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Sample records for astrocyte stat3 signaling

  1. Stat3 inhibition attenuates mechanical allodynia through transcriptional regulation of chemokine expression in spinal astrocytes.

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    Xiaodong Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 is known to induce cell proliferation and inflammation by regulating gene transcription. Recent studies showed that Stat3 modulates nociceptive transmission by reducing spinal astrocyte proliferation. However, it is unclear whether Stat3 also contributes to the modulation of nociceptive transmission by regulating inflammatory response in spinal astrocytes. This study aimed at investigating the role of Stat3 on neuroinflammation during development of pain in rats after intrathecal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. METHODS: Stat3 specific siRNA oligo and synthetic selective inhibitor (Stattic were applied to block the activity of Stat3 in primary astrocytes or rat spinal cord, respectively. LPS was used to induce the expression of proinflammatory genes in all studies. Immunofluorescence staining of cells and slices of spinal cord was performed to monitor Stat3 activation. The impact of Stat3 inhibition on proinflammatory genes expression was determined by cytokine antibody array, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mechanical allodynia, as determined by the threshold pressure that could induce hind paw withdrawal after application of standardized von Frey filaments, was used to detect the effects of Stat3 inhibition after pain development with intrathecal LPS injection. RESULTS: Intrathecal injection of LPS activated Stat3 in reactive spinal astrocytes. Blockade of Stat3 activity attenuated mechanical allodynia significantly and was correlated with a lower number of reactive astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn. In vitro study demonstrated that Stat3 modulated inflammatory response in primary astrocytes by transcriptional regulation of chemokine expression including Cx3cl1, Cxcl5, Cxcl10 and Ccl20. Similarly, inhibition of Stat3 reversed the expression of these chemokines in the spinal dorsal horn. CONCLUSIONS: Stat3 acted as a

  2. Decreased STAT3 Phosphorylation Mediates Cell Swelling in Ammonia-Treated Astrocyte Cultures

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    Arumugam R. Jayakumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF. Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Since these signaling events are known to be regulated by the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, we examined the state of STAT3 activation in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes, and determined whether altered STAT3 activation and/or protein expression contribute to the ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. STAT3 was found to be dephosphorylated (inactivated at Tyrosine705 in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes. Total STAT3 protein level was also reduced in ammonia-treated astrocytes. We also found a significant increase in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type-1 (PTPRT-1 protein expression in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes, and that inhibition of PTPRT-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT3 after ammonia treatment. Additionally, exposure of cultured astrocytes to inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases diminished the ammonia-induced cell swelling, while cultured astrocytes over-expressing STAT3 showed a reduction in the astrocyte swelling induced by ammonia. Collectively, these studies strongly suggest that inactivation of STAT3 represents a critical event in the mechanism of the astrocyte swelling associated with acute liver failure.

  3. Eriocalyxin B Inhibits STAT3 Signaling by Covalently Targeting STAT3 and Blocking Phosphorylation and Activation of STAT3.

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    Xiaokui Yu

    Full Text Available Activated STAT3 plays an important role in oncogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and resisting apoptosis. STAT3 therefore is an attractive target for cancer therapy. We have screened a traditional Chinese herb medicine compound library and found Eriocalyxin B (EB, a diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx, as a specific inhibitor of STAT3. EB selectively inhibited constitutive as well as IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and induced apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells. EB did not affect the upstream protein tyrosine kinases or the phosphatase (PTPase of STAT3, but rather interacted directly with STAT3. The effects of EB could be abolished by DTT or GSH, suggesting a thiol-mediated covalent linkage between EB and STAT3. Site mutagenesis of cysteine in and near the SH2 domain of STAT3 identified Cys712 to be the critical amino acid for the EB-induced inactivation of STAT3. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses demonstrated that an α, β-unsaturated carbonyl of EB covalently interacted with the Cys712 of STAT3. Computational modeling analyses also supported a direct interaction between EB and the Cys712 of STAT3. These data strongly suggest that EB directly targets STAT3 through a covalent linkage to inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of STAT3 and induces apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells.

  4. Hippocalcin Is Required for Astrocytic Differentiation through Activation of Stat3 in Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cells.

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    Min-Jeong Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hippocalcin (Hpca is a neuronal calcium sensor protein expressed in the mammalian brain. However, its function in neural stem/precursor cells has not yet been studied. Here, we clarify the function of Hpca in astrocytic differentiation in hippocampal neural precursor cells (HNPCs. When we overexpressed Hpca in HNPCs in the presence or absence of bFGF, expression levels of nerve-growth factors such as neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, together with the proneural basic helix loop helix (bHLH transcription factors neuroD and neurogenin 1 (ngn1, increased significantly. In addition, there was an increase in the number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte marker, and in dendrite outgrowth, indicating astrocytic differentiation of the HNPCs. Downregulation of Hpca by transfection with Hpca siRNA reduced expression of NT-3, NT-4/5, BDNF, neuroD and ngn1 as well as levels of GFAP protein. Furthermore, overexpression of Hpca increased the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Ser727, and this effect was abolished by treatment with a STAT3 inhibitor (S3I-201, suggesting that STAT3 (Ser727 activation is involved in Hpca-mediated astrocytic differentiation. As expected, treatment with Stat3 siRNA or STAT3 inhibitor caused a complete inhibition of astrogliogenesis induced by Hpca overexpression. Taken together, this is the first report to show that Hpca, acting through Stat3, has an important role in the expression of neurotrophins and proneural bHLH transcription factors, and that it is an essential regulator of astrocytic differentiation and dendrite outgrowth in HNPCs.

  5. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

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    Boku, Shuken, E-mail: shuboku@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nakagawa, Shin [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takamura, Naoki [Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Akiko [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takebayashi, Minoru [Department of Psychiatry, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure (Japan); Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue [Department of Pharmacology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis.

  6. STAT3 signaling drives EZH2 transcriptional activation and mediates poor prognosis in gastric cancer.

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    Pan, Yuan-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Gang; Zhu, Min; Xing, Rui; Cui, Jian-Tao; Li, Wen-Mei; Yu, De-Dong; Wang, Shu-Bin; Zhu, Wei; Ye, Ying-Jiang; Wu, Yun; Wang, Shan; Lu, You-Yong

    2016-12-09

    STAT3 signaling plays the pivotal role in tumorigenesis through EZH2 epigenetic modification, which enhanced STAT3 activity by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Here, another possible feedback mechanism and clinical significance of EZH2 and STAT3 were investigated in gastric cancer (GC). STAT3, p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) and EZH2 expression were examined in 63 GC specimens with matched normal tissues by IHC staining. EZH2 and STAT3 were also identified in five GC cell lines using RT-PCR and western blot analyses. p-STAT3 protein was detected by western blotting. In order to investigate whether EZH2 expression was directly regulated by STAT3, EZH2 expression was further detected using siRNA for STAT3 or IL-6 stimulation, with dual luciferase reporter analyses, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The clinical significance of STAT3, p-STAT3 and EZH2 expression was evaluated by multi-factor COX regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Hyper-activation of STAT3, p-STAT3 and EZH2 expression were observed in GC cells and tissues. STAT3 signaling was correlated with EZH2 expression in GC (R = 0.373, P = 0.003), which was consistent with our data showing that STAT3 as the transcriptional factor enhanced EZH2 transcriptional activity by binding the relative promoter region (-214 ~ -206). STAT3 was an independent signature for poor survival (P = 0.002). Patients with STAT3(+)/EZH2(+) or p-STAT3(+)/EZH2(+) had a worse outcome than others (P EZH2 was associated with advanced TNM staging (P = 0.017). Moreover, treatment with a combination of siSTAT3 and EZH2-specific inhibitor, 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNEP), increased the apoptotic ratio of cells. It is benefit for targeting STAT3-EZH2 interplay in GC treatment. Our results indicate that STAT3 status mediated EZH2 upregulation, associated with advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis, suggesting that combination with knockdown of STAT3 and EZH2 inhibitor

  7. Inhibition of a novel specific neuroglial integrin signaling pathway increases STAT3-mediated CNTF expression

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    2013-01-01

    Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression is repressed in astrocytes by neuronal contact in the CNS and is rapidly induced by injury. Here, we defined an inhibitory integrin signaling pathway. Results The integrin substrates laminin, fibronectin and vitronectin, but not collagen, thrombospondin or fibrinogen, reduced CNTF expression in C6 astroglioma cells. Antibodies against αv and β5, but not α6 or β1, integrin induced CNTF. Together, the ligand and antibody specificity suggests that CNTF is repressed by αvβ5 integrin. Antibodies against Thy1, an abundant neuronal surface protein whose function is unclear, induced CNTF in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures indicating that it is a neuroglial CNTF repressor. Inhibition of the integrin signaling molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) or the downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 MAPK, greatly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression within 4 hours. This selective inhibitory pathway phosphorylated STAT3 on its inhibitory ser-727 residue interfering with activity of the pro-transcription Tyr-705 residue. STAT3 can activate CNTF transcription because it bound to its promoter and FAK antagonist-induced CNTF was reduced by blocking STAT3. Microinjection of FAK inhibitor directly into the brain or spinal cord in adult mice rapidly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression. Importantly, systemic treatment with FAK inhibitors over 3 days induced CNTF in the subventricular zone and increased neurogenesis. Conclusions Neuron-astroglia contact mediated by integrins serves as a sensor to enable rapid neurotrophic responses and provides a new pharmacological avenue to exploit the neuroprotective properties of endogenous CNTF. PMID:23693126

  8. HIV-1-infected and immune-activated macrophages induce astrocytic differentiation of human cortical neural progenitor cells via the STAT3 pathway.

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    Hui Peng

    Full Text Available Diminished adult neurogenesis is considered a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD. In HAD, HIV-1-infected and immune-activated brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; perivascular macrophages and microglia drive central nervous system (CNS inflammation and may alter normal neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated HIV-1-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS activated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM inhibit human neural progenitor cell (NPC neurogenesis, while enhancing astrogliogenesis through the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, in vitro and in vivo. Here we further test the hypothesis that HIV-1-infected/activated MDM promote NPC astrogliogenesis via activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, a critical factor for astrogliogenesis. Our results show that LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS-MCM and HIV-infected/LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS+HIV-MCM induced Janus kinase 1 (Jak1 and STAT3 activation. Induction of the Jak-STAT3 activation correlated with increased glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, demonstrating an induction of astrogliogenesis. Moreover, STAT3-targeting siRNA (siSTAT3 decreased MCM-induced STAT3 activation and NPC astrogliogenesis. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α produced by LPS-activated and/or HIV-1-infected MDM may contribute to MCM-induced STAT3 activation and astrocytic differentiation. These observations were confirmed in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE. In HIVE mice, siRNA control (without target sequence, sicon pre-transfected NPCs injected with HIV-1-infected MDM showed more astrocytic differentiation and less neuronal differentiation of NPCs as compared to NPC injection alone. siSTAT3 abrogated HIV-1-infected MDM-induced astrogliogenesis of injected NPCs. Collectively, these

  9. STAT3 links IL-22 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells to mucosal wound healing.

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    Pickert, Geethanjali; Neufert, Clemens; Leppkes, Moritz; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hirth, Sebastian; Weigmann, Benno; Wirtz, Stefan; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2009-07-06

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a pleiotropic transcription factor with important functions in cytokine signaling in a variety of tissues. However, the role of STAT3 in the intestinal epithelium is not well understood. We demonstrate that development of colonic inflammation is associated with the induction of STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Studies in genetically engineered mice showed that epithelial STAT3 activation in dextran sodium sulfate colitis is dependent on interleukin (IL)-22 rather than IL-6. IL-22 was secreted by colonic CD11c(+) cells in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Conditional knockout mice with an IEC-specific deletion of STAT3 activity were highly susceptible to experimental colitis, indicating that epithelial STAT3 regulates gut homeostasis. STAT3(IEC-KO) mice, upon induction of colitis, showed a striking defect of epithelial restitution. Gene chip analysis indicated that STAT3 regulates the cellular stress response, apoptosis, and pathways associated with wound healing in IECs. Consistently, both IL-22 and epithelial STAT3 were found to be important in wound-healing experiments in vivo. In summary, our data suggest that intestinal epithelial STAT3 activation regulates immune homeostasis in the gut by promoting IL-22-dependent mucosal wound healing.

  10. Expression of the JAK/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway in herniated lumbar discs.

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    Osuka, Koji; Usuda, Nobuteru; Aoyama, Masahiro; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2014-05-21

    The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in causing symptoms of lumbar disk herniation. The present study clarifies the expression of the signaling pathway of IL-6 in herniated discs. Homogenates prepared from lumbar herniated discs from 10 patients were assessed. The expression of janus kinase 1 (JAK1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 at Tyr(705), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and actin was examined by Western blot analysis. The expression of JAK1, STAT3, and p-STAT3 at Tyr(705) was also examined by immunostaining. JAK1, STAT3, p-STAT3 at Tyr(705) and SOCS3 were detected in almost all cases. Immunoreactivity against JAK1 and STAT3 was observed mainly in chondrocytes, whereas immunoreactivity against p-STAT3 at Tyr(705) was observed in the nuclei of chondrocytes. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway might be activated by IL-6 and transmit messages from the cell surface to the nucleus, and the pathway is negatively regulated by SOCS3. These JAK1, STAT3 and SOCS3 molecules might tightly regulate and play a role in the degeneration of chondrocytes within herniated discs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ALA-PDT inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of SCC cells through STAT3 signal pathway.

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    Qiao, Li; Mei, Zhusong; Yang, Zhiyong; Li, Xinji; Cai, Hong; Liu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that apoptosis of carcinoma cells led by photodynamics is mainly intrinsic apoptosis, but whether the extrinsic pathway is involved in the treatment of carcinoma by photodynamic therapy is not confirmed. This research investigated the effect of ALA-PDT on the proliferation and apoptosis of SCC cell A431 and COLO-16, and discussed the role played by JAK/STAT3 signal pathway in this process. Our data showed that the expression levels STAT3 and p-STAT3 protein in the cancer tissue are higher than the corresponding adjacent tissue to carcinoma. The expression level of p-STAT3 in cancerous tissue has a correlation with the tumor size and tissue histopathological differentiation. ALA-PDT could inhibit proliferation of A431 and COLO-16 cells, STAT3 knock down could enhance ALA-PDT's inhibition of cell proliferation, and promote apoptosis induced by ALA-PDT. On the other hand, overexpression of STAT3 has the opposite effect. In addition, ALA-PDT can weaken the protein expression of STAT3 and its target gene Bcl-2 mRNA, and ALA-PDT can strengthen the protein expression of STAT3's target gene Bax mRNA. Overexpression of STAT3 can offset the effect on Bcl-2 and Bax by ALA-PDT; on the other hand, STAT3 knocking down can strengthen ALA-PDT's effect on Bcl-2 and Bax. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. EGFR-STAT3 signaling promotes formation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

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    Wu, J; Patmore, D M; Jousma, E; Eaves, D W; Breving, K; Patel, A V; Schwartz, E B; Fuchs, J R; Cripe, T P; Stemmer-Rachamimov, A O; Ratner, N

    2014-01-09

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) develop sporadically or in the context of neurofibromatosis type 1. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression has been implicated in MPNST formation, but its precise role and relevant signaling pathways remain unknown. We found that EGFR overexpression promotes mouse neurofibroma transformation to aggressive MPNST (GEM-PNST). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphorylated STAT3 (Tyr705) in both human MPNST and mouse GEM-PNST. A specific JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor FLLL32 delayed MPNST formation in an MPNST xenograft nude mouse model. STAT3 knockdown by shRNA prevented MPNST formation in vivo. Finally, reducing EGFR activity strongly reduced pSTAT3 in vivo. Thus, an EGFR-STAT3 pathway is necessary for MPNST transformation and establishment of MPNST xenografts growth but not for tumor maintenance. Efficacy of the FLLL32 pharmacological inhibitor in delaying MPNST growth suggests that combination therapies targeting JAK/STAT3 might be useful therapeutics.

  13. SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 Expression Patterns in Medulloblastomas: Relevance to STAT3 Activation and Resveratrol-Suppressed STAT3 Signaling.

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    Li, Cong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Li-Jun; Huang, Tian-Miao; Song, Xue; Kong, Qing-You; Dong, Jian-Li; Li, Pei-Nan; Liu, Jia

    2016-12-27

    Activated STAT3 signaling is critical for human medulloblastoma cells. SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 are known as the negative regulators of STAT3 signaling, while their relevance to frequent STAT3 activation in medulloblastomas remains unknown. Tissue microarrays were constructed with 17 tumor-surrounding noncancerous brain tissues and 61 cases of the classic medulloblastomas, 44 the large-cell medulloblastomas, and 15 nodular medulloblastomas, which were used for immunohistochemical profiling of STAT3, SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 expression patterns and the frequencies of STAT3 nuclear translocation. Three human medulloblastoma cell lines (Daoy, UW228-2 and UW228-3) were cultured with and without 100 μM resveratrol supplementation. The influences of resveratrol in SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 expression and SOCS3 knockdown in STAT3 activation were analyzed using multiple experimental approaches. SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 levels are reduced in medulloblastomas in vivo and in vitro, of which PIAS3 downregulation is more reversely correlated with STAT3 activation. In resveratrol-suppressed medulloblastoma cells with STAT3 downregulation and decreased incidence of STAT3 nuclear translocation, PIAS3 is upregulated, the SHP2 level remains unchanged and SOCS3 is downregulated. SOCS3 proteins are accumulated in the distal ends of axon-like processes of resveratrol-differentiated medulloblastoma cells. Knockdown of SOCS3 expression by siRNA neither influences cell proliferation nor STAT3 activation or resveratrol sensitivity but inhibits resveratrol-induced axon-like process formation. Our results suggest that (1) the overall reduction of SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 in medulloblastoma tissues and cell lines; (2) the more inverse relevance of PIAS3 expression with STAT3 activation; (3) the favorable prognostic values of PIAS3 for medulloblastomas and (4) the involvement of SOCS3 in resveratrol-promoted axon regeneration of medulloblastoma cells.

  14. Angoline: a selective IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway inhibitor isolated from Zanthoxylum nitidum.

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    Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Qing; Ye, Yushan; Li, Wuguo; Qiu, Junxin; Liu, Jingli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 signaling pathway is an important target for human cancer therapy. Thus, the identification of small-molecules that target STAT3 signaling will be of great interests in the development of anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to identify novel inhibitors of STAT3 pathway from the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. The bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOH extract of Z. nitidum using a STAT3-responsive gene reporter assay led to the isolation of angoline (1) as a potent and selective inhibitor of the STAT3 signaling pathway (IC50=11.56 μM). Angoline inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and its target gene expression and consequently induced growth inhibition of human cancer cells with constitutively activated STAT3 (IC50=3.14-4.72 μM). This work provided a novel lead for the development of anti-cancer agents targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Stat3 signaling regulates embryonic stem cell fate in a dose-dependent manner

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    Chih-I Tai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stat3 is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC self-renewal mediated by LIF/gp130 receptor signaling. Current understanding of Stat3-mediated ESC self-renewal mechanisms is very limited, and has heretofore been dominated by the view that Stat3 signaling functions in a binary “on/off” manner. Here, in contrast to this binary viewpoint, we demonstrate a contextual, rheostat-like mechanism for Stat3's function in mESCs. Activation and expression levels determine whether Stat3 functions in a self-renewal or a differentiation role in mESCs. We also show that Stat3 induces rapid differentiation of mESCs toward the trophectoderm (TE lineage when its activation level exceeds certain thresholds. Stat3 induces this differentiation phenotype via induction of Tfap2c and its downstream target Cdx2. Our findings provide a novel concept in the realm of Stat3, self-renewal signaling, and pluripotent stem cell biology. Ultimately, this finding may facilitate the development of conditions for the establishment of authentic non-rodent ESCs.

  16. The Multifaceted Roles of STAT3 Signaling in the Progression of Prostate Cancer

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    Bishop, Jennifer L.; Thaper, Daksh; Zoubeidi, Amina, E-mail: azoubeidi@prostatecentre.com [The Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2660 Oak Street, Vancouver British Columbia, V6H 3Z6 (Canada)

    2014-04-09

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 governs essential functions of epithelial and hematopoietic cells that are often dysregulated in cancer. While the role for STAT3 in promoting the progression of many solid and hematopoietic malignancies is well established, this review will focus on the importance of STAT3 in prostate cancer progression to the incurable metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. As equally important, STAT3 regulates interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment as well as immune cell activation. This makes it a major factor in facilitating prostate cancer escape from detection of the immune response, promoting an immunosuppressive environment that allows growth and metastasis. Based on the multifaceted nature of STAT3 signaling in the progression to mCRPC, the promise of STAT3 as a therapeutic target to prevent prostate cancer progression and the variety of STAT3 inhibitors used in cancer therapies is discussed.

  17. Tamoxifen inhibits astrocytic JAK2/STAT3 pathway in rats with ...

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    Sent for review: 3 May 2016. Revised accepted: 15 .... handheld pestle with sodium dodecyl sulfate ... Beijing, China) and HRP-conjugated donkey anti- ... Figure 3: Western blot analysis showing the pSTAT3 levels of the different rat groups.

  18. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

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    Hong Ding; Jinglian Shen; Yang Yang; Yuqin Che

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL ass...

  19. Tamoxifen inhibits astrocytic JAK2/STAT3 pathway in rats with ...

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    tricyclic antidepressants and calcium channel α2- δ ligands; however, satisfactory results have not yet been achieved [3]. In recent years, it has been suggested that glial ..... from the cell surface to the cell nucleus [7]. Under conditions of astrogliosis, the JAK/STAT3 pathway plays a role as shown in models of NP, and brain ...

  20. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway.

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    Yao, Xiangyang; Zhu, Fenfen; Zhao, Zhihui; Liu, Chang; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-10-01

    Arctigenin is a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Bardanae fructus, Arctium lappa L, Saussureamedusa, Torreya nucifera, and Ipomea cairica. It has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, which is mainly mediated through its inhibitory effect on nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB). But the role of arctigenin in JAK-STAT3 signaling pathways is still unclear. In present study, we investigated the effect of arctigenin on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluated whether suppression of STAT3 activity by arctigenin could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Our results show that arctigenin significantly suppressed both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be achieved through suppression of Src, JAK1, and JAK2, while suppression of STAT3 serine phosphorylation was mediated by inhibition of ERK activation. Pervanadate reversed the arctigenin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, arctigenin can obviously induce the expression of the PTP SHP-2. Furthermore, the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Arctigenin dramatically promoted cisplatin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that arctigenin enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations suggest a novel anticancer function of arctigenin and a potential therapeutic strategy of using arctigenin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Placental STAT3 signaling is activated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Maliqueo, M; Sundström Poromaa, I; Vanky, E; Fornes, R; Benrick, A; Åkerud, H; Stridsklev, S; Labrie, F; Jansson, T; Stener-Victorin, E

    2015-03-01

    Does polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women without pregnancy complications affect placental signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling? Placental STAT3 signaling is activated but mTOR signaling is unaffected in PCOS. Women with PCOS have increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes (e.g. restricted or accelerated fetal growth), indicating placental dysfunction. Placental STAT3 and mTOR pathways regulate placental function and indirectly affect fetal growth. In a case-control study, placental tissue and maternal blood were collected at delivery from 40 control pregnant women and 38 PCOS women with uncomplicated pregnancy. Women with PCOS were recruited at two medical centers and pregnant controls were recruited at one of these centers. Placental mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to steroid action, metabolic pathways and cytokines was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Phosphorylated placental STAT3 (P-STAT3) and mTOR targets was measured by western blot. Levels of sex steroids in serum were determined by mass spectrometry. Placental P-STAT3 (Tyr-705) was increased in women with PCOS (P Becas Chile Programme (Chile) and University of Chile for financial support through a postdoctoral fellowship. There are no competing interests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Resveratrol Inhibited Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Through Inhibiting STAT-3 Signaling.

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    Li, Xin; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Qing Chun; Shi, Tao; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Resveratrol has demonstrated many beneficial effects against cancers; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 80% of lung cancers. The present study was designed to observe the effects and related mechanisms of resveratrol on non-small cell lung cancer in in vitro A549 cells. The anticancer effects of resveratrol were analyzed on cell viability, migration and invasion, proliferation and apoptosis. Cell viability was determined by sulphorhodamine B assays. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry and migration and invasion by transwell chamber analysis. Expression of STAT-3 was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Overexpressing vector of STAT-3 was also constructed and transfected into A549 cells to observe the effects of resveratrol on STAT-3 signaling. The results showed that resveratrol displayed a dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicity action on A549 cell viability. Resveratrol also inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion and promoted apoptosis in a time-dependent manner from 0-72 hours. Further study showed that resveratrol inhibited the messenger RNA and protein expression of STAT-3, and overexpressed STAT-3 abolished the effects of resveratrol on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion totally or in part. These results suggest that the anticancer effects of resveratrol are mediated by STAT-3 signaling. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of STAT3 Signaling Impairs Hair Cell Differentiation in the Developing Mouse Cochlea

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    Qianqian Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although STAT3 signaling is demonstrated to regulate sensory cell differentiation and regeneration in the zebrafish, its exact role is still unclear in mammalian cochleae. Here, we report that STAT3 and its activated form are specifically expressed in hair cells during mouse cochlear development. Importantly, conditional cochlear deletion of Stat3 leads to an inhibition on hair cell differentiation in mice in vivo and in vitro. By cell fate analysis, inactivation of STAT3 signaling shifts the cell division modes from asymmetric to symmetric divisions from supporting cells. Moreover, inhibition of Notch signaling stimulates STAT3 phosphorylation, and inactivation of STAT3 signaling attenuates production of supernumerary hair cells induced by a Notch pathway inhibitor. Our findings highlight an important role of the STAT3 signaling during mouse cochlear hair cell differentiation and may have clinical implications for the recovery of hair cell loss-induced hearing impairment.

  4. Adenosine A2a receptor induces GDNF expression by the Stat3 signal in vitro.

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    Ke, Rong-Hu; Xiong, Ji; Liu, Ying

    2012-11-14

    Adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) is believed to play a role in a number of physiological responses and pathological conditions. Our group has shown previously that A2aR-activated astrocytes occurred following oxygen-glucose deprivation. However, the relationship between A2aR and neurotrophins is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of A2aR on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in rat brain astrocyte-2 (RBA-2) cells by quantitative PCR and western blot. We established a stable A2aR-overexpressing cell line and found that A2aR induced GDNF expression both at mRNA and protein levels. A2aR-selective antagonist Sch58261 decreased GDNF expression in a dose-dependent manner with increased activation of Stat3. The Stat3 inhibitor reversed the effect of Sch58261 on GDNF expression. Therefore, these data indicate that A2aR induces GDNF expression by the Stat3 pathway, which provides a new insight into the function of A2aR in cerebral ischemia and neuroprotection.

  5. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

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    Hong Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3 plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p<0.05. The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  6. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell.

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    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  7. Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration

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    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2012-05-01

    Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.

  8. The STAT3-miRNA-92-Wnt Signaling Pathway Regulates Spheroid Formation and Malignant Progression in Ovarian Cancer.

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    Chen, Min-Wei; Yang, Shu-Ting; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Wu, Chin-Jui; Hsiao, S M; Lin, Hao; Hsiao, Michael; Su, Jen-Liang; Wei, Lin-Hung

    2017-04-15

    Ovarian cancer spheroids constitute a metastatic niche for transcoelomic spread that also engenders drug resistance. Spheroid-forming cells express active STAT3 signaling and display stem cell-like properties that may contribute to ovarian tumor progression. In this study, we show that STAT3 is hyperactivated in ovarian cancer spheroids and that STAT3 disruption in this setting is sufficient to relieve chemoresistance. In an NSG murine model of human ovarian cancer, STAT3 signaling regulated spheroid formation and self-renewal properties, whereas STAT3 attenuation reduced tumorigenicity. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Wnt signaling was required for STAT3-mediated spheroid formation. Notably, the Wnt antagonist DKK1 was the most strikingly upregulated gene in response to STAT3 attenuation in ovarian cancer cells. STAT3 signaling maintained stemness and interconnected Wnt/β-catenin signaling via the miR-92a/DKK1-regulatory pathways. Targeting STAT3 in combination with paclitaxel synergistically reduced peritoneal seeding and prolonged survival in a murine model of intraperitoneal ovarian cancer. Overall, our findings define a STAT3-miR-92a-DKK1 pathway in the generation of cancer stem-like cells in ovarian tumors, with potential therapeutic applications in blocking their progression. Cancer Res; 77(8); 1955-67. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

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    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Jiansheng [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Xiangyuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  10. Zinc Chloride Transiently Maintains Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency by Activating Stat3 Signaling.

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    Jing Hu

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of the pluripotency maintenance of embryonic stem (ES cells is important for investigations of early embryo development and for cell replacement therapy, but the mechanism behind pluripotency is still incompletely understood. Recent findings show that zinc, an essential trace element in humans, is critically involved in regulating various signaling pathways and genes expression. However, its role in ES cell fate determination remains to be further explored. Here we showed that 2μM zinc chloride (ZnCl2 transiently maintained mouse ES cell pluripotency in vitro. The cultured mouse ES cells remained undifferentiated under 2μM ZnCl2 treatment in leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF withdrawal, retinoic acid (RA or embryoid bodies (EBs differentiation assays. In addition, ZnCl2 increased pluripotency genes expression and inhibited differentiation genes expression. Further mechanistic studies revealed that ZnCl2 transiently activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3 signaling through promoting Stat3 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Stat3 signaling abrogated the effects of ZnCl2 on mouse ES cell pluripotency. Taken together, this study demonstrated a critical role of zinc in the pluripotency maintenance of mouse ES cells, as well as an important regulator of Stat3 signaling.

  11. STAT3 signalling is required for leptin regulation of energy balance but not reproduction.

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    Bates, Sarah H; Stearns, Walter H; Dundon, Trevor A; Schubert, Markus; Tso, Annette W K; Wang, Yongping; Banks, Alexander S; Lavery, Hugh J; Haq, Asma K; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Neel, Benjamin G; Schwartz, Michael W; Myers, Martin G

    2003-02-20

    Secretion of leptin from adipocytes communicates body energy status to the brain by activating the leptin receptor long form (LRb). LRb regulates energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine function; the absence of LRb in db/db mice results in obesity, impaired growth, infertility and diabetes. Tyr 1138 of LRb mediates activation of the transcription factor STAT3 during leptin action. To investigate the contribution of STAT3 signalling to leptin action in vivo, we replaced the gene encoding the leptin receptor (lepr) in mice with an allele coding for a replacement of Tyr 1138 in LRb with a serine residue (lepr(S1138)) that specifically disrupts the LRb-STAT3 signal. Here we show that, like db/db mice, lepr(S1138) homozygotes (s/s) are hyperphagic and obese. However, whereas db/db mice are infertile, short and diabetic, s/s mice are fertile, long and less hyperglycaemic. Furthermore, hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is elevated in db/db mice but not s/s mice, whereas the hypothalamic melanocortin system is suppressed in both db/db and s/s mice. LRb-STAT3 signalling thus mediates the effects of leptin on melanocortin production and body energy homeostasis, whereas distinct LRb signals regulate NPY and the control of fertility, growth and glucose homeostasis.

  12. Dendritic cells from Crohn's disease patients show aberrant STAT1 and STAT3 signaling.

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    Janne K Nieminen

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of dendritic cells (DCs and STAT proteins have been reported in Crohn's disease (CD. Studies on JAK/STAT signaling in DCs are, however, lacking in CD. We applied a flowcytometric single-cell-based phosphoepitope assay to evaluate STAT1 and STAT3 pathways in DC subsets from CD patients. In addition, circulating DC counts were determined, together with the activation-related immunophenotype. We found that IL-6- and IFN-α-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and IFN-α-induced STAT1 phosphorylation were impaired in plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs from CD patients (P = 0.005, P = 0.013, and P = 0.006, respectively. In myeloid DCs (mDCs, IFN-α-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation were attenuated (P<0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively, but IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was enhanced (P = 0.026. IFN-γ-induced STAT1 signaling was intact in both DC subtypes. Elevated plasma IL-6 levels were detected in CD (P = 0.004, which strongly correlated with disease activity (ρ = 0.690, P<0.001 but not with IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. The numbers of pDCs and BDCA3+ mDCs were decreased, and CD40 expression on CD1c+ mDCs was increased in CD. When elucidating the effect of IL-6 signaling on pDC function, we observed that IL-6 treatment of healthy donor pDCs affected the maturation of and modified the T-cell priming by pDCs, favoring Th2 over Th1 type of response and the expression of IL-10 in T cells. Our results implicate DC signaling in human CD. Reduced IL-6 responsiveness in pDCs, together with the attenuated IFN-α-induced signaling in both DC subtypes, may contribute to the immunological dysregulation in CD patients.

  13. Salmonella Protein AvrA Activates the STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Colon Cancer

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    Rong Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infection in humans can become chronic, which leads to low-grade persistent inflammation. These chronic infections increase the risk of several gastrointestinal diseases, including cancer. Salmonella AvrA is a multifunctional protein that influences eukaryotic cell pathways by regulating ubiquitination and acetylation. In an animal model, we have demonstrated that infection with AvrA-expressing Salmonella induces beta-catenin signals and enhances colonic tumorigenesis. Beta-catenin signaling is a key player in intestinal proliferation and tumorigenesis. The relative contributions of AvrA-induced proliferation and inflammation on tumorigenesis, however, are unknown. STAT3 is activated in chronically inflamed intestines in human inflammatory bowel diseases and in colitis-associated colon cancer. In the current study, mice were colonized with Salmonella AvrA-sufficient or AvrA-deficient bacterial strains. Then, inflammation-associated colon cancer was induced through the use of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium. We determined that AvrA-expressing bacteria activated the STAT3 pathway, which is predicted to enhance proliferation and promote tumorigenesis. Transcriptional activity of STAT3 and its target genes were upregulated by Salmonella expressing AvrA, thus promoting proliferation and intestinal tumorigenesis. Our findings provide new insights regarding a STAT3-dependent mechanism by which the specific bacterial product AvrA enhances the development of infection-associated colon cancer. These insights might suggest future biomarkers to risk assessment and early detection of infection-related cancer.

  14. Interleukin-6/STAT3 signaling as a promising target to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

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    Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Ohno, Yosuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ohtake, Junya; Homma, Shigenori; Kawamura, Hideki; Takahashi, Norihiko; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2017-10-01

    Overcoming the immunosuppressive state in tumor microenvironments is a critical issue for improving the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Interleukin (IL)-6, a pleiotropic cytokine, is highly produced in the tumor-bearing host. Previous studies have indicated that IL-6 suppresses the antigen presentation ability of dendritic cells (DC) through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Thus, we focused on the precise effect of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling cascade on human DC and the subsequent induction of antitumor T cell immune responses. Tumor-infiltrating CD11b + CD11c + cells isolated from colorectal cancer tissues showed strong induction of the IL-6 gene, downregulated surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and an attenuated T cell-stimulating ability compared with those from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment suppresses antitumor effector cells. In vitro experiments revealed that IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation reduced surface expression of HLA-DR on CD14 + monocyte-derived DC. Moreover, we confirmed that cyclooxygenase 2, lysosome protease and arginase activities were involved in the IL-6-mediated downregulation of the surface expression levels of HLA class II on human DC. These findings suggest that IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation in the tumor microenvironment inhibits functional maturation of DC to activate effector T cells, blocking introduction of antitumor immunity in cancers. Therefore, we propose in this review that blockade of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and target molecules in DC may be a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of immunotherapies for cancer patients. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Photodynamic therapy activated signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor and STAT3

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    Edmonds, Christine; Hagan, Sarah; Gallagher-Colombo, Shannon M.; Busch, Theresa M.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serosal (pleural or peritoneal) spread of malignancy have few definitive treatment options and consequently have a very poor prognosis. We have previously shown that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be an effective treatment for these patients, but that the therapeutic index is relatively narrow. Here, we test the hypothesis that EGFR and STAT3 activation increase survival following PDT, and that inhibiting these pathways leads to increased PDT-mediated direct cellular cytotoxicity by examining BPD-PDT in OvCa and NSCLC cells. We found that BPD-mediated PDT stimulated EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and that EGFR inhibition by erlotinib resulted in reduction of PDT-mediated EGFR activation and nuclear translocation. Nuclear translocation and PDT-mediated activation of EGFR were also observed in response to BPD-mediated PDT in multiple cell lines, including OvCa, NSCLC and head and neck cancer cells, and was observed to occur in response to porfimer sodium-mediated PDT. In addition, we found that PDT stimulates nuclear translocation of STAT3 and STAT3/EGFR association and that inhibiting STAT3 signaling prior to PDT leads to increased PDT cytotoxicity. Finally, we found that inhibition of EGFR signaling leads to increased PDT cytotoxicity through a mechanism that involves increased apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDT stimulates the nuclear accumulation of both EGFR and STAT3 and that targeting these survival pathways is a potentially promising strategy that could be adapted for clinical trials of PDT for patients with serosal spread of malignancy. PMID:22986230

  16. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis

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    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM. PMID:26722442

  17. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis.

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    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM.

  18. Metformin promotes autophagy and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by downregulating Stat3 signaling

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    Feng, Y; Ke, C; Tang, Q; Dong, H; Zheng, X; Lin, W; Ke, J; Huang, J; Yeung, S-CJ; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    The antidiabetic drug metformin exerts chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects in many types of malignancies. However, the mechanisms responsible for metformin actions appear diverse and may differ in different types of cancer. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms specific for different cancers is important to optimize strategy for metformin treatment in different cancer types. Here, we investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Metformin selectively inhibited cell growth in ESCC tumor cells but not immortalized noncancerous esophageal epithelial cells. In addition to apoptosis, metformin triggered autophagy. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy sensitized ESCC cells to metformin-induced apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and its downstream target Bcl-2 was inactivated by metformin treatment. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Stat3 knockdown enhanced metformin-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and concomitantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of metformin on cell viability. Similarly, the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene, an inhibitor of both apoptosis and autophagy, was repressed by metformin. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 protected cells from metformin-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. In vivo, metformin downregulated Stat3 activity and Bcl-2 expression, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibited tumor growth. Together, inactivation of Stat3-Bcl-2 pathway contributes to metformin-induced growth inhibition of ESCC by facilitating crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24577086

  19. Heteroarylketones inhibit astroglial interleukin-6 expression via a STAT3/NF-κB signaling pathway

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    Kehlen Astrid

    2011-07-01

    treatment. HAK compounds also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 expression in primary murine astrocytes as well as in brain and plasma samples from lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Finally, HAK compounds were demonstrated to specifically suppress the OSM-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 at serine 727 and the physical interaction of pSTAT3S727 with p65. Conclusion Heteroarylketone compounds are potent inhibitors of IL-6 expression in vitro and in vivo and may represent a new class of potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs.

  20. Lung epithelial tip progenitors integrate glucocorticoid- and STAT3-mediated signals to control progeny fate

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    Laresgoiti, Usua; Rao, Chandrika; Brady, Jane L.; Richardson, Rachel V.; Batchen, Emma J.; Chapman, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient alveolar gas exchange capacity is a major contributor to lung disease. During lung development, a population of distal epithelial progenitors first produce bronchiolar-fated and subsequently alveolar-fated progeny. The mechanisms controlling this bronchiolar-to-alveolar developmental transition remain largely unknown. We developed a novel grafting assay to test if lung epithelial progenitors are intrinsically programmed or if alveolar cell identity is determined by environmental factors. These experiments revealed that embryonic lung epithelial identity is extrinsically determined. We show that both glucocorticoid and STAT3 signalling can control the timing of alveolar initiation, but that neither pathway is absolutely required for alveolar fate specification; rather, glucocorticoid receptor and STAT3 work in parallel to promote alveolar differentiation. Thus, developmental acquisition of lung alveolar fate is a robust process controlled by at least two independent extrinsic signalling inputs. Further elucidation of these pathways might provide therapeutic opportunities for restoring alveolar capacity. PMID:27578791

  1. Suppression of STAT3 Signaling by Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Induces Trophoblast Dysfunction.

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    Chang, Xinwen; Bian, Yiding; He, Qizhi; Yao, Julei; Zhu, Jingping; Wu, Jinting; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana is a widely used illicit drug and its consumption during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic intake of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of marijuana, on trophoblast function, placental development, and birth outcomes. The pathological characteristics and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in placenta were observed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Cell migration in response to THC was measured by transwell assays. The levels of cannabinoid receptors and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) were detected by western blot. We found the placenta expressed two main cannabinoid receptors, suggesting that THC induced biological responses in placental cells. Supporting this hypothesis, we observed dramatic alterations of placental morphology in marijuana users. Using THC and inhibitors of cannabinoid receptors, we demonstrated that THC impaired trophoblast cell migration and invasion partly via cannabinoid receptors. Additionally, pregnant mice injected with THC showed adverse reproductive events including reduced number of fetuses, lower maternal and placental weights. Mechanistically, STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in the THC-induced suppression of trophoblast cell motility and pregnancy outcomes. Our study indicates that the STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in THC-induced trophoblast dysfunction. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Suppression of STAT3 Signaling by Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC Induces Trophoblast Dysfunction

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    Xinwen Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Marijuana is a widely used illicit drug and its consumption during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic intake of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the major component of marijuana, on trophoblast function, placental development, and birth outcomes. Methods: The pathological characteristics and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in placenta were observed by immunohistochemical (IHC staining. Cell migration in response to THC was measured by transwell assays. The levels of cannabinoid receptors and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 were detected by western blot. Results: We found the placenta expressed two main cannabinoid receptors, suggesting that THC induced biological responses in placental cells. Supporting this hypothesis, we observed dramatic alterations of placental morphology in marijuana users. Using THC and inhibitors of cannabinoid receptors, we demonstrated that THC impaired trophoblast cell migration and invasion partly via cannabinoid receptors. Additionally, pregnant mice injected with THC showed adverse reproductive events including reduced number of fetuses, lower maternal and placental weights. Mechanistically, STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in the THC-induced suppression of trophoblast cell motility and pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: Our study indicates that the STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in THC-induced trophoblast dysfunction.

  3. Pharmacological Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 Signaling Is a Promising Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC. Our previous data demonstrated that regorafenib (Stivarga is a pharmacological agonist of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1 that enhances SHP-1 activity and induces apoptosis by targeting STAT3 signals in CRC. This study aimed to find a therapeutic drug that is more effective than regorafenib for CRC treatment. Here, we showed that SC-43 was more effective than regorafenib at inducing apoptosis in vitro and suppressing tumorigenesis in vivo. SC-43 significantly increased SHP-1 activity, downregulated p-STAT3Tyr705 level, and induced apoptosis in CRC cells. An SHP-1 inhibitor or knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA both significantly rescued the SC-43–induced apoptosis and decreased p-STAT3Tyr705 level. Conversely, SHP-1 overexpression increased the effects of SC-43 on apoptosis and p-STAT3Tyr705 level. These data suggest that SC-43–induced apoptosis mediated through the loss of p-STAT3Tyr705 was dependent on SHP-1 function. Importantly, SC-43–enhanced SHP-1 activity was because of the docking potential of SC-43, which relieved the autoinhibited N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 and inhibited p-STAT3Tyr705 signals. Importantly, we observed that a significant negative correlation existed between SHP-1 and p-STAT3Tyr705expression in CRC patients (P = .038. Patients with strong SHP-1 and weak p-STAT3Tyr705 expression had significantly higher overall survival compared with patients with weak SHP-1 and strong p-STAT3Tyr705 expression (P = .029. In conclusion, SHP-1 is suitable to be a useful prognostic marker and a pharmacological target for CRC treatment. Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 signaling by SC-43 may serve as a promising pharmacotherapy for CRC.

  4. Anticancer effect of salidroside on colon cancer through inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kuan-Xue; Xia, Hong-Wei; Xia, Rong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salidroside is considered to have anti-tumor properties. We investigate its effects on colon carcinoma SW1116 cells. Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to determine the cell cycle by flow cytometry. The migration and invasion were detected by Transwell. Western blot was used to detect the expression of STAT3 signal related proteins. As the result, high concentrations of salidroside (10, 20. 50 μg/ml) significantly inhibited proliferation of SW1116 cells in a parallelly, cell cycle arrest was increased at the G0/G1 phase after salidroside treatment. Furthermore, salidroside inhibited migration and invasion of SW1116 cells. Salidroside treatment decreased proteins expression of phosphorylation levels in JAK2/STAT3 signaling, while MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins levels were decreased and protein expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 were down-regulated. In Conclusion, salidroside inhibited proliferation, decreased the migration and invasion of SW1116 cells in JAK2/STAT3-dependent pathway, the specific mechanisms need further study.

  5. Inhibition of Stat3 signaling pathway by nifuroxazide improves antitumor immunity and impairs colorectal carcinoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting-Hong; Yang, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Yong-Xia; Li, Ya-Li; Lei, Qian; Song, Xue-Jiao; Xia, Yong; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Li-Dan; Wang, Ning-Yu; Zhao, Li-Feng; Gou, Hong-Feng; Xie, Yong-Mei; Yang, Sheng-Yong; Yu, Luo-Ting; Yang, Li; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2017-01-05

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the one of the most common cancers with considerable metastatic potential, explaining the need for new drug candidates that inhibit tumor metastasis. The signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway has an important role in CRC and has been validated as a promising anticancer target for CRC therapy. In the present study, we report our findings on nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3. Our studies showed that nifuroxazide decreased the viability of three CRC cell lines and induced apoptosis of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that the occurrence of its apoptosis was correlated with the activation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. In addition, nifuroxazide markedly impaired CRC cell migration and invasion by downregulating phosphorylated-Stat3Tyr705, and also impaired the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). Furthermore, our studies showed that nifuroxazide also significantly inhibited the tumor metastasis in lung and abdomen metastasis models of colon cancer. Meanwhile, nifuroxazide functionally reduced the proliferation index, induced tumor apoptosis and impaired metastasis. Notably, nifuroxazide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the blood, spleens and tumors, accompanied by the increased infiltration of CD8+ T cells in the tumors. Importantly, a marked decrease in the number of M2-type macrophages in tumor in the abdomen metastasis model was also observed. Taken together, our results indicated that nifuroxazide could effectively inhibit tumor metastasis by mediating Stat3 pathway and it might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of CRC.

  6. Dovitinib Acts As a Novel Radiosensitizer in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Targeting SHP-1/STAT3 Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tai, Wei-Tien [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Szu-Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chih-Ting; Chen, Min-Hsuan; Tsai, Ming-Hsien [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Chiung-Wen [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Chung-Wai [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hung, Man-Hsin, E-mail: cindybeaty@gmail.com [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Program in Molecular Medicine, School of Life Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuen-Feng, E-mail: kfchen1970@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal human malignancies, and curative therapy is not an option for most patients. There is growing interest in the potential benefit of combining targeted therapies with radiation therapy (RT). This study aimed to characterize the efficacy and mechanism of an investigational drug, dovitinib, used in combination with RT. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Hep3B, SK-Hep1, HA59T, and Huh-7) were treated with dovitinib, RT, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: Dovitinib treatment resulted in Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1)-mediated downregulation of p-STAT3 and promoted potent apoptosis of HCC cells. Ectopic expression of STAT3, or inhibition of SHP-1, diminished the effects of dovitinib on HCC cells. By ectopic expression and purified recombinant proteins of various mutant forms of SHP-1, the N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 was found to be required for dovitinib treatment. Overexpression of STAT3 or catalytic-dead mutant SHP-1 restored RT-induced reduction of HCC cell survival. Conversely, ectopic expression of SHP-1 or activation of SHP-1 by dovitinib enhanced the effects of RT against HCC in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: SHP-1/STAT3 signaling is critically associated with the radiosensitivity of HCC cells. Combination therapy with RT and the SHP-1 agonist, such as dovitinib, resulted in enhanced in vitro and in vivo anti-HCC effects.

  7. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Promotes Breast Cancer Progression via a Fibronectin-dependent STAT3 Signaling Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Nikolas; Wendt, Michael K.; Schiemann, Barbara J.; Wang, Zhenghe; Schiemann, William P.; Carlin, Cathleen R.

    2013-01-01

    We previously established that overexpression of the EGF receptor (EGFR) is sufficient to induce tumor formation by otherwise nontransformed mammary epithelial cells, and that the initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is capable of increasing the invasion and metastasis of these cells. Using this breast cancer (BC) model, we find that in addition to EGF, adhesion to fibronectin (FN) activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) through EGFR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Importantly, EMT facilitated a signaling switch from SRC-dependent EGFR:STAT3 signaling in pre-EMT cells to EGFR-independent FN:JAK2:STAT3 signaling in their post-EMT counterparts, thereby sensitizing these cells to JAK2 inhibition. Accordingly, human metastatic BC cells that failed to activate STAT3 downstream of EGFR did display robust STAT3 activity upon adhesion to FN. Furthermore, FN enhanced outgrowth in three-dimensional organotypic cultures via a mechanism that is dependent upon β1 integrin, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and STAT3 but not EGFR. Collectively, our data demonstrate that matrix-initiated signaling is sufficient to drive STAT3 activation, a reaction that is facilitated by EMT during BC metastatic progression. PMID:23653350

  8. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition promotes breast cancer progression via a fibronectin-dependent STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Nikolas; Wendt, Michael K; Schiemann, Barbara J; Wang, Zhenghe; Schiemann, William P; Carlin, Cathleen R

    2013-06-21

    We previously established that overexpression of the EGF receptor (EGFR) is sufficient to induce tumor formation by otherwise nontransformed mammary epithelial cells, and that the initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is capable of increasing the invasion and metastasis of these cells. Using this breast cancer (BC) model, we find that in addition to EGF, adhesion to fibronectin (FN) activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) through EGFR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Importantly, EMT facilitated a signaling switch from SRC-dependent EGFR:STAT3 signaling in pre-EMT cells to EGFR-independent FN:JAK2:STAT3 signaling in their post-EMT counterparts, thereby sensitizing these cells to JAK2 inhibition. Accordingly, human metastatic BC cells that failed to activate STAT3 downstream of EGFR did display robust STAT3 activity upon adhesion to FN. Furthermore, FN enhanced outgrowth in three-dimensional organotypic cultures via a mechanism that is dependent upon β1 integrin, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and STAT3 but not EGFR. Collectively, our data demonstrate that matrix-initiated signaling is sufficient to drive STAT3 activation, a reaction that is facilitated by EMT during BC metastatic progression.

  9. Involvement of hypothalamic PI3K–STAT3 signalling in regulating appetite suppression mediated by amphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Yu, Ching-Han; Lin, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Yan-Han; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Appetite suppression induced by amphetamine has been attributed to its inhibition of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and activation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus. This study examined whether STAT3 was involved in these actions of amphetamine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats were given amphetamine daily for 4 days. Changes in the expression of NPY, POMC, melanocortin MC3 receptors, PI3K and STAT3 in the hypothalamus were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Antisense oligonucleotides to STAT3 were also used. KEY RESULTS Expression of NPY decreased with a maximum effect day 2 of amphetamine treatment. Expression of POMC, MC3 receptors, PI3K and STAT3 increased with a maximum response on day 2. Moreover, phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity increased and was expressed in a similar pattern. Infusion (i.c.v.) of STAT3 antisense at 60 min before amphetamine treatment, partly blocked amphetamine-induced anorexia and modulated expression of NPY, POMC, MC3 receptors and PI3K, indicating the involvement of STAT3 in amphetamine-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Hypothalamic PI3K–STAT3 signalling participated in the regulation of NPY- and POMC-mediated appetite suppression. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of anorectic drugs. PMID:24597972

  10. Helicobacter pylori Activates IL-6-STAT3 Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Potential Roles for Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Juan-Yu; Lee, Hee Geum; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Han, Hyeong-Jun; Ngo, Hoang-Kieu-Chi; Park, Sin-Aye; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Na, Hye-Kyung; Cha, Young-Nam; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying H. pylori-mediated STAT3 activation is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated H. pylori-induced activation of STAT3 signaling in AGS human gastric cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. AGS cells were cocultured with H. pylori, and STAT3 activation was assessed by Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunocytochemistry. To demonstrate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H. pylori-activated STAT3 signaling, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was utilized. The expression and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The interaction between IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) was determined by the immunoprecipitation assay. H. pylori activates STAT3 as evidenced by increases in phosphorylation on Tyr(705) , nuclear localization, DNA binding and transcriptional activity of this transcription factor. The nuclear translocation of STAT3 was also observed in H. pylori-inoculated mouse stomach. In the subsequent study, we found that H. pylori-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was dependent on IL-6. Notably, the increased IL-6 expression and the IL-6 and IL-6R binding were mediated by ROS produced as a consequence of H. pylori infection. H. pylori-induced STAT3 activation is mediated, at least in part, through ROS-induced upregulation of IL-6 expression. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism responsible for H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Salidroside reduces renal cell carcinoma proliferation by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cai; Huang, Yuan; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Yu, Dan; Bai, Zhi-Ming

    2016-06-07

    Salidroside has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of salidroside on renal cell carcinoma growth. Cell viability and proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays in A498 and 786-0 cells. The effects of salidroside on in vivo tumor growth were also assessed in a mouse xenograft model of renal cell carcinoma. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis and protein levels were determined by western blotting. Salidroside reduced cell viability and colony formation in both cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tumor growth was also suppressed in the mouse model. Furthermore, salidroside induced significant G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in both A498 and 786-0 cells. Higher concentrations of salidroside reduced the levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). These results suggested that salidroside produced potent anticancer properties in renal cell carcinoma by modulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling. Administration of salidroside to patients with renal cell carcinoma might provide a promising therapeutic strategy for this malignancy.

  12. Serenoa Repens Induces Growth Arrest, Apoptosis and Inactivation of STAT3 Signaling in Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tiezhu; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hongyan; Che, Yuqin; Wang, Wei; Lv, Hui; Li, Jie; Wang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Shuai

    2015-12-01

    Serenoa repens, the extract of berry in Southeastern United States, is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we found for the first time that Serenoa repens effectively inhibited the growth of human U87 and U251 glioma cells. Flow cytometry assay showed that Serenoa repens induced apoptosis of U87 and U251 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also, Serenoa repens increased the expression of cleaved-PARP, Caspase-3 or p27 protein in these two cell lines, respectively. In addition, we found that Serenoa repens down-regulated basal level of phosphorylated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) in both U87 and U251 glioma cells. Furthermore, it was discovered that a Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK) inhibitor AG490 inhibit the growth of human U87 and U251 glioma cells and AG490 enhanced the ability of Serenoa repens to inhibit the growth of U87 and U251 glioma cells as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These results indicate that Serenoa repens reduces the growth, causes apoptosis of Glioma cells and inhibits STAT 3 signaling. In addition, it might also be useful for the treatment of individuals with glioma. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. New role of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in endothelial cell oxidative stress injury and protective effect of melatonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixun Duan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a regulatory role in cellular oxidative stress injury (OSI. In this study, we explored the role of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced OSI and the protective effect of melatonin against (H2O2-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. AG490 (a specific inhibitor of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and JAK2 siRNA were used to manipulate JAK2/STAT3 activity, and the results showed that AG490 and JAK2 siRNA inhibited OSI and the levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. HUVECs were then subjected to H2O2 in the absence or presence of melatonin, the main secretory product of the pineal gland. Melatonin conferred a protective effect against H2O2, which was evidenced by improvements in cell viability, adhesive ability and migratory ability, decreases in the apoptotic index and reactive oxygen species (ROS production and several biochemical parameters in HUVECs. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting showed that H2O2 treatment increased the levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, Cytochrome c, Bax and Caspase3 and decreased the levels of Bcl2, whereas melatonin treatment partially reversed these effects. We, for the first time, demonstrate that the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway results in a protective effect against endothelial OSI. The protective effects of melatonin against OSI, at least partially, depend upon JAK2/STAT3 inhibition.

