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Sample records for astrocyte glutamine transporter

  1. Astrocytes and Glutamate Homoeostasis in Alzheimer's Disease: A Decrease in Glutamine Synthetase, But Not in Glutamate Transporter-1, in the Prefrontal Cortex

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    Magdalena Kulijewicz-Nawrot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes control tissue equilibrium and hence define the homoeostasis and function of the CNS (central nervous system. Being principal homoeostatic cells, astroglia are fundamental for various forms of neuropathology, including AD (Alzheimer's disease. AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of cognitive functions due to specific lesions in mnesic-associated regions, including the mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex. Here, we analyzed the expression of GS (glutamine synthetase and GLT-1 (glutamate transporter-1 in astrocytes in the mPFC during the progression of AD in a triple-transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD. GS is an astrocyte-specific enzyme, responsible for the intracellular conversion of glutamate into glutamine, whereas the removal of glutamate from the extracellular space is accomplished mainly by astroglia-specific GLT-1. We found a significant decrease in the numerical density (Nv, cells/mm3 of GS-positive astrocytes from early to middle ages (1–9 months; at the age of 1 month by 17%, 6 months by 27% and 9 months by 27% when compared with control animals in parallel with a reduced expression of GS (determined by Western blots, which started at the age of 6 months and was sustained up to 12 months of age. We did not, however, find any changes in the expression of GLT-1, which implies an intact glutamate uptake mechanism. Our results indicate that the decrease in GS expression may underlie a gradual decline in the vital astrocyte-dependent glutamate–glutamine conversion pathway, which in turn may compromise glutamate homoeostasis, leading towards failures in synaptic connectivity with deficient cognition and memory.

  2. The Glutamine Transporters and Their Role in the Glutamate/GABA-Glutamine Cycle

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    Leke, Renata; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    in this neural communication, i.e., the transporters responsible for glutamine efflux from astrocytes and influx into the neurons, such as the members of the SNAT, LAT, y(+)LAT, and ASC families of transporters. The SNAT family consists of the transporter isoforms SNAT3 and SNAT5 that are related to efflux from...... and translational mechanisms, which are induced by several determinants such as amino acid deprivation, hormones, pH, and the activity of different signaling pathways. Dysfunctional glutamine transporter activity has been associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of certain neurologic diseases......Glutamine is a key amino acid in the CNS, playing an important role in the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle (GGC). In the GGC, glutamine is transferred from astrocytes to neurons, where it will replenish the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter pools. Different transporters participate...

  3. The Glutamine Transporters and Their Role in the Glutamate/GABA-Glutamine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine is a key amino acid in the CNS, playing an important role in the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle (GGC). In the GGC, glutamine is transferred from astrocytes to neurons, where it will replenish the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter pools. Different transporters participate...... acids and cationic amino acids (y(+)LAT2 isoform) and have been associated with glutamine efflux from astrocytes. ASCT2 is a Na(+)-dependent antiporter, the participation of which in the GGC also remains to be better characterized. All these isoforms are tightly regulated by transcriptional...... and translational mechanisms, which are induced by several determinants such as amino acid deprivation, hormones, pH, and the activity of different signaling pathways. Dysfunctional glutamine transporter activity has been associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of certain neurologic diseases...

  4. Astrocytic GABA transporter activity modulates excitatory neurotransmission

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    Boddum, Kim; Jensen, Thomas P.; Magloire, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are ideally placed to detect and respond to network activity. They express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, and can release gliotransmitters. Astrocytes also express transporters that regulate the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters. Here we report a previously unrec...

  5. Knockout of GAD65 has major impact on synaptic GABA synthesized from astrocyte-derived glutamine

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    Walls, Anne Byriel; Eyjolfsson, Elvar M.; Smeland, Olav B.

    2011-01-01

    65 for maintenance of the highly compartmentalized intracellular and intercellular GABA homeostasis, GAD65 knockout and corresponding wild-type mice were injected with [1-(13)C]glucose and the astrocyte-specific substrate [1,2-(13)C]acetate. Synthesis of GABA from glutamine in the GABAergic synapses...... and hippocampus. The GABA content in both brain regions was reduced by ∼20%. Moreover, it was revealed that GAD65 is crucial for maintenance of biosynthesis of synaptic GABA particularly by direct synthesis from astrocytic glutamine via glutamate. The GAD67 was found to be important for synthesis of GABA from...... glutamine both via direct synthesis and via a pathway involving mitochondrial metabolism. Furthermore, a severe neuronal hypometabolism, involving glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, was observed in cerebral cortex of GAD65 knockout mice....

  6. Expression of glutamine transporter isoforms in cerebral cortex of rats with chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

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    Leke, Renata; Escobar, Thayssa D C; Rao, Kakulavarapu V Rama; Silveira, Themis Reverbel; Norenberg, Michael D; Schousboe, Arne

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that occurs due to acute and chronic liver diseases, the hallmark of which is the increased levels of ammonia and subsequent alterations in glutamine synthesis, i.e. conditions associated with the pathophysiology of HE. Under physiological conditions, glutamine is fundamental for replenishment of the neurotransmitter pools of glutamate and GABA. The different isoforms of glutamine transporters play an important role in the transfer of this amino acid between astrocytes and neurons. A disturbance in the GABA biosynthetic pathways has been described in bile duct ligated (BDL) rats, a well characterized model of chronic HE. Considering that glutamine is important for GABA biosynthesis, altered glutamine transport and the subsequent glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle efficacy might influence these pathways. Given this potential outcome, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether the expression of the glutamine transporters SAT1, SAT2, SN1 and SN2 would be affected in chronic HE. We verified that mRNA expression of the neuronal glutamine transporters SAT1 and SAT2 was found unaltered in the cerebral cortex of BDL rats. Similarly, no changes were found in the mRNA level for the astrocytic transporter SN1, whereas the gene expression of SN2 was increased by two-fold in animals with chronic HE. However, SN2 protein immuno-reactivity did not correspond with the increase in gene transcription since it remained unaltered. These data indicate that the expression of the glutamine transporter isoforms is unchanged during chronic HE, and thus likely not to participate in the pathological mechanisms related to the imbalance in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system observed in this neurologic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

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    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression (MD. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT. Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and self-grooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT

  8. Visualization of glutamine transporter activities in living cells using genetically encoded glutamine sensors.

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    Katrin Gruenwald

    Full Text Available Glutamine plays a central role in the metabolism of critical biological molecules such as amino acids, proteins, neurotransmitters, and glutathione. Since glutamine metabolism is regulated through multiple enzymes and transporters, the cellular glutamine concentration is expected to be temporally dynamic. Moreover, differentiation in glutamine metabolism between cell types in the same tissue (e.g. neuronal and glial cells is often crucial for the proper function of the tissue as a whole, yet assessing cell-type specific activities of transporters and enzymes in such heterogenic tissue by physical fractionation is extremely challenging. Therefore, a method of reporting glutamine dynamics at the cellular level is highly desirable. Genetically encoded sensors can be targeted to a specific cell type, hence addressing this knowledge gap. Here we report the development of Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET glutamine sensors based on improved cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins, monomeric Teal Fluorescent Protein (mTFP1 and venus. These sensors were found to be specific to glutamine, and stable to pH-changes within a physiological range. Using cos7 cells expressing the human glutamine transporter ASCT2 as a model, we demonstrate that the properties of the glutamine transporter can easily be analyzed with these sensors. The range of glutamine concentration change in a given cell can also be estimated using sensors with different affinities. Moreover, the mTFP1-venus FRET pair can be duplexed with another FRET pair, mAmetrine and tdTomato, opening up the possibility for real-time imaging of another molecule. These novel glutamine sensors will be useful tools to analyze specificities of glutamine metabolism at the single-cell level.

  9. Dexamethasone enhances glutamine synthetase activity and reduces N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity in mixed cultures of neurons and astrocytes

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    Edith Debroas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are claimed to protect neurons against excitotoxicity by clearing glutamate from the extracellular space and rapidly converting it into glutamine. Glutamine, is then released into the extracellular medium, taken up by neurons and transformed back into glutamate which is then stored into synaptic vesicles. Glutamine synthetase (GS, the key enzyme that governs this glutamate/glutamine cycle, is known to be upregulated by glucocorticoids. In the present work we have thus studied in parallel the effects of dexamethasone on glutamine synthetase activity and NMDA-induced neuronal death in cultures derived from the brain cortex of murine embryos. We showed that dexamethasone was able to markedly enhance GS activity in cultures of astrocytes but not in near pure neuronal cultures. The pharmacological characteristics of the dexamethasone action strongly suggest that it corresponds to a typical receptor-mediated effect. We also observed that long lasting incubation (72 h of mixed astrocyte-neuron cultures in the presence of 100 nM dexamethasone significantly reduced the toxicity of NMDA treatment. Furthermore we demonstrated that methionine sulfoximine, a selective inhibitor of GS, abolished the dexamethasone-induced increase in GS activity and also markedly potentiated NMDA toxicity. Altogether these results suggest that dexamethasone may promote neuroprotection through a stimulation of astrocyte glutamine synthetase.

  10. Glutamine Transport and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Cancer Cell Growth

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    Mariafrancesca Scalise

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept that cancer is a metabolic disease is now well acknowledged: many cancer cell types rely mostly on glucose and some amino acids, especially glutamine for energy supply. These findings were corroborated by overexpression of plasma membrane nutrient transporters, such as the glucose transporters (GLUTs and some amino acid transporters such as ASCT2, LAT1, and ATB0,+, which became promising targets for pharmacological intervention. On the basis of their sodium-dependent transport modes, ASCT2 and ATB0+ have the capacity to sustain glutamine need of cancer cells; while LAT1, which is sodium independent will have the role of providing cancer cells with some amino acids with plausible signaling roles. According to the metabolic reprogramming of many types of cancer cells, glucose is mainly catabolized by aerobic glycolysis in tumors, while the fate of Glutamine is completed at mitochondrial level where the enzyme Glutaminase converts Glutamine to Glutamate. Glutamine rewiring in cancer cells is heterogeneous. For example, Glutamate is converted to α-Ketoglutarate giving rise to a truncated form of Krebs cycle. This reprogrammed pathway leads to the production of ATP mainly at substrate level and regeneration of reducing equivalents needed for cells growth, redox balance, and metabolic energy. Few studies on hypothetical mitochondrial transporter for Glutamine are reported and indirect evidences suggested its presence. Pharmacological compounds able to inhibit Glutamine metabolism may represent novel drugs for cancer treatments. Interestingly, well acknowledged targets for drugs are the Glutamine transporters of plasma membrane and the key enzyme Glutaminase.

  11. Expression of glutamine transporter isoforms in cerebral cortex of rats with chronic hepatic encephalopathy

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    Leke, Renata; Escobar, Thayssa D.C.; Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that occurs due to acute and chronic liver diseases, the hallmark of which is the increased levels of ammonia and subsequent alterations in glutamine synthesis, i.e. conditions associated with the pathophysiology of HE. Under physiologica...... that the expression of the glutamine transporter isoforms is unchanged during chronic HE, and thus likely not to participate in the pathological mechanisms related to the imbalance in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system observed in this neurologic condition.......Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that occurs due to acute and chronic liver diseases, the hallmark of which is the increased levels of ammonia and subsequent alterations in glutamine synthesis, i.e. conditions associated with the pathophysiology of HE. Under physiological...... conditions, glutamine is fundamental for replenishment of the neurotransmitter pools of glutamate and GABA. The different isoforms of glutamine transporters play an important role in the transfer of this amino acid between astrocytes and neurons. A disturbance in the GABA biosynthetic pathways has been...

  12. Role of astrocytic transport processes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission

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    Schousboe, A; Sarup, A; Bak, L K

    2004-01-01

    The fine tuning of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission is to a large extent dependent upon optimal function of astrocytic transport processes. Thus, glutamate transport in astrocytes is mandatory to maintain extrasynaptic glutamate levels sufficiently low to prevent excitotoxic...

  13. Roles of glutamate and glutamine transport in ammonia neurotoxicity: state of the art and question marks.

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    Dabrowska, Katarzyna; Skowronska, Katarzyna; Popek, Mariusz; Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Albrecht, Jan; Zielinska, Magdalena

    2017-12-19

    Excessive accumulation of ammonia in the brain is a causative factor of an array of neurological manifestations of hyperammonemic encephalopathies ("hyperammonemias", HA) among which hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major epidemiologic and therapeutic challenge. While ammonia neurotoxicity is symptomatically and mechanistically very complex, there is a consensus with regard to the leading role in its pathogenesis of: i) astrocytes being the primary cellular target of ammonia toxicity; ii) alterations of glutamate (Glu)-dependent neurotransmission (over-excitation followed by inhibition of glutamatergic tone) being the cornerstone of its neurophysiological manifestations; and iii) brain edema, an often lethal consequence of astrocytic swelling, being among other factors caused by the retention of glutamine (Gln) in these cells. This article critically evaluates the present literature attempting to relate manifestations of HA to changes in astrocytic Glu and Gln transport as observed in different in vivo and in vitro HA and/or HE models. Emphasis is put on two disproportions in the state of the art: i) the paucity of available data regarding ammonia-dependent changes in Glu transport activity vs the relative abundance of information on the expression of astrocytic Glu transporters (GLT-1/EAAT2 and GLAST/EAAT1); ii) the just emerging still not very conclusive knowledge on the response of astrocytic Gln transporters SN1 and SN2. The review on the above issues is complemented by own recent data which fill some of the many gaps in the knowledge. A brief account is included on the roles of heteromeric cell membrane Glu/arginine (Arg) exchanger y+LAT2 and on the mitochondrial Gln transport. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Targeting glutamine transport to suppress melanoma cell growth.

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    Wang, Qian; Beaumont, Kimberley A; Otte, Nicholas J; Font, Josep; Bailey, Charles G; van Geldermalsen, Michelle; Sharp, Danae M; Tiffen, Jessamy C; Ryan, Renae M; Jormakka, Mika; Haass, Nikolas K; Rasko, John E J; Holst, Jeff

    2014-09-01

    Amino acids, especially leucine and glutamine, are important for tumor cell growth, survival and metabolism. A range of different transporters deliver each specific amino acid into cells, some of which are increased in cancer. These amino acids consequently activate the mTORC1 pathway and drive cell cycle progression. The leucine transporter LAT1/4F2hc heterodimer assembles as part of a large complex with the glutamine transporter ASCT2 to transport amino acids. In this study, we show that the expression of LAT1 and ASCT2 is significantly increased in human melanoma samples and is present in both BRAF(WT) (C8161 and WM852) and BRAF(V600E) mutant (1205Lu and 451Lu) melanoma cell lines. While inhibition of LAT1 by BCH did not suppress melanoma cell growth, the ASCT2 inhibitor BenSer significantly reduced both leucine and glutamine transport in melanoma cells, leading to inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were significantly reduced in the presence of BenSer in melanoma cells in 2D and 3D cell culture. This included reduced expression of the cell cycle regulators CDK1 and UBE2C. The importance of ASCT2 expression in melanoma was confirmed by shRNA knockdown, which inhibited glutamine uptake, mTORC1 signaling and cell proliferation. Taken together, our study demonstrates that ASCT2-mediated glutamine transport is a potential therapeutic target for both BRAF(WT) and BRAF(V600E) melanoma. © 2014 UICC.

  15. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis induces glutamate dehydrogenase-dependent ammonia fixation into alanine in co-cultures of astrocytes and neurons

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    Dadsetan, Sherry; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Sørensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that ammonia exposure of neurons and astrocytes in co-culture leads to net synthesis not only of glutamine but also of alanine. The latter process involves the concerted action of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). In the present...... study it was investigated if the glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) would enhance alanine synthesis by blocking the GS-dependent ammonia scavenging process. Hence, co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes were incubated for 2.5h with [U-(13)C]glucose to monitor de novo...... synthesis of alanine and glutamine in the absence and presence of 5.0 mM NH(4)Cl and 10 mM MSO. Ammonia exposure led to increased incorporation of label but not to a significant increase in the amount of these amino acids. However, in the presence of MSO, glutamine synthesis was blocked and synthesis...

  16. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

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    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  17. Introduction to the Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle

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    Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The term 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' was coined several decades ago based on the observation that using certain (14)C-labeled precursors for studies of brain metabolism the specific radioactivity of glutamine generated from glutamate was higher than that of glutamate, its immediate precursor....... This is metabolically impossible unless it is assumed that at least two distinct pools of these amino acids exist. This combined with the finding that the enzyme synthesizing glutamine from glutamate was expressed in astrocytes but not in neurons formed the basis of the notion that a cycle must exist in which glutamate...... released from neurons is transported into astrocytes, converted to glutamine which is subsequently returned to neurons and converted to glutamate by an enzyme the activity of which is much higher in neurons than in astrocytes. Originally this cycle was supposed to function in a stoichiometric fashion...

  18. Introduction to the Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    . This is metabolically impossible unless it is assumed that at least two distinct pools of these amino acids exist. This combined with the finding that the enzyme synthesizing glutamine from glutamate was expressed in astrocytes but not in neurons formed the basis of the notion that a cycle must exist in which glutamate......The term 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' was coined several decades ago based on the observation that using certain (14)C-labeled precursors for studies of brain metabolism the specific radioactivity of glutamine generated from glutamate was higher than that of glutamate, its immediate precursor...... released from neurons is transported into astrocytes, converted to glutamine which is subsequently returned to neurons and converted to glutamate by an enzyme the activity of which is much higher in neurons than in astrocytes. Originally this cycle was supposed to function in a stoichiometric fashion...

  19. The glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle

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    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2006-01-01

    Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate...... or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into astrocytes. In return, astrocytes release glutamine to be taken up into neurons for use as neurotransmitter precursor. In this review, the basic properties of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle will be discussed, including aspects of transport and metabolism....... Discussions of stoichiometry, the relative role of glutamate vs. GABA and pathological conditions affecting the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycling are presented. Furthermore, a section is devoted to the accompanying ammonia homeostasis of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle, examining the possible means...

  20. Activity of the lactate-alanine shuttle is independent of glutamate-glutamine cycle activity in cerebellar neuronal-astrocytic cultures

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    Bak, Lasse K; Sickmann, Helle M; Schousboe, Arne

    2004-01-01

    The glutamate-glutamine cycle describes the neuronal release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, astrocytic uptake, and conversion into glutamine, followed by release for use as a neuronal glutamate precursor. This only explains the fate of the carbon atoms, however, and not that of the ammonia...... and corresponding neuronal-astrocytic cocultures. A superfusion paradigm was used to induce repetitively vesicular glutamate release by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the neurons, allowing the relative activity dependency of the lactate-alanine shuttle to be assessed. [(15)N]Alanine (0.2 mM), [2-(15)N]/[5-(15)N]glutamine...... (0.25 mM), and [(15)N]ammonia (0.3 mM) were used as precursors and cell extracts were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Labeling from [(15)N]alanine in glutamine, aspartate, and glutamate in cerebellar cocultures was independent of depolarization of the neurons. Employing glutamine with the amino group...

  1. SAT1, a glutamine transporter, is preferentially expressed in GABAergic neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Tallak Solbu; Tom Tallak Solbu; Mona Bjørkmo; Mona Bjørkmo; Paul Berghuis; Tibor Harkany; Tibor Harkany; Farrukh A Chaudhry; Farrukh A Chaudhry

    2010-01-01

    Subsets of GABAergic neurons are able to maintain high frequency discharge patterns, which requires efficient replenishment of the releasable pool of GABA. Although glutamine is considered a preferred precursor of GABA, the identity of transporters involved in glutamine uptake by GABAergic neurons remains elusive. Molecular analyses revealed that SAT1 (Slc38a1) features system A characteristics with a preferential affinity for glutamine, and that SAT1 mRNA expression is associated with GABAe...

