cerebellum 16 years after treatment of a cerebellar malignant astrocytoma by subtotal resection and irradiation. It is thought that the chondrosarcoma arising within the intracranial cavity was a probable consequence of previous ionizing radiation

  1. 75 FR 55799 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... licensing. Licensing Contact: Patrick P. McCue, PhD, (301) 435-5560; [email protected] . Collaborative... Reference No. E-051-2010/0-US-01). Licensing Status: Available for licensing. Licensing Contact: Patrick P... for the brain tumors or brain cancers indentified as gliomas, glioblastomas, or astrocytomas. This...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Papers Ostertagia ostertagi infection in cattle on an irrigated farm on the highveld of Zimbabwe Abstract · Vol 28, No 2 (1997) - Articles Undifferentiated astrocytoma in a Doberman Pinscher bitch. Abstract · Vol 28, No 3 (1997) - Articles Spinal malacia, abscess and meningioma in a German Shepherd dog. Abstract.

  3. Diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex: A South African consensus response to international guidelines. ... inhibitors to treat subependymal giant cell astrocytomas not amenable to surgery and renal angiomyolipomas larger than 3 cm, and as adjunctive treatment for refractory focal seizures.

  4. Abdominal epilepsy as an unusual cause of abdominal pain: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Kafkas University, Medical Faculty, Pediatrics. 2. Kafkas University Training and Research Hospital. 3. Kars Government Hospital, Department of Pediatrics. Abstract: ... The patient did well on valproic acid therapy and EEG was normal 1 month after beginning of ... as cortical malformations, cerebral astrocytoma, febrile.

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce. Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - ... Liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous extracts of Mangifera indica stem bark. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2384-681X.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ujaddughe, MO. Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - Articles The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 3 (2014) - Articles Liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous extracts of Mangifera ...

  7. Alexandria Journal of Medicine - Vol 48, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the results of operative treatment of hip dysplasia in children after the walking age · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma in children · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Prise en charge des tumeurs de la fosse postérieure de l'enfant à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2013) > ... we found 38.88 % of medulloblastoma, 33.33% of astrocytoma, 22.22% of ependymoma and 05.57% oftuberculoma. ... Surgery appears to be the only treatment indicated in tumors of the posterior fossa.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - Articles The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 4 (2014) - Articles Human diseases and histories of treatment-drug lacunae: An Ebola induced reflection

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... WHO Grade 1, eleven Grade 2, ten Grade 3 and nineteen Grade 4 neoplasms. Thirty-six cases were supratentorial and thirty-eight were infratentorial in location. The most common tumours in this series were pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas in that order.

  11. Structures, energetics and magnetic properties of AunSFem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    For a better efficiency of the cancer treatment, magnetically directed drug ... to treat a variety of tumors such as anaplastic astrocytomas or glioblastomas. .... the two Au atom clusters, figure 1 (II-a,b), the Fe atom tends to stay between the Au ...

  12. Characterization of Cancer Stem Cells in Patients with Brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gliomas, in general, and astrocytomas, in particular, represent the most frequent primary brain tumors. Nowadays, it is increasingly believed that gliomas may arise from cancer stem cells, which share several characteristics with normal neural stem cells. Brain tumor stem cells have been found to express a ...

  13. Promoter Methylation of RASSF1A Associates to Adult Secondary Glioblastomas and Pediatric Glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Inda, María Del Mar; Lázcoz, Paula; Zazpe, Idoya; Fan, Xing; Alfaro, Jorge; Tuñón, Teresa; Rey, Juan A; Castresana, Javier S

    2012-01-01

    While allelic losses and mutations of tumor suppressor genes implicated in the etiology of astrocytoma have been widely assessed, the role of epigenetics is still a matter of study. We analyzed the frequency of promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in five tumor suppressor genes (PTEN, MGMT, RASSF1A, p14(ARF), and p16(INK4A)), in astrocytoma samples and cell lines. RASSF1A was the most frequently hypermethylated gene in all grades of astrocytoma samples, in cell lines, and in adult secondary GBM. It was followed by MGMT. PTEN showed a slight methylation signal in only one GBM and one pilocytic astrocytoma, and in two cell lines; while p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) did not show any evidence of methylation in primary tumors or cell lines. In pediatric GBM, RASSF1A was again the most frequently altered gene, followed by MGMT; PTEN, p14 and p16 showed no alterations. Lack or reduced expression of RASSF1A in cell lines was correlated with the presence of methylation. RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation might be used as a diagnostic marker for secondary GBM and pediatric GBM. Promoter hypermethylation might not be an important inactivation mechanism in other genes like PTEN, p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A), in which other alterations (mutations, homozygous deletions) are prevalent.

  14. Extent of resection and timing of surgery in adult low grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mirza, Farhan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-06-01

    Low grade glioma is a group of WHO grade II tumours including diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. Strong evidence exists in literature now to support early surgery and higher extent of safe resection in improving outcomes. In this review, we are highlighting some of the important studies done in the last few years specifically addressing timing of surgery and extent of resection.

  15. Neuro-oncology Thallium 201 interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Latry, C.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Ducassou, D.; Guerin, J.; Maire, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    So and in spite of its histologic specificity absence, Tl 201 has an evident interest in neuro-oncology: for the low grade astrocytoma transformation diagnosis toward one higher grad; for the neoplasm residue and recidive diagnosis; and more generally as forecasted evolution element during the therapy. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 4 graphs

  16. Gliomatosis cerebri--an appropriate diagnosis? Case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, E; Skriver, E; Herning, Gudrun Margrethe

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the premises for the diagnosis gliomatosis cerebri in relation to diffuse astrocytomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CT, MR images and pathological analyses were used to assess the cases of 4 patients with diffusely infiltrating astrocytic tumours that radiologically, clinically and...

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    1999-01-01

    Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

  18. Spectrum of intracranial tumours in a tertiary health carefacility: Our ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meningioma.Medulloblastoma accounted for 18%.(10).Of the cases of Gliomas, majority(52%) fell under WHO grade II. (38%)of the Meningioma were of the mixed type while 25% had transitional type. Conclusion: astrocytomas was the commonest brain tumour.These patterns corroboratedmost studies that have been done.

  19. MiR-1254 inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, miR-1254 has promising potential for use in the treatment of brain tumour. Keywords: Brain tumour, Astrocytoma, miR-1254, Apoptosis, Cell migration ... colorectal cancer, adenocarcinoma carcinoma and lung cancer [6]. However, the expression profile of miR-1254 in brain tumour has not been investigated.

  20. Primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Miyamoto, Seiji; Kyoi, Kikuo; Utsumi, Shozaburo; Kamada, Kitaro; Inui, Shoji; Masuda, Akio.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cases of primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage were studied in terms of the radiological and histological findings. The cases having hemorrhage in the tumor, as established through CT or histologically, were excluded if their onsets were not sudden due to intracranial hemorrhages. The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1) From an anatomical point of view, cerebral subcortical hemorrhages account for 80%; hemorrhages in the cerebellopontine angle, 10%, and hemorrhages in the basal ganglia, 10%. 2) Plain CT findings showed perifocal low-density areas within 24 hours after onset in all 10 cases. 3) Enhanced CT findings showed enhanced areas in 4 or 6 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 5) From a histological point of view, glioblastomas account for 30%; malignant astrocytomas, 20%; astrocytomas, 20%; malignant ependymomas, 10%; hemangioblastoma, 10%, and transitional meningiomas, 10%. In conclusion, a perifocal low-density area on CT within 24 hours after onset is the most meaningful indication of intracranial hemorrhage originating from a brain tumor. A histological 'perinuclear halo' in an astrocytoma as an artifact due to hemorrhage may often be misleading in diagnosing mixed oligo-astrocytomas. (author)

  1. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compounds 3 and 4 were screened for selective antiproliferative activity in three cancer cell lines of different tissue types (COLO 205 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma),U87 MG (glioblastoma astrocytoma) and MIAPaCa-2 (human pancreatic carcinoma). Geometry-optimized structures for tautomers 3 and 4 (3′ and 4′ ...

  2. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  3. Adenosine Receptors Differentially Regulate the Expression of Regulators of G-Protein Signalling (RGS 2, 3 and 4 in Astrocyte-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Nicolas Eusemann

    Full Text Available The "regulators of g-protein signalling" (RGS comprise a large family of proteins that limit by virtue of their GTPase accelerating protein domain the signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors. RGS proteins have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, depression and anxiety and aggressive behaviour. Since conditions associated with a large increase of adenosine in the brain such as seizures or ischemia were reported to modify the expression of some RGS proteins we hypothesized that adenosine might regulate RGS expression in neural cells. We measured the expression of RGS-2,-3, and -4 in both transformed glia cells (human U373 MG astrocytoma cells and in primary rat astrocyte cultures stimulated with adenosine agonists. Expression of RGS-2 mRNA as well as RGS2 protein was increased up to 30-fold by adenosine agonists in astrocytes. The order of potency of agonists and the blockade by the adenosine A2B-antagonist MRS1706 indicated that this effect was largely mediated by adenosine A2B receptors. However, a smaller effect was observed due to activation of adenosine A2A receptors. In astrocytoma cells adenosine agonists elicited an increase in RGS-2 expression solely mediated by A2B receptors. Expression of RGS-3 was inhibited by adenosine agonists in both astrocytoma cells and astrocytes. However while this effect was mediated by A2B receptors in astrocytoma cells it was mediated by A2A receptors in astrocytes as assessed by the order of potency of agonists and selective blockade by the specific antagonists MRS1706 and ZM241385 respectively. RGS-4 expression was inhibited in astrocytoma cells but enhanced in astrocytes by adenosine agonists.

  4. Brain tumors and CT scans in infants and children, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo

    1983-01-01

    In clinical pictures of brain tumors in infants and children, many features are not identical to those in adults, including characteristics of the tumors in age population, the locations of the tumors, the clinical symptoms and signs, and various factors affecting prognosis. We have, therefore, clinically and extensively analyzed brain tumors in infants and children. This study was also performed in order to analyze the characteristic CT findings of astrocytoma, the tumor most frequently occurring among infants and children. The subjects were 24 cases of astrocytoma and 2 cases of glioblastoma in infants and children under 16 years. The locations and characteristics of the tumors were as follows. Most of the tumors occurred in the 4th ventricle, had a characteristic low density, and could almost entirely be clearly distinguished from medulloblastomas, but not from ependymomas, on CT. The features of the supratentorial tumors were similar to those of the astrocytomas and glioblastomas mostly appearing in adults, as previously reported, in the relatively close correlation with the location and malignancy of the tumor. There was also a case of diffuse astrocytoma, a ''non-enhanced low-density solid tumor,'' which raised clinical problems. Among low-grade astrocytomas in infants and children, only a few show a high density on plain CT, many have, at least macroscopically, a strong contrast enhancement, and peritumoral edema is not observed on CT or, if observed, is observed only slightly. As individual features, homogenous enhancement pattern, a mixed density, a central low density, and a rare absence of enhancement are listed. (author)

  5. Improving the Grading Accuracy of Astrocytic Neoplasms Noninvasively by Combining Timing Information with Cerebral Blood Flow: A Multi-TI Arterial Spin-Labeling MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Zhao, B; Wang, G; Xiang, J; Xu, S; Liu, Y; Zhao, P; Pfeuffer, J; Qian, T

    2016-12-01

    Systematic and accurate glioma grading has clinical significance. We present the utility of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and provide the bolus arrival time maps for grading astrocytomas. Forty-three patients with astrocytomas (21 men; mean age, 51 years) were recruited. The classification abilities of conventional MR imaging features, normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging, normalized bolus arrival time, and normalized CBF derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling were compared in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, III, and IV astrocytomas. The normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging was higher in patients with higher grade astrocytoma malignancies compared with patients with lower grade astrocytomas, while the normalized bolus arrival time showed the opposite tendency. The normalized CBF value derived from the multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging showed excellent performance with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.813 (WHO II versus III), 0.964 (WHO II versus IV), 0.872 (WHO III versus IV), and 0.883 (low-grade-versus-high-grade gliomas). The normalized CBF value derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging could statistically differentiate the WHO II and IV groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.826). The normalized bolus arrival time effectively identified the WHO grades II and III with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.836. Combining the normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and normalized bolus arrival time improved the diagnostic accuracy from 65.10% to 72.10% compared with the normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging being applied independently. The combination of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and conventional MR imaging had the best performance, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81

  6. Rapid progression of gliomatosis cerebri to secondary glioblastoma, factors that affects the progression rate: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Joo Heon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Glioblastomas may develop de novo or through progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas. The term 'primary glioblastoma' refers to a glioblastoma that lacks a precursor lesion and has a clinical history of less than three months. On the other hand, the term 'secondary glioblastoma' indicates that the glioblastoma has progressed from a low-grade tumor after a long latency period and often manifests in younger patients. These subtypes of glioblastoma develop via different genetic pathways, and they differ in prognosis and response to therapy. Thus, differential diagnosis of these subtypes and prediction of the factors that affect the progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma to secondary glioblastoma would be clinically very important. We present a rare case of secondary glioblastoma, which developed only three months after the follow up imaging evaluations, with a history of low grade glioma, and present the factors that cause rapid progression.

  7. Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Hamerlik, P; Stockhausen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    damage signalling in low- and high-grade human gliomas, and analyze the sources of such endogenous genotoxic stress. Based on analyses of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, normal astrocytes and clinical specimens from grade II astrocytomas (n=41) and grade IV GBM (n=60), we conclude...... that the DDR machinery is constitutively activated in gliomas, as documented by phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway, 53BP1 foci and other markers. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoguanine) was high in some GBM cell lines and many GBM tumors, while it was low in normal...... brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors. Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low...

  8. Molecular mechanisms in gliomagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulleman, Esther; Helin, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Glioma, and in particular high-grade astrocytoma termed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most common primary tumor of the brain. Primarily because of its diffuse nature, there is no effective treatment for GBM, and relatively little is known about the processes by which it develops. Therefore......, in order to design novel therapies and treatments for GBM, research has recently intensified to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to GBM formation. Modeling of astrocytomas by genetic manipulation of mice suggests that deregulation of the pathways that control gliogenesis during normal...... brain development, such as the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into astrocytes, might contribute to GBM formation. These pathways include growth factor-induced signal transduction routes and processes that control cell cycle progression, such as the p16-CDK4-RB and the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathways...

  9. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  10. Astroglial c-Myc overexpression predisposes mice to primary malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Aagaard; Pedersen, Karen-Marie; Lihme, Frederikke

    2003-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are common human primary brain tumors that result from neoplastic transformation of astroglia or their progenitors. Here we show that deregulation of the c-Myc pathway in developing astroglia predisposes mice to malignant astrocytomas within 2-3 weeks of age. The genetically...... engineered murine (GEM) gliomas harbor a molecular signature resembling that of human primary glioblastoma multiforme, including up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Mdm2. The GEM gliomas seem to originate in an abnormal population of glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing cells...... the neoplastic process, presumably by inducing the sustained growth of early astroglial cells. This is in contrast to most other transgenic studies in which c-Myc overexpression requires co-operating transgenes for rapid tumor induction....

  11. 99mTc-MIBI-SPECT-studies in the evaluation of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, E.; Pavics, L.; Gruenwald, F.; Barath, B.; Tiszlavicz, L.; Bender, H.; Menzel, C.; Almasi, L.; Lang, J.; Bodosi, M.; Biersack, H.J.; Csernay, L.

    1994-01-01

    Brain SPECT studies were performed 5 and 60 minutes after 99m Tc-MIBI administration in 41 patients with brain tumors confirmed by CT and surgical removal (13 meningeomas, 8 astrocytomas grades I-III, 10 glioblastomas, 10 metastases). 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was found in 32 out of 41 brain tumors. According to the semiquantitative SPECT analysis, the tumor/non tumor radios revealed a statistically significant difference in the early tracer uptake between meningeomas and astrocytomas (+4.73±2.91 vs -1.75±0.75, p 99m Tc-MIBI uptake and its changes with time. We concluded that the combination of an early and late 99m Tc-MIBI brain SPECT may be helpful in the non invasive histological classification of brain tumors and the determination of the grade of theirs malignancy. (orig.) [de

  12. Mortality is higher in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis in spinal cord tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Amoreira Gepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord tumors are a rare neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS. The occurrence of metastases is related to poor prognosis. The authors analyzed one series of metastasis cases and their associated mortality. METHODS: Clinical characteristics were studied in six patients with intramedullary tumors with metastases in a series of 71 surgical cases. RESULTS: Five patients had ependymomas of which two were WHO grade III. The patient with astrocytoma had a grade II histopathological classification. Two patients required shunts for hydrocephalus. The survival curve showed a higher mortality than the general group of patients with no metastases in the CNS (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Mortality is elevated in patients with metastasis and greater than in patients with only primary lesions. The ependymomas, regardless of their degree of anaplasia, are more likely to cause metastasis than spinal cord astrocytomas.

  13. Research progress of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-shan ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gene mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2 mainly occur in astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma and secondary glioblastoma. The IDH1/2 gene mutation can alter proteinase function, consume α-ketoglutarate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-reduced (NADPH and thus produce carcinogenic metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate. The intracellular accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate will induce a series of downstream effects which may result in the development of gliomas mentioned above. Both IDH1/2 mutations and other concomitant hereditary variations are biomarkers for differential diagnosis and IDH1/2 mutations are also independent factors for the prognosis of gliomas. The molecular targeting therapy for IDH1/2 mutations has become the research focus of glioma treatment. This review summarizes the recent progress of this field. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.017

  14. The role of CT in the diagnosis of tumors in sellar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenxin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate computed tomography (CT) in patients with tumors in sellar area. Methods: CT images of 33 patients with sellar area tumor's proved by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Pituitary adenomas (n=20), craniopharyngiomas (n=8) and meningiomas (n=3) had characteristic findings and were given a high rate of correct diagnosis. While astrocytoma (n=1) and germinoma (n=1) were solid lesions in sellar area and lack of diagnostic signs and the astrocytoma was misdiagnosed as craniopharyngioma. Conclusion: CT, especially 2-demision reconstructed (coronal and sagittal) images can demonstrate inner structure, pattern of growth, extension of invasion of tumors as well as the relationship between tumor and the adjacent vessels. CT plays an important role in the diagnosis of tumors in seliar area. (authors)

  15. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E.; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-01-01

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors

  16. Acute leukemia after radiotherapy in a patient with Turcot's syndrome. Impaired colony formation in skin fibroblast cultures after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Little, J.B.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.; Paterson, M.C.; Arlett, C.; Garnick, M.B.; Mayer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Colonic polyposis and carcinoma developed in a woman with Turcot's syndrome at the age of 31 years; astrocytoma developed when she was 37. Her brother and sister had died of astrocytoma at the ages of 18 and 33 years, respectively. Progressive neutropenia developed in the patient three months after radiotherapy for her brain tumor and acute myelomonocytic leukemia 19 months after treatment. Three laboratories independently evaluated cultures of her skin fibroblasts for in vitro sensitivity to cell killing (loss of colony-forming ability) by x-rays. Survival assays consistently revealed slight but significant radiosensitivity in an early-passage (six to 10 doublings) fibroblast subculture. A later subculture (21 to 29 doublings) showed no abnormality, a possible effect of selective in vitro loss of radiosensitive cells

  17. Co-expression of TIMP-1 and its cell surface binding partner CD63 in glioblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Mia D.; Matos, Ana L.S.A.

    2018-01-01

    scoring. CD63 expression in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages was examined by double-immunofluorescence with ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). The association between CD63 and TIMP-1 was investigated using previously obtained TIMP-1 data from our astrocytoma cohort. Cellular co-expression...... of CD63 was widely distributed in astrocytomas with a significantly increased level in glioblastomas. CD63 levels did not significantly correlate with patient survival at a protein level, and CD63 did not augment the prognostic significance of TIMP-1. Up to 38% of the CD63+ cells expressed Iba1; however......, Iba1 did not appear to impact the prognostic value of CD63. A significant correlation was found between TIMP-1 and CD63, and the TIMP-1 and CD63 proteins were co-expressed at the cellular level and located in close molecular proximity, suggesting that TIMP-1 and CD63 could be co...

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging-controlled neuronavigator-guided brain surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, J; Nishizaki, T; Tokumaru, T; Uesugi, S; Yamashita, K; Ito, H; Suzuki, M

    2001-05-01

    The effectiveness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI)-controlled and navigator-guided brain surgery for a patient with a recurrent astrocytoma is demonstrated. Preoperative f-MRI was performed in order to identify the motor area and ensure that the tumour was in the left prefrontal area. A more aggressive operation was planned for the recurrent tumour. The f-MRI data were input to the MKM navigation system and during the operation the contours of the tumour and motor area were visualised b y the microscope of the navigation system. The tumour and surrounding gliotic brain tissue were removed completely. The diagnosis was a grade III astrocytoma. The combination of the navigation system and f-MRI was useful for preoperative design of the surgical strategy, and tumour orientation during the operation, enabling aggressive surgery to be performed without functional deficits ensuing. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  19. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume and other quantitative variables in supratentorial brain tumors. Practical technique and use in prognostic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Braendgaard, H; Chistiansen, A O

    1991-01-01

    The use of morphometry and modern stereology in malignancy grading of brain tumors is only poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to present these quantitative methods. A retrospective feasibility study of 46 patients with supratentorial brain tumors was carried out to demonstrate...... the practical technique. The continuous variables were correlated with the subjective, qualitative WHO classification of brain tumors, and the prognostic value of the parameters was assessed. Well differentiated astrocytomas (n = 14) had smaller estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume and mean...... nuclear profile area, than those of anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 13) (2p = 3.1.10(-3) and 2p = 4.8.10(-3), respectively). No differences were seen between the latter type of tumor and glioblastomas (n = 19). The nuclear index was of the same magnitude in all three tumor types, whereas the mitotic index...

  20. Novel drugs in pediatric gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dongli; Liu, Xiaoming; Fan, Conghai; Chen, Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytomas (gliomas) are the most common primary brain tumors among adults and second most frequent neoplasm among children. New ideas and novel approaches are being explored world over with aim to devise better management strategeies for this deadly pathological state. We searched the electronic database PubMed for pre-clinical as well as clinical controlled trials reporting importance of various therapeutic drugs against gliomas. It was observed clearly that this approach of using therape...

  1. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma - a case report; Xantoastrocitoma pleomorfico - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnago, Marcelo; Sales, Anderson Ribeiro de; Marchiori, Edson; Machado, Bruno Beber; Muniz, Maria Angelica Soares [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Amaral, Leonardo Portugal G. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Curso de Pos-graduacao Medica

    2000-12-01

    The authors report a case of a 20-year-old woman whose first symptom was severe headache followed by seizures. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the head showed an expansive mass on the right parietal lobe, close to the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle. Osteolysis of the internal table and expansion of the external table of the skull were also observed. After surgery, the diagnosis of pleomorphic xantho astrocytoma was established by histopathologic analysis. (author)

  2. Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in archival gliomas using bright-field microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Abbey; Wu, Rina; Zhao, Jianxin; Tao, Jianhua; Shi, Zuorong

    2004-03-01

    Overexpression of EGFR secondary to EGFR gene amplification is a common feature in primary malignant gliomas. To correctly assess EGFR protein and gene level as possible prognostic and predictive markers in gliomas, straightforward assays, which can be used routinely in the pathology laboratory to evaluate EGFR status, becomes critical. EGFR gene amplification and chromosome 7 aneuploidy was detected in 34 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded benign and malignant gliomas by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) using digoxigenin-labeled EGFR and biotin-labeled chromosome 7 centromeric probes. The results were evaluated by bright-field microscopy under a 40x objective lens. EGFR protein level was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibody 31G7. Five cases, 3 astrocytoma grade III (33%) and 2 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (33%), had EGFR amplification displayed as diaminobenzidine-stained multiple dots suggesting the pattern of double-minute chromosomes. Chromosome 7 polysomy was found in 68% gliomas, 100% GBM, 67% astrocytoma grade III, 42% astrocytoma grade II, 50% astrocytoma grade I, 100% ependymoma, and the 1 case of mixed glioma III. High expression of EGFR protein was present in 62% gliomas and displayed membrane and cytoplasmic staining. All tumors with EGFR gene amplification showed EGFR high expression. High expression of EGFR without gene amplification was observed in all grades of gliomas. Simultaneous detection of EGFR gene copies or chromosome 7 centromere signals along with tissue morphology allows us to compare CISH results easily with IHC results. Our results show that CISH is an objective, practical, and accurate assay to screen for EGFR gene status in gliomas.

  3. Stereotactic irradiation of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbacher, L.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg, a specific brain tumor localization system has been developed. The system offers precise and easy manipulation, and pin-pointed application for diagnostic evaluation and therapy. The radiation source for radiotherapy are 125 J-seeds. The method so far is applied primarily for treatment of astrocytomas in children. The article reviews applications and results. (MG) [de

  4. Hyaluronan and hyaluronectin in the extracellular matrix of human brain tumour stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, B; Maingonnat, C; Girard, N; Chauzy, C; Maunoury, R; Olivier, A; Tayot, J; Creissard, P

    1993-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and the hyaluronan-binding glycoprotein hyaluronectin (HN) were measured in 23 gliomas and 8 meningiomas and their location was revisited in 35 tumours. A clear-cut difference was found in the HN/HA ratio values of glioblastomas (below 0.5) and that of astrocytomas (above 0.5 P edification of the extracellular matrix. In meningiomas only the stroma would be responsible for HA and HN production.

  5. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with cerebral glial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte Moreno, Dayana; Ugarte Suarez, Jose Carlos; Pinnera Moliner, Jesus; Gonzalez, Jose Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of the intracranial primitive tumors is about 1 to 12 cases for 100 000 inhabitants per year. The most frequent tumors are gliomas that include tumors like astrocytomas benign and malignant. We studied twenty nine patients who were sent to Medical Surgical Research Center to make a magnetic resonance with spectroscopy, in a period of 18 months. The histological result was obtained by biopsy or autopsy

  6. Reverse engineering of modified genes by Bayesian network analysis defines molecular determinants critical to the development of glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W Kunkle

    Full Text Available In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I-IV, and 'key genes' within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated. These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96-100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential 'hubs of activity'. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several 'key genes' may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these 'key genes' as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors.

  7. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  8. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  9. Analysis of Brain Tumors Due to the Usage of Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    SOOBIA SAEED; ASADULLAH SHAIKH; SHABAZ AHMED NOOR

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma) in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus ...