  14. HiJAK’d Signaling; the STAT3 Paradox in Senescence and Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junk, Damian J.; Bryson, Benjamin L.; Jackson, Mark W., E-mail: mark.w.jackson@case.edu [Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, 2103 Cornell Road, WRB 3-134, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2014-03-26

    Clinical and epidemiological data have associated chronic inflammation with cancer progression. Most tumors show evidence of infiltrating immune and inflammatory cells, and chronic inflammatory disorders are known to increase the overall risk of cancer development. While immune cells are often observed in early hyperplastic lesions in vivo, there remains debate over whether these immune cells and the cytokines they produce in the developing hyperplastic microenvironment act to inhibit or facilitate tumor development. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines, which includes IL-6 and oncostatin M (OSM), among others (LIF, CT-1, CNTF, and CLC), are secreted by immune cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells, and regulate diverse biological processes. Each of the IL-6 family cytokines signals through a distinct receptor complex, yet each receptor complex uses a shared gp130 subunit, which is critical for signal transduction following cytokine binding. Activation of gp130 results in the activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) signaling cascades. Tumor suppressive signaling can often be observed in normal cells following prolonged STAT3 activation. However, there is mounting evidence that the IL-6 family cytokines can contribute to later stages of tumor progression in many ways. Here we will review how the microenvironmental IL-6 family cytokine OSM influences each stage of the transformation process. We discuss the intrinsic adaptations a developing cancer cell must make in order to tolerate and circumvent OSM-mediated growth suppression, as well as the OSM effectors that are hijacked during tumor expansion and metastasis. We propose that combining current therapies with new ones that suppress the signals generated from the tumor microenvironment will significantly impact an oncologist’s ability to treat cancer.

  15. HiJAK’d Signaling; the STAT3 Paradox in Senescence and Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian J. Junk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological data have associated chronic inflammation with cancer progression. Most tumors show evidence of infiltrating immune and inflammatory cells, and chronic inflammatory disorders are known to increase the overall risk of cancer development. While immune cells are often observed in early hyperplastic lesions in vivo, there remains debate over whether these immune cells and the cytokines they produce in the developing hyperplastic microenvironment act to inhibit or facilitate tumor development. The interleukin-6 (IL-6 family of cytokines, which includes IL-6 and oncostatin M (OSM, among others (LIF, CT-1, CNTF, and CLC, are secreted by immune cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells, and regulate diverse biological processes. Each of the IL-6 family cytokines signals through a distinct receptor complex, yet each receptor complex uses a shared gp130 subunit, which is critical for signal transduction following cytokine binding. Activation of gp130 results in the activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K signaling cascades. Tumor suppressive signaling can often be observed in normal cells following prolonged STAT3 activation. However, there is mounting evidence that the IL-6 family cytokines can contribute to later stages of tumor progression in many ways. Here we will review how the microenvironmental IL-6 family cytokine OSM influences each stage of the transformation process. We discuss the intrinsic adaptations a developing cancer cell must make in order to tolerate and circumvent OSM-mediated growth suppression, as well as the OSM effectors that are hijacked during tumor expansion and metastasis. We propose that combining current therapies with new ones that suppress the signals generated from the tumor microenvironment will significantly impact an oncologist’s ability to treat cancer.

  16. GPR30 mediates anorectic estrogen-induced STAT3 signaling in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Obin; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Insook; Shin, Sora; Kim, Mijung; Kwon, Somin; Oh, So Ra; Ahn, Young Soo; Kim, Chul Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in the control of energy balance in the hypothalamus. Leptin-independent STAT3 activation (i.e., tyrosine(705)-phosphorylation of STAT3, pSTAT3) in the hypothalamus is hypothesized as the primary mechanism of the estrogen-induced anorexic response. However, the type of estrogen receptor that mediates this regulation is unknown. We investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in estradiol (E2)-induced STAT3 activation in the hypothalamus. Regulation of STAT3 activation by E2, G-1, a specific agonist of GPR30 and G-15, a specific antagonist of GPR30 was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Effect of GPR30 activation on eating behavior was analyzed in vivo. E2 stimulated pSTAT3 in cells expressing GPR30, but not expressing estrogen receptor ERα and ERβ. G-1 induced pSTAT3, and G-15 inhibited E2-induced pSTAT3 in primary cultures of hypothalamic neurons. A cerebroventricular injection of G-1 increased pSTAT3 in the arcuate nucleus of mice, which was associated with a decrease in food intake and body weight gain. These results suggest that GPR30 is the estrogen receptor that mediates the anorectic effect of estrogen through the STAT3 pathway in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long noncoding RNA TSLNC8 is a tumor suppressor that inactivates the interleukin-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Li, Zhe; Liu, Longzi; Wang, Qifeng; Li, Shengli; Chen, Di; Hu, Zhixiang; Yu, Tao; Ding, Jie; Li, Jinjun; Yao, Ming; Huang, Shenglin; Zhao, Yingjun; He, Xianghuo

    2018-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs can serve as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancer; however, their biological functions and underlying mechanism in hepatocarcinogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we report a novel tumor suppressor long noncoding RNA on chromosome 8p12 (termed TSLNC8) that is frequently deleted and down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. The loss of TSLNC8 is highly associated with the malignant features of HCC and serves as a prognostic indicator for HCC patients. TSLNC8 significantly suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. TSLNC8 exerts its tumor suppressive activity by competitively interacting with transketolase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and modulating the STAT3-Tyr705 and STAT3-Ser727 phosphorylation levels and STAT3 transcriptional activity, thus resulting in inactivation of the interleukin-6-STAT3 signaling pathway in HCC cells. TSLNC8 is a promising prognostic predictor for patients with HCC, and the TSLNC8-transketolase-STAT3 axis is a potential therapeutic target for HCC treatment. (Hepatology 2018;67:171-187). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 Activates Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiming; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Harris, David M.; Li, Ping; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of B-cell neoplasms. A broad array of mostly extracellular stimuli has been reported to activate NF-κB, to various degrees, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Because CLL cells harbor high levels of unphosphorylated (U) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 protein and U-STAT3 was reported to activate NF-κB, we sought to determine whether U-STAT3 activates NF-κB in CLL. Using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) we studied peripheral blood low-density cells from 15 patients with CLL and found that CLL cell nuclear extracts from all the samples bound to an NF-κB DNA probe, suggesting that NF-κB is constitutively activated in CLL. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that STAT3 bound NF-κB p65, and confocal microscopy studies detected U-STAT3/NF-κB complexes in the nuclei of CLL cells, thereby confirming these findings. Furthermore, infection of CLL cells with retroviral STAT3-shRNA attenuated the binding of NF-κB to DNA, as assessed by EMSA, and downregulated mRNA levels of NF-κB-regulated genes, as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Taken together, our data suggest that U-STAT3 binds to the NF-κB p50/p65 dimers and that the U-STAT3/NF-κB complexes bind to DNA and activate NF-κB-regulated genes in CLL cells. PMID:21364020

  19. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 regulates microRNA gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Calin, George A; Setoyama, Tetsuro; D'Abundo, Lucilla; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Grgurevic, Srdana; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Burger, Jan A; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 1,000 microRNAs (miRs) are present in the human genome; however, little is known about the regulation of miR transcription. Because miR levels are deregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is constitutively activated in CLL, we sought to determine whether STAT3 affects the transcription of miR genes in CLL cells. We used publically available data from the ENCODE project to identify putative STAT3 binding sites in the promoters of miR genes. Then we transfected CLL cells with STAT3-shRNA or with an empty vector, and to determine which miRs are differentially expressed, we used a miR microarray approach followed by validation of the microarray results for 6 miRs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We identified putative STAT3 binding sites in 160 promoter regions of 200 miRs, including miR-21, miR-29, and miR-155, whose levels have been reported to be upregulated in CLL. Levels of 72 miRs were downregulated (n = 63) or upregulated (n = 9). qRT-PCR confirmed the array data in 5 of 6 miRs. The presence of activated STAT3 has a profound effect on miR expression in CLL cells.

  20. IL-15 Activates the Jak3/STAT3 Signaling Pathway to Mediate Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolopp, James E; Thornton, Shantaé M; Abbott, Marcia J

    2016-01-01

    Myokines are specialized cytokines that are secreted from skeletal muscle (SKM) in response to metabolic stimuli, such as exercise. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine with potential to reduce obesity and increase lean mass through induction of metabolic processes. It has been previously shown that IL-15 acts to increase glucose uptake in SKM cells. However, the downstream signals orchestrating the link between IL-15 signaling and glucose uptake have not been fully explored. Here we employed the mouse SKM C2C12 cell line to examine potential downstream targets of IL-15-induced alterations in glucose uptake. Following differentiation, C2C12 cells were treated overnight with 100 ng/ml of IL-15. Activation of factors associated with glucose metabolism (Akt and AMPK) and known downstream targets of IL-15 (Jak1, Jak3, STAT3, and STAT5) were assessed with IL-15 stimulation. IL-15 stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. IL-15 treatment had no effect on phospho-Akt, phospho-Akt substrates, phospho-AMPK, phospho-Jak1, or phospho-STAT5. However, with IL-15, phospho-Jak3 and phospho-STAT3 levels were increased along with increased interaction of Jak3 and STAT3. Additionally, IL-15 induced a translocation of phospho-STAT3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. We have evidence that a mediator of glucose uptake, HIF1α, expression was dependent on IL-15 induced STAT3 activation. Finally, upon inhibition of STAT3 the positive effects of IL-15 on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were abolished. Taken together, we provide evidence for a novel signaling pathway for IL-15 acting through Jak3/STAT3 to regulate glucose metabolism.

  1. IL-15 Activates the Jak3/STAT3 Signaling Pathway to Mediate Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Krolopp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myokines are specialized cytokines that are secreted from skeletal muscle (SKM in response to metabolic stimuli, such as exercise. Interleukin-15 (IL-15 is a myokine with potential to reduce obesity and increase lean mass through induction of metabolic processes. It has been previously shown that IL-15 acts to increase glucose uptake in SKM cells. However, the downstream signals orchestrating the link between IL-15 signaling and glucose uptake have not been fully explored. Here we employed the mouse SKM C2C12 cell line to examine potential downstream targets of IL-15-induced alterations in glucose uptake. Following differentiation, C2C12 cells were treated overnight with 100 ng/ml of IL-15. Activation of factors associated with glucose metabolism (Akt and AMPK and known downstream targets of IL-15 (Jak1, Jak3, STAT3, and STAT5 were assessed with IL-15 stimulation. IL-15 stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. IL-15 treatment had no effect on phospho-Akt, phospho-Akt substrates, phospho-AMPK, phospho-Jak1, or phospho-STAT5. However, with IL-15, phospho-Jak3 and phospho-STAT3 levels were increased along with increased interaction of Jak3 and STAT3. Additionally, IL-15 induced a translocation of phospho-STAT3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. We have evidence that a mediator of glucose uptake, HIF1α, expression was dependent on IL-15 induced STAT3 activation. Finally, upon inhibition of STAT3 the positive effects of IL-15 on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were abolished. Taken together, we provide evidence for a novel signaling pathway for IL-15 acting through Jak3/STAT3 to regulate glucose metabolism.

  2. NF-κB/STAT3/PI3K signaling crosstalk in iMycEμ B lymphoma

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    Kim Joong-Su

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myc is a well known driver of lymphomagenesis, and Myc-activating chromosomal translocation is the recognized hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma, an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We developed a model that mimics this translocation event by inserting a mouse Myc cDNA gene into the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, just upstream of the intronic Eμ enhancer. These mice, designated iMycEμ, readily develop B-cell lymphoma. To study the mechanism of Myc-induced lymphoma, we analyzed signaling pathways in lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas (LBLs from iMycEμ mice, and an LBL-derived cell line, iMycEμ-1. Results Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were constitutively activated in iMycEμ mice, not only in LBLs but also in the splenic B-lymphocytes of young animals months before tumors developed. Moreover, inhibition of either transcription factor in iMycEμ-1 cells suppressed growth and caused apoptosis, and the abrogation of NF-κB activity reduced DNA binding by both STAT3 and Myc, as well as Myc expression. Inhibition of STAT3 signaling eliminated the activity of both NF-κB and Myc, and resulted in a corresponding decrease in the level of Myc. Thus, in iMycEμ-1 cells NF-κB and STAT3 are co-dependent and can both regulate Myc. Consistent with this, NF-κB and phosphorylated STAT3 were physically associated with one another. In addition, LBLs and iMycEμ-1 cells also showed constitutive AKT phosphorylation. Blocking AKT activation by inhibiting PI3K reduced iMycEμ-1 cell proliferation and caused apoptosis, via downregulation of NF-κB and STAT3 activity and a reduction of Myc levels. Co-treatment with NF-κB, STAT3 or/and PI3K inhibitors led to additive inhibition of iMycEμ-1 cell proliferation, suggesting that these signaling pathways converge. Conclusions Our findings support the notion that constitutive activation of NF-κB and STAT3 depends on upstream signaling

  3. STAT3 signal that mediates the neural plasticity is involved in willed-movement training in focal ischemic rats.

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    Tang, Qing-Ping; Shen, Qin; Wu, Li-Xiang; Feng, Xiang-Ling; Liu, Hui; Wu, Bei; Huang, Xiao-Song; Wang, Gai-Qing; Li, Zhong-Hao; Liu, Zun-Jing

    2016-07-01

    Willed-movement training has been demonstrated to be a promising approach to increase motor performance and neural plasticity in ischemic rats. However, little is known regarding the molecular signals that are involved in neural plasticity following willed-movement training. To investigate the potential signals related to neural plasticity following willed-movement training, littermate rats were randomly assigned into three groups: middle cerebral artery occlusion, environmental modification, and willed-movement training. The infarct volume was measured 18 d after occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the changes in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mRNA and protein, respectively. A chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to investigate whether STAT3 bound to plasticity-related genes, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin, and protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1). In this study, we demonstrated that STAT3 mRNA and protein were markedly increased following 15-d willed-movement training in the ischemic hemispheres of the treated rats. STAT3 bound to BDNF, PICK1, and synaptophysin promoters in the neocortical cells of rats. These data suggest that the increased STAT3 levels after willed-movement training might play critical roles in the neural plasticity by directly regulating plasticity-related genes.

  4. [Study on the correlation between EGFR-STAT3 signal pathway and laryngeal papilloma].

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    Wang, Xinhua; Sun, Jingwu

    2009-09-01

    To explore the relationship between the expression of EGFR and STAT3 in human laryngeal papilloma and its biological behavior. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of EGFR and STAT3 (p-STAT3) in 42 laryngeal papilloma tissues and 15 samples of normal laryngeal tissue, and the relationship between the protein expression of them and clinic pathological parameters was also analyzed. The mRNA expression levels of EGFR and STAT3 in laryngeal papilloma tissue were significantly higher than that in normal laryngeal tissue (P laryngeal papilloma than normal laryngeal tissue by immunohistochemistry and western blot (P laryngeal papilloma (P laryngeal papilloma (P laryngeal papilloma,, and the persistent activation of STAT3 gene plays an important role in the recurrence and canceration of laryngeal papilloma.

  5. Astrocytes modulate distribution and neuronal signaling of leptin in the hypothalamus of obese A vy mice.

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    Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; Xu, Changlei; Wu, Xiaojun; Bouret, Sebastien G; Kastin, Abba J

    2011-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic activity modulates neuronal uptake and signaling of leptin in the adult-onset obese agouti viable yellow (A vy) mouse. In the immunohistochemical study, A vy mice were pretreated with the astrocyte metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) vehicle intracerebroventricularly (icv) followed 1 h later by Alexa568-leptin. Confocal microscopy showed that fluorocitrate pretreatment reduced astrocytic uptake of Alexa568-leptin 30 min after icv while increasing neuronal uptake in the arcuate nucleus and dorsomedial hypothalamus. Fluorocitrate also induced mild astrogliosis and moderately increased pSTAT3 immunopositive neurons in response to Alexa568-leptin in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. In the Western blotting study, A vy mice were pretreated with either PBS or fluorocitrate, and received PBS or leptin 1 h later followed by determination of pSTAT3 and GFAP expression an additional 30 min afterward. The results show that fluorocitrate induced a mild pSTAT3 activation but attenuated leptin-induced pSTAT3 activation and decreased GFAP expression independently of leptin treatment. We conclude that inhibition of astrocytic activity resulted in enhanced neuronal leptin uptake and signaling. This suggests opposite roles of astrocytes and neurons in leptin's actions in the A vy mouse with adult-onset obesity.

  6. STAT3 Signaling in B Cells Is Critical for Germinal Center Maintenance and Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Murine Models of Lupus.

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    Ding, Chuanlin; Chen, Xingguo; Dascani, Paul; Hu, Xiaoling; Bolli, Roberto; Zhang, Huang-Ge; Mcleish, Kenneth R; Yan, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Ab maturation as well as memory B and plasma cell differentiation occur primarily in the germinal centers (GCs). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may develop as a result of enhanced GC activity. Previous studies have shown that the dysregulated STAT3 pathway is linked to lupus pathogenesis. However, the exact role of STAT3 in regulating SLE disease progression has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that STAT3 signaling in B cells is essential for GC formation and maintenance as well as Ab response. Increased cell apoptosis and downregulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic gene expression were found in STAT3-deficient GC B cells. The follicular helper T cell response positively correlated with GC B cells and was significantly decreased in immunized B cell STAT3-deficient mice. STAT3 deficiency also led to the defect of plasma cell differentiation. Furthermore, STAT3 deficiency in autoreactive B cells resulted in decreased autoantibody production. Results obtained from B cell STAT3-deficient B6.MRL/lpr mice suggest that STAT3 signaling significantly contributes to SLE pathogenesis by regulation of GC reactivity, autoantibody production, and kidney pathology. Our findings provide new insights into the role of STAT3 signaling in the maintenance of GC formation and GC B cell differentiation and identify STAT3 as a novel target for treatment of SLE. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Leptin Receptor JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Modulates Expression of Frizzled Receptors in Articular Chondrocytes

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    Ohba, Seigo; Lanigan, Thomas M.; Roessler, Blake J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Differentiated articular chondrocytes express a functional isoform of the leptin receptor (LRb); however, leptin-LRb signaling in these cells is poorly understood. We hypothesized that leptin-LRb signaling in articular chondrocytes functions to modulate canonical Wnt signaling events by altering the expression of Frizzled receptors. Methods Human chondrocyte cell lines and primary articular chondrocytes were grown in serum containing growth media for 24 hrs, followed by a media change to DMEM containing 1% Nutridoma-SP to obtain a serum-deficient environment for 24 hours before treatment. Treatments included recombinant human leptin (10–100 nM), recombinant human IL-6 (0.3-3 nM), or recombinant human erythropoietin (10 mU/ml). Cells were harvested 30 min to 48 hrs after treatment and whole cell lysates were analyzed using immunoblots or luciferase assays. Results Treatment of cells with leptin resulted in activation of JAK2 and subsequent phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on LRb, followed by dose- and time-dependent increases in the expression of Frizzled-1 (Fzd1) and Frizzled-7 (Fzd7). Leptin-mediated increases in the expression of Fzd1 and Fzd7 were blocked by pre-treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or the JAK2 inhibitor AG490. Experiments using a series of hybrid erythropoietin extracellular domain-leptin intracellular domain receptors (ELR) harboring mutations of specific tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail showed that increases in the expression of Fzd1 and Fzd7 were dependent on LRb-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3, but not ERK1/2 or STAT5. Leptin pre-treatment of chondrocytes prior to Wnt-3a stimulation resulted in an increased magnitude of canonical Wnt signaling. Conclusion These experiments show that leptin-LRb signaling in articular chondrocytes modulates expression of canonical Wnt signaling receptors and suggests that direct cross-talk between these pathways is important in determining chondrocyte

  8. Euglycemia restoration by central leptin in type 1 diabetes requires STAT3 signaling but not fast-acting neurotransmitter release

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    Central leptin action is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. To examine the role of intracellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways, we used LepRs/s mice with disrupted...

  9. Glial Scar Borders Are Formed by Newly Proliferated, Elongated Astrocytes That Interact to Corral Inflammatory and Fibrotic Cells via STAT3-Dependent Mechanisms after Spinal Cord Injury

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    Anderson, Mark A.; Song, Bingbing; Levine, Jaclynn; Fernandez, Ana; Gray-Thompson, Zachary; Ao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Astroglial scars surround damaged tissue after trauma, stroke, infection, or autoimmune inflammation in the CNS. They are essential for wound repair, but also interfere with axonal regrowth. A better understanding of the cellular mechanisms, regulation, and functions of astroglial scar formation is fundamental to developing safe interventions for many CNS disorders. We used wild-type and transgenic mice to quantify and dissect these parameters. Adjacent to crush spinal cord injury (SCI), reactive astrocytes exhibited heterogeneous phenotypes as regards proliferation, morphology, and chemistry, which all varied with distance from lesions. Mature scar borders at 14 d after SCI consisted primarily of newly proliferated astroglia with elongated cell processes that surrounded large and small clusters of inflammatory, fibrotic, and other cells. During scar formation from 5 to 14 d after SCI, cell processes deriving from different astroglia associated into overlapping bundles that quantifiably reoriented and organized into dense mesh-like arrangements. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astroglia quantifiably disrupted the organization of elongated astroglia into scar borders, and caused a failure of astroglia to surround inflammatory cells, resulting in increased spread of these cells and neuronal loss. In cocultures, wild-type astroglia spontaneously corralled inflammatory or fibromeningeal cells into segregated clusters, whereas STAT3-deficient astroglia failed to do so. These findings demonstrate heterogeneity of reactive astroglia and show that scar borders are formed by newly proliferated, elongated astroglia, which organize via STAT3-dependent mechanisms to corral inflammatory and fibrotic cells into discrete areas separated from adjacent tissue that contains viable neurons. PMID:23904622

  10. Blockade of the IL-6 trans-signalling/STAT3 axis suppresses cachexia in Kras-induced lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A; McLeod, L; Alhayyani, S; Szczepny, A; Watkins, D N; Chen, W; Enriori, P; Ferlin, W; Ruwanpura, S; Jenkins, B J

    2017-05-25

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and is frequently associated with the devastating paraneoplastic syndrome of cachexia. The potent immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has been linked with the development of lung cancer as well as cachexia; however, the mechanisms by which IL-6 promotes muscle wasting in lung cancer cachexia are ill-defined. In this study, we report that the gp130F/F knock-in mouse model displaying hyperactivation of the latent transcription factor STAT3 via the common IL-6 cytokine family signalling receptor, gp130, develops cachexia during Kras-driven lung carcinogenesis. Specifically, exacerbated weight loss, early mortality and reduced muscle and adipose tissue mass were features of the gp130F/F:KrasG12D model, but not parental KrasG12D mice in which STAT3 was not hyperactivated. Gene expression profiling of muscle tissue in cachectic gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice revealed the upregulation of IL-6 and STAT3-target genes compared with KrasG12D muscle tissue. These cachectic features of gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice were abrogated upon the genetic normalization of STAT3 activation or ablation of IL-6 in gp130F/F:KrasG12D:Stat3-/+ or gp130F/F:KrasG12D:Il6-/- mice, respectively. Furthermore, protein levels of the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), which is the central facilitator of IL-6 trans-signalling, were elevated in cachectic muscle from gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice, and the specific blockade of IL-6 trans-signalling, but not classical signalling, with an anti-IL-6R antibody ameliorated cachexia-related characteristics in gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice. Collectively, these preclinical findings identify trans-signalling via STAT3 as the signalling modality by which IL-6 promotes muscle wasting in lung cancer cachexia, and therefore support the clinical evaluation of the IL-6 trans-signalling/STAT3 axis as a therapeutic target in advanced lung cancer patients presenting with cachexia.

  11. Human papillomavirus infection correlates with inflammatory Stat3 signaling activity and IL-17 level in patients with colorectal cancer.

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    Yi Xin Li

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major burden of public health and healthcare worldwide. Microbiota has been suggested in promoting chronic inflammation in the intestine which, in turn, promotes tumor development. This study focuses on possible correlations of human papillomavirus (HPV infection with proinflammatory Stat3 signaling activities and the resulting levels of its downstream proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 in CRC patients.HPV was examined using HPV Genotyping Chip technology and constitutively active Stat3 (p-Stat3 and IL-17 levels were tested using immunohistochemistry (IHC in paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent normal tissues (ANT from a cohort of 95 CRC patients. Correlation analyses were performed between HPV infection and clinicopathological characteristics, Stat3 activities and IL-17 levels among these CRC patients.Three major findings were observed: (1 HPV infection existed in a high rate of CRC cases (48.4%, 46/95, of which 45 cases (45/46, 97.8% were high-risk HPV16-positive and only one case was HPV53-positive. (2 HPV infection correlated with poorer clinical stages (III+IV of CRC. (3 HPV infection strongly correlated with both constitutively higher Stat3 activities (P<0.01 and higher IL-17 levels (P<0.01 only in CRC tissues but not in ANT tissues.HPV infection is common in CRC patients suggesting potentially preventive effectiveness of HPV vaccination among high-risk young individuals. We have for the first time revealed a tri-lateral relationship among HPV infection, constitutive Stat3 activity and IL-17 level, whose collaborative act may orchestrate a proinflammatory microenvironment in the colorectum that, in turn, may promote carcinogenesis and possibly facilitate progression of CRC.

  12. Stimulation of the B-cell receptor activates the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Wu, Ji Yuan; Harris, David M.; Liu, Zhiming; Li, Ping; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A.; O’Brien, Susan; Jain, Nitin; Verstovsek, Srdan; Wierda, William G.; Keating, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), stimulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) triggers survival signals. Because in various cells activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway provides cells with survival advantage, we wondered whether BCR stimulation activates the JAK/STAT pathway in CLL cells. To stimulate the BCR we incubated CLL cells with anti-IgM antibodies. Anti-IgM antibodies induced transient tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear localization of phosphorylated (p) STAT3. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that anti-JAK2 antibodies coimmunoprecipitated pSTAT3 and pJAK2 in IgM-stimulated but not unstimulated CLL cells, suggesting that activation of the BCR induces activation of JAK2, which phosphorylates STAT3. Incubation of CLL cells with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib inhibited IgM-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis of IgM-stimulated but not unstimulated CLL cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Whether ruxolitinib treatment would benefit patients with CLL remains to be determined. PMID:24778152

  13. Stimulation of the B-cell receptor activates the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Wu, Ji Yuan; Harris, David M; Liu, Zhiming; Li, Ping; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A; O'Brien, Susan; Jain, Nitin; Verstovsek, Srdan; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-06-12

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), stimulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) triggers survival signals. Because in various cells activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway provides cells with survival advantage, we wondered whether BCR stimulation activates the JAK/STAT pathway in CLL cells. To stimulate the BCR we incubated CLL cells with anti-IgM antibodies. Anti-IgM antibodies induced transient tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear localization of phosphorylated (p) STAT3. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that anti-JAK2 antibodies coimmunoprecipitated pSTAT3 and pJAK2 in IgM-stimulated but not unstimulated CLL cells, suggesting that activation of the BCR induces activation of JAK2, which phosphorylates STAT3. Incubation of CLL cells with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib inhibited IgM-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis of IgM-stimulated but not unstimulated CLL cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Whether ruxolitinib treatment would benefit patients with CLL remains to be determined. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii induces FAK-Src-STAT3 signaling during infection of host cells that prevents parasite targeting by autophagy.

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    Jose-Andres C Portillo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of Toxoplasma gondii by autophagy is an effective mechanism by which host cells kill the protozoan. Thus, the parasite must avoid autophagic targeting to survive. Here we show that the mammalian cytoplasmic molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK becomes activated during invasion of host cells. Activated FAK appears to accompany the formation of the moving junction (as assessed by expression the parasite protein RON4. FAK activation was inhibited by approaches that impaired β1 and β3 integrin signaling. FAK caused activation of Src that in turn mediated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR phosphorylation at the unique Y845 residue. Expression of Src-resistant Y845F EGFR mutant markedly inhibited ROP16-independent activation of STAT3 in host cells. Activation of FAK, Y845 EGFR or STAT3 prevented activation of PKR and eIF2α, key stimulators of autophagy. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of FAK, Src, EGFR phosphorylation at Y845, or STAT3 caused accumulation of the autophagy protein LC3 and LAMP-1 around the parasite and parasite killing dependent on autophagy proteins (ULK1 and Beclin 1 and lysosomal enzymes. Parasite killing was inhibited by expression of dominant negative PKR. Thus, T. gondii activates a FAK→Src→Y845-EGFR→STAT3 signaling axis within mammalian cells, thereby enabling the parasite to survive by avoiding autophagic targeting through a mechanism likely dependent on preventing activation of PKR and eIF2α.

  15. Epidermal hyperproliferation in mice lacking fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) involves ectopic EGF receptor and STAT3 signaling.

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    Lin, Meei-Hua; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Shu-Chun; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2010-08-15

    Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is one of a family of six FATPs that facilitate long- and very long-chain fatty acid uptake. Mice lacking FATP4 are born with tight, thick skin and a defective epidermal barrier; they die neonatally due to dehydration and restricted movements. Both the skin phenotype and the lethality are rescued by transgene-driven expression of FATP4 solely in suprabasal keratinocytes. Here we show that Fatp4 mutants exhibit epidermal hyperplasia resulting from an increased number of proliferating suprabasal cells. In addition, barrier formation initiates precociously but never progresses to completion. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby Fatp4 influences skin development, we identified misregulated genes in Fatp4 mutants. Remarkably, three members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family (Ereg, Areg, and Epgn) showed increased expression that was associated with elevated epidermal activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and STAT3, a downstream effector of EGFR signaling. Both Tyrphostin AG1478, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and curcumin, an inhibitor of both STAT3 and EGFR, attenuated STAT3 activation/nuclear translocation, reduced skin thickening, and partially suppressed the barrier abnormalities. These data identify FATP4 activity as negatively influencing EGFR activation and the resulting STAT3 signaling during normal skin development. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of ichthyosis prematurity syndrome, a disease recently shown to be caused by FATP4 mutations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Arctigenin promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via the iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling.

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    Huang, Ke; Li, Li-an; Meng, Yuan-guang; You, Yan-qin; Fu, Xiao-yu; Song, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Arctigenin is a biologically active lignan extracted from the seeds of Arctium lappa and shows anticancer activity against a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of arctigenin on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and survival and associated molecular mechanisms. Human ovarian cancer OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells were treated with arctigenin, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Western blot analysis was used to examine signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and survivin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The involvement of STAT3/survivin/iNOS/NO signalling in arctigenin action was checked. Arctigenin treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Arctigenin-treated cells showed a 4-6 times increase in the percentage of apoptosis, compared with control cells. Pre-treatment with Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific inhibitor of caspase-3, counteracted the induction of apoptosis by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment significantly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin and iNOS expression. Arctigenin-induced apoptosis was impaired by pre-transfection with survivin-expressing plasmid or addition of chemical nitric oxide (NO) donors. Additionally, exogenous NO prevented the suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin expression by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment inhibits the proliferation and induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling is causally linked to the anticancer activity of arctigenin. Therefore, arctigenin may be applicable to anticancer therapy for ovarian cancer. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. Acyloxy nitroso compounds inhibit LIF signaling in endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes: evidence that STAT3 signaling is redox-sensitive.

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    Carlos Zgheib

    Full Text Available We previously showed that oxidative stress inhibits leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF signaling by targeting JAK1, and the catalytic domains of JAK 1 and 2 have a cysteine-based redox switch. Thus, we postulated that the NO sibling and thiophylic compound, nitroxyl (HNO, would inhibit LIF-induced JAK-STAT3 activation. Pretreatment of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1 or neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the HNO donors Angeli's salt or nitrosocyclohexyl acetate (NCA inhibited LIF-induced STAT3 activation. NCA pretreatment also blocked the induction of downstream inflammatory genes (e.g. intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta. The related 1-nitrosocyclohexyl pivalate (NCP; not a nitroxyl donor was equally effective in inhibiting STAT3 activation, suggesting that these compounds act as thiolate targeting electrophiles. The JAK1 redox switch is likely not a target of acyloxy nitroso compounds, as NCA had no effect on JAK1 catalytic activity and only modestly affected JAK1-induced phosphorylation of the LIF receptor. However, pretreatment of recombinant human STAT3 with NCA or NCP reduced labeling of free sulfhydryl residues. We show that NCP in the presence of diamide enhanced STAT3 glutathionylation and dimerization in adult mouse cardiac myocytes and altered STAT3 under non-reducing conditions. Finally, we show that monomeric STAT3 levels are decreased in the Gαq model of heart failure in a redox-sensitive manner. Altogether, our evidence indicates that STAT3 has redox-sensitive cysteines that regulate its activation and are targeted by HNO donors and acyloxy nitroso compounds. These findings raise the possibility of new therapeutic strategies to target STAT3 signaling via a redox-dependent manner, particularly in the context of cardiac and non-cardiac diseases with prominent pro-inflammatory signaling.

  18. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    2474–2488. 3. Catlett-Falcone R, Landowski TH, Oshiro MM, Turkson J, Levitzki A, Savino R, Ciliberto G, Moscinski L, Fernandez -Luna JL, Nunez G, DaltonWS...2002;62:6659–6666. 44. Catlett-Falcone R, Landowski TH, Oshiro MM, Turkson J, Levitzki A, Savino R, Ciliberto G, Moscinski L, Fernandez -Luna JL...Darnell, Jr. (Rockefeller University, New York) for Stat3c, Dr. Koichi Nakajima (Osaka University, Osaka) for Stat3F, Dr. Sergio Onate (Roswell Park

  19. Bortezomib induces apoptosis and suppresses cell growth and metastasis by inactivation of Stat3 signaling in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xing; Ren, Tingting; Huang, Yi; Ren, Chongmin; Yang, Kang; Zhang, Hongliang; Guo, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Bortezomib, formerly known as PS341, is a novel proteasome inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects in many malignancies. However, diverse antitumor mechanisms of bortezomib have been identified in many investigations and preclinical studies. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which bortezomib acts will improve the therapeutic utility of this drug in different cancer types. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of bortezomib on chondrosarcoma. Bortezomib selectively inhibited cell growth in chondrosarcoma cells but not in normal articular cartilage cells. In addition to growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, bortezomib triggered alleviation of migratory and invasive properties of chondrosarcoma cells. Mechanistically, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and its downstream targets Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and c-Myc was inactivated by bortezomib treatment. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Stat3 knockdown enhanced bortezomib-induced apoptosis, and concomitantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of bortezomib on cell viability, migration and invasion. Moreover, while Slug, MMP9, MMP2, CD44, N-cadherin and vimentin, the mesenchymal cell markers, were repressed by bortezomib concomitant increased expression of E-cadherin was observed. In vivo, bortezomib downregulated Stat3 activity and mesenchymal cell marker expression, induced apoptosis and inhibition of metastasis and tumor growth. Together, inactivation of Stat3 signaling contributes to bortezomib-induced inhibition of tumor growth, migration and invation on chondrosarcoma. Bortezomib demonstrates an antineoplastic role on chondrosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. These beneficial effects can be explained by bortezomib-mediated Stat3 supression. The present study suggests a promising therapeutics target in chondrosarcoma and probably in other kinds of metastatic malignant tumors.

  20. Serenoa repens induces growth arrest and apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells via inactivation of STAT 3 signaling.

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    Che, Yuqin; Hou, Shuai; Kang, Zhiwei; Lin, Qiao

    2009-08-01

    Serenoa repens, a palm species native to the Southeastern United States, is one of the widely used phytotherapeutic agents in benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we found for the first time that Serenoa repens induced growth arrest of a variety of human leukemia cells including U266 and RPMI 8226 multiple myeloma cells as measured by mitochondrial-dependent conversion of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. TUNEL assays showed that Serenoa repens induced apoptosis of U266 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Serenoa repens also increased the expression of cleaved-PARP or p27 protein in different human leukemia cell lines. In addition, we found that Serenoa repens down-regulated basal level of phosphorylated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) and Interleukin-6 induced level of phosphorylated form of STAT 3 and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) were also reduced after Serenoa repens treatment in U266 cells. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of STAT 3 signaling by Serenoa repens or Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK) inhibitor of AG490 enhanced the ability of docetaxel to inhibit the growth of U266 and RPMI 8226 cells, as measured by trypan blue exclusion test. These results indicate that Serenoa repens might be useful for the treatment of individuals with multiple myeloma.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 Inhibits Th17 and STAT3 Signaling Pathways to Ameliorate Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Yeong; Lee, Seung Hoon; Yang, Eun-Ji; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jung, KyungAh; Jung, Hongsoon; Lee, Kyungjin; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Shin, Dong Yun; Cho, Mi-La

    2017-09-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a powerful antioxidant substance synthesized in the body. The current study aimed to determine whether CoQ10 suppresses inflammation and inhibits p-STAT3 expression in an experimental colitis mouse model. The mice were orally fed with CoQ10 once a day for 13 days. Histological analysis of the colons was performed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of IL-17, FOXP3, p53, AMPK, and mTOR and activation of p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 in lymph node and spleen tissues were detected by confocal microscopy of stained tissue sections. The relative mRNA expression was measured with real-time PCR, and protein levels were examined by western blot. CoQ10 reduced the disease activity index score and the colon histological score. It also reduced inflammatory mediators in the colon and increased the colon length. The expression of IL-17 and p-STAT3 was decreased with CoQ10 treatment. In contrast, CoQ10 treatment increased the expression of p-AMPK and FOXP3. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines was shown to increase in colitis mice treated with CoQ10. These results suggested that CoQ10 may reduce the severity of colitis and suppress inflammation through the inhibition of p-STAT3 and IL-17. These results support the use of CoQ10 as a potential targeted therapy for the treatment of colitis.

  2. Porphyromonas gingivalis modulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced apoptosis of respiratory epithelial cells through the STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Pan, Chunling; Teng, Di; Lin, Li; Kou, Yurong; Haase, Elaine M; Scannapieco, Frank A; Pan, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic bacterial pathogen, causing infections of respiratory and other organ systems in immunocompromised hosts that may invade and proliferate in mucosal epithelial cells to induce apoptosis. Previous studies suggest that oral bacteria, especially gram-negative periodontal pathogens, may enhance P. aeruginosa invasion into respiratory epithelial cells to augment tissue destruction. In this study, we investigated the effect of the periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on P. aeruginosa-induced epithelial cell apoptosis. P. gingivalis invasion transiently inhibited P. aeruginosa-induced apoptosis in respiratory epithelial cells via the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. The activated STAT3 up-regulated the downstream anti-apoptotic moleculars survivin and B-cell leukemia-2 (bcl-2). This process was accompanied by down-regulation of pro-apoptosis molecular Bcl-2-associated death promoter (bad) and caspase-3 activity inhibition. In addition, the activation of the STAT3 pathway was affected by P. gingivalis in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, co-invasion of P. aeruginosa and P. gingivalis led to greater cell death compared with P. aeruginosa challenge alone. These results suggest that regulation of P. aeruginosa-induced apoptosis by P. gingivalis contributes to the pathogenesis of respiratory disease. Interference with this process may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of respiratory disease. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells

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    Lin, Li, E-mail: lin.796@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Olson, Veronica [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Bekaii-Saab, Tanios [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Jiayuh, E-mail: lin.674@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower

  4. Sustained Submicromolar H2O2 Levels Induce Hepcidin via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)*

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    Millonig, Gunda; Ganzleben, Ingo; Peccerella, Teresa; Casanovas, Guillem; Brodziak-Jarosz, Lidia; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Dick, Tobias P.; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mueller, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin regulates mammalian iron homeostasis by blocking ferroportin-mediated iron export from macrophages and the duodenum. During inflammation, hepcidin is strongly induced by interleukin 6, eventually leading to the anemia of chronic disease. Here we show that hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes strongly up-regulate hepcidin when exposed to low concentrations of H2O2 (0.3–6 μm), concentrations that are comparable with levels of H2O2 released by inflammatory cells. In contrast, bolus treatment of H2O2 has no effect at low concentrations and even suppresses hepcidin at concentrations of >50 μm. H2O2 treatment synergistically stimulates hepcidin promoter activity in combination with recombinant interleukin-6 or bone morphogenetic protein-6 and in a manner that requires a functional STAT3-responsive element. The H2O2-mediated hepcidin induction requires STAT3 phosphorylation and is effectively blocked by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing, overexpression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3), and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is required for H2O2 responsiveness, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for adequate basal signaling, whereas Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is dispensable upstream of STAT3. Importantly, hepcidin levels are also increased by intracellular H2O2 released from the respiratory chain in the presence of rotenone or antimycin A. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of hepcidin regulation by nanomolar levels of sustained H2O2. Thus, similar to cytokines, H2O2 provides an important regulatory link between inflammation and iron metabolism. PMID:22932892

  5. Hypothyroidism reduces ObRb-STAT3 leptin signalling in the hypothalamus and pituitary of rats associated with resistance to leptin acute anorectic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino, Camila; Souza, Luana L; Costa-e-Sousa, Ricardo H; Almeida, Norma A S; Trevenzoli, Isis H; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C

    2012-10-01

    Leptin has been shown to regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, acting primarily through the STAT3 pathway triggered through the binding of leptin to the long-chain isoform of the leptin receptor, ObRb. We previously demonstrated that although hyperthyroid rats presented leptin effects on TSH secretion, those effects were abolished in hypothyroid rats. We addressed the hypothesis that changes in the STAT3 pathway might explain the lack of TSH response to leptin in hypothyroidism by evaluating the protein content of components of leptin signalling via the STAT3 pathway in the hypothalamus and pituitary of hypothyroid (0·03% methimazole in the drinking water/21 days) and hyperthyroid (thyroxine 5 μg/100 g body weight /5 days) rats. Hypothyroid rats exhibited decreased ObRb and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) protein in the hypothalamus, and in the pituitary gland they exhibited decreased ObRb, total STAT3, pSTAT3 and SOCS3 (Prats. Moreover, unlike euthyroid rats, the hypothyroid rats did not exhibit a reduction in food ingestion after a single injection of leptin (0·5 mg/kg body weight). Therefore, hypothyroidism decreased ObRb-STAT3 signalling in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which likely contributes to the loss of leptin action on food intake and TSH secretion, as previously observed in hypothyroid rats.

  6. The significance of microRNA-184 on JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in the formation mechanism of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuekui; Ding, Haitao; Han, Yao; Sun, Deke; Wang, Haitao; Zhai, X U

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma is a type of glioma with a relatively higher degree of malignancy that may result in severe intracranial hypertension and focal symptoms. Surgery is the preferred treatment modality. Combination therapy including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy have also been employed. However, due to the invasiveness and pathogenesis of the disease, such treatments do not yield satisfactory outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of microRNA (miR)-184 in Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway in the mechanism of glioblastoma formation, thus providing a new basis for the mechanism of glioblastoma induction. The LN18 cell line was employed in the present study. After undergoing thawing, culturing and passaging processes, the cells were divided into the set control group, miR-184 mimic group (transfer miR-184 simulator) and miR-184 group. The expression of miR-184 was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation ability of glioma cells, and clone formation ability was also detected. The cell scratch and invasion assays were used to identify the cell invasion ability. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression level of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 proteins. The results showed that compared to the control group, the expression of miR-184 in the miR-184 mimic group increased. Cell proliferation, as well as clone formation and invasion ability were enhanced. The number of cells penetrating septum, as well as the expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 proteins were increased. Differences were statistically significant (P184 in the miR-184 inhibitory group decreased. Cell proliferation, as well as clone formation and invasion ability were reduced. The number of cells penetrating septum, as well as the expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 proteins were reduced. Differences were statistically

  7. Inhibition of the SOCS1-JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Pathway Confers Neuroprotection in Rats with Ischemic Stroke

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    Xiao-Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of the SOCS1-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway on neurons in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Methods: Our study was conducted using an ischemic stroke rat model. After the microglia were extracted, 40 neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were assigned into the blank, AG490, model and negative control (NC groups. The neurological function of all the rats was evaluated. Histopathological changes were observed. qRT-PCR and western blotting were applied to measure the expression of genes and proteins in the SOCS1-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway and related to apoptosis. The TUNEL assay was conducted to calculate the cellular morphology and apoptosis of neuronal cells. Cell viability was detected using the MTT assay. In addition, immunoassays were used to measure the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as the levels of oxidative stress. Results: Compared with the blank group, the model and NC groups showed higher neurological function scores—the cytoplasm of the neurons were cavitated, the organelles were reduced with unclear margins, some of the neurons were necrotic, and apoptosis was increased. In addition, the NC and model groups exhibited decreased cell viability, lower mRNA and protein expression of SOCS1 SOCS3 and bcl-2 and reduced SOD and GSH levels but higher mRNA and protein expression levels of AK2, STAT3,Bax and caspase-3 as well as increased protein expression of P-JAK2, P-STAT3 and activated caspase-3 (c-caspase-3. Moreover, the MDA levels were up-regulated in the NC and model groups. In contrast, opposing trends were found in the AG490 group compared with the NC and model groups. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that inhibiting the SOCS1-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway can reduce the loss of nerve function and apoptosis of neuronal cells, which provides a new target for the clinical treatment of ischemic stroke.

  8. NLRP3 protein deficiency exacerbates hyperoxia-induced lethality through Stat3 protein signaling independent of interleukin-1β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushina, Yoshiko; Shirasuna, Koumei; Usui, Fumitake; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Akira; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Motoi; Komada, Takanori; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Mato, Naoko; Yamasawa, Hideaki; Latz, Eicke; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Kasahara, Tadashi; Bando, Masashi; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Masafumi

    2015-02-20

    Supplemental oxygen inhalation is frequently used to treat severe respiratory failure; however, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), which induces acute respiratory distress syndrome and leads to high mortality rates. Recent investigations suggest the possible role of NLRP3 inflammasomes, which regulate IL-1β production and lead to inflammatory responses, in the pathophysiology of HALI; however, their role is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mice with HALI. Under hyperoxic conditions, NLRP3(-/-) mice died at a higher rate compared with wild-type and IL-1β(-/-) mice, and there was no difference in IL-1β production in their lungs. Under hyperoxic conditions, the lungs of NLRP3(-/-) mice exhibited reduced inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine expression, as well as increased and decreased expression of MMP-9 and Bcl-2, respectively. NLRP3(-/-) mice exhibited diminished expression and activation of Stat3, which regulates MMP-9 and Bcl-2, in addition to increased numbers of apoptotic alveolar epithelial cells. In vitro experiments revealed that alveolar macrophages and neutrophils promoted Stat3 activation in alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, NLRP3 deficiency impaired the migration of neutrophils and chemokine expression by macrophages. These findings demonstrate that NLRP3 regulates Stat3 signaling in alveolar epithelial cells by affecting macrophage and neutrophil function independent of IL-1β production and contributes to the pathophysiology of HALI. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. d,l-Sulforaphane Induces ROS-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Gliomablastoma Cells by Inactivating STAT3 Signaling Pathway

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    Ziwei Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available d,l-Sulforaphane (SFN, a synthetic analogue of broccoli-derived isomer l-SFN, exerts cytotoxic effects on multiple tumor cell types through different mechanisms and is more potent than the l-isomer at inhibiting cancer growth. However, the means by which SFN impairs glioblastoma (GBM cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of SFN in GBM cells and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell viability assays, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot results revealed that SFN could induced apoptosis of GBM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, via up-regulation of caspase-3 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Mechanistically, SFN treatment led to increase the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level in GBM cells. Meanwhile, SFN also suppressed both constitutive and IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, and the activation of upstream JAK2 and Src tyrosine kinases, dose- and time-dependently. Moreover, blockage of ROS production by using the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine totally reversed SFN-mediated down-regulation of JAK2/Src-STAT3 signaling activation and the subsequent effects on apoptosis by blocking the induction of apoptosis-related genes in GBM cells. Taken together, our data suggests that SFN induces apoptosis in GBM cells via ROS-dependent inactivation of STAT3 phosphorylation. These findings motivate further evaluation of SFN as a cancer chemopreventive agent in GBM treatment.

  10. Dietary iron enhances colonic inflammation and IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting colonic tumor development in mice.

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    Anita C G Chua

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal inflammation and high dietary iron are associated with colorectal cancer development. The role of Stat3 activation in iron-induced colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis was investigated in a mouse model of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Mice, fed either an iron-supplemented or control diet, were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. Intestinal inflammation and tumor development were assessed by endoscopy and histology, gene expression by real-time PCR, Stat3 phosphorylation by immunoblot, cytokines by ELISA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Colonic inflammation was more severe in mice fed an iron-supplemented compared with a control diet one week post-DSS treatment, with enhanced colonic IL-6 and IL-11 release and Stat3 phosphorylation. Both IL-6 and ferritin, the iron storage protein, co-localized with macrophages suggesting iron may act directly on IL-6 producing-macrophages. Iron increased DSS-induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis consistent with enhanced mucosal damage. DSS-treated mice developed anemia that was not alleviated by dietary iron supplementation. Six weeks post-DSS treatment, iron-supplemented mice developed more and larger colonic tumors compared with control mice. Intratumoral IL-6 and IL-11 expression increased in DSS-treated mice and IL-6, and possibly IL-11, were enhanced by dietary iron. Gene expression of iron importers, divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1, increased and iron exporter, ferroportin, decreased in colonic tumors suggesting increased iron uptake. Dietary iron and colonic inflammation synergistically activated colonic IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting tumorigenesis. Oral iron therapy may be detrimental in inflammatory bowel disease since it may exacerbate colonic inflammation and increase colorectal cancer risk.

  11. The Influence of Compound Shougong Powder on JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Mice with Lewis Lung Cancer

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    SHEN Di

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the influence of Compound Shougong Powder on JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway in mice with Lewis lung cancer. Methods: Fifty C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with Lewis lung cancer cell line according to the conventional method, 40 mice bearing cancer successfully were selected 6 d later and randomly divided into 5groups, namely negative control group, cis-platinum group, high-dose Compound Shougong Powder group, middle-dose Compound Shougong Powder group and low-dose Compound Shougong Powder group, 8 mice in each group. Negative control group was drenched with normal saline (NS. Compound Shougong Powder groups were drenched with Compound Shougong Powder, 4 mg/kg for high-dose group, 2 mg/kg for middle-dose group, 1 mg/kg for low-dose group, once per day for 14 d; cis-platinum group was orally administrated 4 mg/kg/w, intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mL for each, once per week for 2 weeks. Mice’s responses to the treatment, activity levels, mental states and so on during the treatment were observed, tumor inhibition rate was calculated, pathomorphological changes of tumor tissues were observed under light microscope after HE staining, and the expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins were detected by Western Blot. Results: After drug administration, smooth, glossy body hair and good spirit were observed in cisplatin group and high-dose Compound Shougong Powder group; glossier body hair and less activity level in middle- and low- dose Compound Shougong Powder group, and great toxic and side effects, reduced activity level and weary spirit in negative control group. The tumor inhibition rate of cisplatin group, high-, middle- and low-dose Compound Shougong Powder group and negative control group was 57.69%, 53.53%, 48.40%, 38.46% and 38.46%, respectively. The expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins in drug groups showed decreases to different degrees, and the decreases of JAK2 were more significant. Conclusion: Compound

  12. Sphingosine-1-phosphate enhances satellite cell activation in dystrophic muscles through a S1PR2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

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    Kenneth C Loh

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P activates a widely expressed family of G protein-coupled receptors, serves as a muscle trophic factor and activates muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that muscle injury induces dynamic changes in S1P signaling and metabolism in vivo. These changes include early and profound induction of the gene encoding the S1P biosynthetic enzyme SphK1, followed by induction of the catabolic enzyme sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL 3 days later. These changes correlate with a transient increase in circulating S1P levels after muscle injury. We show a specific requirement for SphK1 to support efficient muscle regeneration and SC proliferation and differentiation. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD, were found to be S1P-deficient and exhibited muscle SPL upregulation, suggesting that S1P catabolism is enhanced in dystrophic muscle. Pharmacological SPL inhibition increased muscle S1P levels, improved mdx muscle regeneration and enhanced SC proliferation via S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2-dependent inhibition of Rac1, thereby activating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, a central player in inflammatory signaling. STAT3 activation resulted in p21 and p27 downregulation in a S1PR2-dependent fashion in myoblasts. Our findings suggest that S1P promotes SC progression through the cell cycle by repression of cell cycle inhibitors via S1PR2/STAT3-dependent signaling and that SPL inhibition may provide a therapeutic strategy for MD.

  13. Knockdown of STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cells

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    Kruger Mathew M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system tumors. They are frequently associated with genetic mutations that deregulate cell cycle and render these tumors resistant to apoptosis. STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, participates in several human cancers by inducing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis and is frequently activated in astrocytomas. Methods RNA interference was used to knockdown STAT3 expression in human astrocytes and astrocytoma cell lines. The effect of STAT3 knockdown on apoptosis, cell proliferation, and gene expression was then assessed by standard methods. Results We have found that STAT3 is constitutively activated in several human astrocytoma cell lines. Knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA induces morphologic and biochemical changes consistent with apoptosis in several astrocytoma cell lines, but not in primary human astrocytes. Moreover, STAT3 is required for the expression of the antiapoptotic genes survivin and Bcl-xL in the A172 glioblastoma cell line. Conclusion These results show that STAT3 is required for the survival of some astrocytomas. These studies suggest STAT3 siRNA could be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of astrocytomas.

  14. Curcumin blocks small cell lung cancer cells migration, invasion, angiogenesis, cell cycle and neoplasia through Janus kinase-STAT3 signalling pathway.

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    Cheng-Liang Yang

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development. However, little is known about its anti-tumor mechanism in small cell lung cancer (SCLC. In this study, we found that curcumin can inhibit SCLC cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion and angiogenesis through suppression of the STAT3. SCLC cells were treated with curcumin (15 µmol/L and the results showed that curcumin was effective in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation to downregulate of an array of STAT3 downstream targets ,which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation, loss of colony formation, depression of cell migration and invasion. Curcumin also suppressed the expression of proliferative proteins (Survivin, Bcl-X(L and Cyclin B1, and invasive proteins (VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and ICAM-1. Knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA was able to induce anti-invasive effects in vitro. In contrast, activation of STAT3 upstream of interleukin 6 (IL-6 leads to the increased cell proliferation ,cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and tumor growth. Our findings illustrate the biologic significance of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling in SCLC progression and provide novel evidence that the pathway may be a new potential target for therapy of SCLC. It was concluded that curcumin is a potent agent in the inhibition of STAT3 with favorable pharmacological activity,and curcumin may have translational potential as an effective cancer therapeutic or preventive agent for SCLC.

  15. Curcumin blocks small cell lung cancer cells migration, invasion, angiogenesis, cell cycle and neoplasia through Janus kinase-STAT3 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Yong-Yu; Ma, Ye-Gang; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, De-Gui; Ren, Yi; Liu, Xiao-Bai; Li, Yao; Li, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development. However, little is known about its anti-tumor mechanism in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we found that curcumin can inhibit SCLC cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion and angiogenesis through suppression of the STAT3. SCLC cells were treated with curcumin (15 µmol/L) and the results showed that curcumin was effective in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation to downregulate of an array of STAT3 downstream targets ,which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation, loss of colony formation, depression of cell migration and invasion. Curcumin also suppressed the expression of proliferative proteins (Survivin, Bcl-X(L) and Cyclin B1), and invasive proteins (VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and ICAM-1). Knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA was able to induce anti-invasive effects in vitro. In contrast, activation of STAT3 upstream of interleukin 6 (IL-6) leads to the increased cell proliferation ,cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and tumor growth. Our findings illustrate the biologic significance of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling in SCLC progression and provide novel evidence that the pathway may be a new potential target for therapy of SCLC. It was concluded that curcumin is a potent agent in the inhibition of STAT3 with favorable pharmacological activity,and curcumin may have translational potential as an effective cancer therapeutic or preventive agent for SCLC.