  2. SAT1, A Glutamine Transporter, is Preferentially Expressed in GABAergic Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Solbu, Tom Tallak; Bjørkmo, Mona; Berghuis, Paul; Harkany, Tibor; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.

    2010-01-01

    Subsets of GABAergic neurons are able to maintain high frequency discharge patterns, which requires efficient replenishment of the releasable pool of GABA. Although glutamine is considered a preferred precursor of GABA, the identity of transporters involved in glutamine uptake by GABAergic neurons remains elusive. Molecular analyses revealed that SAT1 (Slc38a1) features system A characteristics with a preferential affinity for glutamine, and that SAT1 mRNA expression is associated with GABAer...

  3. SAT1, a glutamine transporter, is preferentially expressed in GABAergic neurons

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    Tom Tallak Solbu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Subsets of GABAergic neurons are able to maintain high frequency discharge patterns, which requires efficient replenishment of the releasable pool of GABA. Although glutamine is considered a preferred precursor of GABA, the identity of transporters involved in glutamine uptake by GABAergic neurons remains elusive. Molecular analyses revealed that SAT1 (Slc38a1 features system A characteristics with a preferential affinity for glutamine, and that SAT1 mRNA expression is associated with GABAergic neurons. By generating specific antibodies against SAT1 we show that this glutamine carrier is particularly enriched in GABAergic neurons. Cellular SAT1 distribution resembles that of GAD67, an essential GABA synthesis enzyme, suggesting that SAT1 can be involved in translocating glutamine into GABAergic neurons to facilitate inhibitory neurotransmitter generation.

  4. SAT1, A Glutamine Transporter, is Preferentially Expressed in GABAergic Neurons

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    Solbu, Tom Tallak; Bjørkmo, Mona; Berghuis, Paul; Harkany, Tibor; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.

    2009-01-01

    Subsets of GABAergic neurons are able to maintain high frequency discharge patterns, which requires efficient replenishment of the releasable pool of GABA. Although glutamine is considered a preferred precursor of GABA, the identity of transporters involved in glutamine uptake by GABAergic neurons remains elusive. Molecular analyses revealed that SAT1 (Slc38a1) features system A characteristics with a preferential affinity for glutamine, and that SAT1 mRNA expression is associated with GABAergic neurons. By generating specific antibodies against SAT1 we show that this glutamine carrier is particularly enriched in GABAergic neurons. Cellular SAT1 distribution resembles that of GAD67, an essential GABA synthesis enzyme, suggesting that SAT1 can be involved in translocating glutamine into GABAergic neurons to facilitate inhibitory neurotransmitter generation. PMID:20161990

  5. Prefrontal changes in the glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters in depression with and without suicide

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    Zhao, J; Verwer, R W H; van Wamelen, D J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lucassen, P J; Swaab, D F

    2016-01-01

    There are indications for changes in glutamate metabolism in relation to depression or suicide. The glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters mediate the uptake of the glutamate and glutamine. The expression of various components of the glutamate-glutamine cycle and the

  6. Characteristics of glutamine transport in dog jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.

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    Bulus, N M; Abumrad, N N; Ghishan, F K

    1989-07-01

    The present study characterizes glutamine transport across brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from dog jejunum. The purity of these vesicles was demonstrated by a 20-fold enrichment of leucine aminopeptidase, a marker for BBM. Glutamine uptake was found to occur into an osmotically active space with no membrane binding and to exhibit temperature and pH dependence (optimal uptake at pH 7-7.5). Glutamine uptake was driven by an inwardly directed Na+ gradient with a distinct overshoot not observed under K+ gradient. Lithium could not substitute for Na+ as a stimulator of glutamine uptake. Na+-dependent glutamine uptake was not inhibited by methylaminoisobutyric acid, a typical substrate for system A, and was found to be electrogenic and saturable with a Km of 0.97 +/- 0.58 mM and a Vmax of 3.93 +/- 0.99 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. A Na+-glutamine coupling ratio of 1:1 could be demonstrated by a plot of Hill transformation. Na+-independent glutamine uptake was found to be electroneutral and saturable with a Km of 3.70 +/- 0.66 mM and a Vmax of 2.70 +/- 1.55 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. Inhibition studies confirmed the presence of a Na+-dependent as well as a Na+-independent carrier for glutamine uptake. We conclude that glutamine uptake across dog BBMV occurs via two transport systems: a Na+-dependent high-affinity system similar to the neutral brush-border system and a Na+-independent lower-affinity system similar to system L.

  7. Transport of glutamine into the xylem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findenegg, G.R.; Plaisier, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Melger, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were grown on nutrient solution with ammonium nitrogen. After 12 days of growth the ammonium in the nutrient solution was labeled with N (99%). Three hours later glutamine-N in the xylem exudate was labeled for 56% as shown by GC-MS; this percentage increased

  8. Activation of P2X(7) receptors decreases glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity in RBA-2 astrocytes via distinct mechanisms.

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    Lo, Jun-Chih; Huang, Wei-Chi; Chou, Yun-Chia; Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Lee, Wei-Li; Sun, Synthia H

    2008-04-01

    Glutamate clearance by astrocytes is critical for controlling excitatory neurotransmission and ATP is an important mediator for neuron-astrocyte interaction. However, the effect of ATP on glutamate clearance has never been examined. Here we report that treatment of RBA-2 cells, a type-2-like astrocyte cell line, with ATP and the P2X(7) receptor selective agonist 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) decreased the Na+-dependent [3H]glutamate uptake within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that the decreases were augmented by removal of extracellular Mg2+ or Ca2+, and was restored by P2X7 selective antagonist , periodate-oxidized 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP (oATP), indicating that the decreases were mediated through P2X(7) receptors. Furthermore, stimulation of P2X7 receptors for 2 h inhibited both activity and protein expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), and oATP abolished the inhibition. In addition, removal of extracellular Ca(2+) and inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) restored the ATP-decreased GS expression but failed to restore the P2X(7)-decreased [3H]glutamate uptake. Therefore, P2X7-mediated intracellular signals play a role in the down-regulation of GS activity/expression. Activation of P2X7 receptors stimulated increases in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+](i)) suggesting that the P2X(7)-induced increases in [Na+](i) may affect the local Na+ gradient and decrease the Na+-dependent [3H]glutamate uptake. These findings demonstrate that the P2X7-mediated decreases in glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis were mediated through distinct mechanisms in these cells.

  9. Neuronal Activity and Glutamate Uptake Decrease Mitochondrial Mobility in Astrocytes and Position Mitochondria Near Glutamate Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua G.; O'Donnell, John C.; Takano, Hajime; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Within neurons, mitochondria are nonuniformly distributed and are retained at sites of high activity and metabolic demand. Glutamate transport and the concomitant activation of the Na+/K+-ATPase represent a substantial energetic demand on astrocytes. We hypothesized that mitochondrial mobility within astrocytic processes might be regulated by neuronal activity and glutamate transport. We imaged organotypic hippocampal slice cultures of rat, in which astrocytes maintain their highly branched morphologies and express glutamate transporters. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy, the mobility of mitochondria within individual astrocytic processes and neuronal dendrites was tracked. Within neurons, a greater percentage of mitochondria were mobile than in astrocytes. Furthermore, they moved faster and farther than in astrocytes. Inhibiting neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX) increased the percentage of mobile mitochondria in astrocytes. Mitochondrial movement in astrocytes was inhibited by vinblastine and cytochalasin D, demonstrating that this mobility depends on both the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Inhibition of glutamate transport tripled the percentage of mobile mitochondria in astrocytes. Conversely, application of the transporter substrate d-aspartate reversed the TTX-induced increase in the percentage of mobile mitochondria. Inhibition of reversed Na+/Ca2+ exchange also increased the percentage of mitochondria that were mobile. Last, we demonstrated that neuronal activity increases the probability that mitochondria appose GLT-1 particles within astrocyte processes, without changing the proximity of GLT-1 particles to VGLUT1. These results imply that neuronal activity and the resulting clearance of glutamate by astrocytes regulate the movement of astrocytic mitochondria and suggest a mechanism by which glutamate transporters might retain mitochondria at sites of glutamate uptake. PMID:24478345

  10. Leptin regulates glutamate and glucose transporters in hypothalamic astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Granado, Miriam; de Ceballos, María L.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Sarman, Beatrix; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Argente, Jesús; Horvath, Tamas L.; Chowen, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells perform critical functions that alter the metabolism and activity of neurons, and there is increasing interest in their role in appetite and energy balance. Leptin, a key regulator of appetite and metabolism, has previously been reported to influence glial structural proteins and morphology. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic status and leptin also modify astrocyte-specific glutamate and glucose transporters, indicating that metabolic signals influence synaptic efficacy and glucose uptake and, ultimately, neuronal function. We found that basal and glucose-stimulated electrical activity of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in mice were altered in the offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet. In adulthood, increased body weight and fasting also altered the expression of glucose and glutamate transporters. These results demonstrate that whole-organism metabolism alters hypothalamic glial cell activity and suggest that these cells play an important role in the pathology of obesity. PMID:23064363

  11. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: Structure/function relationships and relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body’s homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7 and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologues. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention.

  12. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: Structure/function relationships and relevance to human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena ePochini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body’s homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7 and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologues. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for

  13. Regulation of the Glutamate-Glutamine Transport System by Intracellular pH in Streptococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; HELLINGWERF, KJ; KONINGS, WN

    Various methods of manipulation of the intracellular pH in Streptococcus lactis result in a unique relationship between the rate of glutamate and glutamine transport and the cytoplasmic pH. The initial rate of glutamate uptake by S. lactis cells increases more than 30-fold when the intracellular pH

  14. Astrocyte VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent cycling and modulate glutamate transporter trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Hérault, Karine; Zylbersztejn, Kathleen; Lauterbach, Marcel A; Guillon, Marc; Oheim, Martin; Ropert, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Key points Mouse cortical astrocytes express VAMP3 but not VAMP2. VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo- and endocytotic cycling at the plasma membrane. VAMP3 vesicle traffic regulates the recycling of plasma membrane glutamate transporters. cAMP modulates VAMP3 vesicle cycling and glutamate uptake. Abstract Previous studies suggest that small synaptic-like vesicles in astrocytes carry vesicle-associated vSNARE proteins, VAMP3 (cellubrevin) and VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2), both contributing to the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of gliotransmitters, thereby modulating brain information processing. Here, using cortical astrocytes taken from VAMP2 and VAMP3 knock-out mice, we find that astrocytes express only VAMP3. The morphology and function of VAMP3 vesicles were studied in cultured astrocytes at single vesicle level with stimulated emission depletion (STED) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopies. We show that VAMP3 antibodies label small diameter (∼80 nm) vesicles and that VAMP3 vesicles undergo Ca2+-independent exo-endocytosis. We also show that this pathway modulates the surface expression of plasma membrane glutamate transporters and the glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Finally, using pharmacological and optogenetic tools, we provide evidence suggesting that the cytosolic cAMP level influences astrocytic VAMP3 vesicle trafficking and glutamate transport. Our results suggest a new role for VAMP3 vesicles in astrocytes. PMID:25864578

  15. N-acetylcysteine prevents HIV gp 120-related damage of human cultured astrocytes: correlation with glutamine synthase dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Nicola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV envelope gp 120 glycoprotein is released during active HIV infection of brain macrophages thereby generating inflammation and oxidative stress which contribute to the development of the AIDS-Dementia Complex (ADC. Gp120 has also been found capable to generate excitotoxic effect on brain tissue via enhancement of glutamatergic neurotransmission, leading to neuronal and astroglial damage, though the mechanism is still to be better understood. Here we investigated on the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, on gp120-induced damage in human cultured astroglial cells and the possible contribution of gp120-related reacting oxygen species (ROS in the imbalanced activity of glutamine synthase (GS, the enzyme that metabolizes glutamate into glutamine within astroglial cells playing a neuroprotective role in brain disorders. Results Incubation of Lipari human cultured astroglial cells with gp 120 (0.1–10 nM produced a significant reduction of astroglial cell viability and apoptosis as evaluated by TUNEL reaction and flow cytometric analysis (FACS. This effect was accompanied by lipid peroxidation as detected by means of malondialdehyde assay (MDA. In addition, gp 120 reduced both glutamine concentration in astroglial cell supernatants and GS expression as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blotting analysis. Pre-treatment of cells with NAC (0.5–5 mM, dose-dependently antagonised astroglial apoptotic cell death induced by gp 120, an effect accompanied by significant attenuation of MDA accumulation. Furthermore, both effects were closely associated with a significant recovery of glutamine levels in cell supernatants and by GS expression, thus suggesting that overproduction of free radicals might contribute in gp 120-related dysfunction of GS in astroglial cells. Conclusion In conclusion, the present experiments demonstrate that gp 120 is toxic to astroglial cells, an effect accompanied by lipid peroxidation and by altered

  16. Transport of BMAA into Neurons and Astrocytes by System xc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Rebecca; Lobner, Doug

    2018-01-01

    The study of the mechanism of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) neurotoxicity originally focused on its effects at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In recent years, it has become clear that its mechanism of action is more complicated. First, there are certain cell types, such as motor neurons and cholinergic neurons, where the dominate mechanism of toxicity is through action at AMPA receptors. Second, even in cortical neurons where the primary mechanism of toxicity appears to be activation of NMDA receptors, there are other mechanisms involved. We found that along with NMDA receptors, activation of mGLuR5 receptors and effects on the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x c -) were involved in the toxicity. The effects on system x c - are of particular interest. System x c - mediates the transport of cystine into the cell in exchange for releasing glutamate into the extracellular fluid. By releasing glutamate, system x c - can potentially cause excitotoxicity. However, through providing cystine to the cell, it regulates the levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), the main endogenous intracellular antioxidant, and in this way may protect cells against oxidative stress. We have previously published that BMAA inhibits cystine uptake leading to GSH depletion and had indirect evidence that BMAA is transported into the cells by system x c -. We now present direct evidence that BMAA is transported into both astrocytes and neurons through system x c -. The fact that BMAA is transported by system x c - also provides a mechanism for BMAA to enter brain cells potentially leading to misincorporation into proteins and protein misfolding.

  17. The Glutamine-Glutamate/GABA Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Anne B; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle in the brain consisting of the transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons and neurotransmitter glutamate or GABA from neurons to astrocytes is a well-known concept. In neurons, glutamine is not only used for energy production and protein...... synthesis, as in other cells, but is also an essential precursor for biosynthesis of amino acid neurotransmitters. An excellent tool for the study of glutamine transfer from astrocytes to neurons is [(14)C]acetate or [(13)C]acetate and the glial specific enzyme inhibitors, i.e. the glutamine synthetase...... information about glutamine transfer. The present review will give information about glutamine trafficking and the tools used to map it as exemplified by discussions of published work employing brain cell cultures as well as intact animals. It will be documented that considerably more glutamine is transferred...

  18. Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha promote glutamate transporter-1 endocytosis in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Liao, Chih-Kai; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tzeng, Shun-Fen

    2017-05-01

    Astrocytes, a stellate-shape glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), maintain glutamate homeostasis in adult CNS by undergoing glutamate uptake at the synapse through their glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) can be activated by endogenous saturated fatty acids to regulate astrocytic lipid metabolism and functions. However, it is unclear if PPARα can exert the regulatory action on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with palmitic acid (PA) and the other two PPARα agonists (GW 7647 and WY 14,643) caused no change in the morphology of astrocytes, whereas membranous GLT-1 protein levels in astrocytes were significantly decreased by PA and PPARα agonists. Through lentivirus-mediated overexpression of GLT-1 tagged with red fluorescent protein (GLT-1-RFP), we also observed that GLT-1-RFP puncta in the processes of astrocytes were inhibited by the PPARα agonists. This reduction was prevented by the addition of the PPARα antagonist, GW6471. GLT-1-RFP was co-localized to the early endosome marker-EEA1 in astrocytes treated with the PPARα agonists. Moreover, PPARα-induced inhibition in membranous GLT-1 expression was abolished by the addition of dynamin inhibitor (dynasore). Furthermore, the co-treatment of astrocytes with PPARα agonists and dynasore, or with PPARα agonists and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bis-indolylmaleimide 1 (BIS1), prevented the endocytosis of GLT-1-RFP. Based on the results, we conclude that the PPARα agonists increased GLT-1 endocytosis in astrocytes possibly through the PKC signaling pathway. In addition, our findings provide important information of PPARα involvement in the downregulation of astrocytic glutamate uptake via the promoted GLT-1 endocytosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Mary C; Stridh, Malin H; McNair, Laura Frendrup

    2016-01-01

    The cellular distribution of transporters and enzymes related to glutamate metabolism led to the concept of the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Glutamate is released as a neurotransmitter and taken up primarily by astrocytes ensheathing the synapses. The glutamate carbon skeleton is transferred back t...

  20. Prefrontal changes in the glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters in depression with and without suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Verwer, R W H; van Wamelen, D J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lucassen, P J; Swaab, D F

    2016-11-01

    There are indications for changes in glutamate metabolism in relation to depression or suicide. The glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters mediate the uptake of the glutamate and glutamine. The expression of various components of the glutamate-glutamine cycle and the neuronal/glial glutamate transporters was determined by qPCR in postmortem prefrontal cortex. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were selected from young MDD patients who had committed suicide (MDD-S; n = 17), from MDD patients who died of non-suicide related causes (MDD-NS; n = 7) and from matched control subjects (n = 12). We also compared elderly depressed patients who had not committed suicide (n = 14) with matched control subjects (n = 22). We found that neuronal located components (EAAT3, EAAT4, ASCT1, SNAT1, SNAT2) of the glutamate-glutamine cycle were increased in the ACC while the astroglia located components (EAAT1, EAAT2, GLUL) were decreased in the DLPFC of MDD-S patients. In contrast, most of the components in the cycle were increased in the DLPFC of MDD-NS patients. In conclusion, the glutamate-glutamine cycle - and thus glutamine transmission - is differentially affected in depressed suicide patients and depressed non-suicide patients in an area specific way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paroxetine prevented the down-regulation of astrocytic L-Glu transporters in neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Koki; Takaki, Junpei; Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Sekino, Yuko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Sato, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular L-glutamate (L-Glu) concentration is elevated in neuroinflammation, thereby causing excitotoxicity. One of the mechanisms is down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters. Some antidepressants have anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore investigated effects of various antidepressants on the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters in the in vitro neuroinflammation model. Among these antidepressants, only paroxetine was effective. We previously demonstrated that the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters was caused by L-Glu released from activated microglia. We here clarified that only paroxetine inhibited L-Glu release from microglia. This is the novel action of paroxetine, which may bring advantages on the therapy of neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Paroxetine prevented the down-regulation of astrocytic L-Glu transporters in neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Fujimori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular L-glutamate (L-Glu concentration is elevated in neuroinflammation, thereby causing excitotoxicity. One of the mechanisms is down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters. Some antidepressants have anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore investigated effects of various antidepressants on the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters in the in vitro neuroinflammation model. Among these antidepressants, only paroxetine was effective. We previously demonstrated that the down-regulation of astrocyte L-Glu transporters was caused by L-Glu released from activated microglia. We here clarified that only paroxetine inhibited L-Glu release from microglia. This is the novel action of paroxetine, which may bring advantages on the therapy of neuroinflammation.