  10. Cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and heterocyclic compounds at application on the cells of primary culture of neuroepithelium tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Vladimir A; Potkin, Vladimir I; Zubenko, Yuri S; Chernov, Alexander N; Talabaev, Michael V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Petkevich, Sergei K; Kazbanov, Vladimir V; Gurinovich, Tatiana A; Roeva, Margarita O; Grigoriev, Dmitry G; Kletskov, Alexei V; Kalunov, Vladimir N

    2012-01-01

    Neuroepithelial tumor cells were cultured in vitro. The biopsy material was taken from 93 children at removal of the brain tumors during neurosurgical operations. The individual features of the cells sensitivity of primary cultures in respect to protocol-approved chemotherapy drugs and changes in the Interleukin-6 (Il-6) level in the culture medium after the application of chemotherapy were established. The initial level of Il-6 exceeded 600.0 pg/ml in the cultural medium with histologically verified pilomyxoid astrocytoma cells, and ranged from 100.0 to 200.0 pg/ml in the medium at cultivation of ganglioneuroblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma. A decrease in the Il-6 level in the medium culture of primary tumors cells was observed after the application of chemotherapeutic agents on the cells of pilomyxoid astrocytoma, astrocytomas, and pilocytic desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma. The production of Il-6 increased after application of cytostatic drugs on the cells of oligoastrocytomas. A decrease in Il-6 level after application of Cisplatin and Methotrexate and a 5-10 fold increase in the level of Il-6 after application of Etoposide, Carboplatin, Cytarabine, and Gemcitabine were registered in the medium with ganglioneuroblastoma. To improve the cytotoxic action of chemotherapeutic agents, the combined application of cytostatics with heterocyclic compounds was carried out. A computer modeling of ligand-protein complexes of carbamide using the Dock 6.4 and USF Chimera program packages was performed with molecular mechanics method. Special attention was drawn to the ability of several isoxazole heterocycles and isothiazolyl to inhibit the tyrosine kinase. It was proved in vitro that the joint application of chemotherapeutic agents and heterocyclic compounds could reduce the concentration of the cytostatic factor by 10 or more times, having maintained the maximum cytotoxic effect. It was assumed that the target amplification of cytotoxic action of chemotherapeutic

  11. Static and dynamic 18F-FET PET for the characterization of gliomas defined by IDH and 1p/19q status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, Antoine; Stoffels, Gabriele; Lohmann, Philipp; Neumaier, Bernd; Bauer, Elena K.; Blau, Tobias; Fink, Gereon R.; Shah, Nadim J.; Langen, Karl-Josef; Galldiks, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    The molecular features isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion have gained major importance for both glioma typing and prognosis and have, therefore, been integrated in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2016. The aim of this study was to characterize static and dynamic O-(2- 18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) PET parameters in gliomas with or without IDH mutation or 1p/19q co-deletion. Ninety patients with newly diagnosed and untreated gliomas with a static and dynamic 18 F-FET PET scan prior to evaluation of tumor tissue according to the 2016 WHO classification were identified retrospectively. Mean and maximum tumor-to-brain ratios (TBR mean/max ), as well as dynamic parameters (time-to-peak and slope) of 18 F-FET uptake were calculated. Sixteen (18%) oligodendrogliomas (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted), 27 (30%) astrocytomas (IDH mutated only), and 47 (52%) glioblastomas (IDH wild type only) were identified. TBR mean , TBR max , TTP and slope discriminated between IDH mutated astrocytomas and IDH wild type glioblastomas (P < 0.01). TBR mean showed the best diagnostic performance (cut-off 1.95; sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 67%; accuracy, 81%). None of the parameters discriminated between oligodendrogliomas (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted) and glioblastomas or astrocytomas. Furthermore, TBR mean , TBR max , TTP, and slope discriminated between gliomas with and without IDH mutation (p < 0.01). The best diagnostic performance was obtained for the combination of TTP with TBR max or slope (accuracy, 73%). Data suggest that static and dynamic 18 F-FET PET parameters may allow determining non-invasively the IDH mutation status. However, IDH mutated and 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendrogliomas cannot be differentiated from glioblastomas and astrocytomas by 18 F-FET PET. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of 18F-FDG PET and 201 thallium chloride SPECT in the evaluation of cerebral glioma prior to surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, A.M.T.; Cher, L.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Fabinyi, G.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Chan, J.G.; Scott, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET and 201 Tl SPECT in detecting and grading primary cerebral glioma through comparison to surgical pathology. A total of 33 patients with primary cerebral glioma had 35 18 F-FDG PET/ 201 Tl SPECT scans prior to surgery. Pre-operative 18 F -FDG PET and 201 Tl SPECT studies were reviewed and compared with histologic tumour grade. Radiological comparisons were also performed when pre-operative studies were available. 17/18 patients with glioblastoma multiforme demonstrated hypermetabolic lesions on 18 F-FDG PET scan and increased thallium uptake on SPECT scan. Increased 18 F -FDG and thallium uptake were also demonstrated in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, gemistocytic astrocytoma, and one biopsy which was difficult to grade because of small biopsy sample and co-existing radiation necrosis. In general, low grade gliomas had reduced 18 F -FDG uptake and normal thallium uptake (6/7, where two patients had tumour with hypermetabolic and hypometabolic regions). MRI correctly identified 4/7 patients with low to intermediate grade glioma. Pilocytic astrocytoma, protoplastic astrocytoma and oligoastrocytoma all demonstrated hypometabolic PET activity and normal thallium uptake. In conclusion, 18 F-FDG PET and 201 Tl SPECT are very sensitive in pre-operative prediction of high grade glioma. In low grade tumour, 201 Tl SPECT appeared to be less useful in the absence of breakdown of the blood brain barrier. MR imaging accurately identified the presence of tumour but was less accurate in determining the grade of tumour. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. GE-42INTEGRATED RADIOGRAPHIC AND PHYLOGENETIC CASE STUDY OF A PRIMARY AND CONTRALATERAL RECURRENT GLIOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Raman; Barajas, Ramon; Mazor, Tali; Phillips, Joanna; Ma, Jianhui; Hong, Chibo; Johnson, Brett; Dayal, Manisha; Cha, Soonmee; Nakamura, Jean; Berger, Mitchel; Chang, Susan; Furnari, Frank; Taylor, Barry; Costello, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Extensive neuropil invasion is a hallmark of glioma growth and a subset of tumors demonstrate recurrence in the contralateral hemisphere without a path of tumor spread detected by MR imaging. We used an integrated genomic and radiographic approach to study a patient with a right nonenhancing insular mass histologically diagnosed as IDH1/2 wild-type anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and a punctate nonenhancing T2 hyperintense focus within the left middle frontal gyrus subcortical white matter. Follo...

  14. Two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Darol; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Bermudez, Edilberto

    2013-07-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to reduce tailpipe emissions and its use has been discontinued. There remains a concern that drinking water sources have been contaminated with MTBE. A two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of MTBE was conducted in Wistar rats (males, 0, 0.5, 3, 7.5 mg ml(-1); and females, 0, 0.5, 3, and 15 mg ml(-1)). Body weights were unaffected and water consumption was reduced in MTBE-exposed males and females. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased at the end of two years of exposure to 7.5 mg ml(-1) MTBE. Chronic progressive nephropathy was observed in males and females, was more severe in males, and was exacerbated in the high MTBE exposure groups. Brain was the only tissue with a statistically significant finding of neoplasms. One astrocytoma (1/50) was found in a female rat (15 mg ml(-1)). The incidence of brain astrocytomas in male rats was 1/50, 1/50, 1/50 and 4/50 for the 0, 0.5, 3 and 7.5 mg ml(-1) exposure groups, respectively. This was a marginally significant statistical trend, but not statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were made or when multiple comparisons were taken into account. The incidence of astrocytoma fell within historical control ranges for Wistar rats, and the brain has not been identified as a target organ following chronic administration of MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tertiary butyl alcohol (in drinking water) to mice and rats. We conclude that the astrocytomas observed in this study are not associated with exposure to MTBE. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Brain tumors in children and teenagers up to 18 in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabula, S.; Trzcinska, I.; Lasek, W.; Goszczynski, W.; Nawrot, M.; Boron, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the CT investigation in children and teenagers up to 18, made in 1990-1994 were exposed to retrospective analysis: 2279 children were examined. The computer research proved the pathological changes in case 1205 people - 52%. In this group 58 children turned out to suffer from brain tumors. The most frequent tumor spatted was: astrocytoma (8), ependymoma (5), oligodendroglioma (3). The brain tumors happen to appear more often in case of boys (34) than in case of girls (22). (author)

  16. CDCA7L and Mechanisms of Increased Male Bias in Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    astrocytoma and glioblastoma and neurotransmitter levels in NF1 mutant brains , comparing males and females . The results of this work can be used to develop...additional hypotheses on whether a "yin-yang" relationship exists in males and females between risk for brain cancer and risk for depression, or...hypothesized that CDCA7L may have different molecular propensities in males and females and are examining the role of Chr Y-specific epigenetic modifiers in

  17. Adult patient with medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Luis Fernando; Fabian, Neira

    2005-01-01

    The medulloblastoma is the most frequent tumor in the pediatric population but is infrequent in adults. If we find a hyper dense lesion that compromises the cerebellum in an adult, first we have to think in metastasis, hemangioblastoma, astrocytoma and less frequently in the medulloblastoma. The desmoplasic subtype is the most prevalent variety in adult populations. Simple computed tomography regularly shows a medulloblastoma as a hyperattenuated lesion located in the cerebellar hemispheres

  18. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Armas, Rafael; Durand, Karine; Guillaudeau, Angélique; Weinbreck, Nicolas; Robert, Sandrine; Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Acosta, Gisela; Pebet, Matias; Chaunavel, Alain; Marin, Benoît; Labrousse, François; Denizot, Yves

    2010-07-01

    Gliomas are tumors of the central nervous system derived from glial cells. They show cellular heterogeneity and lack specific diagnostic markers. Although a possible role for the eicosanoid cascade has been suggested in glioma tumorigenesis, the relationship between enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism, with histological tumor type has not yet been determined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure and compare transcript levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways between oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Arachidonic acid metabolism-related enzymes and receptor transcripts (i) were underexpressed in classical oligodendrogliomas compared to astrocytomas and/or glioblastomas, (ii) differed between astrocytomas and glioblastomas and (iii) had an intermediate expression in mixed oligoastrocytomas. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated both in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways differed significantly in gliomas according to the histological type. Copyright 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of vascularity and permeability in brain tumor using SPECT and [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA-human serum albumin in relation to [sup 201]Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Fukuoka, Seiji; Takahashi, Shuhei; Takahashi, Masaaki; Satoh, Katsuyasu; Suematsu, Katsumi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi (Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m-DTPA-human serum albumin ([sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D) and thallium-201 chloride ([sup 201]Tl) was simultaneously performed on 25 patients with brain tumors; 10 with brain metastasis, 8 with astrocytoma (Gr. 3) and 7 with meningioma. The early image was obtained 10 minutes after [sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D (740 MBq) injection, and the delayed image was taken 5 hours after the injection. HSA-D index, based on the ratio of [sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D uptake in the tumor versus the cortical area, was calculated on each image, and compared with Tl index (tumor/contralateral cerebrum ratio). HSA-D delayed index was significantly greater than HSA-D early index in all tumor types (p<0.05 by the Wilcoxon ranked sign test). Linear correlation between HSA-D early index and HSA-D delayed index was significant in astrocytoma (GR. 3) (p<0.01) and meningioma (p<0.001), and a linear correlation between HSA-D delayed index and Tl index was significant in astrocytoma (Gr. 3) (p<0.05). It is concluded that HSA-D early index and delayed index could reflect tumor vascularity and permeability, respectively, and provide supplementary information for Tl index. (author).

  20. Pet imaging of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junck, L.; Jewett, D.M.; Olsen, J.M.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Koeppe, R.A.; Young, A.B.; Greenberg, H.S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Studies in vitro have shown that the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding site (PBBS) is present in moderate to high density on malignant gliomas as well as in areas of reactive gliosis, but in low density in normal brain. PK 11195 is an isoquinoline derivative that binds selectively to the PBBS but not to the central benzodiazepine receptor. We have used [ 11 C]PK 11195 with positron emission tomography (PET) to study brain tumors and cerebral infarcts. Preliminary results showed that, in 13 of 18 patients with astrocytomas, [ 11 C]PK 11195 radioactivity was increased in tumor compared to remote brain and that the concentration ratios of tumor-to-remote brain were higher for high grade astrocytomas than for low grade astrocytomas. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggests that the increased activity in tumor probably does not result from alterations in blood flow or vascular permeability. Patients with lymphoma, meningioma, medulloblastoma, brain metastasis, and neurosarcoidosis have also shown increased radioactivity in tumor. Among eight patients with acute and subacute cerebral infarcts, activity in the infarct was increased in seven and was often greatest at the periphery. We conclude that [ 11 C]PK 11195 is a promising radiopharmaceutical for further investigation of brain tumors as well as diseases characterized by reactive gliosis

  1. Histogram Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Pediatric Cerebellar Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Narayan, Anand K; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values have been shown to assist in differentiating cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Previous studies have applied only ADC measurements and calculated the mean/median values. Here we investigated the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) histogram characteristics of the entire tumor for differentiation of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Presurgical DTI data were analyzed with a region of interest (ROI) approach to include the entire tumor. For each tumor, histogram-derived metrics including the 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and skewness were calculated for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivity. The histogram metrics were used as primary predictors of interest in a logistic regression model. Statistical significance levels were set at p histogram skewness showed statistically significant differences for MD between low- and high-grade tumors (P = .008). The 25th percentile for MD yields the best results for the presurgical differentiation between pediatric cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The analysis of other DTI metrics does not provide additional diagnostic value. Our study confirms the diagnostic value of the quantitative histogram analysis of DTI data in pediatric neuro-oncology. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Nestin expression in neuroepithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Davide; Manazza, Andrea; Tamagno, Ilaria

    2006-05-29

    Nestin is a marker of early stages of neurocytogenesis. It has been studied in 50 neuroepithelial tumors, mostly gliomas of different malignancy grades, by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and confocal microscopy and compared with GFAP and Vimentin. As an early marker of differentiation, Nestin is almost not expressed in diffuse astrocytomas, variably expressed in anaplastic astrocytomas and strongly and irregularly expressed in glioblastomas. Negative in oligodendrogliomas, it stains ependymomas and shows a gradient of expression in pilocytic astrocytomas. In glioblastomas, Nestin distribution does not completely correspond to that of GFAP and Vimentin with which its expression varies in tumor cells in a complementary way, as confirmed by confocal microscopy. Tumor cells can thus either derive from or differentiate toward the neurocytogenetic stages. Hypothetically, they could be put in relation with radial glia where during embriogenesis the three antigens are successively expressed. Completely negative cells of invasive or recurrent glioblastomas may represent malignant selected clones after accumulation of mutations or early stem cells not expressing antigens.

  3. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  4. Radiotherapy using bleomycin, ACNU, and vincristine for malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Murakami, Naoto; Suzuki, Yasuo; Takeda, Norio; Arai, Hiroyuki; Konno, Kimikazu; Tanimura, Ken-ichi

    1984-08-01

    Radiotherapy combined with bleomycin, ACNU, and vincristine was performed on 106 patients with malignant brain tumors. The treatment protocol was based on the concept of combination chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and synchronized chemoradiotherapy. For the purpose of synchronized chemoradiotherapy, bleomycin, ACNU, and vincristine were used as G/sub 2/M cell cycle phase accumulator, and radiation and bleomycin were used as agents to which G/sub 2/M or G/sub 2/ phase cells are sensitive. The short-term results of the chemoradiotherapy were evaluated by measuring tumor regression by computerized tomography (CT) in 80 patients with evaluable CT lesions. The response rate was 67% (6/9) for astrocytoma, 29% (7/24) for anaplastic glioma, 67% (4/6) for pontine glioma, 100%(5/5) for malignant lymphoma, 100% (8/8) for germ cell tumors and 65% (15/23) for metastatic tumors. A control study was performed using radiation alone on another 18 patients with metastatic tumors, and the response rate was 50% (9/18). Among the 106 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy, the major side effects observed were as follows: leukopenia in 33 patients (31%), thrombocytopenia in 14 (13%), paralytic ileus in 2 (2%), peripheral neuropathy in 2 (2%), and lung fibrosis in 1 (1%). Contrary to expectation, low-grade astrocytomas responded much better to the chemoradiotherapy than high-grade astrocytomas.

  5. Optimization of high grade glioma cell culture from surgical specimens for use in clinically relevant animal models and 3D immunochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbach, Laura A; Irtenkauf, Susan M; Lemke, Nancy W; Nelson, Kevin K; Berezovsky, Artem D; Carlton, Enoch T; Transou, Andrea D; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2014-01-07

    Glioblastomas, the most common and aggressive form of astrocytoma, are refractory to therapy, and molecularly heterogeneous. The ability to establish cell cultures that preserve the genomic profile of the parental tumors, for use in patient specific in vitro and in vivo models, has the potential to revolutionize the preclinical development of new treatments for glioblastoma tailored to the molecular characteristics of each tumor. Starting with fresh high grade astrocytoma tumors dissociated into single cells, we use the neurosphere assay as an enrichment method for cells presenting cancer stem cell phenotype, including expression of neural stem cell markers, long term self-renewal in vitro, and the ability to form orthotopic xenograft tumors. This method has been previously proposed, and is now in use by several investigators. Based on our experience of dissociating and culturing 125 glioblastoma specimens, we arrived at the detailed protocol we present here, suitable for routine neurosphere culturing of high grade astrocytomas and large scale expansion of tumorigenic cells for preclinical studies. We report on the efficiency of successful long term cultures using this protocol and suggest affordable alternatives for culturing dissociated glioblastoma cells that fail to grow as neurospheres. We also describe in detail a protocol for preserving the neurospheres 3D architecture for immunohistochemistry. Cell cultures enriched in CSCs, capable of generating orthotopic xenograft models that preserve the molecular signatures and heterogeneity of GBMs, are becoming increasingly popular for the study of the biology of GBMs and for the improved design of preclinical testing of potential therapies.

  6. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  7. Intra-arterial and intra-venous chemotherapy combined with radiation in the treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watne, K.

    1992-01-01

    The present investigations were undertaken to study the effect of combining different modalities of chemotherapy with radiation in post-operative treatment of brain tumours. The conclusions and clinical implication of the investigations are as follows: The combination of combined intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by radiation leads to an increased median survival with more long term survivors in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas and in patients older than 40 years with astrocytomas. In patients with glioblastoma multiforme, this modality of treatment do not improve median survival, but an increased number of long-term survivors may be seen. Patients younger than 40 years with astrocytomas do not benefit from this modality of treatment. A parallelism exists between sensitivity to chemotherapy and response to radiotherapy. Patients who will benefit from the treatment may be selected early, normally two months after treatment start. Combining intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation does not lead to an increased incidence of adverse CNS reactions. Specific transient abnormalities in the brain may occur during the first year after treatment and may be misinterpreted as tumour recurrence. EEG may be valuable in predicting adverse CNS reactions following treatment. Nuclear brain scan may be of valuable in selecting the patients who are in danger of developing adverse CNS reactions. Intra-arterial chemotherapy does have an effect in patients with brain tumours who have recurrent tumour after radiation. The most important prognostic factors are age, corticosteroid dependency at treatment start, performance status, histology and frontal lobe location. 103 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Static and dynamic 18F-FET PET for the characterization of gliomas defined by IDH and 1p/19q status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Stoffels, Gabriele; Bauer, Elena K; Lohmann, Philipp; Blau, Tobias; Fink, Gereon R; Neumaier, Bernd; Shah, Nadim J; Langen, Karl-Josef; Galldiks, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    The molecular features isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion have gained major importance for both glioma typing and prognosis and have, therefore, been integrated in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2016. The aim of this study was to characterize static and dynamic O-(2- 18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) PET parameters in gliomas with or without IDH mutation or 1p/19q co-deletion. Ninety patients with newly diagnosed and untreated gliomas with a static and dynamic 18 F-FET PET scan prior to evaluation of tumor tissue according to the 2016 WHO classification were identified retrospectively. Mean and maximum tumor-to-brain ratios (TBR mean/max ), as well as dynamic parameters (time-to-peak and slope) of 18 F-FET uptake were calculated. Sixteen (18%) oligodendrogliomas (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted), 27 (30%) astrocytomas (IDH mutated only), and 47 (52%) glioblastomas (IDH wild type only) were identified. TBR mean , TBR max , TTP and slope discriminated between IDH mutated astrocytomas and IDH wild type glioblastomas (P dynamic 18 F-FET PET parameters may allow determining non-invasively the IDH mutation status. However, IDH mutated and 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendrogliomas cannot be differentiated from glioblastomas and astrocytomas by 18 F-FET PET.

  9. Differential expression of ID4 and its association with TP53 mutation, SOX2, SOX4 and OCT-4 expression levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Fernanda de Almeida Galatro

    Full Text Available Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4 is a member of the helix-loop-helix ID family of transcription factors, mostly present in the central nervous system during embryonic development, that has been associated with TP53 mutation and activation of SOX2. Along with other transcription factors, ID4 has been implicated in the tumorigenic process of astrocytomas, contributing to cell dedifferentiation, proliferation and chemoresistance. In this study, we aimed to characterize the ID4 expression pattern in human diffusely infiltrative astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO grades II to IV of malignancy (AGII-AGIV; to correlate its expression level to that of SOX2, SOX4, OCT-4 and NANOG, along with TP53 mutational status; and to correlate the results with the clinical end-point of overall survival among glioblastoma patients. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR was performed in 130 samples of astrocytomas for relative expression, showing up-regulation of all transcription factors in tumor cases. Positive correlation was found when comparing ID4 relative expression of infiltrative astrocytomas with SOX2 (r = 0.50; p<0.005, SOX4 (r = 0.43; p<0.005 and OCT-4 (r = 0.39; p<0.05. The results from TP53 coding exon analysis allowed comparisons between wild-type and mutated status only in AGII cases, demonstrating significantly higher levels of ID4, SOX2 and SOX4 in mutated cases (p<0.05. This pattern was maintained in secondary GBM and further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, suggesting a role for ID4, SOX2 and SOX4 in early astrocytoma tumorigenesis. Combined hyperexpression of ID4, SOX4 and OCT-4 conferred a much lower (6 months median survival than did hypoexpression (18 months. Because both ID4 alone and a complex of SOX4 and OCT-4 activate SOX2 transcription, it is possible that multiple activation of SOX2 impair the prognosis of GBM patients. These observational results of associated expression of ID4 with SOX4 and OCT-4 may be used as a

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography in the functional detection and differential diagnosis of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, R.A. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium)); Martin, J.J. (Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium) Lab. of Neuropathology, Born-Bunge Foundation, Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)); Dobbeleir, A. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium)); Crols, R. (Dept. of Neurology, Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium)); Neetens, I. (Dept. of Pathology, Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium)); Deyn, P.P. de (Lab. of Neuropathology, Born-Bunge Foundation, Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium) Lab. of Neurochemistry and Behaviour, Born-Bunge Foundation, Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium))

    1994-07-01

    Histologically tumours consisted of astrocytoma stage I or II, astrocytoma stage III, glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendroglioma, brain metastasis, lymphoma, meningioma, pituitary adenoma, pineal tumour, colloid cyst and craniopharyngioma. False-negative studies included pineal tumour, colloid cyst, craniopharyngioma, astrocytomas stage I or II and stage III, oligodendroglioma and metastasis in the brain stem. Additional metastases approximately < 1.5 cm were not detected in two patients and [sup 201]Tl SPET underestimated tumoral extent in one patient suffering from glioblastoma multiforme. A false-positive study was obtained in a patient with skull metastasis. All 15 patients who were finally shown to suffer from ischaemic infarction had a normal SPET study 9-28 days after the onset of symptomatology. Of five patients with haemorrhagic infarction, studied within 2 weeks, four were false-positive. Of six patients with intracranial haemorrhage, studied 9-39 days later, one showed focal [sup 201]Tl accumulation. Two further false-positive studies consisted of angioma and epidural haematoma. Finally, SPET studies were normal in six patients with definite diagnosis of (reactive) gliosis, Binswanger's encephalopathy, postinfectious encephalopathy and multiple sclerosis. In the patient population presented, sensitivity of [sup 201]Tl SPET for supratentorial brain tumours was 71.7% and specificity was 80.9%. Clinical information and control SPET studies in combination with early, 30-min and 3- to 4-h delayed imaging may be expected to improve on these figures. On the other hand it seems that, in addition to tumoral histology, the presence of tumours in the fossa posterior and small volumes contribute to the occurrence of false-negative [sup 201]Tl SPET studies. (orig.)

  11. Surgical management of thalamic gliomas: case selection, technical considerations, and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Thakar, Sumit; Dadlani, Ravi; Mohan, Dilip; Furtado, Sunil Valentine; Ghosal, Nandita; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify (1) the thalamic gliomas suitable for surgical resection and (2) the appropriate surgical approach based on their location and the displacement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). A retrospective study over a 5-year period (from 2006 to 2010) was performed in 41 patients with thalamic gliomas. The mean age of these patients was 20.4 years (range, 2-65 years). Twenty (49 %) tumors were thalamic, 19 (46 %) were thalamopeduncular, and 2 (5 %) were bilateral. The PLIC, based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance axial sections, was displaced anterolaterally in 23 (56 %) cases and laterally in 6 (14 %) cases. It was involved by lesion in eight (20 %) cases and could not be identified in four (10 %) cases. Resection, favored in patients with well-defined, contrast-enhancing lesions, was performed in 34 (83 %) cases, while a biopsy was resorted to in 7 (17 %) cases. A gross total resection or near total resection (>90 %) could be achieved in 26 (63 %) cases. The middle temporal gyrus approach, used when the PLIC was displaced anterolaterally, was the commonly used approach (63.5 %). Common pathologies were pilocytic astrocytoma (58 %) in children and grade III/IV astrocytomas (86 %) in adults. Preoperative motor deficits improved in 64 % of the patients with pilocytic lesions as compared to 0 % in patients with grade III/IV lesions (P value, 0.001). Postoperatively, two patients (5 %) had marginal worsening of motor power, two patients developed visual field defects, and one patient developed a third nerve paresis. Radical resection of thalamic gliomas is a useful treatment modality in a select subset of patients and is the treatment of choice for pilocytic astrocytomas. Tailoring the surgical approach, depending on the relative position of the PLIC, has an important bearing on outcome.

  12. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

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    Ana L. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  13. Regrowth patterns of supratentorial gliomas: estimation from computed tomographic scans

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    Tsuboi, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Maki, Y.

    1986-12-01

    To clarify the regrowth patterns of benign and malignant gliomas, we chose 27 intervals (between two operations or between an operation and autopsy) from 21 patients with pathologically verified recurrent supratentorial gliomas. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of these cases were analyzed to determine the doubling time (Td) calculated from the change in volume of enhanced and low density areas, the enhancement effect graded from 0 to 4 according to the Hounsfield number, and the presence of dissemination and contralateral extension. We studied 5 benign gliomas (including 1 case of radiation necrosis), 8 malignant astrocytomas, and 8 glioblastomas. The Td's of enhanced areas on CT scans of benign gliomas, malignant astrocytomas, and glioblastomas were 937 +/- 66.5 days, 65.1 +/- 29.4 days, and 48.1 +/- 20.9 days, respectively. The Td's of low density areas were 895 +/- 130.6 days, 70.8 +/- 22.2 days, and 50.5 +/- 14.7 days. There was a significant correlation between the Td's of the enhanced and low density areas (0.97). The enhancement effect increased at recurrence in 55% of the cases, with an average increase of 1.1 grades. The increase in enhancement effect at recurrence showed a tendency to become smaller as the tumor's degree of anaplasia increased. Radiotherapy was effective in significantly retarding the growth rate of malignant gliomas, whose Td's were doubled. Although the Td's of both enhanced and low density areas of benign gliomas were significantly longer than those of malignant gliomas, there was no significant difference in the Td's of enhanced areas between malignant astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

  14. Regrowth patterns of supratentorial gliomas: estimation from computed tomographic scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Maki, Y.

    1986-01-01

    To clarify the regrowth patterns of benign and malignant gliomas, we chose 27 intervals (between two operations or between an operation and autopsy) from 21 patients with pathologically verified recurrent supratentorial gliomas. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of these cases were analyzed to determine the doubling time (Td) calculated from the change in volume of enhanced and low density areas, the enhancement effect graded from 0 to 4 according to the Hounsfield number, and the presence of dissemination and contralateral extension. We studied 5 benign gliomas (including 1 case of radiation necrosis), 8 malignant astrocytomas, and 8 glioblastomas. The Td's of enhanced areas on CT scans of benign gliomas, malignant astrocytomas, and glioblastomas were 937 +/- 66.5 days, 65.1 +/- 29.4 days, and 48.1 +/- 20.9 days, respectively. The Td's of low density areas were 895 +/- 130.6 days, 70.8 +/- 22.2 days, and 50.5 +/- 14.7 days. There was a significant correlation between the Td's of the enhanced and low density areas (0.97). The enhancement effect increased at recurrence in 55% of the cases, with an average increase of 1.1 grades. The increase in enhancement effect at recurrence showed a tendency to become smaller as the tumor's degree of anaplasia increased. Radiotherapy was effective in significantly retarding the growth rate of malignant gliomas, whose Td's were doubled. Although the Td's of both enhanced and low density areas of benign gliomas were significantly longer than those of malignant gliomas, there was no significant difference in the Td's of enhanced areas between malignant astrocytomas and glioblastomas

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal tumors. A study using a 0.3 T vertical magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming Hua.