  16. NLRP3 Protein Deficiency Exacerbates Hyperoxia-induced Lethality through Stat3 Protein Signaling Independent of Interleukin-1β*

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    Mizushina, Yoshiko; Shirasuna, Koumei; Usui, Fumitake; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Akira; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Motoi; Komada, Takanori; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Mato, Naoko; Yamasawa, Hideaki; Latz, Eicke; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Kasahara, Tadashi; Bando, Masashi; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen inhalation is frequently used to treat severe respiratory failure; however, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), which induces acute respiratory distress syndrome and leads to high mortality rates. Recent investigations suggest the possible role of NLRP3 inflammasomes, which regulate IL-1β production and lead to inflammatory responses, in the pathophysiology of HALI; however, their role is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mice with HALI. Under hyperoxic conditions, NLRP3−/− mice died at a higher rate compared with wild-type and IL-1β−/− mice, and there was no difference in IL-1β production in their lungs. Under hyperoxic conditions, the lungs of NLRP3−/− mice exhibited reduced inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine expression, as well as increased and decreased expression of MMP-9 and Bcl-2, respectively. NLRP3−/− mice exhibited diminished expression and activation of Stat3, which regulates MMP-9 and Bcl-2, in addition to increased numbers of apoptotic alveolar epithelial cells. In vitro experiments revealed that alveolar macrophages and neutrophils promoted Stat3 activation in alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, NLRP3 deficiency impaired the migration of neutrophils and chemokine expression by macrophages. These findings demonstrate that NLRP3 regulates Stat3 signaling in alveolar epithelial cells by affecting macrophage and neutrophil function independent of IL-1β production and contributes to the pathophysiology of HALI. PMID:25548278

  17. Tanshinone IIA Promotes Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Vitro by Inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway

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    Minggang Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanshinone IIA inhibits the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs, but the potential mechanisms of its effects on PASMCs apoptosis remain unclear. Methods: Rat were subjected to hypoxia for 9 days with or without Tanshinone IIA treatment. PASMCs were exposed to the conditions of 2% O2 and 93% N2 for 24 h in vitro. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining was used to evaluate vascular remodeling. The Cell viability was determined using cell fluorescence staining and MTT assays, and apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry. Protein expression was quantified by Western blotting. Results: Our results showed that Tanshinone IIA treatment reduced pulmonary artery media thickening in hypoxic rats. Tanshinone IIA reduced PASMC viability in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Tanshinone IIA promoted PASMC apoptosis, lowered Hsp60 levels, and upregulated caspase-3 expressions under hypoxic conditions. This pro-apoptotic effect of Tanshinone IIA might be due to the reduction of the phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling markers and the increase in the levels of the downstream target, Cx43 in PASMCs. Conclusion: These data suggest that Tanshinone IIA promotes PASMC apoptosis during hypoxia and reverses vascular remodeling. This effect is mediated by modulating the expression of Hsp60, caspase-3, and Cx43 via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. These results might provide a new therapeutic target to explore a novel strategy for hypoxia-induced vessel remodeling.

  18. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

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    Li, Nianzhen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca2+ elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca2+ elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca2+ wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca2+ signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca2+-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca2+ signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca2+, possibly through store-operated Ca2+ channels. The NO-induced Ca2+ signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca2+ change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca2+ influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca2+ using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca2+ release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca2+ elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca2+ wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by

  19. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) signals through STAT3-SOCS3 pathway and protects rat pancreatic islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Luiz F; Vieira, André S; Negro, Alessandro; Langone, Francesco; Boschero, Antonio C

    2009-04-01

    CNTF is a cytokine that promotes survival and/or differentiation in many cell types, including rat pancreatic islets. In this work, we studied the mechanism of CNTF signal in neonatal rats pancreatic islets isolated by the collagenase method and cultured for 3 days in RPMI medium without (CTL) or with 1 nM of CNTF. The medium contained, when necessary, specific inhibitors of the PI3K, MAPK and JAK/STAT3 pathways. mRNA expression (RT-PCR) and protein phosphorylation (Western blot) of Akt, ERK1/2 and STAT3, and SOCS-3 (RT-PCR and Western blot), as well as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) (Radioimmunoassay), were analyzed. Our results showed that Akt, ERK1 and STAT3 mRNA expression, as well as phosphorylated Akt and ERK1/2, was not affected by CNTF treatment. CNTF increased cytoplasmatic and nuclear phosphorylated STAT3, and the SOCS3 mRNA and protein expression. In addition, CNTF lowered apoptosis and impaired GSIS. These effects were blocked by the JAK inhibitor, AG490 and by the STAT3 inhibitor Curcumin, but not by the MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, nor by the PI3K inhibitor, Wortmannin. In conclusion, CNTF signals through the JAK2/STAT3 cascade, increases SOCS3 expression, impairs GSIS and protects neonatal pancreatic rat islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that CNTF may be a potential therapeutic tool against Type 1 and/or Type 2 diabetes.

  20. Downregulation of leptin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells via the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways

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    Xian-Jie Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have documented that leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of many human cancer types by regulation of numerous signal transduction pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological roles of leptin and the mechanisms attributed to its action in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines. The expression of leptin was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot in seven NSCLC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in response to leptin knockdown were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The effect of leptin knockdown on the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways was further examined by western blot. Leptin expression was significantly increased in NSCLC cell lines compared with normal human bronchial epithelial cell HBE. Leptin knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines through inactivation of the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Furthermore, gene silencing of Notch signaling with Notch-1 siRNA or inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signaling by JSI-124, an inhibitor of STAT3, resulted in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in NSCLC A549 cells. Our findings suggested that leptin knockdown could become a new approach for the prevention of lung cancer progression, which is likely to be mediated at least partially by inactivation of the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways.

  1. Tanshinone IIA Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Bladder Cancer Cells via Modulation of STAT3-CCL2 Signaling

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    Sung-Ying Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA is an extract from the widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza, and has been found to attenuate the proliferation of bladder cancer (BCa cells (The IC50 were: 5637, 2.6 μg/mL; BFTC, 2 μg/mL; T24, 2.7 μg/mL, respectively.. However, the mechanism of the effect of Tan-IIA on migration inhibition of BCa cells remains unclear. This study investigates the anti-metastatic effect of Tan-IIA in human BCa cells and clarifies its molecular mechanism. Three human BCa cell lines, 5637, BFTC and T24, were used for subsequent experiments. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assays. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related gene expression. The enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP was evaluated by zymography assay. Tan-IIA inhibited the migration and invasion of human BCa cells. Tan-IIA suppressed both the protein expression and enzymatic activity of MMP-9/-2 in human BCa cells. Tan-IIA up-regulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin and down-regulated mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and Vimentin, along with transcription regulators such as Snail and Slug in BCa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mechanism dissection revealed that Tan-IIA-inhibited BCa cell invasion could function via suppressed chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 expression, which could be reversed by the addition of CCL2 recombinant protein. Furthermore, Tan-IIA could inhibit the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 (Tyr705, which cannot be restored by the CCL2 recombinant protein addition. These data implicated that Tan-IIA might suppress EMT on BCa cells through STAT3-CCL2 signaling inhibition. Tan-IIA inhibits EMT of BCa cells via modulation of STAT3-CCL2 signaling. Our findings suggest that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-metastatic agent in BCa therapy.

  2. Sequential combination of docetaxel with a SHP-1 agonist enhanced suppression of p-STAT3 signaling and apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer cells.

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    Liu, Chun-Yu; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Chao, Tzu-I; Chu, Pei-Yi; Huang, Chun-Teng; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Yang, Hsiu-Ping; Wang, Wan-Lun; Lee, Chia-Han; Lau, Ka-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chun; Su, Jung-Chen; Wu, Chia-Yun; Chen, Ming-Huang; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Tseng, Ling-Ming

    2017-06-04

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer for which prognosis remains poor. Combination therapy is a promising strategy for enhancing treatment efficacy. Blockade of STAT3 signaling may enhance the response of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Here we used a SHP-1 agonist SC-43 to dephosphorylate STAT3 thereby suppressing oncogenic STAT3 signaling and tested it in combination with docetaxel in TNBC cells. We first analyzed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of SHP-1 gene (PTPN6) in a public TNBC dataset (TCGA) and found that higher SHP-1 mRNA expression is associated with better overall survival in TNBC patients. Sequential combination of docetaxel and SC-43 in vitro showed enhanced anti-proliferation and apoptosis associated with decreased p-STAT3 and decreased STAT3-downstream effector cyclin D1 in the TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and HCC-1937. Ectopic expression of STAT3 reduced the increased cytotoxicity induced by the combination therapy. In addition, this sequential combination showed enhanced SHP-1 activity compared to SC-43 alone. Furthermore, the combination treatment-induced apoptosis was attenuated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) against SHP-1 or by ectopic expression of SHP-1 mutants that caused SC-43 to lose its SHP-1 agonist capability. Moreover, combination of docetaxel and SC-43 showed enhanced tumor growth inhibition compared to single-agent therapy in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts. Our results suggest that the novel SHP-1 agonist SC-43 enhanced docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity by SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inhibition in human triple negative breast cancer cells. TNBC patients with high SHP-1 expressions show better survival. Docetaxel combined with SC-43 enhances cell apoptosis and reduces p-STAT3. SHP-1 inhibition reduces the enhanced effect of docetaxel-SC-43 combination. Docetaxel-SC-43 combination suppresses xenograft tumor growth and reduces p-STAT3. TNBC patients with high SHP-1 expressions

  3. Ginsenoside Rh2 Improves Cardiac Fibrosis via PPARδ–STAT3 Signaling in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

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    Shih-Hsiang Lo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2 is an active principal ingredient contained in ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer, a medicinal herb used to enhance health worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of Rh2 on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In a streptozotocin-induced model of type-1 diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats, the increased fasting blood glucose levels and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW ratio were substantially alleviated by Rh2. Moreover, Rh2 improved cardiac performance in STZ-diabetic rats. Histological results from Masson staining showed that Rh2 attenuated cardiac fibrosis in STZ-diabetic rats. The effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 at a dose sufficient to inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ in STZ-diabetic rats. The role of PPARδ was subsequently investigated in vitro. Rh2 restored the decreased PPARδ expression level in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, increased protein levels of fibrotic signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 and fibronectin, were reduced by Rh2 in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. These effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 or siRNA specific for PPARδ Taken together, PPARδ activation may inhibit STAT3 activation to reduce CCN2 and fibronectin expression in diabetic rats with cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, Rh2 improves cardiac function and fibrosis by increasing PPARδ signaling. Therefore, Rh2 is suitable to develop as an alternative remedy for cardiac fibrosis.

  4. Loss of claudin-3 expression induces IL6/gp130/Stat3 signaling to promote colon cancer malignancy by hyperactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

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    Ahmad, R; Kumar, B; Chen, Z; Chen, X; Müller, D; Lele, S M; Washington, M K; Batra, S K; Dhawan, P; Singh, A B

    2017-11-23

    The hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts as a switch to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote colorectal cancer. However, due to its essential role in gut homeostasis, therapeutic targeting of this pathway has proven challenging. Additionally, IL-6/Stat-3 signaling, activated by microbial translocation through the dysregulated mucosal barrier in colon adenomas, facilitates the adenoma to adenocarcinomas transition. However, inter-dependence between these signaling pathways and key mucosal barrier components in regulating colon tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear. In current study, we have discovered, using a comprehensive investigative regimen, a novel and tissue-specific role of claudin-3, a tight junction integral protein, in inhibiting colon cancer progression by serving as the common rheostat of Stat-3 and Wnt-signaling activation. Loss of claudin-3 also predicted poor patient survival. These findings however contrasted an upregulated claudin-3 expression in other cancer types and implicated role of the epigenetic regulation. Claudin-3-/- mice revealed dedifferentiated and leaky colonic epithelium, and developed invasive adenocarcinoma when subjected to colon cancer. Wnt-signaling hyperactivation, albeit in GSK-3β independent manner, differentiated colon cancer in claudin-3-/- mice versus WT-mice. Claudin-3 loss also upregulated the gp130/IL6/Stat3 signaling in colonic epithelium potentially assisted by infiltrating immune components. Genetic and pharmacological studies confirmed that claudin-3 loss induces Wnt/β-catenin activation, which is further exacerbated by Stat-3-activation and help promote colon cancer. Overall, these novel findings identify claudin-3 as a therapeutic target for inhibiting overactivation of Wnt-signaling to prevent CRC malignancy.

  5. A novel synthetic Asiatic acid derivative induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and mobility of gastric cancer cells by suppressing STAT3 signaling pathway

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    Wang G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gang Wang,1 Yue Jing,2 Lingsen Cao,3 Changchang Gong,1 Zhunan Gong,1,3 Xiangrong Cao3 1Center for New Drug Research and Development, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, 2Central Laboratory of Stomatology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, 3Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Activation of the transcription factor, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3, has been linked to the proliferation and migration of a variety of human cancer cells. These actions occur via the upregulation or downregulation of cell survival and tumor suppressor genes, respectively. Importantly, agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have the potential for use in the prevention and treatment of various cancers. In this study, an Asiatic acid (AA derivative, N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl-L-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe, is reported to dose dependently suppress constitutive STAT3 activation in gastric cancer cells. This inhibition was mediated by blockade of Janus-activated kinase 2. Additionally, AA-PMe regulated the expression of STAT3-modulated gene products, including cyclin D1, Bax, Bcl-2, c-Myc, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9. Finally, transfection with both a STAT3 mimic and an inhibitor reversed the AA-PMe-driven modulation of STAT3 downstream gene products. Overall, these results suggest that AA-PMe is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation and has the potential for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. Keywords: gastric cancer, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, Asiatic acid derivative, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion

  6. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS3) balance controls cytotoxicity and IL-10 expression in decidual-like natural killer cell line NK-92.

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    Braunschweig, Anne; Poehlmann, Tobias G; Busch, Susann; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVES  In previous studies, we have shown that sHLA-G reduces cytotoxicity of decidual NK cells, which was dependent upon reduction in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and perforin. In this study, we aimed to confirm the role of STAT3 for induction of cytotoxicity and to analyze the regulative role of its antagonist suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Furthermore, the influence of both factors on cytokine expression should be analyzed. METHODS  All experiments were performed on NK-92 cells. STAT3 and SOCS3 have been silenced using two different small interfering RNA sequences each. Silencing efficiency and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation have been analyzed by Western blotting. Cytotoxicity to K562 target cells has been assessed by flow cytometry. Expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and TNF-β has been measured using cytometric bead arrays for flow cytometry. RESULTS  STAT3 and SOCS3 have been successfully silenced. STAT3 silencing reduced cytotoxicity. SOCS3 silencing induced increase in STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. STAT3 silencing reduced IL-10 expression significantly, while SOCS3 silencing induced, also significantly, the opposite effect. The other cytokines were expressed at very low concentration or not constantly affected. CONCLUSION  STAT3 and SOCS3 are involved in regulation of NK cell cytotoxicity and IL-10 expression. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Herbal Extract SH003 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 Signaling

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    Youn Kyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer inflammation promotes cancer progression, resulting in a high risk of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that our new herbal extract, SH003, suppresses both tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. Our new herbal formula, SH003, mixed extract from Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, suppressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo and reduced the viability and metastatic abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Furthermore, SH003 inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction of IL-6 production. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses highly metastatic breast cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path.

  8. Acute alcohol intake induces SOCS1 and SOCS3 and inhibits cytokine-induced STAT1 and STAT3 signaling in human monocytes.

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    Norkina, Oxana; Dolganiuc, Angela; Catalano, Donna; Kodys, Karen; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Syed, Amber; Efros, Marian; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2008-09-01

    Acute alcohol consumption is associated with induction of immuno-inhibitory cytokines and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses to various pathogens. We previously reported that alcohol activates janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling leading to IL-10 induction. The JAK-STAT pathway also activates its own negative regulators, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3. SOCS proteins are inducible inhibitors that negatively regulate STAT3/STAT1 signaling pathways induced by cytokines, IL-6 or IFNs. Here we aimed to explore the effect of acute alcohol on induction of SOCS1/SOCS3 and regulation of STAT3/STAT1 pathways induced by IL-6 or IFNs in human monocytes. Blood samples from normal volunteers were collected before and 24 hours after consumption of 2 ml vodka/kg body weight. For in vitro experiments human monocytes were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH) followed by stimulation with cytokines; proteins were analyzed by Western blot, nuclear protein binding to DNA by EMSA, and RNA by real time PCR. Acute in vivo or in vitro alcohol treatment increased both SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA expression in monocytes. Alcohol treatment resulted in increased STAT3 and STAT1 DNA binding capacity. Activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 has been shown to induce SOCS1/3. We hypothesized that induction of SOCS proteins by alcohol in turn may lead to modulation of cytokine signaling through STAT1 and STAT3. Indeed, we observed significant down-regulation of IL-6-, IFNalpha- and IFNgamma-induced STAT1 DNA binding as well as inhibition of IL-6- and IFNgamma-induced STAT3 when alcohol was added to monocytes 3 hours prior to the cytokine stimulation. Consistent with inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 DNA binding in alcohol-pretreated cells, the levels of IL-6-dependent genes, MCP-1 and ICAM-1, was reduced after IL-6 stimulation. Similar to EtOH alone, combined EtOH+IL-6 simulation resulted in increased expression of both SOCS3 and SOCS1 genes

  9. Curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit the cancer stem cell phenotype via down-regulation of STAT3-NFκB signaling.

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    Chung, Seyung S; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model postulates the existence of a small proportion of cancer cells capable of sustaining tumor formation, self-renewal and differentiation. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is known to be selectively activated in breast CSC populations. However, it is yet to be determined which molecular mechanisms regulate STAT3 signaling in CSCs and what chemopreventive agents are effective for suppressing CSC growth. The aim of this study was to examine the potential efficacy of curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) against CSC and to uncover the molecular mechanisms of their anticancer effects. To suppress the CSC phenotype, two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF7 cells transfected with HER2) were treated with curcumin (10 μM) with or without EGCG (10 μM) for 48 h. We used tumor-sphere formation and wound-healing assays to determine CSC phenotype. To quantify CSC populations, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting profiling was monitored. STAT3 phosphorylation and interaction with Nuclear Factor-kB (NFkB) were analyzed by performing western blot and immunoprecipitation assays. Combined curcumin and EGCG treatment reduced the cancer stem-like Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44)-positive cell population. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that curcumin and EGCG specifically inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3-NFkB interaction was retained. This study suggests that curcumin and EGCG function as antitumor agents for suppressing breast CSCs. STAT3 and NFκB signaling pathways could serve as targets for reducing CSCs leading to novel targeted-therapy for treating breast cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting CD44-STAT3 signaling by Gemini vitamin D analog leads to inhibition of invasion in basal-like breast cancer.

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    So, Jae Young; Smolarek, Amanda K; Salerno, David M; Maehr, Hubert; Uskokovic, Milan; Liu, Fang; Suh, Nanjoo

    2013-01-01

    CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is a major receptor for extracellular proteins involved in invasion and metastasis of human cancers. We have previously demonstrated that the novel Gemini vitamin D analog BXL0124 [1α,25-dihydroxy-20R-21(3-hydroxy-3-deuteromethyl-4,4,4-trideuterobutyl)-23-yne-26,27-hexafluro-cholecalciferol] repressed CD44 expression in MCF10DCIS.com basal-like human breast cancer cells and inhibited MCF10DCIS xenograft tumor growth. In the present study, we investigated potential factors downstream of CD44 and the biological role of CD44 repression by BXL0124 in MCF10DCIS cells. The treatment with Gemini vitamin D BXL0124 decreased CD44 protein level, suppressed STAT3 signaling, and inhibited invasion and proliferation of MCF10DCIS cells. The interaction between CD44 and STAT3 was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. CD44 forms a complex with STAT3 and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) to activate STAT3 signaling, which was inhibited by BXL0124 in MCF10DCIS cells. The role of CD44 in STAT3 signaling and invasion of MCF10DCIS cells was further determined by the knockdown of CD44 using small hairpin RNA in vitro and in vivo. MCF10DCIS cell invasion was markedly decreased by the knockdown of CD44 in vitro. The knockdown of CD44 also significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of invasion markers, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), in MCF10DCIS cells. In MCF10DCIS xenograft tumors, CD44 knockdown decreased tumor size and weight as well as invasion markers. The present study identifies STAT3 as an important signaling molecule interacting with CD44 and demonstrates the essential role of CD44-STAT3 signaling in breast cancer invasion. It also suggests that repression of CD44-STAT3 signaling is a key molecular mechanism in the inhibition of breast cancer invasion by the Gemini vitamin D analog BXL0124.

  11. Targeting CD44-STAT3 signaling by Gemini vitamin D analog leads to inhibition of invasion in basal-like breast cancer.

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    Jae Young So

    Full Text Available CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is a major receptor for extracellular proteins involved in invasion and metastasis of human cancers. We have previously demonstrated that the novel Gemini vitamin D analog BXL0124 [1α,25-dihydroxy-20R-21(3-hydroxy-3-deuteromethyl-4,4,4-trideuterobutyl-23-yne-26,27-hexafluro-cholecalciferol] repressed CD44 expression in MCF10DCIS.com basal-like human breast cancer cells and inhibited MCF10DCIS xenograft tumor growth. In the present study, we investigated potential factors downstream of CD44 and the biological role of CD44 repression by BXL0124 in MCF10DCIS cells.The treatment with Gemini vitamin D BXL0124 decreased CD44 protein level, suppressed STAT3 signaling, and inhibited invasion and proliferation of MCF10DCIS cells. The interaction between CD44 and STAT3 was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. CD44 forms a complex with STAT3 and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 to activate STAT3 signaling, which was inhibited by BXL0124 in MCF10DCIS cells. The role of CD44 in STAT3 signaling and invasion of MCF10DCIS cells was further determined by the knockdown of CD44 using small hairpin RNA in vitro and in vivo. MCF10DCIS cell invasion was markedly decreased by the knockdown of CD44 in vitro. The knockdown of CD44 also significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of invasion markers, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, in MCF10DCIS cells. In MCF10DCIS xenograft tumors, CD44 knockdown decreased tumor size and weight as well as invasion markers.The present study identifies STAT3 as an important signaling molecule interacting with CD44 and demonstrates the essential role of CD44-STAT3 signaling in breast cancer invasion. It also suggests that repression of CD44-STAT3 signaling is a key molecular mechanism in the inhibition of breast cancer invasion by the Gemini vitamin D analog BXL0124.

  12. Molecular Cross-Talk between the NFκB and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Cristiane H. Squarize

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC involves the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor-suppressor proteins, together with the persistent activation of growth-promoting signaling pathways. The activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a frequent event in HNSCC. However, EGFR-independent mechanisms also contribute to the activation of key intracellular signaling routes, including signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3, nuclear factor κB (NFκB, and Akt. Indeed, the autocrine activation of the gp130 cytokine receptor in HNSCC cells by tumor-released cytokines, such as IL-6, can result in the EGFR-independent activation of STAT3. In this study, we explored the nature of the molecular mechanism underlying enhanced IL-6 secretion in HNSCC cells. We found that HNSCC cells display an increased activity of the IL-6 promoter, which is dependent on the presence of an intact NFκB site. Furthermore, NFκB inhibition downregulated IL-6 gene and protein expression, and decreased the release of multiple cytokines. Interestingly, interfering with NFκB function also prevented the autocrine/paracrine activation of STAT3 in HNSCC cells. These findings demonstrate a cross-talk between the NFκB and the STAT3 signaling systems, and support the emerging notion that HNSCC results from the aberrant activity of a signaling network.

  13. A neutralized human LMP1-IgG inhibits ENKTL growth by suppressing the JAK3/STAT3 signaling pathway.

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    Mao, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Mingzhi; Fan, Weifei; Tang, Qi; Xiong, Siping; Tang, Xiaojun; Xu, Juqing; Wang, Lin; Yang, Shu; Liu, Suyao; Xu, Li; Chen, Yan; Xu, Lin; Yin, Rong; Zhu, Jin

    2017-02-14

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which is associated with the development of different types of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphoma, has been suggested to be an important oncoprotein. In this study, a human anti-LMP1 IgG antibody (LMP1-IgG) was constructed and characterized by ELISA, western blotting (WB), affinity and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. CCK-8, MTT, apoptosis assays, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and CDC (complement-dependent cytotoxicity) assays were performed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of LMP1-IgG on extranodal nasal-type natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). Then, the influence of LMP1-IgG on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was investigated. The results showed that the successfully constructed LMP1-IgG inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and activated ADCC and CDC of ENKTL in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT3 was inhibited by LMP1-IgG. Our data indicate that LMP1-IgG may provide a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of LMP1-positive ENKTL.

  14. Sulforaphane exerts anti-angiogenesis effects against hepatocellular carcinoma through inhibition of STAT3/HIF-1α/VEGF signalling.

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    Liu, Peng; Atkinson, Samuel J; Akbareian, Sophia E; Zhou, Zhigang; Munsterberg, Andrea; Robinson, Stephen D; Bao, Yongping

    2017-10-04

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the inhibition of which is explored for cancer prevention and treatment. The dietary phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN) is known for its anti-cancer properties in vitro and in vivo; but until now, no study has focused on the role of SFN in HCC tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, in vitro cell models using a HCC cell line, HepG2, and human endothelial cells, HUVECs, as well as ex vivo and in vivo models have been used to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effect of SFN. The results showed that SFN decreased HUVEC cell viability, migration and tube formation, all of which are important steps in angiogenesis. More importantly, SFN markedly supressed HepG2-stimulated HUVEC migration, adhesion and tube formation; which may be due to its inhibition on STAT3/HIF-1α/VEGF signalling in HepG2 cells. In addition, SFN significantly reduced HepG2 tumor growth in a modified chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, associated with a decrease of HIF-1α and VEGF expression within tumors. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the inhibitory effect of SFN on HCC tumor angiogenesis as well as tumor growth, and indicate that SFN has potential for the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  15. The signal transducers Stat1 and Stat3 and their novel target Jmjd3 drive the expression of inflammatory genes in microglia.

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    Przanowski, Piotr; Dabrowski, Michal; Ellert-Miklaszewska, Aleksandra; Kloss, Michal; Mieczkowski, Jakub; Kaza, Beata; Ronowicz, Anna; Hu, Feng; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Kettenmann, Helmut; Komorowski, Jan; Kaminska, Bozena

    2014-03-01

    Most neurological diseases are associated with chronic inflammation initiated by the activation of microglia, which produce cytotoxic and inflammatory factors. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are potent regulators of gene expression but contribution of particular STAT to inflammatory gene expression and STAT-dependent transcriptional networks underlying brain inflammation need to be identified. In the present study, we investigated the genomic distribution of Stat binding sites and the role of Stats in the gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary microglial cultures. Integration of chromatin immunoprecipitation-promoter microarray data and transcriptome data revealed novel Stat-target genes including Jmjd3, Ccl5, Ezr, Ifih1, Irf7, Uba7, and Pim1. While knockdown of individual Stat had little effect on the expression of tested genes, knockdown of both Stat1 and Stat3 inhibited the expression of Jmjd3 and inflammatory genes. Transcriptional regulation of Jmjd3 by Stat1 and Stat3 is a novel mechanism crucial for launching inflammatory responses in microglia. The effects of Jmjd3 on inflammatory gene expression were independent of its H3K27me3 demethylase activity. Forced expression of constitutively activated Stat1 and Stat3 induced the expression of Jmjd3, inflammation-related genes, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as potently as lipopolysacharide. Gene set enrichment and gene function analysis revealed categories linked to the inflammatory response in LPS and Stat1C + Stat3C groups. We defined upstream pathways that activate STATs in response to LPS and demonstrated contribution of Tlr4 and Il-6 and interferon-γ signaling. Our findings define novel direct transcriptional targets of Stat1 and Stat3 and highlight their contribution to inflammatory gene expression. Combined analysis of genomic Stat occupancy and transcriptome revealed novel Stat target genes in LPS-induced microglia. Jmjd3 transcription

  16. 17β-estradiol exerts anticancer effects in anoikis-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by targeting IL-6/STAT3 signaling

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    Lee, Seulki, E-mail: sl10f@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minjong, E-mail: minjonglee2@naver.com [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, 156 Baengnyeong-ro, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Bin, E-mail: kkimjp@hanmail.net [Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Ave NE, Austin, MN, 55912 (United States); Jo, Ara, E-mail: loveara0315@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Ju, E-mail: creatioex@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Su Jong, E-mail: ydoctor2@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: pindra@empal.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung-Hwan, E-mail: yoonjh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jun, E-mail: yoonjun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-13

    17β-Estradiol (E2) has been proven to exert protective effects against HCC; however, its mechanism on HCC proliferation and suppression of invasion remains to be further explored. Because HCC up-regulates serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), molecular agents that attenuate IL-6/STAT3 signaling can potentially suppress HCC development. In this study, we examined involvement of E2 in anoikis resistance that induces invasion capacities and chemo-resistance. Huh-BAT and HepG2 cells grown under anchorage-independent condition were selected. The anoikis-resistant (AR) cells showed stronger chemo-resistance against sorafenib, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin compared to adherent HCC cells. AR HCC cells exhibited decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the N-cadherin and vimentin compared to adherent HCC cells. We then demonstrated that E2 suppressed cell proliferation in AR HCC cells. IL-6 treatment enhanced invasive characteristics, and E2 reversed it. Regarding mechanism of E2, it decreased in the phosphorylation of STAT3 that overexpressed on AR HCC cells. The inhibitory effect of E2 on cell growth was accompanied with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and caspase-3/9/PARP activation through c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings suggested that E2 inhibited the proliferation of AR HCC cells through down-regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Thus, E2 can be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment of metastatic or chemo-resistant HCC. -- Highlights: •Anoikis-resistant HCC cells characterized chemo-resistant and metastatic potentials. •17β-Estradiol down-regulated IL-6/STAT3 signaling in anoikis-resistant HCC cells. •17β-Estradiol suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis though JNK phosphorylation.

  17. IL-6 secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of gastric cancer via JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Yu, Zhenjia; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiaanfang; Li, Chen; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang; Liu, Bingya; Su, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor-promoting properties of CAFs in gastric cancer remain unclear. Here, we show that CAFs isolated from gastric cancer produce significant amounts of interleukin-6 (IL-6). CAFs enhances the migration and EMT of gastric cancer cells through the secretion of IL-6 that activates Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT3) pathway in gastric cancer cells, while deprivation of IL-6 using a neutralizing antibody or inhibition of JAK/STAT3 pathway with specific inhibitor AG490 markedly attenuates these phenotypes in gastric cancer cells induced by CAFs. Moreover, silencing IL-6 expression in CAFs or inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 pathway in gastric cancer cells impairs tumor peritoneal metastasis induced by CAFs in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that CAFs in the tumor microenvironment promote the progression of gastric cancer through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling, and IL-6 targeted therapy could be a complementary approach against gastric cancer by exerting their action on stromal fibroblasts. PMID:28186964

  18. Hedyotis diffusa Willd Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth in Vivo via Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway

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    Jun Peng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Hedyotis diffusa Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model, in the present study we evaluated the effect of the ethanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (EEHDW on tumor growth in vivo and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEHDW reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that EEHDW can inhibit CRC growth in vivo without apparent adverse effect. In addition, EEHDW treatment suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Moreover, EEHDW treatment altered the expression pattern of several important target genes of the STAT3 signaling pathway, i.e., decreased expression of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Bcl-2 as well as up-regulated p21 and Bax. These results suggest that suppression of the STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW treats colorectal cancer.

  19. IL-17 Activates the IL-6/STAT3 Signal Pathway in the Proliferation of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

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    Hu, Zongqiang; Luo, Ding; Wang, Dongdong; Ma, Linjie; Zhao, Yingpeng; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    We performed this study to determine the role of IL-17 in the immune microenvironment of hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HepG2 cells were treated with IL-17, STAT3 inhibitor S31-201 or IL-6 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (IL-6 mAb). Cell proliferation and migration were compared using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell assays, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), Western Blot, ELISA, immunofluorescence and histological staining were used for determining the expression levels of IL-17, IL-6, MCP-1, CCL5, VEGF, STAT3 and p-STAT3. HCC xenograft models were constructed in wild type and IL-17 knockout mice to clarify the effects of IL-17 on HCC in vivo. Exogenous IL-17 enhanced the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells, and it activated the phosphorylation of STAT3. RT-qPCR and ELISA showed that IL-17 promoted the expression of IL-6. The CCK-8 and Transwell assays showed that S31-201 or IL-6 mAb remarkably reversed the promotion effects of proliferation and migration by exogenous IL-17 in HepG2 cells. Additionally, IL-6 could promote the phosphorylation of STAT3, while IL-6 mAb acted as an inhibitor, and exogenous IL-17 could neutralize the inhibitory effects of IL-6 mAb. In vivo, compared to the wild type mice, the tumor volume, weight, density and size were decreased in IL-17 knockout mice. Additionally, the expression levels of p-STAT3, IL-6, MCP-1, CCL5 and VEGF decreased in IL-17 knockout mice. IL-17 can enhance the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo via activating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, the IL-17/IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for HBV-related HCC. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-31

    The Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na+-dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na+ load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na+ extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na+ following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na+ as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na+ and the metabolic machinery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Alternol, a natural compound, exerts an anti-tumour effect on osteosarcoma by modulating of STAT3 and ROS/MAPK signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dongqing; Zhou, Zifei; Wang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Tao; Zang, Jie; Yin, Fei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Xu, Jing; Wang, Zhuoying; Wang, Chongren; Lin, Binhui; Fu, Zeze; Liao, Yuxin; Li, Suoyuan; Sun, Mengxiong; Hua, Yingqi; Zheng, Longpo; Cai, Zhengdong

    2017-02-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumour. Alternol, a novel compound purified from microbial fermentation products exerts anti-tumour effects across several cancer types. The effect of alternol on human OS remains to be elucidated. We first evaluated the anti-tumour effect of alternol in several human OS cell lines in vitro and investigated its underlying mechanism. Alternol inhibited OS cell proliferation, migration and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose and time-dependent manner. Moreover, alternol treatment inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in 143B and MG63 human OS cells, as evaluated using a STAT3-dependent dual luciferase reporter system. Exposure to alternol resulted in excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 activation. Furthermore, alternol-induced cell death was significantly restored in the presence of the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or a caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. NAC also prevented G2/M phase arrest and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), but did not reverse STAT3 inactivation. Finally, alternol suppressed tumour growth in vivo in the nude mouse OS tibia orthotopic model. Immunohistochemistry revealed that alternol treatment resulted in down-regulation of phosph-STAT3 Tyr705 and up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3 and phosph-SAPK (Stress-activated protein kinases)/JNK expression. Taken together, our results reveal that alternol suppresses cell proliferation, migration and induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest by modulating of ROS-dependent MAPK and STAT3 signalling pathways in human OS cells. Therefore, alternol is a promising candidate for developing anti-tumour drugs target OS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for

  2. Photodynamic therapy activated signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor and STAT3: Targeting survival pathways to increase PDT efficacy in ovarian and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Christine; Hagan, Sarah; Gallagher-Colombo, Shannon M; Busch, Theresa M; Cengel, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    Patients with serosal (pleural or peritoneal) spread of malignancy have few definitive treatment options and consequently have a very poor prognosis. We have previously shown that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be an effective treatment for these patients, but that the therapeutic index is relatively narrow. Here, we test the hypothesis that EGFR and STAT3 activation increase survival following PDT, and that inhibiting these pathways leads to increased PDT-mediated direct cellular cytotoxicity by examining BPD-PDT in OvCa and NSCLC cells. We found that BPD-mediated PDT stimulated EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and that EGFR inhibition by erlotinib resulted in reduction of PDT-mediated EGFR activation and nuclear translocation. Nuclear translocation and PDT-mediated activation of EGFR were also observed in response to BPD-mediated PDT in multiple cell lines, including OvCa, NSCLC and head and neck cancer cells, and was observed to occur in response to porfimer sodium-mediated PDT. In addition, we found that PDT stimulates nuclear translocation of STAT3 and STAT3/EGFR association and that inhibiting STAT3 signaling prior to PDT leads to increased PDT cytotoxicity. Finally, we found that inhibition of EGFR signaling leads to increased PDT cytotoxicity through a mechanism that involves increased apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDT stimulates the nuclear accumulation of both EGFR and STAT3 and that targeting these survival pathways is a potentially promising strategy that could be adapted for clinical trials of PDT for patients with serosal spread of malignancy.

  3. Active Components with Inhibitory Activities on IFN-γ/STAT1 and IL-6/STAT3 Signaling Pathways from Caulis Trachelospermi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ting Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation for new active herbal extract with inhibiting activity on JAK/STAT signaling pathway revealed that the extract of Caulis Trachelospermi, which was separated by 80% alcohol extraction and subsequent HP-20 macroporous resin column chromatography, was founded to strongly inhibit IFN-γ-induced STAT1-responsive luciferase activity (IFN-γ/STAT1 with IC50 value of 2.43 μg/mL as well as inhibiting IL-6-induced STAT3-responsive luciferase activity (IL-6/STAT3 with IC50 value of 1.38 μg/mL. Subsequent study on its active components led to the isolation and identification of two new dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans named 4-demethyltraxillaside (1 and nortrachelogenin 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, together with six known compounds. The lignan compounds 1–4 together with other lignan compounds isolated in previous study were tested the activities on IFN-γ/STAT1 and IL-6/STAT3 pathways. The following result showed that the main components trachelogenin and arctigenin had corresponding activities on IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway with IC50 values of 3.14 μM and 9.46 μM as well as trachelogenin, arctigenin and matairesinol strongly inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 pathway with IC50 values of 3.63 μM, 6.47 μM and 2.92 μM, respectively.

  4. Mouse Skeletal Muscle Fiber-Type-Specific Macroautophagy and Muscle Wasting Are Regulated by a Fyn/STAT3/Vps34 Signaling Pathway

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    Eijiro Yamada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy induced by aging (sarcopenia, inactivity, and prolonged fasting states (starvation is predominantly restricted to glycolytic type II muscle fibers and typical spares oxidative type I fibers. However, the mechanisms accounting for muscle fiber-type specificity of atrophy have remained enigmatic. In the current study, although the Fyn tyrosine kinase activated the mTORC1 signaling complex, it also induced marked atrophy of glycolytic fibers with relatively less effect on oxidative muscle fibers. This was due to inhibition of macroautophagy via an mTORC1-independent but STAT3-dependent reduction in Vps34 protein levels and decreased Vps34/p150/Beclin1/Atg14 complex 1. Physiologically, in the fed state endogenous Fyn kinase activity was increased in glycolytic but not oxidative skeletal muscle. In parallel, Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation increased with decreased Vps34 protein levels. Moreover, fed/starved regulation of Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation and Vps34 protein levels was prevented in skeletal muscle of Fyn null mice. These data demonstrate a Fyn/STAT3/Vps34 pathway that is responsible for fiber-type-specific regulation of macroautophagy and skeletal muscle atrophy.

  5. Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early 1 Protein Rewires Upstream STAT3 to Downstream STAT1 Signaling Switching an IL6-Type to an IFNγ-Like Response.

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    Thomas Harwardt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (hCMV major immediate-early 1 protein (IE1 is best known for activating transcription to facilitate viral replication. Here we present transcriptome data indicating that IE1 is as significant a repressor as it is an activator of host gene expression. Human cells induced to express IE1 exhibit global repression of IL6- and oncostatin M-responsive STAT3 target genes. This repression is followed by STAT1 phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 target genes normally induced by IFNγ. The observed repression and subsequent activation are both mediated through the same region (amino acids 410 to 445 in the C-terminal domain of IE1, and this region serves as a binding site for STAT3. Depletion of STAT3 phenocopies the STAT1-dependent IFNγ-like response to IE1. In contrast, depletion of the IL6 receptor (IL6ST or the STAT kinase JAK1 prevents this response. Accordingly, treatment with IL6 leads to prolonged STAT1 instead of STAT3 activation in wild-type IE1 expressing cells, but not in cells expressing a mutant protein (IE1dl410-420 deficient for STAT3 binding. A very similar STAT1-directed response to IL6 is also present in cells infected with a wild-type or revertant hCMV, but not an IE1dl410-420 mutant virus, and this response results in restricted viral replication. We conclude that IE1 is sufficient and necessary to rewire upstream IL6-type to downstream IFNγ-like signaling, two pathways linked to opposing actions, resulting in repressed STAT3- and activated STAT1-responsive genes. These findings relate transcriptional repressor and activator functions of IE1 and suggest unexpected outcomes relevant to viral pathogenesis in response to cytokines or growth factors that signal through the IL6ST-JAK1-STAT3 axis in hCMV-infected cells. Our results also reveal that IE1, a protein considered to be a key activator of the hCMV productive cycle, has an unanticipated role in tempering viral replication.

  6. STAT3 modulation to enhance motor neuron differentiation in human neural stem cells.

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    Rajalaxmi Natarajan

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis damages spinal motor neurons and forms a glial scar, which prevents neural regeneration. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 plays a critical role in astrogliogenesis and scar formation, and thus a fine modulation of STAT3 signaling may help to control the excessive gliogenic environment and enhance neural repair. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of STAT3 inhibition on human neural stem cells (hNSCs. In vitro hNSCs primed with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 exhibited a lower level of phosphorylated STAT3 than cells primed by epidermal growth factor (EGF, which correlated with a higher number of motor neurons differentiated from FGF2-primed hNSCs. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, Stattic and Niclosamide, enhanced motor neuron differentiation only in FGF2-primed hNSCs, as shown by increased homeobox gene Hb9 mRNA levels as well as HB9+ and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2+ co-labeled cells. The increased motor neuron differentiation was accompanied by a decrease in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive astrocytes. Interestingly, Stattic and Niclosamide did not affect the level of STAT3 phosphorylation; rather, they perturbed the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3. In summary, we demonstrate that FGF2 is required for motor neuron differentiation from hNSCs and that inhibition of STAT3 further increases motor neuron differentiation at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Our study thus suggests a potential benefit of targeting the STAT3 pathway for neurotrauma or neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-05-01

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  8. Modulatory role of phospholipase D in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 by thyroid oncogenic kinase RET/PTC

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    Kim Dong Wook

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas gene rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although it has been established that RET/PTC kinase plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cellular transformation, growth, and proliferation in thyroid epithelial cells, the upstream signaling that leads to the activation of RET/PTC is largely unknown. Based on the observation of high levels of PLD expression in human papillary thyroid cancer tissues, we investigated whether PLD plays a role in the regulating the RET/PTC-induced STAT3 activation. Methods Cancer tissue samples were obtained from papillary thyroid cancer patients (n = 6. The expression level of PLD was examined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Direct interaction between RET/PTC and PLD was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. PLD activity was assessed by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidylbutanol, the product of PLD-mediated transphosphatidylation, in the presence of n-butanol. The transcriptional activity of STAT3 was assessed by m67 luciferase reporter assay. Results In human papillary thyroid cancer, the expression levels of PLD2 protein were higher than those in the corresponding paired normal tissues. PLD and RET/PTC could be co-immunoprecipitated from cells where each protein was over-expressed. In addition, the activation of PLD by pervanadate triggered phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 residue on STAT-3, and its phosphorylation was dramatically higher in TPC-1 cells (from papillary carcinoma that have an endogenous RET/PTC1 than in ARO cells (from anaplastic carcinoma without alteration of total STAT-3 expression. Moreover, the RET/PTC-mediated transcriptional activation of STAT-3 was synergistically increased by over-expression of PLD, whereas the PLD activity as a lipid hydrolyzing enzyme was not affected by RET

  9. Tumor-associated macrophages regulate murine breast cancer stem cells through a novel paracrine EGFR/Stat3/Sox-2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Liao, Debbie; Chen, Cong; Liu, Yan; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Xiang, Rong; Markowitz, Dorothy; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Luo, Yunping

    2013-02-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has gained significant recognition as a descriptor of tumorigenesis. Additionally, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to promote growth and metastasis of breast cancer. However, it is not known whether TAMs mediate tumorigenesis through regulation of breast CSCs. Here, we report that TAMs promote CSC-like phenotypes in murine breast cancer cells by upregulating their expression of Sox-2. These CSC-like phenotypes were characterized by increased Sox-2, Oct-4, Nanog, AbcG2, and Sca-1 gene expression, in addition to increased drug-efflux capacity, resistance to chemotherapy, and increased tumorigenicity in vivo. Downregulation of Sox-2 in tumor cells by siRNA blocked the ability of TAMs to induce these CSC-like phenotypes and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, we identified a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3)/Sox-2 paracrine signaling pathway between macrophages and mouse breast cancer cells that is required for macrophage-induced upregulation of Sox-2 and CSC phenotypes in tumor cells. We showed that this crosstalk was effectively blocked by the small molecule inhibitors AG1478 or CDDO-Im against EGFR and Stat3, respectively. Therefore, our report identifies a novel role for TAMs in breast CSC regulation and establishes a rationale for targeting the EGFR/Stat3/Sox-2 signaling pathway for CSC therapy. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  10. α-Solanine inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression by down-regulating the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhengde; Huang, Chaohao; Xu, Yaya; Xiao, Yuwu; Tang, Lili; Dai, Juji; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Bicheng; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-15

    In tumors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and tumorigenesis. In our previous study, we found that α-solanine, which is widespread in solanaceae, has a strong anti-cancer effect under normoxia. However, it is unknown whether α-solanine has a similar effect under hypoxia. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimic hypoxia in vitro. HIF-1α, which is almost undetectable under normoxia, was significantly increased. Simultaneously, another regulator of VEGF, STAT3, was also significantly activated by CoCl2. We utilized α-solanine in co-culture with CoCl2. α-solanine decreased the expression of VEGF and loss of E-cadherin. α-solanine also suppressed the activation of phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), HIF-1α, and STAT3 signaling. The results provide new evidence that α-solanine has a strong anti-cancer effect via the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways and suggest that it may be a potential new drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interleukin-17 promotes angiogenesis by stimulating VEGF production of cancer cells via the STAT3/GIV signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Shen, Jing; Cao, Jingyan; Zhou, Yongxu; Shang, Lihua; Jin, Shi; Cao, Shoubo; Che, Dehai; Liu, Fang; Yu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The presence of IL-17-positive cells is observed in a variety of inflammatory associated cancers and IL-17 has been found to be involved in angiogenesis. However, it remains unclear how IL-17 might contribute to tumor angiogenesis. In our study, IL-17 enhanced the formation of vessel-like tubes in HUVECs both directly (when HUVECs were incubated with IL-17) and indirectly (when HUVECs were incubated in conditioned cell media (CCM) from IL-17-treated cancer cells). Our results from experiments using siRNA-mediated knockdowns of STAT3 and GIV suggest that the effects of IL-17 were mediated by activating STAT3/GIV signaling in NSCLC cells and subsequently up-regulating its downstream target VEGF. Consistent with these findings, immunostaining experiments on human NSCLC tissues indicated that IL-17 and GIV expression were significantly and positively associated with increased tumor vascularity. The clinical significance of IL-17 was authenticated by our finding that the combination of intratumoral IL-17 + cells and GIV expression served as a better prognosticator for survival than either marker alone. Therefore, our finding highlights a novel aspect of STAT3/GIV pathway in the IL-17 promotes tumor angiogenesis of NSCLC. PMID:26524953

  12. CRH promotes human colon cancer cell proliferation via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xianjun; Hong, Yali; Dai, Li; Qian, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Chao; Wu, Biao; Li, Shengnan

    2017-11-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been demonstrated to participate in various diseases. Our previous study showed that its receptor CRHR1 mediated the development of colitis-associated cancer in mouse model. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we explored the oncogenetic role of CRH/CRHR1 signaling in colon cancer cells. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays revealed that CRH contributed to cell proliferation. Moreover, tube formation assay showed that CRH-treated colon cancer cell supernatant significantly promoted tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). And these effects could be reversed by the CRHR1 specific antagonist Antalarmin. Further investigation showed that CRH significantly upregulated the expressions of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). The CRH-induced IL-6 promoted phosphorylation of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3 inhibition by Stattic significantly inhibited the CRH-induced cell proliferation. In addition, silence of VEGF resulted in declined tube formation induced by CRH. Taken together, CRH/CRHR1 signaling promoted human colon cancer cell proliferation via NF-κB/IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and tumor angiogenesis via NF-κB/VEGF signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence to support a critical role for the CRH/CRHR1 signaling in colon cancer progression and suggest its potential utility as a new therapeutic target for colon cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Acute depletion of Tet1-dependent 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels impairs LIF/Stat3 signaling and results in loss of embryonic stem cell identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Johannes M; Ghosh, Swati; Lackford, Brad L; Yellaboina, Sailu; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Li, Ruifang; Cuddapah, Suresh; Wade, Paul A; Hu, Guang; Jothi, Raja

    2012-04-01

    The TET family of FE(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes (Tet1/2/3) promote DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which they further oxidize into 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine. Tet1 is robustly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and has been implicated in mESC maintenance. Here we demonstrate that, unlike genetic deletion, RNAi-mediated depletion of Tet1 in mESCs led to a significant reduction in 5hmC and loss of mESC identity. The differentiation phenotype due to Tet1 depletion positively correlated with the extent of 5hmC loss. Meta-analyses of genomic data sets suggested interaction between Tet1 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling. LIF signaling is known to promote self-renewal and pluripotency in mESCs partly by opposing MAPK/ERK-mediated differentiation. Withdrawal of LIF leads to differentiation of mESCs. We discovered that Tet1 depletion impaired LIF-dependent Stat3-mediated gene activation by affecting Stat3's ability to bind to its target sites on chromatin. Nanog overexpression or inhibition of MAPK/ERK signaling, both known to maintain mESCs in the absence of LIF, rescued Tet1 depletion, further supporting the dependence of LIF/Stat3 signaling on Tet1. These data support the conclusion that analysis of mESCs in the hours/days immediately following efficient Tet1 depletion reveals Tet1's normal physiological role in maintaining the pluripotent state that may be subject to homeostatic compensation in genetic models.

  14. Hypothyroidism advances mammary involution in lactating rats through inhibition of PRL signaling and induction of LIF/STAT3 mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo Verde Arboccó, Fiorella; Sasso, Corina V; Actis, Esteban A; Carón, Rubén W; Hapon, María Belén; Jahn, Graciela A

    2016-01-05

    Thyroid diseases have deleterious effects on lactation, litter growth and survival, and hinder the suckling-induced hormone release, leading in the case of hyperthyroidism, to premature mammary involution. To determine the effects of hypothyroidism (HypoT) on late lactation, we analyzed the effect of chronic 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced HypoT on mammary histology and the expression of members of the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway, milk proteins, prolactin (PRLR), estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and thyroid hormone (TR) receptors, markers of involution (such as stat3, lif, bcl2, BAX and PARP) on lactation (L) day 21. HypoT mothers showed increased histological markers of involution compared with control rats, such as adipose/epithelial ratio, inactive alveoli, picnotic nuclei and numerous detached apoptotic cells within the alveolar lumina. We also found decreased PRLR, β-casein and α-lactoalbumin mRNAs, but increased SOCS1, SOCS3, STAT3 and LIF mRNAs, suggesting a decrease in PRL signaling and induction of involution markers. Furthermore, Caspase-3 and 8 and PARP labeled cells and the expression of structural proteins such as β-Actin, α-Tubulin and Lamin B were increased, indicating the activation of apoptotic pathways and tissue remodelation. HypoT also increased PRA (mRNA and protein) and erβ and decreased erα mRNAs, and increased strongly TRα1, TRβ1, PRA and ERα protein levels. These results show that lactating HypoT rats have premature mammary involution, most probably induced by the inhibition of prolactin signaling along with the activation of the LIF-STAT3 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative Roles of STAT3 and MAPK Signaling Pathways in the MMPs Activation and Progression of Lung Injury Induced by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in ACE2 Knockout Mice.

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    Hung, Yi-Han; Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Hsieh, Jih-Sheng; Liu, Fon-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Hung; Lu, Li-Che; Huang, Chen-Yi; Wu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-mediated abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) homologue that displays antagonist effects on ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, could also play a protective role against lung diseases. However, the relationship between ACE2 and MMPs activation in lung injury is still largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether MMPs activity could be affected by ACE2 and which ACE2 derived signaling pathways could be also involved via using a mouse model with lung injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 1 to 3 weeks. Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6) and ACE2 KO mice (ACE2(-/-)) were utilized to study CS-induced lung injury. Increases in the resting respiratory rate (RRR), pulmonary immunokines, leukocyte infiltration and bronchial hyperplasia were observed in the CS-exposed mice. Compared to WT mice, more serious physiopathological changes were found in ACE2(-/-) mice in the first week of CS exposure. CS exposure increased pulmonary ACE and ACE2 activities in WT mice, and significantly increased ACE in ACE2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the activity of pulmonary MMPs was decreased in CS-exposed WT mice, whereas this activity was increased in ACE2(-/-) mice. CS exposure increased the pulmonary p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2 level in all mice. In ACE2(-/-) mice, a significant increase p-STAT3 signaling was detected; however, no effect was observed on the p-STAT3 level in WT mice. Our results support the hypothesis that ACE2 deficiency influences MMPs activation and STAT3 phosphorylation signaling to promote more pulmonary inflammation in the development of lung injury.

  16. Astrocyte calcium signalling orchestrates neuronal synchronization in organotypic hippocampal slices

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    Sasaki, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Abe, Reimi; Nakayama, Ryota; Asada, Akiko; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are thought to detect neuronal activity in the form of intracellular calcium elevations; thereby, astrocytes can regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Little is known, however, about how the astrocyte calcium signal regulates the activity of neuronal populations. In this study, we addressed this issue using functional multineuron calcium imaging in hippocampal slice cultures. Under normal conditions, CA3 neuronal networks exhibited temporally correlated activity patterns, occasionally generating large synchronization among a subset of cells. The synchronized neuronal activity was correlated with astrocyte calcium events. Calcium buffering by an intracellular injection of a calcium chelator into multiple astrocytes reduced the synaptic strength of unitary transmission between pairs of surrounding pyramidal cells and caused desynchronization of the neuronal networks. Uncaging the calcium in the astrocytes increased the frequency of neuronal synchronization. These data suggest an essential role of the astrocyte calcium signal in the maintenance of basal neuronal function at the circuit level. PMID:24710057

  17. Tissue micro array analysis of ganglioside N-glycolyl GM3 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 activation in relation to dendritic cell infiltration and microvessel density in non-small cell lung cancer

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    de Gruijl Tanja D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor immune escape and angiogenesis contribute to tumor progression, and gangliosides and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 are implicated in these processes. As both are considered as novel therapeutic targets, we assessed the possible association of ganglioside GM3 expression and STAT3 activation with suppression of dendritic cell (DC activation and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue array to determine N-glycolyl GM3 (GM3 and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3 expression in 176 primary NSCLC resections. Median values of GM3 and pSTAT3 expression were used as cut off. Microvessel density (MVD was determined by CD34 staining and morphology. CD1a and CD83 were used to determine infiltrating immature and mature dendritic cells, respectively. Results 94% and 71% of the NSCLC samples expressed GM3 and nuclear pSTAT3, respectively. Median overall survival was 40.0 months. Both low GM3 expression and high pSTAT3 expression were associated with a worse survival, which reached near significance for GM3 (P = 0.08. Microvessel density (MVD, determined by CD34 staining and morphology, was lower in NSCLC samples with high GM3 expression. CD1a+ cells (immature DCs were more frequent in NSCLC tissues as compared to peritumoral lung tissue, while CD83+ cells (mature DCs were more frequent in peritumoral lung tissue. CD83+ DCs were less frequent in NSCLC tissues with high GM3 expression. Conclusion GM3 and pSTAT3 are widely expressed in NSCLC. Based on CD83 expression, GM3, but not pSTAT3, appeared to be involved in tumor-induced DC suppression. pSTAT3 expression was not associated with MVD, while GM3 might play an anti-angiogenic role.