  3. Effects of Protons and HZE Particles on Glutamate Transport in Astrocytes, Neurons and Mixed Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Martha C.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Green, Lora M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced neurotoxicity is a well-characterized phenomenon. However, the underlying mechanism of this toxicity is poorly understood. In the central nervous system (CNS), excitotoxic mechanisms are implicated in many neurodegenerative disease processes. Pivotal to the excitotoxic pathway is dysfunction of glutamate signaling. We reported previously that exposure to low-LET γ radiation results in altered glutamate transport in neurons and astrocytes. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of various particle radiations of differing LET on glutamate transport as a measure of the neurochemical vulnerability of the CNS. NTera2-derived neurons and astrocytes isolated as pure and mixed cultures were exposed to doses of 10 cGy, 50 cGy or 2 Gy of 250 MeV protons, 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ions, or 1000 MeV/nucleon iron ions. Transporter function was assessed at 3 h, 2 days and 7days after exposure. Functional assessment of glutamate transport revealed that neurons and astrocytes respond in a reciprocal manner after exposure to particle radiation. Uptake activity in neurons increased after particle irradiation. This effect was evident as late as our last time (7 days) after exposure (P < 0.05). In astrocytes, transporter activity decreased after exposure. The decrease in uptake observed in astrocytes was evident 7 days after exposure to carbon and iron ions. Uptake in mixed cultures after exposure to all three forms of radiation revealed a muted interactive response suggestive of the individual responses of each cellular phenotype acting in opposition. PMID:21128790

  4. Understanding spatial and temporal patterning of astrocyte calcium transients via interactions between network transport and extracellular diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrahman, E.; Maruyama, D.; Olariu, E.; Fink, C. G.; Zochowski, M.

    2017-02-01

    Astrocytes form interconnected networks in the brain and communicate via calcium signaling. We investigate how modes of coupling between astrocytes influence the spatio-temporal patterns of calcium signaling within astrocyte networks and specifically how these network interactions promote coordination within this group of cells. To investigate these complex phenomena, we study reduced cultured networks of astrocytes and neurons. We image the spatial temporal patterns of astrocyte calcium activity and quantify how perturbing the coupling between astrocytes influences astrocyte activity patterns. To gain insight into the pattern formation observed in these cultured networks, we compare the experimentally observed calcium activity patterns to the patterns produced by a reduced computational model, where we represent astrocytes as simple units that integrate input through two mechanisms: gap junction coupling (network transport) and chemical release (extracellular diffusion). We examine the activity patterns in the simulated astrocyte network and their dependence upon these two coupling mechanisms. We find that gap junctions and extracellular chemical release interact in astrocyte networks to modulate the spatiotemporal patterns of their calcium dynamics. We show agreement between the computational and experimental findings, which suggests that the complex global patterns can be understood as a result of simple local coupling mechanisms.

  5. Involvement of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SLC16A1) in the uptake of l-lactate in human astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideno, Masaya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sasaki, Shotaro; Futagi, Yuya; Narumi, Katsuya; Furugen, Ayako; Iseki, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), help neurons survive. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are reported to transport l-lactate, which is important for CNS physiology and cognitive function. However, it remains unclear which MCT isoform is functionally expressed by human astrocytes. The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of each MCT isoform to l-lactate transport in human astrocytes. The function of l-lactate transport was studied using NHA cells as a human astrocyte model and radiolabeled l-lactate. The expression of MCT in human astrocytes was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. The cellular uptake of l-lactate was found to be pH- and concentration-dependent with a Km value for l-lactate uptake of 0.64mM. This Km was similar to what has been previously established for MCT1-mediated l-lactate uptake. α-Cyano-4- hydroxycinnamate (CHC) and 5-oxoproline, which are both MCT1 inhibitors, were found to significantly inhibit the uptake of l-lactate, suggesting MCT1 is primarily responsible for l-lactate transport. Moreover, MCT1 protein was expressed in human astrocytes. pH-dependent l-lactate transport is mediated by MCT1 in human astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glutamine oxidation maintains the TCA cycle and cell survival during impaired mitochondrial pyruvate transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Chendong; Ko, Bookyung; Hensley, Christopher T; Jiang, Lei; Wasti, Ajla T; Kim, Jiyeon; Sudderth, Jessica; Calvaruso, Maria Antonietta; Lumata, Lloyd; Mitsche, Matthew; Rutter, Jared; Merritt, Matthew E; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    .... Inhibiting the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) activates GDH and reroutes glutamine metabolism to generate both oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, enabling persistent tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle function...

  7. Molecular identification and characterisation of the glycine transporter (GLYT1) and the glutamine/glutamate transporter (ASCT2) in the rat lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Julie; Lorentzen, Karen Axelgaard; Kistler, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an essential antioxidant required for the maintenance of lens transparency. In the lens, GSH is maintained at unusually high concentrations as a result of direct GSH uptake and/or intracellular de novo synthesis from its precursor amino acids; cysteine, glycine and glutamine...... (EAATs) in the rat lens. In this current study, we have identified and localised additional uptake systems that contribute to GSH synthesis. Transcripts for GLYT1 (glycine transporter) and ASCT2 (glutamine/glutamate transporter) were detected in rat lens fiber cells using the reverse transcription...... fiber cells of the lens core. The molecular identification and localisation of GLYT1 and ASCT2 in the lens suggests that these transporters may be responsible for the uptake of the precursor amino acids, glycine and glutamine, which are involved in GSH synthesis. Moreover, the presence of ASCT2...

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances GABA transport by modulating the trafficking of GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) from the plasma membrane of rat cortical astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz, Sandra H; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Cristóvão-Ferreira, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    /MAPK pathway and requires active adenosine A(2A) receptors. Transport through GAT-3 is not affected by BDNF. To elucidate if BDNF affects trafficking of GAT-1 in astrocytes, we generated and infected astrocytes with a functional mutant of the rat GAT-1 (rGAT-1) in which the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope...

  9. Specificity of exogenous acetate and glutamate as astrocyte substrates examined in acute brain slices from female mice using methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to inhibit glutamine synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Velde; McNair, Laura Frendrup; Schousboe, Arne

    2017-01-01

    cortical slices from female NMRI mice were incubated in media containing [1,2-(13) C]acetate or [U-(13) C]glutamate, with or without methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to inhibit glutamine synthetase (GS). Tissue extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blocking GS abolished the majority...... of glutamine (13) C-labeling from [1,2-(13) C]acetate as intended. However, (13) C-labeling of GABA was only 40-50% reduced by MSO, suggesting considerable neuronal uptake of acetate. Moreover, labeling of glutamate from [1,2-(13) C]acetate in the presence of MSO exceeded the level probable from exclusive...

  10. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate...... synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle...

  11. Luminal leptin inhibits L-glutamine transport in rat small intestine: involvement of ASCT2 and B0AT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducroc, Robert; Sakar, Yassine; Fanjul, Carmen; Barber, Ana; Bado, André; Lostao, Maria Pilar

    2010-07-01

    L-glutamine is the primary metabolic fuel for enterocytes. Glutamine from the diet is transported into the absorptive cells by two sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporters present at the apical membrane: ASCT2/SLC1A5 and B(0)AT1/SLC6A19. We have demonstrated that leptin is secreted into the stomach lumen after a meal and modulates the transport of sugars after binding to its receptors located at the brush border of the enterocytes. The present study was designed to address the effect of luminal leptin on Na(+)-dependent glutamine (Gln) transport in rat intestine and identify the transporters involved. We found that 0.2 nM leptin inhibited uptake of Gln and phenylalanine (Phe) (substrate of B(0)AT1) using everted intestinal rings. In Ussing chambers, 10 mM Gln absorption followed as Na(+)-induced short-circuit current was inhibited by leptin in a dose-dependent manner (maximum inhibition at 10 nM; I(C50) = approximately 0.1 nM). Phe absorption was also decreased by leptin. Western blot analysis after 3-min incubation of the intestinal loops with 10 mM Gln, showed marked increase of ASCT2 and B(0)AT1 protein in the brush-border membrane that was reduced by rapid preincubation of the intestinal lumen with 1 nM leptin. Similarly, the increase in ASCT2 and B(0)AT1 gene expression induced by 60-min incubation of the intestine with 10 mM Gln was strongly reduced after a short preincubation period with leptin. Altogether these data demonstrate that, in rat, leptin controls the active Gln entry through reduction of both B(0)AT1 and ASCT2 proteins traffic to the apical plasma membrane and modulation of their gene expression.

  12. Reduced expression of glutamate transporter EAAT2 and impaired glutamate transport in human primary astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 or gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuying; Pekarskaya, Olga; Bencheikh, Meryem; Chao, Wei; Gelbard, Harris A; Ghorpade, Anuja; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Volsky, David J

    2003-07-20

    L-Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Astrocytes maintain low levels of synaptic glutamate by high-affinity uptake and defects in this function may lead to neuronal cell death by excitotoxicity. We tested the effects of HIV-1 and its envelope glycoprotein gp120 upon glutamate uptake and expression of glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 in fetal human astrocytes in vitro. Astrocytes isolated from fetal tissues between 16 and 19 weeks of gestation expressed EAAT1 and EAAT2 RNA and proteins as detected by Northern blot analysis and immunoblotting, respectively, and the cells were capable of specific glutamate uptake. Exposure of astrocytes to HIV-1 or gp120 significantly impaired glutamate uptake by the cells, with maximum inhibition within 6 h, followed by gradual decline during 3 days of observation. HIV-1-infected cells showed a 59% reduction in V(max) for glutamate transport, indicating a reduction in the number of active transporter sites on the cell surface. Impaired glutamate transport after HIV-1 infection or gp120 exposure correlated with a 40-70% decline in steady-state levels of EAAT2 RNA and protein. EAAT1 RNA and protein levels were less affected. Treatment of astrocytes with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased the expression of both EAAT1 and EAAT2, but neither HIV-1 nor gp120 were found to induce TNF-alpha production by astrocytes. These findings demonstrate that HIV-1 and gp120 induce transcriptional downmodulation of the EAAT2 transporter gene in human astrocytes and coordinately attenuate glutamate transport by the cells. Reduction of the ability of HIV-1-infected astrocytes to take up glutamate may contribute to the development of neurological disease.

  13. The amino acid transporters of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle and their impact on insulin and glucagon secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eJenstad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular communication is pivotal in optimising and synchronising cellular responses to keep internal homeostasis and to respond adequately to external stimuli. In the central nervous system (CNS, glutamatergic and GABAergic signals are postulated to be dependent on the glutamate/GABA-glutamine (GGG cycle for vesicular loading of neurotransmitters, for inactivating the signal and for the replenishment of the neurotransmitters. Islets of Langerhans release the hormones insulin and glucagon, but share similarities with CNS cells in for example transcriptional control of development and differentiation, and chromatin methylation. Interestingly, proteins involved in the CNS in secretion of the neurotransmitters and emitting their responses as well as the regulation of these processes, are also found in islet cells. Moreover, high levels of glutamate, GABA and glutamine and their respective vesicular and plasma membrane transporters have been shown in the islet cells and there is emerging support for these amino acids and their transporters playing important roles in the maturation and secretion of insulin and glucagon. In this review, we will discuss the feasibility of recent data in the field in relation to the biophysical properties of the transporters (Slc1, Slc17, Slc32 and Slc38 and physiology of hormone secretion in islets of Langerhans.

  14. High effective cytosolic H+ buffering in mouse cortical astrocytes attributable to fast bicarbonate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-09-01

    Cytosolic H(+) buffering plays a major role for shaping intracellular H(+) shifts and hence for the availability of H(+) for biochemical reactions and acid/base-coupled transport processes. H(+) buffering is one of the prime means to protect the cell from large acid/base shifts. We have used the H(+) indicator dye BCECF and confocal microscopy to monitor the cytosolic H(+) concentration, [H(+)]i, in cultured cortical astrocytes of wild-type mice and of mice deficient in sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (NBCe1-KO) or in carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII-KO). The steady-state buffer strength was calculated from the amplitude of [H(+)]i transients as evoked by CO2/HCO3(-) and by butyric acid in the presence and absence of CO2/HCO3(-). We tested the hypotheses if, in addition to instantaneous physicochemical H(+) buffering, rapid acid/base transport across the cell membrane contributes to the total, "effective" cytosolic H(+) buffering. In the presence of 5% CO2/26 mM HCO3(-), H(+) buffer strength in astrocytes was increased 4-6 fold, as compared with that in non-bicarbonate, HEPES-buffered solution, which was largely attributable to fast HCO3 (-) transport into the cells via NBCe1, supported by CAII activity. Our results show that within the time frame of determining physiological H(+) buffering in cells, fast transport and equilibration of CO2/H(+)/HCO3(-) can make a major contribution to the total "effective" H(+) buffer strength. Thus, "effective" cellular H(+) buffering is, to a large extent, attributable to membrane transport of base equivalents rather than a purely passive physicochemical process, and can be much larger than reported so far. Not only physicochemical H(+) buffering, but also rapid import of HCO3(-) via the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1, supported by carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), was identified to enhance cytosolic H(+) buffer strength substantially. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Protein kinase C (PKC phosphorylates the system N glutamine transporter SN1 (slc38a3 and regulates its membrane trafficking and degradation

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    Lise Sofie H. Nissen-Meyer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The system N transporter SN1 (also known as SNAT3 is enriched on perisynaptic astroglial cell membranes. SN1 mediates electroneutral and bidirectional glutamine transport, and regulates the intracellular as well as the extracellular concentrations of glutamine. We hypothesize that SN1 participates in the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle and regulates the amount of glutamine supplied to the nerve terminals for replenishment of the neurotransmitter pools of glutamate and GABA. We also hypothesize that its activity on the plasma membrane is regulated by PKC-mediated phosphorylation and that SN1 activity has an impact on synaptic plasticity. This review discusses inconcistencies reported in the regulation of SN1 by PKC and presents a consolidated model for regulation and degradation of SN1 and the subsequent functional implications. As SN1 function is likely also regulated by PKC-mediated phosphorylation in peripheral organs, the same mechanisms may, thus, have impact on e.g. pH regulation in the kidney, urea formation in the liver and insulin secretion in the pancreas.

  16. Thiamine deficiency results in release of soluble factors that disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential and downregulate the glutamate transporter splice-variant GLT-1b in cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhala, Shivraj S; Wang, Dongmei; Hazell, Alan S

    2014-06-06

    Loss of astrocytic glutamate transporters is a major feature of both thiamine deficiency (TD) and Wernicke's encephalopathy. However, the underlying basis of this process is not well understood. In the present study we have investigated the possibility of release of astrocytic soluble factors that might be involved in the regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1b in these cells. Treatment of naïve astrocytes with conditioned media from astrocytes exposed to TD conditions resulted in a progressive decrease in glutamate uptake over 24 h. Immunoblotting and flow cytometry measurements indicated this was accompanied by a 20-40% loss of GLT-1b. Astrocytes exposed to either TD or TD conditioned media showed increased disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential compared to control cells, and treatment of astrocytes with TD resulted in an increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and elevated levels of phospho-IκB fragment, indicative of increased activation of NF-κB. Inhibition of TNF-α activity with the use of a neutralizing antibody blocked the increased NF-κB activation, while inhibition of NF-κB ameliorated the decrease in GLT-1b and reversed the decrease in glutamate uptake occurring with TD treatment. Together, these findings indicate that astrocytes exposed to TD conditions show responses suggesting that soluble factors released by these cells under conditions of TD play a regulatory role in terms of glutamate transport function and mitochondrial integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal transporter and astrocytic ATP exocytosis underlie activity-dependent adenosine release in the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Mark J; Dale, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The neuromodulator adenosine plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes within the mammalian CNS. However, the precise mechanisms of how the concentration of extracellular adenosine increases following neural activity remain contentious. Here we have used microelectrode biosensors to directly measure adenosine release induced by focal stimulation in stratum radiatum of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Adenosine release was both action potential and Ca2+ dependent and could be evoked with low stimulation frequencies and small numbers of stimuli. Adenosine release required the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and could be evoked by local application of glutamate receptor agonists. Approximately 40% of stimulated-adenosine release occurred by translocation of adenosine via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). This component of release persisted in the presence of the gliotoxin fluoroacetate and thus results from the direct release of adenosine from neurons. A reduction of adenosine release in the presence of NTPDase blockers, in slices from CD73−/− and dn-SNARE mice, provides evidence that a component of adenosine release arises from the extracellular metabolism of ATP released from astrocytes. This component of release appeared to have slower kinetics than the direct ENT-mediated release of adenosine. These data suggest that activity-dependent adenosine release is surprisingly complex and, in the hippocampus, arises from at least two distinct mechanisms with different cellular sources. PMID:23713028

  18. Redistribution of monocarboxylate transporter 2 on the surface of astrocytes in the human epileptogenic hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Heuser, Kjell; de Lanerolle, Nihal C

    2012-01-01

    and in several animal models of the disorder. Because the perivascular astrocyte endfeet comprise an important part of the neurovascular unit, we now assessed the distribution of the MCT2 in hippocampal formations in TLE patients with (MTLE) or without hippocampal sclerosis (non-MTLE). Light microscopic...... immunohistochemistry revealed significantly less perivascular MCT2 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal formation in MTLE (n = 6) than in non-MTLE (n = 6) patients, and to a lesser degree in non-MTLE than in nonepilepsy patients (n = 4). Immunogold electron microscopy indicated that the loss of MCT2 protein occurred...... on perivascular astrocyte endfeet. Interestingly, the loss of MCT2 on astrocyte endfeet in MTLE (n = 3) was accompanied by an upregulation of the protein on astrocyte membranes facing synapses in the neuropil, when compared with non-MTLE (n = 3). We propose that the altered distribution of MCT1 and MCT2 in TLE...

  19. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A subconvulsive dose of kainate selectively compromises astrocytic metabolism in the mouse brain in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Anne B; Eyjolfsson, Elvar M; Schousboe, Arne

    2014-01-01

    ]glutamine and an increase in the calculated astrocytic TCA cycle activity. In contrast, the convulsive dose led to decrements in the cortical content and (13)C labeling of glutamate, glutamine, GABA, and aspartate. Evidence is provided that astrocytic metabolism is affected by a subconvulsive dose of kainate, whereas...

  1. Plastic changes in the astrocyte GLUT1 glucose transporter and beta-tubulin microtubule protein following voluntary exercise in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Angela; Messier, Claude

    2013-03-01

    Glucose, the predominant energy substrate of the central and peripheral nervous system, is delivered to neurons via a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT). The majority of glucose is transported to the brain via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) located on epithelial cells of capillaries and on the astrocytes that wrap around them. Changes in neuronal activity are linked to increases in glucose demand and local cerebral glucose utilization. Current research has indicated a corresponding change in GLUT1 expression in response to increased metabolic demand in operant tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine, in the mouse brain, the effects of neuronal activation induced by voluntary running on the plastic expression of vascular GLUT1 and neuronal plasticity as measured by the microtubule protein beta-tubulin III (Tuj). The results showed that access to a running wheel for 48h induced plastic changes in the expression of GLUT1, Tuj and GLUT1-associated estimate of astrocyte vascular endfeet in motor regions. The results tend to support the plastic association between mechanisms of energy supply and plastic reorganization of neurons following a new training experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression and functional role of mGluR3 and mGluR5 in human astrocytes and glioma cells: opposite regulation of glutamate transporter proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A.; Ijlst-Keizers, Helen; Rozemuller, Annemieke J.; Yankaya, Bulent; Leenstra, Sieger; Troost, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    We examined the regulation of glutamate transporter protein expression after stimulation with selective metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists in cultured human glial cells. mGluR3 and mGluR5 are expressed in human astrocytes and in human glioma cells in vivo as well as in vitro, as shown

  3. Inactivation of the glutamine/amino acid transporter ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles: proteoliposomes as a tool to gain insights in the molecular mechanism of action and of antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppedisano, Francesca [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Catto, Marco [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Koutentis, Panayiotis A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nicolotti, Orazio [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Pochini, Lorena [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Koyioni, Maria [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Introcaso, Antonellina [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Michaelidou, Sophia S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Carotti, Angelo, E-mail: carotti@farmchim.uniba.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    The ASCT2 transport system catalyses a sodium-dependent antiport of glutamine and other neutral amino acids which is involved in amino acid metabolism. A library of 1,2,3-dithiazoles was designed, synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the glutamine/amino acid ASCT2 transporter in the model system of proteoliposomes reconstituted with the rat liver transporter. Fifteen of the tested compounds at concentration of 20 μM or below, inhibited more than 50% the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalysed by the reconstituted transporter. These good inhibitors bear a phenyl ring with electron withdrawing substituents. The inhibition was reversed by 1,4-dithioerythritol indicating that the effect was likely owed to the formation of mixed sulfides with the protein's Cys residue(s). A dose–response analysis of the most active compounds gave IC{sub 50} values in the range of 3–30 μM. Kinetic inhibition studies indicated a non-competitive inhibition, presumably because of a potential covalent interaction of the dithiazoles with cysteine thiol groups that are not located at the substrate binding site. Indeed, computational studies using a homology structural model of ASCT2 transporter, suggested as possible binding targets, Cys-207 or Cys-210, that belong to the CXXC motif of the protein. -- Highlights: ► Non‐competitive inhibition of ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles was studied in proteoliposomes. ► Different 1,2,3-dithiazoles were synthesized and evaluated as transporter inhibitors. ► Many compounds potently inhibited the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalyzed by ASCT2. ► The inhibition was reversed by DTE indicating reaction with protein Cys. ► The most active compounds gave IC{sub 50} in the range of 3–30 μM.