    1992-12-01

    A total of 168 patients with spinal tumors were evaluated with MRI. The study shows that MRI is a sensitive method for demonstration of spinal tumors. MRI also provides a possibility to separate different histological types of tumors based on their morphology and signal characteristics. Intramedullary tumors (25 cases): Ependymomas (6 cases) and astrocytomas (7 cases) were most common. Ependymomas have a more irregular signal pattern than astrocytomas. Astrocytomas are more common in the upper spine and are more often completely cystic. Contrast enhancement is important for separation of cyst, edema and solid tumor. Intradural extramedullary tumors (31 cases): Neuromas (14 cases) and meningeomas (11 cases) were most common. Neuromas always had markedly increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Meningeomas were only hyperintense occasionally. Neuromas were more inhomogeneous than meningeomas on T1-weighted images. Contrast enhancement is valuable for delineation of small tumors. Extradural tumors (91 cases): 76 patients had metastases, 7 primary spinal tumors and 8 multiple myelomas. T1-weighted images are almost always superior to other sequences because tumor invasion in the fatty bone marrow is seen as a low signal area in contrast to the high signal from the fat. Spinal lymphomas (14 cases): May be divided into vertebral, paraspinal and epidural tumors. Most cases have all locations. Spinal neurofibromatosis (7 cases): Most patients had multiple, often bilateral neurofibromas. One patient had a meningeomas on one spinal dysplasia with meningoceles. MRI is superior to other modalities for evaluation of the full extent of the disease. The coronal view is often valuable because of the arrangement of the tumors. In addition to providing diagnosis, MRI is of great value in treatment follow-up

  16. Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis

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    Sarkar Chitra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations. In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin. These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells. Methods Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM. The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s scored. A quantitative estimate of the overall genomic changes in these tumors was obtained by 2 different modes of calculation. Results The overall change in the tumors was estimated to be 4.24% in DA and 2.29% in GBM by one method and 11.96% and 6.03% in DA and GBM respectively by the other. The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods. Conclusion This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade. This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade. The results support the mutator hypothesis proposed by Loeb.

  17. Aberrant Methylation and Reduced Expression of LHX9 in Malignant Gliomas of Childhood

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    Valentina Vladimirova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available High-grade gliomas (HGGs of childhood represent approximately 7% of pediatric brain tumors. They are highly invasive tumors and respond poorly to conventional treatments in contrast to pilocytic astrocytomas, which usually are well demarcated and frequently can be cured by surgery. The molecular events for this clinical relevant finding are only partially understood. In the current study, to identify aberrantly methylated genes that may be involved in the tumorigenesis of pediatric HGGs, we performed a microarray-based differential methylation hybridization approach and found frequent hypermethylation of the LHX9 (human Lim-homebox 9 gene encoding a transcription factor involved in brain development. Bisulfite genomic sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis showed that HGGs were frequently methylated at two CpG-rich LHX9 regions in comparison to benign, nondiffuse pilocytic astrocytomas and normal brain tissues. The LHX9 hypermethylation was associated with reduced messenger RNA expression in pediatric HGG samples and corresponding cell lines. This epigenetic modification was reversible by pharmacological inhibition (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, and reexpression of LHX9 transcript was induced in pediatric glioma cell lines. Exogenous expression of LHX9 in glioma cell lines did not directly affect cell proliferation and apoptosis but specifically inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion in vitro, suggesting a possible implication of LHX9 in the migratory phenotype of HGGs. Our results demonstrate that the LHX9 gene is frequently silenced in pediatric malignant astrocytomas by hypermethylation and that this epigenetic alteration is involved in glioma cell migration and invasiveness.

  18. Metrics and textural features of MRI diffusion to improve classification of pediatric posterior fossa tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gutierrez, D; Awwad, A; Meijer, L; Manita, M; Jaspan, T; Dineen, R A; Grundy, R G; Auer, D P

    2014-05-01

    Qualitative radiologic MR imaging review affords limited differentiation among types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors and cannot detect histologic or molecular subtypes, which could help to stratify treatment. This study aimed to improve current posterior fossa discrimination of histologic tumor type by using support vector machine classifiers on quantitative MR imaging features. This retrospective study included preoperative MRI in 40 children with posterior fossa tumors (17 medulloblastomas, 16 pilocytic astrocytomas, and 7 ependymomas). Shape, histogram, and textural features were computed from contrast-enhanced T2WI and T1WI and diffusivity (ADC) maps. Combinations of features were used to train tumor-type-specific classifiers for medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, and ependymoma types in separation and as a joint posterior fossa classifier. A tumor-subtype classifier was also produced for classic medulloblastoma. The performance of different classifiers was assessed and compared by using randomly selected subsets of training and test data. ADC histogram features (25th and 75th percentiles and skewness) yielded the best classification of tumor type (on average >95.8% of medulloblastomas, >96.9% of pilocytic astrocytomas, and >94.3% of ependymomas by using 8 training samples). The resulting joint posterior fossa classifier correctly assigned >91.4% of the posterior fossa tumors. For subtype classification, 89.4% of classic medulloblastomas were correctly classified on the basis of ADC texture features extracted from the Gray-Level Co-Occurence Matrix. Support vector machine-based classifiers using ADC histogram features yielded very good discrimination among pediatric posterior fossa tumor types, and ADC textural features show promise for further subtype discrimination. These findings suggest an added diagnostic value of quantitative feature analysis of diffusion MR imaging in pediatric neuro-oncology. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  20. Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Anjan; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad; Chosdol, Kunzang; Sarkar, Chitra; Mahapatra, Ashok K; Sinha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations). In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin. These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA) and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM). The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s) scored. A quantitative estimate of the overall genomic changes in these tumors was obtained by 2 different modes of calculation. The overall change in the tumors was estimated to be 4.24% in DA and 2.29% in GBM by one method and 11.96% and 6.03% in DA and GBM respectively by the other. The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods. This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade. This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade. The results support the mutator hypothesis proposed by Loeb

  1. Analysis of p53- immunoreactivity in astrocytic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarenko T.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available P53 is an antioncogene with the frequently occured mutations in human tumor cells, leading to corresponding protein overexpression which can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Researches dedicated to the investigation of possibilities of using this technique gave controversial results. The authors investigated features of p53 protein expression in astrocytic brain tumors with different degrees of malignancy. Analyzed the relationship of the expression level of p53 by tumor cells with clinical parameters and Ki-67 proliferation index (PI as well. Tissues were collected from 52 cases with diagnosed astrocytic brain tumors. The sections were immunohistochemically stained with p53 and Ki-67. For each marker, 1000 tumor cells were counted and the ratio of positive tumor cells was calculated using software package ImageJ 1,47v. In normal brain tissue p53- expression was not identified. p53-immunoreactive tumor cells were detected in 25% (1/4 pilocytic astrocytomas, 33.3% (2/6 of diffuse astrocytomas, 53.8% (7/13 anaplastic astrocytomas, 58.6% (17/29 glioblastomas. A high proportion of p53-immunoreactive cells (> 30% was observed only in glioblastomas. The level of p53-imunoreactivity was not related to the age, gender and Grade WHO (p> 0,05. Spearman correlation coefficient between the relative quantity of ki-67- and p53-immunoreactive nuclei showed weak direct correlation (0.023, but the one was not statistically significant (p> 0,05. The level of p53-imunoreactivity is not dependent from age and sex of patients, Grade (WHO and proliferative activity (p>0,05 but the high level of p53-immunoreactive cells (>30% is found in glioblastoma specimens only, that may be due to the accumulation of mutations in DNA of tumor cells. There is insignificant weak relationship between relative quantities of ki-67- and p53-immunoreactive tumor cells (p>0,05.

  2. CCDC26, CDKN2BAS, RTEL1 and TERT Polymorphisms in pediatric brain tumor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel Fahmideh, Maral; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schüz, Joachim; Röösli, Martin; Tynes, Tore; Grotzer, Michael A; Johansen, Christoffer; Kuehni, Claudia E; Lannering, Birgitta; Prochazka, Michaela; Schmidt, Lisbeth S; Feychting, Maria

    2015-08-01

    The role of genetic polymorphisms in pediatric brain tumor (PBT) etiology is poorly understood. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on adult glioma would also be associated with PBT risk. The study is based on the Cefalo study, a population-based multicenter case-control study. Saliva DNA from 245 cases and 489 controls, aged 7-19 years at diagnosis/reference date, was extracted and genotyped for 29 SNPs reported by GWAS to be significantly associated with risk of adult glioma. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Stratified analyses were performed for two histological subtypes: astrocytoma alone and the other tumor types combined. The results indicated that four SNPs, CDKN2BAS rs4977756 (p = 0.036), rs1412829 (p = 0.037), rs2157719 (p = 0.018) and rs1063192 (p = 0.021), were associated with an increased susceptibility to PBTs, whereas the TERT rs2736100 was associated with a decreased risk (p = 0.018). Moreover, the stratified analyses showed a decreased risk of astrocytoma associated with RTEL1 rs6089953, rs6010620 and rs2297440 (p trend = 0.022, p trend = 0.042, p trend = 0.029, respectively) as well as an increased risk of this subtype associated with RTEL1 rs4809324 (p trend = 0.033). In addition, SNPs rs10464870 and rs891835 in CCDC26 were associated with an increased risk of non-astrocytoma tumor subtypes (p trend = 0.009, p trend = 0.007, respectively). Our findings indicate that SNPs in CDKN2BAS, TERT, RTEL1 and CCDC26 may be associated with the risk of PBTs. Therefore, we suggest that pediatric and adult brain tumors might share common genetic risk factors and similar etiological pathways. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. SU-D-207A-02: Possible Characterization of the Brain Tumor Vascular Environment by a Novel Strategy of Quantitative Analysis in Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: A Combination of Both Patlak and Logan Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S; Chinnaiyan, P; Wloch, J; Pirkola, M; Yan, D [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The majority of quantitative analyses involving dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI have been performed to obtain kinetic parameters such as Ktrans and ve. Such analyses are generally performed assuming a “reversible” tissue compartment, where the tracer is assumed to be rapidly equilibrated between the plasma and tissue compartments. However, some tumor vascular environments may be more suited for a “non-reversible” tissue compartment, where, as with FDG PET imaging, the tracer is continuously deposited into the tissue compartment (or the return back to the plasma compartment is very slow in the imaging time scale). Therefore, Patlak and Logan analyses, which represent tools for the “non-reversible” and “reversible” modeling, respectively, were performed to better characterize the brain tumor vascular environment. Methods: A voxel-by-voxel analysis was performed to generate both Patlak and Logan plots in two brain tumor patients, one with grade III astrocytoma and the other with grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma. The slopes of plots and the r-square were then obtained by linear fitting and compared for each voxel. Results: The 2-dimensional scatter plots of Logan (Y-axis) vs. Patlak slopes (X-axis) clearly showed increased Logan slopes for glioblastoma (Figure 3A). The scatter plots of goodness-of-fit (Figure 3B) also suggested glioblastoma, relative to grade III astrocytoma, might consist of more voxels that are kinetically Logan-like (i.e. rapidly equilibrated extravascular space and active vascular environment). Therefore, the enhanced Logan-like behavior (and the Logan slope) in glioblastoma may imply an increased fraction of active vascular environment, while the enhanced Patlak-like behavior implies the vascular environment permitting a relatively slower washout of the tracer. Conclusion: Although further verification is required, the combination of Patlak and Logan analyses in DCE MRI may be useful in characterizing the tumor

  4. Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Fredrik

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Methods Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Results Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI = 2.0–4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04–2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3–2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. Conclusion We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.

  5. [Cerebral MRT in neurofibromatosis: gliosis versus neoplasia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, V F; Pressler, M; Fünsterer, C; Schneider, E

    1989-08-01

    15 patients aged 1-39 years with documented neurofibromatosis had MR examinations of the cerebrum within the scope of a basic diagnosis and therapy programme. Clinical examination did not lead to pathologic findings for 7 of the patients; 3 patients suffered from general developmental disabilities. A neurologico-psychiatric examination showed pathological findings in 5 patients. Signal-intense foci in proton density and T2-weighted MR images were found in the globus pallidus, thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum and midbrain. In 2 patients, these foci could be found as well in T1-weighted images. Differentiation between gliosis areas and low grade astrocytomas was not possible in MR.

  6. Tomographic criteria of gliomas in the brain stem in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado Junior, M.A.; Bracchi, M.; D'Incerti, L.; Passerini, A.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between Computed Tomography Imaging, histopathological and prognostic data is evaluated by reviewing 37 cases of brain stem neoplasm in infants. The results indicate a presence of a cystic lesion with solid mural nodule as the single prognostic criteria of a greater survival rate. Such finding frequently corresponds to Pilocytic Astrocytomas. No correlations between contrast enhancement and prognostic was found. The association between the prognostic value to the densitometric characteristics of the lesions was not possible. It was concluded that the evaluations of the extension of such lesion is fundamental. Therefore, Magnetic Resonance Imaging has more value than computed tomography. (M.A.C.)

  7. Diagnostic errors in the interpretation of cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, C.B.; Mundinger, F.

    1978-01-01

    Acute and subacute infarcts show a changing pattern and inconstant characteristics up to the fourth week of onset. There is a wide spectrum of other lesions presenting identical alterations in the CT scan. These include tumorous lesions, mostly gliomas (glioblastomas, astrocytomas), demarcating inflammatory lesions (abscesses, viral encephalitis), metastatic lesions, resolving intracerebral hematomas, subdural hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhages and a.v. malformations. False negative results are frequently found in cases of recent infarcts that present isodense lesions without mass effect. Only consecutive CT scans - native as well as with enhancement - and other diagnostic procedures can help to establish a definite diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  8. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Radiotherapy in supratentorial gliomas. A study of 821 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesters, M.; Molenaar, W.; Go, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the results of radiotherapy in a large group of cerebral gliomas with identification of prognostic factors and the outcome with respect to different decades of treatment. Patients and Methods: Two decades (1979-1999) of radiotherapy in supratentorial astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors (n = 821) at the University Hospital Groningen were retrospectively evaluated. Prognostic factors for survival were analyzed. Two decades of radiotherapy treatment were compared with respect to radiotherapy dose and treatment-field design. Results: Glioblastoma multiforme, including gliosarcoma, was the most frequent supratentorial glioma (n = 442) with a poor survival, i.e., median survival time (MST) 7 months, especially in patients > 50 years of age and with poor performance. Patients with good performance were selected for radiotherapy with an optimum dose of 60 Gy local-field irradiation. However, in patients with poor prognosis, no radiotherapy was applied or a shorter treatment scheme was given. Anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 131) were treated in the same way as glioblastoma multiforme. Over time, a decrease in radiation dose (from 60 to 45 Gy) and from whole brain irradiation to local-field treatment was observed, following the literature. In low-grade gliomas, prognostic factors for survival were age, performance, and extent of resection. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (n = 15) had an inferior survival compared to astrocytoma (MST 46 vs. 54 months), but a superior survival compared to anaplastic astrocytoma (MST 10 months). The presence of an oligodendroglial component in a glioma implied a superior survival compared to the astrocytic gliomas. The inherent biology of the glioma is reflected by the study of recurrent tumors with progression to higher grades of malignancy in 32-40% and by the histology of recurrent oligodendroglial tumors. In comparing two decades of radiotherapy in gliomas, no differences in survival were observed despite the technological

  10. Radiotherapy in supratentorial gliomas. A study of 821 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heesters, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Molenaar, W. [Dept. of Pathology, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Go, G.K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands)

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the results of radiotherapy in a large group of cerebral gliomas with identification of prognostic factors and the outcome with respect to different decades of treatment. Patients and Methods: Two decades (1979-1999) of radiotherapy in supratentorial astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors (n = 821) at the University Hospital Groningen were retrospectively evaluated. Prognostic factors for survival were analyzed. Two decades of radiotherapy treatment were compared with respect to radiotherapy dose and treatment-field design. Results: Glioblastoma multiforme, including gliosarcoma, was the most frequent supratentorial glioma (n = 442) with a poor survival, i.e., median survival time (MST) 7 months, especially in patients > 50 years of age and with poor performance. Patients with good performance were selected for radiotherapy with an optimum dose of 60 Gy local-field irradiation. However, in patients with poor prognosis, no radiotherapy was applied or a shorter treatment scheme was given. Anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 131) were treated in the same way as glioblastoma multiforme. Over time, a decrease in radiation dose (from 60 to 45 Gy) and from whole brain irradiation to local-field treatment was observed, following the literature. In low-grade gliomas, prognostic factors for survival were age, performance, and extent of resection. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (n = 15) had an inferior survival compared to astrocytoma (MST 46 vs. 54 months), but a superior survival compared to anaplastic astrocytoma (MST 10 months). The presence of an oligodendroglial component in a glioma implied a superior survival compared to the astrocytic gliomas. The inherent biology of the glioma is reflected by the study of recurrent tumors with progression to higher grades of malignancy in 32-40% and by the histology of recurrent oligodendroglial tumors. In comparing two decades of radiotherapy in gliomas, no differences in survival were observed despite the technological

  11. Enhanced effect of ionizing radiation in transplantable cerebral gliomas by means of a short-term hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loginov, V.M.; Krimker, V.M.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were staged on rats with transplantable anaplastic cerebral right hemisphere astrocytomas. Hyperglycemia was induced by means of intraperitoneal fractional administration of 40% glucose solution. Single local X-ray tumor irradiation followed on the 4-5th, 7-8th and 10-12th days after strain transplantation at the doses of 30 and 40 Gy without hyperglycemia and in combination with it. The irradiation effect was assessed by the mean survival time of the animals. Hyperglycemia was shown to increase significantly radiation injury of highly resistant experimental malignant cerebral glial tumors

  12. Predicting the "usefulness" of 5-ALA-derived tumor fluorescence for fluorescence-guided resections in pediatric brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummer, Walter; Rodrigues, Floriano; Schucht, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    fluorescence was "useful", i.e., leading to changes in surgical strategy or identification of residual tumor. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used for defining cohorts with high or low likelihoods for useful fluorescence. RESULTS: Data on 78 patients ..., 25 %) and pilocytic astrocytomas (two of 13; 15 %). RPA of pre-operative factors showed tumors with supratentorial location, strong contrast enhancement and first operation to have a likelihood of useful fluorescence of 64.3 %, as opposed to infratentorial tumors with first surgery (23...

  13. Expression and prognostic value of Oct-4 in astrocytic brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Petersen, Jeanette; Jensen, Per; Sørensen, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    .045). There was no association between survival and Oct-4 positive cell fraction, neither when combining all tumor grades nor in analysis of individual grades. Oct-4 intensity was not associated with grade, but taking IDH1 status into account we found a tendency for high Oct-4 intensity to be associated with poor prognosis...... was associated with tumor malignancy, but seemed to be without independent prognostic influence in glioblastomas. Identification of a potential prognostic value in anaplastic astrocytomas requires additional studies using larger patient cohorts. © 2016 Krogh Petersen et al. This is an open access article...

  14. Cambridge glioma trial of misonidazole and radiation therapy with associated pharmacokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with grade 3 and 4 supratentorial astrocytomas, were randomized into a three-limb study. At 9 months after the last treatment there were no differences in survival between the treatment groups. No cases of peripheral neuropathy were seen. Investigations into the possible cause of this are presented. It is thought that microsomal enzyme induction by the anticonvulsants phenobarbitone and phenytoin resulted in increased 0-demethylation of the misonidazole. Clinical data to confirm this view are presented. Current MRC protocols of misonidazole studies on gliomas and carcinomas of the cervix and head and neck are summarized

  15. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Camila ML; Boetcher-Luiz, Fátima; Verinaud, Liana; Ikemori, Rafael Y; Zorzeto, Tatiana Q; Nogueira, Ana CMA; Barbosa, Suse DS; Savino, Wilson; Schenka, André A; Vassallo, José; Heinrich, Juliana K

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60 th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results showed that NG97(ht) had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht) revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells with stromal murine cells in the xenotransplant. In

  16. The theoretical basis and clinical methodology for stereotactic interstitial brain tumor irradiation using iododeoxyuridine as a radiation sensitizer and samarium-145 as a brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.H.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Kanellitsas, C.; Clendenon, N.R.; Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    High grade astrocytomas have proven resistant to all conventional therapy. A technique to produce radiation enhancement during interstitial brain tumor irradiation by using a radiation sensitizer (IdUrd) and by stimulation of Auger electron cascades through absorption of low energy photons in iodine (Photon activation) is described. Clinical studies using IdUrd, 192 Ir as a brachytherapy source, and external radiation have produced promising results. Substituting samarium-145 for 192 Ir in this protocol is expected to produce enhanced results. 15 refs

  17. Reverse Engineering of Modified Genes by Bayesian Network Analysis Defines Molecular Determinants Critical to the Development of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Brian W.; Yoo, Changwon; Roy, Deodutta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I–IV), and ‘key genes’ within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated). These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96–100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential ‘hubs of activity’. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several ‘key genes’ may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these ‘key genes’ as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors. PMID:23737970

  18. A case of early-onset radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoko; Den, Seika; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2001-01-01

    We encountered a 27-year-old male early caused by radiation retinopathy five months after radiotherapy (51 Gy) for astrocytoma. The retinopathy was the proliferative retinopathy, with several dot and blot hemorrhages, hard and soft exudate, increased capillary permeability, macula edema and avasucular areas. So it was treated with panretial photocoagulation like diabetic retinopathy. Now hemorrhage, exudate, edema and avascular areas were improved. Photocoagulation treatment is effective to stop the progression of radiation retinopathy. Radiation retinopathy is sometimes early caused, therefore long-term follow up is recommended on starting radiotherapy. (author)

  19. A case of radiation retinopathy treated with panretinal photocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohde, Hisao; Ayaki, Masahiko; Fujimura, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Noriko

    1993-01-01

    A 29-year-old male developed radiation retinopathy one year and three months after 60 Gy of radiotherapy was delivered by a linear accelerator for a grade III astrocytoma. Fundus examination at the initial visit showed several dot and blot hemorrhages and cotton-wool patches. One month later, mascular edema developed due to increased capillary permeability in the left eye, while proliferative changes and preretinal hemorrhages were noted in the right eye. Since panretinal photocoagulation was effective in treating both eyes, it may be the treatment of choice for radiation retinopathy with extensive avascular areas. (author)

  20. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Juliana K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. Methods This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results Results showed that NG97(ht had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells

  1. Spinal epidermoid cyst with sudden onset of paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Anusheel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidermoid cysts, whether congenital or iatrogenic, are relatively uncommon in the spinal cord. When they occur, the typical location is in the subdural, extramedullary space of the lumbo-sacral region. We describe an unusual presentation in a 3-year-old male child which mimicked astrocytoma clinicoradiologically. The child developed sudden onset of inability in walking and weakness of both lower limbs after a fall. There was a dramatic reversal of symptoms after surgery. Histopathology revealed an epidermoid cyst of the spine. On the first follow-up visit at 3 months, the child was asymptomatic.

  2. Static and dynamic {sup 18}F-FET PET for the characterization of gliomas defined by IDH and 1p/19q status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3, INM-4, INM-5), Juelich (Germany); Lorraine University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Nancyclotep Imaging Platform, CHRU Nancy, Nancy (France); Lorraine University, IADI, INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Stoffels, Gabriele; Lohmann, Philipp; Neumaier, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3, INM-4, INM-5), Juelich (Germany); Bauer, Elena K. [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Blau, Tobias [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Neuropathology, Cologne (Germany); Fink, Gereon R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3, INM-4, INM-5), Juelich (Germany); University Hospital Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Shah, Nadim J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3, INM-4, INM-5), Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Section JARA-Brain, Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Juelich (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3, INM-4, INM-5), Juelich (Germany); Section JARA-Brain, Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3, INM-4, INM-5), Juelich (Germany); University Hospital Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Universities of Cologne and Bonn, Center of Integrated Oncology (CIO), Cologne (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    The molecular features isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion have gained major importance for both glioma typing and prognosis and have, therefore, been integrated in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2016. The aim of this study was to characterize static and dynamic O-(2-{sup 18}F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) PET parameters in gliomas with or without IDH mutation or 1p/19q co-deletion. Ninety patients with newly diagnosed and untreated gliomas with a static and dynamic {sup 18}F-FET PET scan prior to evaluation of tumor tissue according to the 2016 WHO classification were identified retrospectively. Mean and maximum tumor-to-brain ratios (TBR{sub mean/max}), as well as dynamic parameters (time-to-peak and slope) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were calculated. Sixteen (18%) oligodendrogliomas (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted), 27 (30%) astrocytomas (IDH mutated only), and 47 (52%) glioblastomas (IDH wild type only) were identified. TBR{sub mean}, TBR{sub max}, TTP and slope discriminated between IDH mutated astrocytomas and IDH wild type glioblastomas (P < 0.01). TBR{sub mean} showed the best diagnostic performance (cut-off 1.95; sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 67%; accuracy, 81%). None of the parameters discriminated between oligodendrogliomas (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted) and glioblastomas or astrocytomas. Furthermore, TBR{sub mean}, TBR{sub max}, TTP, and slope discriminated between gliomas with and without IDH mutation (p < 0.01). The best diagnostic performance was obtained for the combination of TTP with TBR{sub max} or slope (accuracy, 73%). Data suggest that static and dynamic {sup 18}F-FET PET parameters may allow determining non-invasively the IDH mutation status. However, IDH mutated and 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendrogliomas cannot be differentiated from glioblastomas and astrocytomas by {sup 18}F-FET PET. (orig.)

  3. A case of early-onset radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoko; Den, Seika; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    We encountered a 27-year-old male early caused by radiation retinopathy five months after radiotherapy (51 Gy) for astrocytoma. The retinopathy was the proliferative retinopathy, with several dot and blot hemorrhages, hard and soft exudate, increased capillary permeability, macula edema and avasucular areas. So it was treated with panretial photocoagulation like diabetic retinopathy. Now hemorrhage, exudate, edema and avascular areas were improved. Photocoagulation treatment is effective to stop the progression of radiation retinopathy. Radiation retinopathy is sometimes early caused, therefore long-term follow up is recommended on starting radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, 60 Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient

  5. Studies on high grade cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of attempts in the United Kingdom to improve the results of treatment of high grade (grade 3, 4) supra-tentorial astrocytomas is presented. The radiosensitizer misonidazole failed to improve the results of post-surgical radiotherapy, however, multivariate analysis of data from these patients has provided a prognostic index of use in defining good and poor prognosis patients. An overview study of adjuvant nitrosourea therapy trials has shown a small significant advantage for the chemotherapy. A study of chemosensitization by benznidazole of CCNU treatment of patients in relapse failed to demonstrate any effect. 13 references

  6. Report of a randomised pilot study of the treatment of patients with supratentorial gliomas using neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; McLelland, J.; Jack, W.J.L.; Arnott, S.J.; Kerr, G.R.; Williams, J.R.; Gordon, A.

    1986-01-01

    A randomised pilot study is reported of d(15) + Be neutrons compared with 4 MV photons in the treatment of patients with astrocytoma. Sixteen patients were treated by photons and 18 by neutrons. Both treatments were well tolerated by patients. The median survival after photons was 11 months and after neutrons, 7 months. It was demonstrated that four of nine patients treated by neutrons had evidence at autopsy of radiation-induced brain damage. All had residual cancer. No patient treated by photons had signs of radiation-related morbidity. The trial was, therefore, discontinued prematurely. (author)

  7. A Unique Model System for Tumor Progression in GBM Comprising Two Developed Human Neuro-Epithelial Cell Lines with Differential Transforming Potential and Coexpressing Neuronal and Glial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Shiras

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor progression from a low-grade astrocytoma to the most malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM have been hampered due to lack of suitable experimental models. We have established a model of tumor progression comprising of two cell lines derived from the same astrocytoma tumor with a set of features corresponding to low-grade glioma (as in HNGC-1 and high-grade GBM (as in HNGC-2. The HNGC-1 cell line is slowgrowing, contact-inhibited, nontumorigenic, and noninvasive, whereas HNGC-2 is a rapidly proliferating, anchorage-independent, highly tumorigenic, and invasive cell line. The proliferation of cell lines is independent of the addition of exogenous growth factors. Interestingly, the HNGC-2 cell line displays a near-haploid karyotype except for a disomy of chromosome 2. The two cell lines express the neuronal precursor and progenitor markers vimentin, nestin, MAP-2, and NFP160, as well as glial differentiation protein S100μ. The HNGC-1 cell line also expresses markers of mature neurons like Tuj1 and GFAP, an astrocytic differentiation marker, hence contributing toward a more morphologically differentiated phenotype with a propensity for neural differentiation in vitro. Additionally, overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB2, and loss of fibronectin were observed only in the HNGC-2 cell line, implicating the significance of these pathways in tumor progression. This in vitro model system assumes importance in unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms in differentiation, transformation, and gliomagenesis.