  18. The ROS-mediated activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced cellular senescence in nerve cells.

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    Liu, Jiao; Liu, Yun; Chen, Juan; Hu, Chunyan; Teng, Mengying; Jiao, Kailin; Shen, Zhaoxia; Zhu, Dongmei; Yue, Jia; Li, Zhong; Li, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E2. It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. However, the biological events that participate in this process remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that 27HC induced apparent cellular senescence in nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay revealed that 27HC induced senescence in both BV2 cells and PC12 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 27HC promoted the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nerve cells and subsequently activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Notably, treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly blocked 27HC-induced ROS production and activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Either blocking the generation of ROS or inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 both attenuated 27HC-induced cellular senescence. In sum, these findings not only suggested a mechanism whereby 27HC induced cellular senescence in nerve cells, but also helped to recognize the 27HC as a novel harmful factor in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Quercetin Down-regulates IL-6/STAT-3 Signals to Induce Mitochondrial-mediated Apoptosis in a Non-small-cell Lung-cancer Cell Line, A549

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    Avinaba Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but its anti-inflammatory effects, which are also closely linked with apoptosis, if any, on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC have not so far been critically examined. In this study, we tried to determine if quercetin had any demonstrable anti-inflammatory potential, which also could significantly contribute to inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line, A549. Methods: In this context, several assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and fluorimetry, were done. Gene expression was analyzed by using a western blot analysis. Results: Results revealed that quercetin could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial depolarization by causing an imbalance in B-cell lymphoma 2/Bcl2 Antagonist X (Bcl2/Bax ratio and by down-regulating the interleukine-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. An analysis of the data revealed that quercetin could block nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activity at early hours, which might cause a down-regulation of the IL-6 titer, and the IL-6 expression, in turn, could inhibit p-STAT3 expression. Down-regulation of both the STAT3 and the NF-κB expressions might, therefore, cause down-regulation of Bcl2 activity because both are major upstream effectors of Bcl2. Alteration in Bcl2 responses might result in an imbalance in the Bcl2/Bax ratio, which could ultimately bring about mitochondria mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: Overall, the finding of this study indicates that a quercetin induced anti-inflammatory pathway in A549 cells appeared to make a significant contribution towards induction of apoptosis in NSCLC and, thus, may have a therapeutic use such as a strong apoptosis inducer in cancer cells.

  20. Hypoxia Downregulates MAPK/ERK but Not STAT3 Signaling in ROS-Dependent and HIF-1-Independent Manners in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Jan Kučera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is involved in the regulation of stem cell fate, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is the master regulator of hypoxic response. Here, we focus on the effect of hypoxia on intracellular signaling pathways responsible for mouse embryonic stem (ES cell maintenance. We employed wild-type and HIF-1α-deficient ES cells to investigate hypoxic response in the ERK, Akt, and STAT3 pathways. Cultivation in 1% O2 for 24 h resulted in the strong dephosphorylation of ERK and its upstream kinases and to a lesser extent of Akt in an HIF-1-independent manner, while STAT3 phosphorylation remained unaffected. Downregulation of ERK could not be mimicked either by pharmacologically induced hypoxia or by the overexpression. Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSP 1, 5, and 6 are hypoxia-sensitive MAPK-specific phosphatases involved in ERK downregulation, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A regulates both ERK and Akt. However, combining multiple approaches, we revealed the limited significance of DUSPs and PP2A in the hypoxia-mediated attenuation of ERK signaling. Interestingly, we observed a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS level in hypoxia and a similar phosphorylation pattern for ERK when the cells were supplemented with glutathione. Therefore, we suggest a potential role for the ROS-dependent attenuation of ERK signaling in hypoxia, without the involvement of HIF-1.

  1. Human IL6 stimulates bovine satellite cell proliferation through a Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent mechanism.

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    Brandt, A M; Kania, J M; Reinholt, B M; Johnson, S E

    2018-01-01

    Bovine satellite cell (bSC) myogenesis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur through the orchestrated actions of multiple autocrine and paracrine growth factors. Intimate to the bSC niche is IL6, a dual-purpose cytokine with proinflammatory and mitogenic properties. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of IL6 on proliferation and differentiation of bSC in vitro. Treatment of primary bSC cultures with recombinant bovine IL6 (bIL6) failed to alter myogenesis owing to the absence of intracellular signal transduction. The cytokine was able to stimulate phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 tyrosine 705 (STAT3Y705) in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, thus demonstrating bioactivity. Media supplemented with recombinant human IL6 (hIL6) caused phosphorylation of STAT3Y705 in bSC and increased (P bSC proliferation. Morphologic and biochemical measures of bSC differentiation remained unchanged (P > 0.05) following treatment for 48 h with hIL6. These results support a role for hIL6 as a bSC mitogen in vitro. The inability of bIL6 to initiate an intracellular signal in bSC requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Piperine (PP) enhanced mitomycin-C (MMC) therapy of human cervical cancer through suppressing Bcl-2 signaling pathway via inactivating STAT3/NF-κB.

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    Han, Shu-Zhai; Liu, Hong-Xia; Yang, Lin-Qing; Cui, Li-de; Xu, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Piperine (PP), an alkaloid from black and long peppers (Piper nigrum Linn &Piper longum Linn), exhibits antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the ability of piperine (PP) to reverse the drug resistance of human cervical cancer cells. In our study, the cervica cancer cells resistant to mitomycin-C (MMC) treatment were used. We found the growth inhibitory effects of piperine on human cervical cancer cell, which were resistant to MMC. Piperine and MMC co-treatment resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of the cell proliferation. Decreasing of phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT3) was linked to the suppression of p65 by PP and MMC combinational treatment. Additionally, the presence of PP potentiated the effects of MMC on apoptosis induction in cervical cancer cells with drug resistance, which was dependent on Bcl-2 inhibition. The pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and Bid were up-regulated, accompanied with Caspase cleavage. Moreover, in mice xenograft models, the combined therapy inhibited tumor growth compared to the PP or MMC mono-therapy group. Our data indicated a novel therapeutic strategy of PP to potentiate MMC-induced anti-tumor effect on cervical cancer cells with drug resistance through blocking p-STAT3/p65 and Bcl-2 activation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. miRNA-21 inhibition enhances RANTES and IP-10 release in MCF-7 via PIAS3 and STAT3 signalling and causes increased lymphocyte migration.

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    Wang, Zhiyu; Han, Jinxiang; Cui, Yazhou; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fan, Kaixi

    2013-09-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small endogenous gene regulators that have been implicated in various developmental and pathological processes. However, the precise identities and functions of miRNAs involved in antitumor immunity are not yet well understood. miRNA-21 is an oncogenic miRNA that can be detected in various tumours. In this study, we report that a miRNA-21 inhibitor enhances the release of chemoattractants RANTES and IP-10 in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and results in increased lymphocyte migration. Thus, miRNA-21 is a potential therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. We further demonstrated that PIAS3, a protein inhibitor of activated STAT3, is a target of miRNA-21 in MCF-7. Thus, miRNA-21 is a novel miRNA regulating immune cell recruitment, which acts at least in part via its inhibition of PIAS3 expression and oncogenic STAT3 signalling in tumour cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stat3 mediates expression of autotaxin in breast cancer.

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    Janeen Azare

    Full Text Available We determined that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 is tyrosine phosphorylated in 37% of primary breast tumors and 63% of paired metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Examination of the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated (pStat3 in primary tumors revealed heterogenous expression within the tumor with the highest levels found in cells on the edge of tumors with relatively lower levels in the central portion of tumors. In order to determine Stat3 target genes that may be involved in migration and metastasis, we identified those genes that were differentially expressed in primary breast cancer samples as a function of pStat3 levels. In addition to known Stat3 transcriptional targets (Twist, Snail, Tenascin-C and IL-8, we identified ENPP2 as a novel Stat3 regulated gene, which encodes autotaxin (ATX, a secreted lysophospholipase which mediates mammary tumorigenesis and cancer cell migration. A positive correlation between nuclear pStat3 and ATX was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of primary breast cancer samples and matched axillary lymph nodes and in several breast cancer derived cell lines. Inhibition of pStat3 or reducing Stat3 expression led to a decrease in ATX levels and cell migration. An association between Stat3 and the ATX promoter, which contains a number of putative Stat3 binding sites, was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These observations suggest that activated Stat3 may regulate the migration of breast cancer cells through the regulation of ATX.

  5. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camporeale, Annalisa, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Demaria, Marco [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Monteleone, Emanuele [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Giorgi, Carlotta [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Wieckowski, Mariusz R. [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Pasteur Str. 3, Warsaw 02-093 (Poland); Pinton, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Poli, Valeria, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3{sup C/C}) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms.

  6. Artocarpus altilis CG-901 alters critical nodes in the JH1-kinase domain of Janus kinase 2 affecting upstream JAK/STAT3 signaling.

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    Nash, Oyekanmi; Omotuyi, Olaposi; Lee, Joonku; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Ogbadu, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    As a key step in achieving low-cost, easily accessible anti-cancer therapy for low- and middle-income countries, we recently established the scientific basis for the folkloric use of Artocarpus altilis for the treatment of cancer by investigating the geranyl dihydrochalcone (CG-901) content and its interference with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and blockage of further downstream signaling. In the current study, the CG-901 upstream target was queried by chemical fingerprinting similarity assessment, semi-empirical (PM6ESCF) QMMM and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Moderate (∼0.4) to high (∼0.7) Tanimoto scores were found when the CG-901 scaffold was compared to ligands co-crystallized with Janus kinases (JAK) 1-3. High negative energy values were obtained when the CG-901 was treated semi-empirically (PM6ESCF) within the classical field of JAK (1-3). Multiple nanosecond MD simulations showed that CG-901 did not cause any large structural perturbations in the nucleotide-binding, activation and catalytic loops within the kinase (JH1) domain of JAK (1-3); however, it reduced the energy required to attain metastability along the path to energy minima conformation. In comparison to JAK1 and Apo-state JAK2, JAK2-bound CG-901 exhibited a highly re-organized key intra-domain protein network; indicating atomic level interference with inter-residue communication. In conclusion, CG-901 isolated from A. altilis represents a broad-spectrum JAK inhibitor, which may underlie the mechanism of STAT3 phosphorylation blockage. Graphical abstract Upper panel Janus kinase 2 upstream signaling pathway. Lower panel Apo-JAK2 (left) and CG-901-bound JAK2 (right).

  7. Intracerebroventricular tempol administration in older rats reduces oxidative stress in the hypothalamus but does not change STAT3 signalling or SIRT1/AMPK pathway.

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    Toklu, Hale Z; Scarpace, Philip J; Sakarya, Yasemin; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Matheny, Michael; Bruce, Erin B; Carter, Christy S; Morgan, Drake; Tümer, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation and increased oxidative stress are believed to be mechanisms that contribute to obesity. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (tempol), a free radical scavenger, has been shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. We hypothesized that brain infusion of tempol would reduce oxidative stress, and thus would reduce food intake and body weight and improve body composition in rats with age-related obesity and known elevated oxidative stress. Furthermore, we predicted an associated increase in markers of leptin signalling, including the silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1)/5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. For this purpose, osmotic minipumps were placed in the intracerebroventricular region of young (3 months) and aged (23 months) male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats for the continuous infusion of tempol or vehicle for 2 weeks. Tempol significantly decreased (p hypothalamus but failed to reduce food intake or weight gain and did not alter body composition. SIRT1 activity and Acetyl p53 were decreased and phosphorylation of AMPK was increased with age, but they were unchanged with tempol. Basal phosphorylation of STAT3 was unchanged with age or tempol. These results indicate that tempol decreases oxidative stress but fails to alter feeding behaviour, body weight, or body composition. Moreover, tempol does not modulate the SIRT1/AMPK/p53 pathway and does not change leptin signalling. Thus, a reduction in hypothalamic oxidative stress is not sufficient to reverse age-related obesity.

  8. Leptin promotes human endometriotic cell migration and invasion by up-regulating MMP-2 through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Choi, Youn Seok; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-10-01

    Despite evidence that leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, the specific function of leptin in the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on the migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression levels of human endometriotic cells. We found that leptin stimulated the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells (11Z, 12Z and 22B) in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin receptor (ObR) siRNA significantly inhibited the migration and invasion induced by leptin in 11Z and 12Z cells. Leptin-induced migration and invasion were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SB-3CT, a specific gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) inhibitor. In addition, leptin-induced increases in the mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2 in 11Z and 12Z cells. Selectively inhibiting MMP-2 using siRNA and an inhibitor (GM6003), impaired the ability of leptin to stimulate the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells, suggesting that MMP-2 plays an essential role in leptin-induced migration and invasion. Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) inhibitor (AG490) significantly inhibited the migration, invasion and MMP-2 expression induced by leptin in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase inhibitor PD98059 neutralized the migration and invasion promoting effects of leptin. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin may contribute to the migration and invasion abilities of endometriotic cells via the up-regulation of MMP-2 through an ObR-dependent JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prognostic significance of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 in human soft tissue tumors - a clinicopathological analysis

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    Nair Asha S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is a key signaling molecule and a central cytoplasmic transcription factor, implicated in the regulation of growth. Its aberrant activation has been demonstrated to correlate with many types of human malignancy. However, whether constitutive STAT3 signaling plays a key role in the survival and growth of soft-tissue tumors is still unclear and hence needs to be elucidated further. In our study we examined the expression levels of STAT3 and pSTAT3 in different grades of soft tissue tumors and correlated with its clinicopathological characteristics. Methods Expression levels of STAT3 and pSTAT3 in soft tissue tumors were studied using Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and Reverse transcriptase- PCR and correlated with its clinicopathological characteristics using Chi squared or Fisher's exact test and by logistic regression analysis. Statistical analysis was done using Intercooled Stata software (Intercooled Stata 8.2 version. Results Of the 82 soft tissue tumor samples, fifty four (65.8% showed immunoreactivity for STAT3 and twenty eight (34.1% for pSTAT3. Expression of STAT3 and pSTAT3 was significantly associated with tumor grade (P Conclusion These findings suggest that constitutive activation of STAT3 is an important factor related to carcinogenesis of human soft tissue tumors and is significantly associated with its clinicopathological parameters which may possibly have potential diagnostic implications.

  10. Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Class I HDAC Inhibitor, Mocetinostat Is Associated with IL-6/Stat3 Signaling in Ischemic Heart Failure

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    Hikmet Nural-Guvener

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have linked histone deacetylases (HDAC to remodeling of the heart and cardiac fibrosis in heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms linking chromatin remodeling events with observed anti-fibrotic effects are unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular players involved in anti-fibrotic effects of HDAC inhibition in congestive heart failure (CHF myocardium and cardiac fibroblasts in vivo. Methods and Results: MI was created by coronary artery occlusion. Class I HDACs were inhibited in three-week post MI rats by intraperitoneal injection of Mocetinostat (20 mg/kg/day for duration of three weeks. Cardiac function and heart tissue were analyzed at six week post-MI. CD90+ cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from ventricles through enzymatic digestion of heart. In vivo treatment of CHF animals with Mocetinostat reduced CHF-dependent up-regulation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in CHF myocardium, improved cardiac function and decreased scar size and total collagen amount. Moreover, expression of pro-fibrotic markers, collagen-1, fibronectin and Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF were reduced in the left ventricle (LV of Mocetinostat-treated CHF hearts. Cardiac fibroblasts isolated from Mocetinostat-treated CHF ventricles showed a decrease in expression of collagen I and III, fibronectin and Timp1. In addition, Mocetinostat attenuated CHF-induced elevation of IL-6 levels in CHF myocardium and cardiac fibroblasts. In parallel, levels of pSTAT3 were reduced via Mocetinostat in CHF myocardium. Conclusions: Anti-fibrotic effects of Mocetinostat in CHF are associated with the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. In addition, our study demonstrates in vivo regulation of cardiac fibroblasts via HDAC inhibition.

  11. Epigallocatechin gallate sensitizes cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy through stimulating AKT/STAT3 pathway and suppressing multidrug resistance 1 signaling.

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    Yuan, Chien-Han; Horng, Chi-Ting; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Chiang, Ni-Na; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Fu-An

    2017-03-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea polyphenol that presents anticancer activities in multiple cancer cells, but no available report was addressed for the underling molecular mechanism of cytotoxic impacts on drug-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG were experienced on cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cells. EGCG inhibited cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. EGCG induced CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye, acridine orange (AO) staining and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged LC3B assay, respectively. EGCG also significantly enhanced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities by caspase activity assay. EGCG markedly increased the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin-1, and LC3B-II, as well as significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2, phosphorylated AKT (Ser473) and phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 by western blotting in CAR cells. Importantly, the protein and gene expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) were dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG. Overall, downregulation of MDR1 levels and alterations of AKT/STAT3 signaling contributed to EGCG-induced apoptosis and autophagy in CAR cells. Based on these results, EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 845-855, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Loss of P53 Function Activates JAK2-STAT3 Signaling to Promote Pancreatic Tumor Growth, Stroma Modification, and Gemcitabine Resistance in Mice and Is Associated With Patient Survival.

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    Wörmann, Sonja M; Song, Liang; Ai, Jiaoyu; Diakopoulos, Kalliope N; Kurkowski, Magdalena U; Görgülü, Kivanc; Ruess, Dietrich; Campbell, Andrew; Doglioni, Claudio; Jodrell, Duncan; Neesse, Albrecht; Demir, Ihsan E; Karpathaki, Angelica-Phaedra; Barenboim, Maxim; Hagemann, Thorsten; Rose-John, Stefan; Sansom, Owen; Schmid, Roland M; Protti, Maria P; Lesina, Marina; Algül, Hana

    2016-07-01

    One treatment strategy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is to modify, rather than deplete, the tumor stroma. Constitutive activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is associated with progression of pancreatic and other solid tumors. We investigated whether loss of P53 function contributes to persistent activation of STAT3 and modification of the pancreatic tumor stroma in patients and mice. Stat3, Il6st (encodes gp130), or Trp53 were disrupted, or a mutant form of P53 (P53R172H) or transgenic sgp130 were expressed, in mice that developed pancreatic tumors resulting from expression of activated KRAS (KrasG12D, KC mice). Pancreata were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), or immunoblot assays; fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed to identify immune cells. We obtained frozen pancreatic tumor specimens from patients and measured levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and P53 by immunohistochemistry; protein levels were associated with survival using Kaplan-Meier analyses. We measured levels of STAT3, P53, ligands for gp130, interleukin 6, cytokines, sonic hedgehog signaling, STAT3 phosphorylation (activation), and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in primary pancreatic cells from mice. Mice with pancreatic tumors were given gemcitabine and a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor; tumor growth was monitored by 3-dimensional ultrasound. STAT3 was phosphorylated constitutively in pancreatic tumor cells from KC mice with loss or mutation of P53. Tumor cells of these mice accumulated reactive oxygen species and had lower activity of the phosphatase SHP2 and prolonged phosphorylation of JAK2 compared with tumors from KC mice with functional P53. These processes did not require the gp130 receptor. Genetic disruption of Stat3 in mice, or pharmacologic inhibitors of JAK2 or STAT3 activation, reduced fibrosis and the numbers of

  13. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces astrocytoma cell invasion and constitutive activation of STAT3 predicts poor prognosis in human astrocytoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinchuan Liang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines (U251 and U87, and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell's adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthermore, pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3(Tyr705could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis.

  14. Leptin induces the apoptosis of chondrocytes in an in vitro model of osteoarthritis via the JAK2‑STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi Ming; Shen, Chao; Li, Hai; Fan, Qing; Ding, Jing; Jin, Fang Chun; Sha, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Emerging data has suggested a high prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) among obese people. As an important adipokine secreted by white adipose tissue, leptin may be a key mediator in the progression of OA. Leptin exerts a catabolic effect on OA cartilage by increasing the production of metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes, and contributes to apoptosis in chondrocytes. The current study aimed to explore the role of leptin on the apoptosis of chondrocytes in OA, and its underlying mechanisms. In the in vitro model of OA used in the present study, administration of exogenous leptin induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in chondrocytes. It has been demonstrated that leptin is associated with the pathogenesis of OA via the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)‑signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, and data gathered in the present study demonstrated that suppression of this signaling pathway using a JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, significantly ameliorated leptin‑induced apoptosis in damaged chondrocytes in vitro, and reduced the generation of ROS. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of MMP‑13 and B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein were downregulated in the AG490‑treated group. The results of the present study may provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism by which leptin induces apoptosis in chondrocytes. These findings indicated the importance of leptin as a therapeutic target for the treatment of OA in the overweight population.

  15. STAT3 mutations correlated with hyper-IgE syndrome lead to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using STAT3-null human colon carcinoma cell line A4 cells, we generated seven mutants of STAT3 bearing single mutations clinically identified in AD-HIES patients' cells and studied the functional loss of these mutants in IL-6-Jak/STAT3 signalling pathway. Our results show that five STAT3 mutants bearing mutations in the ...

  16. Mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and diagnostic guidelines for the Hyper-IgE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellner, Cristina; Gertz, E. Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Lagos, Macarena; Perro, Mario; Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Pietrogrande, Maria C.; Cossu, Fausto; Franco, José L.; Matamoros, Nuria; Pietrucha, Barbara; Heropolitańska-Pliszka, Edyta; Yeganeh, Mehdi; Moin, Mostafa; Español, Teresa; Ehl, Stephan; Gennery, Andrew R.; Abinun, Mario; Bręborowicz, Anna; Niehues, Tim; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Junker, Anne; Turvey, Stuart E.; Plebani, Alessandro; Sánchez, Berta; Garty, Ben-Zion; Pignata, Claudio; Cancrini, Caterina; Litzman, Jiri; Sanal, Özden; Baumann, Ulrich; Bacchetta, Rosa; Hsu, Amy P.; Davis, Joie N.; Hammarström, Lennart; Davies, E. Graham; Eren, Efrem; Arkwright, Peter D.; Moilanen, Jukka S.; Viemann, Dorothee; Khan, Sujoy; Maródi, László; Cant, Andrew J.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Holland, Steven M.; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    Background The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections of the lung and skin, elevated serum IgE, and involvement of the soft and tissues. Recently, HIES has been associated with heterozygous dominant-negative mutations in STAT3 and severe reductions of Th17 cells. Objective To determine whether there is a correlation between the genotype and phenotype of HIES patients and to establish diagnostic criteria to distinguish between STAT3 mutated and STAT3 wild-type patients. Methods We collected clinical data, determined Th17 cell numbers, and sequenced STAT3 100 patients with a strong clinical suspicion of HIES and serum IgE >1000 IU/mL. explored diagnostic criteria by using a machine-learning approach to identify which features best predict a STAT3 mutation. Results In 64 patients we identified 31 different STAT3 mutations, 18 of which are novel. These included mutations at splice sites and outside the previously implicated DNA-binding and SH2 domains. A combination of five clinical features predicted STAT3 mutations with 85% accuracy. Th17 cells were profoundly reduced in patients harboring STAT3 mutations, while 10 out of 13 patients without mutations had low (1000 IU/mL plus a weighted score of clinical features >30 based on recurrent pneumonia, newborn rash, pathologic bone fractures, characteristic face, and high palate. Probable: Above plus lack of Th17 cells or a family history for definitive HIES. Definitive: Above plus a dominant-negative heterozygous mutation in STAT3. PMID:20159255

  17. Altered gp130 signalling ameliorates experimental colitis via myeloid cell-specific STAT3 activation and myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Däbritz, Jan; Judd, Louise M.; Chalinor, Heather V.; Menheniott, Trevelyan R.; Giraud, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    STAT3 regulates the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) during inflammation, infection and cancer. Hyperactivation of STAT3 in gp130757F/F mice is associated with protection from experimental colitis. This study determined mechanisms for this protection and compared this to mice with myeloid-specific STAT3-deficiency (LysMcre/STAT3flox; gp130757F/F LysMcre/STAT3flox). Acute and chronic colitis was induced and colons were removed for histological, mRNA and protein analysis. Cell populations from spleen, mesenteric lymph node and colon were analyzed for different myeloid cell populations using flow cytometry. Functions of MDSCs and LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were further characterized by in vitro and in vivo assays. Here we show that the resistance to experimental colitis in gp130757F/F mice is via myeloid-cell specific STAT3 activation, MDSC expansion and increased production of suppressive and protective cytokines. PMID:26848037

  18. Phase I and biomarker study of OPB-51602, a novel signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A L; Soo, R A; Tan, D S; Lee, S C; Lim, J S; Marban, P C; Kong, L R; Lee, Y J; Wang, L Z; Thuya, W L; Soong, R; Yee, M Q; Chin, T M; Cordero, M T; Asuncion, B R; Pang, B; Pervaiz, S; Hirpara, J L; Sinha, A; Xu, W W; Yuasa, M; Tsunoda, T; Motoyama, M; Yamauchi, T; Goh, B C

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of OPB-51602, an oral, direct signal transduction activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid tumors. Three cohorts were studied: cohort A, a sequential dose escalation of OPB-51602 administered intermittently (days 1-14 every 21 days); cohort B, an expansion cohort evaluating the dose lower than the MTD; cohort C, evaluating continuous daily dosing. Fifty-one patients were studied at 2, 4, and 5 mg per day dosing. The MTD was 5 mg; first-cycle dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were grade 3 hyponatremia in one patient, and grade 3 dehydration in another. Intermittent dosing of both 2 and 4 mg doses were tolerable, and the recommended phase II dose was 4 mg. Cohort B investigated 4 mg intermittently, whereas cohort C investigated 4 mg continuously. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. Drug-induced pneumonitis occurred in two patients in cohort C. Continuous dosing was associated with a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy and a lower mean relative dose intensity, compared with intermittent dosing. Steady-state pharmacokinetics was characterized by high oral clearance, mean elimination half-life ranging from 44 to 61 h, and a large terminal-phase volume of distribution. An active metabolite, OPB-51822, accumulated to a greater extent than OPB-51602. Flow cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated pSTAT3 (Tyr(705)) inhibition following exposure. Two patients achieved partial responses at 5 mg intermittently and 4 mg continuously; both had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with prior EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor exposure. OPB-51602 demonstrates promising antitumor activity, particularly in NSCLC. Its long half-life and poorer tolerability of continuous dosing

  19. Protective Function of STAT3 in CVB3-Induced Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lindner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an important mediator of the inflammatory process. We investigated the role of STAT3 in viral myocarditis and its possible role in the development to dilated cardiomyopathy. We used STAT3-deficent mice with a cardiomyocyte-restricted knockout and induced a viral myocarditis using Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 which induced a severe inflammation during the acute phase of the viral myocarditis. A complete virus clearance and an attenuated inflammation were examined in both groups WT and STAT3 KO mice 4 weeks after infection, but the cardiac function in STAT3 KO mice was significantly decreased in contrast to the infected WT mice. Interestingly, an increased expression of collagen I was detected in STAT3 KO mice compared to WT mice 4 weeks after CVB3 infection. Furthermore, the matrix degradation was reduced in STAT3 KO mice which might be an explanation for the observed matrix deposition. Consequently, we here demonstrate the protective function of STAT3 in CVB3-induced myocarditis. Since the cardiomyocyte-restricted knockout leads to an increased fibrosis, it can be assumed that STAT3 signalling in cardiomyocytes protects the heart against increased fibrosis through paracrine effects.

  20. Regulatory effect of calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, on IL-6/sIL-6R-mediated RANKL expression through JAK2-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway in fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated whether the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) through regulation of IL-6/Janus activated kinase (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) signaling. Methods The expression of RANKL, JAK2, STAT3, and SOCS3 proteins was assessed by western blot analysis, real-time PCR and ELISA in IL-6 combined with soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R)-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-FLS with or without tacrolimus treatment. The effects of tacrolimus on synovial inflammation and bone erosion were assessed using mice with arthritis induced by K/BxN serum. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to identify the effect of tacrolimus on RANKL and SOCS3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining assay was performed to assess the effect of tacrolimus on osteoclast differentiation. Results We found that RANKL expression in RA FLS is regulated by the IL-6/sIL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway. Inhibitory effects of tacrolimus on RANKL expression in a serum-induced arthritis mice model were identified. Tacrolimus inhibits RANKL expression in IL-6/sIL-6R-stimulated FLS by suppressing STAT3. Among negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway, such as CIS1, SOCS1, and SOCS3, only SOCS3 is significantly induced by tacrolimus. As compared to dexamethasone and methotrexate, tacrolimus more potently suppresses RANKL expression in FLS. By up-regulating SOCS3, tacrolimus down-regulates activation of the JAK-STAT pathway by IL-6/sIL-6R trans-signaling, thus decreasing RANKL expression in FLS. Conclusions These data suggest that tacrolimus might affect the RANKL expression in IL-6 stimulated FLS through STAT3 suppression, together with up-regulation of SOCS3. PMID:23406906

  1. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Ling, Min [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Liang, Xiao [Mental Health Center of Xuhui-CDC, Shanghai 200232 (China); Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Bian, Qian [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  2. Sevoflurane Inhibits Glutamate-Aspartate Transporter and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression in Hippocampal Astrocytes of Neonatal Rats Through the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Rui; Feng, Da-Yun; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying general anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity are unclear. Astrocytes have been recognized as important contributors to neuronal development. Until now, the response of the astrocytes to neonatal general anesthetic exposure has been unreported. Postnatal day 7 rats received 2.5% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and phosphorylation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway were detected on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after sevoflurane inhalation. In addition, cultured astrocytes were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 hours and GFAP, GLAST expressions, and JAK/STAT phosphorylation were evaluated. Furthermore, we pharmacologically disrupted JAK/STAT signaling in vivo by treatment with the JAK/STAT inhibitor AG490 and in vitro by treatment with JAK inhibitor I to detect the consequent expression of GFAP and GLAST. Sevoflurane induced a robust decrease of GFAP and GLAST expression in hippocampal tissue compared with sham control groups at 1 to 14 days after sevoflurane exposure. Immunohistochemistry showed colocalization of GFAP, GLAST, and pSTAT3 in the hippocampal CA1 region. Western blot analysis also revealed a significant decrease of pJAK1, pJAK2, and pSTAT3 in the sevoflurane group. In vitro study showed that GFAP, GLAST, pJAK1, pJAK2, and pSTAT3 expressions in cultured astrocytes were remarkably decreased at 24 to 48 hours after sevoflurane treatment. Either AG490 or JAK inhibitor I significantly decreased expressions of GFAP and GLAST in hippocampus or cultured astrocytes. Astrocytic GLAST was inhibited by sevoflurane in the hippocampus of neonatal rats. Inactivation of the JAK/STAT pathway possibly contributes to this effect of sevoflurane. Astrocytic dysfunction induced by sevoflurane may contribute to its neurotoxicity in the developing brain.

  3. Extracellular Electrophysiological Measurements of Cooperative Signals in Astrocytes Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Ana L. G.; Inácio, Pedro M. C.; Elamine, Youssef; Asgarifar, Sanaz; Lourenço, Ana S.; Cristiano, Maria L. S.; Aguiar, Paulo; Medeiros, Maria C. R.; Araújo, Inês M.; Ventura, João; Gomes, Henrique L.

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes are neuroglial cells that exhibit functional electrical properties sensitive to neuronal activity and capable of modulating neurotransmission. Thus, electrophysiological recordings of astroglial activity are very attractive to study the dynamics of glial signaling. This contribution reports on the use of ultra-sensitive planar electrodes combined with low noise and low frequency amplifiers that enable the detection of extracellular signals produced by primary cultures of astrocytes isolated from mouse cerebral cortex. Recorded activity is characterized by spontaneous bursts comprised of discrete signals with pronounced changes on the signal rate and amplitude. Weak and sporadic signals become synchronized and evolve with time to higher amplitude signals with a quasi-periodic behavior, revealing a cooperative signaling process. The methodology presented herewith enables the study of ionic fluctuations of population of cells, complementing the single cells observation by calcium imaging as well as by patch-clamp techniques. PMID:29109679

  4. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungjun [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Ryoung, E-mail: msong@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Bioimaging Research Center and Cell Dynamics Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  5. NT2 derived neuronal and astrocytic network signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Hill

    Full Text Available A major focus of stem cell research is the generation of neurons that may then be implanted to treat neurodegenerative diseases. However, a picture is emerging where astrocytes are partners to neurons in sustaining and modulating brain function. We therefore investigated the functional properties of NT2 derived astrocytes and neurons using electrophysiological and calcium imaging approaches. NT2 neurons (NT2Ns expressed sodium dependent action potentials, as well as responses to depolarisation and the neurotransmitter glutamate. NT2Ns exhibited spontaneous and coordinated calcium elevations in clusters and in extended processes, indicating local and long distance signalling. Tetrodotoxin sensitive network activity could also be evoked by electrical stimulation. Similarly, NT2 astrocytes (NT2As exhibited morphology and functional properties consistent with this glial cell type. NT2As responded to neuronal activity and to exogenously applied neurotransmitters with calcium elevations, and in contrast to neurons, also exhibited spontaneous rhythmic calcium oscillations. NT2As also generated propagating calcium waves that were gap junction and purinergic signalling dependent. Our results show that NT2 derived astrocytes exhibit appropriate functionality and that NT2N networks interact with NT2A networks in co-culture. These findings underline the utility of such cultures to investigate human brain cell type signalling under controlled conditions. Furthermore, since stem cell derived neuron function and survival is of great importance therapeutically, our findings suggest that the presence of complementary astrocytes may be valuable in supporting stem cell derived neuronal networks. Indeed, this also supports the intriguing possibility of selective therapeutic replacement of astrocytes in diseases where these cells are either lost or lose functionality.

  6. STAT3 Activation in Glioblastoma: Biochemical and Therapeutic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jennifer E.; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Jackson, Christopher M.; Lim, Michael, E-mail: mlim3@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., Phipps Building Rm 123, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a potent regulator of gliomagenesis through its induction of angiogenesis, host immunosuppression, and tumor invasion. Gain of function mutations result in constitutive activation of STAT3 in glioma cells, making STAT3 an attractive target for inhibition in cancer therapy. Nevertheless, some studies show that STAT3 also participates in terminal differentiation and apoptosis of various cell lines and in glioma with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient genetic backgrounds. In light of these findings, the utility of STAT3 as a prognostic indicator and as a target of drug therapies will be contingent on a more nuanced understanding of its pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects.

  7. Genetic Interactions of STAT3 and Anticancer Drug Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Bingliang [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors.

  8. Photodynamic therapy activated signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor and STAT3: Targeting survival pathways to increase PDT efficacy in ovarian and lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Christine; Hagan, Sarah; Gallagher-Colombo, Shannon M.; Busch, Theresa M.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serosal (pleural or peritoneal) spread of malignancy have few definitive treatment options and consequently have a very poor prognosis. We have previously shown that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be an effective treatment for these patients, but that the therapeutic index is relatively narrow. Here, we test the hypothesis that EGFR and STAT3 activation increase survival following PDT, and that inhibiting these pathways leads to increased PDT-mediated direct cellular cytotoxicit...

  9. In Vivo Induction of Apoptosis by Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid, Associated with Down-Regulating STAT3/EGFR Signaling in Sarcoma 180 (S180 Xenografts-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Cao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous in vitro researches have showed that fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid isolated from sargassum, can inhibit proliferation or induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma, hepatoma, leukemia, colon carcinoma, prostate cancer or urinary bladder cancer cells. But the precise mechanism by which fucoxanthin exerts anticarcinogenic effects is not yet fully understood. In this study, we performed an in vivo study to investigate the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of fucoxanthin on xenografted sarcoma 180 (S180 in mice. Results revealed that fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the growth of sarcoma at the dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. TUNEL analysis showed that the number of positive cells in the fucoxanthin-treated group was higher than that in the control group. Western blotting analysis also revealed the suppressed expression of bcl-2 and enhanced expression of cleaved caspase-3 by fucoxanthin. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blotting analysis showed that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the expressions of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Most importantly, fucoxanthin inhibited the expressions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. These results indicated that in vivo induction of apoptosis by fucoxanthin is associated with down-regulating STAT3/EGFR signaling in S180 xenografts-bearing mice.

  10. Targeting Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription-3 (Stat3) As a Novel Strategy In Sensitizing Breast Cancer To Egfr-Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    4, 5). (iv) Iressa-treated breast cancer cells and clinical specimens displayed insufficient suppression of STAT3 activity despite with complete... kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection. CHO-NEO, CHO-EGFR, and CHO-EGFR-NLS stable cells were derived from...were washed twice with dialysis buffer [2 mmol/L EDTA, 50 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 8.0)]and four times with immunoprecip- itation wash buffer [0.5 mol/L

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates STAT3 and androgen receptor activation through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷ on STAT3 in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fu-Ning; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Peng, Yu-Ting; Li, Pei-Chi; Lin, Eugene; Chiang, Ming-Ching; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Lin, Ho

    2013-10-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is known to regulate prostate cancer metastasis. Our previous results indicated that Cdk5 activates androgen receptor (AR) and supports prostate cancer growth. We also found that STAT3 is a target of Cdk5 in promoting thyroid cancer cell growth, whereas STAT3 may play a role as a regulator to AR activation under cytokine control. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Cdk5 and its activator p35 on STAT3/AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our results show that Cdk5 biochemically interacts with STAT3 and that this interaction depends on Cdk5 activation in prostate cancer cells. The phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser⁷²⁷ (p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3) is regulated by Cdk5 in cells and xenograft tumors. The mutant of STAT3 S727A reduces its interaction with Cdk5. We further show that the nuclear distribution of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes (junB, c-fos, c-myc, and survivin) are regulated by Cdk5 activation. STAT3 mutant does not further decrease cell proliferation upon Cdk5 inhibition, which implies that the role of STAT3 regulated by Cdk5 correlates to cell proliferation control. Interestingly, Cdk5 may regulate the interaction between STAT3 and AR through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and therefore upregulate AR protein stability and transactivation. Correspondingly, clinical evidence shows that the level of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 is significantly correlated with Gleason score and the levels of upstream regulators (Cdk5 and p35) as well as downstream protein (AR). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cdk5 regulates STAT3 activation through Ser⁷²⁷ phosphorylation and further promotes AR activation by protein-protein interaction in prostate cancer cells.

  12. Advanced glycation end products induced IL-6 and VEGF-A production and apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells by activating RAGE and ERK1/2, P38 and STAT3 signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Helin; Liu, Wenjia; Wu, Xiangnan; Gou, Min; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2017-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in osteopenia in people with diabetes and the elderly. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) are potent regulators of bone metabolism, and in bone tissue, osteocytes are an important source of these regulators. However, whether AGEs can directly regulate IL-6 and VEGF-A secretion by osteocytes is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of AGEs on IL-6 and VEGF- A production as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. We also studied the involvement of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), P38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling pathways. We found that 100μg/ml AGEs significantly induced apoptosis and up-regulated the expression of IL-6 and VEGF-A in MLO-Y4 cells. Additionally, AGEs significantly activated the ERK1/2, P38 and STAT3 signalling pathways. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126, the P38 inhibitor SB239063 and the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 all attenuated the effects of AGEs on MLO-Y4 cell apoptosis and IL-6 and VEGF-A secretion. Moreover, activation of the three signalling pathways was abolished by their respective inhibitors. Additionally, the AGEs-induced effects, including increased apoptosis, up-regulated expression of IL-6 and VEGF-A and activation of the three signalling pathways, were all abolished by pre-treating the osteocytes with the RAGE antagonist FPS-ZM1. Together, these data convince us that AGEs can activate the ERK1/2, P38 and STAT3 signalling pathways via RAGE and that their activation involves the AGEs-induced up-regulation of IL-6 and VEGF-A production as well as apoptosis in osteocytes. These results highlight the role of osteocytes in the regulation of bone metabolism by AGEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...... in astrocytic-neuronal networks. We reproduce local and global dynamical patterns observed experimentally....

  14. Hyperactivated Stat3 boosts axon regeneration in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saloni T; Luo, Xueting; Park, Kevin K; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2016-06-01

    Axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is intrinsically and extrinsically inhibited by multiple factors. One major factor contributing to intrinsic regeneration failure is the inability of mature neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) to activate regeneration-associated transcription factors (TFs) post-injury. A prior study identified TFs overexpressed in neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) compared to the CNS; some of these could be involved in the ability of PNS neurons to regenerate. Of these, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as well its downstream regeneration-associated targets, showed a significant upregulation in PNS neurons relative to CNS neurons, and a constitutively active variant of Stat3 (Stat3CA) promoted neurite growth when expressed in cerebellar neurons (Lerch et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2011). To further enhance STAT3's neurite outgrowth enhancing activity, Stat3CA was fused with a viral activation domain (VP16). VP16 hyperactivates TFs by recruiting transcriptional co-factors to the DNA binding domain (Hirai et al., 2010). Overexpression of this VP16-Stat3CA chimera in primary cortical neurons led to a significant increase of neurite outgrowth as well as Stat3 transcriptional activity in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo transduction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with AAV constructs expressing VP16-Stat3CA resulted in regeneration of optic nerve axons after injury, to a greater degree than for those expressing Stat3CA alone. These findings confirm and extend the concept that overexpression of hyperactivated transcription factors identified as functioning in PNS regeneration can promote axon regeneration in the CNS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lithium Suppresses Astrogliogenesis by Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells by Inhibiting STAT3 Pathway Independently of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhong; Kremer, Penny; Tadmori, Iman; Ren, Yi; Sun, Dongming; He, Xijing; Young, Wise

    2011-01-01

    Transplanted neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) produce mostly astrocytes in injured spinal cords. Lithium stimulates neurogenesis by inhibiting GSK3b (glycogen synthetase kinase 3-beta) and increasing WNT/beta catenin. Lithium suppresses astrogliogenesis but the mechanisms were unclear. We cultured NSCs from subventricular zone of neonatal rats and showed that lithium reduced NSC production of astrocytes as well as proliferation of glia restricted progenitor (GRP) cells. Lithium strongly inhibited STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activation, a messenger system known to promote astrogliogenesis and cancer. Lithium abolished STAT3 activation and astrogliogenesis induced by a STAT3 agonist AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside), suggesting that lithium suppresses astrogliogenesis by inhibiting STAT3. GSK3β inhibition either by a specific GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 or overexpression of GID5-6 (GSK3β Interaction Domain aa380 to 404) did not suppress astrogliogenesis and GRP proliferation. GSK3β inhibition also did not suppress STAT3 activation. Together, these results indicate that lithium inhibits astrogliogenesis through non-GSK3β-mediated inhibition of STAT. Lithium may increase efficacy of NSC transplants by increasing neurogenesis and reducing astrogliogenesis. Our results also may explain the strong safety record of lithium treatment of manic depression. Millions of people take high-dose (>1 gram/day) lithium carbonate for a lifetime. GSK3b inhibition increases WNT/beta catenin, associated with colon and other cancers. STAT3 inhibition may reduce risk for cancer. PMID:21931595

  16. Cytokine signal transduction in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells : Regulation of Stat3-mediated transactivation occurs independently of p21ras-Erk signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Puijenbroek, AAFL; van der Saag, PT; Coffer, PJ

    1999-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) are members of a subfamily of related cytokines that share gp130 as common signal-transducing receptor component. CNTF has recently been demonstrated to induce increased survival and neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal

  17. Flavopiridol disrupts STAT3/DNA interactions, attenuates STAT3-directed transcription, and combines with the Jak kinase inhibitor AG490 to achieve cytotoxic synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yean Kit; Isham, Crescent R; Kaufman, Scott H; Bible, Keith C

    2006-01-01

    Up-regulated signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-mediated signaling is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of solid and hematologic cancers. Consequently, inhibition of STAT-mediated signaling has recently been proposed as a potential new therapeutic approach to the treatment of cancers. Having shown previously that the pan-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol binds to DNA and seems to kill cancer cells via that process in some circumstances, we evaluated the hypothesis that flavopiridol might consequently disrupt STAT3/DNA interactions, attenuate STAT3-directed transcription, and down-regulate STAT3 downstream polypeptides, including the antiapoptotic polypeptide Mcl-1. SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting and reverse transcription-PCR were used to assess RNA and polypeptide levels, respectively. DNA cellulose affinity chromatography and a nuclear elution assay were used to evaluate the ability of flavopiridol to disrupt STAT3/DNA interactions. A STAT3 luciferase reporter assay was used to examine the ability of flavopiridol to attenuate STAT3-directed transcription. Colony-forming assays were used to assess cytotoxic synergy between flavopiridol and AG490. Flavopiridol was found to (a) disrupt STAT3/DNA interactions (DNA cellulose affinity chromatography and nuclear elution assay), (b) attenuate STAT3-directed transcription (STAT3 luciferase reporter assay), and (c) down-regulate the STAT3 downstream antiapoptotic polypeptide Mcl-1 at the transcriptional level (reverse transcription-PCR and SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting). Furthermore, flavopiridol, but not the microtubule inhibitor paclitaxel, could be combined with the STAT3 pathway inhibitor AG490 to achieve cytotoxic synergy in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that flavopiridol can attenuate STAT3-directed transcription in a targeted fashion and may therefore be exploitable clinically in the development of chemotherapy regimens

  18. Constitutive activation of a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3 in mycosis fungoides: tyrphostin AG490 inhibits Stat3 activation and growth of mycosis fungoides tumor cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K; Nordahl, M

    1997-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a low-grade cutaneous T cell lymphoma of unknown etiology. In this report, the Jak/Stat (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathway was investigated in tumor cell lines established from skin biopsy specimens from a patient with MF....... Jaks link cytokine receptors to Stats, and abnormal Jak/Stat signaling has been observed in some hemopoietic cancers. In MF tumor cells, a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3, Stat3(sm), was found to be constitutively activated, i.e., (i) Stat3(sm) was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues...... specific. Thus, neither the fast migrating isoform of Stat3 (Stat3(fm)) nor other Stats (Stat1, Stat2, and Stat4 through Stat6) were constitutively activated. The Jak kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG490, blocked the constitutive activation of Stat3(sm) and inhibited spontaneous as well as interleukin 2...

  19. Apoptosis Induced by Tanshinone IIA and Cryptotanshinone Is Mediated by Distinct JAK/STAT3/5 and SHP1/2 Signaling in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K562 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Though tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone possess a variety of biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimetabolic, and anticancer effects, the precise molecular targets or pathways responsible for anticancer activities of tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML still remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone on the Janus activated kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT signaling during apoptotic process. We found that both tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone induced apoptosis by activation of caspase-9/3 and Sub-G1 accumulation in K562 cells. However, they have the distinct JAK/STAT pathway, in which tanshinone IIA inhibits JAK2/STAT5 signaling, whereas cryptotanshinone targets the JAK2/STAT3. In addition, tanshinone IIA enhanced the expression of both SHP-1 and -2, while cryptotanshinone regulated the expression of only SHP-1. Both tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone attenuated the expression of bcl-xL, survivin, and cyclin D1. Furthermore, tanshinone IIA augmented synergy with imatinib, a CML chemotherapeutic drug, better than cryptotanshinone in K562 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that the anticancer activity of tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone is mediated by the distinct the JAK/STAT3/5 and SHP1/2 signaling, and tanshinone IIA has the potential for combination therapy with imatinib in K562 CML cells.

  20. miR-93-5p/IFNAR1 axis promotes gastric cancer metastasis through activating the STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dong-Hong; Li, Bo-Sheng; Liu, Jing-Jing; Xiao, Yu-Feng; Yong, Xin; Wang, Shu-Ming; Wu, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Bin; Wang, Dong-Xu; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays an important role in gastric cancer (GC) development. miR-93-5p has shown opposing functions in different types of cancers, but the exact expression pattern and molecular mechanism of miR-93-5p in GC development remain to be elucidated. Here, we reported that miR-93-5p expression was increased in GC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues and that its overexpression was correlated with distant metastasis and poor survival in GC patients. miR-93-5p knockdown inhibited the migration, invasion and proliferation of GC cells in vitro and in vivo, while its overexpression displayed an opposite result. Using an mRNA microarray, we found that miR-93-5p significantly downregulated IFNAR1 expression in GC cells, which was further identified as a direct target of miR-93-5p. IFNAR1 knockdown promoted GC cell migration and invasion, but its restoration could rescue GC cell migration and invasion induced by miR-93-5p overexpression. Moreover, miR-93-5p-IFNAR1 axis increased MMP9 expression via STAT3 pathway in GC cells. Taken together, we reveal that miR-93-5p overexpression is associated with the poor survival of GC patients and miR-93-5p-IFNAR1 axis promotes GC metastasis through activation of STAT3 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid attenuates human astrocyte neurotoxicity induced by interferon-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashioka Sadayuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Increasing evidence shows that the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. It is tempting to evaluate the potential of SAHA as a therapeutic agent in various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Methods We examined the effects of SAHA on interferon (IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes and on IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 in human astrocytes. We also studied the effects of SAHA on the astrocytic production of two representative IFN-γ-inducible inflammatory molecules, namely IFN-γ-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Results SAHA significantly attenuated the toxicity of astrocytes activated by IFN-γ towards SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. In the IFN-γ-activated astrocytes, SAHA reduced the STAT3 phosphorylation. SAHA also inhibited the IFN-γ-induced astrocytic production of I-TAC, but not ICAM-1. These results indicate that SAHA suppresses IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Conclusion Due to its anti-neurotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties, SAHA appears to have the therapeutic or preventive potential for a wide range of neuroinflammatory disorders associated with activated astrocytes.

  2. Differences in antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inhibition in HCC cells with versus without HBV expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yun; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Wang, Weilin [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation of Ministry of Public Health, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Zheng, Shusen, E-mail: shusenzheng@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation of Ministry of Public Health, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inactivation could inhibit the tumor growth of HCC. In this study, differential antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inhibition was observed with HBV-related HCC cells being more resistant than non-HBV-related HCC cells. Resistance of HBV-related HCC cells to STAT3 inhibition was positively correlated to the expression of HBV. Enhanced ERK activation after STAT3 blockade was detected in HBV-related HCC cells but not in non-HBV-related HCC cells. Combined ERK and STAT3 inhibition eliminates the discrepancy between the two types of HCC cells. Moderate reduced HBV expression was found after STAT3 inhibition. These findings disclose a discrepancy in cellular response to STAT3 inhibition between non-HBV-related and HBV-related HCC cells and underscore the complexity of antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inactivation in HBV-related HCC cells. - Highlights: • HBV endows HCC cells with resistance to STAT3 inactivation on proliferation. • Abnormal ERK activation after STAT3 inhibition in HBV-related HCC cells. • Combined ERK and STAT3 inhibition eliminates the discrepancy. • STAT3 inhibition moderately reduces HBV expression.

  3. Coactivation of janus tyrosine kinase (Jak)1 positively modulates prolactin-Jak2 signaling in breast cancer: recruitment of ERK and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and enhancement of Akt and Stat5a/b pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Lynn M; Zhu, Jianquong; Xie, Jianwu; Malabarba, M Grazia; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Kirken, Robert A; Rui, Hallgeir

    2007-09-01

    Prolactin (PRL) receptors (PRLRs) have been considered selective activators of Janus tyrosine kinase (Jak)2 but not Jak1, Jak3, or Tyk2. We now report marked PRL-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1, in addition to Jak2, in a series of human breast cancer cell lines, including T47D, MCF7, and SKBR3. In contrast, PRL did not activate Jak1 in immortalized, noncancerous breast epithelial lines HC11, MCF10A, ME16C, and HBL-100, or in CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cells or MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, introduction of exogenous PRLR into MCF10A, ME16C, or MDA-MB-231 cells reconstituted both PRL-Jak1 and PRL-Jak2 signals. In vitro kinase assays verified that PRL stimulated enzymatic activity of Jak1 in T47D cells, and PRL activated Jak1 and Jak2 with indistinguishable time and dose kinetics. Relative Jak2 deficiency did not cause PRLR activation of Jak1, because overexpression of Jak2 did not interfere with PRL activation of Jak1. Instead, PRL activated Jak1 through a Jak2-dependent mechanism, based on disruption of PRL activation of Jak1 after Jak2 suppression by 1) lentiviral delivery of Jak2 short hairpin RNA, 2) adenoviral delivery of dominant-negative Jak2, and 3) AG490 pharmacological inhibition. Finally, suppression of Jak1 by lentiviral delivery of Jak1 short hairpin RNA blocked PRL activation of ERK and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and suppressed PRL activation of Jak2, Stat5a, Stat5b, and Akt, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of PRLR. The data suggest that PRL activation of Jak1 represents a novel, Jak2-dependent mechanism that may serve as a regulatory switch leading to PRL activation of ERK and Stat3 pathways, while also serving to enhance PRL-induced Stat5a/b and Akt signaling.

  4. Sequential treatment with AT-101 enhances cisplatin chemosensitivity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells through inhibition of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1-activated IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tao Ren,1,2,* Jinlu Shan,1,* Yi Qing,1 Chengyuan Qian,1 Qing Li,1 Guoshou Lu,1 Mengxia Li,1 Chongyi Li,1 Yu Peng,1 Hao Luo,1 Shiheng Zhang,1 Weiwei Zhang,1 Dong Wang,1 Shu-Feng Zhou3 1Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Oncology Department, The Affiliated Hospital, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: AT-101, known as R-(–-gossypol, is a potent anticancer agent, but its chemosensitizing effects remain elusive. The present study aimed to examine whether AT-101 could increase the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells to cisplatin (CDDP and the underlying mechanisms. We evaluated the efficacy of the sequential treatment with AT-101 and CDDP using both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that as compared to AT-101 or CDDP monotherapy, or AT-101 plus CDDP concurrent treatment, the sequential treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced tumor cell death. Moreover, the efficacy of the sequential treatment was also confirmed in a mouse A549 xenograft model. Our study revealed that AT-101 inhibited the reduced status of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 and attenuated APE1-mediated IL-6/STAT3 signaling activation by decreasing IL-6 protein expression; suppressing the STAT3–DNA binding; and reducing the expression of the downstream antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In conclusion, AT-101 enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to CDDP in vitro and in vivo through the inhibition of APE1-mediated IL-6/STAT3 signaling activation, providing a rationale for the combined use of AT-101 and CDDP in non-small cell lung cancer chemotherapy. Keywords: AT101, NSCLC, cisplatin

  5. Activation of epithelial STAT3 regulates intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufert, Clemens; Pickert, Geethanjali; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Nikolaev, Alexei; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2010-02-15

    The intestinal epithelium that lines the mucosal surface along the GI-tract is a key player for the intestinal homeostasis of the healthy individual. In case of a mucosal damage or a barrier defect as seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the balance is disturbed, and translocation of intestinal microbes to the submucosa is facilitated. We recently demonstrated a pivotal role of STAT3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) for the restoration of the balance at the mucosal surface of the gut in an experimental colitis model. STAT3 was rapidly induced in intestinal epithelial cells upon challenge of mice in both experimental colitis and intestinal wound healing models. STAT3 activation was found to be dispensable in the steady-state conditions but was important for efficient regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury. Here, we extend our previous findings by showing epithelial STAT3 activation in human patients suffering from IBD and provide additional insights how the activation of epithelial STAT3 by IL-22 regulates intestinal homeostasis and mucosal wound healing. We also demonstrate that antibody-mediated neutralization of IL-22 has little impact on the development of experimental colitis in mice, but significantly delays recovery from colitis. Thus, our data suggest that targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway in IEC is a promising therapeutic approach in situations when the intestinal homeostasis is disturbed, e.g., as seen in Crohn's disease or Ulcerative colitis.

  6. Saw Palmetto induces growth arrest and apoptosis of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells via inactivation of STAT 3 and androgen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Zheng, Zhixing; Taguchi, Hirokuni; Koeffler, H Phillip; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2007-09-01

    PC-SPES is an eight-herb mixture that has an activity against prostate cancer. Recently, we purified Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) from PC-SPES and found that Saw Palmetto induced growth arrest of prostate cancer LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells with ED50s of approximately 2.0, 2.6, and 3.3 microl/ml, respectively, as measured by mitochondrial-dependent conversion of the the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Saw Palmetto induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner as measured by TUNEL assays. Also, Saw Palmetto increased the expression of p21waf1 and p53 protein in LNCaP cells. In addition, we found that Saw Palmetto down-regulated DHT- or IL-6-induced expression of prostate specific antigen in conjunction with down-regulation of the level of androgen receptor in the nucleus as measured by Western blot analysis. Moreover, Saw Palmetto down-regulated the IL-6-induced level of the phosphorylated form of STAT 3 in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, Saw Palmetto inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells present as tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without adverse effect. These results indicate that Saw Palmetto might be useful for the treatment of individuals with prostate cancer.