  4. Glutamate metabolism in the brain focusing on astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Scafidi, Susanna; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of GABA, is exceedingly complex and highly compartmentalized in brain. Maintenance of these neurotransmitter pools is strictly dependent on the de novo synthesis of glutamine in astrocytes which requires both the anaplero......Metabolism of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of GABA, is exceedingly complex and highly compartmentalized in brain. Maintenance of these neurotransmitter pools is strictly dependent on the de novo synthesis of glutamine in astrocytes which requires both......, as well as in nitrogen trafficking and ammonia homeostasis in brain. The anatomical specialization of astrocytic endfeet enables these cells to rapidly and efficiently remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft to maintain homeostasis, and to provide glutamine to replenish neurotransmitter pools...... summarizes the evidence that astrocytes are essential and dynamic partners in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in brain....

  5. Thrombin decreases expression of the glutamate transporter GLAST and inhibits glutamate uptake in primary cortical astrocytes via the Rho kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunshu; Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamalala; Rusie, Allison; Wadhwani, Nitin; Koh, Sookyong; Wainwright, Mark S

    2015-11-01

    Astrocyte glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1 play a key role in regulating neuronal excitation and their levels are altered in patients with epilepsy, and after traumatic brain injury. The mechanisms which regulate their expression are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of astrocytes to high levels of thrombin, as may occur after a compromise of the blood-brain barrier, would reduce astrocyte glutamate transporter levels. In isolated rat cortical astrocytes we examined the effects of thrombin on the expression and function of glutamate transporters, and the signaling pathways involved in these responses by using Western blotting and selective inhibitors. Thrombin induced a selective decrease in the expression of GLAST but not GLT1, with a corresponding decrease in the capacity of astrocytes to take up glutamate. Activation of the thrombin receptor PAR-1 with an activating peptide induced a similar decrease in the expression of GLAST and compromise of glutamate uptake. The downregulation of GLAST induced by thrombin was mediated by the mitogen activated protein kinases p38 MAPK, ERK and JNK, but inhibition of these kinases did not prevent the decrease in glutamate uptake induced by thrombin. In contrast, inhibition of the Rho kinase pathway using the specific inhibitor, Y27632, suppressed both the decrease in the expression of GLAST and the decrease in glutamate uptake induced by thrombin. In hippocampal astrocyte cultures, thrombin caused a decrease in both GLAST and GLT1. In tissue resected from brains of children with intractable epilepsy, we found a decrease in the integrity of the blood-brain barrier along with a reduction in immunoreactivity for both transporters which was associated with an increase in cleaved thrombin and reactive astrogliosis. The in vitro results suggest a specific mechanism by which thrombin may lead to a compromise of astrocyte function and enhanced synaptic excitability after the blood-brain barrier is

  6. A three-dimensional model of the human blood-brain barrier to analyse the transport of nanoparticles and astrocyte/endothelial interactions [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddagangannagari Sreekanthreddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D model of the human blood-brain barrier in vitro, which mimics the cellular architecture of the CNS and could be used to analyse the delivery of nanoparticles to cells of the CNS. The model includes human astrocytes set in a collagen gel, which is overlaid by a monolayer of human brain endothelium (hCMEC/D3 cell line. The model was characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. A collagenase digestion method could recover the two cell types separately at 92-96% purity.  Astrocytes grown in the gel matrix do not divide and they have reduced expression of aquaporin-4 and the endothelin receptor, type B compared to two-dimensional cultures, but maintain their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. The effects of conditioned media from these astrocytes on the barrier phenotype of the endothelium was compared with media from astrocytes grown conventionally on a two-dimensional (2D substratum. Both induce the expression of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and claudin-5 in hCMEC/D3 cells, but there was no difference between the induced expression levels by the two media. The model has been used to assess the transport of glucose-coated 4nm gold nanoparticles and for leukocyte migration. TEM was used to trace and quantitate the movement of the nanoparticles across the endothelium and into the astrocytes. This blood-brain barrier model is very suitable for assessing delivery of nanoparticles and larger biomolecules to cells of the CNS, following transport across the endothelium.

  7. Mechanism of ceftriaxone induction of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 expression and glutamate uptake in primary human astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Geun; Su, Zhao-Zhong; Emdad, Luni; Gupta, Pankaj; Sarkar, Devanand; Borjabad, Alejandra; Volsky, David J; Fisher, Paul B

    2008-05-09

    Glutamate is an essential neurotransmitter regulating brain functions. Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)-2 is one of the major glutamate transporters primarily expressed in astroglial cells. Dysfunction of EAAT2 is implicated in acute and chronic neurological disorders, including stroke/ischemia, temporal lobe epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, human immunodeficiency virus 1-associated dementia, and growth of malignant gliomas. Ceftriaxone, one of the beta-lactam antibiotics, is a stimulator of EAAT2 expression with neuroprotective effects in both in vitro and in vivo models based in part on its ability to inhibit neuronal cell death by glutamate excitotoxicity. Based on this consideration and its lack of toxicity, ceftriaxone has potential to manipulate glutamate transmission and ameliorate neurotoxicity. We investigated the mechanism by which ceftriaxone enhances EAAT2 expression in primary human fetal astrocytes (PHFA). Ceftriaxone elevated EAAT2 transcription in PHFA through the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. The antibiotic promoted nuclear translocation of p65 and activation of NF-kappaB. The specific NF-kappaB binding site at the -272 position of the EAAT2 promoter was responsible for ceftriaxone-mediated EAAT2 induction. In addition, ceftriaxone increased glutamate uptake, a primary function of EAAT2, and EAAT2 small interference RNA completely inhibited ceftriaxone-induced glutamate uptake activity in PHFA. Taken together, our data indicate that ceftriaxone is a potent modulator of glutamate transport in PHFA through NF-kappaB-mediated EAAT2 promoter activation. These findings suggest a mechanism for ceftriaxone modulation of glutamate transport and for its potential effects on ameliorating specific neurodegenerative diseases through modulation of extracellular glutamate.

  8. Key Metabolic Enzymes Underlying Astrocytic Upregulation of GABAergic Plasticity

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    Przemysław T. Kaczor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic plasticity is recognized as a key mechanism of shaping the activity of the neuronal networks. However, its description is challenging because of numerous neuron-specific mechanisms. In particular, while essential role of glial cells in the excitatory plasticity is well established, their involvement in GABAergic plasticity only starts to emerge. To address this problem, we used two models: neuronal cell culture (NC and astrocyte-neuronal co-culture (ANCC, where we chemically induced long-term potentiation at inhibitory synapses (iLTP. iLTP could be induced both in NC and ANCC but in ANCC its extent was larger. Importantly, this functional iLTP manifestation was accompanied by an increase in gephyrin puncta size. Furthermore, blocking astrocyte Krebs cycle with fluoroacetate (FA in ANCC prevented enhancement of both mIPSC amplitude and gephyrin puncta size but this effect was not observed in NC, indicating a key role in neuron-astrocyte cross-talk. Blockade of monocarboxylate transport with α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CIN abolished iLTP both in NC and ANCC and in the latter model prevented also enlargement of gephyrin puncta. Similarly, blockade of glycogen phosphorylase with BAYU6751 prevented enlargement of gephyrin puncta upon iLTP induction. Finally, block of glutamine synthetase with methionine sulfoxide (MSO nearly abolished mIPSC increase in both NMDA stimulated cell groups but did not prevent enlargement of gephyrin puncta. In conclusion, we provide further evidence that GABAergic plasticity is strongly regulated by astrocytes and the underlying mechanisms involve key metabolic enzymes. Considering the strategic role of GABAergic interneurons, the plasticity described here indicates possible mechanism whereby metabolism regulates the network activity.

  9. Dysregulation of the Glutamine Transporter Slc38a3 (SNAT3 and Ammoniagenic Enzymes in Obese, Glucose-Intolerant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Busque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Uric acid nephrolithiasis is prevalent among patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; it is correlated with an acidic urine and lower urinary ammonium excretion and is likely associated with insulin resistance. Insulin stimulates ammoniagenesis in renal cell lines via increased phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG activity and glutamine metabolism. Ammonium excretion into the proximal tubule is mediated at least in part by the Na+/H+-exchanger NHE3 and in the collecting duct involving the Rhesus protein RhCG. Here we tested, whether obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced mouse model could contribute to deranged ammonium excretion. Methods: Obesity was induced by diet in mice and the impact on key molecules of proximal tubular ammoniagenesis and urinary acid excretion tested. Results: Diet-induced obesity was confirmed by pathological intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT. Three groups of mice were compared: control mice; obese, glucose-intolerant with abnormal IPGTT (O-GI; or moderate weight with normal IPGTT (Non-Responders, NR. Basal urinary ammonium excretion did not differ among groups. However, acid loading increased urinary ammonium excretion in all groups, but to a lesser extent in the O-GI group. SNAT3 mRNA expression was enhanced in both obese groups. PDG expression was elevated only in acid-loaded O-GI mice, whereas PEPCK was enhanced in both O-GI and NR groups given NH4CI. NHE activity in the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule was strongly reduced in the O-GI group whereas RhCG expression was similar. Conclusion: In sum, obesity and glucose intolerance impairs renal ammonium excretion in response to NH4CI feeding most likely through reduced NHE activity. The stimulation of SNAT3 and ammoniagenic enzyme expression may be compensatory but futile.

  10. Hippocampal Astrocyte Cultures from Adult and Aged Rats Reproduce Changes in Glial Functionality Observed in the Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaver, Bruna; Souza, Débora Guerini; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2017-05-01

    Astrocytes are dynamic cells that maintain brain homeostasis, regulate neurotransmitter systems, and process synaptic information, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and inflammatory response. Aging is a biological process that is closely associated with hippocampal astrocyte dysfunction. In this sense, we demonstrated that hippocampal astrocytes from adult and aged Wistar rats reproduce the glial functionality alterations observed in aging by evaluating several senescence, glutamatergic, oxidative and inflammatory parameters commonly associated with the aging process. Here, we show that the p21 senescence-associated gene and classical astrocyte markers, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and actin, changed their expressions in adult and aged astrocytes. Age-dependent changes were also observed in glutamate transporters (glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1)) and glutamine synthetase immunolabeling and activity. Additionally, according to in vivo aging, astrocytes from adult and aged rats showed an increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress with mitochondrial dysfunction, an increase in RNA oxidation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, superoxide levels, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels. Changes in antioxidant defenses were also observed. Hippocampal astrocytes also displayed age-dependent inflammatory response with augmentation of proinflammatory cytokine levels, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). Furthermore, these cells secrete neurotrophic factors, including glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) protein, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which changed in an age-dependent manner. Classical signaling pathways associated with aging, such as nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκ

  11. Glutamine Modulates Macrophage Lipotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are associated with excessive inflammation and impaired wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is responsible for these inflammatory defects. In the setting of excess nutrients, particularly dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs, activated macrophages develop lysosome dysfunction, which triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and cell death. The molecular pathways that connect lipid stress to lysosome pathology are not well understood, but may represent a viable target for therapy. Glutamine uptake is increased in activated macrophages leading us to hypothesize that in the context of excess lipids glutamine metabolism could overwhelm the mitochondria and promote the accumulation of toxic metabolites. To investigate this question we assessed macrophage lipotoxicity in the absence of glutamine using LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages exposed to the SFA palmitate. We found that glutamine deficiency reduced lipid induced lysosome dysfunction, inflammasome activation, and cell death. Under glutamine deficient conditions mTOR activation was decreased and autophagy was enhanced; however, autophagy was dispensable for the rescue phenotype. Rather, glutamine deficiency prevented the suppressive effect of the SFA palmitate on mitochondrial respiration and this phenotype was associated with protection from macrophage cell death. Together, these findings reveal that crosstalk between activation-induced metabolic reprogramming and the nutrient microenvironment can dramatically alter macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli.

  12. Active sulforhodamine 101 uptake into hippocampal astrocytes.

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    Christian Schnell

    Full Text Available Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101 is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled EGFP-expressing astrocytes in hippocampus, we found that the same staining procedure failed to label astrocytes efficiently in the ventrolateral medulla. Although carbenoxolone is able to decrease the SR101-labeling of astrocytes in the hippocampus, it is unlikely that SR101 is taken up via gap-junction hemichannels because mefloquine, a blocker for pannexin and connexin hemichannels, was unable to prevent SR101-labeling of hippocampal astrocytes. However, SR101-labeling of the hippocampal astrocytes was significantly reduced by substrates of organic anion transport polypeptides, including estron-3-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, suggesting that SR101 is actively transported into hippocampal astrocytes.

  13. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains...... of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine......, and aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH4(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation...

  14. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  15. Sevoflurane Inhibits Glutamate-Aspartate Transporter and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression in Hippocampal Astrocytes of Neonatal Rats Through the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Rui; Feng, Da-Yun; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying general anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity are unclear. Astrocytes have been recognized as important contributors to neuronal development. Until now, the response of the astrocytes to neonatal general anesthetic exposure has been unreported. Postnatal day 7 rats received 2.5% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and phosphorylation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway were detected on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after sevoflurane inhalation. In addition, cultured astrocytes were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 hours and GFAP, GLAST expressions, and JAK/STAT phosphorylation were evaluated. Furthermore, we pharmacologically disrupted JAK/STAT signaling in vivo by treatment with the JAK/STAT inhibitor AG490 and in vitro by treatment with JAK inhibitor I to detect the consequent expression of GFAP and GLAST. Sevoflurane induced a robust decrease of GFAP and GLAST expression in hippocampal tissue compared with sham control groups at 1 to 14 days after sevoflurane exposure. Immunohistochemistry showed colocalization of GFAP, GLAST, and pSTAT3 in the hippocampal CA1 region. Western blot analysis also revealed a significant decrease of pJAK1, pJAK2, and pSTAT3 in the sevoflurane group. In vitro study showed that GFAP, GLAST, pJAK1, pJAK2, and pSTAT3 expressions in cultured astrocytes were remarkably decreased at 24 to 48 hours after sevoflurane treatment. Either AG490 or JAK inhibitor I significantly decreased expressions of GFAP and GLAST in hippocampus or cultured astrocytes. Astrocytic GLAST was inhibited by sevoflurane in the hippocampus of neonatal rats. Inactivation of the JAK/STAT pathway possibly contributes to this effect of sevoflurane. Astrocytic dysfunction induced by sevoflurane may contribute to its neurotoxicity in the developing brain.

  16. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie; Eriksson, Ulf Dennis; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the cytosolic enzyme glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1) has been investigated in numerous cases with the goal of improving crop nitrogen use efficiency. However, the outcome has generally been inconsistent. Here, we review possible reasons underlying the lack of success and conclude...

  17. Primary cultures of astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Sofie C; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2012-01-01

    During the past few decades of astrocyte research it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes have taken a central position in all central nervous system activities. Much of our new understanding of astrocytes has been derived from studies conducted with primary cultures of astrocytes...... subsequently found in vivo. Nevertheless, primary cultures of astrocytes are an in vitro model that does not fully mimic the complex events occurring in vivo. Here we present an overview of the numerous contributions generated by the use of primary astrocyte cultures to uncover the diverse functions...... of astrocytes. Many of these discoveries would not have been possible to achieve without the use of astrocyte cultures. Additionally, we address and discuss the concerns that have been raised regarding the use of primary cultures of astrocytes as an experimental model system....

  18. Energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain: a stoichiometric modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The energetics of cerebral activity critically relies on the functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Important open questions include the relation between neuronal versus astrocytic energy demand, glucose uptake and intercellular lactate transfer, as well as their dependence on the level of activity. Results We have developed a large-scale, constraint-based network model of the metabolic partnership between astrocytes and glutamatergic neurons that allows for a quantitative appraisal of the extent to which stoichiometry alone drives the energetics of the system. We find that the velocity of the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc) explains part of the uncoupling between glucose and oxygen utilization at increasing Vcyc levels. Thus, we are able to characterize different activation states in terms of the tissue oxygen-glucose index (OGI). Calculations show that glucose is taken up and metabolized according to cellular energy requirements, and that partitioning of the sugar between different cell types is not significantly affected by Vcyc. Furthermore, both the direction and magnitude of the lactate shuttle between neurons and astrocytes turn out to depend on the relative cell glucose uptake while being roughly independent of Vcyc. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in absence of ad hoc activity-related constraints on neuronal and astrocytic metabolism, the glutamate-glutamine cycle does not control the relative energy demand of neurons and astrocytes, and hence their glucose uptake and lactate exchange. PMID:24112710

  19. Oleocanthal ameliorates amyloid-β oligomers' toxicity on astrocytes and neuronal cells: In vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarseh, Yazan S; Mohamed, Loqman A; Al Rihani, Sweilem B; Mousa, Youssef M; Siddique, Abu Bakar; El Sayed, Khalid A; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2017-06-03

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) has several health promoting effects. Evidence have shown that EVOO attenuates the pathology of amyloid-β (Aβ) and improves cognitive function in experimental animal models, suggesting it's potential to protect and reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Available studies have linked this beneficial effect to oleocanthal, one of the active components in EVOO. The effect of oleocanthal against AD pathology has been linked to its ability to attenuate Aβ and tau aggregation in vitro, and enhance Aβ clearance from the brains of wild-type and AD transgenic mice in vivo. However, the ability of oleocanthal to alter the toxic effect of Aβ on brain parenchymal cells is unknown. In the current study, we investigated oleocanthal effect on modulating Aβ oligomers (Aβo) pathological events in neurons and astrocytes. Our findings demonstrated oleocanthal prevented Aβo-induced synaptic proteins, SNAP-25 and PSD-95, down-regulation in neurons, and attenuated Aβo-induced inflammation, glutamine transporter (GLT1) and glucose transporter (GLUT1) down-regulation in astrocytes. Aβo-induced inflammation was characterized by interleukin-6 (IL-6) increase and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) upregulation that were reduced by oleocanthal. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence to support the protective effect of EVOO-derived phenolic secoiridoid oleocanthal against AD pathology. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Glutamine and glutamate as vital metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newsholme P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is widely accepted as the primary nutrient for the maintenance and promotion of cell function. This metabolite leads to production of ATP, NADPH and precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and phospholipids. We propose that, in addition to glucose, the 5-carbon amino acids glutamine and glutamate should be considered to be equally important for maintenance and promotion of cell function. The functions of glutamine/glutamate are many, i.e., they are substrates for protein synthesis, anabolic precursors for muscle growth, they regulate acid-base balance in the kidney, they are substrates for ureagenesis in the liver and for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis, they act as an oxidative fuel for the intestine and cells of the immune system, provide inter-organ nitrogen transport, and act as precursors of neurotransmitter synthesis, of nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis and of glutathione production. Many of these functions are interrelated with glucose metabolism. The specialized aspects of glutamine/glutamate metabolism of different glutamine-utilizing cells are discussed in the context of glucose requirements and cell function.