  8. Current knowledge and treatment strategies for grade II gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    World Health Organization grade II gliomas (GIIGs) include diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. GIIG is a malignant brain tumor for which the treatment outcome can still be improved. Review of previous clinical trials found the following: GIIG increased in size by 3-5 mm per year when observed or treated with surgery alone; after pathological diagnosis, the survival rate was increased by early aggressive tumor removal at an earlier stage compared to observation alone; although the prognosis after total tumor removal was significantly better than that after partial tumor removal, half of the patients relapsed within 5 years; comparing postoperative early radiotherapy (RT) and non-early RT after relapse, early RT prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) but did not affect overall survival (OS); local RT of 45 to 64.8 Gy did not impact PFS or OS; in patients with residual tumors, RT combined with chemotherapy (procarbazine plus lomustine plus vincristine) prolonged PFS compared with RT alone but did not affect OS; and poor prognostic factors included astrocytoma, non-total tumor removal, age ≥40 years, largest tumor diameter ≥4-6 cm, tumor crossing the midline, and neurological deficit. To improve treatment outcomes, surgery with functional brain mapping or intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging or chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide is important. In this review, current knowledge regarding GIIG is described and treatment strategies are explored. (author)

  9. 3-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided tumor resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, W.A. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Depts. of Neurosurgery; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; University of Minnesota Medical Center (MMC), Minneapolis, MN (United States); Truwit, C.L. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Neurology; Hennepin Country Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Objective: We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of using 3-tesla (T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to guide brain tumor resection. Material and methods: From February 2004 to March 2006, fMRI was performed on 13 patients before surgical resection. Functional imaging was used to identify eloquent cortices for motor (8), speech (3), and motor and speech (2) activation using two different 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Surgical resection was accomplished using a 1.5-T intraoperative MR system. Appropriate MR scan sequences were performed intraoperatively to determine and maximize the extent of the surgical resection. Results: Tumors included six oligodendrogliomas, three meningiomas, two astrocytomas and two glioblastomas multiforme. The fMRI data was accurate in all cases. After surgery, two patients had hemiparesis, two had worsening of their speech, and one had worsening of speech and motor function. Neurological function returned to normal in all patients within 1 month. Complete resections were possible in 10 patients (77%). Two patients had incomplete resections because of the proximity of their tumors to functional areas. Biopsy was performed in another patient with an astrocytoma in the motor strip. Conclusion: 3-T fMRI was accurate for locating neurologic function before tumor resection near eloquent cortex. (orig.)

  10. Radiation tolerance of the spinal cord previously-damaged by tumor operation: long term neurological improvement and time-dose-volume relationships after irradiation of intraspinal gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopelson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Of 26 patients with intramedullary spinal cord gliomas (9 astrocytomas, 5 glioblastomas, 12 ependymomas) seen at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1962-1980, 24 were irradiated (21 initially and 3 after post-surgical recurrence). Those 19 patients who survived at least 1 year after completion of irradiation were evaluated for post-irradiation neurological changes.No patient developed radiation myelopathy. Return to a permanently and completely normal neurological status occured for 33/51 (65%) of pre-irradiation neurological deficits. The major cause of post-irradiation neurological deterioration was tumor recurrence. Although 18/19 patients had their thoracic or lumbar spinal cords irradiated, each with field sizes greater than 10 cm, spinal cord doses approaching, equalling, or occasionally exceeding various definitions of spinal cord tolerance were tolerated well without evidence of radiation myelopathy. Spinal cords of patients with intramedullary gliomas, often with major neurological deficits prior to irradiation, may be treated safely to doses approaching or equalling spinal cord tolerance levels. These doses are expected to locally control most ependymomas and astrocytomas without an increased radiation myelopathy. Caution should be observed if doses higher than this are contemplated in an attempt to cure glioblastoma, because the 5% tolerance level of the damaged spinal remains to be defined

  11. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, G.; Scialfa, G.; Colombo, N.; Landoni, L.

    1987-03-01

    Fifty patients with intramedullary space occupying lesions were studied with MR from October 1983. Of these 32 were operated on and histological diagnosis together with gross morphological description was available. MR findings were reviewed in search for morphological and signal characteristics capable of providing a better preoperative diagnosis. There were 11 astrocytomas, 10 ependymomas, 5 vascular lesions and 6 ''gliomas''. All lesions usually had signal characteristics different from those of the normal cord, mainly because of prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times. No specific patterns related either to morphology or signal were found, capable of differentiating the two main historical types. Vascular malformations may be suspected from the presence of serpiginous areas without signal. Tumor nodules within cysts can however be well recognized, thus providing the neurosurgeon with very useful preoperative information. Some characteristics of signal and morphology, are more common for one or the other of the two main groups of tumors. A tumor involving all the cord with a homogeneously prolonged T2 relaxation time is most likely to be an astrocytoma. A small nodule with signal close to normal parenchyma, associated with extensive cysts, is most likely to be an ependymoma.

  12. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms. A preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-08-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging.

  13. Long-term follow-up of brain tumors in childhood after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Masako; Kubo, Osami; Inoue, Norio; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Uchinuno, Hideaki; Nitta, Masae; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Sakairi, Mitsuhiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    An increase in the survival rate of children with brain tumors has produced a new problem: the late impairment effects of radiotherapy on intelligence. We conducted a follow-up study of intelligence levels in a total of 23 children who had tumors with a relatively good prognosis, i.e., craniopharyngioma, germinoma, and cerebellar astrocytoma. The cases were aged 1-14 years, and the period of follow-up was 3-15 years. Intellectual development was categorized depending on the situation of school attendance, and was evaluated on a 5-point scale. As radiation to the posterior fossa doesn't cause a big problem on intelligence, the cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were excluded. Of the remaining cases, 45% (7/16) were intellectually retarded. They were less than 11 years of age at the time of radiation. Three of those with especially severe impairment were less than 5 years old at the time of radiation. We need to think about the influence of radiation on intelligence in childhood, although we can't exclude other factors influencing intelligence. (author).

  14. An epidemiologic survey on brain tumors in Kerman from 1997 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Reihani kermani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors contain neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. Incidence of brain tumors has increased in all age groups in recent 20 years. Developments of medical devices such as CT scan, MRI and varying of classification are important causes of this raising. The present study evaluates epidemiology of brain tumors from 1997 to 2001 in Kerman. In a cross sectional study all files of neurosurgery department, in Kerman Bahonar Hospital and from 1997 to 2001, were inquired. Variables such as age, sex and histological considerations were evaluated. A total of 338 tumors were studied. The most common tumor was glial (35%, and meningioma was the second common tumor (26.3%. The other tumors were anaplastic astrocytoma, astrocytoma, pituitary adenoma, aucostic neorinoma, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, choroid plexus carcinoma, craniopharyngioma, lymphoma, sarcoma and anaplastic ependymoma. There was statistical significant difference between tumors and sex and age (p<0.05. Age and sex distribution of brain tumors is compatible with other studies in many countries. These findings suggest that prevalence of brain tumors in Kerman has increased in recent years because of diagnostic methods have improved and other medical devices are available.

  15. Radiation therapy for malignant gliomas in adults. Analysis of treatment results regarding factors on the radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Kawamori, Jiro; Saito, Tsutomu; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Shitara, Nobuyuki; Matsutani, Masao.

    1997-01-01

    During 19 years, 309 patients with astrocytic tumors (173 of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 41 of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), and 95 of astrocytoma) were treated with radiation therapy. Initially a dose of 50 Gy was given with an extended field, then the target volume was decreased to the contrast enhancing lesion plus 1-2 cm margin and treated to the total dose ranging from 60 Gy to 66 Gy for GBM and about 60 Gy for AA. Fifty-four patients underwent surgical resection combined with a single dose of 15-20 Gy by intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The one-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates and the median survival time (MST) of patients with GBM were 56%, 27%, 16%, and 495 days, respectively. For patients with AA, these were 63%, 50%, 33%, and 762 days, respectively. From analysis on GBM, patients treated with IORT were survived longer than without IORT, significantly (p 2 , were significantly inferior than with less portal size (p<0.05). Patients treated with conformation radiotherapy (CFRT) were superior on survival rates than without it on GBM, however, there was no difference on AA. The treatment factors for radiation therapy which affected for prolonging survival time were considered as dose, size of irradiated portals, application of IORT and CFRT, especially on patients with GBM. (author)

  16. Paradoxical perfusion metrics of high-grade gliomas with an oligodendroglioma component: quantitative analysis of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

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    Sunwoo, Leonard; Park, Sun-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Hong [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science, and School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Koung Mi; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chul-Kee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jae-Kyung; Park, Sung-Hye [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate perfusion characteristics of glioblastoma with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) compared with conventional glioblastoma (GBM) using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and microvessel density (MVD). The study was approved by the institutional review board. Newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients were enrolled (n = 72; 20 GBMs, 14 GBMOs, 19 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 13 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs), and six anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOAs)). All participants underwent preoperative MR imaging including DSC perfusion MR imaging. Normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) values were analyzed using a histogram approach. Histogram parameters were subsequently compared across each tumor subtype and grade. MVD was quantified by immunohistochemistry staining and correlated with perfusion parameters. Progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed according to the tumor subtype. GBMO displayed significantly reduced nCBV values compared with GBM, whereas grade III tumors with oligodendroglial components (AO and AOA) exhibited significantly increased nCBV values compared with AA (p < 0.001). MVD analyses revealed the same pattern as nCBV results. In addition, a positive correlation between MVD and nCBV values was noted (r = 0.633, p < 0.001). Patients with oligodendroglial tumors exhibited significantly increased PFS compared with patients with pure astrocytomas in each grade. In contrast to grade III tumors, the presence of oligodendroglial components in grade IV tumors resulted in paradoxically reduced perfusion metrics and MVD. In addition, patients with GBMO exhibited a better clinical outcome compared with patients with GBM. (orig.)

  17. A Novel Molecular Diagnostic of Glioblastomas: Detection of an Extracellular Fragment of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase μ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Burden-Gulley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently found that normal human brain and low-grade astrocytomas express the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPμ and that the more invasive astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, downregulate full-length PTPμ expression. Loss of PTPμ expression in GBMs is due to proteolytic cleavage that generates an intracellular and potentially a cleaved and released extracellular fragment of PTPμ. Here, we identify that a cleaved extracellular fragment containing the domains required for PTPμ-mediated adhesion remains associated with GBM tumor tissue. We hypothesized that detection of this fragment would make an excellent diagnostic tool for the localization of tumor tissue within the brain. To this end, we generated a series of fluorescently tagged peptide probes that bind the PTPμ fragment. The peptide probes specifically recognize GBM cells in tissue sections of surgically resected human tumors. To test whether the peptide probes are able to detect GBM tumors in vivo, the PTPμ peptide probes were tested in both mouse flank and intracranial xenograft human glioblastoma tumor model systems. The glial tumors were molecularly labeled with the PTPμ peptide probes within minutes of tail vein injection using the Maestro FLEX In Vivo Imaging System. The label was stable for at least 3 hours. Together, these results indicate that peptide recognition of the PTPμ extracellular fragment provides a novel molecular diagnostic tool for detection of human glioblastomas. Such a tool has clear translational applications and may lead to improved surgical resections and prognosis for patients with this devastating disease.

  18. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  19. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO 2 laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references

  20. Intraoperative radiation therapy for malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiromu; Andoh, Takashi; Hirata, Toshifumi; Nishimura, Yasuaki; Miwa, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Kotoyuki; Yanagawa, Shigeo [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1991-11-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) was used as part of the initial therapy for malignant glioma in 32 of 73 patients with histologically verified anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III astrocytoma) and glioblastoma multiforme. The initial treatment for all cases was subtotal or total tumor resection combined with external irradiation and chemotherapy. IORT was performed 1 week after tumor resection, with doses of 10-50 Gy (mean 26.7 Gy) in one session. Fourteen of 32 cases had IORT two times because of tumor recurrence. The IORT patients had survival rates at 24 and 36 months after initial treatment of 57.1 and 33.5% (median survival 26.2 months). The other 41 patients had 23.6 and 13.1% survivals (median survival 20.7 months), which were significantly lower (p<0.01). Tumor recurrence within the original lesion site was suspected because of clinical condition, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging studies in 65.6% of the IORT group (21 cases) 12 months after initial treatment. Twenty cases of death in the IORT group, including five autopsy cases, demonstrated regional tumor recurrence with a high incidence of intraventricular tumor invasion. The authors consider IORT is beneficial for selected malignant glioma patients, including tumor recurrence, because of prolonged survival. (author).

  1. Chromosomal Aberrations in Canine Gliomas Define Candidate Genes and Common Pathways in Dogs and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Dan; Higgins, Robert J.; LeCouteur, Richard A.; Joshi, Nikhil; Bannasch, Danika

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous gliomas in dogs occur at a frequency similar to that in humans and may provide a translational model for therapeutic development and comparative biological investigations. Copy number alterations in 38 canine gliomas, including diffuse astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas, were defined using an Illumina 170K single nucleotide polymorphism array. Highly recurrent alterations were seen in up to 85% of some tumor types, most notably involving chromosomes 13, 22, and 38, and gliomas clustered into 2 major groups consisting of high-grade IV astrocytomas, or oligodendrogliomas and other tumors. Tumor types were characterized by specific broad and focal chromosomal events including focal loss of the INK4A/B locus in glioblastoma and loss of the RB1 gene and amplification of the PDGFRA gene in oligodendrogliomas. Genes associated with the 3 critical pathways in human high-grade gliomas (TP53, RB1, and RTK/RAS/PI3K) were frequently associated with canine aberrations. Analysis of oligodendrogliomas revealed regions of chromosomal losses syntenic to human 1p involving tumor suppressor genes, such as CDKN2C, as well as genes associated with apoptosis, autophagy, and response to chemotherapy and radiation. Analysis of high frequency chromosomal aberrations with respect to human orthologues may provide insight into both novel and common pathways in gliomagenesis and response to therapy. PMID:27251041

  2. Brain SPECT in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchpiguel, C.A.; Cukiert, A.; Hironaka, F.H.; Cerri, G.G.; Magalhaes, A.E.A.; Marino Junior, R.

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen adult epileptic patients were studied pre-operatively using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99 m Tc-HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas). In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions). Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hypoperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10) SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and heterogeneity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic who are candidates for epilepsy surgery. (author)

  3. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Thomassen, R.W.; Hargis, A.M.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Mortality because of neoplasia was examined in Segment III dogs exposed to 0,20, or 100 R of 60 Co gamma radiation in prenatal and early postnatal life. During the inital 10 years of the experiment (through January 31, 1978) 20 dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumors in these 19 irradiated dogs included 5 malignant lymphomas, 8 carcinomas (2 of mammary origin, 2 of prostatic origin, and 1 each or oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), 4 sarcomas (2 hemangiosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 mast cell sarcoma), 1 astrocytoma, and 1 hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100R) and 70 dpp (100R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100R. Four of the tumors in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before 2 years of age. The earliest death was at 3 months, because of an astrocytoma. A single sham-irradiated dog died or a malignant tumor, a mammary carcinoma. Preliminary analyses point to three findings of particular interest: the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs, the unusual finding of four deaths because of neoplasia prior to 2 years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs, and the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  4. Small regions of overlapping deletions on 6q26 in human astrocytic tumours identified using chromosome 6 tile path array CGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Koichi; Mungall, Andrew J; Fiegler, Heike; Pearson, Danita M.; Dunham, Ian; Carter, Nigel P; Collins, V. Peter

    2009-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 6 are a common abnormality in diverse human malignancies including astrocytic tumours, suggesting the presence of tumour suppressor genes (TSG). In order to help identify candidate TSGs, we have constructed a chromosome 6 tile path microarray. The array contains 1780 clones (778 PACs and 1002 BACs) that cover 98.3% of the published chromosome 6 sequences. A total of 104 adult astrocytic tumours (10 diffuse astrocytomas, 30 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 64 glioblastomas (GB)) were analysed using this array. Single copy number change was successfully detected and the result was in general concordant with a microsatellite analysis. The pattern of copy number change was complex with multiple interstitial deletions/gains. However, a predominance of telomeric 6q deletions was seen. Two small common and overlapping regions of deletion at 6q26 were identified. One was 1002 kb in size and contained PACRG and QKI, while the second was 199 kb and harbours a single gene, ARID1B. The data show that the chromosome 6 tile path array is useful in mapping copy number changes with high resolution and accuracy. We confirmed the high frequency of chromosome 6 deletions in AA and GB, and identified two novel commonly deleted regions that may harbour TSGs. PMID:16205629

  5. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A.; Saunders, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  6. Glioma Indian scenario: Is there a human leucocyte antigen association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarkumar, U; Sridharan, B

    2011-07-01

    The central nervous system tumors are a rare neoplasm with little knowledge with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) involvement. Primary brain tumors are cancers that originate in brain classified according to their appearance under a microscope as low grade (grade I and II) with diffuse astrocytomas, pliocytic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, gangliogliomas, and mixed gliomas as common subtypes and high grade (grade III and IV). HLA associations in common glioma are reported from other parts of the world. The normal cancer treatment is surgery, followed by radiotherapy, and chemotherapy; nowadays immunotherapy is advised. HLA distribution in a Glioma patient was done based on serology and molecular techniques. The immune response gene studies have implicated the HLA allele association in most of the common diseases from India. Considerable variations are noted in HLA association with cancers; hence, we have summarized the HLA involvement in Glioma with respect to the literature. HLA A*030101, A*310102, B*350101, B*4406, Cw*040101, Cw*070101, DRB1*070101, and DRB1*1001. Ethnic diversity and HLA polymorphism precipitate differential immune response genes involved in variable disease manifestations. Therefore, caste-specific HLA allelic specificity needs to be identified, which may help in early identification of the associated HLA allele and establishing clinical practices among glioma patients.

  7. Clinical study on brain tumors in the aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Akira; Manaka, Shinya; Takakura, Kintomo

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the clinical features and the prognosis of brain tumors in the aged, 132 cases over 60 years of age were studied from the consecutive series of 1,793 brain tumors in the University of Tokyo Hospital (1963 - 1979). The incidence of brain tumors in the aged was 7.4% on the whole, while it showed a significant increase from 4.8% (1960's) to 11.5% (the later half of 1970's). Histologically, meningiomas were the most common tumors (26%), followed by neurinomas (17%), pituitary adenomas (16%) and metastatic tumors (15%). Malignant gliomas were found more frequently than benign ones. There were more meningiomas as age advanced. The proportion and the number of meningioma cases has obviously increased in recent years when CT scanners became available. Symptoms of intracranial hypertention were found less frequently in aged patients although they were still common in cases of glioblastomas. The duration from onset to surgery was relatively long, especially in cases of neurinomas and pituitary adenomas. Two cases of astrocytomas belonged to the category of silent gliomas. Overall operative mortality rate was 10.6%, while it showed a marked decrease to 4.7% in the 1970's. Five-year survival rates were as follows: meningiomas (58%), pituitary adenomas (70%), neurinomas (80%), glioblastomas (20%) and astrocytomas (25%). As for functional prognoses, 30% of the patients showed poor states on ADL, mostly because of residual psychic disorders. (author)

  8. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Human Malignant Gliomas Reveals Multiple Amplification Sites and Nonrandom Chromosomal Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schròck, Evelin; Thiel, Gundula; Lozanova, Tanka; du Manoir, Stanislas; Meffert, Marie-Christine; Jauch, Anna; Speicher, Michael R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Vogel, Siegfried; Janisch, Werner; Donis-Keller, Helen; Ried, Thomas; Witkowski, Regine; Cremer, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Nine human malignant gliomas (2 astrocytomas grade III and 7 glioblastomas) were analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition to the amplification of the EGFR gene at 7p12 in 4 of 9 cases, six new amplification sites were mapped to 1q32, 4q12, 7q21.1, 7q21.2-3, 12p, and 22q12. Nonrandom chromosomal gains and losses were identified with overrepresentation of chromosome 7 and underrepresentation of chromosome 10 as the most frequent events (1 of 2 astrocytomas, 7 of 7 glioblastomas). Gain of a part or the whole chromosome 19 and losses of chromosome bands 9pter-23 and 22q13 were detected each in five cases. Loss of chromosome band 17p13 and gain of chromosome 20 were revealed each in three cases. The validity of the CGH data was confirmed using interphase cytogenetics with YAC clones, chromosome painting in tumor metaphase spreads, and DNA fingerprinting. A comparison of CGH data with the results of chromosome banding analyses indicates that metaphase spreads accessible in primary tumor cell cultures may not represent the clones predominant in the tumor tissue ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:8203461

  9. 3-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided tumor resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.A.; Truwit, C.L.; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN; Hennepin Country Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of using 3-tesla (T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to guide brain tumor resection. Material and methods: From February 2004 to March 2006, fMRI was performed on 13 patients before surgical resection. Functional imaging was used to identify eloquent cortices for motor (8), speech (3), and motor and speech (2) activation using two different 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Surgical resection was accomplished using a 1.5-T intraoperative MR system. Appropriate MR scan sequences were performed intraoperatively to determine and maximize the extent of the surgical resection. Results: Tumors included six oligodendrogliomas, three meningiomas, two astrocytomas and two glioblastomas multiforme. The fMRI data was accurate in all cases. After surgery, two patients had hemiparesis, two had worsening of their speech, and one had worsening of speech and motor function. Neurological function returned to normal in all patients within 1 month. Complete resections were possible in 10 patients (77%). Two patients had incomplete resections because of the proximity of their tumors to functional areas. Biopsy was performed in another patient with an astrocytoma in the motor strip. Conclusion: 3-T fMRI was accurate for locating neurologic function before tumor resection near eloquent cortex. (orig.)

  10. Long-term follow-up of brain tumors in childhood after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katahira, Masako; Kubo, Osami; Inoue, Norio; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Uchinuno, Hideaki; Nitta, Masae; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Sakairi, Mitsuhiko

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the survival rate of children with brain tumors has produced a new problem: the late impairment effects of radiotherapy on intelligence. We conducted a follow-up study of intelligence levels in a total of 23 children who had tumors with a relatively good prognosis, i.e., craniopharyngioma, germinoma, and cerebellar astrocytoma. The cases were aged 1-14 years, and the period of follow-up was 3-15 years. Intellectual development was categorized depending on the situation of school attendance, and was evaluated on a 5-point scale. As radiation to the posterior fossa doesn't cause a big problem on intelligence, the cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were excluded. Of the remaining cases, 45% (7/16) were intellectually retarded. They were less than 11 years of age at the time of radiation. Three of those with especially severe impairment were less than 5 years old at the time of radiation. We need to think about the influence of radiation on intelligence in childhood, although we can't exclude other factors influencing intelligence. (author)

  11. Spinal cord gliomas: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Etuk, Blessing; Palermo, James; Shirato, Hiroki; Kresl, John; Yapicier, Ozlem; Walker, Gail; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Shaw, Edward; Lee, Charles; Curran, Walter; Thomas, Terry; Markoe, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (POXRT) on outcome in spinal cord gliomas. Patients and Methods: Data from 242 patients were collected retrospectively from six institutions using a standardized data sheet. Pathology specimens, when available, were centrally reviewed. Results: A total of 183 patients were analyzed: 82 received surgery alone as initial treatment, whereas 101 had surgery and POXRT. Demographic, diagnostic, and treatment factors were analyzed for impact on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PFS in ependymoma patients was 74%, 60%, and 35% at 5, 10, 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by treatment type, race, age, tumor grade, and type of surgery on univariate analysis, with age being the only significant factor on multivariate analysis (MVA) (p = 0.01). OS of ependymoma patients was 91%, 84%, and 75% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by both complete resection (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.03) on MVA. In astrocytomas, PFS was 42%, 29%, and 15% at 5, 10, and 15 years, and was significantly influenced by POXRT in low- and intermediate-grade tumors on MVA (p = 0.02). OS at 5, 10, and 15 years was 59%, 53%, and 32%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by grade on MVA (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Postoperative radiation therapy reduced disease progression in low- and moderate-grade astrocytomas. In ependymomas, complete resection significantly influenced OS

  12. Lipoprotein internalisation induced by oncogenic AMPK activation is essential to maintain glioblastoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, M; Foretz, M; Viollet, B; Prieto, A; Fraga, M; García-Caballero, T; Costoya, J A; Señarís, R

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic adaptations are essential during tumour growth to maintain the high proliferation levels exhibited by cancer cells. In this study, we examined the transformations that occurred in the lipid metabolism in astrocytic tumours, and the possible role of the fuel-sensing enzyme AMPK. Metabolic targets might help design new and effective drugs for cancer. To accomplish this objective, we studied both mice and human astrocytic tumours. We first used a mouse model of astrocytoma driven by oncogenic H-RasV12 and/or with PTEN deletion based on the common constitutive activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT cascades in human astrocytomas. We then confirmed the results in human glioblastoma cell lines and in glioblastoma tissue samples from patients. We show that the high levels of activated AMPK, observed in astrocytic tumours, increase extracellular lipid internalisation and reduce energy expenditure by inhibiting 'de novo' fatty acid (FA) synthesis, which allows tumour cells to obtain building blocks and energy to be able to create new organelles and new cells. Our findings demonstrate that AMPK plays a crucial role in glioblastoma cell growth and suggest that blocking lipoprotein receptors could potentially be used as a plausible therapeutic approach for these and other type of tumours with high levels of AMPK. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proliferative and Invasive Effects of Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF is a progesterone (P4 regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM from 12 to 24 h. Glioblastoma cells expressed two PIBF isoforms, 90 and 57 kDa. The content of the shorter isoform was increased by P4 at 24 h, while progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (10 μM blocked this effect. PIBF (100 ng/mL increased the number of U87 cells on days 4 and 5 of treatment and induced cell proliferation on day 4. Wound-healing assays showed that PIBF increased the migration of U87 (12–48 h and U251 (24 and 48 h cells. Transwell invasion assays showed that PIBF augmented the number of invasive cells in both cell lines at 24 h. These data suggest that PIBF promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor: an independent predictor of survival in astrocytic tumors given definitive irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhu; Shaeffer, James; Leslie, Susan; Kolm, Paul; El-Mahdi, Anas M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein was predictive of patient survival independently of other prognostic factors in astrocytic tumors. Methods and Materials: Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was investigated immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of 55 glioblastoma multiforme, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 2 astrocytomas given definitive irradiation. We evaluated the relationship of EGFR protein expression and tumor grade, histologic features, age at diagnosis, sex, patient survival, and recurrence-free survival. Results: The percentage of tumor cells which were EGFR positive related to reduced survival by Cox regression analysis in both univariate (p = 0.0424) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0016). Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was the only 1 of 11 clinical and histological variables associated with decreased recurrence-free survival by either univariate (p = 0.0353) or multivariate (p = 0.0182) analysis. Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was not related to patient age, sex, or histologic features. Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was a significant and independent prognostic indicator for overall survival and recurrence-free survival for irradiated patients with astrocytic gliomas

  15. Imaging feature of infratentorial desmoplastic infantile and non-infantile tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Seung Koo [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hoon [Dept. of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To describe imaging features of infratentorial desmoplastic infantile or non-infantile tumors (DIT/DNIT). Four cases with infratentorial DIT/DNIT from our hospital and 5 cases from literature review were analyzed. Clinical data and MR imaging features were evaluated including location, size, shape, margin, composition, dural attachment, perilesional edema, and metastasis or multiplicity. The mean age was 9.2 years (range, 1-18 years). Most of the patients presented with headache or vomiting (4/9, 44.4%) and had no underlying disease (8/9, 88.9%). The major pathologic subtype was astrocytoma (6/9, 66.7%). On MR, majority of the tumors involved cerebellum and/or spinal cord (8/9, 88.9%) and the mean size of the tumors was 4.2 cm (range, 3.2-5 cm). The tumors were mainly solid (4/9, 44.4%) or mixed (4/9, 44.4%) in composition with lobulated shape (7/9, 77.8%) and well-defined margin (7/9, 77.8%). Two cases (2/7, 28.6%) showed dural attachment and all the cases had no or minimal perilesional edema (100%). Metastasis or multiplicity was frequently seen in 44.4% (4/9). Infratentorial DIT/DNIT occurred in relatively older children and the major tumor type was astrocytoma. They also had atypical imaging features showing mainly solid or mixed in composition with frequent metastasis or multiplicity.