  7. Assessing the Role of STAT3 in DC Differentiation and Autologous DC Immunotherapy in Mouse Models of GBM: e96318

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hikmat Assi; Jaclyn Espinosa; Sarah Suprise; Michael Sofroniew; Robert Doherty; Daniel Zamler; Pedro R Lowenstein; Maria G Castro

    2014-01-01

    .... Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis...

  8. Assessing the role of STAT3 in DC differentiation and autologous DC immunotherapy in mouse models of GBM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    .... Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis...

  9. Identification and functional evaluation of two STAT3 variants in grass carp: Implication for the existence of specific alternative splicing of STAT3 gene in teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Linyong; Zhou, Hong; Qin, Lei; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Yang, Kun; Wang, Xinyan

    2017-11-01

    A STAT family member, STAT3, becomes activated as a DNA binding protein in response to cytokines and growth factors. In teleost, STAT3 cDNA has been cloned and identified in a few species, but only a single STAT3 transcript is revealed in these studies. In the present study, two variants of STAT3 gene generated by alternative splicing were isolated from grass carp and nominated as STAT3α1 and STAT3α2 based on the homology with their mammalian orthologs. In particular, the homologs of STAT3α1/2 were also found in various fish species, including zebrafish, takifugu, tilapia, medaka and goldfish. Intriguingly, sequence alignment and genomic structure analysis revealed that fish STAT3α1/2 are generated through similar alternative splicing events, implying the potential physiological significance of generating STAT3 variants in fish. Grass carp STAT3α1/2 (gcSTAT3α1/2) were ubiquitously expressed although the transcript levels of STAT3α2 were markedly higher than STAT3α1 in all examined tissues. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that the expression patterns of these two variants were similar under the stimulation of immune stimuli. To reveal the role of gcSTAT3α1/2 in fish immunity, their phosphorylation and involvement in IL-17A/F1 mRNA expression were demonstrated in grass carp peripheral blood lymphocytes upon LPS or PHA challenge, providing evidence for the functional conservation of STAT3 signaling in fish. These findings also raise a question of whether both gcSTAT3α1/2 participate in transcriptional regulation in fish. Actually, our results showed that both of them had the ability to translocate into the nucleus upon activation, and to amplify IL-10 signaling, indicating the existence of STAT3 isoforms with functional redundancy in teleost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. STAT3 inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells independent of STAT1 or STAT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly E Barton

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs were originally discovered as mediators of signal transduction. Persistent aberrant activation of STAT3 is part of the malignant phenotype of hormone-refractory prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer; this is thought to be mediated by homodimers of phosphorylated STAT3, which translocate to the nucleus.  One consequence of persistently-activated STAT3 in malignant cells is that they depend upon it for survival.   STAT3 is observed to heterodimerize with STAT1 and STAT2; however the contributions of STAT3:STAT1  and STAT3:STAT2 heterodimers to the survival of malignant cells have not been investigated in detail. Previously we reported that single-stranded oligonucleotides containing consensus STAT3 binding sequences (13410 and 13411 were more effective for inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells than antisense STAT3 oligonucleotides. Control oligonucleotides (scrambled sequences had no effect. STAT3-inhibiting oligonucleotide 13410, but not scrambled-sequence oligonucleotides, induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells as well.  Here we report that 13410 and derivative olignucleotides induced apoptosis in STAT1-null and STAT2-null fibrosarcoma cell lines U3A and U6A, as well as in the parental fibrosarcoma cell line 2fTGH. The cell lines expressed constitutively-activated STAT3 and depended on its activity for survival.  Forty-eight hr after transfection of 13410 or related oligonucleotides, significant apoptosis was observed in 2fTGH, U3A and U6A cells. Scrambled-sequence oligonucleotides had no effect on survival.  These data indicate that neither STAT1 nor STAT2 play significant roles in the maintenance of these cells, and by extension that STAT3:STAT1 and STAT3:STAT2 heterodimers regulate a different set of genes from STAT3:STAT3 homodimers.   

  11. Clustered localization of STAT3 during the cell cycle detected by super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Chen, Junling; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Tong, Ti; Wang, Hongda

    2017-06-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a key role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune responses. In particular, STAT3 has emerged as a potential molecular target for cancer therapy. The functional role and standard activation mechanism of STAT3 have been well studied, however, the spatial distribution of STAT3 during the cell cycle is poorly known. Therefore, it is indispensable to study STAT3 spatial arrangement and nuclear-cytoplasimic localization at the different phase of cell cycle in cancer cells. By direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy imaging, we find that STAT3 forms various number and size of clusters at the different cell-cycle stage, which could not be clearly observed by conventional fluorescent microscopy. STAT3 clusters get more and larger gradually from G1 to G2 phase, during which time transcription and other related activities goes on consistently. The results suggest that there is an intimate relationship between the clustered characteristic of STAT3 and the cell-cycle behavior. Meanwhile, clustering would facilitate STAT3 rapid response to activating signals due to short distances between molecules. Our data might open a new door to develop an antitumor drug for inhibiting STAT3 signaling pathway by destroying its clusters.

  12. Cinnamaldehyde derivative (CB-PIC) sensitizes chemo-resistant cancer cells to drug-induced apoptosis via suppression of MDR1 and its upstream STAT3 and AKT signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Miyong; Lee, Duckgue; Park, Moon-Nyeo; Kim, Eun-Ok; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kwon, Byung-Mog; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Our group reported that cinnamaldehyde derivative, (E)-4-((2-(3-oxopop-1-enyl)phenoxy)methyl)pyridinium malonic acid (CB-PIC) induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colorectal cancer cells via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Herein, sensitizing effect of CB-PIC was investigated in resistant cancer cells such as paclitaxel (PT) resistant lung cancer cells (H460/PT), and Adriamycin (Adr) resistant breast cancer (MCF7/Adr) and colon cancer (HCT15/cos) cells. Various drug resistant cell lines were treated with CB-PIC, and the signalling pathway and functional assay were explored by Western blot, Rhodamine assay, FACS, RT-PCR and MTT assay. We found that CB-PIC effectively exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub G1 population and the cleaved form of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 9 in drug resistant cancer cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC sensitized resistant cancer cells to adriamycin via downregulation of survival proteins such as survivin, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, along with MDR1 suppression leading to accumulation of drug in the intracellular region. Of note, CB-PIC transcriptionally decreased MDR1 expression via suppression of STAT3 and AKT signalling in three resistant cancer cells with highly expressed P-glycoprotein. Nonetheless, CB-PIC did not affect transport activity of P-glycoprotein in a short time efflux assay, while epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) accumulated Rhodamine 123 into intracellular region of cell by direct inhibition of MDR1 transport activity. These data demonstrate that CB-PIC suppresses the P-glycoprotein expression through inhibition of STAT3 and AKT signalling to overcome drug resistance in chemo-resistant cancer cells as a potent chemotherapeutic sensitizer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Astrocytes Modulate Distribution and Neuronal Signaling of Leptin in the Hypothalamus of Obese Avy Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; Xu, Changlei; Wu, Xiaojun; Bouret, Sebastien G.; Kastin, Abba J

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic activity modulates neuronal uptake and signaling of leptin in the adult-onset obese agouti viable yellow (Avy) mouse. In the immunohistochemical study, Avy mice were pretreated with the astrocyte metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) vehicle intracerebroventricularly (icv) followed 1 h later by Alexa568-leptin. Confocal microscopy showed that fluorocitrate pretreatment reduced astrocytic uptake of Alexa568-leptin 30 min a...

  14. Requirement of STAT3 Activation for Differentiation of Mucosal Stratified Squamous Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Sun, Shishinn; Steinberg, Bettie M

    2003-01-01

    STAT3, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family, has been shown to play a key role in promoting proliferation, differentiation, or cell cycle progression, depending on cell type. A number of signaling pathways are altered in laryngeal papillomas, benign tumors induced by human papillomavirus 6/11. Papillomas overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor and display enhanced MAP kinase and PI-3-kinase activity. They also show reduced activation of Akt and reduced levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3, due to overexpression of the tumor suppressor, PTEN. As papillomas show abnormalities in terminal differentiation, we examined the potential role of STAT3 in regulating epithelial differentiation. Laryngeal epithelial cells were suspended in supplemented serum-free medium. Differentiation was measured by Western blot analysis of keratin 13. Normal laryngeal epithelial cells were transfected with a constitutively active STAT3 or a dominant negative STAT3. Cells were transferred to suspension culture 24 h after transfection. Increased expression of keratin 13 was accompanied by the activation of STAT3 when differentiation was induced, and expression of a constitutively active STAT3 (STAT3C) enhanced the expression of keratin 13. In contrast, expression of a dominant negative STAT3 (Y705F) inhibited the expression of keratin 13. We conclude that activation of STAT3 is required for the differentiation of normal human stratified squamous epithelium. PMID:12865943

  15. Reduced phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser-727 mediated by casein kinase 2 - protein phosphatase 2A enhances Stat3 Tyr-705 induced tumorigenic potential of glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapashi; Bhowmik, Arijit; Chatterjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Uttara; Chatterjee, Sandip; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2014-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a transcription factor that is involved in cell survival and proliferation and has been found to be persistently activated in most human cancers mainly through its phosphorylation at Tyr-705. However, the role and regulation of Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation in cancer cells have not been clearly evaluated. In our findings, correlation studies on the expression of CK2 and Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation levels in human glioma patient samples as well as rat orthotopic tumor model show a degree of negative correlation. Moreover, brain tumor cell lines were treated with various pharmacological inhibitors to inactivate the CK2 pathway. Here, increased Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation upon CK2 inhibition was observed. Overexpression of CK2 (α, α' or β subunits) by transient transfection resulted in decreased Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation. Stat3 Tyr-705 residue was conversely phosphorylated in similar situations. Interestingly, we found PP2A, a protein phosphatase, to be a mediator in the negative regulation of Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation by CK2. In vitro assays prove that Ser-727 phosphorylation of Stat3 affects the transcriptional activity of its downstream targets like SOCS3, bcl-xl and Cyclin D1. Stable cell lines constitutively expressing Stat3 S727A mutant showed increased survival, proliferation and invasion which are characteristics of a cancer cell. Rat tumor models generated with the Stat3 S727A mutant cell line formed more aggressive tumors when compared to the Stat3 WT expressing stable cell line. Thus, in glioma, reduced Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation enhances tumorigenicity which may be regulated in part by CK2-PP2A pathway. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes protects from autoimmune mediated neurological disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hindinger

    Full Text Available Demyelination and axonal degeneration are determinants of progressive neurological disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Cells resident within the central nervous system (CNS are active participants in development, progression and subsequent control of autoimmune disease; however, their individual contributions are not well understood. Astrocytes, the most abundant CNS cell type, are highly sensitive to environmental cues and are implicated in both detrimental and protective outcomes during autoimmune demyelination. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced in transgenic mice expressing signaling defective dominant-negative interferon gamma (IFN-γ receptors on astrocytes to determine the influence of inflammation on astrocyte activity. Inhibition of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes did not influence disease incidence, onset, initial progression of symptoms, blood brain barrier (BBB integrity or the composition of the acute CNS inflammatory response. Nevertheless, increased demyelination at peak acute disease in the absence of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes correlated with sustained clinical symptoms. Following peak disease, diminished clinical remission, increased mortality and sustained astrocyte activation within the gray matter demonstrate a critical role of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes in neuroprotection. Diminished disease remission was associated with escalating demyelination, axonal degeneration and sustained inflammation. The CNS infiltrating leukocyte composition was not altered; however, decreased IL-10 and IL-27 correlated with sustained disease. These data indicate that astrocytes play a critical role in limiting CNS autoimmune disease dependent upon a neuroprotective signaling pathway mediated by engagement of IFN-γ receptors.

  17. STAT3 in cancer: A double edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalle, Lidia; Camporeale, Annalisa; Camperi, Andrea; Poli, Valeria

    2017-10-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is activated downstream of cytokines, growth factors and oncogenes to mediate their functions under both physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, aberrant/unrestrained STAT3 activity is detected in a wide variety of tumors, driving multiple pro-oncogenic functions. For that, STAT3 is widely considered as an oncogene and is the object of intense translational studies. One of the distinctive features of this factor is however, its ability to elicit different and sometimes contrasting effects under different conditions. In particular, STAT3 activities have been shown to be either pro-oncogenic or tumor-suppressive according to the tumor aetiology/mutational landscape, suggesting that the molecular bases underlining its functions are still incompletely understood. Here we discuss some of the properties that may provide the bases to explain STAT3 heterogeneous functions, and in particular how post-translational modifications contribute shaping its sub-cellular localization and activities, the cross talk between these activities and cell metabolic conditions, and finally how its functions can control the behaviour of both tumor and tumor microenvironment cell populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cucurbitacin E Induces G2/M Phase Arrest through STAT3/p53/p21 Signaling and Provokes Apoptosis via Fas/CD95 and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin E, a tetracyclic triterpenes compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cucurbitacin E promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in T24 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of cucurbitacin E on T24 cell's growth and accompanied morphological changes were examined by MTT assay and a phase-contrast microscope. DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and annexin V/PI staining were determined by flow cytometry. The protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M arrest was associated with a marked increase in the levels of p53, p21 and a decrease in phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 and cyclin B. Cucurbitacin E-triggered apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of Fas/CD95, truncated BID (t-BID and a loss of ΔΨm, resulting in the releases of cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, and sequential activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings provided the first evidence that STAT3/p53/p21 signaling, Fas/CD95 and mitochondria-dependent pathways play critical roles in cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of T24 cells.

  19. Cucurbitacin E Induces G2/M Phase Arrest through STAT3/p53/p21 Signaling and Provokes Apoptosis via Fas/CD95 and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chiou, Shang-Ming; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Pai, Shu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Ho, Wai-Jane; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E, a tetracyclic triterpenes compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cucurbitacin E promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in T24 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of cucurbitacin E on T24 cell's growth and accompanied morphological changes were examined by MTT assay and a phase-contrast microscope. DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and annexin V/PI staining were determined by flow cytometry. The protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M arrest was associated with a marked increase in the levels of p53, p21 and a decrease in phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B. Cucurbitacin E-triggered apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of Fas/CD95, truncated BID (t-BID) and a loss of ΔΨm, resulting in the releases of cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and sequential activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings provided the first evidence that STAT3/p53/p21 signaling, Fas/CD95 and mitochondria-dependent pathways play critical roles in cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of T24 cells. PMID:22272214

  20. STAT3 regulates ABCA3 expression and influences lamellar body formation in alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yohei; Besnard, Valérie; Clark, Jean C; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2008-05-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expression in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3 was deleted from the respiratory epithelium (Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice). Consistent with the role of STAT3, intratracheal IL-6 induced ABCA3 expression in vivo. Decreased ABCA3 and abnormalities in the formation of lamellar bodies, the intracellular site of surfactant lipid storage, were observed in Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. Expression of SREBP1a and 1c, SCAP, ABCA3, and AKT mRNAs was inhibited by deletion of Stat3 in type II cells isolated from Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. The activities of PI3K and AKT were required for normal Abca3 gene expression in vitro. AKT activation induced SREBP expression and increased the activity of the Abca3 promoter in vitro, consistent with the role of STAT3 signaling, at least in part via SREBP, in the regulation of ABCA3. ABCA3 expression is regulated by IL-6 in a pathway that includes STAT3, PI3K, AKT, SCAP, and SREBP. Activation of STAT3 after exposure to IL-6 enhances ABCA3 expression, which, in turn, influences pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

  1. Transcription Factor STAT3 as a Novel Molecular Target for Cancer Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ailian; Yang, Zhengduo [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Shen, Yicheng [College of Natural Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zhou, Jia [Chemical Biology Program, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Shen, Qiang, E-mail: qshen@mdanderson.org [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2014-04-16

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, immune and inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis. Cumulative evidence has established that STAT3 has a critical role in the development of multiple cancer types. Because it is constitutively activated during disease progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, STAT3 has promise as a drug target for cancer therapeutics. Recently, STAT3 was found to have an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells in vitro and in mouse tumor models, suggesting STAT3 is integrally involved in tumor initiation, progression and maintenance. STAT3 has been traditionally considered as nontargetable or undruggable, and the lag in developing effective STAT3 inhibitors contributes to the current lack of FDA-approved STAT3 inhibitors. Recent advances in cancer biology and drug discovery efforts have shed light on targeting STAT3 globally and/or specifically for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the potential importance of STAT3 as a novel target for cancer prevention and of STAT3 inhibitors as effective chemopreventive agents.

  2. Astrocytes take the stage in a tale of signaling-metabolism coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes are crucial cells in the brain that are intimately coupled with neuronal metabolism. A new paper from San Martín et al. provides evidence that physiological levels of the gaseous signal molecule NO can rapidly and reversibly increase astrocyte metabolism of glucose and production...

  3. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyung S. Chung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF-α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer.

  4. Control of the neurovascular coupling by nitric oxide-dependent regulation of astrocytic Ca2+ signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity must be tightly coordinated with blood flow to keep proper brain function, which is achieved by a mechanism known as neurovascular coupling. Then, an increase in synaptic activity leads to a dilation of local parenchymal arterioles that matches the enhanced metabolic demand. Neurovascular coupling is orchestrated by astrocytes. These glial cells are located between neurons and the microvasculature, with the astrocytic endfeet ensheathing the vessels, which allows fine intercellular communication. The neurotransmitters released during neuronal activity reach astrocytic receptors and trigger a Ca2+ signaling that propagates to the endfeet, activating the release of vasoactive factors and arteriolar dilation. The astrocyte Ca2+ signaling is coordinated by gap junction channels and hemichannels formed by connexins (Cx43 and Cx30 and channels formed by pannexins (Panx-1. The neuronal activity-initiated Ca2+ waves are propagated among neighboring astrocytes directly via gap junctions or through ATP release via connexin hemichannels or pannexin channels. In addition, Ca2+ entry via connexin hemichannels or pannexin channels may participate in the regulation of the astrocyte signaling-mediated neurovascular coupling. Interestingly, nitric oxide (NO can activate connexin hemichannel by S-nitrosylation and the Ca2+-dependent NO-synthesizing enzymes endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS are expressed in astrocytes. Therefore, the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling triggered in neurovascular coupling may activate NO production, which, in turn, may lead to Ca2+ influx through hemichannel activation. Furthermore, NO release from the hemichannels located at astrocytic endfeet may contribute to the vasodilation of parenchymal arterioles. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling that mediates neurovascular coupling, with a special emphasis in the possible participation of NO in

  5. STAT3 Regulates Proliferation and Immunogenicity of the Ewing Family of Tumors In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Behjati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT represents an aggressive spectrum of malignant tumour types with common defining histological and cytogenetic features. To evaluate the functional activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 in ESFT, we evaluated its activation in primary tissue sections and observed the functional consequences of its inhibition in ESFT cell lines. STAT3 was activated (tyrosine 705-phosphorylated in 18 out of 31 primary tumours (58%, either diffusely (35% or focally (23%. STAT3 was constitutively activated in 3 out of 3 ESFT cell lines tested, and its specific chemical inhibition resulted in complete loss of cell viability. STAT3 inhibition in ESFT cell lines was associated with several consistent changes in chemokine profile suggesting a role of STAT3 in ESFT in both cell survival and modification of the cellular immune environment. Together these data support the investigation of STAT3 inhibitors for the Ewing family of tumors.

  6. Deletion of the Innate Immune NLRP3 Receptor Abolishes Cardiac Ischemic Preconditioning and Is Associated with Decreased Il-6/STAT3 Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Coert J.; Jong, Willeke M. C.; Eerbeek, Otto; Koeman, Anneke; Pulskens, Wilco P.; Butter, Loes M.; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies indicate that the innate immune system is not only triggered by exogenous pathogens and pollutants, but also by endogenous danger signals released during ischemia and necrosis. As triggers for the innate immune NLRP3 inflammasome protein complex appear to overlap with those

  7. Deletion of the innate immune NLRP3 receptor abolishes cardiac ischemic preconditioning and is associated with decreased Il-6/STAT3 signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C.J.; Jong, W.M.; Eerbeek, O.; Koeman, A.; Pulskens, W.P.C.; Butter, L.M.; Leemans, J.C.; Hollmann, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies indicate that the innate immune system is not only triggered by exogenous pathogens and pollutants, but also by endogenous danger signals released during ischemia and necrosis. As triggers for the innate immune NLRP3 inflammasome protein complex appear to overlap with those

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates autoimmune arthritis by reciprocal regulation of T helper-17 regulatory T cells and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Yeong; Jung, Young Ok; Ryu, Jun-Geol; Oh, Hye-Jwa; Son, Hye-Jin; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Mi-Kyung; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-09-01

    The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate is a potent antioxidant. Here, we describe the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on T cell differentiation and osteoclast differentiation in an animal model of arthritis. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis were injected intraperitoneally with epigallocatechin-3-gallate, 3 times/wk after the primary immunization. Surface markers of T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to evaluate the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on cell signaling in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreased the arthritis index and showed protective effects against joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis mice. The expression of cytokines, oxidative stress proteins, and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, 705 and 727, were significantly less in mice treated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate than it was in controls. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduced the expression of osteoclast markers in vitro and in vivo relative to the control, and the antiosteoclastic activity was observed in epigallocatechin-3-gallate-treated, interferon-γ knockout mice. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3-positive regulatory T cells was increased in the spleens of mice treated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate compared with control mice, whereas the proportion of T helper 17 cells was reduced. In vitro, the expression of nuclear respiratory factor 2, heme oxygenase-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase was increased significantly by epigallocatechin-3-gallate. We demonstrated that the administration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuated the symptoms of arthritis, inhibited osteoclastogenesis and T helper 17 cell activation, and increased the number of regulatory T cells. At the molecular level, the antiarthritic effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be due to

  9. Integration of genome-wide of Stat3 binding and epigenetic modification mapping with transcriptome reveals novel Stat3 target genes in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczyk, Marcin; Przanowski, Piotr; Dabrowski, Michal; Swiatek-Machado, Karolina; Mieczkowski, Jakub; Wallerman, Ola; Ronowicz, Anna; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Wadelius, Claes; Kaminska, Bozena; Komorowski, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many human tumors, including gliomas, and regulates the expression of genes implicated in proliferation, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis and immune regulation. Only a small fraction of those genes has been proven to be direct STAT3 targets. In gliomas, STAT3 can play tumor suppressive or oncogenic roles depending on the tumor genetic background with target genes being largely unknown. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter microarrays and deep sequencing to assess the genome-wide occupancy of phospho (p)-Stat3 and epigenetic modifications of H3K4me3 and H3ac in C6 glioma cells. This combined assessment identified a list of 1200 genes whose promoters have both Stat3 binding sites and epigenetic marks characteristic for actively transcribed genes. The Stat3 and histone markings data were also intersected with a set of microarray data from C6 glioma cells after inhibition of Jak2/Stat3 signaling. Subsequently, we found 284 genes characterized by p-Stat3 occupancy, activating histone marks and transcriptional changes. Novel genes were screened for their potential involvement in oncogenesis, and the most interesting hits were verified by ChIP-PCR and STAT3 knockdown in human glioma cells. Non-random association between silent genes, histone marks and p-Stat3 binding near transcription start sites was observed, consistent with its repressive role in transcriptional regulation of target genes in glioma cells with specific genetic background. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Critical Roles of STAT3 in β-Adrenergic Functions in the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Qu, Xiuxia; Chen, Biyi; Snyder, Marylynn; Wang, Meijing; Li, Baiyan; Tang, Yue; Chen, Hanying; Zhu, Wuqiang; Zhan, Li; Yin, Ni; Li, Deqiang; Li, Xie; Liu, Ying; Zhang, J. Jillian; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Rubart, Michael; Song, Long-Sheng; Huang, Xin-Yun; Shou, Weinian

    2015-01-01

    Background β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) play paradoxical roles in the heart. On one hand, βARs augment cardiac performance to fulfill the physiological demands, but on the other hand, prolonged activations of βARs exert deleterious effects that result in heart failure. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a dynamic role in integrating multiple cytokine signaling pathways in a number of tissues. Altered activation of STAT3 has been observed in failing heart in both the human patients and animal models. Our objective is to determine the potential regulatory roles of STAT3 in cardiac βAR-mediated signaling and function. Methods and Results We observed that STAT3 can be directly activated in cardiomyocytes by β-adrenergic agonists. To follow up this finding, we analyzed βAR function in cardiomyocyte-restricted STAT3 knockouts and discovered that the conditional loss of STAT3 in cardiomyocytes markedly reduced the cardiac contractile response to acute βAR stimulation, and caused disengagement of calcium coupling and muscle contraction. Under chronic β-adrenergic stimulation, Stat3cKO hearts exhibited pronounced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell death, and subsequent cardiac fibrosis. Biochemical and genetic data supported that Gαs and Src kinases are required for βAR-mediated activation of STAT3. Finally, we demonstrated that STAT3 transcriptionally regulates several key components of βAR pathway, including β1AR and PKA, and T-type Ca2+ channels. Conclusions Our data demonstrates for the first time that STAT3 has a fundamental role in βAR signaling and functions in the heart. STAT3 serves as a critical transcriptional regulator for βAR-mediated cardiac stress adaption, pathological remodelling and heart failure. PMID:26628621

  11. Clinical Implications of Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in De Novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ok, C.Y.; Chen, J.; Xu-Monette, Z.Y.; Tzankov, A.; Manyam, G.C.; Li, L.; Visco, C.; Montes-Moreno, S.; Dybkaer, K.; Chiu, A.; Orazi, A.; Zu, Y.; Bhagat, G.; Richards, K.L.; Hsi, E.D.; Choi, W.W.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Huh, J.; Zhao, X.; Ponzoni, M.; Ferreri, A.J.; Bertoni, F.; Farnen, J.P.; Moller, M.B.; Piris, M.A.; Winter, J.N.; Medeiros, L.J.; Young, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response, and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of

  12. A Study on Expression and Tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIF, CNTF, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immunoregulation [4-9]. It is reported that. STAT3, a STAT family member, can mediate apoptosis by regulating the expression levels of. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, but Fas-mediated cell apoptosis signal inhibits the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 [10,11]. It is reported.

  13. Persistent STAT3 Activation in Colon Cancer Is Associated with Enhanced Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Corvinus

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma (CRC is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. It has so far been molecularly defined mainly by alterations of the Wnt pathway. We show here for the first time that aberrant activities of the signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT3 actively contribute to this malignancy and, thus, are a potential therapeutic target for CRC. Constitutive STAT3 activity was found to be abundant in dedifferentiated cancer cells and infiltrating lymphocytes of CRC samples, but not in non-neoplastic colon epithelium. Cell lines derived from malignant colorectal tumors lost persistent STAT3 activity in culture. However, implantation of colon carcinoma cells into nude mice resulted in restoration of STAT3 activity, suggesting a role of an extracellular stimulus within the tumor microenvironment as a trigger for STAT activation. STAT3 activity in CRC cells triggered through interleukin-6 or through a constitutively active STAT3 mutant promoted cancer cell multiplication, whereas STAT3 inhibition through a dominant-negative variant impaired IL-6-driven proliferation. Blockade of STAT3 activation in CRCderived xenograft tumors slowed down their development, arguing for a contribution of STAT3 to colorectal tumor growth.

  14. Diminished Expression of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 in Human Colon Cancer Promotes Tumor Growth and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via Persistent Interleukin-6/Stat3 SignalingSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Rodriguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Chronic inflammation promotes development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC. We explored the distribution of the corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH family of receptors and ligands in CRC and their contribution in tumor growth and oncogenic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Methods: The mRNA expression of CRH-family members was analyzed in CRC (n = 56 and control (n = 46 samples, seven CRC cell lines, and normal NCM460 cells. Immunohistochemical detection of CRHR2 was performed in 20 CRC and five normal tissues. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were compared between urocortin-2 (Ucn2-stimulated parental and CRHR2-overexpressing (CRHR2+ cells in the absence or presence of interleukin-6 (IL-6. CRHR2/Ucn2-targeted effects on tumor growth and EMT were validated in SW620-xenograft mouse models. Results: CRC tissues and cell lines showed decreased mRNA and protein CRHR2 expression compared with controls and NCM460 cells, respectively. The opposite trend was shown for Ucn2. CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation in CRC-CRHR2+ cells. In vivo, SW620-CRHR2+ xenografts showed decreased growth, reduced expression of EMT-inducers, and elevated levels of EMT-suppressors. IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-6R mRNAs were diminished in CRC-CRHR2+ cells, while CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling inhibited IL-6-mediated Stat3 activation, invasion, migration, and expression of downstream targets acting as cell cycle– and EMT-inducers. Expression of cell cycle– and EMT-suppressors was augmented in IL-6/Ucn2-stimulated CRHR2+ cells. In patients, CRHR2 mRNA expression was inversely correlated with IL-6R and vimentin levels and metastasis occurrence, while positively associated with E-cadherin expression and overall survival. Conclusions: CRHR2 down-regulation in CRC supports tumor expansion and spread through maintaining persistent inflammation and constitutive Stat3 activation

  15. Aberrant astrocyte Ca2+signals "AxCa signals" exacerbate pathological alterations in an Alexander disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kozo; Shigetomi, Eiji; Yasuda, Rei; Sato, Ryuichi; Nakano, Masakazu; Tashiro, Kei; Tanaka, Kenji F; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Mizuta, Ikuko; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2018-01-31

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by gain of function mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene. Accumulation of GFAP proteins and formation of Rosenthal fibers (RFs) in astrocytes are hallmarks of AxD. However, malfunction of astrocytes in the AxD brain is poorly understood. Here, we show aberrant Ca 2+ responses in astrocytes as playing a causative role in AxD. Transcriptome analysis of astrocytes from a model of AxD showed age-dependent upregulation of GFAP, several markers for neurotoxic reactive astrocytes, and downregulation of Ca 2+ homeostasis molecules. In situ AxD model astrocytes produced aberrant extra-large Ca 2+ signals "AxCa signals", which increased with age, correlated with GFAP upregulation, and were dependent on stored Ca 2+ . Inhibition of AxCa signals by deletion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type 2 receptors (IP3R2) ameliorated AxD pathogenesis. Taken together, AxCa signals in the model astrocytes would contribute to AxD pathogenesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Stat3/Cdc25a-dependent cell proliferation promotes embryonic axis extension during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzi Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation has generally been considered dispensable for anteroposterior extension of embryonic axis during vertebrate gastrulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3, a conserved controller of cell proliferation, survival and regeneration, is associated with human scoliosis, cancer and Hyper IgE Syndrome. Zebrafish Stat3 was proposed to govern convergence and extension gastrulation movements in part by promoting Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP signaling, a conserved regulator of mediolaterally polarized cell behaviors. Here, using zebrafish stat3 null mutants and pharmacological tools, we demonstrate that cell proliferation contributes to anteroposterior embryonic axis extension. Zebrafish embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Stat3 expression exhibit normal convergence movements and planar cell polarity signaling, but transient axis elongation defect due to insufficient number of cells resulting largely from reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of cell proliferation during gastrulation phenocopied axis elongation defects. Stat3 regulates cell proliferation and axis extension in part via upregulation of Cdc25a expression during oogenesis. Accordingly, restoring Cdc25a expression in stat3 mutants partially suppressed cell proliferation and gastrulation defects. During later development, stat3 mutant zebrafish exhibit stunted growth, scoliosis, excessive inflammation, and fail to thrive, affording a genetic tool to study Stat3 function in vertebrate development, regeneration, and disease.

  17. Negative Regulation of STAT3 Protein-mediated Cellular Respiration by SIRT1 Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear. In this ......In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear...... those of wild-type controls. Comparison of profiles of phospho-antibody array data indicated that the deletion of SirT1 was accompanied by constitutive activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-¿B pathway, which is key for STAT3 induction and increased cellular respiration in Sirt1-KO cells. Thus, SIRT1...

  18. Cisplatin-induced CCL5 secretion from CAFs promotes cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer via regulation of the STAT3 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Sun, Chaoyang; Li, Na; Shan, Wanying; Lu, Hao; Guo, Lili; Guo, Ensong; Xia, Meng; Weng, Danhui; Meng, Li; Hu, Junbo; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Currently, acquired resistance to cisplatin (DDP) is a substantial obstacle to reducing the morbidity and mortality due to ovarian malignant tumors. Nevertheless, cisplatin plays a vital role in killing the tumor cells while it may also be a 'primer' involved in chemotherapy resistance. We found that the cisplatin-induced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) secretion derived from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promoted ovarian cancer cell resistance to cisplatin. Via a cytokine chip assay, we identified a spectrum of secreted proteins that were derived from the CAFs through cisplatin-induced treatment. Among these, CCL5 significantly attenuated the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, CCL5 expression was also detected in 62 serous ovarian cancer patient tissue specimens using IHC, and the results demonstrated that chemotherapy resistant patients displayed higher expression of CCL5 than the chemo-sensitive patients (Povarian cancer cells. These results indicated that cisplatin- induced CCL5 secretion derived from the CAFs may promote cisplatin resistance, which was mediated by regulation of the STAT3 and PI3K/Akt signal pathways.

  19. Identification of novel small molecules that inhibit STAT3-dependent transcription and function.

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    Iryna Kolosenko

    Full Text Available Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 has been linked to several processes that are critical for oncogenic transformation, cancer progression, cancer cell proliferation, survival, drug resistance and metastasis. Inhibition of STAT3 signaling has shown a striking ability to inhibit cancer cell growth and therefore, STAT3 has become a promising target for anti-cancer drug development. The aim of this study was to identify novel inhibitors of STAT-dependent gene transcription. A cellular reporter-based system for monitoring STAT3 transcriptional activity was developed which was suitable for high-throughput screening (Z' = 0,8. This system was used to screen a library of 28,000 compounds (the ENAMINE Drug-Like Diversity Set. Following counter-screenings and toxicity studies, we identified four hit compounds that were subjected to detailed biological characterization. Of the four hits, KI16 stood out as the most promising compound, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity in response to IL6 stimulation. In silico docking studies showed that KI16 had favorable interactions with the STAT3 SH2 domain, however, no inhibitory activity could be observed in the STAT3 fluorescence polarization assay. KI16 inhibited cell viability preferentially in STAT3-dependent cell lines. Taken together, using a targeted, cell-based approach, novel inhibitors of STAT-driven transcriptional activity were discovered which are interesting leads to pursue further for the development of anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  20. Assessing the role of STAT3 in DC differentiation and autologous DC immunotherapy in mouse models of GBM.

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    Hikmat Assi

    Full Text Available Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNFα were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors.

  1. Assessing the role of STAT3 in DC differentiation and autologous DC immunotherapy in mouse models of GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNFα were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors.

  2. Death-associated protein kinase controls STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakilam, Saritha; Gandesiri, Muktheshwar; Rau, Tilman T; Agaimy, Abbas; Vijayalakshmi, Mahadevan; Ivanovska, Jelena; Wirtz, Ralph M; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Benderska, Natalya; Wittkopf, Nadine; Chellappan, Ajithavalli; Ruemmele, Petra; Vieth, Michael; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Christiansen, Hans; Hartmann, Arndt; Neufert, Clemens; Atreya, Raja; Becker, Christoph; Steinberg, Pablo; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2013-03-01

    The TNF-IL-6-STAT3 pathway plays a crucial role in promoting ulcerative colitis-associated carcinoma (UCC). To date, the negative regulation of STAT3 is poorly understood. Interestingly, intestinal epithelial cells of UCC in comparison to ulcerative colitis show high expression levels of anti-inflammatory death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and low levels of pSTAT3. Accordingly, epithelial DAPK expression was enhanced in STAT3(IEC-KO) mice. To unravel a possible regulatory mechanism, we used an in vitro TNF-treated intestinal epithelial cell model. We identified a new function of DAPK in suppressing TNF-induced STAT3 activation as DAPK siRNA knockdown and treatment with a DAPK inhibitor potentiated STAT3 activation, IL-6 mRNA expression, and secretion. DAPK attenuated STAT3 activity directly by physical interaction shown in three-dimensional structural modeling. This model suggests that DAPK-induced conformational changes in the STAT3 dimer masked its nuclear localization signal. Alternatively, pharmacological inactivation of STAT3 led to an increase in DAPK mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that STAT3 restricted DAPK expression by promoter binding, thereby reinforcing its own activation by inducing IL-6. This novel negative regulation principle might balance TNF-induced inflammation and seems to play an important role in the inflammation-associated transformation process as confirmed in an AOM+DSS colon carcinogenesis mouse model. DAPK as a negative regulator of STAT3 emerges as therapeutic option in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and UCC. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GABAergic interneuron to astrocyte signalling: a neglected form of cell communication in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losi, Gabriele; Mariotti, Letizia; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons represent a minority of all cortical neurons and yet they efficiently control neural network activities in all brain areas. In parallel, glial cell astrocytes exert a broad control of brain tissue homeostasis and metabolism, modulate synaptic transmission and contribute to brain information processing in a dynamic interaction with neurons that is finely regulated in time and space. As most studies have focused on glutamatergic neurons and excitatory transmission, our knowledge of functional interactions between GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes is largely defective. Here, we critically discuss the currently available literature that hints at a potential relevance of this specific signalling in brain function. Astrocytes can respond to GABA through different mechanisms that include GABA receptors and transporters. GABA-activated astrocytes can, in turn, modulate local neuronal activity by releasing gliotransmitters including glutamate and ATP. In addition, astrocyte activation by different signals can modulate GABAergic neurotransmission. Full clarification of the reciprocal signalling between different GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes will improve our understanding of brain network complexity and has the potential to unveil novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders. PMID:25225102

  4. Integrative Analyses of Uterine Transcriptome and MicroRNAome Reveal Compromised LIF-STAT3 Signaling and Progesterone Response in the Endometrium of Patients with Recurrent/Repeated Implantation Failure (RIF.

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    Youngsok Choi

    Full Text Available Intimate two-way interactions between the implantation-competent blastocyst and receptive uterus are prerequisite for successful embryo implantation. In humans, recurrent/repeated implantation failure (RIF may occur due to altered uterine receptivity with aberrant gene expression in the endometrium as well as genetic defects in embryos. Several studies have been performed to understand dynamic changes of uterine transcriptome during menstrual cycles in humans. However, uterine transcriptome of the patients with RIF has not been clearly investigated yet. Here we show that several signaling pathways as well as many genes and microRNAs are dysregulated in the endometrium of patients with RIF (RIFE. Whereas unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed that overall mRNA and microRNA profiles of RIFE were similar to those of endometria of healthy women, many genes were significantly dysregulated in RIFE (cut off at 1.5 fold change. The majority (~75% of differentially expressed genes in RIFE including S100 calcium binding protein P (S100P, Chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 13 (CXCL13 and SIX homeobox 1 (SIX1 were down-regulated, suggesting that reduced uterine expression of these genes is associated with RIF. Gene Set Enrichment analyses (GSEA for mRNA microarrays revealed that various signaling pathways including Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF signaling and a P4 response were dysregulated in RIFE although expression levels of Estrogen receptor α (ERα and Progesterone receptor (PR were not significantly altered in RIFE. Furthermore, expression and phosphorylation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 are reduced and a gene set associated with Janus kinase (JAK-STAT signaling pathway is systemically down-regulated in these patients. Pairwise analyses of microRNA arrays with prediction of dysregulated microRNAs based on mRNA expression datasets demonstrated that 6 microRNAs are aberrantly regulated in RIFE. Collectively, we here

  5. Astrocytic Ca2+ signals are required for the functional integrity of tripartite synapses

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    Tanaka Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal activity alters calcium ion (Ca2+ dynamics in astrocytes, but the physiologic relevance of these changes is controversial. To examine this issue further, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the expression of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate absorbent, “IP3 sponge”, attenuates astrocytic Ca2+ signaling. Results Attenuated Ca2+ activity correlated with reduced astrocytic coverage of asymmetric synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region in these animals. The decreased astrocytic ‘protection’ of the synapses facilitated glutamate ‘spillover’, which was reflected by prolonged glutamate transporter currents in stratum radiatum astrocytes and enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in response to burst stimulation. These mice also exhibited behavioral impairments in spatial reference memory and remote contextual fear memory, in which hippocampal circuits are involved. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IP3-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling correlates with the formation of functional tripartite synapses in the hippocampus.

  6. Overload-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy is not impaired by loss of myofiber STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Schindler, Joaquín; Esparza, Mary C; McKendry, James; Breen, Leigh; Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Although the signal pathways mediating muscle protein synthesis and degradation are well characterized, the transcriptional processes modulating skeletal muscle mass and adaptive growth are poorly understood. Recently, studies in mouse models of muscle wasting or acutely exercised human muscle have suggested a potential role for the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in adaptive growth. Hence, in the present study we sought to define the contribution of STAT3 to skeletal muscle adaptive growth. In contrast to previous work, two different resistance exercise protocols did not change STAT3 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. To directly address the role of STAT3 in load-induced (i.e., adaptive) growth, we studied the anabolic effects of 14 days of synergist ablation (SA) in skeletal muscle-specific STAT3 knockout (mKO) mice and their floxed, wild-type (WT) littermates. Plantaris muscle weight and fiber area in the nonoperated leg (control; CON) was comparable between genotypes. As expected, SA significantly increased plantaris weight, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and anabolic signaling in WT mice, although interestingly, this induction was not impaired in STAT3 mKO mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that STAT3 is not required for overload-mediated hypertrophy in mouse skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Mitochondrial STAT3 contributes to transformation of Barrett's epithelial cells that express oncogenic Ras in a p53-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhua; Huo, Xiaofang; Agoston, Agoston T; Zhang, Xi; Theiss, Arianne L; Cheng, Edaire; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zaika, Alexander; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Lobie, Peter E; Odze, Robert D; Spechler, Stuart J; Souza, Rhonda F

    2015-08-01

    Metaplastic epithelial cells of Barrett's esophagus transformed by the combination of p53-knockdown and oncogenic Ras expression are known to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). When phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 (Tyr705), STAT3 functions as a nuclear transcription factor that can contribute to oncogenesis. STAT3 phosphorylated at serine 727 (Ser727) localizes in mitochondria, but little is known about mitochondrial STAT3's contribution to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus, which is the focus of this study. We introduced a constitutively active variant of human STAT3 (STAT3CA) into the following: 1) non-neoplastic Barrett's (BAR-T) cells; 2) BAR-T cells with p53 knockdown; and 3) BAR-T cells that express oncogenic H-Ras(G12V). STAT3CA transformed only the H-Ras(G12V)-expressing BAR-T cells (evidenced by loss of contact inhibition, formation of colonies in soft agar, and generation of tumors in immunodeficient mice), and did so in a p53-independent fashion. The transformed cells had elevated levels of both mitochondrial (Ser727) and nuclear (Tyr705) phospho-STAT3. Introduction of a STAT3CA construct with a mutated tyrosine phosphorylation site into H-Ras(G12V)-expressing Barrett's cells resulted in high levels of mitochondrial phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) with little or no nuclear phospho-STAT3 (Tyr705), and the cells still formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. Thus tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is not required for tumor formation in Ras-expressing Barrett's cells. We conclude that mitochondrial STAT3 (Ser727) can contribute to oncogenesis in Barrett's cells that express oncogenic Ras. These findings suggest that agents targeting STAT3 might be useful for chemoprevention in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for STAT3β Reveal Its Contribution to Constitutive STAT3 Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer

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    Uddalak Bharadwaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in mice and humans 19 years ago, the contribution of alternatively spliced Stat3, Stat3β, to the overall functions of Stat3 has been controversial. Tyrosine-phosphorylated (p Stat3β homodimers are more stable, bind DNA more avidly, are less susceptible to dephosphorylation, and exhibit distinct intracellular dynamics, most notably markedly prolonged nuclear retention, compared to pStat3α homodimers. Overexpression of one or the other isoform in cell lines demonstrated that Stat3β acted as a dominant-negative of Stat3α in transformation assays; however, studies with mouse strains deficient in one or the other isoform indicated distinct contributions of Stat3 isoforms to inflammation. Current immunological reagents cannot differentiate Stat3β proteins derived from alternative splicing vs. proteolytic cleavage of Stat3α. We developed monoclonal antibodies that recognize the 7 C-terminal amino acids unique to Stat3β (CT7 and do not cross-react with Stat3α. Immunoblotting studies revealed that levels of Stat3β protein, but not Stat3α, in breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with overall pStat3 levels, suggesting that Stat3β may contribute to constitutive Stat3 activation in this tumor system. The ability to unambiguously discriminate splice alternative Stat3β from proteolytic Stat3β and Stat3α will provide new insights into the contribution of Stat3β vs. Stat3α to oncogenesis, as well as other biological and pathological processes.

  9. STAT3: A Novel Molecular Mediator of Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy

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    Melanie Spitzner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemoradiotherapy (CRT represents a standard treatment for many human cancers, frequently combined with radical surgical resection. However, a considerable percentage of primary cancers are at least partially resistant to CRT, which represents a substantial clinical problem, because it exposes cancer patients to the potential side effects of both irradiation and chemotherapy. It is therefore exceedingly important to determine the molecular characteristics underlying CRT-resistance and to identify novel molecular targets that can be manipulated to re-sensitize resistant tumors to CRT. In this review, we highlight much of the recent evidence suggesting that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 plays a prominent role in mediating CRT-resistance, and we outline why inhibition of STAT3 holds great promise for future multimodal treatment concepts in oncology.

  10. STAT3: A Novel Molecular Mediator of Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy

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    Spitzner, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.spitzner@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, University Medicine Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, Göttingen 37075 (Germany); Ebner, Reinhard [Genetics Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Wolff, Hendrik A. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medicine Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, Göttingen 37075 (Germany); Ghadimi, B. Michael [Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, University Medicine Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, Göttingen 37075 (Germany); Wienands, Jürgen [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, University Medicine Göttingen, Humboldtallee 34, Göttingen 37073 (Germany); Grade, Marian, E-mail: melanie.spitzner@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, University Medicine Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, Göttingen 37075 (Germany)

    2014-09-29

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) represents a standard treatment for many human cancers, frequently combined with radical surgical resection. However, a considerable percentage of primary cancers are at least partially resistant to CRT, which represents a substantial clinical problem, because it exposes cancer patients to the potential side effects of both irradiation and chemotherapy. It is therefore exceedingly important to determine the molecular characteristics underlying CRT-resistance and to identify novel molecular targets that can be manipulated to re-sensitize resistant tumors to CRT. In this review, we highlight much of the recent evidence suggesting that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a prominent role in mediating CRT-resistance, and we outline why inhibition of STAT3 holds great promise for future multimodal treatment concepts in oncology.

  11. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In, E-mail: jipark@mcw.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

  12. Feedback activation of STAT3 mediates trastuzumab resistance via upregulation of MUC1 and MUC4 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Kexing; Qian, Weizhu; Hou, Sheng; Wang, Hao; Dai, Jianxin; Wei, Huafeng; Guo, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Although HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab confers a substantial benefit for patients with HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancer, overcoming trastuzumab resistance remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a STAT3-centered positive feedback loop that mediates the resistance of trastuzumab. Mechanistically, chronic exposure of trastuzumab causes the upregulation of fibronection (FN), EGF and IL-6 in parental trastuzumab-sensitive breast and gastric cells and convergently leads to STAT3 hyperactivation. Activated STAT3 enhances the expression of FN, EGF and IL-6, thus constituting a positive feedback loop which amplifies and maintains the STAT3 signal; furthermore, hyperactivated STAT3 signal promotes the expression of MUC1 and MUC4, consequently mediating trastuzumab resistance via maintenance of persistent HER2 activation and masking of trastuzumab binding to HER2 respectively. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 disrupted STAT3-dependent positive feedback loop and recovered the trastuzumab sensitivity partially due to increased apoptosis induction. Combined trastuzumab with STAT3 inhibition synergistically suppressed the growth of the trastuzumab-resistant tumor xenografts in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that feedback activation of STAT3 constitutes a key node mediating trastuzumab resistance. Combinatorial targeting on both HER2 and STAT3 may enhance the efficacy of trastuzumab or other HER2-targeting agents in HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer. PMID:25327561

  13. Astrocytic Calcium Waves Signal Brain Injury to Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

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    Anna Kraft

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia. Using a newly established in vitro system we show that calcium waves induced in an astrocytic monolayer spread to neural stem and progenitor cells and increase their self-renewal as well as migratory behavior. These changes are due to an upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway. This introduces the concept of propagating astrocytic calcium waves transmitting brain injury signals over long distances.

  14. Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration

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    Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen' s University Cancer Institute, Queen' s University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Feracci, Helene [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France); Raptis, Leda, E-mail: raptisl@queensu.ca [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen' s University Cancer Institute, Queen' s University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2010-03-10

    Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

  15. Identification of sites of STAT3 action in the female reproductive tract through conditional gene deletion.

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    Rebecca L Robker

    Full Text Available The STAT3 transcription factor is a pleiotropic transducer of signalling by hormones, growth factors and cytokines that has been identified in the female reproductive tract from oocytes and granulosa cells of the ovary to uterine epithelial and stromal cells. In the present study we used transgenic models to investigate the importance of STAT3 for reproductive performance in these different tissues. The Cre-LoxP system was used to delete STAT3 in oocytes by crossing Stat3fl/fl with Zp3-cre+ mice, or in ovarian granulosa cells and uterine stroma by crossing with Amhr2-Cre+ mice. Surprisingly, deletion of STAT3 in oocytes had no effect on fertility indicating that the abundance of STAT3 protein in maturing oocytes and fertilized zygotes is not essential to these developmental stages. In Stat3fl/fl;Amhr2-cre+ females impaired fertility was observed through significantly fewer litters and smaller litter size. Ovulation rate, oocyte fertilization and development to blastocyst were unaffected in this line; however, poor recombination efficiency in granulosa cells had yielded no net change in STAT3 protein abundance. In contrast, uteri from these mice showed STAT3 protein depletion selectively from the stomal compartment. A significant reduction in number of viable fetuses on gestational day 18, increased fetal resorptions and disrupted placental morphology were evident causes of the reduced fertility. In conclusion, this study defines an important role for STAT3 in uterine stromal cells during embryo implantation and the development of a functional placenta.

  16. Identification of new shikonin derivatives as STAT3 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Han-Yue; Fu, Jiang-Yan; Yang, Min-Kai; Han, Hong-Wei; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Han; Lin, Hong-Yan; Tang, Cheng-Yi; Qi, Jin-Liang; Yang, Rong-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2017-12-15

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 is a constitutively activated oncogenic protein in various human tumors and represents a valid target for anticancer drug design. In this study, we have achieved a new type of STAT3 inhibitors based on structural modifications on shikonin scaffold, guided by computational modelling. By tests, PMMB-187 exhibited a more outstanding profile than shikonin on a small panel of human breast cancer cells, especially for the MDA-MB-231 cells. For the cellular mechanisms research, PMMB-187 was found to induce cell apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells, associated with the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, production of ROS and alteration of the levels of apoptosis-related proteins. Furthermore, PMMB-187 inhibited constitutive/inducible STAT3 activation, transcriptional activity, nuclear translocation and downstream target genes expression in STAT3-dependent breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Besides, no obvious inhibitory effect on activation of STAT1 and STAT5 was observed with PMMB-187 treatment. Most notably, the in vivo studies further revealed that PMMB-187 could dramatically suppress the MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted tumor growth. The in vitro and in vivo results collectively suggest that PMMB-187 may serve as a promising lead compound for the further development of potential therapeutic anti-neoplastic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reciprocal Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics and Calcium Signaling in Astrocyte Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that inhibition of neuronal activity, glutamate uptake, or reversed-Na+/Ca2+-exchange with TTX, TFB-TBOA, or YM-244769, respectively, increases mitochondrial mobility in astrocytic processes. In the present study, we examined the interrelationships between mitochondrial mobility and Ca2+ signaling in astrocyte processes in organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus. All of the treatments that increase mitochondrial mobility decreased basal Ca2+. As recently reported, we observed spontaneous Ca2+ spikes with half-lives of ∼1 s that spread ∼6 μm and are almost abolished by a TRPA1 channel antagonist. Virtually all of these Ca2+ spikes overlap mitochondria (98%), and 62% of mitochondria are overlapped by these spikes. Although tetrodotoxin, TFB-TBOA, or YM-244769 increased Ca2+ signaling, the specific effects on peak, decay time, and/or frequency were different. To more specifically manipulate mitochondrial mobility, we explored the effects of Miro motor adaptor proteins. We show that Miro1 and Miro2 are both expressed in astrocytes and that exogenous expression of Ca2+-insensitive Miro mutants (KK) nearly doubles the percentage of mobile mitochondria. Expression of Miro1KK had a modest effect on the frequency of these Ca2+ spikes but nearly doubled the decay half-life. The mitochondrial proton ionophore, FCCP, caused a large, prolonged increase in cytosolic Ca2+ followed by an increase in the decay time and the spread of the spontaneous Ca2+ spikes. Photo-ablation of mitochondria in individual astrocyte processes has similar effects on Ca2+. Together, these studies show that Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial mobility, and mitochondria in turn regulate Ca2+ signals in astrocyte processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In neurons, the movement and positioning of mitochondria at sites of elevated activity are important for matching local energy and Ca2+ buffering capacity. Previously, we demonstrated that mitochondria are immobilized in astrocytes in response

  18. Pivotal importance of STAT3 in protecting the heart from acute and chronic stress: new advancement and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foaud A. Zouein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 are poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3 in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via noncanonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the noncanonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues.

  19. Dancing rhinos in stilettos: The amazing saga of the genomic and nongenomic actions of STAT3 in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouein, Fouad A; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W

    2013-07-01

    A substantial body of evidence has shown that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has an important role in the heart in protecting the myocardium from ischemia and oxidative stress. These actions are attributed to STAT3 functioning as a transcription factor in upregulating cardioprotective genes. Loss of STAT3 has been implicated as well in the pathogenesis of heart failure and, in that context and in addition to the loss of a cardioprotective gene program, nuclear STAT3 has been identified as a transcriptional repressor important for the normal functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system for protein degradation. The later finding establishes a genomic role for STAT3 in controlling cellular homeostasis in cardiac myocytes independent of stress. Surprisingly, although a well-studied area, very few downstream gene targets of STAT3 in the heart have been definitively identified. In addition, STAT3 is now known to induce gene expression by noncanonical means that are not well characterized in the heart. On the other hand, recent evidence has shown that STAT3 has important nongenomic actions in cardiac myocytes that affect microtubule stability, mitochondrial respiration, and autophagy. These extranuclear actions of STAT3 involve protein-protein interactions that are incompletely understood, as is their regulation in both the healthy and injured heart. Moreover, how the diverse genomic and nongenomic actions of STAT3 crosstalk with each other is unchartered territory. Here we present an overview of what is and is not known about both the genomic and nongenomic actions of STAT3 in the heart from a structure-function perspective that focuses on the impact of posttranslational modifications and oxidative stress in regulating the actions and interactions of STAT3. Even though we have learnt a great deal about the role played by STAT3 in the heart, much more awaits to be discovered.

  20. STAT3 in Epithelial Cells Regulates Inflammation and Tumor Progression to Malignant State in Colon

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    Andrew V. Nguyen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism of tumorigenesis especially tumor progression to malignancy in the inflamed colon is still unclear. Our study shows that epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, persistently activated in inflamed colon, is not required for inflammation-induced epithelial overproliferation and the development of early-stage tumors; however, it is essential for tumor progression to advanced malignancy. We found that one of the mechanisms that epithelial STAT3 regulates in tumor progression might be to modify leukocytic infiltration in the large intestine. Activation of epithelial STAT3 promotes the infiltration of the CD8+ lymphocyte population but inhibits the recruitment of regulatory T (Treg lymphocytes. The loss of Stat3 in epithelial cells promoted the expression of cytokines/chemokines including CCL19, CCL28, and RANTES, which are known to be able to recruit Treg lymphocytes. Linked to these changes was the pathway mediated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate kinases, which is activated in colonic epithelial cells in inflamed colon with functional STAT3 but not in epithelial cells deleted of STAT3. Our data suggest that epithelial STAT3 plays a critical role in inflammation-induced tumor progression through regulation of leukocytic recruitment especially the infiltration of Treg cells in the large intestine.