  1. Methodological limitations in determining astrocytic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Guo, Chuang; Wang, Tao; Li, Baoman; Gu, Li; Wang, Zhanyou

    2013-11-25

    Traditionally, astrocytic mRNA and protein expression are studied by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemically. This led to the concept that astrocytes lack aralar, a component of the malate-aspartate-shuttle. At least similar aralar mRNA and protein expression in astrocytes and neurons isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) reversed this opinion. Demonstration of expression of other astrocytic genes may also be erroneous. Literature data based on morphological methods were therefore compared with mRNA expression in cells obtained by recently developed methods for determination of cell-specific gene expression. All Na,K-ATPase-α subunits were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), but there are problems with the cotransporter NKCC1. Glutamate and GABA transporter gene expression was well determined immunohistochemically. The same applies to expression of many genes of glucose metabolism, whereas a single study based on findings in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic animals showed very low astrocytic expression of hexokinase. Gene expression of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters ENT1 and ENT2 was recognized by ISH, but ENT3 was not. The same applies to the concentrative transporters CNT2 and CNT3. All were clearly expressed in FACS-isolated cells, followed by biochemical analysis. ENT3 was enriched in astrocytes. Expression of many nucleoside transporter genes were shown by microarray analysis, whereas other important genes were not. Results in cultured astrocytes resembled those obtained by FACS. These findings call for reappraisal of cellular nucleoside transporter expression. FACS cell yield is small. Further development of cell separation methods to render methods more easily available and less animal and cost consuming and parallel studies of astrocytic mRNA and protein expression by ISH/IHC and other methods are necessary, but new methods also need to be thoroughly checked.

  2. Handling of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcke, Felix; Dringen, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.

  3. Phenotypic conversions of "protoplasmic" to "reactive" astrocytes in Alexander disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosunov, Alexander A; Guilfoyle, Eileen; Wu, Xiaoping; McKhann, Guy M; Goldman, James E

    2013-04-24

    Alexander Disease (AxD) is a primary disorder of astrocytes, caused by heterozygous mutations in GFAP, which encodes the major astrocyte intermediate filament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Astrocytes in AxD display hypertrophy, massive increases in GFAP, and the accumulation of Rosenthal fibers, cytoplasmic protein inclusions containing GFAP, and small heat shock proteins. To study the effects of GFAP mutations on astrocyte morphology and physiology, we have examined hippocampal astrocytes in three mouse models of AxD, a transgenic line (GFAP(Tg)) in which the normal human GFAP is expressed in several copies, a knock-in line (Gfap(+/R236H)) in which one of the Gfap genes bears an R236H mutation, and a mouse derived from the mating of these two lines (GFAP(Tg); Gfap(+/R236H)). We report changes in astrocyte phenotype in all lines, with the most severe in the GFAP(Tg);Gfap(+/R236H), resulting in the conversion of protoplasmic astrocytes to cells that have lost their bushy-like morphology because of a reduction of distal fine processes, and become multinucleated and hypertrophic. Astrocytes activate the mTOR cascade, acquire CD44, and lose GLT-1. The altered astrocytes display a microheterogeneity in phenotypes, even neighboring cells. Astrocytes also show diminished glutamate transporter current, are significantly depolarized, and not coupled to adjacent astrocytes. Thus, the accumulation of GFAP in the AxD mouse astrocytes initiates a conversion of normal, protoplasmic astrocytes to astrocytes that display severely "reactive" characteristics, many of which may be detrimental to neighboring neurons and oligodendrocytes.

  4. Glutamine Synthetase activity fuels nucleotide biosynthesis and supports growth of glutamine-restricted glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardito, Saverio; Oudin, Anaïs; Ahmed, Shafiq U.; Fack, Fred; Keunen, Olivier; Zheng, Liang; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Øystein; Weinstock, Adam; Wagner, Allon; Lindsay, Susan L.; Hock, Andreas K.; Barnett, Susan C.; Ruppin, Eytan; Mørkve, Svein Harald; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P.; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    L-Glutamine (Gln) functions physiologically to balance tissue requirements of carbon and nitrogen. It has been proposed that in cancer cells undergoing aerobic glycolysis, accelerated anabolism is sustained by Gln-derived carbons, which replenish the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). However, it is shown here that in glioblastoma (GBM) cells, almost half of the Gln-derived glutamate (Glu) is secreted and does not enter the TCA cycle and, that inhibiting glutaminolysis does not affect proliferation. Moreover, Gln-starved cells are not rescued by TCA cycle replenishment. Instead, the conversion of Glu to Gln by Glutamine Synthetase (GS) (cataplerosis) confers Gln prototrophy, and fuels de novo purine biosynthesis. In both orthotopic GBM models and in patients, 13C-glucose tracing showed that GS produces Gln from TCA cycle-derived carbons. Finally, while it is contributed only marginally by the circulation, the Gln required for the growth of GBM tumours is either autonomously synthesized by GS-positive glioma cells, or supplied by astrocytes. PMID:26595383

  5. Characterization of primary and secondary cultures of astrocytes prepared from mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt, Dorte Marie; Madsen, Karsten Kirkegaard; Pajecka, Kamilla

    2010-01-01

    Astrocyte cultures were prepared from cerebral cortex of new-born and 7-day-old mice and additionally, the cultures from new-born animals were passaged as secondary cultures. The cultures were characterized by immunostaining for the astrocyte markers glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary...... of the astrocyte marker proteins. The metabolic pattern of the cultures from 7-day-old animals of the labeled substrates was comparable to that seen previously in astrocyte cultures prepared from new-born mouse brain showing pronounced glycolytic and oxidative metabolism of glucose. Glutamate was metabolized both...... cerebral cortex of 7-day-old mice have metabolic and functional properties indistinguishable from those of classical astrocyte cultures prepared from neocortex of new-born animals. This provides flexibility with regard to preparation and use of these cultures for a variety of purposes....

  6. Histamine and astrocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurič, Damijana M; Kržan, Mojca; Lipnik-Stangelj, Metoda

    2016-09-01

    Astrocytes support the brain through numerous functional interactions in health and disease. The recent advances in our knowledge of astrocyte involvement in various neurological disorders raised up several questions about their role and functioning in the central nervous system. From the evidence discussed in this review, we show that histamine importantly influences the main astrocytic activities such as ion homeostasis, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter clearance, neurotrophic activity and immune response. These processes are mediated through at least three histamine receptor subtypes, H1, H2 and H3, expressed on the astrocyte surface. Thus, we recognize histamine as an important player in the modulation of astrocytic functions that deserves further considerations in exploring involvement of astrocytes in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The analgesic effect on neuropathic pain of retrogradely transported botulinum neurotoxin A involves Schwann cells and astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marinelli

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing debate is about whether botulinum neurotoxins are retrogradely transported from the site of injection. Immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 (cl-SNAP-25, the protein of the SNARE complex targeted by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A, could represent an excellent approach to investigate the mechanism of action on the nociceptive pathways at peripheral and/or central level. After peripheral administration of BoNT/A, we analyzed the expression of cl-SNAP-25, from the hindpaw's nerve endings to the spinal cord, together with the behavioral effects on neuropathic pain. We used the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in CD1 mice as animal model of neuropathic pain. We evaluated immunostaining of cl-SNAP-25 in the peripheral nerve endings, along the sciatic nerve, in dorsal root ganglia and in spinal dorsal horns after intraplantar injection of saline or BoNT/A, alone or colocalized with either glial fibrillar acidic protein, GFAP, or complement receptor 3/cluster of differentiation 11b, CD11b, or neuronal nuclei, NeuN, depending on the area investigated. Immunofluorescence analysis shows the presence of the cl-SNAP-25 in all tissues examined, from the peripheral endings to the spinal cord, suggesting a retrograde transport of BoNT/A. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiments to ascertain if BoNT/A was able to interact with the proliferative state of Schwann cells (SC. We found that BoNT/A modulates the proliferation of SC and inhibits the acetylcholine release from SC, evidencing a new biological effect of the toxin and further supporting the retrograde transport of the toxin along the nerve and its ability to influence regenerative processes. The present results strongly sustain a combinatorial action at peripheral and central neural levels and encourage the use of BoNT/A for the pathological pain conditions difficult to treat in clinical practice and dramatically impairing patients' quality of life.

  8. Do salt cravings in children with autistic disorders reveal low blood sodium depleting brain taurine and glutamine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Because boys are four times more likely than girls to develop autism, the role of male hormones (androgens) has received considerable scrutiny. Some researchers implicate arginine vasopressin, an androgen-dependent hormone from the pituitary gland that elicits male behavior. Elevated vasopressin is also the most common cause of low blood sodium (hyponatremia)--most serious in the brains of children. Hyponatremia causes astrocytes to swell, then release the amino acids taurine and glutamine and their water to compensate. Taurin--the brain osmolyte/inhibitory neurotransmitter that suppresses vasopressin--was the amino acid most wasted or depleted in urine of autistic children. Glutamine is a critical metabolic fuel in brain neurons, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and the intestines, especially during hypoglycemia. Because glutamine is not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier significantly, the implications of low blood glutamine in these children are not recognized. Yet children with high brain glutamine from urea cycle disorders are rarely diagnosed with autistic disorders. Other common events in autistic children that release vasopressin are gastrointestinal inflammation, hypoglycemia, and stress. Signs of hyponatremia in these children are salt cravings reported online and anecdotally, deep yellow urine revealing concentration, and relief of autistic behavior by fluid/salt diets. Several interventions offer promise: (a) taurine to suppress vasopressin and replenish astrocytes; (b) glutamine as fuel for intestines and brain; (c) arginine to spare glutamine, detoxify ammonia, and increase brain blood flow; and (d) oral rehydration salts to compensate dilutional hyponatremia. This hypothesis appears eminently testable: Does your child crave salt? Is his urine deep yellow? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Astrocytic Vesicle Mobility in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zorec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are no longer considered subservient to neurons, and are, instead, now understood to play an active role in brain signaling. The intercellular communication of astrocytes with neurons and other non-neuronal cells involves the exchange of molecules by exocytotic and endocytotic processes through the trafficking of intracellular vesicles. Recent studies of single vesicle mobility in astrocytes have prompted new views of how astrocytes contribute to information processing in nervous tissue. Here, we review the trafficking of several types of membrane-bound vesicles that are specifically involved in the processes of (i intercellular communication by gliotransmitters (glutamate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, atrial natriuretic peptide, (ii plasma membrane exchange of transporters and receptors (EAAT2, MHC-II, and (iii the involvement of vesicle mobility carrying aquaporins (AQP4 in water homeostasis. The properties of vesicle traffic in astrocytes are discussed in respect to networking with neighboring cells in physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and states in which astrocytes contribute to neuroinflammatory conditions.

  10. D-Serine Is a Substrate for Neutral Amino Acid Transporters ASCT1/SLC1A4 and ASCT2/SLC1A5, and Is Transported by Both Subtypes in Rat Hippocampal Astrocyte Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C Foster

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors play critical roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Activation of NMDA receptors by synaptically released L-glutamate also requires occupancy of co-agonist binding sites in the tetrameric receptor by either glycine or D-serine. Although D-serine appears to be the predominant co-agonist at synaptic NMDA receptors, the transport mechanisms involved in D-serine homeostasis in brain are poorly understood. In this work we show that the SLC1 amino acid transporter family members SLC1A4 (ASCT1 and SLC1A5 (ASCT2 mediate homo- and hetero-exchange of D-serine with physiologically relevant kinetic parameters. In addition, the selectivity profile of D-serine uptake in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes is consistent with uptake mediated by both ASCT1 and ASCT2. Together these data suggest that SLC1A4 (ASCT1 may represent an important route of Na-dependent D-serine flux in the brain that has the ability to regulate extracellular D-serine and thereby NMDA receptor activity.

  11. Glutamine protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing cisplatin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug but induces acute kidney injury (AKI. Cisplatin-induced AKI depends on several signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells. Glutamine is a substrate for the synthesis of glutathione, the most abundant intracellular thiol and antioxidant, and plays an important role in protecting cells from apoptosis induced by different stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of glutamine on cisplatin-induced AKI. Rats were divided into control, glutamine, cisplatin, and cisplatin plus glutamine groups. Glutamine ameliorated renal dysfunction, tissue injury, and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Cisplatin increased cell death, caspase-3 cleavage, activation of MAPKs and p53, oxidative stress, and mRNA expression of TNF-α and TNFR1 in HK-2 cells. Glutamine treatment reduced cisplatin-induced these changes in HK-2 cells. Notably, glutamine reduced the cisplatin-induced expression of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2 and cisplatin accumulation. Our results suggest that the protective effect of glutamine on cisplatin is specific for proximal tubular cells and the initial effects may be related to attenuation of cisplatin uptake. Thus, glutamine administration might represent a new strategy for the treatment of cisplatin-induced AKI.

  12. L-glutamine Induces Expression of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Haber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high environmental adaptability of bacteria is contingent upon their ability to sense changes in their surroundings. Bacterial pathogen entry into host poses an abrupt and dramatic environmental change, during which successful pathogens gauge multiple parameters that signal host localization. The facultative human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes flourishes in soil, water and food, and in ~50 different animals, and serves as a model for intracellular infection. L. monocytogenes identifies host entry by sensing both physical (e.g., temperature and chemical (e.g., metabolite concentrations factors. We report here that L-glutamine, an abundant nitrogen source in host serum and cells, serves as an environmental indicator and inducer of virulence gene expression. In contrast, ammonia, which is the most abundant nitrogen source in soil and water, fully supports growth, but fails to activate virulence gene transcription. We demonstrate that induction of virulence genes only occurs when the Listerial intracellular concentration of L-glutamine crosses a certain threshold, acting as an on/off switch: off when L-glutamine concentrations are below the threshold, and fully on when the threshold is crossed. To turn on the switch, L-glutamine must be present, and the L-glutamine high affinity ABC transporter, GlnPQ, must be active. Inactivation of GlnPQ led to complete arrest of L-glutamine uptake, reduced type I interferon response in infected macrophages, dramatic reduction in expression of virulence genes, and attenuated virulence in a mouse infection model. These results may explain observations made with other pathogens correlating nitrogen metabolism and virulence, and suggest that gauging of L-glutamine as a means of ascertaining host localization may be a general mechanism.

  13. Glutamine acts as a neuroprotectant against DNA damage, beta-amyloid and H2O2-induced stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Chen

    Full Text Available Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the human blood stream and is 'conditionally essential' to cells. Its intracellular levels are regulated both by the uptake of extracellular glutamine via specific transport systems and by its intracellular synthesis by glutamine synthetase (GS. Adding to the regulatory complexity, when extracellular glutamine is reduced GS protein levels rise. Unfortunately, this excess GS can be maladaptive. GS overexpression is neurotoxic especially if the cells are in a low-glutamine medium. Similarly, in low glutamine, the levels of multiple stress response proteins are reduced rendering cells hypersensitive to H(2O(2, zinc salts and DNA damage. These altered responses may have particular relevance to neurodegenerative diseases of aging. GS activity and glutamine levels are lower in the Alzheimer's disease (AD brain, and a fraction of AD hippocampal neurons have dramatically increased GS levels compared with control subjects. We validated the importance of these observations by showing that raising glutamine levels in the medium protects cultured neuronal cells against the amyloid peptide, Aβ. Further, a 10-day course of dietary glutamine supplementation reduced inflammation-induced neuronal cell cycle activation, tau phosphorylation and ATM-activation in two different mouse models of familial AD while raising the levels of two synaptic proteins, VAMP2 and synaptophysin. Together, our observations suggest that healthy neuronal cells require both intracellular and extracellular glutamine, and that the neuroprotective effects of glutamine supplementation may prove beneficial in the treatment of AD.

  14. Characterization of Glutamine-Requiring Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Herst, Patricia M.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    Revertants were isolated from a glutamine-requiring mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. One strain showed thermosensitive glutamine requirement and formed thermolabile glutamine synthetase, suggesting the presence of a mutation in the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. The mutation

  15. Effect of physical activity on glutamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Biolo, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Glutamine is largely synthesized in skeletal muscles and provides fuel to rapidly dividing cells of the immune system and precursors to gluconeogenesis in the liver. Physical exercise is known to affect glutamine synthesis and to modulate glutamine uptake. Overtraining is frequently associated with reduced availability of glutamine and decreased immunocompetence. Inactivity affects glutamine metabolism, but this subject was poorly investigated. Strenuous physical exercise as well as exhaustive training programs lead to glutamine depletion due to lowered synthesis and enhanced uptake by liver and immune cells. Evidence suggests that postexercise glutamine depletion is associated with immunodepression. Counterwise, moderate training leads to improved glutamine availability due to a positive balance between muscle synthesis and peripheral clearance. Physical inactivity, as investigated by experimental bed rest in healthy volunteers, reduced glutamine synthesis and availability. After exercise, a reduced glutamine availability may be considered as a marker of overtraining. An increased glutamine availability may contribute to decreased inflammation and health benefits associated with optimal training. Thus, glutamine supplementation may enhance immunocompetence after strenuous exercise. The potential of glutamine supplementation during physical inactivity needs to be explored.

  16. RNA Localization in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization is a mechanism by which polarized cells can regulate protein synthesis to specific subcellular compartments in a spatial and temporal manner, and plays a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes from embryonic development to cell differentiation......, regulation of the blood brain barrier and glial scar tissue formation. Despite the involvement in various CNS functions only a limited number of studies have addressed mRNA localization in astrocytes. This PhD project was initially focused on developing and implementing methods that could be used to asses mRNA...... localization in astrocyte protrusions, and following look into the subcellular localization pattern of specific mRNA species of both primary astrocytes isolated from cortical hemispheres of newborn mice, and the mouse astrocyte cell line, C8S. The Boyden chamber cell fractionation assay was optimized, in a way...

  17. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie

    fertilizer requirement. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has been a major topic in plant nitrogen research for decades due to its central role in plant N metabolism. The cytosolic version of this enzyme (GS1) plays an important role in relation to primary N assimilation as well as in relation to N...

  18. Ketogenic diet and astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamecq Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is an anticonvulsant diet enriched in fat. It provides the body with a minimal protein requirement and a restricted carbohydrate supply, the vast majority of calories (more than 80-90% being given by fat. Though anticonvulsant activity of ketogenic diet has been well documented by a large number of experimental and clinical studies, underlying mechanisms still remain partially unclear. Astrocyte-neuron interactions, among which metabolic shuttles, may influence synaptic activity and hence anticonvulsant protection. The astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttles may be themselves influenced by the availability in energetic substrates such as hydrates of carbon and fats. Historically, ketogenic diet had been designed to mimic changes such as ketosis occurring upon starvation, a physiological state already known to exhibit anticonvulsant protection and sometimes referred to as “water diet”. For this reason, a special attention should be paid to metabolic features shared in common by ketogenic diet and starvation and especially those features that might result in anticonvulsant protection. Compared to feeding by usual mixed diet, starvation and ketogenic diet are both characterised by increased fat, lowered glucose and aminoacid supplies to cells. The resulting impact of these changes in energetic substrates on astrocyte/neuron metabolic shuttles might have anticonvulsant and/or neuroprotective properties. This is the aim of this communication to review some important astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions (astrocyte/neuron lactate shuttle, glutamateinduced astrocytic glycolysis activation, glutamate/glutamine cycle along with the neurovascular coupling and the extent to which the way of their alteration by starvation and/or ketogenic diet might result in seizure and/or brain protection.