  16. Radiation-induced cerebrovasculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Yukihide; Abiko, Seisho; Kurokawa, Yasushi; Okamura, Tomomi; Watanabe, Kohsaku; Inoue, Shinichi; Fujii, Yasuhiro.

    1993-01-01

    We reported a patient who suffered from cerebrovasculopathy after irradiation therapy for astrocytoma located at the left temporal lobe. An eleven year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting received partial removal of a tumor. Histological diagnosis of the tumor was astrocytoma (grade II). His preoperative cerebral angiograms showed mass sign solely, without stenosis or occlusion of the cerebral vessel. Postoperatively, he was treated with irradiation therapy involving the whole brain with a total of 30 Gy, and gamma knife therapy. Six months after irradiation, he started suffering from frequent cerebral ischemic attacks, but there was no regrowth of the tumor visible on CT scans. Cerebral angiograms were made again, and revealed multifocal stenoses in the bilateral internal carotid arteries, middle cerebral arteries, and the anterior cerebral artery. His symptoms did not improve after conservative treatment with steroids, calcium antagonist, or low molecular weight dextran. Although he received a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomoses bilaterally, multiple cerebral infarctions appeared. Although irradiation therapy is acceptable in patients with brain tumor, cerebrovasculopathy after irradiation should be considered as one of the most important complications, and the risk incurred by irradiation therapy should lead to more careful consideration and caution when treating intracranial brain tumors, especially in children. From our experience, the usefulness of bypass surgery for radiation-induced cerebrovasculopathy is still controversial. (author)

  17. Phase I study of temozolomide in paediatric patients with advanced cancer. United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, E. J.; Lashford, L.; Ablett, S.; Price, L.; Gowing, R.; Gholkar, A.; Kohler, J.; Lewis, I. J.; Morland, B.; Pinkerton, C. R.; Stevens, M. C.; Mott, M.; Stevens, R.; Newell, D. R.; Walker, D.; Dicks-Mireaux, C.; McDowell, H.; Reidenberg, P.; Statkevich, P.; Marco, A.; Batra, V.; Dugan, M.; Pearson, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    A phase I study of temozolomide administered orally once a day, on 5 consecutive days, between 500 and 1200 mg m(-2) per 28-day cycle was performed. Children were stratified according to prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosourea therapy. Sixteen of 20 patients who had not received prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosourea therapy were evaluable. Myelosuppression was dose limiting, with Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurring in one of six patients receiving 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle, and two of four patients treated at 1200 mg m(-2) per cycle. Therefore, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle. The MTD was not defined for children with prior craniospinal irradiation because of poor recruitment. Plasma pharmacokinetic analyses showed temozolomide to be rapidly absorbed and eliminated, with linear increases in peak plasma concentrations and systemic exposure with increasing dose. Responses (CR and PR) were seen in two out of five patients with high-grade astrocytomas, and one patient had stable disease. One of ten patients with diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma achieved a long-term partial response, and a further two patients had stable disease. Therefore, the dose recommended for phase II studies in patients who have not received prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosoureas is 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle. Further evaluation in diffuse intrinsic brain stem gliomas and other high-grade astrocytomas is warranted. Images Figure 5 p658-b Figure 6 p659-b PMID:9744506

  18. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  19. MR imaging of intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord: comparison with surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Du Whan; Hwang, Hee Young; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In One; Kim, Hyen Jip; Chang, Kee Hyung

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the capability of MR imaging to localize intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord and to distinguish solid from cystic components. MR images of 12 patients with surgically-proven intramedullary spinal cord tumor were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with surgical findings. Histologic diagnosis consisted of 3 astrocytomas, 4 ependymomas, 2 gangliogliomas, and one case of lipoma, lymphoma, and glioblastoma multiform each. MR scans were obtained on a 2.0T or a 0.5T with T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences in sagittal and axial planes. Contrast enhancement was performed with Gd-DTPA in 9 patients. All tumors expanded the spinal cord and showed an extent of involvement ranging from 2 to 5 vertebral heights, except for the gangliogliomas which involved the spinal cord more extensively. Contrast enhancement was seen in all 9 patients. Intratumoral cavities were observed in 1 out of 3 astrocytomas and 2 gangliogliomas. Peritumoral syringomyelia was seen in 2 out of 4 ependymonas and 2 gangliogliomas. In most cases, the MR findings correlated well with the surgical findings with respect to the extent, distinctness of the tumor margin, intratumoral cavity, and associated syringomyelia. It is concluded that MR imaging is a very useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of intramedullary spinal cord tumors

  20. How specific is the MRI appearance of supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au Yong, Kong Jung; Jaremko, Jacob L.; Bhargava, Ravi [University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Edmonton (Canada); Jans, Lennart [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium); Coleman, Lee T. [University of Melbourne and Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Melbourne (Australia); Medical Imaging, Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Mehta, Vivek [University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Edmonton (Canada); Ditchfield, Michael R. [Monash Children' s and Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in many cases has a distinctive appearance on post-gadolinium MRI. We sought to determine whether this is a unique appearance allowing ATRT to be distinguished accurately from other types of pediatric supratentorial tumors. Retrospective review of all available preoperative MRI of pediatric supratentorial tumors at two tertiary children's hospitals, and systematic literature review of case series and reports describing the MRI imaging appearances of supratentorial ATRT. We had 61 supratentorial tumors, including 32 gliomas, 6 ATRT, 8 ependymomas, 6 gangliogliomas, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 3 primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 2 meningiomas. ATRT presented in significantly younger patients than astrocytomas (mean age 2.6 years vs. 9.9 years, P < 0.05). The visual pattern of a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall around a cystic center was seen in 5/6 (83%) ATRTs and only 3/55 (5.4%) other tumors (P < 0.0001), for specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 83%, positive predictive value of 63% and a negative predictive value of 95%. A supratentorial tumor with a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall surrounding a central cystic region is suggestive of ATRT in the appropriate clinical setting, especially in a child of preschool age. (orig.)

  1. Difference in 201TlCl accumulation mechanism in brain tumors. A comparison of their Na+-K+ ATPase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Nobuo; Kuroki, Takao; Nemoto, Masaaki; Mito, Toshiaki; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation levels of 201 TlCl and Na + -K + ATPase activity in tumor tissue were compared among glioblastoma, benign glioma and meningioma to study the difference in the mechanism of 201 TlCl accumulation. The subjects were 19 cases comprised of 6 glioblastoma, 2 oligodendroglioma, 1 fibrillary astrocytoma, 1 pilocytic astrocytoma and 9 meningioma. Preoperative 201 TlCl SPECT was performed in all the cases, and Thallium Index (TL index) was calculated by a ratio of 201 TlCl in the tumor area and the contralateral area. In addition, cell membrane was extracted from the tumor tissue collected intraoperatively to determine Na + -K + ATPase activity. No statistically significant difference in TL index was noted between the glioblastoma group (6.97±2.67) and the meningioma group (5.87±1.99). This fact showed that there was no difference in the accumulation level of 201 TlCl between the two groups. On the other hand, the glioblastoma group indicated a higher value of Na + -K + ATPase activity (49.13±43.76 μmole/hour/mg protein) than the meningioma group (7.73±13.84 μmol/hour/mg protein) (p + -K + ATPase activity in 201 TlCl accumulation in glioblastoma and the influences of other accumulation mechanism than Na + -K + ATPase activity such as the volume of intratumoral vascular bed in meningioma. (author)

  2. Regulation of the pituitary tumor transforming gene by insulin-like-growth factor-I and insulin differs between malignant and non-neoplastic astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamaon, Kathrin; Kirches, Elmar; Kanakis, Dimitrios; Braeuninger, Stefan; Dietzmann, Knut; Mawrin, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The reasons for overexpression of the oncogene pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in tumors are still not fully understood. A possible influence of the insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-I) may be of interest, since enhanced Igf-I signalling was reported in various human tumors. We examined the influence of Igf-I and insulin on PTTG expression in human astrocytoma cells in comparison to proliferating non-neoplastic rat embryonal astrocytes. PTTG mRNA expression and protein levels were increased in malignant astrocytes treated with Igf-I or insulin, whereas in rat embryonic astrocytes PTTG expression and protein levels increased only when cells were exposed to Igf-I. Enhanced transcription did not occur after treatment with inhibitors of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), blocking the two basic signalling pathways of Igf-I and insulin. In addition to this transcriptional regulation, both kinases directly bind to PTTG, suggesting a second regulatory route by phosphorylation. However, the interaction of endogenous PTTG with MAPK and PI3K, as well as PTTG phosphorylation were independent from Igf-I or insulin. The latter results were also found in human testis, which contains high PTTG levels as well as in nonneoplastic astrocytes. This suggest, that PI3K and MAPK signalling is involved in PTTG regulation not only in malignant astrocytomas but also in non-tumorous cells

  3. NMR characteristics of low-grade glioma. Comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asato, Reinin; Tokuriki, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Harumi; Torizuka, Kanji; Ueda, Tohru; Yamashita, Junkoh; Handa, Hajime

    1985-08-01

    Sixteen low-grade gliomas were evaluated both with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and with computed tomography (CT). In 13 cases (81%), the NMR images were much better in tissue contrast than the contrast-enhanced CT images. The tumors were shown as well-circumscribed oval lesions in the NMR, though they appeared as ill-defined, irregular, low-attenuation areas in the CT. The extent of the lesion, which was supposed to represent the active tumor tissue, was greater in the NMR than in the CT, because NMR tissue parameters (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/) are more sensitive to pathological changes in brain tissue than is the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Though, in an optic glioma and a brain-stem astrocytoma, the CT with contrast enhancement displayed the contour of the mass as well as did NMR, it was inferior to the NMR in showing the cephalocaudal extension of the tumors. Calcification does not give a proton NMR signal under the present measuring conditions; thus the calcified cystic wall of a hypothalamic astrocytoma was displayed only in the CT images. In conclusion, the NMR imaging was apparently superior to contrast-enhanced CT in demonstrating the lesions due to low-grade glioma.

  4. Neurofibromatosis type 1: brain stem tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Molloy, P.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Phillips, P.C.; Vaughan, S.N.; Liu, G.T.; Sutton, L.N.; Needle, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour identification occurred much later than the clinical diagnosis of NF1. Medullary enlargement was most frequent (68 %), followed by pontine (52 %) and midbrain enlargement (44 %). Patients were further subdivided into those with diffuse (12 patients) and those with focal (13 patients) tumours. Treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 67 % of the first group and only 15 % of the second group. Surgery was performed in four patients and revealed fibrillary astrocytomas, one of which progressed to an anaplastic astrocytoma. In 40 % of patients both brain stem and optic pathway tumours were present. The biological behaviour of brain stem tumours in NF1 is unknown. Diffuse tumours in the patients with NF1 appear to have a much more favourable prognosis than patients with similar tumours without neurofibromatosis type 1. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  6. Characteristics of time-activity curves obtained from dynamic 11C-methionine PET in common primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yuichi; Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Yano, Hirohito; Ikegame, Yuka; Kawasaki, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iwama, Toru

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether dynamic PET with 11 C-methionine (MET) (MET-PET) is useful in the diagnosis of brain tumors. One hundred sixty patients with brain tumors (139 gliomas, 9 meningiomas, 4 hemangioblastomas and 8 primary central nervous system lymphomas [PCNSL]) underwent dynamic MET-PET with a 3-dimensional acquisition mode, and the maximum tumor MET-standardized uptake value (MET-SUV) was measured consecutively to construct a time-activity curve (TAC). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated from the time-to-peak (TTP) and the slope of the curve in the late phase (SLOPE). The TAC patterns of MET-SUVs (MET-TACs) could be divided into four characteristic types when MET dynamics were analyzed by dividing the MET-TAC into three phases. MET-SUVs were significantly higher in early and late phases in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma and the normal frontal cortex (P dynamic MET-PET study could be helpful in the non-invasive discrimination of brain tumor subtypes, in particular gliomas.

  7. How specific is the MRI appearance of supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au Yong, Kong Jung; Jaremko, Jacob L.; Bhargava, Ravi; Jans, Lennart; Coleman, Lee T.; Mehta, Vivek; Ditchfield, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in many cases has a distinctive appearance on post-gadolinium MRI. We sought to determine whether this is a unique appearance allowing ATRT to be distinguished accurately from other types of pediatric supratentorial tumors. Retrospective review of all available preoperative MRI of pediatric supratentorial tumors at two tertiary children's hospitals, and systematic literature review of case series and reports describing the MRI imaging appearances of supratentorial ATRT. We had 61 supratentorial tumors, including 32 gliomas, 6 ATRT, 8 ependymomas, 6 gangliogliomas, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 3 primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 2 meningiomas. ATRT presented in significantly younger patients than astrocytomas (mean age 2.6 years vs. 9.9 years, P < 0.05). The visual pattern of a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall around a cystic center was seen in 5/6 (83%) ATRTs and only 3/55 (5.4%) other tumors (P < 0.0001), for specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 83%, positive predictive value of 63% and a negative predictive value of 95%. A supratentorial tumor with a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall surrounding a central cystic region is suggestive of ATRT in the appropriate clinical setting, especially in a child of preschool age. (orig.)

  8. Direct comparison of 18F-FDG and 11C-methionine PET in suspected recurrence of glioma: sensitivity, inter-observer variability and prognostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laere, Koen Van; Ceyssens, Sarah; Mortelmans, Luc; Calenbergh, Frank Van; Groot, Tjibbe de; Bormans, Guy; Menten, Johan; Flamen, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 11 C-methionine (MET) PET imaging studies allow the investigation of metabolism and amino acid transport in brain tumours. Their (relative) usefulness and prognostic value in suspected recurrence or progression of primary brain tumours after previous therapy is an issue of debate. The aim of this study was to compare directly both radioligands in this setting. Cerebral uptake of FDG and MET was determined sequentially on the same day in 30 patients (21 males, nine females; age 40.4±15.6 years), on average 4.0 years (range 0.1-18) after therapy for a primary brain tumour (23 grade II-IV astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligo-astrocytomas). Images were acquired on a Siemens HR+ dedicated PET camera. Two observers scored FDG and MET scans independently. Semi-quantitative indices defined by the tumour (maximum)-to-background ratio were calculated based on manual ROI delineation and by using MET ROIs for FDG after automated co-registration. Patient follow-up was conducted until the last contact with inconspicuous clinical findings (average 41 months, range 12-62 months after PET) [(n=10)] or until death (n=20). Overall median survival was 15.0 months. MET showed pathologically increased uptake in 28/30 scans, and FDG in 17/30. The inter-observer agreement was 100% for MET and 73% for FDG. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, significant differences were found for both FDG (cut-off 0.8, log-rank p=0.007) and MET (cut-off 2.2, log-rank p=0.014). The combination of FDG and MET information resulted in the highest prognostic accuracy (p=0.003), while MET alone was the best prognostic predictor in the subgroup of patients with primary astrocytoma (n=23). FDG and MET PET studies provide complementary prognostic information in patients with suspected brain tumour recurrence or progression after primary therapy. MET is considered the single agent of choice in the evaluation of these patients because of its sensitivity and

  9. Direct comparison of {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methionine PET in suspected recurrence of glioma: sensitivity, inter-observer variability and prognostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laere, Koen Van; Ceyssens, Sarah; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Calenbergh, Frank Van [University Hospital Leuven, Department of Neurosurgery, Leuven (Belgium); Groot, Tjibbe de; Bormans, Guy [University Hospital Leuven, Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Leuven (Belgium); Menten, Johan [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Radiotherapy, Leuven (Belgium); Flamen, Patrick [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Bordet Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) PET imaging studies allow the investigation of metabolism and amino acid transport in brain tumours. Their (relative) usefulness and prognostic value in suspected recurrence or progression of primary brain tumours after previous therapy is an issue of debate. The aim of this study was to compare directly both radioligands in this setting. Cerebral uptake of FDG and MET was determined sequentially on the same day in 30 patients (21 males, nine females; age 40.4{+-}15.6 years), on average 4.0 years (range 0.1-18) after therapy for a primary brain tumour (23 grade II-IV astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligo-astrocytomas). Images were acquired on a Siemens HR+ dedicated PET camera. Two observers scored FDG and MET scans independently. Semi-quantitative indices defined by the tumour (maximum)-to-background ratio were calculated based on manual ROI delineation and by using MET ROIs for FDG after automated co-registration. Patient follow-up was conducted until the last contact with inconspicuous clinical findings (average 41 months, range 12-62 months after PET) [(n=10)] or until death (n=20). Overall median survival was 15.0 months. MET showed pathologically increased uptake in 28/30 scans, and FDG in 17/30. The inter-observer agreement was 100% for MET and 73% for FDG. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, significant differences were found for both FDG (cut-off 0.8, log-rank p=0.007) and MET (cut-off 2.2, log-rank p=0.014). The combination of FDG and MET information resulted in the highest prognostic accuracy (p=0.003), while MET alone was the best prognostic predictor in the subgroup of patients with primary astrocytoma (n=23). FDG and MET PET studies provide complementary prognostic information in patients with suspected brain tumour recurrence or progression after primary therapy. MET is considered the single agent of choice in the evaluation of these patients because of its

  10. miR-124 and miR-137 inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells and induce differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an invariably fatal central nervous system tumor despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Further insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive GBM formation are required to improve patient outcome. MicroRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and proliferation, and have been implicated in the etiology of a variety of cancers, yet the role of microRNAs in GBM remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNAs in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells and glioblastoma-multiforme tumor cells. Methods We used quantitative RT-PCR to assess microRNA expression in high-grade astrocytomas and adult mouse neural stem cells. To assess the function of candidate microRNAs in high-grade astrocytomas, we transfected miR mimics to cultured-mouse neural stem cells, -mouse oligodendroglioma-derived stem cells, -human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells and -glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Cellular differentiation was assessed by immunostaining, and cellular proliferation was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results Our studies revealed that expression levels of microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 were significantly decreased in anaplastic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade III and glioblastoma multiforme (World Health Organization grade IV relative to non-neoplastic brain tissue (P erbB tumors and cluster of differentiation 133+ human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells (SF6969. Transfection of microRNA-124 or microRNA-137 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest in U251 and SF6969 glioblastoma multiforme cells, which was associated with decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pSer 807/811 proteins. Conclusion microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 induce differentiation of adult mouse neural stem cells, mouse

  11. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standard of care, current clinical trials and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To review the clinical characteristics of childhood brain tumors, including neurologic signs, neuroimaging and neuropathology. To critically assess indications for therapy relevant to presenting characteristics, age, and disease status. To discuss current management strategies including neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To analyze current clinical trials and future directions of clinical research. Brain tumors account for 20% of neoplastic diseases in children. The most common tumors include astrocytoma and malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET's, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma, and intracranial germ cell tumors. The clinical characteristics and disease extent largely determine the relative merits of available 'standard' and investigational therapeutic approaches. Treatment outcome, including disease control and functional integrity, is dependent upon tumor type and site, age at presentation, and disease extent. An understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and histologic characteristics as they relate to decisions regarding therapy is critical to the radiation oncologist. Appropriate radiation therapy is central to curative therapy for a majority of pediatric brain tumor presentations. Technical advances in neurosurgery provide greater safety for 'gross total resection' in a majority of hemispheric astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The relative roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy for centrally located astrocytomas (e.g., diencephalic, optic pathway) need to be analyzed in the context of initial and overall disease control, neurotoxicities, and potential modifications in the risk:benefit ratio apparent in the introduction of 3-dimensional radiation techniques. Modifications in radiation delivery are important components of current investigations in medulloblastoma; the rationale for contemporary cooperative group trials will be presented as well as the background data re surgical, radiotherapeutic, and

  12. Pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Patients with Malignant Brain Tumors: A Single Institutional Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system tumors account for 2%-5% of all malignancies in humans. These tumors account for 2% of all pediatric cancers. The worldwide incidence of primary central nervous system tumors is estimated at 3.9 (males and 3.2 (females per 100000 person-years. The incidence of brain tumor cases has been reported as 3.67% of all malignancies and 4% of all cancer mortalities in Iran. The five most common histological types of brain tumor in Iran according to different case studies are; meningioma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma and ependymoma. The aim of this study is to determine the histopathological pattern and characteristics of patients with brain tumors who have referred to the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective study was performed at the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, between 2005 and 2012. We included 220 patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Department with diagnoses of primary brain tumor in this study. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 220 new cases of primary brain tumor at Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.95±15.48 years with a median age of 39 years. Patients' ages ranged from 4 to 75 years. Among the 220 patients, 138 were male and 82 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.68. For most tumors there was a male predominance, with the exception of meningioma (M/F: 0.23, ependymoma (M/F: 1 and pituitary adenoma (M/F: 0.6. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, high grade meningiomas and oligodendrogliomas were the four most common pathologies treated in this department. The best treatment results were achieved in patients with astrocytomas. Conclusion: The present study is a retrospective radiotherapy centre-based study designed in a pioneer radiotherapy centre in Western Iran, not a prospective population study. These data have provided a baseline for further epidemiological studies. Our encouraging results

  13. A PROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL-BASED STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN A REFERRAL CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathima Gujjaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain neoplasms occur at all ages and account for around 2-3 percent of all deaths in adults. In children, the frequency increases to more than twenty percent. In children, it forms the second most common type of malignancy. Most of the tumours encountered are not related to any identifiable risk factors except for irradiation and some hereditary syndromes like subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, cerebellar haemangioblastoma, meningioma, Schwannoma of 7 th cranial nerve. Gliomas constitute fifty percent of the brain tumours and sixty percent of all gliomas are glioblastoma multiforme. Meningiomas constitute twenty percent and cerebral metastasis is seen in fifteen percent of the cases. Seventy percent of supratentorial tumours are found in adults and seventy percent of brain tumours in children are infratentorial. The three common tumours of cerebellum are medulloblastoma, haemangioblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain tumours are space occupying lesions and cause compression and destruction of adjacent structures, brain oedema (Peritumoural tissue, infarction and ischaemia of brain by compressing/infiltrating cerebral blood vessels, obstruction of CSF flow causing hydrocephalus, and rise in intracranial pressure with herniations. Tumours can undergo ischaemic necrosis and necrotic tumours tend to bleed. Brain tumours generally do not metastasise. Schwannoma and meningioma are benign tumours. Medulloblastoma of childhood may have drop metastasis via CSF. A sincere effort has been put in this study to identify the incidence of each variety of brain tumour among the fifty confirmed and identified cases of brain tumours. METHODS The age range of the cases in present study was 5-72 years with a mean age of occurrence of 44.11 years and the peak age group affected were in the 3 rd and 4 th decades. Cerebral hemisphere was the commonest site for intracranial tumours. RESULT In the present study, fifty

  14. Radiopharmaceutical therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, P.; Franceschi, G.; Frattarelli, M.; Casi, M.; Santimaria, M.; Cremonini, A.M.; Guiducci, G.; Riva, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The loco-regional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of high-grade malignant glioma may represent a further favourable therapeutic approach, able to ameliorate the ominous prognosis of these diseases. The anti-tenascin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are directly injected in the tumoral bed after the operation. In the first pilot study, 81 glioblastoma patients received the MAbs (BC2 and BC4) labelled with 131 I (mean dose 2035 MBq). The toxicity was absent. The median survival was prolonged up to 25 months and the response rate (PR + CR + NED: no evidence of disease in cases with minimal lesions after customary treatments) was 44%. More recently, 90 Y instead of 131 I was employed. The benzyl-DTPA chelator was utilized for 90 Y conjugation. A phase I study was performed in 20 glioblastoma patients, who previously received all conventional regimens, but with progressive tumour. They were intralesionally given escalating 90 Y doses (185, 370, 555, 740, 925 MBq), 4 cases were included in each incremental level. No change in haematology, liver and renal parameters were encountered. The brain MTD was 925 MBq. The radiopharmaceutical remained in high amount only in the neoplastic area and did not diffuse in normal brain region nor in normal organs. The radiation dose to the tumour was, on average, 0.54 Gy per MBq of 90 Y administered (about 4 times higher in comparison to 131 I). Now a phase II study has been initiated. 30 evaluable patients (23 glioblastoma and 7 anaplastic astrocytoma; 8 newly diagnosed and 22 recurrent tumours) who have been already treated with surgery and radiotherapy, underwent loco-regional RIT, by administering a mean 90 Y dose of 740 MBq; in many cases multiple cycles were given. The median survival of patients who had the antibody infusion when their tumour burden was reduced was 28 months. The objective response consisted of 8 PD, 5 SD, 11 PR, 1 CR and 4 NED. The global response rate (PR + CR + NED) was 53.3% (47.8% in glioblastoma and 75.7% in

  15. First experience of brain tumour scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI before and after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiene, N.; Kulakiene, I.; Aleksandrovas, D.; Tamasauskas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Morphological imaging techniques like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to localize tumours. However, their use for prediction of histopathological diagnosis and tumour changes after treatment is difficult. Functional imaging using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were introduced as non-invasive methods for the differentiation and evaluation of brain tumours, especially for their follow-up. The purpose of present study was to investigate the uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in case of malignant brain tumours before and after surgery. 25 patients (13 males and 12 females; age range 21-75 years; average age 48.76±17.25 years) with brain tumours were investigated. The histological diagnoses of the tumours were confirmed from surgical specimens. None of the patients had received any treatment before enrolment for the study. 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT was performed 3.88±2.85 days before surgery and 9.88±2.24 days after surgery in all cases. SPECT scans were acquired in 64 projections over 360 deg. using a dual-head gamma camera (Siemens E.Cam) coupled with low energy collimator, 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 550 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. Data were recorded in a 64x64 matrix at a zoom factor of 1.78. SPECT images were reconstructed and analysed in the transversal, axial and coronal planes. The study results are presented in the table. Of the 25 tumors, only 19, majority glioblastoma (11) showed avid uptake in the pre- surgery scan. Tumors, II0 astrocytoma (1), oligoasrtrocytoma (1), III0 astrocytoma (3) were missed in the pre surgery scan. Comparison of pre- and postoperative images showed the reduction of 99mTc-MIBI uptake post-operatively except in one case of gliosarcoma where the uptake increased after surgery. In one case of III deg. astrocytoma the 99mTc-MIBI uptakes was observed only after the surgery. All post-operative images showed more intensive uptake in the scalp (zone of

  16. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standard of care, current clinical trials, and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: To review the clinical characteristics of childhood brain tumors, including neurologic signs, neuroimaging and neuropathology. To critically assess indications for therapy relevant to presenting characteristics, age, and disease status. To discuss current management strategies including neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To analyze current clinical trials and future directions of clinical research. Brain tumors account for 20% of neoplastic diseases in children. The most common tumors include astrocytoma and malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET's, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma, and intracranial germ cell tumors. Tumor type and clinical course are often correlated with age at presentation and anatomic site. The clinical characteristics and disease extent largely determine the relative merits of available 'standard' and investigational therapeutic approaches. Treatment outcome, including disease control and functional integrity, is dependent upon age at presentation, tumor type, and disease extent. An understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and histologic characteristics as they relate to decisions regarding therapy is critical to the radiation oncologist. Appropriate radiation therapy is central to curative therapy for a majority of pediatric brain tumor presentations. Technical advances in neurosurgery provide greater safety for 'gross total resection' in a majority of hemispheric astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The relative roles of 'standard' radiation therapy and evolving chemotherapy for centrally located astrocytomas (e.g., diencephalic, optic pathway) need to be analyzed in the context of initial and overall disease control, neurotoxicities, and potential modifications in the risk:benefit ratio apparent in the introduction of precision radiation techniques. Modifications in radiation delivery are fundamental to current investigations in medulloblastoma; the rationale for contemporary and projected