  1. Müller Cell-Derived PEDF Mediates Neuroprotection via STAT3 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Eichler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/ Aims: This study was performed to reveal signaling pathways exploited by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF derived from retinal (glial Müller cells to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs from cell death. Methods: The survival of RGCs was determined in the presence of conditioned culture media (MCM from or in co-cultures with Müller cells. The significance of PEDF-induced STAT3 activation was evaluated in viability assays and using Western blotting analyses and siRNA-transfected cells. Results: Secreted mediators of Müller cells increased survival of RGCs under normoxia or hypoxia to a similar degree as of PEDF- or IL-6-exposed cells. PEDF and MCM induced an increased STAT3 activation in RGCs and R28 cells, and neutralization of PEDF in MCM attenuated STAT3 activation. Inhibition of STAT3 reduced PEDF-promoted survival of RGCs. Similar to IL-6, PEDF induced STAT3 activation, acting in a dose-dependent manner via the PEDF receptor (PEDF-R encoded by the PNPLA2 gene. Ablation of PEDF-R attenuated MCM-induced STAT3 activation and compromised the viability of PEDF-exposed R28 cells. Conclusions: Müller cells are an important source of PEDF, which promotes RGC survival through STAT3 activation and, at least in part, via PEDF-R. Enhancing the secretory function of Müller cells may be useful to promote RGC survival in retinal neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. B cells promote tumor progression via STAT3 regulated-angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Yang

    Full Text Available The role of B cells in cancer and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further explored. Here, we show that tumor-associated B cells with activated STAT3 contribute to tumor development by promoting tumor angiogenesis. B cells with or without Stat3 have opposite effects on tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in both B16 melanoma and Lewis Lung Cancer mouse models. Ex vivo angiogenesis assays show that B cell-mediated tumor angiogenesis is mainly dependent on the induction of pro-angiogenic gene expression, which requires Stat3 signaling in B cells. Furthermore, B cells with activated STAT3 are mainly found in or near tumor vasculature and correlate significantly with overall STAT3 activity in human tumors. Moreover, the density of B cells in human tumor tissues correlates significantly with expression levels of several STAT3-downstream pro-angiogenic genes, as well as the degree of tumor angiogenesis. Together, these findings define a novel role of B cells in promoting tumor progression through angiogenesis and identify STAT3 in B cells as potential therapeutic target for anti-angiogenesis therapy.

  3. Insertional Mutagenesis Identifies a STAT3/Arid1b/β-catenin Pathway Driving Neurofibroma Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify genes and signaling pathways that initiate Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 neurofibromas, we used unbiased insertional mutagenesis screening, mouse models, and molecular analyses. We mapped an Nf1-Stat3-Arid1b/β-catenin pathway that becomes active in the context of Nf1 loss. Genetic deletion of Stat3 in Schwann cell progenitors (SCPs and Schwann cells (SCs prevents neurofibroma formation, decreasing SCP self-renewal and β-catenin activity. β-catenin expression rescues effects of Stat3 loss in SCPs. Importantly, P-STAT3 and β-catenin expression correlate in human neurofibromas. Mechanistically, P-Stat3 represses Gsk3β and the SWI/SNF gene Arid1b to increase β-catenin. Knockdown of Arid1b or Gsk3β in Stat3fl/fl;Nf1fl/fl;DhhCre SCPs rescues neurofibroma formation after in vivo transplantation. Stat3 represses Arid1b through histone modification in a Brg1-dependent manner, indicating that epigenetic modification plays a role in early tumorigenesis. Our data map a neural tumorigenesis pathway and support testing JAK/STAT and Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitors in neurofibroma therapeutic trials.

  4. Cutting edge: TCR stimulation by antibody and bacterial superantigen induces Stat3 activation in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerwien, J; Nielsen, M; Labuda, T

    1999-01-01

    -specific human CD4+ T cell lines. In contrast, IL-2 induces a rapid and transient tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of Stat3. Compared with IL-2, CD3 ligation induces a delayed Stat3 binding to oligonucleotide probes from the ICAM-1 and IL-2R alpha promoter. CD3-mediated activation of Stat3 is almost...... completely inhibited by a Src kinase inhibitor (PP1), whereas IL-2-induced Stat3 activation is unaffected. In conclusion, we show that CD3 ligation by mAb and SE triggers a rapid, PP1-sensitive tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of Stat3 in human CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that TCR/CD3...... and IL-2 induce Stat3 activation via distinct signaling pathways....

  5. Striatal adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expression and alcohol drinking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonnoh R; Ruby, Christina L; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Adams, Chelsea A; Young Kang, Na; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. Among its diverse functions in the brain, adenosine regulates glutamate release and has an essential role in ethanol sensitivity and preference. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling in neuroglial interaction remain elusive. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1), drink more ethanol compared with wild-type mice and have elevated striatal glutamate levels. In addition, ENT1 inhibition or knockdown reduces glutamate transporter expression in cultured astrocytes. Here, we examined how adenosine signaling in astrocytes contributes to ethanol drinking. Inhibition or deletion of ENT1 reduced the expression of type 2 excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT2) and the astrocyte-specific water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4). EAAT2 and AQP4 colocalization was also reduced in the striatum of ENT1 null mice. Ceftriaxone, an antibiotic compound known to increase EAAT2 expression and function, elevated not only EAAT2 but also AQP4 expression in the striatum. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reduced ethanol drinking, suggesting that ENT1-mediated downregulation of EAAT2 and AQP4 expression contributes to excessive ethanol consumption in our mouse model. Overall, our findings indicate that adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expressions, which control ethanol drinking in mice.

  6. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3′-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

  7. Mutations in STAT3 and diagnostic guidelines for hyper-IgE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellner, Cristina; Gertz, E Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Lagos, Macarena; Perro, Mario; Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Pietrogrande, Maria C; Cossu, Fausto; Franco, José L; Matamoros, Nuria; Pietrucha, Barbara; Heropolitańska-Pliszka, Edyta; Yeganeh, Mehdi; Moin, Mostafa; Español, Teresa; Ehl, Stephan; Gennery, Andrew R; Abinun, Mario; Breborowicz, Anna; Niehues, Tim; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Junker, Anne; Turvey, Stuart E; Plebani, Alessandro; Sánchez, Berta; Garty, Ben-Zion; Pignata, Claudio; Cancrini, Caterina; Litzman, Jiri; Sanal, Ozden; Baumann, Ulrich; Bacchetta, Rosa; Hsu, Amy P; Davis, Joie N; Hammarström, Lennart; Davies, E Graham; Eren, Efrem; Arkwright, Peter D; Moilanen, Jukka S; Viemann, Dorothee; Khan, Sujoy; Maródi, László; Cant, Andrew J; Freeman, Alexandra F; Puck, Jennifer M; Holland, Steven M; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2010-02-01

    The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections of the lung and skin, elevated serum IgE, and involvement of the soft and bony tissues. Recently, HIES has been associated with heterozygous dominant-negative mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and severe reductions of T(H)17 cells. To determine whether there is a correlation between the genotype and the phenotype of patients with HIES and to establish diagnostic criteria to distinguish between STAT3 mutated and STAT3 wild-type patients. We collected clinical data, determined T(H)17 cell numbers, and sequenced STAT3 in 100 patients with a strong clinical suspicion of HIES and serum IgE >1000 IU/mL. We explored diagnostic criteria by using a machine-learning approach to identify which features best predict a STAT3 mutation. In 64 patients, we identified 31 different STAT3 mutations, 18 of which were novel. These included mutations at splice sites and outside the previously implicated DNA-binding and Src homology 2 domains. A combination of 5 clinical features predicted STAT3 mutations with 85% accuracy. T(H)17 cells were profoundly reduced in patients harboring STAT3 mutations, whereas 10 of 13 patients without mutations had low (1000IU/mL plus a weighted score of clinical features >30 based on recurrent pneumonia, newborn rash, pathologic bone fractures, characteristic face, and high palate. Probable: These characteristics plus lack of T(H)17 cells or a family history for definitive HIES. Definitive: These characteristics plus a dominant-negative heterozygous mutation in STAT3. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An essential role for the Stat3 in regulating IgG immune complex-induced pulmonary inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing evidence suggests that transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 may play an important regulatory role during inflammation. However, the function of Stat3 in acute lung injury (ALI) is largely unknown. In the current study, by using an adenoviral vector e...

  9. Mitochondrial Stat3, the Need for Design Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Rincon, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Stat3 has been studied extensively as a transcription factor, however the finding that Stat3 also localizes to mitochondria has opened a new area to discover non-classical functions. Here we review the current knowledge of mitochondrial Stat3 as a regulator of the electron transport chain (ETC) and its impact on mitochondrial production of ATP and ROS. We also describe recent findings identifying Stat3 as a regulator of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis through its effect on the ETC. It is becoming evident that these non-classical functions of Stat3 can have a major impact on cancer progression, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, mitochondrial Stat3 functions challenge the current design of therapies that solely target Stat3 as a transcription factor and suggest the need for "design thinking," which leads to the development of novel strategies, to intervene the Stat3 pathway.

  10. The Expression of p-STAT3 in Stage IV Melanoma: Risk of CNS Metastasis and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Roland; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Schacherer, Christopher W.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key molecular hub of tumorigenesis and immune suppression. The expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) has been shown to be higher in melanoma metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) relative to distant metastasis in the rest of the body (systemic). We sought to determine whether the increased expression of p-STAT3 in non-CNS systemic melanoma metastasis is associated with an increased risk of developing CNS metastasis and is a negative prognostic factor for overall survival time. Methods We retrospectively identified 299 patients with stage IV melanoma. In a tissue microarray of systemic non-CNS metastasis specimens from these patients, we used immunohistochemical analysis to measure the percentage of cells with p-STAT3 expression and Kaplan–Meier survival estimates to analyze the association of p-STAT3 expression with median survival time, time to first CNS metastasis, and development of CNS metastasis. Results Lung metastases exhibited the highest level of p-STAT3 expression while spleen lesions had the lowest. The p-STAT3 expression was not associated with an increased risk of developing CNS metastasis or time to CNS metastasis. However, p-STAT3 expression was a negative prognostic factor for overall survival time in patients that did not develop CNS metastasis. Conclusions Stage IV melanoma patients without CNS metastasis treated with p-STAT3 inhibitors in efficacy studies should be stratified based on tumor expression of p-STAT3; however since p-STAT3 expression is not associated with the risk of CNS disease, increased MRI surveillance of the brain is not likely necessary. PMID:22488042

  11. Monocytes induce STAT3 activation in human mesenchymal stem cells to promote osteoblast formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Nicolaidou

    Full Text Available A major therapeutic challenge is how to replace bone once it is lost. Bone loss is a characteristic of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Cells and cytokines of the immune system are known to regulate bone turnover by controlling the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. However, less is known about the regulation of osteoblasts (OB, the bone forming cells. This study aimed to investigate whether immune cells also regulate OB differentiation. Using in vitro cell cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, it was shown that monocytes/macrophages potently induced MSC differentiation into OBs. This was evident by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP after 7 days and the formation of mineralised bone nodules at 21 days. This monocyte-induced osteogenic effect was mediated by cell contact with MSCs leading to the production of soluble factor(s by the monocytes. As a consequence of these interactions we observed a rapid activation of STAT3 in the MSCs. Gene profiling of STAT3 constitutively active (STAT3C infected MSCs using Illumina whole human genome arrays showed that Runx2 and ALP were up-regulated whilst DKK1 was down-regulated in response to STAT3 signalling. STAT3C also led to the up-regulation of the oncostatin M (OSM and LIF receptors. In the co-cultures, OSM that was produced by monocytes activated STAT3 in MSCs, and neutralising antibodies to OSM reduced ALP by 50%. These data indicate that OSM, in conjunction with other mediators, can drive MSC differentiation into OB. This study establishes a role for monocyte/macrophages as critical regulators of osteogenic differentiation via OSM production and the induction of STAT3 signalling in MSCs. Inducing the local activation of STAT3 in bone cells may be a valuable tool to increase bone formation in osteoporosis and arthritis, and in localised bone remodelling during fracture repair.

  12. STAT3 inhibitor enhances chemotherapy drug efficacy by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STAT3 inhibitor treatment, RNAi or ectopic overexpression of STAT3 or MUC1 in NSCLC cells were used to determine their ... Keywords: STAT3, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Mucin 1, Chemoresistance, Chemotherapy. Tropical Journal of ..... Vinogradov S, Wei X. Cancer stem cells and drug resistance: the potential of.

  13. Mitochondrial Stat3, the Need for Design Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Rui; Rincon, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    .... Therefore, mitochondrial Stat3 functions challenge the current design of therapies that solely target Stat3 as a transcription factor and suggest the need for "design thinking," which leads to the development of novel strategies, to intervene the Stat3 pathway.

  14. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R M; Moss, S J; Haydon, P G

    2013-01-15

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions of sleep deprivation. Here, we found that astrocytic signaling to adenosine (A1) receptors was required for the robust reduction of depressive-like behaviors following 12 hours of sleep deprivation. As sleep deprivation activates synaptic A1 receptors, we mimicked the effect of sleep deprivation on depression phenotypes by administration of the A1 agonist CCPA. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into how sleep deprivation impacts mood, and provide a novel pathway for rapid antidepressant development by modulation of glial signaling in the brain.

  15. High-throughput analysis of calcium signalling kinetics in astrocytes stimulated with different neurotransmitters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R James

    Full Text Available Astrocytes express a wide range of receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones that are coupled to increases in intracellular Ca(2+ concentration, enabling them to detect activity in both neuronal and vascular networks. There is increasing evidence that astrocytes are able to discriminate between different Ca(2+-linked stimuli, as the efficiency of some Ca(2+ dependent processes--notably release of gliotransmitters--depends on the stimulus that initiates the Ca(2+ signal. The spatiotemporal complexity of Ca(2+ signals is substantial, and we here tested the hypothesis that variation in the kinetics of Ca(2+ responses could offer a means of selectively engaging downstream targets, if agonists exhibited a "signature shape" in evoked Ca(2+ response. To test this, astrocytes were exposed to three different receptor agonists (ATP, glutamate and histamine and the resultant Ca(2+ signals were analysed for systematic differences in kinetics that depended on the initiating stimulus. We found substantial heterogeneity between cells in the time course of Ca(2+ responses, but the variation did not correlate with the type or concentration of the stimulus. Using a simple metric to quantify the extent of difference between populations, it was found that the variation between agonists was insufficient to allow signal discrimination. We conclude that the time course of global intracellular Ca(2+ signals does not offer the cells a means for distinguishing between different neurotransmitters.

  16. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by sulforaphane reduces adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young S; Kim, Chan H; Ha, Tae S; Ahn, Hee Y

    2015-11-18

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) play key roles in the initiation of vascular inflammation. In this study, we explored whether sulforaphane, a dietary phytochemical, can inhibit the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the mechanisms involved. Sulforaphane prevented the LPS-mediated increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, (P < 0.01) in HUVEC. Sulforaphane also prevented the LPS-mediated increase in the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (P < 0.01). Stattic, a STAT3 inhibitor, reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.01). STAT3 small interfering RNA treatment reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and STAT3 (P < 0.01). Sulforaphane reduced LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC (P < 0.01). In C57BL/6 mice, injection of LPS increased aortic ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, and this effect was prevented by sulforaphane. These data provide insight into the mechanism through which sulforaphane partly reduces the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on the vascular wall by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation.

  17. Analysis of STAT3 post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human prostate cancer with different Gleason Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Caterina; Altieri, Fabio; Liberti, Marcello; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Chichiarelli, Silvia; Marrocco, Ilaria; Borgoni, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Prostate Cancer (PCa) is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The androgen receptor (AR) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) could be effective targets for PCa therapy. STAT3, a cytoplasmatic latent transcription factor, is a hub protein for several oncogenic signalling pathways and up-regulates the expression of numerous genes involved in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis and cell survival. STAT3 activity can be modulated by several Post-Translational Modifications (PTMs) which reflect particular cell conditions and may be implicated in PCa development and progression. The aim of this work was to analyze STAT3 PTMs at different tumor stages and their relationship with STAT3 cellular functions. For this purpose, sixty-five prostatectomy, Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, classified with different Gleason Scores, were subjected to immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR analysis. All experiments were carried out in matched non-neoplastic and neoplastic tissues. Data obtained showed different STAT3 PTMs profiles among the analyzed tumor grades which correlate with differences in the amount and distribution of specific STAT3 interactors as well as the expression of STAT3 target genes. These results highlight the importance of PTMs as an additional biomarker for the exactly evaluation of the PCa stage and the optimal treatment of this disease. PMID:28489571

  18. Paeoniflorin inhibits human glioma cells via STAT3 degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie XH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-hu Nie,1,* Jia Ou-yang,2,* Ying Xing,3 Dan-yan Li,4 Xing-yu Dong,1 Ru-en Liu,5 Ru-xiang Xu6 1Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital, Southern Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Nanchang University Medical College, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Gastroenterology, The 98th Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, Huzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Spleen & Stomach Institution, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Neurosurgery, China–Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 6Bayi Brain Hospital, The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We investigated the underlying mechanism for the potent proapoptotic effect of paeoniflorin (PF on human glioma cells in vitro, focusing on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling. Significant time- and dose-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation were observed in PF-treated U87 and U251 glioma cells. Expression of STAT3, its active form phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3, and several downstream molecules, including HIAP, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and Survivin, were significantly downregulated upon PF treatment. Overexpression of STAT3 induced resistance to PF, suggesting that STAT3 was a critical target of PF. Interestingly, rapid downregulation of STAT3 was consistent with its accelerated degradation, but not with its dephosphorylation or transcriptional modulation. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the prodegradation effect of PF on STAT3 was mainly through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway rather than via lysosomal degradation. These findings indicated that PF-induced growth suppression and apoptosis in human glioma cells through the proteasome-dependent degradation of STAT3. Keywords: paeoniflorin, glioma, apoptosis

  19. Analysis list: Stat3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Stat3 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u.../mm9/target/Stat3.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Stat3.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Stat3.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Stat3.B...lood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Stat3.Digestive_trac...t.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Stat3.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp

  20. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R. M.; Moss, S.J.; Haydon, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions...

  1. The Antiproliferative and Colony-suppressive Activities of STAT3 Inhibitors in Human Cancer Cells Is Compromised Under Hypoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jilai; Xiao, Hui; Wu, Ruohan; Cao, Yang; Li, Chenglong; Xu, Ronald; Pierson, Christopher R; Finlay, Jonathan L; Yang, Fang; Gu, Ning; Lin, Jiayuh

    2017-02-01

    Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been indicated as a novel cancer drug target, since it plays an important role in diverse oncogenic processes including survival, cell proliferation and migration. Emerging STAT3 inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in cancer cells and animal tumor models. It is well known that most solid tumors are characterized by hypoxia, but it is not clear if hypoxic conditions affect activity of STAT3 inhibitors. To examine this, two STAT3 inhibitors were tested to investigate their inhibitory efficacy in cancer cells grown under hypoxic conditions compared with those without hypoxia. Cell proliferation, colony formation and western blot assays were performed to examine the differences in the cell viability, proliferation and proteins in the STAT3 pathway. Under hypoxic conditions, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration values for both STAT3 inhibitors were increased compared to normoxic conditions in human pancreatic cancer, medulloblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. In addition, the ability of both STAT3 inhibitors to inhibit colony formation in pancreatic cancer, medulloblastoma and sarcoma cell lines was reduced under hypoxic conditions when compared to cells under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, there was an increase in phosphorylated STAT3 levels in cancer cells under hypoxic conditions, suggesting this may be one of the mechanisms of resistance. In summary, the results presented here provide a novel finding of STAT3 inhibitor activity under hypoxic conditions and indicate that under such low oxygen conditions, the anticancer efficacy of STAT3 inhibitors was indeed hampered. These results highlight the need to develop new therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance of cancer cells to STAT3 inhibitors under hypoxic conditions. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Endothelial STAT3 Modulates Protective Mechanisms in a Mouse Ischemia-Reperfusion Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shataakshi Dube

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available STAT3 is a transcriptional regulator that plays an important role in coordinating inflammation and immunity. In addition, there is a growing appreciation of the role STAT3 signaling plays in response to organ injury following diverse insults. Acute kidney injury (AKI from ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common clinical entity with devastating consequences, and the recognition that endothelial alterations contribute to kidney dysfunction in this setting is of growing interest. Consequently, we used a mouse with a genetic deletion of Stat3 restricted to the endothelium to examine the role of STAT3 signaling in the pathophysiology of ischemic AKI. In a mouse model of ischemic AKI, the loss of endothelial STAT3 signaling significantly exacerbated kidney dysfunction, morphologic injury, and proximal tubular oxidative stress. The increased severity of ischemic AKI was associated with more robust endothelial-leukocyte adhesion and increased tissue accumulation of F4/80+ macrophages. Moreover, important proximal tubular adaptive mechanisms to injury were diminished in association with decreased tissue mRNA levels of the epithelial cell survival cytokine IL-22. In aggregate, these findings suggest that the endothelial STAT3 signaling plays an important role in limiting kidney dysfunction in ischemic AKI and that selective pharmacologic activation of endothelial STAT3 signaling could serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  3. Astrocytic Calcium Waves Signal Brain Injury to Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Anna; Jubal, Eduardo Rosales; von Laer, Ruth; Döring, Claudia; Rocha, Adriana; Grebbin, Moyo; Zenke, Martin; Kettenmann, Helmut; Stroh, Albrecht; Momma, Stefan

    2017-03-14

    Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia. Using a newly established in vitro system we show that calcium waves induced in an astrocytic monolayer spread to neural stem and progenitor cells and increase their self-renewal as well as migratory behavior. These changes are due to an upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway. This introduces the concept of propagating astrocytic calcium waves transmitting brain injury signals over long distances. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of proopiomelanocortin neuron Stat3 in regulating arterial pressure and mediating the chronic effects of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; do Carmo, Jussara M; Adi, Ahmad; Hamza, Shereen; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2013-05-01

    Although signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key second messenger by which leptin regulates appetite and body weight, its role in specific neuronal populations in metabolic regulation and in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on blood pressure is unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that Stat3 signaling in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons mediates the chronic effects of leptin on mean arterial pressure (MAP), as well as on glucose regulation, energy expenditure, and food intake. Stat3(flox/flox) mice were crossed with POMC-Cre mice to generate mice with Stat3 deletion specifically in POMC neurons (Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre). Oxygen consumption (Vo2), carbon dioxide respiration (Vco2), motor activity, heat production, food intake, and MAP were measured 24 hours/d. After baseline measurements, leptin was infused (4 μg/kg per min, IP) for 7 days. Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice were hyperphagic, heavier, and had increased respiratory quotients compared with control Stat3(flox/flox) mice. Baseline MAP was not different between the groups, and chronic leptin infusion reduced food intake similarly in both groups (27 versus 29%). Vo2, Vco2, and heat production responses to leptin were not significantly different in control and Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. However, leptin-mediated increases in MAP were completely abolished, and blood pressure responses to acute air-jet stress were attenuated in male Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. These results indicate that Stat3 signaling in POMC neurons is essential for leptin-mediated increases in MAP, but not for anorexic or thermogenic effects of leptin.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling regulates working memory, mitochondrial metabolism, and amyloid-β uptake in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sreemathi; Pharaoh, Gavin A; Marlin, M Caleb; Masser, Dustin R; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Wronowski, Benjamin; Yeganeh, Alexander; Parks, Eileen E; Premkumar, Pavithra; Farley, Julie A; Owen, Daniel B; Humphries, Kenneth M; Kinter, Michael; Freeman, Willard M; Szweda, Luke I; Van Remmen, Holly; Sonntag, William E

    2018-02-01

    A decline in mitochondrial function and biogenesis as well as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important determinants of aging. With advancing age, there is a concomitant reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that is closely associated with neuronal aging and neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the effect of the decline in IGF-1 signaling with age on astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism and astrocyte function and its association with learning and memory. Learning and memory was assessed using the radial arm water maze in young and old mice as well as tamoxifen-inducible astrocyte-specific knockout of IGFR (GFAP-Cre TAM /igfr f/f ). The impact of IGF-1 signaling on mitochondrial function was evaluated using primary astrocyte cultures from igfr f/f mice using AAV-Cre mediated knockdown using Oroboros respirometry and Seahorse assays. Our results indicate that a reduction in IGF-1 receptor (IGFR) expression with age is associated with decline in hippocampal-dependent learning and increased gliosis. Astrocyte-specific knockout of IGFR also induced impairments in working memory. Using primary astrocyte cultures, we show that reducing IGF-1 signaling via a 30-50% reduction IGFR expression, comparable to the physiological changes in IGF-1 that occur with age, significantly impaired ATP synthesis. IGFR deficient astrocytes also displayed altered mitochondrial structure and function and increased mitochondrial ROS production associated with the induction of an antioxidant response. However, IGFR deficient astrocytes were more sensitive to H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, IGFR deficient astrocytes also showed significantly impaired glucose and Aβ uptake, both critical functions of astrocytes in the brain. Regulation of astrocytic mitochondrial function and redox status by IGF-1 is essential to maintain astrocytic function and coordinate hippocampal-dependent spatial learning. Age-related astrocytic dysfunction

  6. STAT3 balances myocyte hypertrophy vis-à-vis autophagy in response to Angiotensin II by modulating the AMPKα/mTOR axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhao, Lin; Samanta, Anweshan; Mahmoudi, Seyed Morteza; Buehler, Tanner; Cantilena, Amy; Vincent, Robert J; Girgis, Magdy; Breeden, Joshua; Asante, Samuel; Xuan, Yu-Ting; Dawn, Buddhadeb

    2017-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is known to participate in various cardiovascular signal transduction pathways, including those responsible for cardiac hypertrophy and cytoprotection. However, the role of STAT3 signaling in cardiomyocyte autophagy remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is effected, at least in part, through STAT3-mediated inhibition of cellular autophagy. In H9c2 cells, Ang II treatment resulted in STAT3 activation and cellular hypertrophy in a dose-dependent manner. Ang II enhanced autophagy, albeit without impacting AMPKα/mTOR signaling or cellular ADP/ATP ratio. Pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 with WP1066 suppressed Ang II-induced myocyte hypertrophy and mRNA expression of hypertrophy-related genes ANP and β-MHC. These molecular events were recapitulated in cells with STAT3 knockdown. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 significantly increased myocyte ADP/ATP ratio and enhanced autophagy through AMPKα/mTOR signaling. Pharmacologic activation and inhibition of AMPKα attenuated and exaggerated, respectively, the effects of Ang II on ANP and β-MHC gene expression, while concomitant inhibition of STAT3 accentuated the inhibition of hypertrophy. Together, these data indicate that novel nongenomic effects of STAT3 influence myocyte energy status and modulate AMPKα/mTOR signaling and autophagy to balance the transcriptional hypertrophic response to Ang II stimulation. These findings may have significant relevance for various cardiovascular pathological processes mediated by Ang II signaling.

  7. Efficient inhibition of intraperitoneal ovarian cancer growth in nude mice by liposomal delivery of short hairpin RNA against STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingyuan; Dai, Lei; Cheng, Lin; Chen, Xiaolei; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Shuang; Su, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin

    2013-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the tumor formation, prognosis and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer. Our goal was to investigate the effect of silencing STAT3 on ovarian cancer cell apoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis and expression of key targets in vitro and in vivo. The ovarian cancer cell lines A2780CP and A2780s were used. STAT3 was knocked down by the plasmid-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression system. In vitro, a colony formation assay and Hoechst staining were used to examine cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expression level of STAT3 and apoptosis-related proteins were determined by Western blot. The A2780CP intraperitoneal model was used to evaluate the effect of shSTAT3 on tumor growth in mice. Proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in tumor tissues were measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TUNEL and CD31 immunostaining, respectively. Treatment with shSTAT3 resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that shSTAT3 induced the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and reduced the expression of survivin, Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo, the tumor weight was reduced to 13.46% of 5% glucose by shSTAT3/lipoplexes (P ovarian cancer gene therapy and the combination of gene therapy with chemotherapy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. STAT3 silencing enhances the efficacy of the HSV.tk suicide gene in gastrointestinal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ye-Hyeon; Yi, Hwajung; Shin, Ji-Young; Lee, Kang-Duck; Shin, Seung-Pil; Lee, Sang-Jin; Song, Jaewhan; Chun, Kyung-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Aberrant activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling has been shown to be associated with uncontrolled cell proliferation and suppression of host-immune surveillance. Conversely, silencing STAT3 can have the dual effects of inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and inducing anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we report on the effects of STAT3 silencing on suicide gene therapy with thymidine kinase (tk). STAT3 silencing by siRNA inhibited the proliferation of AGS human gastric cancer cells through G1 cell cycle arrest, decreased levels of immune-suppressive cytokines, and increased levels of immune-activating cytokines. CT26 mouse colon adenocarcinoma cells, in which STAT3 expression was knocked-down by a STAT3 shRNA-containing lentivirus, grew more slowly in syngenic model Balb/c mice than control CT26 cells. Moreover, we found that STAT3 silencing augmented the efficacy of suicide gene therapy in CT26 cell xenografted mice. When we administrated adenoviruses harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad5.CMV.HSV.tk) into STAT3-silenced CT26 cell tumors, extensive apoptosis was observed and there was a significant reduction in the size of CT26 cell tumors. STAT3 silencing also enhanced the recruitment and cytotoxic activity of CD3(+)CD8(+) T-cells, and changed the cytokine expression pattern of CT26 cell tumors, reflecting augmentation of anti-cancer immune responses. We conclude that combining suicide gene therapy with STAT3 silencing can result in enhanced anti-cancer effects.

  9. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits VEGF expression induced by IL-6 via Stat3 in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-He; Chen, Hua-Yun; Zhan, Wen-Hua; Wang, Cheng-You; Cai, Shi-Rong; Wang, Zhao; Zhang, Chang-Hua; He, Yu-Long

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) via suppressing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity in gastric cancer. METHODS: Human gastric cancer (AGS) cells were treated with IL-6 (50 ng/mL) and EGCG at different concentrations. VEGF, total Stat3 and activated Stat3 protein levels in the cell lyses were examined by Western blotting, VEGF protein level in the conditioned medium was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the level of VEGF mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stat3 nuclear translocation was determined by Western blotting with nuclear extract, and Stat3-DNA binding activity was examined with Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. IL-6 induced endothelial cell proliferation was measured with 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide assay, in vitro angiogenesis was determined with endothelial cell tube formation assay in Matrigel, and IL-6-induced angiogenesis in vitro was measured with Matrigel plug assay. RESULTS: There was a basal expression and secretion of VEGF in AGS cells. After stimulation with IL-6, VEGF expression was apparently up-regulated and a 2.4-fold increase was observed. VEGF secretion in the conditioned medium was also increased by 2.8 folds. When treated with EGCG, VEGF expression and secretion were dose-dependently decreased. IL-6 also increased VEGF mRNA expression by 3.1 folds. EGCG treatment suppressed VEGF mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG dose-dependently inhibited Stat3 activation induced by IL-6, but did not change the total Stat3 expression. When treated with EGCG or AG490, VEGF expressions were reduced to the level or an even lower level in the tumor cells not stimulated with IL-6. However, PD98059 and LY294002 did not change VEGF expression induced by IL-6. EGCG

  10. Co-activation of STAT3 and YES-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) Pathway in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaib, Imane; Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by adaptive activation of cell survival signals. We hypothesized that both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3......) and Src-YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1) signaling are dually activated during EGFR TKI treatment to limit therapeutic response. Methods: We used MTT and clonogenic assays, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR TKI alone and in combination with STAT3...... that lung cancer cells survive initial EGFR inhibitor treatment through activation of not only STAT3 but also Src-YAP1 signaling. Cotargeting EGFR, STAT3, and Src was synergistic in two EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines with a combination index of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54 to 0.63) for the PC-9...

  11. Mesoderm-specific Stat3 deletion affects expression of Sox9 yielding Sox9-dependent phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Hall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD. While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes. Stat3 expression is predominant in tissues of mesodermal origin, and its conditional ablation using mesoderm-specific TCre, in vivo, causes dwarfism and skeletal defects characteristic of CD. Specifically, Stat3 loss results in the expansion of growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes and deregulation of normal endochondral ossification in all bones examined. Conditional deletion of Stat3 with a Sox9Cre driver produces palate and tracheal irregularities similar to those described in Sox9+/- mice. Furthermore, mesodermal deletion of Stat3 causes global embryonic down regulation of Sox9 expression and function in vivo. Mechanistic experiments ex vivo suggest Stat3 can directly activate the expression of Sox9 by binding to its proximal promoter following activation. These findings illuminate a novel role for Stat3 in chondrocytes during skeletal development through modulation of a critical factor, Sox9. Importantly, they further provide the first evidence for the modulation of a gene product other than Sox9 itself which is capable of modeling pathological aspects of CD and underscore a potentially valuable therapeutic target for patients with the disorder.

  12. Vaccinia virus induces rapid necrosis in keratinocytes by a STAT3-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens.To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin.Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3.Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus.

  13. Transient Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Causes a Delayed Loss of Mitochondria and Increases Spontaneous Calcium Signaling in Astrocytic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, John C; Jackson, Joshua G; Robinson, Michael B

    2016-07-06

    Recently, mitochondria have been localized to astrocytic processes where they shape Ca(2+) signaling; this relationship has not been examined in models of ischemia/reperfusion. We biolistically transfected astrocytes in rat hippocampal slice cultures to facilitate fluorescent confocal microscopy, and subjected these slices to transient oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) that causes delayed excitotoxic death of CA1 pyramidal neurons. This insult caused a delayed loss of mitochondria from astrocytic processes and increased colocalization of mitochondria with the autophagosome marker LC3B. The losses of neurons in area CA1 and mitochondria in astrocytic processes were blocked by ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists, tetrodotoxin, ziconotide (Ca(2+) channel blocker), two inhibitors of reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (KB-R7943, YM-244769), or two inhibitors of calcineurin (cyclosporin-A, FK506). The effects of OGD were mimicked by NMDA. The glutamate uptake inhibitor (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-l-aspartate increased neuronal loss after OGD or NMDA, and blocked the loss of astrocytic mitochondria. Exogenous glutamate in the presence of iGluR antagonists caused a loss of mitochondria without a decrease in neurons in area CA1. Using the genetic Ca(2+) indicator Lck-GCaMP-6S, we observed two types of Ca(2+) signals: (1) in the cytoplasm surrounding mitochondria (mitochondrially centered) and (2) traversing the space between mitochondria (extramitochondrial). The spatial spread, kinetics, and frequency of these events were different. The amplitude of both types was doubled and the spread of both types changed by ∼2-fold 24 h after OGD. Together, these data suggest that pathologic activation of glutamate transport and increased astrocytic Ca(2+) through reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange triggers mitochondrial loss and dramatic increases in Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic processes. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain

  14. AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

  15. Calcium signals in the nucleus accumbens: Activation of astrocytes by ATP and succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emri Zsuzsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests that glial signalling is activated by different brain functions. However, knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms of activation or their relation to neuronal activity is limited. The purpose of the present study is to identify the characteristics of ATP-evoked glial signalling in the brain reward area, the nucleus accumbens (NAc, and thereby to explore the action of citric acid cycle intermediate succinate (SUC. Results We described the burst-like propagation of Ca2+ transients evoked by ATP in acute NAc slices from rat brain. Co-localization of the ATP-evoked Ca2+ signalling with immunoreactivities of the astroglia-specific gap junction forming channel protein connexin43 (Cx43 and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP indicated that the responsive cells were a subpopulation of Cx43 and GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes. The ATP-evoked Ca2+ transients were present under the blockade of neuronal activity, but were inhibited by Ca2+ store depletion and antagonism of the G protein coupled purinergic P2Y1 receptor subtype-specific antagonist MRS2179. Similarly, Ca2+ transients evoked by the P2Y1 receptor subtype-specific agonist 2-(Methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate were also blocked by MRS2179. These characteristics implied that intercellular Ca2+ signalling originated from the release of Ca2+ from internal stores, triggered by the activation of P2Y1 receptors. Inhibition by the gap junction blockers carbenoxolone and flufenamic acid and by an antibody raised against the gating-associated segment of Cx43 suggested that intercellular Ca2+ signalling proceeded through gap junctions. We demonstrated for the first time that extracellular SUC also evoked Ca2+ transients (EC50 = 50-60 μM in about 15% of the ATP-responsive NAc astrocytes. By contrast to glial cells, electrophysiologically identified NAc neurons surrounded by ATP-responsive astrocytes were not activated simultaneously. Conclusions We

  16. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F.; Sheehan, David F.; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca2+ wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play important roles in providing cellular energy and buffering intracellular calcium ions. The mechanisms that control mitochondrial distribution within the processes of glial cells called astrocytes and the impact this may have on calcium signaling remains unclear. We show that activation of glutamate receptors or increased neuronal

  17. Identification of galiellalactone-based novel STAT3-selective inhibitors with cytotoxic activities against triple-negative breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Taewoo; Ko, Hyejin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Suh, Young-Ger

    2017-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is phosphorylated in breast cancer cells, particularly triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Therefore, the inhibition of constitutive phosphorylated STAT3 is a promising therapeutic for TNBC treatment. Recently, a series of novel STAT3 inhibitors based on natural (-)-galiellalactone have been identified to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation at the Tyr705 residue. Interestingly, the truncation of the cyclohexene moiety of (-)-galiellalactone to [3.3] bicyclic lactone as a pharmacophoric core produced improved cytotoxic effects against TNBCs. The potent analogues 16 and 17, identified from a STAT3-mediated luciferase reporter assay, selectively inhibited the STAT3 signaling pathway without affecting STAT1 or STAT5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. STAT3 Activity and Function in Cancer: Modulation by STAT5 and miR-146b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Walker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor STAT3 regulates genes that control critical cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, pluripotency, and motility. Thus, under physiological conditions, the transcriptional function of STAT3 is tightly regulated as one part of a complex signaling matrix. When these processes are subverted through mutation or epigenetic events, STAT3 becomes highly active and drives elevated expression of genes underlying these phenotypes, leading to malignant cellular behavior. However, even in the presence of activated STAT3, other cellular modulators can have a major impact on the biological properties of a cancer cell, which is reflected in the clinical behavior of a tumor. Recent evidence has suggested that two such key modulators are the activation status of other STAT family members, particularly STAT5, and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes that are part of negative feedback circuits, including microRNAs such as miR-146b. With attention to these newly emerging areas, we will gain greater insight into the consequence of STAT3 activation in the biology of human cancers. In addition, understanding these subtleties of STAT3 signaling in cancer pathogenesis will allow the development of more rational molecular approaches to cancer therapy.

  19. Silencing of the transcription factor STAT3 sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging drugs, but not to TNFα- and NK cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, Dorota W. [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland); Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Carré, Thibault; Chouaib, Salem [Unité INSERM U753, Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif Cedex (France); Kaminska, Bozena, E-mail: bozenakk@nencki.gov.pl [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    Transcription factor STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) is persistently active in human tumors and may contribute to tumor progression. Inhibition of STAT3 expression/activity could be a good strategy to modulate tumor cell survival and responses to cancer chemotherapeutics or immune cytotoxicity. We silenced STAT3 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells to elucidate its role in cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics, TNFα and natural killer (NK)-mediated cytotoxicity. We demonstrate that STAT3 is not essential for basal survival and proliferation of A549 cancer cells. Stable silencing of STAT3 expression sensitized A549 cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and cisplatin in a p53-independent manner. Sensitization to DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutics could be due to down-regulation of the Bcl-xL expression in STAT3 depleted cells. In contrast, knockdown of STAT3 in cancer cells did not modulate responses to TNFα and NK-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that STAT3 depletion increased the NFκB activity likely providing the compensatory, pro-survival signal. The treatment with TNFα, but not doxorubicin, enhanced this effect. We conclude that STAT3 is not crucial for the control of basal cell proliferation and survival of lung carcinoma cells but modulates susceptibility to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics by regulation of intrinsic pro-survival pathways. - Highlights: ► STAT3 silencing is negligent for basal lung cancer cell viability and proliferation. ► STAT3 depletion sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics. ► STAT3 depletion has no effect on susceptibility to extrinsic apoptosis inducers. ► Increased pro-survival NFκB activity may compensate for STAT3 depletion.

  20. Two naturally occurring terpenes, dehydrocostuslactone and costunolide, decrease intracellular GSH content and inhibit STAT3 activation.

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    Elena Butturini

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action of dehydrocostuslactone (DCE and costunolide (CS, two naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, towards the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3. We report that, in human THP-1 cell line, they inhibit IL-6-elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity with EC(50 of 10 µM with concomitant down-regulation of the phosphorylation of the tyrosine Janus kinases JAK1, JAK2 and Tyk2. Furthermore, these compounds that contain an α-β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety and function as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induce a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH concentration by direct interaction with it, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Dehydrocostunolide (HCS, the reduced form of CS lacking only the α-β-unsaturated carbonyl group, fails to exert any inhibitory action. Finally, the glutathione ethylene ester (GEE, the cell permeable GSH form, reverts the inhibitory action of DCE and CS on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that these two sesquiterpene lactones are able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein in order to regulate its function.

  1. Two Naturally Occurring Terpenes, Dehydrocostuslactone and Costunolide, Decrease Intracellular GSH Content and Inhibit STAT3 Activation

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    Butturini, Elena; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Carcereri de Prati, Alessandra; Darra, Elena; Rigo, Antonella; Shoji, Kazuo; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Suzuki, Hisanori; Mariotto, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action ofdehydrocostuslactone (DCE) andcostunolide (CS), two naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, towards the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We report that, in human THP-1 cell line, they inhibit IL-6-elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity with EC50 of 10 µM with concomitantdown-regulation ofthe phosphorylation of the tyrosine Janus kinases JAK1, JAK2 and Tyk2. Furthermore, these compounds that contain an α-β-unsatured carbonyl moiety and function as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induce a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration by direct interaction with it, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Dehydrocostunolide (HCS), the reduced form of CS lacking only the α-β-unsaturated carbonyl group, fails to exert any inhibitory action. Finally, the glutathione ethylene ester (GEE), the cell permeable GSH form, reverts the inhibitory action of DCE and CS on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that these two sesquiterpene lactones are able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein in order to regulate its function. PMID:21625597

  2. ATF3 activates Stat3 phosphorylation through inhibition of p53 expression in skin cancer cells.

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    Hao, Zhen-Feng; Ao, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Jie; Su, You-Ming; Yang, Rong-Ya

    2013-01-01

    ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, has been found to be selectively induced by calcineurin/NFAT inhibition and to enhance keratinocyte tumor formation, although the precise role of ATF3 in human skin cancer and possible mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, clinical analysis of 30 skin cancer patients and 30 normal donors revealed that ATF3 was accumulated in skin cancer tissues. Functional assays demonstrated that ATF3 significantly promoted skin cancer cell proliferation. Mechanically, ATF3 activated Stat3 phosphorylation in skin cancer cell through regulation of p53 expression. Moreover, the promotion effect of ATF3 on skin cancer cell proliferation was dependent on the p53-Stat3 signaling cascade. Together, the results indicate that ATF3 might promote skin cancer cell proliferation and enhance skin keratinocyte tumor development through inhibiting p53 expression and then activating Stat3 phosphorylation.

  3. STAT1 and STAT3 in tumorigenesis: A matter of balance.

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    Avalle, Lidia; Pensa, Sara; Regis, Gabriella; Novelli, Francesco; Poli, Valeria

    2012-04-01

    The transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3 appear to play opposite roles in tumorigenesis. While STAT3 promotes cell survival/proliferation, motility and immune tolerance and is considered as an oncogene, STAT1 mostly triggers anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses while enhancing anti-tumor immunity. Despite being activated downstream of common cytokine and growth factor receptors, their activation is reciprocally regulated and perturbation in their balanced expression or phosphorylation levels may re-direct cytokine/growth factor signals from proliferative to apoptotic, or from inflammatory to anti-inflammatory. Here we review the functional canonical and non-canonical effects of STAT1 and STAT3 activation in tumorigenesis and their potential cross-regulation mechanisms.

  4. STAT3 activation is associated with cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-10 (IL-10) in primary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

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    Mizowaki, Takashi; Sasayama, Takashi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Mizukawa, Katsu; Takata, Kumi; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Nagashima, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Masamitsu; Hirose, Takanori; Itoh, Tomoo; Kohmura, Eiji

    2015-09-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) are activated by various cytokines and oncogenes; however, the activity and pathogenesis of STAT3 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the central nervous system have not been thoroughly elucidated. We investigated the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 in 40 specimens of primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS DLBCL) and analyzed the association between phsopho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-6. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that most of the specimens in PCNS DLBCL expressed pSTST3 protein, and a strong phosphorylation levels of STAT3 was statistically associated with high CSF IL-10 levels, but not with CSF IL-6 levels. Next, we demonstrated that recombinant IL-10 and CSF containing IL-10 induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 in PCNS DLBCL cells. Furthermore, molecular subtype classified by Hans' algorithm was correlated with pSTAT3 expression levels and CSF IL-10 levels. These results suggest that the STAT3 activity is correlated with CSF IL-10 level, which is a useful marker for STAT3 activity in PCNS DLBCLs.

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of HGF, c-MET and transcription factor STAT3 in colorectal tumors

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    M Trovato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available By immunohistochemistry, we have investigated the expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, HGF-R or c-met and the transcritor factor STAT3 in a series of 80 colorectal tumours (40 adenomas and 40 adenocarcinomas. The expression of HGF, c-met and STAT3 was revealed in 40/40 (100% of adenomas and in 26/40 (65% of adenocarcinomas; the remaining 14/40 (35% carcinomas expressed cmet but failed to express HGF and STAT3. Positive immunoreaction score was defined through the number of stained cells: low (1-10%, moderate (11-50% and high (>51%. In adenomas, the HGF immunoreaction was high in 33 (82.5% and moderate in 7 (17.5%; the c-met staining was high in 3 (7.5% and moderate in 37 (92.5%; and the STAT3 reactivity was high in 25 (62.5% and moderate in 15(37.5%. In carcinomas, the HGF immunoreaction was moderate in 21 (80.7% and low in 5 (19.2%; the c-met staining was high in 14 (35%, moderate in 25 (62.5 and low in 1 (2.5%; and the STAT3 reactivity was moderate in 17 (65.3% and low in 9 (34.6%. In both type of lesions, HGF and c-met showed a membranous and cytoplasmic location. In adenomas, STAT3 was detected in cytoplasm and nucleus and in carcinomas it was limited to cytoplasm. While the HGF/c-met/STAT3 expression in adenomas was significantly different from carcinomas (c2 = 17, p < 0.0001, no correlation was found among HGF, c-met, or STAT3 immunostaining with histotype or degree of dysplasia in adenomas and the same for histotype, grading or staging in carcinomas. These features, suggesting a role of the HGF/c-met/STAT3 signal in colon tumorigenesis, indicate that a reduced expression of HGF and c-met is associated to progression of adenoma into carcinoma.

  6. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase downregulation promotes colon carcinogenesis through STAT3-activated microRNAs.

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    Degagné, Emilie; Pandurangan, Ashok; Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Kumar, Ashok; Eltanawy, Abeer; Zhang, Meng; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G; Bittman, Robert; Ahmedi, Yasmin; Saba, Julie D

    2014-12-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between inflammation and cancer; however, mediators of the transition between inflammation and carcinogenesis remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) irreversibly degrades the bioactive sphingolipid S1P and is highly expressed in enterocytes but downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we investigated the role of SPL in colitis-associated cancer (CAC). We generated mice with intestinal epithelium-specific Sgpl1 deletion and chemically induced colitis and tumor formation in these animals. Compared with control animals, mice lacking intestinal SPL exhibited greater disease activity, colon shortening, cytokine levels, S1P accumulation, tumors, STAT3 activation, STAT3-activated microRNAs (miRNAs), and suppression of miR-targeted anti-oncogene products. This phenotype was attenuated by STAT3 inhibition. In fibroblasts, silencing SPL promoted tumorigenic transformation through a pathway involving extracellular transport of S1P through S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2), S1P receptor activation, JAK2/STAT3-dependent miR-181b-1 induction, and silencing of miR-181b-1 target cylindromatosis (CYLD). Colon biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease revealed enhanced S1P and STAT3 signaling. In mice with chemical-induced CAC, oral administration of plant-type sphingolipids called sphingadienes increased colonic SPL levels and reduced S1P levels, STAT3 signaling, cytokine levels, and tumorigenesis, indicating that SPL prevents transformation and carcinogenesis. Together, our results suggest that dietary sphingolipids can augment or prevent colon cancer, depending upon whether they are metabolized to S1P or promote S1P metabolism through the actions of SPL.

  7. Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2-Mediated Signaling by Mast Cell Tryptase Modulates Cytokine Production in Primary Cultured Astrocytes

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    Xiaoning Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2, which is abundantly expressed in astrocytes, is known to play major roles in brain inflammation. However, the influence of the natural agonist of PAR-2, tryptase, on proinflammatory mediator releasedfrom astrocytes remains uninvestigated. In the present study, we found that tryptase at lower concentrations modestly reduced intracellular ROS production but significantly increased IL-6 and TNF-α secretion at higher concentrations without affecting astrocytic viability and proliferation. The actions of tryptase were alleviated by specific PAR-2 antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 (FS, indicating that the actions of tryptase were via PAR-2. PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 reversed the effect of tryptase on IL-6 production, whereas inhibitors specific for p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 abolished the effect of tryptase on TNF-α production, suggesting that different signaling pathways are involved. Moreover, tryptase-induced activation of MAPKs and AKT was eliminated by FS, implicating that PAR-2 is responsible for transmitting tryptase biosignals to MAPKs and AKT. Tryptase provoked also expression of TGF-β and CNTF in astrocytes. The present findings suggest for the first time that tryptase can regulate the release of cytokines from astrocytes via PAR-2-MAPKs or PAR-2-PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, which reveals PAR-2 as a new target actively participating in the regulation of astrocytic functions.

  8. Leptin Protects Host Cells from Entamoeba histolytica Cytotoxicity by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

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    Verkerke, Hans P.; Paul, Shom N.; Mackey, Aaron J.; Petri, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The adipocytokine leptin links nutritional status to immune function. Leptin signaling protects from amebiasis, but the molecular mechanism is not understood. We developed an in vitro model of ameba-host cell interaction to test the hypothesis that leptin prevents ameba-induced apoptosis in host epithelial cells. We demonstrated that activation of mammalian leptin signaling increased cellular resistance to amebic cytotoxicity, including caspase-3 activation. Exogenous expression of the leptin receptor conferred resistance in susceptible cells, and leptin stimulation enhanced protection. A series of leptin receptor signaling mutants showed that resistance to amebic cytotoxicity was dependent on activation of STAT3 but not the Src homology-2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) or STAT5. A common polymorphism in the leptin receptor (Q223R) that increases susceptibility to amebiasis in humans and mice was found to increase susceptibility to amebic cytotoxicity in single cells. The Q223R polymorphism also decreased leptin-dependent STAT3 activation by 21% relative to that of the wild-type (WT) receptor (P = 0.035), consistent with a central role of STAT3 signaling in protection. A subset of genes uniquely regulated by STAT3 in response to leptin was identified. Most notable were the TRIB1 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) genes, which have opposing roles in the regulation of apoptosis. Overall apoptotic genes were highly enriched in this gene set (P leptin regulation of host apoptotic genes via STAT3 is responsible for protection. This is the first demonstration of a mammalian signaling pathway that restricts amebic pathogenesis and represents an important advance in our mechanistic understanding of how leptin links nutrition and susceptibility to infection. PMID:22331430

  9. Effect of natural and semi-synthetic cadinanes from Heterotheca inuloides on NF-κB, Nrf2 and STAT3 signaling pathways and evaluation of their in vitro cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Verónica; Millán, Estrella; Collado, Juan A; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Méndez-Cuesta, Carlos A; Muñoz, Eduardo; Delgado, Guillermo

    2017-06-15

    The effects of ten natural cadinane sesquiterpenoids isolated from Heterotheca inuloides on the pathways of the NF-κB, Nrf2 and STAT3 transcription factors were studied for the first time. The main constituent in this species, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), showed anti-NF-κB activity and activated the antioxidant Nrf2 pathway, which may explain the properties reported for the traditional use of the plant. In addition to the main metabolite, a structurally similar compound, 7-hydroxy-cadalene (2), also displayed anti-NF-κB activity. Thus, both natural compounds were used as templates for the preparation of a novel semi-synthetic derivative set, including esters and carbamates, which were evaluated for their potential in vitro antiproliferative activities against six human cancer cell lines. Carbamate derivatives 32 and 33 were found to exhibit potent activity against human colorectal adenocarcinoma and showed important selectivity in cancer cells. Among ester derivatives, compound 13 was determined to be a more potent NF-κB inhibitor and Nrf2 activator than its parent, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1). Furthermore, this compound decreases levels of phospho-IκBα, a protein complex involved in the NF-κB activation pathway. Molecular simulations suggest that all active compounds interact with the activation loop of the IKKβ subunit in the IKK complex, which is the responsible of IκBα phosphorylation. Thus, we identified two natural, and one semi-synthetic, NF-κB and Nrf2 modulators and two new promising cytotoxic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Primary Cultured Rat Astrocytes Induced by 2-Chloroethanol Via MAPK Signal Pathways

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    Tong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 2-Chloroethanol (2-CE is one of the reactive metabolites of 1,2-DCE in vivo, which might contribute to brain edema formation induced by 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE poisoning. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathways in upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 in 2-CE exposed rat astrocytes. Expression of p38 MAPK (p38, extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and MMP-9 at both protein and gene levels in rat astrocytes were determined using western blot and real-time RT-PCR methods. The results showed that both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes significantly increased. Meanwhile, protein levels of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38, ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes also significantly increased. In addition, both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 significantly decreased in response to reduced protein levels of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 achieved by supplement with their specific inhibitors, indicating that activation of MAPK signal pathways might play an important role in upregulation of MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level in 2-CE exposed astrocytes. Furthermore, since pretreatment of n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a powerful antioxidant amino acid, could attenuate the elevated levels of MMP-9, p-p38, p-ERK2 and p-JNK1/2 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes, activation of MAPK signal pathways in 2-CE exposed astrocytes could be mediated partially by reactive oxygen species (ROS, which was most likely generated in the metabolism of 2-CE.

  11. Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells

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    Murano, Tatsuro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi, E-mail: rokamoto.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a γ-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

  12. STAT3 activation in endothelial cells is important for tumor metastasis via increased cell adhesion molecule expression.

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    Kim, K-J; Kwon, S-H; Yun, J-H; Jeong, H-S; Kim, H-R; Lee, E H; Ye, S-K; Cho, C-H

    2017-09-28

    Metastasis is a life-threatening feature of cancer and is primarily responsible for cancer patient mortality. Cross talk between tumor cells and endothelium is important for tumor progression and metastasis. However, very little is known about the mechanisms by which endothelial cells (ECs) that are close to tumor cells, respond to the tumor cells during tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we exploited the use of EC-specific signal transducer activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) knockout mice to investigate the role of STAT3 in ECs in tumor progression and metastasis. We found that the loss of STAT3 in ECs did not affect primary Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor growth, but it reduced in vivo LLC metastasis in experimental and spontaneous metastasis models. Mechanistically, STAT3 activation upregulated cell adhesion molecule expression, including E-selectin and P-selectin, in murine endothelial MS-1 cells treated with tumor cell-conditioned media in vitro and in pre-metastatic lungs of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. We also found that both E-selectin and P-selectin were, at least in part, responsible for STAT3-induced adhesion and invasion of LLC cells through an EC monolayer. However, tumor cell-conditioned media from B16F10 melanoma cells did not activate STAT3 in MS-1 cells. As a result, EC STAT3 knockout did not affect B16F10 melanoma cell metastasis. In addition, various human cancer cells activated STAT3 in human ECs (HUVECs), resulting in increased cell adhesion molecule expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that STAT3 activation in ECs promotes tumor metastasis through the induction of cell adhesion molecules, demonstrating a role for ECs in response to tumor cells during tumor metastasis.