  19. α7 Nicotinic Receptor Promotes the Neuroprotective Functions of Astrocytes against Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathies are characterized by a complex response of the central nervous system to injuries. Glial cells are recruited to maintain neuronal homeostasis but dysregulated activation leads to pain signaling amplification and reduces the glial neuroprotective power. Recently, we highlighted the property of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor (nAChR agonists to relieve pain and induce neuroprotection simultaneously with a strong increase in astrocyte density. Aimed to study the role of α7 nAChR in the neuron-glia cross-talk, we treated primary rat neurons and astrocytes with the neurotoxic anticancer drug oxaliplatin evaluating the effect of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 (PNU. Oxaliplatin (1 μM, 48 h reduced cell viability and increased caspase-3 activity of neuron monocultures without damaging astrocytes. In cocultures, astrocytes were not able to protect neurons by oxaliplatin even if glial cell metabolism was stimulated (pyruvate increase. On the contrary, the coculture incubation with 10 μM PNU improved neuron viability and inhibited apoptosis. In the absence of astrocytes, the protection disappeared. Furthermore, PNU promoted the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 and the expression of the glutamate-detoxifying enzyme glutamine synthetase. The α7 nAChR stimulation protects neurons from oxaliplatin toxicity through an astrocyte-mediated mechanism. α7 nAChR is suggested for recovering the homeostatic role of astrocytes.

  20. TNF-α promotes extracellular vesicle release in mouse astrocytes through glutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaizhe; Ye, Ling; Lu, Hongfang; Chen, Huili; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Yunlong; Zheng, Jialin C

    2017-04-20

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown. We posit that TNF-α can promote the release of EVs in astrocytes through upregulation of glutaminase expression. Release of EVs, which was demonstrated by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and Western Blot, increased in mouse astrocytes when treated with TNF-α. Furthermore, TNF-α treatment significantly upregulated protein levels of glutaminase and increased the production of glutamate, suggesting that glutaminase activity is increased after TNF-α treatment. Interestingly, pretreatment with a glutaminase inhibitor blocked TNF-α-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in astrocytes, which indicates that glutaminase activity contributes to stress in astrocytes during neuroinflammation. TNF-α-mediated increased release of EVs can be blocked by either the glutaminase inhibitor, antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, or genetic knockout of glutaminase, suggesting that glutaminase plays an important role in astrocyte EV release during neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that glutaminase is an important metabolic factor controlling EV release from astrocytes during neuroinflammation.

  1. Astrocytic energy metabolism and glutamate formation--relevance for 13C-NMR spectroscopy and importance of cytosolic/mitochondrial trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Leif

    2011-12-01

    Glutamate plays a double role in (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic determination of glucose metabolism in the brain. Bidirectional exchange between initially unlabeled glutamate and labeled α-ketoglutarate, formed from pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), indicates the rate of energy metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid (V(TCA)) cycle in neurons (V(PDH, n)) and, with additional computation, also in astrocytes (V(PDH, g)), as confirmed using the astrocyte-specific substrate [(13)C]acetate. Formation of new molecules of glutamate during increased glutamatergic activity occurs only in astrocytes by combined pyruvate carboxylase (V(PC)) and astrocytic PDH activity. V(PDH, g) accounts for ~15% of total pyruvate metabolism in the brain cortex, and V(PC) accounts for another ~10%. Since both PDH-generated and PC-generated pyruvates are needed for glutamate synthesis, ~20/25 (80%) of astrocytic pyruvate metabolism proceed via glutamate formation. Net transmitter glutamate [γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] formation requires transfer of newly synthesized α-ketoglutarate to the astrocytic cytosol, α-ketoglutarate transamination to glutamate, amidation to glutamine, glutamine transfer to neurons, its hydrolysis to glutamate and glutamate release (or GABA formation). Glutamate-glutamine cycling, measured as glutamine synthesis rate (V(cycle)), also transfers previously released glutamate/GABA to neurons after an initial astrocytic accumulation and measures predominantly glutamate signaling. An empirically established ~1/1 ratio between glucose metabolism and V(cycle) may reflect glucose utilization associated with oxidation/reduction processes during glutamate production, which together with associated transamination processes are balanced by subsequent glutamate oxidation after cessation of increased signaling activity. Astrocytic glutamate formation and subsequent oxidative metabolism provide large amounts of adenosine triphosphate used for

  2. The Near-iron Transporter (NEAT) Domains of the Anthrax Hemophore IsdX2 Require a Critical Glutamine to Extract Heme from Methemoglobin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsa, Erin S.; Owens, Cedric P.; Goulding, Celia W.; Maresso, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Several Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria employ near-iron transporter (NEAT) domains to acquire heme from hemoglobin during infection. However, the structural requirements and mechanism of action for NEAT-mediated heme extraction remains unknown. Bacillus anthracis exhibits a rapid growth rate during systemic infection, suggesting that the bacterium expresses efficient iron acquisition systems. To understand how B. anthracis acquires iron from heme sources, which account for 80% of mammalian iron stores, we investigated the properties of the five-NEAT domain hemophore IsdX2. Using a combination of bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis, we determined that the heme extraction properties of IsdX2 are dependent on an amino acid with an amide side chain within the 310-helix of the NEAT domain. Additionally, we used a spectroscopic analysis to show that IsdX2 NEAT domains only scavenge heme from methemoglobin (metHb) and that autoxidation of oxyhemoglobin to metHb must occur prior to extraction. We also report the crystal structures of NEAT5 wild type and a Q29T mutant and present surface plasmon resonance data that indicate that the loss of this amide side chain reduces the affinity of the NEAT domain for metHb. We propose a model whereby the amide side chain is first required to drive an interaction with metHb that destabilizes heme, which is subsequently extracted and coordinated in the aliphatic heme-binding environment of the NEAT domain. Because an amino acid with an amide side chain in this position is observed in NEAT domains of several genera of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, these results suggest that specific targeting of this or nearby residues may be an entry point for inhibitor development aimed at blocking bacterial iron acquisition during infection. PMID:23364793

  3. The near-iron transporter (NEAT) domains of the anthrax hemophore IsdX2 require a critical glutamine to extract heme from methemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsa, Erin S; Owens, Cedric P; Goulding, Celia W; Maresso, Anthony W

    2013-03-22

    Several gram-positive pathogenic bacteria employ near-iron transporter (NEAT) domains to acquire heme from hemoglobin during infection. However, the structural requirements and mechanism of action for NEAT-mediated heme extraction remains unknown. Bacillus anthracis exhibits a rapid growth rate during systemic infection, suggesting that the bacterium expresses efficient iron acquisition systems. To understand how B. anthracis acquires iron from heme sources, which account for 80% of mammalian iron stores, we investigated the properties of the five-NEAT domain hemophore IsdX2. Using a combination of bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis, we determined that the heme extraction properties of IsdX2 are dependent on an amino acid with an amide side chain within the 310-helix of the NEAT domain. Additionally, we used a spectroscopic analysis to show that IsdX2 NEAT domains only scavenge heme from methemoglobin (metHb) and that autoxidation of oxyhemoglobin to metHb must occur prior to extraction. We also report the crystal structures of NEAT5 wild type and a Q29T mutant and present surface plasmon resonance data that indicate that the loss of this amide side chain reduces the affinity of the NEAT domain for metHb. We propose a model whereby the amide side chain is first required to drive an interaction with metHb that destabilizes heme, which is subsequently extracted and coordinated in the aliphatic heme-binding environment of the NEAT domain. Because an amino acid with an amide side chain in this position is observed in NEAT domains of several genera of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, these results suggest that specific targeting of this or nearby residues may be an entry point for inhibitor development aimed at blocking bacterial iron acquisition during infection.

  4. Epilepsy in glioblastoma multiforme: correlation with glutamine synthetase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Anna; Marconi, Silvia; Pollo, Bianca; Tomassini, Alessia; Lovato, Laura; Maderna, Emanuela; Maier, Klaus; Schwartz, Andreas; Rizzuto, Nicolò; Padovani, Alessandro; Bonetti, Bruno

    2009-07-01

    The hypothesis addressed by this study is that a glutamine synthetase (GS) deficiency in neoplastic astrocytes is a possible molecular basis associated with seizure generation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Quantitative Western blot analysis of GS was performed in 20 individuals operated for malignant glioma. The levels of GS in patients with GBM and epilepsy were significantly lower (range 0.04-1.15; mean 0.35 +/- 0.36; median 0.25) than in non-epileptic GBM individuals (range 0.78-3.97; mean 1.64 +/- 0.99; median 1.25; P = 0.002). No relationship has been found between histological features (i.e. necrosis, gliosis, stroma, inflammatory cells, giant cells, and haemosiderine) and GS expression or epilepsy. Even though the epileptogenesis in glioma is multifactorial, it is conceivable that a down-regulation of GS may have an important pro-epileptogenic role in GBM, through the slowing of glutamate-glutamine cycle. This study suggests that seizures in GBM are coupled with a highly localized enzyme deficiency. The manipulation of GS activity might constitute a novel principle for inhibiting seizures in patients with glioma epilepsy.

  5. Connexin Hemichannels in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian Skriver; Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Ransom, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system are interconnected by gap junctions made from connexins of the subtypes Cx30 and Cx43. These proteins may exist as hemichannels in the plasma membrane in the absence of a ‘docked’ counterpart on the neighboring cell. A variety of stimuli are repo......Astrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system are interconnected by gap junctions made from connexins of the subtypes Cx30 and Cx43. These proteins may exist as hemichannels in the plasma membrane in the absence of a ‘docked’ counterpart on the neighboring cell. A variety of stimuli....... Published studies about astrocyte hemichannel behavior, however, have been highly variable and/or contradictory. The field of connexin hemichannel research has been complicated by great variability in the experimental preparations employed, a lack of highly specific pharmacological inhibitors...... and by confounding changes associated with genetically modified animal models. This review attempts to critically assess the gating, inhibition and permeability of astrocytic connexin hemichannels and proposes that connexins in their hemichannel configuration act as gated pores with isoform-specific permeant...

  6. Astrocytes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Olabarria, M.; Noristani, H. N.; Yeh, C. Y.; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2010), s. 399-412 ISSN 1933-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1696; GA ČR GA305/08/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Astrocytes * neuroglia * neurodegeneration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.084, year: 2010

  7. Probing astrocytes with carbon nanotubes and assessing their effects on astrocytic structural and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottipati, Manoj K.

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes, chemically-functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) have been shown to modulate the morphology and proliferation characteristics of astrocytes in culture, when applied to the cells as colloidal solutes or as films upon which the cells can attach and grow. These changes were associated with a change in the immunoreactivity of the astrocyte-specific protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); the solutes and films caused an increase and a decrease in GFAP levels, respectively. To assess if these morpho-functional changes induced by the SWCNT-PEG modalities are dependent on GFAP or if the changes in GFAP levels are independent events, I used astrocytes isolated from GFAP knockout mice and found that selected changes induced by the SWCNT-PEG modalities are mediated by GFAP, namely the changes in perimeter, shape and cell death for colloidal solutes and the rate of proliferation for films. Since the loss GFAP has been shown to hamper the trafficking of glutamate transporters to the surface of astrocytes, which plays a vital role in the uptake of extracellular glutamate and maintaining homeostasis in the brain and spinal cord, in a subsequent study, I assessed if the SWCNT-PEG solute causes any change in the glutamate uptake characteristics of astrocytes. Using a radioactive glutamate uptake assay and immunolabeling, I found that SWCNT-PEG solute causes an increase in the uptake of glutamate from the extracellular space along with an increase in the immunoreactivity of the glutamate transporter, L-glutamate L-aspartate transporter (GLAST), on their cell surface, a likely consequence of the increase in GFAP levels induced by the SWCNT-PEG solute. These results imply that SWCNT-PEG could potentially be used as a viable candidate in neural prosthesis applications to prevent glutamate excitotoxicity, a pathological process observed in brain and spinal cord injuries, and alleviate the death toll of neurons surrounding the injury

  8. Involvement of TREK-1 activity in astrocyte function and neuroprotection under simulated ischemia conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xiaojing; Sun, Qian; Tang, Ronghua; Wang, Wei; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xie, Minjie

    2013-03-01

    Astrocytes play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ischemic neuronal death. The optimal operation of electrogenic astrocytic transporters and exchangers for some well-defined astrocyte brain homeostatic functions depends on the presence of K(+) channels in the cell membranes and the hyperpolarized membrane potential. Our previous study showed that astrocytes functionally express two-pore domain K(+) channel TREK-1, which helps to set the negative resting membrane potential. However, the roles of TREK-1 on astrocytic function under normal and ischemic conditions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of TREK-1 protein on cultured astrocytes and the effect of TREK-1 activity on astrocytic glutamate clearance capacity and release of s100β after simulated ischemic insult. TREK-1 immunoreactivity was up-regulated after hypoxia. Suppression of TREK-1 activity inhibited the glutamate clearance capability, enhanced the inflammatory secretion of astrocytes derived s100β and led to increased neuronal apoptosis after ischemic insult. Our results suggest that TREK-1 activity is involved in astrocytic function and neuronal survival. This would provide evidence showing astrocytic TREK-1 involvement in ischemia pathology which may serve as a potential therapeutic target in stroke.

  9. Inhibitions of PKC and CaMK-II synergistically rescue ischemia-induced astrocytic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan; Huang, Ying; Liu, Lina; Zhang, Li

    2017-09-14

    Ischemic neuronal death is presumably caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, in which the increased glutamate release and impaired glutamate reuptake lead to glutamate accumulation. Mechanisms underlying the ischemic deficiency of astrocytic glutamate reuptake remain unclear, which we have studied by analyzing the effect of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitions on astrocytic glutamate transporter during ischemia. Glutamate transporter current was recorded on the astrocytes in cortical slices. KN-62 (CaMK-II inhibitor) or chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor) partially reverses the ischemic deficiency of astrocytic glutamate transporter. A combined use of PKC and CaMK-II inhibitors synergistically reverses this deficiency. Thus, one of potential therapeutic strategies is to secure the ischemia-induced deficiency of astrocytic glutamate reuptake by inhibiting PKC and CaMK-II. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław eKaczor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain and mechanisms of GABAergic inhibition have been intensely investigated in the past decades. Recent studies provided evidence for an important role of astrocytes in shaping GABAergic currents. One of the most obvious, but yet poorly understood, mechanisms of the cross-talk between GABAergic currents and astrocytes is metabolism including neurotransmitter homeostasis. In particular, how modulation of GABAergic currents by astrocytes depends on key enzymes involved in cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we have considered two simple models of neuronal cultures: nominally astrocyte-free neuronal culture (NC and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures (ANCC and miniature Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents (mIPSCs were recorded in control conditions and in the presence of respective enzyme blockers. We report that enrichment of neuronal culture with astrocytes results in a marked increase in mIPSC frequency. This enhancement of GABAergic activity was accompanied by increased number of GAD65 and vGAT puncta, indicating that at least a part of the frequency enhancement was due to increased number of synaptic contacts. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (with MSO strongly reduced mIPSC frequency in ANCC but had no effect in NC. Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (BAYU6751 or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle,fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of mIPSC frequency in ANCC having no effect in NC. We conclude that GABAergic synaptic transmission strongly depends on neuron-astrocyte interaction in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes as well as on the Krebs cycle.

  11. Astrocyte functions in the copper homeostasis of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Ivo F; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Copper is an essential element that is required for a variety of important cellular functions. Since not only copper deficiency but also excess of copper can seriously affect cellular functions, the cellular copper metabolism is tightly regulated. In brain, astrocytes appear to play a pivotal role in the copper metabolism. With their strategically important localization between capillary endothelial cells and neuronal structures they are ideally positioned to transport copper from the blood-brain barrier to parenchymal brain cells. Accordingly, astrocytes have the capacity to efficiently take up, store and to export copper. Cultured astrocytes appear to be remarkably resistant against copper-induced toxicity. However, copper exposure can lead to profound alterations in the metabolism of these cells. This article will summarize the current knowledge on the copper metabolism of astrocytes, will describe copper-induced alterations in the glucose and glutathione metabolism of astrocytes and will address the potential role of astrocytes in the copper metabolism of the brain in diseases that have been connected with disturbances in brain copper homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

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    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  13. Physical exercise reverses spatial memory deficit and induces hippocampal astrocyte plasticity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Senna, Priscylla Nunes; Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Galland, Fabiana; Bobermin, Larissa; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Nardin, Patrícia; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Achaval, Matilde; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2017-01-15

    Physical exercise can induce brain plasticity and reduce the cognitive decline observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We investigated the effects of physical exercise to prevent or reverse spatial memory deficits produced by diabetes and some biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in hippocampal astrocytes of T1DM model. In this study, 56 male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: trained control (TC), non-trained control (NTC), trained diabetic (TD) and non-trained diabetic (NTD). 27 days after streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetes, the exercise groups were submitted to 5 weeks of aerobic exercise. All groups were assessed in place recognition (PR) test before and after training. The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive astrocytes were evaluated using planar morphology, optical densitometry and Sholl's concentric circles method. Glucose and glutamate uptake, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) levels were measured using biochemical assays. Our main results are: 1-Exercise reverses spatial memory impairments generated by T1DM; 2-Exercise increases GSH and GS in TC but not in TD rats; 3-Exercise increases density of GFAP positive astrocytes in the TC and TD groups and increases astrocytic ramification in TD animals. Our findings indicate that physical exercise reverses the cognitive deficits present in T1DM and induces important biochemical and immunohistochemical astrocytic changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional alterations of astrocytes in mental disorders: pharmacological significance as a drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eKoyama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an essential role in supporting brain functions in physiological and pathological states. Modulation of their pathophysiological responses have beneficial actions on nerve tissue injured by brain insults and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore astrocytes are recognized as promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Recent investigations have identified several astrocytic mechanisms for modulating synaptic transmission and neural plasticity. These include altered expression of transporters for neurotransmitters, release of gliotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and intercellular communication through gap junctions. Investigation of patients with mental disorders shows morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes. According to these observations, manipulation of astrocytic function by gene mutation and pharmacological tools reproduce mental disorder-like behavior in experimental animals. Some drugs clinically used for mental disorders affect astrocyte function. As experimental evidence shows their role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, astrocytes have gained much attention as drug targets for mental disorders. In this article, I review functional alterations of astrocytes in several mental disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorder, drug dependence, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The pharmacological significance of astrocytes in mental disorders is also discussed.

  15. Functional alterations of astrocytes in mental disorders: pharmacological significance as a drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes play an essential role in supporting brain functions in physiological and pathological states. Modulation of their pathophysiological responses have beneficial actions on nerve tissue injured by brain insults and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore astrocytes are recognized as promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Recent investigations have identified several astrocytic mechanisms for modulating synaptic transmission and neural plasticity. These include altered expression of transporters for neurotransmitters, release of gliotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and intercellular communication through gap junctions. Investigation of patients with mental disorders shows morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes. According to these observations, manipulation of astrocytic function by gene mutation and pharmacological tools reproduce mental disorder-like behavior in experimental animals. Some drugs clinically used for mental disorders affect astrocyte function. As experimental evidence shows their role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, astrocytes have gained much attention as drug targets for mental disorders. In this paper, I review functional alterations of astrocytes in several mental disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorder, drug dependence, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The pharmacological significance of astrocytes in mental disorders is also discussed.