  17. Tumors of the spinal cord and canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, U.L.; Brady, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Most spine (primary and secondary) neoplasms should receive curative or palliative radiation therapy. Data from the literature support its use as a beneficial treatment modality. Meningiomas and neurofibromas should be resected and irradiated postoperatively if removed subtotally or if the histopathology is malignant. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally good. Intramedullary tumors should be biopsied and irradiated when neoplastic histology has been established. The prognosis for these patients is unsatisfactory for high-grade astrocytomas but is more reasonable for ependymomas and vascular malformations. A favorable exception may be the myxopapillary ependymoma in the lumbosacral region. It should be maximally resected with sparing of cauda equina function but then irradiated postoperatively. The primary intent should be to eradicate the tumor. Radiation therapy is the main treatment modality, with steroid medication, in cases of cord compression

  18. Distribution of phospholipase C isozymes in various rat tissues and cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, P.G.; Ryu, S.H.; Choi, W.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies prepared against PLC-I or PLC-II enzyme did not cross-react with the other. Using a pair of antibodies which recognizes 2 different antigenic sites on the same molecule, radioimmunoassays were developed for the quantitation of PLC-I and PLC-II in homogenates of various tissues and cultured cells, prepared by homogenization in a 2 M KCl buffer. The contents of PLC enzymes were measured in 19 rat tissues, in human platelets and in 17 cultured cells. Results indicate that the concentration of PLC-I and PLC-II is very high in brain, PLC-I is localized mainly in brain and partly in seminal vesicles, PLC-II is found in most tissues and cells. PLC-I is highly localized even in brain: 5 different neuroblastoma did not contain PLC-I while 2 glioma and 1 astrocytoma contained significant amounts

  19. Survival in adult patients with diagnosis of high-grade glioma located in the central nervous system, who were treated with radiotherapy and temozolamide at Hospital Mexico during the period from January 2009 to December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves Porras, Jorge Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The impact of survival is determined by the incorporation of the chemotherapeutic temozolamide into the therapy regimen of patients with high grade gliomas. Overall survival is determined in patients with high grade gliomas. The investigation is performed with the total of patients with high grade gliomas, with treatment of radiotherapy and temozolamide. Progression-free survival is determined in the population with high-grade gliomas at Hospital Mexico, from January 2009 to December 2011. The diagnosis of glioblastoma is given in 86% and astrocytoma grade III in 14% of the cases. The concomitance of radiotherapy with temozolomide is received by 33 of 37 patients. Seventy-six percent of patients completed the 6 cycles of adjuvant therapy. The overall survival rate was 14.39 months. Patients with grade III gliomas have had a better prognosis [es

  20. Spinal drop metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.D.; Rafto, S.E.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Packer, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Identifying subarachnoid metastatic disease (SAMD) in patients with primary central nervous system tumors is important in determining subsequent therapy. Myelography with CT follow-up has been the gold standard for this evaluation. It is an invasive procedure often performed with general anesthesia in children. Now that gadolinium MR imaging has become available, a comparison of these techniques has been initiated to determine their relative effectiveness in demonstrating SAMD in children. Ten children (seven male, aged 2-19 years) with primitive neuroectoderm tumor (n = 5), ependymoma (n = 2), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 1), diffuse low-grade astrocytoma (n = 1), and rhabdoid/teratoid tumors (n = 1) underwent simultaneous myelography/CT and gadolinium MR imaging. Results are presented

  1. Multifaceted role of galectin-3 on human glioblastoma cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debray, Charles; Vereecken, Pierre; Belot, Nathalie; Teillard, Peggy; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pochet, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Astrocytic tumors' aggressiveness results from an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death favoring growth, but also from the propensity of tumor cells to detach from the primary tumor site, migrate, and invade the surrounding parenchyma. Astrocytic tumor progression is known to be associated with an increased expression of galectin-3. We investigated in cell culture how galectin-3 expression affects astrocytoma cell motility. Galectin-3 deficient cells were obtained by stable transfection of the U373 glioblastoma cell line with a specific expression antisense plasmid. Cultured galectin-3 deficient glioblastoma cells showed increased motility potential on laminin and modifications in the cytoskeleton reorganization. In addition, c-DNA microarrays and quantitative immunofluorescence analysis showed that galectin-3 deficient U373 cells have an increased expression of integrins-α6 and -β1, proteins known to be implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion

  2. Analysis of Brain Tumors Due to the Usage of Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOOBIA SAEED

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus on the causes of brain tumor (cancer due to the cell phone as this increase in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study is to address the aforementioned problems associated with the cell phone. MATLAB programming to detect a brain tumor has been used. We have conducted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging study to get the best images and results.

  3. 188Re-Labeled Nimotuzumab in the Locoregional Treatment of Malignant Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, R. Leyva; Barrabi, M. Zamora; Casaco, A.; Torres, L.; Perera, A.; Lopez, G.

    2009-01-01

    A new formulation of 188 Re-Nimotuzumab was developed to evaluate the biodistribution, internal radiation dosimetry and safety in the locoregional treatment of malignant gliomas. A phase I clinical trial was performed to evaluate the toxicity and clinical effect of an intracavitary administration of single dose of Nimotuzumab labeled with 188 Re. Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against epidermal growth factor receptors. Nine patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme were intended to be treated with 3 mg of mAb labeled with 10 or 15 mCi of 188 Re. The radioimmunoconjugated showed a high retention in the surgical created resection cavity and the brain adjacent tissues with a mean value of 85.5% of the injected dose one hour post- administration. No patient developed human anti-mouse antibody response. This radioimmunoconjugate may be relatively safe and a promising therapeutic approach for treating high grade gliomas. (author)

  4. Constitutional Tandem Duplication of 9q34 that Truncates EHMT1 in a Child with Ganglioglioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hannah C.; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Kadapakkam, Meena; Legay, Hélène; Su, Jack; Lupski, James R.; Plon, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Point mutations of EHMT1 or deletions and duplications of chromosome 9q34.3 are found in patients with variable neurologic and developmental disorders. Here, we present a child with congenital cataract, developmental and speech delay who developed a metastatic ganglioglioma with progression to anaplastic astrocytoma. Molecular analysis identified a novel constitutional tandem duplication in 9q34.3 with breakpoints in intron 1 of TRAF2 and intron 16 of EHMT1 generating a fusion transcript predicted to encode a truncated form of EHMT1. The ganglioglioma showed complex chromosomal aberrations with further duplication of the dup9q34. Thus, this unique tandem 9q34.3 duplication may impact brain tumor formation. PMID:21681934

  5. Hodgkin's disease as unusual presentation of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scelsi Mario

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a complication of solid organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT; following autologous HSCT only rare cases of PTLD have been reported. Here, a case of Hodgkin's disease (HD, as unusual presentation of PTLD after autologous HSCT for malignant glioma is described. Case presentation 60-years old man affected by cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma underwent subtotal neurosurgical excision and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous HSCT. During the post HSCT course, cranial irradiation and corticosteroids were administered as completion of therapeutic program. At day +105 after HSCT, the patient developed HD, nodular sclerosis type, with polymorphic HD-like skin infiltration. Conclusion The clinical and pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of PTLD.

  6. Analysis of brain tumors due to the usage of mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Noor, S.A.; Shaikh, A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma) in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus on the causes of brain tumor (cancer) due to the cell phone as this increase in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study is to address the aforementioned problems associated with the cell phone. MATLAB programming to detect a brain tumor has been used. We have conducted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) study to get the best images and results. (author)

  7. Suprasellar ganglioglioma with unusual diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gangliogliomas (GG are mixed glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, occurring mostly in the pediatric population, with common sites being temporal lobes and less commonly in the frontal and parietal lobes. We report a case of a 7-year-old child who presented with bilateral visual defects for 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed an intensely enhancing mass lesion with calcification in the sellar and suprasellar region involving the optic chiasm and the left optic nerve. The mass showed almost bilaterally symmetrical diffuse spread along the optic tracts posteriorly and hypothalamus, temporal lobes, thalami and the basal ganglia. The lesion was radiologically indistinguishable from chiasmatic astrocytoma or a germ cell tumor but histopathological features were of a ganglioglioma. While a few optic apparatus gangliogliomas have been reported in the literature, such widespread diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway is unusual.

  8. Spinal metastases of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, B.; Steidle-Katic, U.; Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.; Wauschkuhn, B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Extracranial metastases of malignant gliomas are rare. We report 2 cases with spinal metastases in patients suffering from glioma. Patients and Method: Two patients (33 and 57 years old) developed spinal canal metastases of a glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma Grade III respectively 25 and 9 months after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Both metastases were confirmed pathohistologically. Results: Intraspinal metastases were irradiated with a total dose of 12.6 Gy and 50 Gy. Treatment withdrawal was necessary in one patient due to reduced clinical condition. Regression of neurological symptoms was observed in the second patient. Conclusions: Spinal spread of malignant glioma should be considered during care and follow-up in glioma patients with spinal symptoms. (orig.) [de

  9. Enhancing predicted efficacy of tumor treating fields therapy of glioblastoma using targeted surgical craniectomy: A computer modeling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshoej, Anders Rosendal; Saturnino, Guilherme Bicalho; Rasmussen, Line Kirkegaard

    2016-01-01

    the potential of the intervention to improve the clinical efficacy of TTFields therapy of brain cancer. Methods: We used finite element analysis to calculate the electrical field distribution in realistic head models based on MRI data from two patients: One with left cortical/subcortical glioblastoma and one......Objective: The present work proposes a new clinical approach to TTFields therapy of glioblastoma. The approach combines targeted surgical skull removal (craniectomy) with TTFields therapy to enhance the induced electrical field in the underlying tumor tissue. Using computer simulations, we explore...... with deeply seated right thalamic anaplastic astrocytoma. Field strength was assessed in the tumor regions before and after virtual removal of bone areas of varying shape and size (10 to 100 mm) immediately above the tumor. Field strength was evaluated before and after tumor resection to assess realistic...

  10. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma within the medulla oblongata of a young dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, E T; Kube, S A; Jortner, B; Hager, D; Garman, R H

    2015-01-01

    A 13-week-old male intact Poodle mix dog developed an acute onset of vestibular ataxia, tetraparesis, and vomiting. The patient presented ambulatory, tetraparetic, and ataxic with a head tilt to the left and a disconjugate nystagmus (rotary nystagmus with fast phase to the right in right eye and vertical nystagmus in left eye). There were absent postural reactions in the left pelvic and left thoracic limbs and decreased right-sided postural reactions. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intra-axial mass within the left midcaudal medulla oblongata. On gross dissection, there was a left-sided neoplasm in the medulla oblongata with surrounding hemorrhage. The histologic findings indicated that the mass was a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. This tumor, an uncommon variant of an astrocytoma most often seen in children and young adult humans, has yet to be described in dogs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Studies on methods of measurement of radioactivities of 36Cl and 3H in dual labelled samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Shusuke; Asou, Hiroaki; Oishi, Katsuhiko; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Sato, Isamu

    1985-01-01

    In order to clarify how chloride molecules are transported into nervous tissue cells, we simultaneously used [ 36 Cl] -NaCl and [ 3 H] -inulin, and added AgNO 3 to the extract from the nervous tissue, obtaining 36 Cl-samples from the AgCl-precipitate and 3 H-samples from the supernatant. As for radioactivity of 36 Cl or 3 H in the dual-labelled samples, the recovery rates by our separation method were about 100%. Using cultured astrocytoma cells, 36 Cl-uptake into the cells, which was calculated by inulin assumption, was investigated. Intracellular 36 Cl-radioactivity changed vis-a-vis with that in the extracellular space. The volume of intracellular water, which was calculated by 3 H-inulin assumption, remained unchanged, even though a few variations in 36 Cl-radioactivity in cells were determined by both our separation method and spill-over method. (author)

  12. Characterization of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor system in human brain gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattola, L.; Ferrarese, C.; Canal, N.; Gaini, S.M.; Galluso, R.; Piolti, R.; Trabucchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of [ 3 H]-gamma-aminobutyric acid [( 3 H]GABA) binding were studied in biopsied specimens from normal human brain and from 18 cases of human brain gliomas, made up of 6 astrocytomas, 6 glioblastomas, 3 oligodendrogliomas, and 3 medulloblastomas. In fresh membranes obtained from normal gray and white matter one population of Na+-dependent GABA receptors was observed, while in the frozen Triton X-100-treated membranes two distinct populations of Na+-independent binding sites were detected. Specific GABA binding sites in brain gliomas were shown only in frozen Triton X-100-treated membranes. As in normal tissue, these receptors are Na+-independent and bind [ 3 H]GABA with two distinct affinity components. The biochemical profiles of [ 3 H]GABA binding to membranes obtained from different tumors of glial origin are quite similar and cannot be related to the degree of malignancy of the neoplasia

  13. Progressive paralysis associated with diffuse astrocyte anaplasia in delta 202 mice homozygous for a transgene encoding the SV40 T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Revilla, Rubén; Soto-Zárate, Carlos; Ridaura, Cecilia; Chávez-Dueñas, Lucía; Paul, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    A convenient transgenic astrocytoma model in delta202 mice, homozygous for a construct encoding the early region of the SV40 virus genome, is described. In the offspring of crosses between delta202 mice heterozygous for the transgene nearly 60% were transgenic; one third of these developed progressive paralysis starting in the hindlimbs at approximately 35 days of age and died at 90 +/- 30 days of age. In affected mice proliferating-non-neuronal cells immunostained with antibodies to the GFAP, an astrocyte marker, whose number increased with age were found in the white matter of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, and progressive degeneration and necrosis of spinal motoneurons was observed that-may explain the paralysis. The early onset and reproducible time course of the neurological disease suggest that homozygous delta202 mice, whose proliferating astrocytes appear to damage spinal motoneurons, are a useful model to study astrocyte differentiation, function and tumorigenesis.

  14. Dosimetry of {sup 32}P radiocolloid for treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi [Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radioisotope Production Department, Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); E-mail: msadeghi@nrcam.org; Moradi, Somayeh [Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzadi, Sohrab [Radiosurgery Department, Tajrish Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourbeigi, Hossien [Radioisotope Production Department, Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    In Tajrish Shohada Hospital, patients with either cystic craniopharyngiomas or cystic astrocytomas have been treated with {sup 32}P radiocolloid by stereotactic procedure. The total activity was prescribed for delivery dose between 200 and 300 Gy to the cyst wall thicknesses of 1-3 mm. In this project, MD-55-2 radiochromic film was utilized to determine the dose distribution around the source. The film dosimetry data were compared with Monte Carlo simulated values calculated with MCNP4C code. In addition, the clinical and dosimetric factors such as the cyst volume, and method of radiocolloid injection were evaluated. The required activity and distribution of radial dose in and out of cyst wall have been investigated.

  15. Dosimetry of P-32 radiocolloid for treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Moradi, Somayeh; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Pourbeigi, Hossien

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Tajrish Shohada hospital, patients with either cystic craniopharyngiomas or cystic astrocytomas have been treated with P-32 radiocolloid by Stereotactic Procedure. The total activity was prescribed for deliver dose between 200 Gy to 300 Gy to the cyst wall thicknesses of 1 mm to 3 mm. In this project, MD-55-2 radiochromic film was utilized to determine the dose distribution around the source. The film dosimetry data was compared with Monte Carlo simulated values calculated with MCNP4C code. In addition, the clinical and dosimetric factors such as the volume of cyst, method of radiocolloid injection was evaluated. The required activity and distribution of radial dose in and out of cyst wall have been investigated. (author)

  16. Radiation therapy in the management of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades, multimodality treatment regimens have produced significant improvement in survival rates for most types of childhood cancer. The role of radiation therapy has been critically evaluated in prospective clinical trials that established the importance of irradiation in assuring local and regional control of disease central to ultimate survival. Indications for cranial and craniospinal irradiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are reviewed, as is difficult technical factors important for successful management. The role of radiation therapy in neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor is reviewed in the context of tumor biology and increasing data from multi-institutional trials. Interactions of irradiation with surgery and chemotherapy are stressed in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Current results in the more common central nervous tumors of childhood are presented, including the central role of radiation therapy in medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, and craniopharyngioma. Concerns regarding late effects of radiation therapy are balanced with the importance of achieving disease control

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...... meningiomas (4 of 7 cases) in which most of the tumor itself did not receive any isotope. Brain metastases (6) usually had a low flow in the tumor and tumor-near region. The glioblastomas tended to show markedly bending 133Xe wash-out curves pointing to pronounced heterogeneity of blood flow. Most of the flow...... maps, regardless of the tumor types, showed widespread abnormalities of rCBF not only in the tumor region but also in the region remote from the tumor. It is concluded that measurement of rCBF cannot yield accurate differential diagnostic information, but that the widespread derangement of the brain...

  18. Tuberous sclerosis: A clinicoradiological evaluation of 110 cases with particular reference to atypical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, D.P.E.; Kendall, B.E.; Fitz, C.R.; Hospital for Sick Children, London

    1986-01-01

    CT scans on 110 children with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis have been compared with the clinical features of the disease. Patients with definite radiological as well as definite or suggestive clinical features accounted for only 80% of cases. 16% had positive radiological and negative clinical features and 4% had positive clinical and negative radiological features. There is little relationship between the mental development and the incidence of periventricular tubers or cortical and parenchymal lesions. In 15 patients older than 7 years the diagnosis was only made at the time of CT. Cerebral atrophy was not a prominent feature. Giant cell astrocytomas were present in 14%, one third of whom presented for the first time. (orig.)

  19. Myc inhibition is effective against glioma and reveals a role for Myc in proficient mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, Daniela; Whitfield, Jonathan R; Favuzzi, Emilia; Jauset, Toni; Serrano, Erika; Cuartas, Isabel; Redondo-Campos, Sara; Folch, Gerard; Gonzàlez-Juncà, Alba; Sodir, Nicole M; Massó-Vallés, Daniel; Beaulieu, Marie-Eve; Swigart, Lamorna B; Mc Gee, Margaret M; Somma, Maria Patrizia; Nasi, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Evan, Gerard I; Soucek, Laura

    2014-08-18

    Gliomas are the most common primary tumours affecting the adult central nervous system and respond poorly to standard therapy. Myc is causally implicated in most human tumours and the majority of glioblastomas have elevated Myc levels. Using the Myc dominant negative Omomyc, we previously showed that Myc inhibition is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we preclinically validate Myc inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in mouse and human glioma, using a mouse model of spontaneous multifocal invasive astrocytoma and its derived neuroprogenitors, human glioblastoma cell lines, and patient-derived tumours both in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Across all these experimental models we find that Myc inhibition reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis and remarkably, elicits the formation of multinucleated cells that then arrest or die by mitotic catastrophe, revealing a new role for Myc in the proficient division of glioma cells.

  20. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Deepak M W; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Spitzer-Naaijkens, Juliette M J; Hulshof, Mieke M

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  1. Cerebellar giant cell glioblastoma multiforme in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a rare tumor that accounts for only 1% of all cases of GBM and its giant cell variant is even much rarely encountered in adults. A case of cerebellar giant cell GBM managed at our institution reporting its clinical presentation, radiological and histological findings, and treatment instituted is described. In conjunction, a literature review, including particular issues, clinical data, advances in imaging studies, pathological characteristics, treatment options, and the behavior of such malignant tumor is presented. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to make the differential diagnosis between the cerebellar GBM, and other diseases such as metastasis, anaplastic astrocytomas, and cerebellar infarct because their treatment modalities, prognosis, and outcome are different.

  2. Peripapillar retinal hamartoma associated with tuberous sclerosis. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Pardines, F; Núñez Márquez, S; Fernández Montalvo, L; Serra Verdú, M C; Juárez Marroquí, A

    2018-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare multisystemic disease with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. There are few documented cases in the literature of retinal hamartomas (astrocytomas) with aggressive progression in the context of this disease. A report is presented on a case of a 31 year-old male with unknown history of ophthalmic or systemic conditions, who referred to a history of 6 months of blurred vision in his right eye. This was caused by a unilateral retinal hamartoma due to an undiagnosed tuberous sclerosis. Multidisciplinary management, with the cooperation of Internal Medicine and the Oncology Department, is needed in these cases, as well as genetic counselling for affected patients. Complications are directly related to increased tumour size. Treatment does not seem to have any influence on the natural history of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, Matthias; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Czech, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela; Budka, Herbert; Hainfellner, Johannes A

    2003-11-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle has been reported recently as a novel type of primary CNS neoplasm. We present the case of a 35-year-old male patient with RGNT of the fourth ventricle. The tumor was found incidentally; the patient did not suffer from any neurological symptoms. The tumor mass involved the caudal cerebellar vermis, filled the fourth ventricle and protruded into the caudal part of the mesencephalic aquaeduct. Smaller tumor nodules were visible in the adjacent right cerebellar hemisphere. Histologically, prominent neurocytic rosettes with synaptophysin expression were embedded in a glial tumor component resembling pilocytic astrocytoma. Clinicopathological features of our case closely resemble those reported in the original description. Thus, our case confirms RGNT as a new distinct type of primary CNS neoplasm. Due to its distinct features, adoption of RGNT as a new entity into the WHO classification of tumors should be considered.

  4. Regional distribution of TL-201 in the brain and spinal cord after injection into the cerebrospinal fluid: Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.; Rubertone, J.; Vincent, S.; Brady, L.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotracers are typically employed to evaluate the brain ventricular space; however, there are no agents designed to be taken up into specific neuronal regions after injection into the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). The authors report studies in which T1-201 was stereotaxically administered into the lateral or fourth ventricles of Sprague-Dawley rats. Brains were removed (n = 42) 2-6 hours after injection and sectioned for apposition to autoradiographic film. Specific uptake was observed in active neurons of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal gray matter. Astrocytoma cell implants into the caudate nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats induced histologically confirmed brain tumors (n = 5). Significant localization of T1-201 was observed in the tumor 4 hours after injection into the lateral ventricle. These findings suggest that T1-201 may be useful for delineating specific neuronal function via CSF circulation and for imaging actively growing brain tumors

  5. Development of brain tumor at six years after the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazaki, Hisami; Hanada, Ryoji; Kikuti, Akira; Ichikawa, Masataka; Yamamoto, Keiko; Aihara, Toshinori; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994, a 16-year-old boy was diagnosed as having a brain tumor in the left fronto-temporal region 5 years after completing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The patient had been treated for ALL starting in 1988 when he was 10-year-old. He had received systemic chemotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis, consisting of cranial irradiation (24 Gy) and intrathecal methotrexate. When the brain tumor was detected he was still in complete remission. The patient received only supportive therapy mainly for relief of increased intracranial pressure because the tumor was too large to resect in addition to being inappropriate for surgical treatment. He died in December 1994. On autopsy, pathological diagnosis of the brain tumor was anaplastic astrocytoma, which is a rare secondary malignancy though glioma is common. (author)

  6. Pediatric glioblastoma multiforme: A single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mansour; Nasrolahi, Hamid; Kani, Amir-Abbas; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common astrocytoma in adults and has a poor prognosis, with a median survival of about 12 months. But, it is rare in children. We report our experience on the pediatric population (20 years or younger) with GBM. Twenty-three patients with GBM who were treated at our hospital during 1990-2008 were evaluated. The mean age was 15.2 years, and the majority of them (14/23) were male. All had received radiotherapy and some had also received chemotherapy. The mean survival was 16.0 months. Two cases survived more than 5 years. Age, radiation dose and performance status were significantly related to survival. GBM in pediatric patients were not very common in our center, and prognosis was unfavorable.

  7. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya

    2001-01-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  8. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations before and after treatment of an ovarian granulosa cell tumour in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Heaps

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 15-year-old female cat was presented for investigation of progressive behavioural changes, polyuria, polydipsia and periuria. An ovarian granulosa cell tumour was identified and the cat underwent therapeutic ovariohysterectomy (OHE. The cat’s clinical signs resolved, but 6 months later it was diagnosed as having an anaplastic astrocytoma and was euthanased. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH concentration prior to OHE was increased vs a control group of entire and neutered female cats. Following OHE, serum AMH concentration decreased to <1% of the original value. Relevance and novel information Serum AMH measurement may represent a novel diagnostic and monitoring tool for functional ovarian neoplasms in cats.

  9. Pseudo-reorganization of language cortical function at fMR imaging: a consequence of tumor-induced neurovascular uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, John L; Krouwer, Hendrikus G; Mueller, Wade M; Ugurel, M Sahin; Kocak, Mehmet; Mark, Leighton P

    2003-02-01

    A left-handed patient with a grade II left frontal lobe astrocytoma had spontaneous seizures causing speech arrest and uncontrolled right upper extremity movements. Word-generation functional MR (fMR) imaging showed activity nearly exclusively in the right inferior frontal gyrus. The clinical history of the speech arrest and the intraoperative mapping proved left-hemisphere language dominance. Tumor involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus caused uncoupling of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and neuronal response, leading to the erroneous fMR imaging appearance of right-hemisphere language dominance. Discrepancies between BOLD and intraoperative mapping in areas near lesions illustrate the complementary nature of these techniques.

  10. CT diagnosis of hyperdense intracranial neoplasms. Review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Reiichi; Ando, Kumiko; Tominaga, Satoru; Nakao, Norio; Ikeda, Jouta; Takemura, Yuriko; Morikawa, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to typical astrocytic tumors that show hypodense areas on computed tomographic images, some intracranial tumors show hyperdense areas on CT images. The major reasons for hyperdensity on CT images are hypercellular lesions, intratumoral calcification, and intratumoral hemorrhage. Malignant lymphomas, germinomas, and medulloblastomas show homogenous hyperdensity on CT images because of their hypercellularity. Tumorous lesions such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, central neurocytomas, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas often present with hyperdense calcified lesions on CT images. Intratumoral hemorrhage also causes hyperdensity on CT images, and is often associated with metastatic brain tumors, glioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and rarely with any of the other intracranial tumors. Although magnetic resonance imaging is now the major diagnostic tool for diseases of the central nervous system, the first imaging studies for patients with neurologic symptoms are still CT scans. Hyperdense areas on CT images are a clue to making an accurate diagnosis of intracranial neoplasms. (author)

  11. Clinical feasibility of a Asahi Mark J MR-CT unit in routine practice, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kyoichi; Araki, Akiteru; Mikami, Fumio

    1985-01-01

    Slice thickness for demonstrating tumors of the cerebellum and spinal cord using a 0.1 Tesla MR-CT unit was assessed. Slices 5 mm and 10 mm in thickness yielded clear images of the contour of masses and cysts in a patient with astrocytoma of the cerebellum. A 5-mm-thick slice gave a clear image of the structure inside the mass. In a patient with osteoarthritis of the spine, although a 5-mm-thick slice provided by spin-echo (SE) technique visualized compression and deviation of the cervical cord, a 10-mm-thick slice failed to show fine twisting of the cervical cord. In a patient with tumor of the thoracic cord, a SE image slice 5 mm in thickness visualized extending of lesions. Spinal nerve roots were shown on coronal scanning with a slice 5 mm in thickness in a patient with tumor of the lumbar cord. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Clinical experience with the radiosensitizer misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelnik, D.; Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Seitz, W.

    1979-01-01

    From April 1976 to June 1978, 74 cancer patients were treated with multiple doses of misonidazole at the University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology of Vienna. Thirtyone patients had inoperable brain tumors or high-grade astrocytomas, the remaining patients suffered from late stages of various extracerebral malignancies. All patients were hospitalized and thoroughly examined for possible side-effects of this currently most promising hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Neurotoxicity, principally the development of peripheral neuropathies, is the most important limiting factor in the clinical application of misonidazole. With total doses of 12 g/m 2 of surface area a low and acceptable incidence of neuropathies is seen. By extension of the over-all treatment time to 6-8 weeks the total dose may be increased to 15 g/m 2 . (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  13. RTEL1: functions of a disease-associated helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean-Baptiste; Sarek, Grzegorz; Boulton, Simon J

    2014-07-01

    DNA secondary structures that arise during DNA replication, repair, and recombination (3R) must be processed correctly to prevent genetic instability. Regulator of telomere length 1 (RTEL1) is an essential DNA helicase that disassembles a variety of DNA secondary structures to facilitate 3R processes and to maintain telomere integrity. The past few years have witnessed the emergence of RTEL1 variants that confer increased susceptibility to high-grade glioma, astrocytomas, and glioblastomas. Mutations in RTEL1 have also been implicated in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, a severe form of the bone-marrow failure and cancer predisposition disorder, dyskeratosis congenita. We review these recent findings and highlight its crucial link between DNA secondary-structure metabolism and human disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lai, Jian-jun; Qu, Yuan-ming

    2004-07-07

    To explore surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the superior frontal gyrus. Clinical data and follow-up outcome of 16 patients with low graded astrocytomas involving the supplementary motor area were analyzed. SMA syndrome was developed in 6 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus and resolved after 12 months. Hemiplegia occurred however in 8 patients in whom the resection line was less than 1 cm to precentral sulcus and only resolved in 3 patients during follow period 12 months. When the resection is performed at a distance of less than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus, surgery for gliomas of involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus may be result in permanent morbidity.