  13. STAT3-blocked whole-cell hepatoma vaccine induces cellular and humoral immune response against HCC

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    Qiuju Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell tumor vaccines have shown much promise; however, only limited success has been achieved for the goal of eliciting robust tumor-specific T-cell responses. Methods Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells, H22 and Hepa1–6, were modified by blocking the STAT3 signaling pathway with a STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide, and the immunogenicity and possibility of using these cell lysates as a vaccine were evaluated. Results STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates inhibited tumor growth and tumorigenesis, and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates stimulated the activation of T cells and natural killer (NK cells, and enhanced the infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in the tumor tissues. In addition, the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs was enhanced, which promoted the generation of immunological memory against HCC. Furthermore, secondary immune responses could be primed as soon as these immunized mice were challenged with HCC cells, accompanied by T cell and NK cell activation and infiltration. Additionally, immunization with this vaccine decreased the generation of Tregs and the production of TGF-β and IL-10. Importantly, STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates prevented HCC-mediated exhaustion of T cells and NK cells, showing low expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and TIGIT on T cells and NK cells in the immunized mice. Conclusions The newly generated STAT3-blocked whole-cell HCC vaccine has potential for cancer cell vaccination.

  14. Jak2-Independent Activation of Stat3 by Intracellular Angiotensin II in Human Mesangial Cells

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    Rekha Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ang II is shown to mediate the stimulatory effect of high glucose on TGF-b1 and extracellular matrix proteins in glomerular mesangial cells. Also inhibition of Ang II formation in cell media (extracellular and lysates (intracellular blocks high-glucose effects on TGF-b1 and matrix more effectively compared to inhibition of extracellular Ang II alone. To investigate whether intracellular Ang II can stimulate TGF-b1 and matrix independent of extracellular Ang II, cultured human mesangial cells were transfected with Ang II to increase intracellular Ang II levels and its effects on TGF-b1 and matrix proteins were determined. Prior to transfection, cells were treated with candesartan to block extracellular Ang II-induced responses via cell membrane AT1 receptors. Transfection of cells with Ang II resulted in increased levels of intracellular Ang II which was accompanied by increased production of TGF-b1, collagen IV, fibronectin, and cell proliferation as well. On further examination, intracellular Ang II was found to activate Stat3 transcription factor including increased Stat3 protein expression, tyrosine 705 phosphorylation, and DNA-binding activity. Treatment with AG-490, an inhibitor of Jak2, did not block intracellular Ang II-induced Stat3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 residue indicating a Jak2-independent mechanism used by intracellular Ang II for Stat3 phosphorylation. In contrast, extracellular Ang II-induced tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of Stat3 was inhibited by AG-490 confirming the presence of a Jak2-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that intracellular Ang II increases TGF-b1 and matrix in human mesangial cells and also activates Stat3 transcription factor without involvement of the extracellular Ang II signaling pathway.

  15. TRAF6 upregulation in spinal astrocytes maintains neuropathic pain by integrating TNF-α and IL-1β signaling

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    Lu, Ying; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Cao, De-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Ru-Rong; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, but the intracellular signaling of these cytokines in glial cells are not fully understood. Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a key role in signal transduction in the TNF receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. In this study, we investigated the role of TRAF6 in neuropathic pain in mice following spinal nerve ligation (SNL). SNL induced persistent TRAF6 upregulation in the spinal cord. Interestingly, TRAF6 was mainly colocalized with the astrocytic marker GFAP on SNL day 10 and partially expressed in microglia on SNL day 3. In cultured astrocytes, TRAF6 was up-regulated after exposure to TNF-α or IL-1β. TNF-α or IL-1β also increased CCL2 expression, which was suppressed by both siRNA and shRNA targeting TRAF6. TRAF6 siRNA treatment also inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in astrocytes induced by TNF-α or IL-1β. JNK inhibitor D-NKI-1 dose-dependently decreased IL-1β-induced CCL2 expression. Moreover, spinal injection of TRAF6 siRNA decreased intrathecal TNF-α-or IL-1β-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Spinal TRAF6 inhibition via TRAF6 siRNA, shRNA lentivirus, or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides partially reversed SNL-induced neuropathic pain and spinal CCL2 expression. Finally, intrathecal injection of TNF-α-activated astrocytes induced mechanical allodynia, which was attenuated by pretreatment of astrocytes with TRAF6 siRNA. Taken together, the results suggest that TRAF6, upregulated in spinal cord astrocytes in the late phase after nerve injury, maintains neuropathic pain by integrating TNF-α and IL-1β signaling and activating the JNK/CCL2 pathway in astrocytes. PMID:25267210

  16. JAK Kinase Inhibition Abrogates STAT3 Activation and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor Growth

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    Malabika Sen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of the Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 has been implicated in cell proliferation and survival of many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. AZD1480, an orally active pharmacologic inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2, has been tested in several cancer models. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of AZD1480 were evaluated in HNSCC preclinical models to test the potential use of JAK kinase inhibition for HNSCC therapy. AZD1480 treatment decreased HNSCC proliferation in HNSCC cell lines with half maximal effective concentration (EC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4 μM in conjunction with reduction of pSTAT3Tyr705 expression. In vivo antitumor efficacy of AZD1480 was demonstrated in patient-derived xenograft (PDX models derived from two independent HNSCC tumors. Oral administration of AZD1480 reduced tumor growth in conjunction with decreased pSTAT3Tyr705 expression that was observed in both PDX models. These findings suggest that the JAK1/2 inhibitors abrogate STAT3 signaling and may be effective in HNSCC treatment approaches.

  17. JAK kinase inhibition abrogates STAT3 activation and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Malabika; Pollock, Netanya I; Black, John; DeGrave, Kara A; Wheeler, Sarah; Freilino, Maria L; Joyce, Sonali; Lui, Vivian W Y; Zeng, Yan; Chiosea, Simion I; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2015-03-01

    Aberrant activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 has been implicated in cell proliferation and survival of many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). AZD1480, an orally active pharmacologic inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2, has been tested in several cancer models. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of AZD1480 were evaluated in HNSCC preclinical models to test the potential use of JAK kinase inhibition for HNSCC therapy. AZD1480 treatment decreased HNSCC proliferation in HNSCC cell lines with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values ranging from 0.9 to 4 μM in conjunction with reduction of pSTAT3(Tyr705) expression. In vivo antitumor efficacy of AZD1480 was demonstrated in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models derived from two independent HNSCC tumors. Oral administration of AZD1480 reduced tumor growth in conjunction with decreased pSTAT3(Tyr705) expression that was observed in both PDX models. These findings suggest that the JAK1/2 inhibitors abrogate STAT3 signaling and may be effective in HNSCC treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IL-6/STAT3/ARF: the guardians of senescence, cancer progression and metastasis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencik, Jan; Wiebringhaus, Robert; Susani, Martin; Culig, Zoran; Kenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in men worldwide. It remains a clinical challenge to identify lethal metastatic prostate cancers, which escape standard therapeutic intervention. Aberrant interleukin-6 (IL-6) / signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signalling and loss of p53 occur during prostate cancer progression to metastatic disease. The abnormality of the IL-6/STAT3/p53 axis is frequently accompanied by other genetic alterations; however, its potential role as an important mediator of oncogenic reprogramming, invasion and metastatic transformation remains unknown. The failure of anti-IL-6 treatments is still unexplained and may be due to an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of the in vivo role of IL-6/STAT3 in prostate cancer. The identification of the alternative reading frame protein (ARF) / murine double minute protein (MDM2) / p53 tumour suppressor pathway potentially involving the IL-6/STAT3 axis as a restricting factor in prostate cancer deficient in the tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) opened new avenues to currently available therapies. This review summarises the current knowledge on the role of crucial pathways driving prostate cancer progression as well as metastatic disease and discusses the potential use of novel specific target molecules and how it can be exploited to avoid overtreatment and increase quality of life.

  19. APPL1-mediated activation of STAT3 contributes to inhibitory effect of adiponectin on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Youming; Zhang, Deling; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yemin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingxin; Tang, Zhao; Wang, Changhua

    2016-09-15

    Adiponectin has been shown to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the signaling pathways underlying its action remain ill-defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential role of APPL1 in mediating anti-gluconeogenic ability of adiponectin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from male C57BL/6 mice. Western blot and RT-PCR were performed to detect protein expression and mRNA level, respectively. The protein-protein association was determined by immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay. We found that APPL1 protein levels were negatively associated with expressions of proteins and mRNAs of gluconeogenesis enzymes under stimulation with adiponectin. In addition, adiponectin-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation and acetylation were positively regulated by APPL1 and negative regulated by SirT1. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of STAT3 mitigated impact of adiponectin on hepatic gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, adiponectin administration facilitated the binding of APPL1 to SirT1 and suppressed the association of SirT1 with STAT3. Taken together, our study showed that APPL1-SirT1-STAT3 pathway mediated adiponectin signaling in primary hepatocytes. This new finding provides a novel mechanism by which adiponectin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. STAT3 and the Hyper-IgE syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Trine H

    2013-01-01

    somatic manifestations. In 2007 the genetic basis of HIES was revealed by identification of dominant negative STAT3 mutations in HIES patients. Subsequently impaired function of Tyk2 and DOCK8 have been implicated in milder forms of HIES. Since STAT3 acts as a central transcription factor downstream...... of multiple cytokine and growth factor receptors and thus regulates antimicrobial responses and cell survival, impaired STAT3 function results in immunodeficiency and in some cases tumorigenesis. However, as the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important biological...

  1. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC.

  2. Deficiency of PTP1B Attenuates Hypothalamic Inflammation via Activation of the JAK2-STAT3 Pathway in Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, Taku; Banno, Ryoichi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Sugiyama, Mariko; Tominaga, Takashi; Onoue, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Iwama, Shintaro; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) regulates leptin signaling in hypothalamic neurons via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. PTP1B has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation in the periphery. However, the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic inflammation, which is induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that STAT3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3) was increased in microglia in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of PTP1B knock-out mice (KO) on a HFD, accompanied by decreased Tnf and increased Il10 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus compared to wild-type mice (WT). In hypothalamic organotypic cultures, incubation with TNFα led to increased p-STAT3, accompanied by decreased Tnf and increased Il10 mRNA expression, in KO compared to WT. Incubation with p-STAT3 inhibitors or microglial depletion eliminated the differences in inflammation between genotypes. These data indicate an important role of JAK2-STAT3 signaling negatively regulated by PTP1B in microglia, which attenuates hypothalamic inflammation under HFD conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Deficiency of PTP1B Attenuates Hypothalamic Inflammation via Activation of the JAK2-STAT3 Pathway in Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsunekawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B regulates leptin signaling in hypothalamic neurons via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. PTP1B has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation in the periphery. However, the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic inflammation, which is induced by a high-fat diet (HFD, remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that STAT3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3 was increased in microglia in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of PTP1B knock-out mice (KO on a HFD, accompanied by decreased Tnf and increased Il10 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus compared to wild-type mice (WT. In hypothalamic organotypic cultures, incubation with TNFα led to increased p-STAT3, accompanied by decreased Tnf and increased Il10 mRNA expression, in KO compared to WT. Incubation with p-STAT3 inhibitors or microglial depletion eliminated the differences in inflammation between genotypes. These data indicate an important role of JAK2-STAT3 signaling negatively regulated by PTP1B in microglia, which attenuates hypothalamic inflammation under HFD conditions.

  4. mTOR Promotes Survival and Astrocytic Characteristics Induced by Pten/Akt Signaling in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Hu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Combined activation of Ras and Akt leads to the formation of astrocytic glioblastoma multiforme (GBM in mice. In human GBMs, AKT is not mutated but is activated in approximately 70% of these tumors, in association with loss of PTEN and/or activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Mechanistic justification for the therapeutic blockade of targets downstream of AKT, such as mTOR, in these cancers requires demonstration that the oncogenic effect of PTEN loss is through elevated AKT activity. We demonstrate here that loss of Pten is similar to Akt activation in the context of glioma formation in mice. We further delineate the role of mTOR activity downstream of Akt in the maintenance of Akt+KRas-induced GBMs. Blockade of mTOR results in regional apoptosis in these tumors and conversion in the character of surviving tumor cells from astrocytoma to oligodendroglioma. These data suggest that mTOR activity is required for the survival of some cells within these GBMs, and mTOR appears required for the maintenance of astrocytic character in the surviving cells. Furthermore, our study provides the first example of conversion between two distinct tumor types usually thought of as belonging to specific lineages, and provides evidence for signal transduction-mediated transdifferentiation between glioma subtypes.

  5. Mitochondrial calcium signaling mediates rhythmic extracellular ATP accumulation in suprachiasmatic nucleus astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkeen, Jeff F; Womac, Alisa D; Earnest, David J; Zoran, Mark J

    2011-06-08

    The master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) controls neural and neuroendocrine rhythms in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes are abundant in the SCN, and this cell type displays circadian rhythms in clock gene expression and extracellular accumulation of ATP. Still, the intracellular signaling pathways that link the SCN clockworks to circadian rhythms in extracellular ATP accumulation remain unclear. Because ATP release from astrocytes is a calcium-dependent process, we investigated the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) and ATP accumulation and have demonstrated that intracellular Ca(2+) levels fluctuate in an antiphase relationship with rhythmic ATP accumulation in rat SCN2.2 cell cultures. Furthermore, mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were rhythmic and maximal in precise antiphase with the peak in cytosolic Ca(2+). In contrast, our finding that peak mitochondrial Ca(2+) occurred during maximal extracellular ATP accumulation suggests a link between these cellular rhythms. Inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter disrupted the rhythmic production and extracellular accumulation of ATP. ATP, calcium, and the biological clock affect cell division and have been implicated in cell death processes. Nonetheless, rhythmic extracellular ATP accumulation was not disrupted by cell cycle arrest and was not correlated with caspase activity in SCN2.2 cell cultures. Together, these results demonstrate that mitochondrial Ca(2+) mediates SCN2.2 rhythms in extracellular ATP accumulation and suggest a role for circadian gliotransmission in SCN clock function.

  6. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zeis, T.

    2015-04-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate–glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1β signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1β and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others

  7. Inhibition of STAT3 activity delays obesity-induced thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Won; Han, Cho Rong; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark C; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2016-01-01

    Compelling epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity is a risk factor for many human cancers, including thyroid cancer. In recent decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has dramatically increased along with a marked rise in obesity prevalence. We previously demonstrated that a high fat diet (HFD) effectively induced the obese phenotype in a mouse model of thyroid cancer (Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice). Moreover, HFD activates the STAT3 signal pathway to promote more aggressive tumor phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of S3I-201, a specific inhibitor of STAT3 activity, on HFD-induced aggressive cancer progression in the mouse model of thyroid cancer. WT and Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice were treated with HFD together with S3I-201 or vehicle-only as controls. We assessed the effects of S3I-201 on HFD-induced thyroid cancer progression, the leptin-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway, and key regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). S3I-201 effectively inhibited HFD-induced aberrant activation of STAT3 and its downstream targets to markedly inhibit thyroid tumor growth and to prolong survival. Decreased protein levels of cyclins D1 and B1, cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), CDK6, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein led to the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in S3I-201-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. Reduced occurrence of vascular invasion and blocking of anaplasia and lung metastasis in thyroid tumors of S3I-201-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice were mediated via decreased expression of vimentin and matrix metalloproteinases, two key effectors of EMT. The present findings suggest that inhibition of the STAT3 activity would be a novel treatment strategy for obesity-induced thyroid cancer. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun and STAT3 expression in B-CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosz, Halina; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Sajewicz, Joanna; Choroszyńska, Dorota; Marzec-Kotarska, Barbara; Osiak, Magdalena; Pająk, Natalia; Tomczak, Waldemar; Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata; Baszak, Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by the accumulation of functionally abnormal, monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen, resulting in a reduction count of normal immunocompetent cells and their impaired immune function. The defect in transmission of signals from various types of extracellular receptors, leading to aberrant cytokines and transcription factors gene expression, may underlie the basis of immune failure in B-CLL. The aim of the study was to assess of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 expression. In response to antigenic stimulation IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 proteins induce mutual activity. The subject of the study was subpopulations of leukemic lymphocytes (CD5+ CD19+) and CD19+ B cells from healthy donors (control group). Our results provide evidence that the regulation of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 gene expression in CLL B cells is clearly different from normal B lymphocytes. In B-CLL STAT3 expression in unstimulated lymphocytes is significantly higher (pCLL in comparison with the control group, in all cases (pCLL stage according Rai we revealed decreasing c-Jun expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, along with advancing stage of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. STAT3 in the systemic inflammation of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmers, Teresa A; Fishel, Melissa L; Bonetto, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Weight loss is diagnostic of cachexia, a debilitating syndrome contributing mightily to morbidity and mortality in cancer. Most research has probed mechanisms leading to muscle atrophy and adipose wasting in cachexia; however cachexia is a truly systemic phenomenon. Presence of the tumor elicits an inflammatory response and profound metabolic derangements involving not only muscle and fat, but also the hypothalamus, liver, heart, blood, spleen and likely other organs. This global response is orchestrated in part through circulating cytokines that rise in conditions of cachexia. Exogenous Interleukin-6 (IL6) and related cytokines can induce most cachexia symptomatology, including muscle and fat wasting, the acute phase response and anemia, while IL-6 inhibition reduces muscle loss in cancer. Although mechanistic studies are ongoing, certain of these cachexia phenotypes have been causally linked to the cytokine-activated transcription factor, STAT3, including skeletal muscle wasting, cardiac dysfunction and hypothalamic inflammation. Correlative studies implicate STAT3 in fat wasting and the acute phase response in cancer cachexia. Parallel data in non-cancer models and disease states suggest both pathological and protective functions for STAT3 in other organs during cachexia. STAT3 also contributes to cancer cachexia through enhancing tumorigenesis, metastasis and immune suppression, particularly in tumors associated with high prevalence of cachexia. This review examines the evidence linking STAT3 to multi-organ manifestations of cachexia and the potential and perils for targeting STAT3 to reduce cachexia and prolong survival in cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Upregulation of NLRP3 via STAT3-dependent histone acetylation contributes to painful neuropathy induced by bortezomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui-Cui; Huang, Zhu-Xi; Li, Xiao; Shen, Kai-Feng; Liu, Meng; Ouyang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Su-Bo; Ruan, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wu, Shao-Ling; Xin, Wen-Jun; Ma, Chao

    2018-01-12

    Painful neuropathy, as a severe side effect of chemotherapeutic bortezomib, is the most common reason for treatment discontinuation. However, the mechanism by which administration of bortezomib leads to painful neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we found that application of bortezomib significantly increased the expression of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Intrathecal injection of NLRP3 siRNA significantly prevented the mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment, and intrathecal injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector encoding NLRP3 markedly decreased paw withdrawal threshold of naive rats. Furthermore, the expressions of p-STAT3 were colocalized with NLRP3-positive cells in DRG neurons, and inhibition of STAT3 by intrathecal injection of AAV-Cre-GFP into STAT3 flox/flox mice or inhibitor S3I-201 suppressed the upregulation of NLRP3 and mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation further found that bortezomib increased the recruitment of STAT3, as well as the acetylation of histone H3 and H4, in the NLRP3 promoter region in DRG neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the STAT3 activity by using S3I-201 or DRG local deficiency of STAT3 also significantly prevented the upregulated H3 and H4 acetylation in the NLRP3 promoter region following bortezomib treatment. Altogether, our results suggest that the upregulation of NLRP3 in DRG via STAT3-dependent histone acetylation is critically involved in bortezomib-induced mechanical allodynia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Arctigenin Increases Hemeoxygenase-1 Gene Expression by Modulating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Rat Primary Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we found that the natural compound arctigenin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in rat primary astrocytes. Since hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a critical role as an antioxidant defense factor in the brain, we examined the effect of arctigenin on HO-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes. We found that arctigenin increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also increases the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2/c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE) on HO-1 promoter. In addition, arctigenin increased ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in rat primary astrocytes. Further mechanistic studies revealed that arctigenin increased the phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Treatment of cells with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the HO-1 expression, Nrf2 DNA binding and ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in arctigenin-treated astrocyte cells. The results collectively suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is at least partly involved in HO-1 expression by arctigenin via modulation of Nrf2/ARE axis in rat primary astrocytes.

  12. Astrocytic calcium signals induced by neuromodulators via functional metabotropic receptors in the ventral respiratory group of neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Kai; Schnell, Christian; Hülsmann, Swen

    2009-06-01

    A controlled, periodic exchange of air between lungs and atmosphere requires a neuronal rhythm generated by a network of neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) of the brainstem. Glial cells, e.g. astrocytes, have been shown to be supportive in stabilizing this neuronal activity in the central nervous system during development. In addition, a variety of neuromodulators including serotonin (5-HT), Substance P (SP), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulate respiratory neurons directly. If astrocytes in the VRG, like their neuronal neighbors, are also directly stimulated by neuromodulators, they might indirectly affect the respiratory neurons and consequently the respiratory rhythm. In the present study, we provide support for this concept by demonstrating expression of NK1-R, TRH-R, and 5-HT(2)-R in astrocytes of the VRG with immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we showed that the external application of the neuromodulators 5-HT, SP, and TRH activate calcium transients in VRG astrocytes. Consequently, we postulate that in the VRG of the neonatal mouse, neuromodulation by SP, TRH, and serotonin also involves astrocytic calcium signaling. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Novel CD47: SIRPα dependent mechanism for the activation of STAT3 in antigen-presenting cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Toledano

    Full Text Available Cell surface CD47 interacts with its receptor, signal-regulatory-protein α (SIRPα that is expressed predominantly on macrophages, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. This "don't eat me" signal is mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα at the cytoplasmic ITIM motifs and the recruitment of the phosphatase, SHP-1. We previously revealed a novel mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 pathway and the regulation of human APC maturation and function that is based on cell:cell interaction. In this study, we present evidence supporting the notion that CD47:SIRPα serves as a cell surface receptor: ligand pair involved in this contact-dependent STAT3 activation and regulation of APC maturation. We show that upon co-culturing APC with various primary and tumor cell lines STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 expression are induced, and such regulation could be suppressed by specific CD47 siRNAs and shRNAs. Significantly, >50% reduction in CD47 expression abolished the contact-dependent inhibition of T cell activation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical association between SIRPα and STAT3. Thus, we suggest that in addition to signaling through the ITIM-SHP-1 complex that transmit an anti-phagocytotic, CD47:SIRPα also triggers STAT3 signaling that is linked to an immature APC phenotype and peripheral tolerance under steady state and pathological conditions.

  14. Novel CD47: SIRPα dependent mechanism for the activation of STAT3 in antigen-presenting cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Natan; Gur-Wahnon, Devorah; Ben-Yehuda, Adi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface CD47 interacts with its receptor, signal-regulatory-protein α (SIRPα) that is expressed predominantly on macrophages, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. This "don't eat me" signal is mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα at the cytoplasmic ITIM motifs and the recruitment of the phosphatase, SHP-1. We previously revealed a novel mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 pathway and the regulation of human APC maturation and function that is based on cell:cell interaction. In this study, we present evidence supporting the notion that CD47:SIRPα serves as a cell surface receptor: ligand pair involved in this contact-dependent STAT3 activation and regulation of APC maturation. We show that upon co-culturing APC with various primary and tumor cell lines STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 expression are induced, and such regulation could be suppressed by specific CD47 siRNAs and shRNAs. Significantly, >50% reduction in CD47 expression abolished the contact-dependent inhibition of T cell activation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical association between SIRPα and STAT3. Thus, we suggest that in addition to signaling through the ITIM-SHP-1 complex that transmit an anti-phagocytotic, CD47:SIRPα also triggers STAT3 signaling that is linked to an immature APC phenotype and peripheral tolerance under steady state and pathological conditions.

  15. Inhibition of constitutively activated Stat3 correlates with altered Bcl-2/Bax expression and induction of apoptosis in mycosis fungoides tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Kaestel, C G; Eriksen, K W

    1999-01-01

    in malignant transformation. In a previous study, we found constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated Stat3 in mycosis fungoides tumor cells. Here, we show that the Jak kinase inhibitor, Ag490, inhibits the constitutive binding of Stat3 to an oligonucleotide representing the Stat-binding sequence from the ICAM......The Jak/Stat signaling pathway transmits signals from many cytokine and growth factor receptors to target genes in the nucleus. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has recently been observed in many tumor cells and dysregulation of the Stat signaling pathway has been proposed to be implicated...

  16. Leptin suppresses adenosine triphosphate-induced impairment of spinal cord astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoman; Qi, Shuang; Sun, Guangfeng; Yang, Li; Han, Jidong; Zhu, Yue; Xia, Maosheng

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability and has no clinically effective treatment. After SCI, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may be released from neuronal cells and astrocytes in large amounts. Our previous studies have shown that the extracellular release of ATP increases the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and triggers the rapid release of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via the stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the downstream phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2. Leptin, a glycoprotein, induces the activation of the Janus kinase (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (Stat3) pathway via the leptin receptor. In this study, we found that 1) prolonged leptin treatment suppressed the ATP-stimulated release of AA and PGE2 from cultured spinal cord astrocytes; 2) leptin elevated the expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) via the JAK2/Stat3 signaling pathway; 3) Cav-1 blocked the interaction between Src and EGFR, thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and cPLA2 and attenuating the release of AA or PGE2; 4) pretreatment with leptin decreased ;he level of apoptosis and the release of interleukin-6 from cocultured neurons and astrocytes; and 5) leptin improved the recovery of locomotion in mice after SCI. Our results highlight leptin as a promising therapeutic agent for SCI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Control of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by feed-forward cytokine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Asl, Arezu; Yin, Hang; Soleimani, Vahab D; Haque, Takrima; Luchman, H Artee; Chang, Natasha C; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Puram, Sidharth V; Scott, Andrew M; Lorimer, Ian A J; Perkins, Theodore J; Ligon, Keith L; Weiss, Samuel; Rudnicki, Michael A; Bonni, Azad

    2016-06-01

    EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling is important in glioblastoma pathogenesis. Here, we identified the cytokine receptor OSMR as a direct target gene of the transcription factor STAT3 in mouse astrocytes and human brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). We found that OSMR functioned as an essential co-receptor for EGFRvIII. OSMR formed a physical complex with EGFRvIII, and depletion of OSMR impaired EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of EGFRvIII phosphorylation inhibited the EGFRvIII-OSMR interaction and activation of STAT3. EGFRvIII-OSMR signaling in tumors operated constitutively, whereas EGFR-OSMR signaling in nontumor cells was synergistically activated by the ligands EGF and OSM. Finally, knockdown of OSMR strongly suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth of mouse glioblastoma cells and human BTSC xenografts in mice, and prolonged the lifespan of these mice. Our findings identify OSMR as a critical regulator of glioblastoma tumor growth that orchestrates a feed-forward signaling mechanism with EGFRvIII and STAT3 to drive tumorigenesis.

  18. CpG-STAT3siRNA for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    target for prostate cancer therapy. Within the three years of funding, we have completed feasibility studies using CpG- siRNA strategy to target...signaling in TLR9+ MDSCs using CpG- siRNA restores T cell proliferation. Finally, we completed feasibility studies demonstrating that local intratumoral...12 4 CpG-STAT3 siRNA for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Therapy Revised Final Report: 28/09/2012 – 26/09/2015 Introduction

  19. gp130-mediated Stat3 activation in enterocytes regulates cell survival and cell-cycle progression during colitis-associated tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollrath, Julia; Phesse, Toby J; von Burstin, Vivian A; Putoczki, Tracy; Bennecke, Moritz; Bateman, Trudie; Nebelsiek, Tim; Lundgren-May, Therese; Canli, Ozge; Schwitalla, Sarah; Matthews, Vance; Schmid, Roland M; Kirchner, Thomas; Arkan, Melek C; Ernst, Matthias; Greten, Florian R

    2009-02-03

    Although gastrointestinal cancers are frequently associated with chronic inflammation, the underlying molecular links have not been comprehensively deciphered. Using loss- and gain-of-function mice in a colitis-associated cancer model, we establish here a link comprising the gp130/Stat3 transcription factor signaling axis. Mutagen-induced tumor growth and multiplicity are reduced following intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific Stat3 ablation, while its hyperactivation promotes tumor incidence and growth. Conversely, IEC-specific Stat3 deficiency enhances susceptibility to chemically induced epithelial damage and subsequent mucosal inflammation, while excessive Stat3 activation confers resistance to colitis. Stat3 has the capacity to mediate IL-6- and IL-11-dependent IEC survival and to promote proliferation through G1 and G2/M cell-cycle progression as the common tumor cell-autonomous mechanism that bridges chronic inflammation to tumor promotion.

  20. The metabolic trinity, glucose-glycogen-lactate, links astrocytes and neurons in brain energetics, signaling, memory, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2017-01-10

    Glucose, glycogen, and lactate are traditionally identified with brain energetics, ATP turnover, and pathophysiology. However, recent studies extend their roles to include involvement in astrocytic signaling, memory consolidation, and gene expression. Emerging roles for these brain fuels and a readily-diffusible by-product are linked to differential fluxes in glycolytic and oxidative pathways, astrocytic glycogen dynamics, redox shifts, neuron-astrocyte interactions, and regulation of astrocytic activities by noradrenaline released from the locus coeruleus. Disproportionate utilization of carbohydrate compared with oxygen during brain activation is influenced by catecholamines, but its physiological basis is not understood and its magnitude may be affected by technical aspects of metabolite assays. Memory consolidation and gene expression are impaired by glycogenolysis blockade, and prevention of these deficits by injection of abnormally-high concentrations of lactate was interpreted as a requirement for astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling in memory and gene expression. However, lactate transport was not measured and evidence for presumed shuttling is not compelling. In fact, high levels of lactate used to preserve memory consolidation and induce gene expression are sufficient to shut down neuronal firing via the HCAR1 receptor. In contrast, low lactate levels activate a receptor in locus coeruleus that stimulates noradrenaline release that may activate astrocytes throughout brain. Physiological relevance of exogenous concentrations of lactate used to mimic and evaluate metabolic, molecular, and behavioral effects of lactate requires close correspondence with the normal lactate levels, the biochemical and cellular sources and sinks, and specificity of lactate delivery to target cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ROS detoxification and proinflammatory cytokines are linked by p38 MAPK signaling in a model of mature astrocyte activation.

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    Adrian Nahirnyj

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell in the retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL and optic nerve head (ONH, and perform essential roles in maintaining retinal ganglion cell (RGC detoxification and homeostasis. Mature astrocytes are relatively quiescent, but rapidly undergo a phenotypic switch in response to insult, characterized by upregulation of intermediate filament proteins, loss of glutamate buffering, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased antioxidant production. These changes result in both positive and negative influences on RGCs. However, the mechanism regulating these responses is still unclear, and pharmacologic strategies to modulate select aspects of this switch have not been thoroughly explored. Here we describe a system for rapid culture of mature astrocytes from the adult rat retina that remain relatively quiescent, but respond robustly when challenged with oxidative damage, a key pathogenic stress associated with inner retinal injury. When primary astrocytes were exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS we consistently observed characteristic changes in activation markers, along with increased expression of detoxifying genes, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. This in vitro model was then used for a pilot chemical screen to target specific aspects of this switch. Increased activity of p38α and β Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs were identified as a necessary signal regulating expression of MnSOD, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1, with consequent changes in ROS-mediated injury. Additionally, multiplex cytokine profiling detected p38 MAPK-dependent secretion of IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2α, which are proinflammatory signals recently implicated in damage to the inner retina. These data provide a mechanism to link increased oxidative stress to proinflammatory signaling by astrocytes, and establish this assay as a useful model to further dissect factors regulating the reactive switch.

  2. IL-6, IL-17 and STAT3: a holy trinity in auto-immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Poli, Valeria

    2012-06-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the regulation of the cross talk between haematopoietic/immune cells and stromal cells, including the onset and resolution of inflammation, responses to infection, tissue remodelling and cancer. It is produced, among others, by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. IL-6 can interact with both membrane-bound and soluble forms of its ligand-binding receptor, the IL-6Ralpha, triggering signalling via dimerization of gp130, the signalling subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex. This leads to the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway and mainly culminates in the activation of the STAT3 transcription factor. Both IL-6 and STAT3 have recently emerged as main regulators of the differentiation and function of Th17 cells, via a positive feedback loop enhancing expression and/or activation of IL-6 itself, IL-17 and STAT3. Dysregulated IL-6 production and signalling are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, auto-immunity and cancer, and are the object of intense translational research as promising therapeutic targets.

  3. Purinergic Signaling in Neuron-Astrocyte Interactions, Circadian Rhythms, and Alcohol Use Disorder

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    Daniel Lindberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a debilitating condition marked by cyclic patterns of craving, use, and withdrawal. These pathological behaviors are mediated by multiple neurotransmitter systems utilizing glutamate, GABA, dopamine, ATP, and adenosine. In particular, purines such as ATP and adenosine have been demonstrated to alter the phase and function of the circadian clock and are reciprocally regulated by the clock itself. Importantly, chronic ethanol intake has been demonstrated to disrupt the molecular circadian clock and is associated with altered circadian patterns of activity and sleep. Moreover, ethanol has been demonstrated to disrupt purinergic signaling, while dysfunction of the purinergic system has been implicated in conditions of drug abuse such as AUD. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding circadian disruption by ethanol, focusing on the reciprocal relationship that exists between oscillatory neurotransmission and the molecular circadian clock. In particular, we offer detailed explanations and hypotheses regarding the concerted regulation of purinergic signaling and circadian oscillations by neurons and astrocytes, and review the diverse mechanisms by which purinergic dysfuction may contribute to circadian disruption or alcohol abuse. Finally, we describe the mechanisms by which ethanol may disrupt or hijack endogenous circadian rhythms to induce the maladaptive behavioral patterns associated with AUD.

  4. BCL3 exerts an oncogenic function by regulating STAT3 in human cervical cancer

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    Zhao H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hu Zhao,1 Wuliang Wang,1 Qinghe Zhao,1 Guiming Hu,2 Kehong Deng,1 Yuling Liu1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Aberrant expression of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors play a fundamental effect on the pathogenesis and tumorigenicity of cervical cancer (CC. B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3 was previously found to be a putative proto-oncogene in human cancers and regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, a critical oncogene, in CC cell line. However, its expression status, clinical significance and biological functions in CC remain largely unclear. The expressions of BCL3 and STAT3 in CC specimens were determined by immunohistochemistry. MTT, colony formation assays and flow cytometry analysis were carried out to test proliferation and cell cycle of CC cells. Here, the levels of BCL3 were overexpressed in CC compared to adjacent cervical tissues. Furthermore, high levels of BCL3 protein were confirmed by immunoblotting in CC cells as compared with normal cervical epithelial cells. The positive expression of BCL3 was correlated with adverse prognostic features and reduced survival rate. In addition, BCL3 regulated STAT3 abundance in CC cells. STAT3 was found to be upregulated and positively correlated with BCL3 expression in CC specimens. BCL3 overexpression resulted in prominent increased proliferation and cell cycle progression in Hela cells. By contrast, inhibition of BCL3 in CaSki cells remarkably suppressed proliferative ability and cell cycle progression. In vivo studies showed that knockdown of BCL3 inhibited tumor growth of CC in mice xenograft model. Notably, we confirmed that STAT3 mediated the oncogenic roles of BCL3 in CC. In conclusion, we suggest that BCL3 serves as an oncogene in CC by modulating proliferation and cell cycle progression, and its oncogenic effect is

  5. The IL-6/JAK/Stat3 Feed-Forward Loop Drives Tumorigenesis and Metastasis

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    Qing Chang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the importance of interleukin-6 (IL-6 in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In human primary breast cancers, increased levels of IL-6 were found at the tumor leading edge and positively correlated with advanced stage, suggesting a mechanistic link between tumor cell production of IL-6 and invasion. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that the IL-6/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 pathway drives tumor progression through the stroma and metastatic niche. Overexpression of IL-6 in tumor cell lines promoted myeloid cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and induced metastases. We demonstrated the therapeutic potential of interrupting this pathway with IL-6 receptor blockade or by inhibiting its downstream effectors JAK1/2 or Stat3. These clinically relevant interventions did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro but had profound effects in vivo on tumor progression, interfering broadly with tumor-supportive stromal functions, including angiogenesis, fibroblast infiltration, and myeloid suppressor cell recruitment in both the tumor and pre-metastatic niche. This study provides the first evidence for IL-6 expression at the leading edge of invasive human breast tumors and demonstrates mechanistically that IL-6/JAK/Stat3 signaling plays a critical and pharmacologically targetable role in orchestrating the composition of the tumor microenvironment that promotes growth, invasion, and metastasis.

  6. Upregulation of MEK5 by Stat3 promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

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    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Hao; Song, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen extracellular-signal-regulated kinase kinase 5 (MEK5) plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The aberrant expression of MEK5 has been reported in various malignant diseases including cancers of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal and brain. However, the function and regulation of MEK5 signaling pathway are ambiguous and remain elusive with respect to its oncogenic roles in various cancers, especially in the regulation of the initiation and progression of cancer invasion and metastasis. Ectopic expression of MEK5 or knockdown of MEK5 by shRNA with in vitro cell based models demonstrated the role of MEK5 in regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Here, we show that MEK5 upregulated by Stat3 promotes breast cancer cell invasion through EMT. Further study demonstrated that Stat3 could bind to promoter region of MEK5 and enhanced MEK5 transcription and expression. In addition, the phosphorylation of MEK5 significantly increased in breast cancer cells corresponding to metastatic capability of breast cancer cells. The depletion of MEK5 by shRNA significantly decreased breast cancer invasion. Ectopic expression of MEK5 could confer non-invasive breast cancer cells to become invasion capable cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Erk5, a MEK5-regulated downstream kinase, was also upregulated consistent with the increased level of active MEK5. Our studies provide insights into a molecular mechanism by which MEK5 transcriptionally upregulated by Stat3 augments breast cancer cell EMT, which subsequently enhances cancer cell invasion and metastasis. This finding may suggest that Stat3 and MEK5/Erk5 pathways could be an effective therapeutic target for inhibition of breast cancer invasion and metastasis.

  7. Target specificity, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of the putative STAT3 inhibitor LY5 in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

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    Peter Y Yu

    Full Text Available STAT3 is a transcription factor involved in cytokine and receptor kinase signal transduction that is aberrantly activated in a variety of sarcomas, promoting metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel putative STAT3 inhibitor, LY5.An in silico fragment-based drug design strategy was used to create LY5, a small molecule inhibitor that blocks the STAT3 SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site, inhibiting homodimerization. LY5 was evaluated in vitro demonstrating good biologic activity against rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma cell lines at high nanomolar/low micromolar concentrations, as well as specific inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation without effects on other STAT3 family members. LY5 exhibited excellent oral bioavailability in both mice and healthy dogs, and drug absorption was enhanced in the fasted state with tolerable dosing in mice at 40 mg/kg BID. However, RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAT3 did not phenocopy the biologic effects of LY5 in sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, concentrations needed to inhibit ex vivo metastasis growth using the PuMA assay were significantly higher than those needed to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in vitro. Lastly, LY5 treatment did not inhibit the growth of sarcoma xenografts or prevent pulmonary metastasis in mice.LY5 is a novel small molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations. LY5 demonstrates good oral bioavailability in mice and dogs. However LY5 did not decrease tumor growth in xenograft mouse models and STAT3 knockdown did not induce concordant biologic effects. These data suggest that the anti-cancer effects of LY5 identified in vitro were not mediated through STAT3 inhibition.

  8. Does Global Astrocytic Calcium Signaling Participate in Awake Brain State Transitions and Neuronal Circuit Function?

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    Kjaerby, Celia; Rasmussen, Rune; Andersen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release...... look at the development and availability of innovative new methodological tools that are opening up for new ways of visualizing and perturbing astrocyte activity in awake behaving animals. With these new tools at hand, the field of astrocyte research will likely be able to elucidate the causal...... and mechanistic roles of astrocytes in complex behaviors within a very near future....

  9. Rosmarinic Acid suppressed high glucose-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells by ameliorating the mitochondrial function and activating STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Jiayu; Wei, Jin; Yan, Rui; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Yanhe; Li, Hong

    2016-09-02

    Mitochondrial injury characterized by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation plays a critical role in hyperglycemia-induced myocardium dysfunction. Previous studies have demonstrated that Rosmarinic Acid (RA) treatment and activating Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway have protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocyte, but there is little data regarding cardiomyocyte under condition of high-glucose. The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between RA and STAT3 activation, as well as their effects on high glucose-induced mitochondrial injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocyte. Our results revealed that RA pretreatment suppressed high glucose-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Moreover, the effect of RA on apoptosis was related with improved mitochondrial function, which was demonstrated by that RA attenuated high glucose-induced ROS generation, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) activation, suppressed cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. In addition, the phosphorylation of STAT3 in H9c2 cells was inhibited under condition of high-glucose, but RA improved STAT3 phosphorylation. Importantly, inhibition of STAT3 expression by using STAT3-siRNA partly suppressed the effect of RA on high glucose-induced apoptosis. Taken together, pretreatment with RA suppressed high glucose-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocyte by ameliorating mitochondrial function and activating STAT3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ginkgolic Acid C 17:1, Derived from Ginkgo biloba Leaves, Suppresses Constitutive and Inducible STAT3 Activation through Induction of PTEN and SHP-1 Tyrosine Phosphatase

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    Seung Ho Baek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolic acid C 17:1 (GAC 17:1 extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been previously reported to exhibit diverse antitumor effect(s through modulation of several molecular targets in tumor cells, however the detailed mechanism(s of its actions still remains to be elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor that regulates various critical functions involved in progression of diverse hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, therefore attenuating STAT3 activation may have a potential in cancer therapy. We determined the anti-tumor mechanism of GAC 17:1 with respect to its effect on STAT3 signaling pathway in multiple myeloma cell lines. We found that GAC 17:1 can inhibit constitutive activation of STAT3 through the abrogation of upstream JAK2, Src but not of JAK1 kinases in U266 cells and also found that GAC can suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in MM.1S cells. Treatment of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP inhibitor blocked suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation by GAC 17:1, thereby indicating a critical role for a PTP. We also demonstrate that GAC 17:1 can induce the substantial expression of PTEN and SHP-1 at both protein and mRNA level. Further, deletion of PTEN and SHP-1 genes by siRNA can repress the induction of PTEN and SHP-1, as well as abolished the inhibitory effect of drug on STAT3 phosphorylation. GAC 17:1 down-regulated the expression of STAT3 regulated gene products and induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Overall, GAC 17:1 was found to abrogate STAT3 signaling pathway and thus exert its anticancer effects against multiple myeloma cells.

  11. Low STAT3 expression sensitizes to toxic effects of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapel, Britta; Kohlhaas, Michael; Ricke-Hoch, Melanie; Haghikia, Arash; Erschow, Sergej; Knuuti, Juhani; Silvola, Johanna M U; Roivainen, Anne; Saraste, Antti; Nickel, Alexander G; Saar, Jasmin A; Sieve, Irina; Pietzsch, Stefan; Müller, Mirco; Bogeski, Ivan; Kappl, Reinhard; Jauhiainen, Matti; Thackeray, James T; Scherr, Michaela; Bengel, Frank M; Hagl, Christian; Tudorache, Igor; Bauersachs, Johann; Maack, Christoph; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise

    2017-02-01

    The benefit of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) agonist dobutamine for treatment of acute heart failure in peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is controversial. Cardiac STAT3 expression is reduced in PPCM patients. Mice carrying a cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of STAT3 (CKO) develop PPCM. We hypothesized that STAT3-dependent signalling networks may influence the response to β-AR agonist treatment in PPCM patients and analysed this hypothesis in CKO mice. Follow-up analyses in 27 patients with severe PPCM (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤25%) revealed that 19 of 20 patients not obtaining dobutamine improved cardiac function. All seven patients obtaining dobutamine received heart transplantation (n = 4) or left ventricular assist devices (n = 3). They displayed diminished myocardial triglyceride, pyruvate, and lactate content compared with non-failing controls. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol (Iso) induced heart failure with high mortality in postpartum female, in non-pregnant female and in male CKO, but not in wild-type mice. Iso induced heart failure and high mortality in CKO mice by impairing fatty acid and glucose uptake, thereby generating a metabolic deficit. The latter was governed by disturbed STAT3-dependent signalling networks, microRNA-199a-5p, microRNA-7a-5p, insulin/glucose transporter-4, and neuregulin/ErbB signalling. The resulting cardiac energy depletion and oxidative stress promoted dysfunction and cardiomyocyte loss inducing irreversible heart failure, which could be attenuated by the β1-AR blocker metoprolol or glucose-uptake-promoting drugs perhexiline and etomoxir. Iso impairs glucose uptake, induces energy depletion, oxidative stress, dysfunction, and death in STAT3-deficient cardiomyocytes mainly via β1-AR stimulation. These cellular alterations may underlie the dobutamine-induced irreversible heart failure progression in PPCM patients who frequently display reduced cardiac STAT3 expression.

  12. Low STAT3 expression sensitizes to toxic effects of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapel, Britta; Kohlhaas, Michael; Ricke-Hoch, Melanie; Haghikia, Arash; Erschow, Sergej; Knuuti, Juhani; Silvola, Johanna M. U.; Roivainen, Anne; Saraste, Antti; Nickel, Alexander G.; Saar, Jasmin A.; Sieve, Irina; Pietzsch, Stefan; Müller, Mirco; Bogeski, Ivan; Kappl, Reinhard; Jauhiainen, Matti; Thackeray, James T.; Scherr, Michaela; Bengel, Frank M.; Hagl, Christian; Tudorache, Igor; Bauersachs, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims The benefit of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) agonist dobutamine for treatment of acute heart failure in peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is controversial. Cardiac STAT3 expression is reduced in PPCM patients. Mice carrying a cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of STAT3 (CKO) develop PPCM. We hypothesized that STAT3-dependent signalling networks may influence the response to β-AR agonist treatment in PPCM patients and analysed this hypothesis in CKO mice. Methods and results Follow-up analyses in 27 patients with severe PPCM (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤25%) revealed that 19 of 20 patients not obtaining dobutamine improved cardiac function. All seven patients obtaining dobutamine received heart transplantation (n = 4) or left ventricular assist devices (n = 3). They displayed diminished myocardial triglyceride, pyruvate, and lactate content compared with non-failing controls. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol (Iso) induced heart failure with high mortality in postpartum female, in non-pregnant female and in male CKO, but not in wild-type mice. Iso induced heart failure and high mortality in CKO mice by impairing fatty acid and glucose uptake, thereby generating a metabolic deficit. The latter was governed by disturbed STAT3-dependent signalling networks, microRNA-199a-5p, microRNA-7a-5p, insulin/glucose transporter-4, and neuregulin/ErbB signalling. The resulting cardiac energy depletion and oxidative stress promoted dysfunction and cardiomyocyte loss inducing irreversible heart failure, which could be attenuated by the β1-AR blocker metoprolol or glucose-uptake-promoting drugs perhexiline and etomoxir. Conclusions Iso impairs glucose uptake, induces energy depletion, oxidative stress, dysfunction, and death in STAT3-deficient cardiomyocytes mainly via β1-AR stimulation. These cellular alterations may underlie the dobutamine-induced irreversible heart failure progression in PPCM patients who frequently display reduced cardiac STAT3

  13. Piperlongumine Blocks JAK2-STAT3 to Inhibit Collagen-Induced Platelet Reactivity Independent of Reactive Oxygen Species.

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    Hengjie Yuan

    Full Text Available Piperlongumine (PL is a compound isolated from the piper longum plant. It possesses anti-cancer activities through blocking the transcription factor STAT3 and by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS in cancer, but not normal cells. It also inhibits platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but the underlying mechanism is not known.We conducted in vitro experiments to test the hypothesis that PL regulates a non-transcriptional activity of STAT3 to specifically reduce the reactivity of human platelets to collagen.PL dose-dependently blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation, calcium influx, CD62p expression and thrombus formation on collagen with a maximal inhibition at 100 μM. It reduced platelet microvesiculation induced by collagen. PL blocked the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 in collagen-stimulated platelets. This inhibitory effect was significantly reduced in platelets pretreated with a STAT3 inhibitor. Although PL induced ROS production in platelets; quenching ROS using excessive reducing agents: 20 μM GSH and 0.5 mM L-Cysteine, did not block the inhibitory effects. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor Apocynin also had no effect.PL inhibited collagen-induced platelet reactivity by targeting the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. We also provide experimental evidence that PL and collagen induce different oxidants that have differential effects on platelets. Studying these differential effects may uncover new mechanisms of regulating platelet functions by oxidants in redox signals.

  14. The BCL-2 family protein Bid is critical for pro-inflammatory signaling in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Hans-Georg; Coughlan, Karen S; Kinsella, Sinéad; Breen, Bridget A; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2014-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene represent a frequent genetic determinant and recapitulate a disease phenotype similar to ALS when expressed in mice. Previous studies using SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice have suggested a paracrine mechanism of neuronal loss, in which cytokines and other toxic factors released from astroglia or microglia trigger motoneuron degeneration. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines activate death receptors and may downstream from this activate the Bcl-2 family protein, Bid. We here sought to investigate the role of Bid in astrocyte activation and non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration. We found that spinal cord Bid protein levels increased significantly during disease progression in SOD1(G93A) mice. Subsequent experiments in vitro indicated that Bid was expressed at relatively low levels in motoneurons, but was enriched in astrocytes and microglia. Bid was strongly induced in astrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Experiments in bid-deficient astrocytes or astrocytes treated with a small molecule Bid inhibitor demonstrated that Bid was required for the efficient activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB in response to these pro-inflammatory stimuli. Finally, we found that conditioned medium from wild-type astrocytes, but not from bid-deficient astrocytes, was toxic when applied to primary motoneuron cultures. Collectively, our data demonstrate a new role for the Bcl-2 family protein Bid as a mediator of astrocyte activation during neuroinflammation, and suggest that Bid activation may contribute to non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration in ALS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) stimulates STAT3 activation and IL-17 expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Lindahl, Lise M.

    2016-01-01

    , stimulate activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and upregulation of interleukin (IL)-17 in immortalized and primary patient-derived malignant and nonmalignant T cells. Importantly, SEA induces STAT3 activation and IL-17 expression in malignant T cells when cocultured...... with nonmalignant T cells, indicating an indirect mode of action. In accordance, malignant T cells expressing an SEA-nonresponsive T-cell receptor variable region b chain are nonresponsive to SEA in monoculture but display strong STAT3 activation and IL-17 expression in cocultures with SEA-responsive nonmalignant T...... and expression of IL-17 in malignant T cells, suggesting a mechanism whereby SEA-producing bacteria promote activation of an established oncogenic pathway previously implicated in carcinogenesis....

  16. STAT3/NF-κB-Regulated Lentiviral TK/GCV Suicide Gene Therapy for Cisplatin-Resistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wei-Ying; Hwu, Luen; Wu, Chun-Yi; Lee, Jhih-Shian; Chang, Chi-Wei; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2017-01-01

    -TK/GCV therapy. Moreover, STAT3/NF-κB signaling targeting could further sensitize tumor cells to cisplatin. This study successfully established a theranositic approach to treat triple-negative breast cancer via STAT3-NF-κB responsive element-driven suicide gene therapy. This platform may also be an alternative strategy to handle with drug-resistant cancer cells.

  17. Orexin-A promotes cell migration in cultured rat astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent PKCα and ERK1/2 signals.

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    Qing Shu

    Full Text Available Orexin-A is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding, arousal, energy consuming, and reward seeking in the body. The effects of orexin-A have widely studied in neurons but not in astrocytes. Here, we report that OX1R and OX2R are expressed in cultured rat astrocytes. Orexin-A stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2, and then induced the migration of astrocytes via its receptor OX1R but not OX2R. Orexin-A-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and astrocytes migration are Ca2+-dependent, since they could be inhibited by either chelating the extracellular Ca2+ or blocking the pathway of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE. Furthermore, both non-selective protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor and PKCα selective inhibitor, but not PKCδ inhibitor, prevented the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the migration of astrocytes, indicating that the Ca2+-dependent PKCα acts as the downstream of the OX1R activation and mediates the orexin-A-induced increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell migration. In conclusion, these results suggest that orexin-A can stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation and then facilitate the migration of astrocytes via PLC-PKCα signal pathway, providing new knowledge about the functions of the OX1R in astrocytes.

  18. Lab-Attenuated Rabies Virus Causes Abortive Infection and Induces Cytokine Expression in Astrocytes by Activating Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein Signaling Pathway

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    Bin Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an ancient disease but remains endemic in most parts of the world and causes approximately 59,000 deaths annually. The mechanism through which the causative agent, rabies virus (RABV, evades the host immune response and infects the host central nervous system (CNS has not been completely elucidated thus far. Our previous studies have shown that lab-attenuated, but not wild-type (wt, RABV activates the innate immune response in the mouse and dog models. In this present study, we demonstrate that lab-attenuated RABV causes abortive infection in astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the CNS. Furthermore, we found that lab-attenuated RABV produces more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA than wt RABV, which is recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I or melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5. Activation of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, the common adaptor molecule for RIG-I and MDA5, results in the production of type I interferon (IFN and the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes, which suppress RABV replication and spread in astrocytes. Notably, lab-attenuated RABV replicates in a manner identical to that of wt RABV in MAVS−/− astrocytes. It was also found that lab-attenuated, but not wt, RABV induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines via the MAVS- p38/NF-κB signaling pathway. These inflammatory cytokines increase the blood–brain barrier permeability and thus enable immune cells and antibodies infiltrate the CNS parenchyma, resulting in RABV control and elimination. In contrast, wt RABV restricts dsRNA production and thus evades innate recognition by RIG-I/MDA5 in astrocytes, which could be one of the mechanisms by which wt RABV evades the host immune response in resident CNS cells. Our findings suggest that astrocytes play a critical role in limiting the replication of lab-attenuated RABV in the CNS.