  16. Astrocyte morphology, heterogeneity and density in the developing African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Olukayode Olopade

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocyte morphologies and heterogeneity were described in male African giant rats (AGR (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse across three age groups (5 neonates, 5 juveniles and 5 adults using Silver impregnation method and immunohistochemistry against glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Immunopositive cell signaling, cell size and population were least in neonates, followed by adults and juveniles respectively. In neonates, astrocyte processes were mostly detected within the glia limitans of the mid and hind brain; their cell bodies measuring 32±4.8 µm in diameter against 91±5.4µm and 75± 1.9µm in juveniles and adults respectively. Astrocyte heterogeneity in juvenile and adult groups revealed eight subtypes to include fibrous astrocytes chiefly in the corpus callosum and brain stem, protoplasmic astrocytes in the cortex and dentate gyrus (DG; radial glia were found along the olfactory bulb (OB and subventricular zone (SVZ; velate astrocytes were mainly found in the cerebellum and hippocampus; marginal astrocytes close to the pia mater; Bergmann glia in the molecular layer of the cerebellum; perivascular and periventricular astrocytes in the cortex and third ventricle respectively. Cell counts from twelve anatomical regions of the brain were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults (p≤0.01 using unpaired student t-test in the cerebral cortex, pia, corpus callosum, rostral migratory stream (RMS, DG and cerebellum. Highest astrocyte count was found in the DG, while the least count was in the brain stem and sub cortex. Astrocytes along the periventricular layer of the OB are believed to be part of the radial glia system that transport newly formed cells towards the hippocampus and play roles in neurogenesis migration and homeostasis in the AGR. Therefore, astrocyte heterogeneity was examined across age groups in the AGR to determine whether age influences astrocytes population in different regions of the AGR brain and discuss

  17. The metabolism of C-glucose by neurons and astrocytes in brain subregions following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoren, Anna E; Helps, Stephen C; Nilsson, Michael; Sims, Neil R

    2006-05-01

    To provide insights into the effects of temporary focal ischemia on the function of neurons and astrocytes in vivo, we measured the incorporation of radiolabel from [U-14C]glucose into both glutamate and glutamine in brain subregions at 1 h of reperfusion following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 or 3 h. Under the experimental conditions used, 14C-glutamate is mainly produced in neurons whereas 14C-glutamine is generated in astrocytes from 14C-glutamate of both neuronal and astrocytic origin. Radiolabel incorporation into both amino acids was greatly decreased. The change in 14C-glutamate accumulation provides strong evidence for substantial reductions in neuronal glucose metabolism. The resulting decrease in delivery of 14C-glutamate from the neurons to astrocytes was probably also the major contributor to the change in 14C-glutamine content. These alterations probably result in part from a marked depression of glycolytic activity in the neurons, as suggested by previous studies assessing deoxyglucose utilization. Alterations in 14C-glucose metabolism were not restricted to tissue that would subsequently become infarcted. Thus, these changes did not inevitably lead to death of the affected cells. The ATP : ADP ratio and phosphocreatine content were essentially preserved during recirculation following 2 h of ischemia and showed at most only moderate losses in some subregions following 3 h of ischemia. This retention of energy reserves despite the decreases in 14C-glucose metabolism in neurons suggests that energy needs were substantially reduced in the post-ischemic brain. Marked increases in tissue lactate accumulation during recirculation, particularly following 3 h of ischemia, provided evidence that impaired pyruvate oxidation probably also contributed to the altered 14C-glucose metabolism. These findings indicate the presence of complex changes in energy metabolism that are likely to greatly influence the responses of neurons and astrocytes to

  18. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schnell

    Full Text Available Respiratory neuronal network activity is thought to require efficient functioning of astrocytes. Here, we analyzed neuron-astrocyte communication in the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC of rhythmic slice preparations from neonatal mice. In astrocytes that exhibited rhythmic potassium fluxes and glutamate transporter currents, we did not find a translation of respiratory neuronal activity into phase-locked astroglial calcium signals. In up to 20% of astrocytes, 2-photon calcium imaging revealed spontaneous calcium fluctuations, although with no correlation to neuronal activity. Calcium signals could be elicited in preBötC astrocytes by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation or after inhibition of glial glutamate uptake. In the latter case, astrocyte calcium elevation preceded a surge of respiratory neuron discharge activity followed by network failure. We conclude that astrocytes do not exhibit respiratory-rhythmic calcium fluctuations when they are able to prevent synaptic glutamate accumulation. Calcium signaling is, however, observed when glutamate transport processes in astrocytes are suppressed or neuronal discharge activity is excessive.

  19. Metabolic Imaging of Glutamine in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Ploessl, Karl; Zhou, Rong; Mankoff, David

    2017-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant nutrients for producing energy and building blocks in normal and tumor cells. Increased glycolysis in tumors, the Warburg Effect, is the basis for 18F-FDG PET imaging. Cancer cells can also be genetically reprogrammed to use glutamine. 5-11C-(2S)-glutamine and 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine may be useful complementary tools to measure changes in tumor metabolism. In glioma patients, the tracer 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine showed tumor-to-background contrast different from that of 18F-FDG and differences in uptake in glioma patients with clinical progression of disease versus stable disease (tumor-to-brain ratio > 3.7 in clinically active glioma tumors, minimal or no specific uptake in clinically stable tumors). These preliminary results suggest that 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine PET may be a new tool for probing in vivo metabolism of glutamine in cancer patients and for guiding glutamine-targeted therapeutics. Further studies of uptake mechanism, and comparison of kinetics for 18F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine versus the 11C-labeled native glutamine, will be important and enlightening. PMID:28232608

  20. Astrocytes: Orchestrating synaptic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pittà, M; Brunel, N; Volterra, A

    2016-05-26

    Synaptic plasticity is the capacity of a preexisting connection between two neurons to change in strength as a function of neural activity. Because synaptic plasticity is the major candidate mechanism for learning and memory, the elucidation of its constituting mechanisms is of crucial importance in many aspects of normal and pathological brain function. In particular, a prominent aspect that remains debated is how the plasticity mechanisms, that encompass a broad spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, come to play together in a concerted fashion. Here we review and discuss evidence that pinpoints to a possible non-neuronal, glial candidate for such orchestration: the regulation of synaptic plasticity by astrocytes. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effects of glutamine enriched diets on acute actinic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F G; Waitzberg, D L; Mucerino, D R; Gonçalves, E L; Logulo, A F; Habr-Gama, A; Rombeau, J L

    1996-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in cancer treatment, although it may cause collateral effects and sever complications due to cellular damage of peritumoral tissues. Recently different nutritional resources have been indicated to achieve intestinal protection during cancer irradiation. The aim of this study was to set the role of glutamine in acute actinic enteritis prevention. Sixty-five Wistar male rats (200 g) were maintained in individual metabolic cages, where body weight and food ingestion were carefully monitored daily. The animals were chosen at random in three groups and fed isocaloric and isoproteid diets: 1) CRt (23)-polymeric-casein diet (CD); 2) GRt (22)-polymeric-casein diet supplemented with 2% glutamine (GD), and 3) ERt (20)--elemental diet supplemented with 2% glutamine (ED). After an adaptation period (seven days), all rats received 1500 cGy of abdominal radiation in five equal daily doses of 300 cGy. After three days post radiation the rats were submitted to jejunal perfusion test with polyethylene-glicol 4000. Finally, small bowel and colon were resected for histological evaluation. It was observed that ERt group had greater average daily food intake than CRt and GRt groups during all periods (p < 0.05). All rats had equal weight gain during adaptation period; during irradiation all the animals had weight loss, but ERt group had smaller weight loss than CRt. All rats recovered weight after irradiation, and ERt group presented better results than the others (p < 0.05). Sodium transepithelial transport average values (mEq/min/cm) were negative and not statistically different in all groups. Small bowel histological evaluation in ERt and GRt rats were better than CRt rats, by preserving mucosal cellularity and increasing mitosis number and villi length (p < 0.05). Simultaneously, ERt group had greater number of rats with normal villuscrypt relation than CRt of CRt groups (p < 0.05). Large bowel histological data showed that the average crypt

  2. Intracellular Polyamines Enhance Astrocytic Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Benedikt, Jan; Inyushin, Mikhail; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V.; Rivera, Yomarie; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y; Nichols, Colin G.; Misty J Eaton; Skatchkov, Serguei N.

    2012-01-01

    Spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD), endogenous polyamines (PA) with the ability to modulate various ion channels and receptors in the brain, exert neuroprotective, antidepressant, antioxidant and other effects in vivo such as increasing longevity. These PA are preferably accumulated in astrocytes, and we hypothesized that SPM increases glial intercellular communication by interacting with glial gap junctions. Results obtained in situ, using Lucifer yellow propagation in the astrocytic syncit...

  3. Latent KSHV Infected Endothelial Cells Are Glutamine Addicted and Require Glutaminolysis for Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Sanchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS. KSHV establishes a predominantly latent infection in the main KS tumor cell type, the spindle cell, which is of endothelial cell origin. KSHV requires the induction of multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis, for the survival of latently infected endothelial cells. Here we demonstrate that latent KSHV infection leads to increased levels of intracellular glutamine and enhanced glutamine uptake. Depletion of glutamine from the culture media leads to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death in latently infected endothelial cells, but not in their mock-infected counterparts. In cancer cells, glutamine is often required for glutaminolysis to provide intermediates for the tri-carboxylic acid (TCA cycle and support for the production of biosynthetic and bioenergetic precursors. In the absence of glutamine, the TCA cycle intermediates alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG and pyruvate prevent the death of latently infected cells. Targeted drug inhibition of glutaminolysis also induces increased cell death in latently infected cells. KSHV infection of endothelial cells induces protein expression of the glutamine transporter, SLC1A5. Chemical inhibition of SLC1A5, or knockdown by siRNA, leads to similar cell death rates as glutamine deprivation and, similarly, can be rescued by αKG. KSHV also induces expression of the heterodimeric transcription factors c-Myc-Max and related heterodimer MondoA-Mlx. Knockdown of MondoA inhibits expression of both Mlx and SLC1A5 and induces a significant increase in cell death of only cells latently infected with KSHV, again, fully rescued by the supplementation of αKG. Therefore, during latent infection of endothelial cells, KSHV activates and requires the Myc/MondoA-network to upregulate the glutamine transporter, SLC1A5, leading to increased glutamine uptake for glutaminolysis. These findings

  4. A Computational Model to Investigate Astrocytic Glutamate Uptake Influence on Synaptic Transmission and Neuronal Spiking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Lakshmi Allam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, our view of astrocytes has switched from passive support cells to active processing elements in the brain. The current view is that astrocytes shape neuronal communication and also play an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the growing awareness of the importance of astrocytes, the exact mechanisms underlying neuron-astrocyte communication and the physiological consequences of astrocytic-neuronal interactions remain largely unclear. In this work, we define a modeling framework that will permit to address unanswered questions regarding the role of astrocytes. Our computational model of a detailed glutamatergic synapse facilitates the analysis of neural system responses to various stimuli and conditions that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, in particular the readouts at the sub-cellular level. In this paper, we extend a detailed glutamatergic synaptic model, to include astrocytic glutamate transporters. We demonstrate how these glial transporters, responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake, modulate synaptic transmission mediated by ionotropic AMPA and NMDA receptors at glutamatergic synapses. Furthermore, we investigate how these local signaling effects at the synaptic level are translated into varying spatio-temporal patterns of neuron firing. Paired pulse stimulation results reveal that the effect of astrocytic glutamate uptake is more apparent when the input inter-spike interval is sufficiently long to allow the receptors to recover from desensitization. These results suggest an important functional role of astrocytes in spike timing dependent processes and demand further investigation of the molecular basis of certain neurological diseases specifically related to alterations in astrocytic glutamate uptake, such as epilepsy.

  5. Insensitivity of Astrocytes to Interleukin-10 Signaling following Peripheral Immune Challenge Results in Prolonged Microglial Activation in the Aged Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M.; Trojanowski, Paige J.; Walker, Frederick R.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial IL-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher GFAP, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 Receptor-1 (IL-10R1). Following in vivo LPS immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and TGFβ and resolve microglial activation. Additionally, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, while aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10RKO astrocytes did not augment TGFβ after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  6. In Vivo Evidence for a Lactate Gradient from Astrocytes to Neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Mächler, Philipp

    2015-11-19

    Investigating lactate dynamics in brain tissue is challenging, partly because in vivo data at cellular resolution are not available. We monitored lactate in cortical astrocytes and neurons of mice using the genetically encoded FRET sensor Laconic in combination with two-photon microscopy. An intravenous lactate injection rapidly increased the Laconic signal in both astrocytes and neurons, demonstrating high lactate permeability across tissue. The signal increase was significantly smaller in astrocytes, pointing to higher basal lactate levels in these cells, confirmed by a one-point calibration protocol. Trans-acceleration of the monocarboxylate transporter with pyruvate was able to reduce intracellular lactate in astrocytes but not in neurons. Collectively, these data provide in vivo evidence for a lactate gradient from astrocytes to neurons. This gradient is a prerequisite for a carrier-mediated lactate flux from astrocytes to neurons and thus supports the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model, in which astrocyte-derived lactate acts as an energy substrate for neurons. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Uptake and metabolism of iron and iron oxide nanoparticles in brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-12-01

    Astrocytes are considered key regulators of the iron metabolism of the brain. These cells are able to rapidly accumulate iron ions and various iron-containing compounds, store iron efficiently in ferritin and also export iron. The present short review summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the handling of iron by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up iron as ferrous or ferric iron ions or as haem by specific iron transport proteins in their cell membrane. In addition, astrocytes accumulate large amounts of iron oxide nanoparticles by endocytotic mechanisms. Despite the rapid accumulation of high amounts of iron from various iron-containing sources, the viability of astrocytes is hardly affected. A rather slow liberation of iron from accumulated haem or iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the strong up-regulation of the synthesis of the iron storage protein ferritin are likely to contribute to the high resistance of astrocytes to iron toxicity. The efficient uptake of extracellular iron by cultured astrocytes as well as their strong up-regulation of ferritin after iron exposure also suggests that brain astrocytes deal well with an excess of iron and protect the brain against iron-mediated toxicity.

  8. Neuronal plasticity and astrocytic reaction in Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Brooksbank, B W; Balázs, R

    1990-01-01

    Proteins relatively enriched in neurons (neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and D3-protein) or in glia (glutamine synthetase, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100) were measured by quantitative immunochemical methods in autopsy samples of the cerebral cortex of subjects with Alzheimer...... disease (AD) and adults with Down syndrome (DS), the latter also presenting manifest signs of Alzheimer type of neuropathology. The trend of changes was similar in AD and DS, but more marked in the latter. The biochemical make-up of astrocytes was differentially affected: in both the frontal and DS...

  9. Low-dose DHA-induced astrocyte proliferation can be attenuated by insufficient expression of BLBP in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoming; Yang, Qingqing; Han, Xiao; Tan, Xuefeng; Qin, Jianbing; Jin, Guohua

    2017-09-14

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is involved in a wide range of cellular processes in human cells. Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) exhibits a high affinity for n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA, but the precise functional contributions of DHA and BLBP in astrocytes are not clear. We analyzed cell viability and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells after manipulating DHA and/or BLBP levels in cultured astrocytes, and found that low-dose DHA stimulated proliferation of astrocytes, whereas this proliferative effect could be attenuated by downregulation of BLBP. Moreover, we found that astrocyte proliferation was directly regulated by BLBP independently of DHA. Taken together, low-dose DHA-induced astrocyte proliferation was disturbed by insufficient BLBP; and besides acting as a fatty acid transporter, BLBP was also involved in the proliferation of astrocytes directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of levetiracetam target xCT in astrocytes in parkinsonian mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Ikuko; Murakami, Shinki; Torigoe, Nao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Asanuma, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes but not neurons express cystine/glutamate exchange transporter (xCT), which takes up cystine, and consequently supplies the substrate for GSH synthesis in neurons. It is recognized that GSH synthesis in neurons is dependent on the expression of xCT in astrocytes. Previous studies reported that levetiracetam (LEV), an anti-epileptic drug, increased xCT expression in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine neuroprotective effects of LEV in parkinsonian models and demonstrate xCT in astrocytes as a target of neuroprotection against dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We identified striatal astrocytes cultured with LEV showed significant increase in xCT expression and GSH levels. Preincubation of primary cultured mesencephalic dopamine neurons with conditioned media from LEV-treated astrocytes protected against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity. These protective effects were canceled by xCT inhibitor. Furthermore, reduction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA-lesioned parkinsonian mice was significantly abrogated by repeated injections of LEV. Treatment with LEV significantly increased the expression of xCT in striatal astrocytes in the hemi-parkinsonian mice. In conclusion, LEV exerts neuroprotective effects against neurodegeneration via up-regulation of xCT and GSH in astrocytes. Thus, xCT in astrocytes could be a potential target in novel neuroprotective approaches to prevent degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Glutathione (GSH) is the most potent intrinsic antioxidant. Since extracellular cysteine is readily oxidized to form cystine, cystine transport mechanisms are essential to provide cells with cysteine. Cystine uptake is mediated by cystine/glutamate exchange transporter (xCT), expressed primarily on astrocytes, but not on neurons. Astrocytes take up cystine via xCT and reduce it to cysteine to supply cysteine, the substrate for GSH synthesis in neurons. This study demonstrated that levetiracetam (LEV), an anti

  11. Increases in Brain 1H-MR Glutamine and Glutamate Signals Following Acute Exhaustive Endurance Exercise in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkiewicz, Maciej; Fiedorowicz, Michał; Orzeł, Jarosław; Wełniak-Kamińska, Marlena; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Langfort, Józef; Grieb, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in ultra-high magnetic field can be used for non-invasive quantitative assessment of brain glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in vivo. Glu, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is efficiently recycled between synapses and presynaptic terminals through Glu-Gln cycle which involves glutamine synthase confined to astrocytes, and uses 60-80% of energy in the resting human and rat brain. During voluntary or involuntary exercise many brain areas are significantly activated, which certainly intensifies Glu-Gln cycle. However, studies on the effects of exercise on 1H-MRS Glu and/or Gln signals from the brain provided divergent results. The present study on rats was performed to determine changes in 1H-MRS signals from three brain regions engaged in motor activity consequential to forced acute exercise to exhaustion. Method: After habituation to treadmill running, rats were subjected to acute treadmill exercise continued to exhaustion. Each animal participating in the study was subject to two identical imaging sessions performed under light isoflurane anesthesia, prior to, and following the exercise bout. In control experiments, two imaging sessions separated by the period of rest instead of exercise were performed. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded from the cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus using a 7T small animal MR scanner. Results: Following exhaustive exercise statistically significant increases in the Gln and Glx signals were found in all three locations, whereas increases in the Glu signal were found in the cerebellum and hippocampus. In control experiments, no changes in 1H-MRS signals were found. Conclusion: Increase in glutamine signals from the brain areas engaged in motor activity may reflect a disequilibrium caused by increased turnover in the glutamate-glutamine cycle and a delay in the return of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons. Increased turnover of Glu-Gln cycle

  12. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortiz eArmbruster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic uptake of glutamate shapes extracellular neurotransmitter dynamics, receptor activation, and synaptogenesis. During development, glutamate transport becomes more robust. How neonatal brain insult affects the functional maturation of glutamate transport remains unanswered. Neonatal brain insult can lead to developmental delays, cognitive losses, and epilepsy; the disruption of glutamate transport is known to cause changes in synaptogenesis, receptor activation, and seizure. Using the neonatal freeze-lesion (FL model, we have investigated how insult affects the maturation of astrocytic glutamate transport. As lesioning occurs on the day of birth, a time when astrocytes are still functionally immature, this model is ideal for identifying changes in astrocyte maturation following insult. Reactive astrocytosis, astrocyte proliferation, and in vitro hyperexcitability are known to occur in this model. To probe astrocyte glutamate transport with better spatial precision we have developed a novel technique, Laser Scanning Astrocyte Mapping (LSAM, which combines glutamate transport current (TC recording from astrocytes with laser scanning glutamate photolysis. LSAM allows us to identify the area from which a single astrocyte can transport glutamate and to quantify spatial heterogeneity in the rate of glutamate clearance kinetics within that domain. Using LSAM, we report that cortical astrocytes have an increased glutamate-responsive area following FL and that TCs have faster decay times in distal, as compared to proximal processes. Furthermore, the developmental shift from GLAST- to GLT-1-dominated clearance is disrupted following FL. These findings introduce a novel method to probe astrocyte glutamate uptake and show that neonatal cortical FL disrupts the functional maturation of cortical astrocytes.