  15. Implications of the Incidental Finding of a MYCN Amplified Adrenal Tumor: A Case Report and Update of a Pediatric Disease Diagnosed in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koumarianou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MYCN is a well-known oncogene overexpressed in different human malignancies including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, Wilms’ tumor, and small cell lung cancer. While neuroblastoma is one of the most common childhood malignancies, in adults it is extremely rare and its treatment is based on pediatric protocols that take into consideration stage and genotypic features, such as MYCN amplification. Although neuroblastoma therapy has evolved, identification of early stage patients who need chemotherapy continues to pose a therapeutic challenge. The emerging prognostic role of MYCN phenotype of this disease is currently under investigation as it may redefine MYCN amplified subgroups. We describe an unusual case of adult neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification diagnosed incidentally and discuss possible therapeutic dilemmas.

  16. Clinical experience of gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Inoue, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Hiromi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) in 9 patients with intracranial tumors (8) and a spinal tumor (1). In this study IR (2100/600) and short SE (600/40) were used. After administration of Gd-DTPA, signal intensity of tumors increased in all cases. Contrast enhanced MRI with Gd-DTPA was useful in metastatic brain tumor, cerebeller astrocytoma and glioblastoma to differentiate the tumor from edema. Since meningiomas were clearly demonstrated and differentiated from edema. Gd-DTPA seems to be not required for the diagnosis of meningiomas. No severe side effect were encountered after injection of Gd-DTPA. (author)

  17. Bevacizumab in High Grade Gliomas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balana, Carme; Cardona, Andres Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma generally have adverse prognosis. Currently, standard treatment for high grade glial cell tumors consists of the concomitant use of radiotherapy and Themozolamide, followed by six months with the alkilant. However, subjects diagnosed with novo or recurrent tumors have overall survival rates from 3 to 15 months. Multiple chemotherapeutic and biological agents have been used to control progression, with no improvement in survival rates. New medication is being developed aimed at molecular targets such as the endothelial growth factor which can be regulated by, among others, Bevacizumab (BEV). Recent results from phase 11 trials combining BEV and Irinotecan (CPT-11) in patients with high grade gliomas revealed improved response rates, as well as disease free and overall survival rates. The case of a female with recurrent glioblastoma who achieved complete response after initiating BEV/CPT- 11 is presented

  18. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  19. Generating prior probabilities for classifiers of brain tumours using belief networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvanitis Theodoros N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous methods for classifying brain tumours based on magnetic resonance spectra and imaging have been presented in the last 15 years. Generally, these methods use supervised machine learning to develop a classifier from a database of cases for which the diagnosis is already known. However, little has been published on developing classifiers based on mixed modalities, e.g. combining imaging information with spectroscopy. In this work a method of generating probabilities of tumour class from anatomical location is presented. Methods The method of "belief networks" is introduced as a means of generating probabilities that a tumour is any given type. The belief networks are constructed using a database of paediatric tumour cases consisting of data collected over five decades; the problems associated with using this data are discussed. To verify the usefulness of the networks, an application of the method is presented in which prior probabilities were generated and combined with a classification of tumours based solely on MRS data. Results Belief networks were constructed from a database of over 1300 cases. These can be used to generate a probability that a tumour is any given type. Networks are presented for astrocytoma grades I and II, astrocytoma grades III and IV, ependymoma, pineoblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET, germinoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma and a group representing rare tumours, "other". Using the network to generate prior probabilities for classification improves the accuracy when compared with generating prior probabilities based on class prevalence. Conclusion Bayesian belief networks are a simple way of using discrete clinical information to generate probabilities usable in classification. The belief network method can be robust to incomplete datasets. Inclusion of a priori knowledge is an effective way of improving classification of brain tumours by non-invasive methods.

  20. Phase I dose escalation clinical trial of phenylbutyrate sodium administered twice daily to patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Luis H; Olson, Jon; Tong, William P; Young, Charles W; Spriggs, David R; Malkin, Mark G

    2007-04-01

    Phenylbutyrate (PBA), and its metabolite phenylacetate (PAA), induce growth inhibition and cellular differentiation in multiple tumor models. However, despite their potential anti-cancer properties, several pharmacodynamic aspects remain unknown. We conducted a dose escalating trial to evaluate twice-daily intravenous PBA infusions for two consecutive weeks (Monday through Friday) every month at five dose levels (60-360 mg/kg/day). Twenty-one patients with the following malignancies were treated: colon carcinoma 4, non-small cell lung carcinoma 4; anaplastic astrocytoma 3, glioblastoma multiforme 3, bladder carcinoma 2, sarcoma 2, and ovarian carcinoma, rectal hemangiopericytoma, and pancreatic carcinoma 1 each. Conversion of PBA to PAA and phenylacetylglutamine (PAG) was documented without catabolic saturation. Plasma content of PBA > or =1 mM was documented for only 3 h following each dose at the top two dosages. The therapy was well tolerated overall. Common adverse effects included grade 1 nausea/vomiting, fatigue, and lightheadedness. Dose limiting toxicities were short-term memory loss, sedation, confusion, nausea, and vomiting. Two patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and a patient with glioblastoma remained stable without tumor progression for 5, 7, and 4 months respectively. Administration of PBA in a twice-daily infusion schedule is safe. The maximum tolerated dose is 300 mg/kg/day. Study designs with more convenient treatment schedules and specific molecular correlates may help to further delineate the mechanism of action of this compound. Future studies evaluating PBA's ability to induce histone acetylation and cell differentiation alone or in combination with other anti-neoplastics are recommended.

  1. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides and their metabolites on astroglial cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizzetti, Marina; Pathak, Shantha; Giordano, Gennaro; Costa, Lucio G.

    2005-01-01

    Though little attention has been given to the possibility that glial cells may represent a target for the developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, recent evidence, obtained in particular with chlorpyrifos (CP), suggests that developmental exposure to this compound may indeed target astrocytes. To substantiate and expand these observations, we carried out a series of in vitro studies utilizing fetal rat astrocytes and a human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1 cells, to investigate the effect of the OPs CP, diazinon (DZ) and parathion (P), their oxygen analogs chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), diazoxon (DZO) and paraoxon (PO), and their metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidol (IMP) and para-nitrophenol (PNP), on cell proliferation. In fetal rat astrocytes and astrocytoma cells maintained in serum, CP, DZ, P, CPO, DZO, and PO induced a concentration-dependent inhibition in [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation with a very similar potency (IC 50 between 45 and 57 μM). Among the other metabolites, PNP was the most potent (IC 50 = 70-80 μM), while TCP and IMP were much less effective (IC 50 > 100 μM). Cytotoxicity appears to account only for a small part of the effect on DNA synthesis. OP insecticides and their oxons were three- to six-fold more potent in inhibiting [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation when cells were synchronized in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle and re-stimulated by carbachol or epidermal growth factor. These results suggest that OP insecticides and their oxons affect astroglial cell proliferation and that the transition from the G 0 /G 1 to the S/G 2 phase of the cell cycle may be particularly sensitive to the action of these compounds

  2. Pediatric brain tumors; Kindliche Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Bodea, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muehl-Benninghaus, R.

    2017-09-15

    Brain tumors differ between children and adults both in histology and localization. Malignant gliomas and meningiomas predominate in adults while medulloblastomas and low-grade astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. More than one half (50-70%) of pediatric brain tumors have an infratentorial location but only approximately 30% in adults. Brain tumors can be recognized in sonography, cranial computed tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by their space-consuming character and by their divergent density and intensity in comparison to normal brain parenchyma. They can grow extrusively, even infiltrate the parenchyma or originate from it. Besides clinical symptoms and diagnostics this article describes the most common pediatric brain tumors, i.e. astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, brainstem glioma, craniopharyngioma, neurofibromatosis and ganglioglioma. The most important imaging criteria are outlined. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Histologie als auch Lokalisation von Hirntumoren unterscheiden sich bei Kindern und Erwachsenen. Waehrend maligne Gliome und Meningeome bei Erwachsenen vorherrschen, kommen bei Kindern ueberwiegend Medulloblastome und niedriggradige Astrozytome vor. Mehr als die Haelfte (50-70 %) aller kindlichen Hirntumoren sind infratentoriell lokalisiert, dagegen sind es bei Erwachsenen nur etwa 30 %. Im Ultraschall, in der kranialen CT (CCT) oder MRT koennen Hirntumoren durch ihren raumfordernden Charakter und ihrer zum normalen Parenchym abweichenden Dichte oder Signalintensitaet erkannt werden. Sie koennen verdraengend wachsen, z. T. auch das Parenchym infiltrieren oder von diesem ausgehen. Neben der klinischen Symptomatik und Diagnostik werden im vorliegenden Artikel die haeufigsten kindlichen Hirntumoren, das Astrozytom, Medulloblastom, Hirnstammgliom, Kraniopharyngeom, die Neurofibromatose und das Gangliogliom beschrieben. Die wichtigsten bildgebende Kriterien werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  3. Multimodal imaging in cerebral gliomas and its neuropathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gempt, Jens, E-mail: jens.gempt@lrz.tum.de [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Soehngen, Eric [Abteilung für Neuroradiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Förster, Stefan [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Ryang, Yu-Mi [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Schlegel, Jürgen [Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); and others

    2014-05-15

    Introduction: Concerning the preoperative clinical diagnostic work-up of glioma patients, tumor heterogeneity challenges the oncological therapy. The current study assesses the performance of a multimodal imaging approach to differentiate between areas in malignant gliomas and to investigate the extent to which such a combinatorial imaging approach might predict the underlying histology. Methods: Prior to surgical resection, patients harboring intracranial gliomas underwent MRIs (MR-S, PWI) and {sup 18}F-FET-PETs. Intratumoral and peritumoral biopsy targets were defined, by MRI only, by FET-PET only, and by MRI and FET-PET combined, and biopsied prior to surgical resection and which then received separate histopathological examinations. Results: In total, 38 tissue samples were acquired (seven glioblastomas, one anaplastic astrocytoma, one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, one diffuse astrocytoma, and one oligoastrocytoma) and underwent histopathological analysis. The highest mean values of Mib1 and CD31 were found in the target point “T’ defined by MRI and FET-PET combined. A significant correlation between NAA/Cr and PET tracer uptake (−0.845, p < 0.05) as well as Cho/Cr ratio and cell density (0.742, p < 0.05) and NAA/Cr ratio and MIB-1 (−0761, p < 0.05) was disclosed for this target point, though not for target points defined by MRI and FET-PET alone. Conclusion: Multimodal-imaging-guided stereotactic biopsy correlated more with histological malignancy indices, such as cell density and MIB-1 labeling, than targets that were based solely on the highest amino acid uptake or contrast enhancement on MRI. The results of our study indicate that a combined PET-MR multimodal imaging approach bears potential benefits in detecting glioma heterogeneity.

  4. CT evaluation of cystic brain disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Woo; Lee, Jin Woo; Joo, Yang Goo; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1987-01-01

    We retrospectively analysed CT findings of 47 cystic brain lesions of 44 patients, in which operation, biopsy or follow-up study was needed for their final diagnosis. The results were as follows: 1. The etiologic diseases of cystic brain lesions were 15 cases of brain abscess, 9 cases of astrocytoma, 5 cases of glioblastoma multiforme, 3 cases of meningioma, 5 cases of craniopharyngioma, 1 case of hemangioblastoma, 2 cases of dermoid cyst and 4 cases of metastasis. 2. We analyses the cystic lesions in view of their number, location, shape, perifocal edema, mass effect, wall and its thickness, evenness and characteristics of their inner and outer surfaces, mural nodule, calcification and contrast enhancement. a. 13.3% of brain abscess and 75% of metastases were multiple in number, but the remainder showed single lesion. b. The shape of cystic lesions were round or ovoid in 68%, lobulated in 8.5% and irregular in 23.5%, and no demonstrable difference of shape were noticed in different disease. c. In brain abscess, the wall of cystic lesions tend to be thin, even and smooth in inner surface, but the outer surfaces were equally smooth or irregular. d. Mural nodules were found in nearly half of the cases of astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, metastasis and hemangioblastoma, but the brain abscess and dermoid cyst contained no mural nodule. e. Meningiomas were found to be attached to dura mater and showed thickening of the inner table of adjacent skull or of the falx. f. The presence of preceding infectious disease may be helpful in the diagnosis of brain abscess, but in 20% there were no demonstrable preceding infection. g. Lung cancer was confirmed as primary site in two of the cystic metastatic disease, but other 2 cases showed no demonstrable primary malignancy

  5. CT evaluation of cystic brain disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Woo; Lee, Jin Woo; Joo, Yang Goo; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    We retrospectively analysed CT findings of 47 cystic brain lesions of 44 patients, in which operation, biopsy or follow-up study was needed for their final diagnosis. The results were as follows: 1. The etiologic diseases of cystic brain lesions were 15 cases of brain abscess, 9 cases of astrocytoma, 5 cases of glioblastoma multiforme, 3 cases of meningioma, 5 cases of craniopharyngioma, 1 case of hemangioblastoma, 2 cases of dermoid cyst and 4 cases of metastasis. 2. We analyses the cystic lesions in view of their number, location, shape, perifocal edema, mass effect, wall and its thickness, evenness and characteristics of their inner and outer surfaces, mural nodule, calcification and contrast enhancement. a. 13.3% of brain abscess and 75% of metastases were multiple in number, but the remainder showed single lesion. b. The shape of cystic lesions were round or ovoid in 68%, lobulated in 8.5% and irregular in 23.5%, and no demonstrable difference of shape were noticed in different disease. c. In brain abscess, the wall of cystic lesions tend to be thin, even and smooth in inner surface, but the outer surfaces were equally smooth or irregular. d. Mural nodules were found in nearly half of the cases of astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, metastasis and hemangioblastoma, but the brain abscess and dermoid cyst contained no mural nodule. e. Meningiomas were found to be attached to dura mater and showed thickening of the inner table of adjacent skull or of the falx. f. The presence of preceding infectious disease may be helpful in the diagnosis of brain abscess, but in 20% there were no demonstrable preceding infection. g. Lung cancer was confirmed as primary site in two of the cystic metastatic disease, but other 2 cases showed no demonstrable primary malignancy.

  6. Age and the risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing supratentorial cerebral tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F G; Chang, S M; Huhn, S L; Davis, R L; Gutin, P H; McDermott, M W; Wilson, C B; Prados, M D

    1997-09-01

    It is often assumed that a cerebral lesion that is nonenhancing on a magnetic resonance imaging study with gadolinium contrast is a low grade tumor. Some physicians recommend observation rather than biopsy for such lesions. The authors prospectively evaluated the incidence of anaplastic tumor histology in a consecutive series of patients who presented to a neuro-oncology service with a nonenhancing mass of the cerebral hemisphere. During a 5-month period, the authors evaluated 31 patients who had a nonenhancing lesion in the cerebral hemisphere on initial magnetic resonance images. Thirty patients underwent stereotactic biopsy (27%) or open resection (73%). The median patient age was 36 years (range, 6-63 years). There was no mortality or permanent neurologic morbidity from surgery. Twenty-eight patients had pathologic confirmation of diagnosis while their lesions were still nonenhancing. Of these patients, 9 (32%) had Grade 3 lesions (anaplastic astrocytoma or oligoastrocytoma), 13 (43%) had Grade 2 lesions (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or oligoastrocytoma), and 2 (7%) had Grade 1 lesions (dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors). Two additional patients (ages 33 and 59 years) who developed enhancement within their lesions during preoperative periods of observation had glioblastomas at surgery. Logistic regression was used to relate patient age to the risk of anaplasia in a nonenhancing cerebral mass lesion. Older age predicted a significantly higher risk of anaplasia (P = 0.025). The model predicted that nonenhancing cerebral masses in patients older than 44 years were more likely to be anaplastic tumors than low grade tumors. There was no "safe" age below which low grade histology could be confidently assumed. Magnetic resonance-nonenhancing cerebral lesions may be histologically anaplastic, even in young patients. The risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing lesions increases significantly with patient age.

  7. Low values of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), the "sixth base," are associated with anaplasia in human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Theo F J; Globisch, Daniel; Wagner, Mirko; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Widmann, David; Münzel, Martin; Müller, Markus; Pfaffeneder, Toni; Hackner, Benjamin; Feiden, Wolfgang; Schüller, Ulrich; Carell, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Hans A

    2012-10-01

    5-Methylcytosine (5 mC) in genomic DNA has important epigenetic functions in embryonic development and tumor biology. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) is generated from 5 mC by the action of the TET (Ten-Eleven-Translocation) enzymes and may be an intermediate to further oxidation and finally demethylation of 5 mC. We have used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and isotope-based liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to investigate the presence and distribution of 5 hmC in human brain and brain tumors. In the normal adult brain, IHC identified 61.5% 5 hmC positive cells in the cortex and 32.4% 5 hmC in white matter (WM) areas. In tumors, positive staining of cells ranged from 1.1% in glioblastomas (GBMs) (WHO Grade IV) to 8.9% in Grade I gliomas (pilocytic astrocytomas). In the normal adult human brain, LC-MS also showed highest values in cortical areas (1.17% 5 hmC/dG [deoxyguanosine]), in the cerebral WM we measured around 0.70% 5 hmC/dG. levels were related to tumor differentiation, ranging from lowest values of 0.078% 5 hmC/dG in GBMs (WHO Grade IV) to 0.24% 5 hmC/dG in WHO Grade II diffuse astrocytomas. 5 hmC measurements were unrelated to 5 mC values. We find that the number of 5 hmC positive cells and the amount of 5 hmC/dG in the genome that has been proposed to be related to pluripotency and lineage commitment in embryonic stem cells is also associated with brain tumor differentiation and anaplasia. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. The diagnostic analysis using the CT scan, of cystic lesions in the cranial basis in pediatric cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshida, Kinya; Ishimori, Shoji; Okada, Ryoho.

    1978-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the low-density lesions of those pediatric cases which were treated at this hospital in the six months beginning July, 1977, using a CT scan, EMI-1010 Type. Among 1500 consecutive cases diagnosed with the CT scan, 300 pediatric cases were included. We discuss particularly eight patients, two with arachnoidal cysts, two with cystic craniopharyngiomas, two with cystic cerebellar astrocytomas and two with Dandy-Walker syndromes, one of which was accompanied by corpus callosum agenesis. The distribution of ages was from 2 to 12 years. We calculated the matrix of each slice of these patients, CT scan in the cystic lesions, the area including the cystic lesion, ventricles and brain tissue, predominantly the white matter or interhemispheric cortex including white matter, without dye enhancement. The x-ray absorption values of the low-density lesions were definitely different according to the nature of the cystic contents. The mean values of x-ray absorption, the standard deviations, and the sample sizes of each area in the matrix were compared statistically with those of cystic lesions. The mean values of the arachnoidal cysts, the contents of which were almost like CSF, were 17 - 21; that of cystic craniopharyngiomas, the contents of which were a thick yellowic fluid with cholesterin crystals, were 23 - 28; those of cerebellar astrocytomas, with Froin positive fluid, were 22 - 24; the cystic lesions of the posterior fossa in the Dandy-Walker syndrome were 8 - 13. The difference in the x-ray absorption values (Hounsfield number) were compared statistically for analyzing the differential diagnosis of these low-density lesions by calculating the P-values. All of these lesions were verified by surgical explorations. (author)

  9. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, R.W.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.; Phemister, R.D.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  10. The Role of Molecular Diagnostics in the Management of Patients with Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsching, Hans-Georg; Weller, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system of 2016 combines biology-driven molecular marker diagnostics with classical histological cancer diagnosis. Reclassification of gliomas by molecular similarity beyond histological boundaries improves outcome prediction and will increasingly guide treatment decisions. This change in paradigms implies more personalized and eventually more efficient therapeutic approaches, but the era of molecular targeted therapies for gliomas is yet at its onset. Promising results of molecularly targeted therapies in genetically less complex gliomas with circumscribed growth such as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma or pilocytic astrocytoma support further development of molecularly targeted therapies. In diffuse gliomas, several molecular markers that predict benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy have been identified in recent years. For example, co-deletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q predicts benefit from polychemotherapy with procarbazine, CCNU (lomustine), and vincristine (PCV) in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and the presence of 1p/19q co-deletion was integrated as a defining feature of oligodendroglial tumors in the revised WHO classification. However, the tremendous increase in knowledge of molecular drivers of diffuse gliomas on genomic, epigenetic, and gene expression levels has not yet translated into effective molecular targeted therapies. Multiple reasons account for the failure of early clinical trials of molecularly targeted therapies in diffuse gliomas, including the lack of molecular entry controls as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics issues, but the key challenge of specifically targeting the molecular backbone of diffuse gliomas is probably extensive clonal heterogeneity. A more profound understanding of clonal selection, alternative activation of oncogenic signaling pathways, and genomic instability is warranted to identify effective

  11. A monoclonal antibody IMab-1 specifically recognizes IDH1{sup R132H}, the most common glioma-derived mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukinari, E-mail: yukinari-k@bea.hi-ho.ne.jp [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, DUMC-3156, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); The Oncology Research Center, Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Epidemiology, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-nishi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Jin, Genglin; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; McLendon, Roger E.; Yan, Hai; Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, DUMC-3156, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    IDH1 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1) mutations have been identified as early and frequent genetic alterations in astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas as well as secondary glioblastomas. In contrast, primary glioblastomas very rarely contain IDH1 mutations, although primary and secondary glioblastomas are histologically indistinguishable. The IDH1 mutations are remarkably specific to a single codon in the conserved and functionally important Arg132 in IDH1. In gliomas, the most frequent IDH1 mutations (>90%) were G395A (R132H). In this study, we immunized mice with R132H-containing IDH1 (IDH1{sup R132H}) peptide. After cell fusion using Sendai virus envelope, the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which specifically reacted with IDH1{sup R132H}, were screened in ELISA. One of the mAbs, IMab-1 reacted with the IDH1{sup R132H} peptide, but not with wild type IDH1 (IDH1{sup wt}) peptide in ELISA. In Western-blot analysis, IMab-1 reacted with only the IDH1{sup R132H} protein, not IDH1{sup wt} protein or the other IDH1 mutants, indicating that IMab-1 is IDH1{sup R132H}-specific. Furthermore, IMab-1 specifically stained the IDH1{sup R132H}-expressing cells in astrocytomas in immunohistochemistry, whereas it did not react with IDH1{sup R132H}-negative primary glioblastoma sections. In conclusion, we established an anti-IDH1{sup R132H}-specific monoclonal antibody IMab-1, which should be significantly useful for diagnosis and biological evaluation of mutation-bearing gliomas.

  12. Intraoperative direct electrical stimulations of central nervous system during surgery of gliomas near eloquent areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report our experiences of direct cortical stimulation in surgery of gliomas located in eloquent areas. Methods Clinical data of 157 patients with gliomas underwent awake craniotomy with the direct electrical stimulation for functional mapping of the eloquent areas were analysed retrospectively. Results Negative cortical stimulation was found in 4 patients, and positive cortical stimulation was achieved in 153 patients (97.45% . Four hundred and ninty -six cortical sites in 139 patients were detected for motor response by direct electrical stimulation, 70 sites in 21 patients for sensory, 112 sites in 91 patients for language (such as counting and naming. The positive areas of counting disturbance were mainly seen at the lower part of left precentral gyri operculum of left inferior frontal gyri, triangular part of left inferior frontal gyri, posterior part of left middle frontal gyri, and posterior part of left superior frontal gyri. Postoperative MRI showed 92 patients (58.60% achieved total resection, 55 cases (35.03% subtotal and 10 cases (6.37% partial. One hundred and ten patients (70.06% were diagnosed as having low grade glimas, including 71 cases of astrocytoma, 26 cases of oligodendroglioma, and 13 cases of mixed astro ? oligodendroglioma, 47 patients (29.94% were high grade gliomas, including 19 cases of glioblastoma, 15 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma, and 13 cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma. After operation 53 patients (33.76% occurred transient postoperative paralysis, 39 patients (24.84% transient language disturbance and 4 patients (2.55% permanent neurological deficits. Conclusion Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation is a reliable, precise and safety method for functional mapping of the eloquent areas. This technique allows us to achieve 'maximal safety resection' in glioma surgery.

  13. A systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes following posterior fossa tumor surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Emily; Woodrome, Stacey E; Abdel-Baki, Mohamed; Geller, Thomas J; Elbabaa, Samer K

    2015-10-01

    Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in the pediatric population. As children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, more research is being focused on the long-term cognitive outcomes of the survivors. This review examines the literature on different cognitive outcomes of survivors of different childhood posterior fossa CNS tumor types. The authors reviewed the literature for articles published from 2000 to 2012 about long-term neuropsychological outcomes of children diagnosed with posterior fossa brain tumors before the age of 18, which distinguished between histological tumor types, and had a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The literature search returned 13 articles, and a descriptive analysis was performed comparing intelligence quotient (IQ), attention/executive function, and memory components of 456 survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors. Four articles directly compared astrocytoma and medulloblastoma survivors and showed medulloblastoma survivors fared worse in IQ, attention/executive function, and memory measurements. Five articles reporting medulloblastomas found IQ, attention, and memory scores to be significantly below the standardized means. Articles examining astrocytoma survivors found IQ scores within the normal range for the population. Survivors of ependymomas reported 2/23 survivors impaired on IQ scores, while a second study reported a significant number of ependymoma survivors lower than the expected population norm. Tumor histopathology and the type of postoperative adjuvant therapy seem to have a significant impact on the long-term neuropsychological complications of pediatric posterior fossa CNS tumor survivors. Age at diagnosis and treatment factors are important variables that affect the outcomes of the survivors.

  14. Expression of CD150 in tumors of the central nervous system: identification of a novel isoform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Romanets-Korbut

    Full Text Available CD150 (IPO3/SLAM belongs to the SLAM family of receptors and serves as a major entry receptor for measles virus. CD150 is expressed on normal and malignant cells of the immune system. However, little is known about its expression outside the hematopoietic system, especially tumors of the central nervous system (CNS. Although CD150 was not found in different regions of normal brain tissues, our immunohistochemical study revealed its expression in 77.6% of human CNS tumors, including glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, ependymoma, and others. CD150 was detected in the cytoplasm, but not on the cell surface of glioma cell lines, and it was colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex markers. In addition to the full length mRNA of the mCD150 splice isoform, in glioma cells we found a highly expressed novel CD150 transcript (nCD150, containing an 83 bp insert. The insert is derived from a previously unrecognized exon designated Cyt-new, which is located 510 bp downstream of the transmembrane region exon, and is a specific feature of primate SLAMF1. Both mCD150 and nCD150 cDNA variants did not contain any mutations and had the leader sequence. The nCD150 transcript was also detected in normal and malignant B lymphocytes, primary T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages; however, in glioma cells nCD150 was found to be the predominant CD150 isoform. Similarly to mCD150, cell surface expression of nCD150 allows wild type measles virus entry to the cell. Our data indicate that CD150 expression in CNS tumors can be considered a new diagnostic marker and potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.