  19. Maternal obesity leads to increased proliferation and numbers of astrocytes in the developing fetal and neonatal mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Won; Glendining, Kelly A; Grattan, David R; Jasoni, Christine L

    2016-10-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with chronic maternal, placental, and fetal inflammation; and it elevates the risk for offspring obesity. Changes in the development of the hypothalamus, a brain region that regulates body weight and energy balance, are emerging as important determinants of offspring risk, but such changes are only beginning to be defined. Here we focused on the hypothesis that the pathological exposure of developing hypothalamic astrocytes to cytokines would alter their development. A maternal high-fat diet (mHFD) mouse model was used to investigate changes in hypothalamic astrocytes in the fetus during late gestation and in early neonates by using immunochemistry, confocal microscopy, and qPCR. The number of astrocytes and the proportion of proliferating astrocytes was significantly higher in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus at both ages compared to control offspring from normal weight pregnancies. Supplemental to this we found that cultured fetal hypothalamic astrocytes proliferated significantly in response to IL6 (10ng/ml), one of the cytokines significantly elevated in fetuses of obese dams, via the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway. Thus, maternal obesity during pregnancy stimulated the proliferation and thereby increased numbers of astrocytes in the fetal as well as early neonatal hypothalamus, which may be driven, during fetal life, by IL6. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV-1 and IL-1β regulate astrocytic CD38 through mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling mechanisms

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    Mamik Manmeet K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 leads to some form of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND in approximately half of the cases. The mechanisms by which astrocytes contribute to HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD, the most severe form of HAND, still remain unresolved. HIV-1-encephalitis (HIVE, a pathological correlate of HAD, affects an estimated 9-11% of the HIV-1-infected population. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that HIVE brain tissues show significant upregulation of CD38, an enzyme involved in calcium signaling, in astrocytes. We also reported an increase in CD38 expression in interleukin (IL-1β-activated astrocytes. In the present investigation, we studied regulatory mechanisms of CD38 gene expression in astrocytes activated with HIV-1-relevant stimuli. We also investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor (NF-κB in astrocyte CD38 regulation. Methods Cultured human astrocytes were transfected with HIV-1YU-2 proviral clone and levels of CD38 mRNA and protein were measured by real-time PCR gene expression assay, western blot analysis and immunostaining. Astrocyte activation by viral transfection was determined by analyzing proinflammatory chemokine levels using ELISA. To evaluate the roles of MAPKs and NF-κB in CD38 regulation, astrocytes were treated with MAPK inhibitors (SB203580, SP600125, U0126, NF-κB interfering peptide (SN50 or transfected with dominant negative IκBα mutant (IκBαM prior to IL-1β activation. CD38 gene expression and CD38 ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity assays were performed to analyze alterations in CD38 levels and function, respectively. Results HIV-1YU-2-transfection significantly increased CD38 mRNA and protein expression in astrocytes (p YU-2-transfected astrocytes significantly increased HIV-1 gene expression (p Conclusion The present findings demonstrate a direct involvement of HIV-1 and virus

  1. Co-activation of STAT3 and YES-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) Pathway in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Imane; Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Codony Servat, Jordi; Cai, Xueting; Li, Xuefei; Drozdowskyj, Ana; Servat, Carles Codony; Yang, Jie; Hu, Chunping; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Vivanco, Guillermo Lopez; Vergnenegre, Alain; Sanchez, Jose Miguel; Provencio, Mariano; de Marinis, Filipo; Passaro, Antonio; Carcereny, Enric; Reguart, Noemi; Campelo, Charo Garcia; Teixido, Christina; Sperduti, Isabella; Rodriguez, Sonia; Lazzari, Chiara; Verlicchi, Alberto; de Aguirre, Itziar; Queralt, Cristina; Wei, Jia; Estrada, Roger; Puig de la Bellacasa, Raimon; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Jacobson, Kirstine; Ditzel, Henrik J; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Viteri, Santiago; Molina, Migual Angel; Zhou, Caicun; Cao, Peng; Ma, Patrick C; Bivona, Trever G; Rosell, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by adaptive activation of cell survival signals. We hypothesized that both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Src-YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1) signaling are dually activated during EGFR TKI treatment to limit therapeutic response. We used MTT and clonogenic assays, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR TKI alone and in combination with STAT3 and Src inhibition in three EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines. The Chou-Talalay method was used for the quantitative determination of drug interaction. We examined tumor growth inhibition in one EGFR-mutant NSCLC xenograft model (n = 4 mice per group). STAT3 and YAP1 expression was evaluated in tumors from 119 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients (64 in an initial cohort and 55 in a validation cohort) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the correlation between survival and gene expression. All statistical tests were two-sided. We discovered that lung cancer cells survive initial EGFR inhibitor treatment through activation of not only STAT3 but also Src-YAP1 signaling. Cotargeting EGFR, STAT3, and Src was synergistic in two EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines with a combination index of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54 to 0.63) for the PC-9 and 0.59 (95% CI = 0.54 to 0.63) for the H1975 cell line. High expression of STAT3 or YAP1 predicted worse progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.54 to 5.93, P = .001, and HR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.30 to 5.09, P = .007, respectively) in an initial cohort of 64 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients treated with firstline EGFR TKIs. Similar results were observed in a validation cohort. Our study uncovers a coordinated signaling network centered on both STAT3 and Src-YAP signaling

  2. Leptin differentially regulate STAT3 activation in ob/ob mouse adipose mesenchymal stem cells

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    Zhou Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute toward increased adipocyte cell numbers, obesity, and inflamm ation. Currently, information is lacking regarding regulation of adipose stem cell numbers as well as leptin-induced inflammation and its signaling pathway in ob/ob mice. Methods Using leptin deficient ob/ob mice, we investigated whether leptin injection into ob/ob mice increases adipose stem cell numbers and adipose tissue inflammatory marker MCP-1 mRNA and secretion levels. We also determined leptin mediated signaling pathways in the adipose stem cells. Results We report here that adipose stem cell number is significantly increased following leptin injection in ob/ob mice and with treatment of isolated stem cells with leptin in vitro. Leptin also up-regulated MCP-1 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further showed that increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were due to increased phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 Ser727 but not STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, suggesting differential regulation of MCP-1 gene expression under basal and leptin-stimulated conditions in adipose stem cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies demonstrate that leptin increases adipose stem cell number and differentially activates STAT3 protein resulting in up-regulation of MCP-1 gene expression. Further studies of mechanisms mediating adipose stem cell hyperplasia and leptin signaling in obesity are warranted and may help identify novel anti-obesity target strategies.

  3. Chalepin: A Compound fromRuta angustifoliaL. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Cell cycle analysis and caspase 8 activation were conducted using a flow cytometer, and protein expressions in molecular pathways were determined using Western blot technique. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle was arrested at the S phase. Further studies using Western blotting technique showed that cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and inhibitors of CDKs correspond to a cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Chalepin also showed inhibition in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT-3), cyclooxygenase-2, and c-myc were also downregulated upon treatment with chalepin. Chalepin was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Death receptors 4 and 5 showed a dramatic upregulation at 24 h. Analysis of activation of caspase 8 with the flow cytometer showed an increase in activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of caspase 8 induced cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist, which initiated a mitochondrial-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Chalepin causes S phase cell cycle arrest, NF-κB pathway inhibition, and STAT-3 inhibition, induces extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and could be an excellent chemotherapeutic agent. This study reports the capacity of an isolated bioactive compound known as chalepin to suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway, signal

  4. Immunolocalisation of phosphorylated STAT3, interleukin 11 and leukaemia inhibitory factor in endometrium of women with unexplained infertility during the implantation window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamonsen Lois A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine receptivity and embryo implantation are critical in the establishment of pregnancy. The diagnosis of endometrial fertility requires more precise measurements of endometrial receptivity. Interleukin (IL-11 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF are essential for murine implantation and signal via intracellular phosphorylation (p of STAT3 in the endometrium. Both cytokines are present in the endometrium of women duiring the receptive window. Endometrial IL-11, IL-11 receptor alpha (IL-11Ralpha, LIF and pSTAT3 in women with primary unexplained infertility was compared to normal fertile women during the implantation window. Methods LH timed endometrial biopsies (LH+6 to LH+10 were collected from women with unexplained infertility and normal fertility. pSTAT3, IL-11, IL-11Ralpha and LIF production was determined by immunohistochemistry. Staining intensity was determoned by two independent observers blind to the fertility status of the patient from whom the biopsy was taken. Staining intensity and heterogeneity in each of the endometrial compartments (epithelium; stroma, including decidualized stromal cells; and vasculature was assessed. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze IL-11, pSTAT3, IL-11Ralpha and LIF immunostaining intensities in the samples. Results IL-11, IL-11Ralpha and LIF were present predominantly in glandular epithelium, whilst luminal epithelium showed patchy staining. pSTAT3 was present in both glandular epithelium and stroma. IL-11 and pSTAT3 immunostaining was significantly lower in glandular epithelium in infertile women compared to controls (P Conclusion This is the first demonstration of reduced endometrial pSTAT3 and IL-11 in some women with unexplained infertility. This suggests IL-11 and pSTAT3 may be involved in the secretory transformation of glandular epithelium during receptivity. Reduced IL-11 production and STAT3 phosphorylation may contribute to unexplained infertility in some women.

  5. Activation of RAGE/STAT3 pathway by methylglyoxal contributes to spinal central sensitization and persistent pain induced by bortezomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jia-You; Liu, Cui-Cui; Ouyang, Han-Dong; Ma, Chao; Xie, Man-Xiu; Liu, Meng; Lei, Wan-Long; Ding, Huan-Huan; Wu, Shao-Ling; Xin, Wen-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Bortezomib is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug widely used for multiple myeloma and other nonsolid malignancies. Although bortezomib-induced persistent pain is easily diagnosed in clinic, the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we studied this issue with use of a rat model of systemic intraperitoneal administration of bortezomib for consecutive 5days. Consisted with our previous study, we found that bortezomib treatment markedly induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Furthermore, we first found that bortezomib treatment significantly induced the upregulation of methylglyoxal in spinal dorsal horn of rats. Spinal local application of methylglyoxal also induced mechanical allodynia and central sensitization in normal rats. Moreover, administration of bortezomib upregulated the expression of receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) in dorsal horn. Importantly, intrathecal injection of metformin, a known scavenger of methylglyoxal, significantly attenuated the upregulation of methylglyoxal and RAGE in dorsal horn, central sensitization and mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment, and blockage of RAGE also prevented the upregulation of p-STAT3, central sensitization and mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment. In addition, inhibition of STAT3 activity by S3I-201 attenuated bortezomib-induced mechanical allodynia and central sensitization. Local knockdown of STAT3 also ameliorated the mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib administration. Our results suggest that accumulation of methylglyoxal may activate the RAGE/STAT3 signaling pathway in dorsal horn, and contributes to the spinal central sensitization and persistent pain induced by bortezomib treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disruption in connexin-based communication is associated with intracellular Ca²⁺ signal alterations in astrocytes from Niemann-Pick type C mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Sáez

    Full Text Available Reduced astrocytic gap junctional communication and enhanced hemichannel activity were recently shown to increase astroglial and neuronal vulnerability to neuroinflammation. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease, an autosomal lethal neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. Therefore, we investigated whether the lack of NPC1 expression in murine astrocytes affects the functional state of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Cultured cortical astrocytes of NPC1 knock-out mice (Npc1⁻/⁻ showed reduced intercellular communication via gap junctions and increased hemichannel activity. Similarly, astrocytes of newborn Npc1⁻/⁻ hippocampal slices presented high hemichannel activity, which was completely abrogated by connexin 43 hemichannel blockers and was resistant to inhibitors of pannexin 1 hemichannels. Npc1⁻/⁻ astrocytes also showed more intracellular Ca²⁺ signal oscillations mediated by functional connexin 43 hemichannels and P2Y₁ receptors. Therefore, Npc1⁻/⁻ astrocytes present features of connexin based channels compatible with those of reactive astrocytes and hemichannels might be a novel therapeutic target to reduce neuroinflammation in NPC disease.

  7. Selective Inhibition of STAT3 Phosphorylation Using a Nuclear-Targeted Kinase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolowits, Matthew D; Brown, Wells; Ali, Remah; Pedley, Anthony M; Chen, Qingshou; Harvey, Kyle E; Wendt, Michael K; Davisson, Vincent Jo

    2017-09-15

    The discovery of compounds that selectively modulate signaling and effector proteins downstream of EGFR could have important implications for understanding specific roles for pathway activation. A complicating factor for receptor tyrosine kinases is their capacity to be translocated to the nucleus upon ligand engagement. Once localized in subcellular compartments like the nucleus, the roles for EGFR take on additional features, many of which are still being revealed. Additionally, nuclear localization of EGFR has been implicated in downstream events that have significance for therapy resistance and disease progression. The challenges to addressing the differential roles for EGFR in the nucleus motivated experimental approaches that can selectively modulate its subcellular function. By adding modifications to the established EGFR kinase inhibitor gefitinib, an approach to small molecule conjugates with a unique nuclear-targeting peptoid sequence was tested in both human and murine breast tumor cell models for their capacity to inhibit EGF-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 and STAT3. While gefitinib alone inhibits both of these downstream effectors, data acquired here indicate that compartmentalization of the gefitinib conjugates allows for pathway specific inhibition of STAT3 while not affecting ERK1/2 signaling. The inhibitor conjugates offered a more direct route to evaluate the role of EGF-stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in these breast cancer cell models. These conjugates revealed that STAT3 activation is not involved in EGF-induced EMT, and instead utilization of the cytoplasmic MAP kinase signaling pathway is critical to this process. This is the first example of a conjugate kinase inhibitor capable of partitioning to the nucleus and offers a new approach to enhancing kinase inhibitor specificity.

  8. A-to-I RNA editing of BLCAP lost the inhibition to STAT3 activation in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; He, Wenrong; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Bicheng; Zheng, Caishang; Ke, Xianliang; Xie, Li; Zheng, Zhenhua; Wu, Xinxing; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-06-13

    Bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP) gene is a highly conserved gene with tumor-suppressor function in different carcinomas. It is also a novel ADAR-mediated editing substrate undergoes multiple A-to-I RNA editing events. Although the anti-tumorigenic role of BLCAP has been examined in preliminarily studies, the relationship between BLCAP function and A-to-I RNA editing in cervical carcinogenesis still require further exploration. Herein, we analyzed the coding sequence of BLCAP transcripts in 35 paired cervical cancer samples using high-throughput sequencing. Of note, editing levels of three novel editing sites were statistically different between cancerous and adjacent cervical tissues, and editing of these three sites was closely correlated. Moreover, two editing sites of BLCAP coding region were mapped-in the key YXXQ motif which can bind to SH2 domain of STAT3. Further studies revealed that BLCAP interacted with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and inhibited its phosphorylation, while A-to-I RNA editing of BLCAP lost the inhibition to STAT3 activation in cervical cancer cell lines. Our findings reveal that A-to-I RNA editing events alter the genetically coded amino acid in BLCAP YXXQ motif, which drive the progression of cervical carcinogenesis through regulating STAT3 signaling pathway.

  9. STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzevitzky, Noelia; Guttridge, Denis C.; Khuri, Sawsan; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26)-carcinoma cachexia. Methodology/Principal Findings Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and translated in muscle such

  10. Activation of Stat-3 is involved in the induction of apoptosis after ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Nielsen, M; Bregenholt, S

    1998-01-01

    . In addition, the transcription factor Stat-3 was tyrosine phosphorylated in the cytoplasm and subsequently translocated to the cell nucleus. Data obtained by electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggested that the activated Stat-3 protein associates with the human serum-inducible element (hSIE) DNA......-probe derived from the interferon-gamma activated site (GAS) in the c-fos promoter, a common DNA sequence for Stat protein binding. An association between hSIE and Stat-3 after MHC-I ligation was directly demonstrated by precipitating Stat-3 from nuclear extracts with biotinylated hSIE probe and avidin......Activation of Janus tyrosine kinases (Jak) and Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) after ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) was explored in Jurkat T cells. Cross-linking of MHC-I mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Tyk2, but not Jak1, Jak2, and Jak3...

  11. Constitutive Phosphorylation of STAT3 by the CK2-BLNK-CD5 Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Jain, Preetesh; Veletic, Ivo; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan; Bose, Prithviraj; Thompson, Philip; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2017-05-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated on serine 727 and plays a role in the pathobiology of CLL. However, what induces constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 is currently unknown. Mass spectrometry was used to identify casein kinase 2 (CK2), a serine/threonine kinase that coimmunoprecipitated with serine phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3). Furthermore, activated CK2 incubated with recombinant STAT3 induced phosphorylation of STAT3 on serine 727. Although STAT3 and CK2 are present in normal B- and T cells, STAT3 is not constitutively phosphorylated in these cells. Further study found that CD5 and BLNK coexpressed in CLL, but not in normal B- or T cells, are required for STAT3 phosphorylation. To elucidate the relationship of CD5 and BLNK to CK2 and STAT3, STAT3 was immunoprecipitated from CLL cells, and CK2, CD5, and BLNK were detected in the immunoprecipitate. Conversely, STAT3, CD5, and BLNK were in the immunoprecipitate of CLL cells immunoprecipitated with CK2 antibodies. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of CD5 or BLNK, or treatment with CD5-neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the levels of serine pSTAT3 in CLL cells. Finally, confocal microscopy determined that CD5 is cell membrane bound, and fractionation studies revealed that the CK2/CD5/BLNK/STAT3 complex remains in the cytoplasm, whereas serine pSTAT3 is shuttled to the nucleus.Implications: These data show that the cellular proteins CK2, CD5, and BLNK are required for constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in CLL. Whether this protein complex phosphorylates other proteins or inhibiting its activity would have clinical benefit in patients has yet to be determined. Mol Cancer Res; 15(5); 610-8. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Interleukin 2 and 15 activate Stat3alpha in human T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Nordahl, M; Svejgaard, A

    1998-01-01

    in response to interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15. Here, cytokine-induced activation of Stat3 in previously activated CD4(+) human T cells was examined using Stat3 antibodies directed against different regions of Stat3. As determined by tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding to an h...

  13. HYS-32-Induced Microtubule Catastrophes in Rat Astrocytes Involves the PI3K-GSK3beta Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Ting; Liao, Chih-Kai; Shen, Chien-Chang; Tang, Tswen-Kei; Jow, Guey-Mei; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Wu, Jiahn-Chun

    2015-01-01

    HYS-32 is a novel derivative of combretastatin-A4 (CA-4) previously shown to induce microtubule coiling in rat primary astrocytes. In this study, we further investigated the signaling mechanism and EB1, a microtubule-associated end binding protein, involved in HYS-32-induced microtubule catastrophes. Confocal microscopy with double immunofluorescence staining revealed that EB1 accumulates at the growing microtubule plus ends, where they exhibit a bright comet-like staining pattern in control astrocytes. HYS-32 induced microtubule catastrophes in both a dose- and time-dependent manner and dramatically increased the distances between microtubule tips and the cell border. Treatment of HYS-32 (5 μM) eliminated EB1 localization at the microtubule plus ends and resulted in an extensive redistribution of EB1 to the microtubule lattice without affecting the β-tubulin or EB1 protein expression. Time-lapse experiments with immunoprecipitation further displayed that the association between EB-1 and β-tubulin was significantly decreased following a short-term treatment (2 h), but gradually increased in a prolonged treatment (6-24 h) with HYS-32. Further, HYS-32 treatment induced GSK3β phosphorylation at Y216 and S9, where the ratio of GSK3β-pY216 to GSK3β-pS9 was first elevated followed by a decrease over time. Co-treatment of astrocytes with HYS-32 and GSK3β inhibitor SB415286 attenuated the HYS-32-induced microtubule catastrophes and partially prevented EB1 dissociation from the plus end of microtubules. Furthermore, co-treatment with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited HYS-32-induced GSK3β-pS9 and partially restored EB1 distribution from the microtubule lattice to plus ends. Together these findings suggest that HYS-32 induces microtubule catastrophes by preventing EB1 from targeting to microtubule plus ends through the GSK3β signaling pathway.

  14. Novel STAT3 mutation causing hyper-IgE syndrome: studies of the clinical course and immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Mikael; Tesi, Bianca; Sund Böhme, Maria; Bryceson, Yenan T; Pütsep, Katrin; Chiang, Samuel C; Thunberg, Sarah; Winiarski, Jacek; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Reporting a clinical case with a novel mutation in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene resulting in autosomal dominant hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (AD-HIES). Here we also had the opportunity to perform in-depth immunologic investigations to further understand the immunopathology of this primary immunodeficiency. The patient, a baby boy, was clinically assessed according to the scoring system developed by Grimbacher et al. and STAT3 was investigated by DNA sequencing. Immunologic work-up consisted of lymphocyte phenotyping and proliferation assays, measurement of soluble mediators and routine investigations. According to the Grimbacher score the patient was likely to have AD-HIES and a novel heterozygous STAT3 mutation (c.1110-3C>A), causing a splice error, was identified. Lymphocyte phenotyping revealed decreased numbers of interleukin (IL)-17 producing T-helper lymphocytes and aberrant B-lymphocyte subsets. Proliferative in vitro lymphocyte responses against C. albicans, staphylococcal enterotoxins and pokeweed mitogen were supernormal at presentation, whereas only the elevated response to pokeweed mitogen persisted. The soluble mediators IL-5, -10, -12, -13, -15 and granulocyte colony stimulatory factor were elevated in serum. A novel heterozygous STAT3 mutation causing defective splicing of exon 12 was identified. Lymphocyte phenotyping revealed deranged subpopulations. Despite the clinical picture with severe C. albicans and staphylococcal infections, the patient's lymphocytes mounted responses to these pathogens. The hypereosinophilia and high immunoglobulin E levels might partly be explained by elevated IL-5 and -13 as a result of lack of negative feedback from defective STAT3 signaling.

  15. Ellipticine inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes via the STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Long; Yang, Guang; Dong, Qi-Rong

    2017-08-01

    Ellipticine (5,11-dimethyl-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole) is an alkaloid isolated from Apocyanaceae plants. This study was designed to investigate the effects of ellipticine on the proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA-FLSs were exposed to different concentrations of ellipticine (i.e., 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μM) for 24-72h and measured for viability, proliferation and apoptosis. The involvement of signal transducer and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in the action of ellipticine was determined by Western blot analysis, luciferase reporter assay and rescue experiments. Ellipticine treatment significantly inhibited the viability and proliferation of RA-FLSs in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, ellipticine exposure did not alter the viability of normal human FLSs. Moreover, ellipticine triggered significant apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activity in RA-FLSs. Mechanistically, ellipticine reduced the phosphorylation of STAT3 and downregulated the expression of Mcl-1, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that ellipticine treatment led to a significant inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity in RA-FLSs. Overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed the suppressive effects of ellipticine on RA-FLSs, which was accompanied by restoration of Mcl-1, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2. Ellipticine shows anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on RA-FLSs through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway and may have therapeutic potential in RA.

  16. Interleukin-6 induces S100A9 expression in colonic epithelial cells through STAT3 activation in experimental ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeoung Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelium is essential for maintaining normal intestinal homeostasis; its breakdown leads to chronic inflammatory pathologies, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. Although high concentrations of S100A9 protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6 are found in patients with IBD, the expression mechanism of S100A9 in colonic epithelial cells (CECs remains elusive. We investigated the role of IL-6 in S100A9 expression in CECs using a colitis model. METHODS: IL-6 and S100A9 expression, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 phosphorylation, and infiltration of immune cells were analyzed in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The effects of soluble gp130-Fc protein (sgp130Fc and S100A9 small interfering (si RNA (si-S100A9 on DSS-induced colitis were evaluated. The molecular mechanism of S100A9 expression was investigated in an IL-6-treated Caco-2 cell line using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS: IL-6 concentrations increased significantly in the colon tissues of DSS-treated mice. sgp130Fc or si-S100A9 administration to DSS-treated mice reduced granulocyte infiltration in CECs and induced the down-regulation of S100A9 and colitis disease activity. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors upon IL-6 stimulation in the Caco-2 cell line demonstrated that IL-6 mediated S100A9 expression through STAT3 activation. Moreover, we found that phospho-STAT3 binds directly to the S100A9 promoter. S100A9 may recruit immune cells into inflamed colon tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated S100A9 expression in CECs mediated by an IL-6/STAT3 signaling cascade may play an important role in the development of colitis.

  17. EGCG attenuates autoimmune arthritis by inhibition of STAT3 and HIF-1α with Th17/Treg control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ji Yang

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is a green tea polyphenol exerting potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting signaling and gene expression. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of EGCG on interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1RaKO autoimmune arthritis models. IL-1RaKO arthritis models were injected intraperitoneally with EGCG three times per week after the first immunization. EGCG decreased the arthritis index and showed protective effects against joint destruction in the IL-1RaKO arthritis models. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress proteins, and p-STAT3 (Y705 and p-STAT3 (S727, mTOR and HIF-1α were significantly lower in mice treated with EGCG. EGCG reduced osteoclast markers in vivo and in vitro along with anti-osteoclastic activity was observed in EGCG-treated IL-1RaKO mice. The proportion of Foxp3(+ Treg cells increased in the spleens of mice treated with EGCG, whereas the proportion of Th17 cells reduced. In vitro, p-STAT3 (Y705 and p-STAT3 (S727, HIF1α and glycolytic pathway molecules were decreased by EGCG. EGCG suppressed the activation of mTOR and subsequently HIF-1α, which is considered as a metabolic check point of Th17/Treg differentiation supporting the therapeutic potential of EGCG in autoimmune arthritis.

  18. Tamoxifen inhibits astrocytic JAK2/STAT3 pathway in rats with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, with 60 subjects placed in two groups, viz, experimental (MCC group) and placebo (P group). The first group ... Overnight fasting cubiti venous blood (3 mL) was taken from each subject each time measurements were carried out. TC and ...

  19. Myocyte-Derived Hsp90 Modulates Collagen Upregulation via Biphasic Activation of STAT-3 in Fibroblasts during Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Rana, Santanu; Datta, Kaberi; Datta Chaudhuri, Ratul; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3)-mediated signaling in relation to upregulated collagen expression in fibroblasts during cardiac hypertrophy is well defined. Our recent findings have identified heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to be a critical modulator of fibrotic signaling in cardiac fibroblasts in this disease milieu. The present study was therefore intended to analyze the role of Hsp90 in the STAT-3-mediated collagen upregulation process. Our data revealed a significant difference between in vivo and in vitro results, pointing to a possible involvement of myocyte-fibroblast cross talk in this process. Cardiomyocyte-targeted knockdown of Hsp90 in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in which the renal artery was ligated showed downregulated collagen synthesis. Furthermore, the results obtained with cardiac fibroblasts conditioned with Hsp90-inhibited hypertrophied myocyte supernatant pointed toward cardiomyocytes' role in the regulation of collagen expression in fibroblasts during hypertrophy. Our study also revealed a novel signaling mechanism where myocyte-derived Hsp90 orchestrates not only p65-mediated interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis but also its release in exosomal vesicles. Such myocyte-derived exosomes and myocyte-secreted IL-6 are responsible in unison for the biphasic activation of STAT-3 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts that culminates in excess collagen synthesis, leading to severely compromised cardiac function during cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28031326

  20. Loss of STAT3 in Lymphoma Relaxes NK Cell-Mediated Tumor Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putz, Eva Maria [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna 1210 (Austria); Hoelzl, Maria Agnes [Institute of Pharmacology, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna (MUV), Waehringer Strasse 13A, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Baeck, Julia [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna 1210 (Austria); Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna 1210 (Austria); Clinical Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Vienna (MUV), Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Schuster, Christian [Institute of Pharmacology, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna (MUV), Waehringer Strasse 13A, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Reichholf, Brian [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna 1210 (Austria); Kern, Daniela; Aberger, Fritz [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg 5020 (Austria); Sexl, Veronika; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.hoelbl@vetmeduni.ac.at [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna 1210 (Austria)

    2014-01-27

    The transcription factors and proto-oncogenes STAT3 and STAT5 are highly activated in hematological malignancies and represent promising therapeutic targets. Whereas the importance of STAT5 as tumor promoter is beyond doubt, the role of STAT3 in hematological cancers is less well understood. Both, enforced as well as attenuated expression of STAT3 were reported in hematopoietic malignancies. Recent evidence implicates STAT3 as key player for tumor immune surveillance as it both mediates the production of and response to inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of STAT3 deletion in a BCR/ABL-induced lymphoma model, which is tightly controlled by natural killer (NK) cells in vivo. Upon STAT3 deletion tumor growth is significantly enhanced when compared to STAT3-expressing controls. The increased tumor size upon loss of STAT3 was accompanied by reduced NK cell infiltration and decreased levels of the cytokine IFN-γ and the chemokine RANTES. Upon transplantation into NK cell-deficient mice differences in lymphoma size were abolished indicating that STAT3 expression in the tumor cells controls NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance. Our findings indicate that STAT3 inhibition in lymphoma patients will impair NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance, which needs to be taken into account when testing STAT3 inhibitors in preclinical or clinical trials.

  1. Multilevel dysregulation of STAT3 activation in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive T/null-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Raghunath, Puthryaveett N; Xue, Liquan

    2002-01-01

    , STAT3 was constitutively associated with NPM/ALK in the ALK+ TCL cell lines. Additional studies into the mechanisms of STAT3 activation revealed that the ALK+ TCL cells expressed a positive regulator of STAT3 activation, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which was constitutively associated with STAT3....... Treatment with the PP2A inhibitor calyculin A abrogated tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Finally, ALK+ T cells failed to express a negative regulator of activated STAT3, protein inhibitor of activated STAT3. These data indicate that NPM/ALK activates STAT3 and that PP2A and lack of protein inhibitor...

  2. S-nitrosoglutathione induces ciliary neurotrophic factor expression in astrocytes, which has implications to protect the central nervous system under pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintlia, Manjeet K; Paintlia, Ajaib S; Singh, Avtar K; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-02-08

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive astrogliosis has beneficial and detrimental outcomes in various CNS disorders, but the mechanism behind this dichotomy is unclear. Recent advances in this direction suggested that NO signaling is critical to regulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, we here investigated the effect of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO; a physiological NO donor) in astrocytes in vitro settings. GSNO enhanced the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophic factors including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced CNTF expression in GSNO-treated astrocytes was ascribed to NO-mediated sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling. It was associated with p38 MAPK-dependent increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transactivation. In addition, the chromatin accessibility of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ accompanied with ATF2 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) was enhanced across the CNTF gene promoter in GSNO treated astrocytes. Interestingly, secreted CNTF was responsible for increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in GSNO-treated astrocytes in an autocrine manner via a JAK2- and STAT3-dependent mechanism. In addition, CNTF secreted by GSNO-treated astrocytes enhanced the differentiation of immature oligodendrocytes in vitro. These effects of GSNO were consistent with an endogenously produced NO in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. We conclude that NO signaling induces CNTF expression in astrocytes that favors the beneficial outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Our data suggest that the endogenously produced NO or its exogenous source has potential to modulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis to protect CNS under pathological conditions.

  3. S-Nitrosoglutathione Induces Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Astrocytes, Which Has Implications to Protect the Central Nervous System under Pathological Conditions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintlia, Manjeet K.; Paintlia, Ajaib S.; Singh, Avtar K.; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive astrogliosis has beneficial and detrimental outcomes in various CNS disorders, but the mechanism behind this dichotomy is unclear. Recent advances in this direction suggested that NO signaling is critical to regulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, we here investigated the effect of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO; a physiological NO donor) in astrocytes in vitro settings. GSNO enhanced the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophic factors including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced CNTF expression in GSNO-treated astrocytes was ascribed to NO-mediated sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling. It was associated with p38 MAPK-dependent increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transactivation. In addition, the chromatin accessibility of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ accompanied with ATF2 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) was enhanced across the CNTF gene promoter in GSNO treated astrocytes. Interestingly, secreted CNTF was responsible for increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in GSNO-treated astrocytes in an autocrine manner via a JAK2- and STAT3-dependent mechanism. In addition, CNTF secreted by GSNO-treated astrocytes enhanced the differentiation of immature oligodendrocytes in vitro. These effects of GSNO were consistent with an endogenously produced NO in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. We conclude that NO signaling induces CNTF expression in astrocytes that favors the beneficial outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Our data suggest that the endogenously produced NO or its exogenous source has potential to modulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis to protect CNS under pathological conditions. PMID:23264628

  4. The role of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in pro-inflammatory responses of EMF-stimulated N9 microglial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xuesen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO through signal transduction involving the activator of transcription STAT3. Here, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in EMF-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory responses in more detail than the previous study. Methods N9 microglial cells were treated with EMF exposure or a sham treatment, with or without pretreatment with an inhibitor (Pyridone 6, P6 of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK. The activation state of microglia was assessed via immunoreaction using the microglial marker CD11b. Levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, TNF-α and NO were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the nitrate reductase method. Activation of JAKs and STAT3 proteins was evaluated by western blotting for specific tyrosine phosphorylation. The ability of STAT3 to bind to DNA was detected with an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA. Results EMF was found to significantly induce phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in N9 microglia. In addition, EMF dramatically increased the expression of CD11b, TNF-α and iNOS, and the production of NO. P6 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and diminished STAT3 activity in EMF-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, expression of CD11b as well as gene expression and production of TNF-α and iNOS were suppressed by P6 at 12 h, but not at 3 h, after EMF exposure. Conclusions EMF exposure directly triggers initial activation of microglia and produces a significant pro-inflammatory response. Our

  5. The role of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in pro-inflammatory responses of EMF-stimulated N9 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuesen; He, Genlin; Hao, Yutong; Chen, Chunhai; Li, Maoquan; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Guangbin; Yu, Zhengping

    2010-09-09

    In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) through signal transduction involving the activator of transcription STAT3. Here, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in EMF-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory responses in more detail than the previous study. N9 microglial cells were treated with EMF exposure or a sham treatment, with or without pretreatment with an inhibitor (Pyridone 6, P6) of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK). The activation state of microglia was assessed via immunoreaction using the microglial marker CD11b. Levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and NO were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the nitrate reductase method. Activation of JAKs and STAT3 proteins was evaluated by western blotting for specific tyrosine phosphorylation. The ability of STAT3 to bind to DNA was detected with an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). EMF was found to significantly induce phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in N9 microglia. In addition, EMF dramatically increased the expression of CD11b, TNF-α and iNOS, and the production of NO. P6 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and diminished STAT3 activity in EMF-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, expression of CD11b as well as gene expression and production of TNF-α and iNOS were suppressed by P6 at 12 h, but not at 3 h, after EMF exposure. EMF exposure directly triggers initial activation of microglia and produces a significant pro-inflammatory response. Our findings confirm that the JAK2-STAT3 pathway may not mediate

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A (LMP2A) enhances IL-10 production through the activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incrocci, Ryan; Barse, Levi; Stone, Amanda; Vagvala, Sai; Montesano, Michael; Subramaniam, Vijay; Swanson-Mungerson, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Previous data demonstrate that Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A (LMP2A) enhances IL-10 to promote the survival of LMP2A-expressing B cell lymphomas. Since STAT3 is an important regulator of IL-10 production, we hypothesized that LMP2A activates a signal transduction cascade that increases STAT3 phosphorylation to enhance IL-10. Using LMP2A-negative and -positive B cell lines, the data indicate that LMP2A requires the early signaling molecules of the Syk/RAS/PI3K pathway to increase IL-10. Additional studies indicate that the PI3K-regulated kinase, BTK, is responsible for phosphorylating STAT3, which ultimately mediates the LMP2A-dependent increase in IL-10. These data are the first to show that LMP2A signaling results in STAT3 phosphorylation in B cells through a PI3K/BTK-dependent pathway. With the use of BTK and STAT3 inhibitors to treat B cell lymphomas in clinical trials, these findings highlight the possibility of using new pharmaceutical approaches to treat EBV-associated lymphomas that express LMP2A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Helicobacter pylori CagA triggers expression of the bactericidal lectin REG3γ via gastric STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Syin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of what is known about the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori cytotoxin, CagA, pertains to a much-vaunted role as a determinant of gastric inflammation and cancer. Little attention has been devoted to potential roles of CagA in the majority of H. pylori infected individuals not showing oncogenic progression, particularly in relation to host tolerance. Regenerating islet-derived (REG3γ encodes a secreted C-type lectin that exerts direct bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria in the intestine. Here, we extend this paradigm of lectin-mediated innate immunity, showing that REG3γ expression is triggered by CagA in the H. pylori-infected stomach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human gastric mucosal tissues, REG3γ expression was significantly increased in CagA-positive, compared to CagA-negative H. pylori infected individuals. Using transfected CagA-inducible gastric MKN28 cells, we recapitulated REG3γ induction in vitro, also showing that tyrosine phosphorylated, not unphosphorylated CagA triggers REG3γ transcription. In concert with induced REG3γ, pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the gp130 cytokine co-receptor via the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and transcription of two cognate ligands, interleukin(IL-11 and IL-6, were significantly increased. Exogenous IL-11, but not IL-6, directly stimulated STAT3 activation and REG3γ transcription. STAT3 siRNA knockdown or IL-11 receptor blockade respectively abrogated or subdued CagA-dependent REG3γ mRNA induction, thus demonstrating a requirement for uncompromised signalling via the IL-11/STAT3 pathway. Inhibition of the gp130-related SHP2-(Ras-ERK pathway did not affect CagA-dependent REG3γ induction, but strengthened STAT3 activation as well as augmenting transcription of mucosal innate immune regulators, IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-response factor (IRF1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a model of CagA-directed REG3

  8. ZnO nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress triggers apoptosis by activating JNK signaling pathway in cultured primary astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieting; Deng, Xiaobei; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Deliang; Ding, Wenjun

    2014-03-01

    It has been documented in in vitro studies that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are capable of inducing oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in ZnO NP-mediated apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of apoptosis in neurocytes induced by ZnO NP exposure was not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms of apoptosis provoked by ZnO NPs in cultured primary astrocytes by exploring the molecular signaling pathways triggered after ZnO NP exposure. ZnO NP exposure was found to reduce cell viability in MTT assays, increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, stimulate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and elicit caspase-3 activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis occurred after ZnO NP exposure as evidenced by nuclear condensation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) cleavage. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with a concomitant increase in the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio suggested that the mitochondria also mediated the pathway involved in ZnO NP-induced apoptosis. In addition, exposure of the cultured cells to ZnO NPs led to phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Moreover, JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly reduced ZnO NP-induced cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression, but not ERK inhibitor (U0126) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), indicating that JNK signaling pathway is involved in ZnO NP-induced apoptosis in primary astrocytes.

  9. Erythropoietin-induced serine 727 phosphorylation of STAT3 in erythroid cells is mediated by a MEK-, ERK-, and MSK1-dependent pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, Albertus T.J.; Vogelzang, Irma; Eggen, BJL; Vellenga, E

    Objective. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a key regulator of erythropoiesis, playing a role in both the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cells. One of the signal transduction molecules activated upon EPO stimulation is signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. Besides

  10. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yo Sun

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2 and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo.

  11. The cell-cell interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and small cell lung cancer cells is involved in tumor progression via STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriki, Toyohisa; Ohnishi, Koji; Fujiwara, Yukio; Horlad, Hasita; Saito, Yoichi; Pan, Cheng; Ikeda, Koei; Mori, Takeshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Takeya, Motohiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. It is well known that various stromal cells, including macrophages, play a role in tumor progression in several types of malignant tumors; however, the significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in SCLC has not been fully elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a molecule well-known to be related to tumor progression. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of TAMs and SCLC cells to test the hypothesis that TAMs induce tumor progression in SCLC via STAT3 activation. We performed immunohistochemical analysis using surgically resected tumor specimens and in vitro co-culture experiments using human SCLC cell lines and human monocyte-derived macrophages. We first demonstrated via immunostaining that STAT3 activation in tumor cells was predominantly observed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests existing near TAMs in stroma. The indirect co-culture of SCLC cells and macrophages induced STAT3 activation in both cell types, and macrophage-derived culture supernatant (CS) significantly activated STAT3 in SCLC cells. Macrophage-derived CS induced tumor cell proliferation and invasion via STAT3 activation. In addition, chemo-resistance and sphere formation were also increased by macrophage-derived CS. Macrophage-derived interleukin-6 and CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4/MIP-1β) were suggested to be associated with STAT3 activation in SCLC cells. CS-induced STAT3 activation in SCLC cells was suppressed by anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, but not by anti-CCL4/MIP-1β antibody. These results suggest that TAMs are likely involved in SCLC progression via STAT3 activation and TAM-derived IL-6 is indicated to be one of molecules related to STAT3 activation in SCLC cells. Thus, the cell-cell interaction between TAMs and SCLC cells might be a target for therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. STAT3 regulates monocyte TNF-alpha production in systemic inflammation caused by cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus R de Jong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB surgery initiates a controlled systemic inflammatory response characterized by a cytokine storm, monocytosis and transient monocyte activation. However, the responsiveness of monocytes to Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated activation decreases throughout the postoperative course. The purpose of this study was to identify the major signaling pathway involved in plasma-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production by monocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pediatric patients that underwent CPB-assisted surgical correction of simple congenital heart defects were enrolled (n = 38. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and plasma samples were isolated at consecutive time points. Patient plasma samples were added back to monocytes obtained pre-operatively for ex vivo LPS stimulations and TNF-α and IL-6 production was measured by flow cytometry. LPS-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and nuclear factor (NF-κB activation by patient plasma was assessed by Western blotting. A cell-permeable peptide inhibitor was used to block STAT3 signaling. We found that plasma samples obtained 4 h after surgery, regardless of pre-operative dexamethasone treatment, potently inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α but not IL-6 synthesis by monocytes. This was not associated with attenuation of p38 MAPK activation or IκB-α degradation. However, abrogation of the IL-10/STAT3 pathway restored LPS-induced TNF-α production in the presence of suppressive patient plasma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that STAT3 signaling plays a crucial role in the downregulation of TNF-α synthesis by human monocytes in the course of systemic inflammation in vivo. Thus, STAT3 might be a potential molecular target for pharmacological intervention in clinical syndromes characterized by systemic inflammation.

  13. Acquisition of resistance to trastuzumab in gastric cancer cells is associated with activation of IL-6/STAT3/Jagged-1/Notch positive feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Sun, Limin; Chen, Hongyu; Deng, Que; Liu, Yanjun; Yu, Ming; Ma, Yuanfang; Guo, Ning; Shi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that prolonged treatment by trastuzumab induced resistance of NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab. The resistant cells possessed typical characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/cancer stem cells and acquired more invasive and metastatic potentials both in vitro and in vivo. Long term treatment with trastuzumab dramatically inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, but triggered the activation of STAT3. The level of IL-6 was remarkably increased, implicating that the release of IL-6 that drives the STAT3 activation initiates the survival signaling transition. Furthermore, the Notch activities were significantly enhanced in the resistant cells, companied by upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 and the Notch responsive genes Hey1 and Hey2. Inhibiting the endogenous Notch pathway reduced the IL-6 expression and restored the sensitivities of the resistant cells to trastuzumab. Blocking of the STAT3 signaling abrogated IL-6-induced Jagged-1 expression, effectively inhibited the growth of the trastuzumab resistant cells, and enhanced the anti-tumor activities of trastuzumab in the resistant cells. These findings implicate that the IL-6/STAT3/Jagged-1/Notch axis may be a useful target and that combination of the Notch or STAT3 inhibitors with trastuzumab may prevent or delay clinical resistance and improve the efficacy of trastuzumab in gastric cancer. PMID:25669984

  14. Aberrantly activated pSTAT3-Ser727 in human endometrial cancer is suppressed by HO-3867, a novel STAT3 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Brent J; McCann, Georgia A; Naidu, Shan; Rath, Kellie S; Saini, Uksha; Wanner, Ross; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Suarez, Adrian; Goodfellow, Paul J; Cohn, David E; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

    2014-10-01

    Constitutive activation of STAT3 is a hallmark of various human cancers, however an increased pSTAT3 expression in high grade human endometrial cancer has not been reported. In the present study, we examine the expression of STAT family of proteins in endometrial cancer cell lines and the efficacy of HO-3867, a novel STAT3 inhibitor designed in our lab. Expression of STAT family proteins was evaluated via Western blot. The cell viability, post-treatment with HO-3867, was assessed using MTT, cell-cycle profile and Annexin assay. In vivo efficacy of HO-3867 was evaluated using xenograft mice. Expression of activated STATs was inconsistent among the cell lines and 18 human endometrial cancer specimens tested. While pSTAT3 Tyr705 was not expressed in any of the cell lines, pSTAT3 Ser727 was highly expressed in endometrial cancer cell lines and tumor specimens. HO-3867 decreased the expression of pSTAT3 Ser727 while total STAT3 remained constant; cell viability decreased by 50-80% and induced G2/M arrest in 55% of Ishikawa cells at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint. There was an increase in p53, a decrease in Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, and cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-7 and PARP. HO-3867 mediated a dosage-dependent inhibition of the growth of xenografted endometrial tumors. HO-3867 treatment decreases the high levels of pSTAT3 Ser727 in endometrial cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This suggests a specific role of serine-phosphorylated STAT3, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation in the oncogenesis of endometrial cancer. HO-3867 could potentially serve as an adjunctive targeted therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspirin suppresses neuronal apoptosis, reduces tissue inflammation, and restrains astrocyte activation by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Shurui, Chen; Zipeng, Zhou; Hongliang, Dai; Hongyu, Wang; Yuanlong, Li; Kang, Zhou; Zhaoliang, Shen; Yue, Guo; Chang, Liu; Mei, Xifan

    2018-01-29

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element signaling pathway plays a substantial role in preventing oxidative stress-related diseases. Aspirin has been shown to exert several pharmacological effects by inducing the expression of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein. However, the effects of aspirin on spinal cord injury (SCI) have rarely been studied. Therefore, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of aspirin after SCI. We employed a spinal cord contusion model in Sprague-Dawley rats, and aspirin was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days. Nissl staining showed that the aspirin treatment significantly reduced the loss of motor neurons after SCI compared with vehicle-treated animals. The expression of Nrf2, quinine oxidoreductase 1, and HO-1 proteins was increased in aspirin-treated animals after SCI compared with the vehicle group. In addition, aspirin simultaneously decreased the expression of inflammation-related proteins, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 after SCI. Moreover, the ratio of apoptotic neurons in the anterior horn and the levels of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax were significantly decreased in the aspirin group compared with the vehicle group. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of NeuN and HO-1, and the results showed that aspirin significantly increased expression of the HO-1 protein in neurons. In addition, western blots and immunofluorescence staining showed aspirin restrained astrocyte activation. In conclusion, aspirin induces neuroprotective effects by inhibiting astrocyte activation and apoptosis after SCI through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  16. Insensitivity of Astrocytes to Interleukin-10 Signaling following Peripheral Immune Challenge Results in Prolonged Microglial Activation in the Aged Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M.; Trojanowski, Paige J.; Walker, Frederick R.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial IL-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher GFAP, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 Receptor-1 (IL-10R1). Following in vivo LPS immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and TGFβ and resolve microglial activation. Additionally, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, while aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10RKO astrocytes did not augment TGFβ after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  17. Inhibition of Stat3 by a Small Molecule Inhibitor Slows Vision Loss in a Rat Model of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandingham, Phillip A; Nuno, Didier J; Quiambao, Alexander B; Phelps, Eric; Wassel, Ronald A; Ma, Jian-Xing; Farjo, Krysten M; Farjo, Rafal A

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss. Previous studies have shown signaling pathways mediated by Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) play a primary role in diabetic retinopathy progression. This study tested CLT-005, a small molecule inhibitor of Stat3, for its dose-dependent therapeutic effects on vision loss in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy. Brown Norway rats were administered streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. CLT-005 was administered daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks at concentrations of 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg, respectively, beginning 4 days post streptozotocin administration. Systemic and ocular drug concentration was quantified with mass spectrometry. Visual function was monitored at 2-week intervals from 6 to 16 weeks using optokinetic tracking to measure visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The presence and severity of cataracts was visually monitored and correlated to visual acuity. The transcription and translation of multiple angiogenic factors and inflammatory cytokines were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Multiplex immunoassay. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats sustain progressive vision loss over 16 weeks, and this loss in visual function is rescued in a dose-dependent manner by CLT-005. This positive therapeutic effect correlates to the positive effects of CLT-005 on vascular leakage and the presence of inflammatory cytokines in the retina. The present study indicates that Stat3 inhibition has strong therapeutic potential for the treatment of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy.

  18. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species signal contributes to bradykinin-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and cell migration in brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Shih, Ruey-Horng; Chi, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Shin-Ei; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2012-11-23

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Moreover, bradykinin (BK) induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins in brain astrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that increased oxidative stress is implicated in the brain inflammation and injury. However, whether BK induced MMP-9 expression mediated through oxidative stress remains virtually unknown. Herein we investigated the role of redox signals in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells). In the study, we first demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a crucial role in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in cultured brain astrocytes (in vitro) and animal brain tissue (in vivo) models. Next, BK-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a Ca2+-mediated PKC-α linking to p47phox/NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)/ROS signaling pathway. Nox2-dependent ROS generation led to activation and up-regulation of the downstream transcriptional factor AP-1 (i.e. c-Fos and c-Jun), which bound to MMP-9 promoter region, and thereby turned on transcription of MMP-9 gene. Functionally, BK-induced MMP-9 expression enhanced astrocytic migration. These results demonstrated that in RBA-1 cells, activation of AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun) by the PKC-α-mediated Nox2/ROS signals is essential for up-regulation of MMP-9 and cell migration enhanced by BK.

  19. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species signal contributes to bradykinin-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and cell migration in brain astrocytes

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    Lin Chih-Chung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Moreover, bradykinin (BK induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins in brain astrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that increased oxidative stress is implicated in the brain inflammation and injury. However, whether BK induced MMP-9 expression mediated through oxidative stress remains virtually unknown. Herein we investigated the role of redox signals in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells. Results In the study, we first demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a crucial role in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in cultured brain astrocytes (in vitro and animal brain tissue (in vivo models. Next, BK-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a Ca2+-mediated PKC-α linking to p47phox/NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2/ROS signaling pathway. Nox2-dependent ROS generation led to activation and up-regulation of the downstream transcriptional factor AP-1 (i.e. c-Fos and c-Jun, which bound to MMP-9 promoter region, and thereby turned on transcription of MMP-9 gene. Functionally, BK-induced MMP-9 expression enhanced astrocytic migration. Conclusions These results demonstrated that in RBA-1 cells, activation of AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun by the PKC-α-mediated Nox2/ROS signals is essential for up-regulation of MMP-9 and cell migration enhanced by BK.

  20. Clinical Implications of Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in de novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Chi Y; Chen, Jiayu; Xu-Monette, Ziju

    2014-01-01

    of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) on prognosis are limited. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated expression of pSTAT3 in de novo DLBCL using immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling (GEP), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Results were analyzed in correlation with cell-of-origin (COO), critical lymphoma...... for the ongoing successful clinical trials targeting the JAK-STAT pathway in DLBCL. Clin Cancer Res; 20(19); 5113-23. ©2014 AACR....

  1. Empagliflozin Limits Myocardial Infarction in Vivo and Cell Death in Vitro: Role of STAT3, Mitochondria, and Redox Aspects

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    Ioanna Andreadou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Empagliflozin (EMPA, a drug approved for type 2 diabetes management, reduced cardiovascular death but is unknown if it reduces myocardial infarction. We sought to investigate: (i the effect of EMPA on myocardial function and infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion in mice fed with western diet (WD, (ii the underlying signaling pathways, (iii its effects on cell survival in rat embryonic-heart-derived cardiomyoblasts (H9C2 and endothelial cells (ECs. To facilitate the aforementioned aims, mice were initially randomized in Control and EMPA groups and were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion. EMPA reduced body weight, blood glucose levels, and mean arterial pressure. Cholesterol, triglyceride, and AGEs remained unchanged. Left ventricular fractional shortening was improved (43.97 ± 0.92 vs. 40.75 ± 0.61% and infarct size reduced (33.2 ± 0.01 vs. 17.6 ± 0.02%. In a second series of experiments, mice were subjected to the above interventions up to the 10th min of reperfusion and myocardial biopsies were obtained for assessment of the signaling cascade. STAT3 was increased in parallel with reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced expression of myocardial iNOS and interleukin-6. Cell viability and ATP content were increased in H9C2 and in ECs. While, STAT3 phosphorylation is known to bestow infarct sparing properties through interaction with mitochondria, we observed that EMPA did not directly alter the mitochondrial calcium retention capacity (CRC; therefore, its effect in reducing myocardial infarction is STAT3 dependent. In conclusion, EMPA improves myocardial function and reduces infarct size as well as improves redox regulation by decreasing iNOS expression and subsequently lipid peroxidation as shown by its surrogate marker MDA. The mechanisms of action implicate the activation of STAT3 anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Stat3 induces oncogenic Skp2 expression in human cervical carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hanhui [Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhao, Wenrong [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yang, Dan, E-mail: yangdandr@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of Skp2 by IL-6 or Stat3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through bound to its promoter region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through recruitment of P300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activation decreases the P27 stability. -- Abstract: Dysregulated Skp2 function promotes cell proliferation, which is consistent with observations of Skp2 over-expression in many types of human cancers, including cervical carcinoma (CC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have not been fully explored. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced Stat3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Skp2 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in the human cervical carcinoma cells. Our data show that IL-6 administration or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in HeLa cells activates Skp2 mRNA transcription. Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, we show that Stat3 binds to the promoter region of Skp2 and promotes its activity through recruiting P300. As a result of the increase of Skp2 expression, endogenous p27 protein levels are markedly decreased. Thus, our results suggest a previously unknown Stat3-Skp2 molecular network controlling cervical carcinoma development.

  3. Aberrant LPL Expression, Driven by STAT3, Mediates Free Fatty Acid Metabolism in CLL Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Grgurevic, Srdana; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Ji Yuan; Jain, Preetesh; Wierda, William; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan; Jain, Nitin; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2015-05-01

    While reviewing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) bone marrow slides, we identified cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in CLL cells but not in normal B cells. Because lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which catalyzes hydrolysis of triglycerides into free fatty acids (FFA), is aberrantly expressed in CLL, we investigated whether LPL regulates the oxidative metabolic capacity of CLL cells. We found that unlike normal B cells, CLL cells metabolize FFAs. Because STAT3 is constitutively activated in CLL cells and because we identified putative STAT3 binding sites in the LPL promoter, we sought to determine whether STAT3 drives the aberrant expression of LPL. Transfection of luciferase reporter gene constructs driven by LPL promoter fragments into MM1 cells revealed that STAT3 activates the LPL promoter. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that STAT3 binds to the LPL promoter. Furthermore, transfection of CLL cells with STAT3-shRNA downregulated LPL transcripts and protein levels, confirming that STAT3 activates the LPL gene. Finally, transfection of CLL cells with LPL-siRNAs decreased the capacity of CLL cells to oxidize FFAs and reduced cell viability. Our study suggests that CLL cells adopt their metabolism to oxidize FFA. Activated STAT3 induces LPL, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides into FFA. Therefore, inhibition of STAT3 is likely to prevent the capacity of CLL cells to utilize FFA. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Serine/Threonine Kinase 35, a Target Gene of STAT3, Regulates the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cells

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    Zhong Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Serine/threonine kinase 35 (STK35 may be associated with Parkinson disease and human colorectal cancer, but there have been no reports on the expression levels or roles of STK35 in osteosarcoma. Methods: STK35 mRNA expression was determined in osteosarcoma and bone cyst tissues by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Results: STK35 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues as indicated by analyzing publicly available expression data (GEO dataset E-MEXP-3628 and real-time PCR analysis on our own cohort. We subsequently investigated the effects of STK35 knockdown on two osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and U2OS. STK35 knockdown inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors. Meanwhile, STK35 knockdown enhanced apoptosis. Expression of the active forms and the activity of two major executioner caspases, caspase 3 and caspase 7, were also increased in osteosarcoma cells with STK35 silenced. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA identified that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was positively correlated with STK35 expression. The mRNA expression of STK35 was repressed by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA, but not by siRNA of STAT4, STAT5A or STAT6. A luciferase reporter assay further demonstrated that STAT3 transcriptionally regulated STK35 expression. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay confirmed the direct recruitment of STAT3 to the STK35 promoter. The promotion effects of STAT3 knockdown on cell apoptosis were partially abolished by STK35 overexpression. Furthermore, STK35 mRNA expression was positively correlated with STAT3 mRNA expression in osteosarcoma tissues by Pearson correlation analysis. Conclusions: These results collectively reveal that STAT3 regulates the transcription of STK35 in osteosarcoma. STK35 may exert an oncogenic role in osteosarcoma.

  5. [Hyper-IgE syndrome. Lessons from function and defects of STAT-3 or DOCK-8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Montiel, Julio César; Vega-Torres, Brittany Itzel

    2016-01-01

    In the classification of primary immunodeficiencies, hyper-IgE syndrome, identified with OMIM code # 147060 in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man catalog, belongs to the group of syndromes associated with combined immunodeficiencies. It is characterized by elevated levels of IgE, eosinophilia, recurrent skin abscesses, pneumonia, lung parenchyma lesions, recurrent infections, rashes in newborns, eczema, sinusitis, otitis, and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Hyper-IgE syndrome can be transmitted by autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive modes of inheritance. Hyper-IgE syndrome in its dominant form includes non-immunological manifestations like characteristic facies, pathological dentition, scoliosis, bone disorders, and joint hyperextensibility. The reported cause of the dominant form is the loss of function of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3, with MIM # 102582). Mutations in dedicator of cytokines 8 (DOCK-8) is the most common cause of the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgE syndrome.

  6. STAT3 single nucleotide polymorphism rs4796793 SNP does not correlate with response to adjuvant IFNα therapy in stage III melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSchrama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFNα is approved for adjuvant treatment of stage III melanoma in Europe and the US. Its clinical