  15. Glioma and multiple sclerosis: case report Glioma e esclerose múltipla: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 44-years-old woman with relapsing-remitting and secondarily progressive form of multiple sclerosis (MS since aged 24 years, who developed an anaplastic astrocytoma. The neurological manifestations of the tumor were misinterpreted as resulting from MS. Sequential MRI examination and seizures raised the possibility of another nature of her symptoms, besides MS. Her initial good response to high doses corticosteroids led to the initial assumption her symptoms were only exclusively due to the demyelinating process. She underwent craniotomy with radical excision of the lesion. Pathological examination disclosed anaplastic astrocytoma. Other cases of coincidental MS and primary CNS tumors are reviewed, as well as their possible relation.Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 44 anos, portadora de esclerose múltipla forma surto-remissão e progressiva secundária, que na evolução desenvolveu um astrocitoma anaplásico. Os sintomas do tumor se confundiram com os da esclerose múltipla e com a repetição de ressonâncias magnéticas foi possível suspeitar do diagnóstico. Além dos sinais neurológicos, também apresentava crises convulsivas. A melhora com os cursos de pulsoterapia mascaravam os sintomas do tumor. Submetida a craniotomia e retirado tumor com características histológicas e histoquímicas de astrocitoma anaplásico, ao lado de áreas de desmielinização típicas de esclerose múltipla. São discutidos os aspectos radiológicos, incidência e mecanismos da concomitância das duas doenças.

  16. Machine learning methods for the classification of gliomas: Initial results using features extracted from MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, G; Parvathy, R; Vikas, V; Chandrasekharan, Kesavadas; Nair, Suresh

    2015-04-01

    With the advent of new imaging modalities, radiologists are faced with handling increasing volumes of data for diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of automated and intelligent systems is becoming essential in such a scenario. Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is increasingly being used in medical image analysis applications such as image segmentation, registration and computer-aided diagnosis and detection. Histopathological analysis is currently the gold standard for classification of brain tumors. The use of machine learning algorithms along with extraction of relevant features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) holds promise of replacing conventional invasive methods of tumor classification. The aim of the study is to classify gliomas into benign and malignant types using MRI data. Retrospective data from 28 patients who were diagnosed with glioma were used for the analysis. WHO Grade II (low-grade astrocytoma) was classified as benign while Grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and Grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) were classified as malignant. Features were extracted from MR spectroscopy. The classification was done using four machine learning algorithms: multilayer perceptrons, support vector machine, random forest and locally weighted learning. Three of the four machine learning algorithms gave an area under ROC curve in excess of 0.80. Random forest gave the best performance in terms of AUC (0.911) while sensitivity was best for locally weighted learning (86.1%). The performance of different machine learning algorithms in the classification of gliomas is promising. An even better performance may be expected by integrating features extracted from other MR sequences. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. RANK (TNFRSF11A Is Epigenetically Inactivated and Induces Apoptosis in Gliomas

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    Anna von dem Knesebeck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of DNA methylation play an important role in gliomas. In a genome-wide screen, we identified a CpG-rich fragment within the 5′ region of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11A gene (TNFRSF11A that showed de novo methylation in gliomas. TNFRSF11A, also known as receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK, activates several signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, JNK, ERK, p38α, and Akt/PKB. Using pyrosequencing, we detected RANK/TNFRSF11A promoter methylation in 8 (57.1% of 14 diffuse astrocytomas, 17 (77.3% of 22 anaplastic astrocytomas, 101 (84.2% of 120 glioblastomas, 6 (100% of 6 glioma cell lines, and 7 (100% of 7 glioma stem cell-enriched glioblastoma primary cultures but not in four normal white matter tissue samples. Treatment of glioma cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine significantly reduced the methylation level and resulted in increased RANK/TNFRSF11A mRNA expression. Overexpression of RANK/TNFRSF11A in glioblastoma cell lines leads to a significant reduction in focus formation and elevated apoptotic activity after flow cytometric analysis. Reporter assay studies of transfected glioma cells supported these results by showing the activation of signaling pathways associated with regulation of apoptosis. We conclude that RANK/TNFRSF11A is a novel and frequent target for de novo methylation in gliomas, which affects apoptotic activity and focus formation thereby contributing to the molecular pathogenesis of gliomas.

  18. Evaluation The Result Of Treating 1200 Patients Brain Tumor And Some Intracranial Diseases By Rotating GAMMA Knife (RGK) At The Nuclear Medicine And Oncology Center, Bach Mai Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Trong Khoa; Nguyen Quang Hung; Tran Dinh Ha

    2011-01-01

    The paper is evaluating results of treating brain tumor and some intracranial diseases by rotating gamma knife (RGK) at The Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Center, Bach Mai Hospital, from July 2007 to August 2010, for 1200 patients treated with RGK. In 1200 patients - average age: 42.6 years old, Male/Female ratio:1/1.08 - pituitary tumors accounted for 19.8%, meningioma 18.3%, arteriovenous malformations (AVM) (16.7%), acoustic neuroma (8.7%), brain metastases (7.5%), craniopharyngeal tumor (5.0%), pineal tumor (3.5%), cavernoma (6%), astrocytoma (5.2%), meduloblastoma (2.9%), ependymoma (2.6%), others (3.8%). Average target volume: minimum 0.6cm 3 , maximum 27.6cm 3 , median 6.2 ± 4.6 cm 3 . Average radiosurgery dose changed depend on nature of the tumor: pituitary tumor (12.4 Gy), meningioma (18.8 Gy), AVM (18 Gy), acoustic neuroma (14.6 Gy), brain metastases (18.2 Gy), craniopharyngeal tumor (12.8 Gy), pineal tumor (16.3 Gy), cavernoma (17.5 Gy), astrocytoma (14.6 Gy), medulloblastoma (16.1 Gy), ependymoma (16.3 Gy), others (15 Gy). Conclusions: Almost case have improved clinical symptoms significantly: 80.2% after 1 month (complete response 20.2%), 100% at 36th month (complete response: 94%). Size of the tumor were reduced remarkably. Treatment were safe, no death or severe complications were observed within and after radiosurgery. (author)

  19. Mitochondrial BK Channel Openers CGS7181 and CGS7184 Exhibit Cytotoxic Properties

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    Bartłomiej Augustynek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channel openers (KCOs have been shown to play a role in cytoprotection through the activation of mitochondrial potassium channels. Recently, in several reports, a number of data has been described as off-target actions for KCOs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BKCa channel openers CGS7181, CGS7184, NS1619, and NS004 in neuronal cells. For the purpose of this research, we used a rat brain, the mouse hippocampal HT22 cells, and the human astrocytoma U-87 MG cell line. We showed that CGS7184 activated the mitochondrial BKCa (mitoBKCa channel in single-channel recordings performed on astrocytoma mitoplasts. Moreover, when applied to the rat brain homogenate or isolated rat brain mitochondria, CGS7184 increased the oxygen consumption rate, and can thus be considered a potentially cytoprotective agent. However, experiments on intact neuronal HT22 cells revealed that both CGS7181 and CGS7184 induced HT22 cell death in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. By contrast, we did not observe cell death when NS1619 or NS004 was applied. CGS7184 toxicity was not abolished by BKCa channel inhibitors, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of a BKCa-type channel activity. CGS7184 treatment resulted in an increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration that likely involved efflux from internal calcium stores and the activation of calpains (calcium-dependent proteases. The cytotoxic effect of the channel opener was partially reversed by a calpain inhibitor. Our data show that KCOs under study not only activate mitoBKCa channels from brain tissue, but also induce cell death when used in cellular models.

  20. The effect of selective intraarterial infusion of the anticancer agents on cerebral hemodynamics: Concerned with the change of CBF in the non-tumoral tissue. Quantitative evaluation using 123-IMP-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hiroko; Tomura, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Ohyama, Yoichi; Watarai, Jiro

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intraarterial chemotherapy on cerebral blood flow (CBF) of patients with brain tumor was quantitatively studied by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The subjects consisted of twenty patients with brain tumor (2 fibrillary astrocytoma grade II, 9 malignant astrocytoma grade III, 7 glioblastoma grade IV, 1 pineoblastoma grade IV and 1 malignant glioma). In twenty patients, twenty-four intraarterial infusions (IAs) were performed. IA chemotherapy was selectively performed through the Tracker-18 catheter, using nimustine (ACNU) in 22 infusions and tumor necrotizing factor-α (TNF) in 2 infusions. CBF was quantitatively measured by Kuhl's method, using N-isopropyl-p= 123 I=-iodoamphetamine (IMP). All patients underwent a baseline SPECT scan 1-10 days prior to IA chemotherapy, and a scan 1-22 days after IA. The change of CBF before and after IA, particularly in the non-tumoral tissue, was highlighted. CBF in the infused region as well as in the non-infused region variously changed after IA. The mean CBF of the whole brain before IA was 47.8±11.9 (mean±SD, n=24) ml/100 ml/min and than after IA was 49.3±12.4. CBF in the infused region changed (-17-+52%) after IA chemotherapy. In 12 patients whose CBF measurement was performed within 5 days after IA, CBF increased in 6 patients compared with that measured before IA. In 3 patients whose CBF measurement was performed more than 10 days after IA, CBF decreased in all of patients. This result suggested that the increase of CBF may possibly be an early change after IA chemotherapy, and that an augmented cellular metabolism and/or acute inflammatory reaction may explain this early change after IA chemotherapy. (author)

  1. Glioblastoma multiforme in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tevfik; Cikla, Ulas; Kirst, Alice; Baskaya, Mustafa K

    2015-04-17

    Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a rare syndrome in which patients usually present with cutaneous hemangiomas, venous varicosities, and bone and soft tissue hypertrophy of the affected limb. Intracranial lesions in patients with KTWS are extremely rare, and are generally reported as single cases in the literature. We describe a rare case, where a patient with KTWS was found with a hemorrhagic grade IV astrocytoma. Although central nervous system abnormalities such as intracranial aneurysms and cerebral and spinal cord cavernomas have been described in patients with KTWS, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) and KTWS in the English-language medical literature. A 61-year-old white Caucasian man with a history of KTWS presented with seizures. Left upper and lower extremity hypertrophy, left foot, leg and ear gigantism and left-sided abdominal capillary hemangiomas were noted in the physical examination. Cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained, showing a heterogeneous lesion in the cingulate gyrus, with peripheral and central areas of T1 hyperintensity and layering T2 hypointensity consistent with a hemorrhage. A right parasagittal frontal craniotomy was performed with an interhemispheric approach. We had difficulty controlling the bleeding with bipolar electrocautery during surgery and finally were able to stop the bleeding using surgicel and gelfoam. Postoperative cranial CT and MRI scans showed intraparenchymal hemorrhage centered within the medial right frontal lobe. There was no increase in hematoma size in consecutive CT scans. Co-occurrence of vascular abnormalities with KWTS should be taken into consideration to avoid perilous preoperative and postoperative complications.

  2. Astrocytic tumour grading: a comparative study of three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling, dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hua-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Ye; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Lou, Xin; Gui, Qiu-Ping; Shi, Kai-Ning; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Zheng, Dan-Dan

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) may have similar efficacy in astrocytic tumour grading as dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI), and the grading accuracy may be further improved when combined with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Forty-three patients with astrocytic tumours were studied using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), pCASL, and DSC-PWI. Histograms of ADC and normalized tumour cerebral blood flow values (nCBF on pCASL and nrCBF on DSC-PWI) were measured and analyzed. The mean 10 % ADC value was the DWI parameter that provided the best differentiation between low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) and high-grade astrocytoma (HGA). The nCBF and nrCBF (1.810 ± 0.979 and 2.070 ± 1.048) in LGA were significantly lower than those (4.505 ± 2.270 and 5.922 ± 2.630) in HGA. For differentiation between LGA and HGA, the cutoff values of 0.764 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s for mean 10 % ADC, 2.374 for nCBF, and 3.464 for nrCBF provided the optimal accuracy (74.4 %, 86.1 %, and 88.6 %, respectively). Combining the ADC values with nCBF or nrCBF could further improve the grading accuracy to 97.7 % or 95.3 %, respectively. pCASL is an alternative to DSC-PWI for astrocytic tumour grading. The combination of DWI and contrast-free pCASL offers a valuable choice in patients with risk factors. (orig.)

  3. Astrocytic tumour grading: a comparative study of three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling, dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hua-Feng [302 Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhi-Ye; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin [People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Lou, Xin [People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); University of California, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gui, Qiu-Ping [People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China); Shi, Kai-Ning; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Zheng, Dan-Dan [General Electric Healthcare (China) Co., Ltd., Beijing; Wang, Danny J.J. [University of California, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We hypothesized that three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) may have similar efficacy in astrocytic tumour grading as dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI), and the grading accuracy may be further improved when combined with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Forty-three patients with astrocytic tumours were studied using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), pCASL, and DSC-PWI. Histograms of ADC and normalized tumour cerebral blood flow values (nCBF on pCASL and nrCBF on DSC-PWI) were measured and analyzed. The mean 10 % ADC value was the DWI parameter that provided the best differentiation between low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) and high-grade astrocytoma (HGA). The nCBF and nrCBF (1.810 ± 0.979 and 2.070 ± 1.048) in LGA were significantly lower than those (4.505 ± 2.270 and 5.922 ± 2.630) in HGA. For differentiation between LGA and HGA, the cutoff values of 0.764 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for mean 10 % ADC, 2.374 for nCBF, and 3.464 for nrCBF provided the optimal accuracy (74.4 %, 86.1 %, and 88.6 %, respectively). Combining the ADC values with nCBF or nrCBF could further improve the grading accuracy to 97.7 % or 95.3 %, respectively. pCASL is an alternative to DSC-PWI for astrocytic tumour grading. The combination of DWI and contrast-free pCASL offers a valuable choice in patients with risk factors. (orig.)

  4. Is less more? Comparing chemotherapy alone with chemotherapy and radiation for high-risk grade 2 glioma: An analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Jaymin; Liu, Yuan; Chowdhary, Mudit; Buchwald, Zachary S; Gillespie, Theresa W; Olson, Jeffrey J; Voloschin, Alfredo D; Eaton, Bree R; Shu, Hui-Kuo G; Crocker, Ian R; Curran, Walter J; Patel, Kirtesh R

    2018-03-15

    The addition of chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy (chemotherapy and radiation therapy [CRT]) improves overall survival (OS) for patients with high-risk grade 2 gliomas; however, the impact of chemotherapy alone (CA) is unknown. This study compares the OS of patients with high-risk grade 2 gliomas treated with CA versus CRT. Patients with high-risk grade 2 gliomas (subtotal resection or age ≥ 40 years) with oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, or mixed tumors were identified with the National Cancer Data Base. Patients were grouped into CA and CRT cohorts. Univariate analyses and multivariate analyses (MVAs) were performed. Propensity score (PS) matching was also implemented. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze OS. A total of 1054 patients with high-risk grade 2 gliomas were identified: 496 (47.1%) received CA, and 558 (52.9%) received CRT. Patients treated with CA were more likely (all P values  6 cm, astrocytoma histology, and older age were predictors for worse OS (all P values < .05). After 1:1 PS matching (n = 331 for each cohort), no OS difference was seen (P = .696) between the CA and CRT cohorts at 5 (69.3% vs 67.4%) and 8 years (52.8% vs 56.7%). No long-term OS difference was seen in patients with high-risk grade 2 gliomas treated with CA versus CRT. These findings are hypothesis-generating, and prospective clinical trials comparing these treatment paradigms are warranted. Cancer 2018;124:1169-78. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Most children with cancer are not enrolled on a clinical trial in Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Jason D; Barber, Randy; Bergeron, Rose-Émilie; Carret, Anne Sophie; Dix, David; Kulkarni, Ketan; Martineau, Emilie; Randall, Alicia; Stammers, David; Strahlendorf, Caron; Strother, Douglas R; Truong, Tony H; Sung, Lillian

    2017-06-05

    Primary objective was to describe the proportion of children newly diagnosed with cancer enrolled on a therapeutic clinical trial. Secondary objectives were to describe reasons for non-enrollment and factors associated with enrollment on trials. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children newly diagnosed with cancer between 0 and 14 years of age and diagnosed from 2001 to 2012. We used data from the Cancer in Young People in Canada (CYP-C) national pediatric cancer population-based database. CYP-C captures all cases of pediatric cancer (0-14 years) diagnosed and treated at one of the 17 tertiary pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Non-enrollment was evaluated using univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. There were 9204 children with cancer included, of whom 2533 (27.5%) were enrolled on a clinical trial. The most common reasons cited for non-enrollment were lack of an available trial (52.2%) and physician choice (11.2%). In multiple regression, Asian and Arab/west Asian race were associated with lower enrollment (P = 0.006 and P = 0.032 respectively). All cancer diagnoses were more likely to be enrolled compared to astrocytoma and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had an almost 18-fold increased odds of enrollment compared to astrocytoma (P Canada, 27.5% of children with cancer are enrolled onto therapeutic clinical trials and lack of an available trial is the most common reason contributing to non-enrollment. Future research should better understand reasons for lack of trial availability and physician preferences to not offer trials.

  6. Expression Profile of Genes Related to Drug Metabolism in Human Brain Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Stavrinou

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous compounds as well as carcinogens are metabolized and detoxified by phase I and II enzymes, the activity of which could be crucial to the inactivation and hence susceptibility to carcinogenic factors. The expression of these enzymes in human brain tumor tissue has not been investigated sufficiently. We studied the association between tumor pathology and the expression profile of seven phase I and II drug metabolizing genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, ALDH3A1, AOX1, GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM3 and some of their proteins.Using qRT-PCR and western blotting analysis the gene and protein expression in a cohort of 77 tumors were investigated. The major tumor subtypes were meningioma, astrocytoma and brain metastases, -the later all adenocarcinomas from a lung primary.Meningeal tumors showed higher expression levels for AOX1, CYP1B1, GSTM3 and GSTP1. For AOX1, GSTM and GSTP1 this could be verified on a protein level as well. A negative correlation between the WHO degree of malignancy and the strength of expression was identified on both transcriptional and translational level for AOX1, GSTM3 and GSTP1, although the results could have been biased by the prevalence of meningiomas and glioblastomas in the inevitably bipolar distribution of the WHO grades. A correlation between the gene expression and the protein product was observed for AOX1, GSTP1 and GSTM3 in astrocytomas.The various CNS tumors show different patterns of drug metabolizing gene expression. Our results suggest that the most important factor governing the expression of these enzymes is the histological subtype and to a far lesser extent the degree of malignancy itself.

  7. Cranial neuronavigation with direct integration of 11C methionine positron emission tomography (PET) data - results of a pilot study in 32 surgical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.; Dempf, S.; Richter, H.P.; Weller, R.; Reske, S.-N.; Schanchenmayr, W.

    2002-01-01

    MRI detects small intracranial lesions, but has difficulties in differentiating between tumor, gliosis and edema. 11 C methionine-PET may help to overcome this problem. For its appropriate intra-operative use, it must be integrated into neuronavigation. We present the results of our pilot study with this method. 32 patients with 34 intracranial lesions detected by MRI underwent additional 11 C methionine-PET, because the pathophysiological behavior or the tumor delineation was unclear. All lesions were treated surgically. In 25 patients PET data could be integrated directly into cranial neuronavigation. 11 C methionine uptake was observed in 27/34 lesions, 26 of them were tumors: 14 malignant and 7 benign gliomas, 3 gliomas without further histological typing, one Ewing sarcoma and one non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Only one 11 C methionine positive lesion was non-tumorous: it was staged as post-irradiation necrosis in a patient operated on for a malignant glioma. 3/7 11 C-methionine negative lesions were classified as gliosis (n = 2) and M. Whipple (n = 1), but 4/7 were tumors: 2 astrocytomas WHO o II, 1 DNT and one astrocytoma WHO o III. The sensitivity of 11 C methionine-PET was 87 %, the specificity 75 %, the positive predictive value 96 % and the negative predictive value 43 %. In all tumorous cases with positive tracer uptake the borderline area of the tumor was better defined by C methionine-PET than by MRI. Interpretation: A positive 11 C methionine-PET is highly suspicious of a tumor, a negative one does not exclude it. 11 C methionine-PET seems to be more sensitive than MRI for differentiating between tumor and edema or gliosis. Simultaneous integration MRI and 11 C methionine-PET into cranial neuronavigation can facilitate cross total tumor removal in glioma surgery. (author)

  8. Correlation of emmprin expression in vascular endothelial cells with blood-brain-barrier function: a study using magnetic resonance imaging enhanced by Gd-DTPA and immunohistochemistry in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Tetsuro; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Toole, Bryan P; Inoue, Teruhiko; Yokogami, Kiyotaka; Nakano, Shinichi; Ohi, Takekazu; Wakisaka, Shinichiro

    2003-06-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that the expression levels in tumor cells of emmprin (CD147) correlated with the grade of astrocytic tumors. Also, we found that emmprin was expressed in vascular endothelial cells of the non-neoplastic brain and hypothesized that emmprin expression could be associated with normal blood-brain-barrier (BBB) function of vascular endothelial cells. In this study, this possibility was examined in non-neoplastic brain, glioma and metastatic carcinoma tissues by comparing emmprin immunohistochemistry with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a clinical indicator of the BBB function. This study included 10 cases of non-neoplastic brain tissues, 7 of metastatic carcinoma, 7 of diffuse astrocytoma, 4 of anaplastic astrocytoma and 13 of glioblastoma multiforme. In all the cases, MRI with administration of Gd-DTPA was performed. The lesions were resected using the microdissection method with the help of ultrasonography and a neuronavigator. The tissues from Gd-DTPA-enhanced or non-enhanced areas were processed into frozen sections and subjected to immunohistochemistry with anti-emmprin antibody. The expression of emmprin in brain vascular endothelial cells inversely correlated with Gd-DTPA-enhancement of MRI: emmprin was positive in tissues not enhanced by Gd-DTPA and was negative in DTPA-enhanced tissues. Since BBB function presumably remains unimpaired in regions in which MR images are not Gd-DTPA-enhanced, emmprin expression appears to be associated with unimpaired BBB function. This is the first report to demonstrate a possible correlation between emmprin expression and BBB function in humans.

  9. Clinical practice in BNCT to the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Our concept of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is to selectively destroy tumour cells using the high LET particles yielded from the 10B(n,α)7Li reactions. The effort of clinical investigators has concentrated on how to escalate the radiation dose at the target point. BNCT in Japan combines thermal neutrons and BSH (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH). The radiation dose is determined by the neutron fluence at the target point and the boron concentration in the tumour tissue. According to the recent analysis, the ratio of boron concentration (BSH) in tumour tissue and blood is nearly stable at around 1.2 to 1.69. Escalation of the radiation dose was carried out by means of improving the penetration of the thermal neutron beam. Since 1968, 175 patients with glioblastoma (n=83), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumour (n=32) were treated by BNCT at 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MulTR n=98, KUR n=30, JRR-2 n=33). The retrospective analysis revealed that the important factors related to the clinical results and QOL of the patients were minimum tumour volume radiation dose, more than 18Gy of physical dose and maximum vascular radiation dose (less than 15Gy) in the normal cortex. We have planned several trials to escalate the target radiation dose. One trial makes use of a cavity in the cortex following debulking surgery of the tumour tissue to improve neutron penetration. The other trial is introduction of epithermal neutron. KUR and JRR-4 were reconstructed and developed to be able to irradiate using epithermal neutrons. The new combination of surgical procedure and irradiation using epithermal neutrons should remarkably improve the target volume dose compared to the radiation dose treated by thermal neutrons. (author)

  10. EG-08IDH MUTATIONS IN GLIOMAS ASSOCIATED WITH ENCHONDROMATOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, M. Kelly; Joseph, Loren; Venneti, Sriram; Daher, Ahmad; Pytel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The enchondromatoses, Ollier's disease and Maffucci syndrome, are non-heritable developmental disorders characterized by multiple enchondromas (Olllier's) in association with hemangiomas (Maffucci). Glial neoplasms are reported in both disorders but a pathogenic mechanism underlying this association has not been identified. We report a case of anaplastic astrocytoma in a 23 year old man with Maffucci syndrome whose tumor carried a substitution mutation of arginine for cysteine at position 132 (R132C) of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) protein. This mutation, commonly found in Maffucci-associated enchondromas and hemangiomas, was not detected on routine immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of the astrocytoma using the R132H mutation-specific antibody, commonly applied in clinical laboratories. The R132C mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently confirmed using a SNaPshot assay. Because somatic mosaic IDH mutations are associated with enchondromas and hemangiomas in Maffucci syndrome, we looked for the R132C mutation in a hemangioma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and histologically normal brain surrounding the tumor from this patient. The mutation was present in the hemangioma, absent in PBMNC, and present in 2% of alleles in ‘normal’ brain. The low level in surrounding brain tissue is consistent with tumor cell infiltration, not mosaicism, as a S173T p53 mutation in the tumor showed similar results. Using IHC, we further demonstrated that the mutant IDH1 protein in this glioma functions as an oncometabolite. Two repressive histone trimethylation marks were strongly positive in the tumor, supporting a role for 2-hydroxyglutarate in the inhibition of histone demethylation. Together, these data demonstrate that an IDH1 mutation common in enchodromatoses underlies the association of glial tumors reported in both Ollier's disease and Maffucci syndrome.

  11. Difference in {sup 201}TlCl accumulation mechanism in brain tumors. A comparison of their Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugo, Nobuo; Kuroki, Takao; Nemoto, Masaaki; Mito, Toshiaki; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Omori Hospital

    2000-07-01

    The accumulation levels of {sup 201}TlCl and Na{sup +} -K{sup +} ATPase activity in tumor tissue were compared among glioblastoma, benign glioma and meningioma to study the difference in the mechanism of {sup 201}TlCl accumulation. The subjects were 19 cases comprised of 6 glioblastoma, 2 oligodendroglioma, 1 fibrillary astrocytoma, 1 pilocytic astrocytoma and 9 meningioma. Preoperative {sup 201}TlCl SPECT was performed in all the cases, and Thallium Index (TL index) was calculated by a ratio of {sup 201}TlCl in the tumor area and the contralateral area. In addition, cell membrane was extracted from the tumor tissue collected intraoperatively to determine Na{sup +} -K{sup +} ATPase activity. No statistically significant difference in TL index was noted between the glioblastoma group (6.97{+-}2.67) and the meningioma group (5.87{+-}1.99). This fact showed that there was no difference in the accumulation level of {sup 201}TlCl between the two groups. On the other hand, the glioblastoma group indicated a higher value of Na{sup +} -K{sup +} ATPase activity (49.13{+-}43.76 {mu}mole/hour/mg protein) than the meningioma group (7.73{+-}13.84 {mu}mol/hour/mg protein) (p<0.05, t test). These results suggested the involvement of Na{sup +} -K{sup +} ATPase activity in {sup 201}TlCl accumulation in glioblastoma and the influences of other accumulation mechanism than Na{sup +} -K{sup +} ATPase activity such as the volume of intratumoral vascular bed in meningioma. (author)

  12. Common pediatric cerebellar tumors: correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Korgün; Mathis, Derek; Gimi, Barjor; Gargan, Lynn; Weprin, Bradley; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda

    2013-08-01

    To test whether there is correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. This study was reviewed for issues of patient safety and confidentiality and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and was compliant with HIPAA. The need for informed consent was waived. Ninety-five patients who had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and surgical pathologic findings available between January 2003 and June 2011 were included. There were 37 pilocytic astrocytomas, 34 medulloblastomas (23 classic, eight desmoplastic-nodular, two large cell, one anaplastic), 17 ependymomas (13 World Health Organization [WHO] grade II, four WHO grade III), and seven atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. ADCs of solid tumor components and normal cerebellum were measured. Tumor-to-normal brain ADC ratios (hereafter, ADC ratio) were calculated. The medulloblastomas and ependymomas were subcategorized according to the latest WHO classification, and tumor cellularity was calculated. Correlation was sought between cell densities and mean tumor ADCs, minimum tumor ADCs, and ADC ratio. When all tumors were considered together, negative correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADCs (ρ = -0.737, P correlation between cellularity and ADC ratio. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and minimum tumor ADC in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ρ = -0.786, P correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADC and ADC ratio. There was no correlation between the ADC metrics and cellularity of the pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and ADC metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. Although ADC metrics are useful in the preoperative diagnosis of common pediatric cerebellar tumors and this utility is generally attributed to differences in cellularity of tumors

  13. Radiation-Induced Malignant Gliomas: Is There a Role for Reirradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Mai, Wei Y.; Chintagumpala, Murali; Taher, Ab