  13. Memory in astrocytes: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has indicated an increasingly complex role for astrocytes in the central nervous system. Astrocytes are now known to exchange information with neurons at synaptic junctions and to alter the information processing capabilities of the neurons. As an extension of this trend a hypothesis was proposed that astrocytes function to store information. To explore this idea the ion channels in biological membranes were compared to models known as cellular automata. These comparisons were made to test the hypothesis that ion channels in the membranes of astrocytes form a dynamic information storage device. Results Two dimensional cellular automata were found to behave similarly to ion channels in a membrane when they function at the boundary between order and chaos. The length of time information is stored in this class of cellular automata is exponentially related to the number of units. Therefore the length of time biological ion channels store information was plotted versus the estimated number of ion channels in the tissue. This analysis indicates that there is an exponential relationship between memory and the number of ion channels. Extrapolation of this relationship to the estimated number of ion channels in the astrocytes of a human brain indicates that memory can be stored in this system for an entire life span. Interestingly, this information is not affixed to any physical structure, but is stored as an organization of the activity of the ion channels. Further analysis of two dimensional cellular automata also demonstrates that these systems have both associative and temporal memory capabilities. Conclusion It is concluded that astrocytes may serve as a dynamic information sink for neurons. The memory in the astrocytes is stored by organizing the activity of ion channels and is not associated with a physical location such as a synapse. In order for this form of memory to be of significant duration it is necessary

  14. Glutamine: An Obligatory Parenteral Nutrition Substrate in Critical Care Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stehle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical illness is characterized by glutamine depletion owing to increased metabolic demand. Glutamine is essential to maintain intestinal integrity and function, sustain immunologic response, and maintain antioxidative balance. Insufficient endogenous availability of glutamine may impair outcome in critically ill patients. Consequently, glutamine has been considered to be a conditionally essential amino acid and a necessary component to complete any parenteral nutrition regimen. Recently, this scientifically sound recommendation has been questioned, primarily based on controversial findings from a large multicentre study published in 2013 that evoked considerable uncertainty among clinicians. The present review was conceived to clarify the most important questions surrounding glutamine supplementation in critical care. This was achieved by addressing the role of glutamine in the pathophysiology of critical illness, summarizing recent clinical studies in patients receiving parenteral nutrition with intravenous glutamine, and describing practical concepts for providing parenteral glutamine in critical care.

  15. Impact of dietary glutamine on amino acid digestibility values and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nebonid F. Namroud

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... In the first experiment, male chicks were used to study the impact of glutamine ... Three diets based on synthetic AAs were used to obtain nutrient ..... Casein. Glutamic acid. Glutamine. Glutamine + glutamic acid. Dextrose. 220. 220. 220. 220. Purified corn starch. 330. 360. 360. 360. Maltodextrin. 45. 45. 45.

  16. Glutamate Mediated Astrocytic Filtering of Neuronal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nitzan; De Pittà, Maurizio; Jacob, Eshel Ben; Berry, Hugues; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-astrocyte communication is an important regulatory mechanism in various brain functions but its complexity and role are yet to be fully understood. In particular, the temporal pattern of astrocyte response to neuronal firing has not been fully characterized. Here, we used neuron-astrocyte cultures on multi-electrode arrays coupled to Ca2+ imaging and explored the range of neuronal stimulation frequencies while keeping constant the amount of stimulation. Our results reveal that astrocytes specifically respond to the frequency of neuronal stimulation by intracellular Ca2+ transients, with a clear onset of astrocytic activation at neuron firing rates around 3-5 Hz. The cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the astrocyte Ca2+ response was however large and increasing with stimulation frequency. Astrocytic activation by neurons was abolished with antagonists of type I metabotropic glutamate receptor, validating the glutamate-dependence of this neuron-to-astrocyte pathway. Using a realistic biophysical model of glutamate-based intracellular calcium signaling in astrocytes, we suggest that the stepwise response is due to the supralinear dynamics of intracellular IP3 and that the heterogeneity of the responses may be due to the heterogeneity of the astrocyte-to-astrocyte couplings via gap junction channels. Therefore our results present astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ activity as a nonlinear integrator of glutamate-dependent neuronal activity. PMID:25521344

  17. Acute death of astrocytes in blast-exposed rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Miller

    Full Text Available Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low or 273 ± 23 kPa (high overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group. At 2 hours (h following injury, we have characterized the astrocytic response to a blast overpressure. Immunostaining against the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP revealed acute shearing and morphological changes in astrocytes, including clasmatodendrosis. Moreover, overlap of GFAP immunostaining and propidium iodide (PI indicated astrocytic death. Quantification of the number of dead astrocytes per counting area in the hippocampal cornu Ammonis 1 region (CA1, demonstrated a significant increase in dead astrocytes in the low- and high-blast, compared to sham control OHCs. However only a small number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes were co-labeled with the apoptotic marker Annexin V, suggesting necrosis as the primary type of cell death in the acute phase following blast exposure. Moreover, western blot analyses revealed calpain mediated breakdown of GFAP. The dextran exclusion additionally indicated membrane disruption as a potential mechanism of acute astrocytic death. Furthermore, although blast exposure did not evoke significant changes in glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1 expression, loss of GLT-1-expressing astrocytes suggests dysregulation of glutamate uptake following injury. Our data illustrate the profound effect of blast overpressure on astrocytes in

  18. Functional Oxygen Sensitivity of Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Plamena R; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Christie, Isabel; Sheikhbahaei, Shahriar; Turovsky, Egor; Marina, Nephtali; Korsak, Alla; Zwicker, Jennifer; Teschemacher, Anja G; Ackland, Gareth L; Funk, Gregory D; Kasparov, Sergey; Abramov, Andrey Y; Gourine, Alexander V

    2015-07-22

    In terrestrial mammals, the oxygen storage capacity of the CNS is limited, and neuronal function is rapidly impaired if oxygen supply is interrupted even for a short period of time. However, oxygen tension monitored by the peripheral (arterial) chemoreceptors is not sensitive to regional CNS differences in partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) that reflect variable levels of neuronal activity or local tissue hypoxia, pointing to the necessity of a functional brain oxygen sensor. This experimental animal (rats and mice) study shows that astrocytes, the most numerous brain glial cells, are sensitive to physiological changes in PO2 . Astrocytes respond to decreases in PO2 a few millimeters of mercury below normal brain oxygenation with elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). The hypoxia sensor of astrocytes resides in the mitochondria in which oxygen is consumed. Physiological decrease in PO2 inhibits astroglial mitochondrial respiration, leading to mitochondrial depolarization, production of free radicals, lipid peroxidation, activation of phospholipase C, IP3 receptors, and release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores. Hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in astrocytes trigger fusion of vesicular compartments containing ATP. Blockade of astrocytic signaling by overexpression of ATP-degrading enzymes or targeted astrocyte-specific expression of tetanus toxin light chain (to interfere with vesicular release mechanisms) within the brainstem respiratory rhythm-generating circuits reveals the fundamental physiological role of astroglial oxygen sensitivity; in low-oxygen conditions (environmental hypoxia), this mechanism increases breathing activity even in the absence of peripheral chemoreceptor oxygen sensing. These results demonstrate that astrocytes are functionally specialized CNS oxygen sensors tuned for rapid detection of physiological changes in brain oxygenation. Significance statement: Most, if not all, animal cells possess mechanisms that allow them to

  19. Growth factors regulate glutamine synthetase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaled

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... medium; NB, nutrient broth medium; NF, nitrogen fixation medium; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate ... compounds, such as amino acids, as their sole source of nitrogen. In each case, substitution of ammonia by .... polymyxa producing glutamine synthetase. Different protein patterns of the total cellular ...

  20. Effect of energy intake on the metabolism of glucose and glutamine in rumen epithelial tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    Ten Holstein steers (579 kg average body weight) were fed either alfalfa hay (12.2% crude protein) or a 90% concentrate diet to supply 14.2 or 25.2 Mcal ME respectively for a minimum of 28 days. Samples of rumen epithelial tissue were removed at slaughter from the anterior ventral sac, washed free of feed particles and transported to the laboratory in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer (KRB; pH 7.4). Papillae were weighed (100-200 mg) in triplicate into flasks containing 3 ml KRB with 1 mM glutamine or 5 mM glucose and acetate (50 mM), propionate (25 mM), butyrate (15 mM), lactate (1 mM) and glucose (5 mM) or glutamine (1 mM) as competing substrates. A parallel set of flasks contained 1 or .5 ..mu..Ci of (U-/sup 14/C)-glutamine or glucose respectively for /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production. There were no interactions with dietary energy intake and substrate addition. Increasing the dietary energy intake increased (P < .01) rates of uptake, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production and net lactate production from glucose and increased the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from glutamine. Addition of acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate decreased (P < .05) uptake of glucose, but only propionate decreased /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from glucose (40%). Addition of butyrate and glucose decreased /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from glutamine while propionate addition decreased net glutamate production and increased net alanine production. At these substrate concentrations rates of glucose oxidation to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ were 7-fold higher than glutamine.

  1. Isolation and culture of human astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Ariane; Prevot, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although rodent models have been essential to unveil the emerging functions of astrocytes, the existence of interspecies differences calls for caution in extrapolating data from rodent to human astrocytes. We have developed highly enriched primary astrocyte cultures from human fetuses and adult cerebro-cortical biopsies from neurosurgery patients. Immunocytochemical characterization shows that cultures are composed of more than 95% of cells expressing in vitro astrocytic markers. Examination of the morphological and proliferative properties of cultures derived from the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus both in untreated conditions and after treatment with EGF-related ligands illustrates the high plasticity of human astrocytes and their functional heterogeneity according to the cerebral region of origin. Our preparation offers the opportunity to characterize human astrocyte functions in vitro and also provides a valuable tool for studying the functional heterogeneity of human astrocytes isolated from distinct brain regions.

  2. Intracellular polyamines enhance astrocytic coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Jan; Inyushin, Mikhail; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V; Rivera, Yomarie; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y; Nichols, Colin G; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N

    2012-12-05

    Spermine (SPM) and spermidine, endogenous polyamines with the ability to modulate various ion channels and receptors in the brain, exert neuroprotective, antidepressant, antioxidant, and other effects in vivo such as increasing longevity. These polyamines are preferably accumulated in astrocytes, and we hypothesized that SPM increases glial intercellular communication by interacting with glial gap junctions. The results obtained in situ, using Lucifer yellow propagation in the astrocytic syncitium of 21-25-day-old rat CA1 hippocampal slices, showed reduced coupling when astrocytes were dialyzed with standard intracellular solutions without SPM. However, there was a robust increase in the spreading of Lucifer yellow through gap junctions to neighboring astrocytes when the cells were patched with intracellular solutions containing 1 mM SPM, a physiological concentration in glia. Lucifer yellow propagation was inhibited by gap junction blockers. Our findings show that the glial syncitium propagates SPM through gap junctions and further indicate a new role of polyamines in the regulation of the astroglial network under both normal and pathological conditions.

  3. Astrocyte, the star avatar: redefined

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and has resulted in a new appreciation of astrocytes and their value in studying the neurobiology of human brain cells and their functions. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of glial cells in physiology, pathophysiology and, most importantly, in adult neurogenesis and “stemness”, with special emphasis ...

  4. Central role of maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic brain edema formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the ensuing reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas; the two processes are interactive closely under the driving of maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphologic and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the ensuing glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K+ and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein and water channel protein aquaporin 4 to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the blood-brain barrier, but also lead to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation.

  5. Methylglyoxal Induces Changes in the Glyoxalase System and Impairs Glutamate Uptake Activity in Primary Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Fernanda; Galland, Fabiana; Lirio, Franciane; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Da Ré, Carollina; Pacheco, Rafaela Ferreira; Vizuete, Adriana Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; Leite, Marina Concli; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The impairment of astrocyte functions is associated with diabetes mellitus and other neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes have been proposed to be essential cells for neuroprotection against elevated levels of methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive aldehyde derived from the glycolytic pathway. MG exposure impairs primary astrocyte viability, as evaluated by different assays, and these cells respond to MG elevation by increasing glyoxalase 1 activity and glutathione levels, which improve cell viability and survival. However, C6 glioma cells have shown strong signs of resistance against MG, without significant changes in the glyoxalase system. Results for aminoguanidine coincubation support the idea that MG toxicity is mediated by glycation. We found a significant decrease in glutamate uptake by astrocytes, without changes in the expression of the major transporters. Carbenoxolone, a nonspecific inhibitor of gap junctions, prevented the cytotoxicity induced by MG in astrocyte cultures. Thus, our data reinforce the idea that astrocyte viability depends on gap junctions and that the impairment induced by MG involves glutamate excitotoxicity. The astrocyte susceptibility to MG emphasizes the importance of this compound in neurodegenerative diseases, where the neuronal damage induced by MG may be aggravated by the commitment of the cells charged with MG clearance.

  6. Methylglyoxal Induces Changes in the Glyoxalase System and Impairs Glutamate Uptake Activity in Primary Astrocytes

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    Fernanda Hansen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of astrocyte functions is associated with diabetes mellitus and other neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes have been proposed to be essential cells for neuroprotection against elevated levels of methylglyoxal (MG, a highly reactive aldehyde derived from the glycolytic pathway. MG exposure impairs primary astrocyte viability, as evaluated by different assays, and these cells respond to MG elevation by increasing glyoxalase 1 activity and glutathione levels, which improve cell viability and survival. However, C6 glioma cells have shown strong signs of resistance against MG, without significant changes in the glyoxalase system. Results for aminoguanidine coincubation support the idea that MG toxicity is mediated by glycation. We found a significant decrease in glutamate uptake by astrocytes, without changes in the expression of the major transporters. Carbenoxolone, a nonspecific inhibitor of gap junctions, prevented the cytotoxicity induced by MG in astrocyte cultures. Thus, our data reinforce the idea that astrocyte viability depends on gap junctions and that the impairment induced by MG involves glutamate excitotoxicity. The astrocyte susceptibility to MG emphasizes the importance of this compound in neurodegenerative diseases, where the neuronal damage induced by MG may be aggravated by the commitment of the cells charged with MG clearance.

  7. Central Role of Maladapted Astrocytic Plasticity in Ischemic Brain Edema Formation.

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    Wang, Yu-Feng; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the resulting reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas, associated with maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphological and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the subsequent glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K(+) and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the BBB. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the BBB, but also leads to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation.

  8. ATP and astrocytes play a prominent role in the control of the respiratory pattern generator in the lamprey.

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    Cinelli, Elenia; Iovino, Ludovica; Mutolo, Donatella

    2017-12-01

    The paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG) is responsible for the respiratory pattern generation in the lamprey. The role of ATP and astrocytes, known to control respiratory activity in mammals, was investigated in the lamprey respiratory network. ATP microinjected into the pTRG induces a biphasic response consisting of marked increases in respiratory frequency mediated by P2X receptors followed by a decrease in the respiratory motor output due to the ATP metabolite adenosine. We provide evidence that astrocytes are involved in the genesis of the normal respiratory pattern, ATP-induced responses and acidification-induced increases of the respiratory activity. The function of astrocytes in rhythmic networks appears to be phylogenetically conserved. The role of ATP and astrocytes in respiratory rhythm modulation has been recently investigated in neonatal rodents. However, no information on the role of ATP and astrocytes within the respiratory network of the lamprey is available, particularly within the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory central pattern generator. To address these issues, the present study was carried out on isolated brainstems of the adult lamprey. Bath application of ATP caused marked increases in respiratory frequency followed by decreases in the respiratory motor output, mediated by the ATP metabolite adenosine at the level of the pTRG. Bath applications and microinjections of agonists and antagonists of purinergic receptors showed that ATP increased respiratory activity through an action on pTRG P2X receptors. To disclose the respiratory role of astrocytes, we used bath application of the gliotoxin aminoadipic acid, which dramatically depressed the respiratory motor output that, however, promptly recovered following glutamine application. Furthermore, the excitatory responses to ATP-γ-S (a non-hydrolysable ATP analogue), but not to substance P, microinjected into the pTRG, were abolished. Finally, we also

  9. The antidiabetic drug metformin decreases mitochondrial respiration and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary rat astrocytes.

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    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Dringen, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is used daily by millions of patients worldwide. Metformin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and has recently been shown to increase glucose consumption and lactate release in cultured astrocytes. However, potential effects of metformin on mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism in astrocytes are unknown. We investigated this by mapping 13 C labeling in TCA cycle intermediates and corresponding amino acids after incubation of primary rat astrocytes with [U-13 C]glucose. The presence of metformin did not compromise the viability of cultured astrocytes during 4 hr of incubation, but almost doubled cellular glucose consumption and lactate release. Compared with control cells, the presence of metformin dramatically lowered the molecular 13 C carbon labeling (MCL) of the cellular TCA cycle intermediates citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malate, as well as the MCL of the TCA cycle intermediate-derived amino acids glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate. In addition to the total molecular 13 C labeling, analysis of the individual isotopomers of TCA cycle intermediates confirmed a severe decline in labeling and a significant lowering in TCA cycling ratio in metformin-treated astrocytes. Finally, the oxygen consumption of mitochondria isolated from metformin-treated astrocytes was drastically reduced in the presence of complex I substrates, but not of complex II substrates. These data demonstrate that exposure to metformin strongly impairs complex I-mediated mitochondrial respiration in astrocytes, which is likely to cause the observed decrease in labeling of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates and the stimulation of glycolytic lactate production. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Activity-dependent astrocyte swelling is mediated by pH-regulating mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    .1/AQP4 complex not required for the astrocytic cell swelling in the hippocampus, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity-dependent ECS shrinkage have remained unresolved. To identify these molecular mechanisms, we employed ion-sensitive microelectrodes to measure changes in ECS, [K(+) ]o and [H......(+) ]o /pHo during electrical stimulation of rat hippocampal slices. Transporters and receptors responding directly to the K(+) and glutamate released into the extracellular space (the K(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter, KCC, glutamate transporters and G protein-coupled receptors) did not modulate...... the extracellular space dynamics. The HCO3--transporting mechanism, which in astrocytes mainly constitutes the electrogenic Na(+) / HCO3- cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), is activated by the K(+) -mediated depolarization of the astrocytic membrane. Inhibition of this transporter reduced the ECS shrinkage by ∼25% without...

  11. Astrocytic mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization following extended oxygen and glucose deprivation.

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    Andrej Korenić

    Full Text Available Astrocytes can tolerate longer periods of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD as compared to neurons. The reasons for this reduced vulnerability are not well understood. Particularly, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m in astrocytes, an indicator of the cellular redox state, have not been investigated during reperfusion after extended OGD exposure. Here, we subjected primary mouse astrocytes to glucose deprivation (GD, OGD and combinations of both conditions varying in duration and sequence. Changes in Δψ(m, visualized by change in the fluorescence of JC-1, were investigated within one hour after reconstitution of oxygen and glucose supply, intended to model in vivo reperfusion. In all experiments, astrocytes showed resilience to extended periods of OGD, which had little effect on Δψ(m during reperfusion, whereas GD caused a robust Δψ(m negativation. In case no Δψ(m negativation was observed after OGD, subsequent chemical oxygen deprivation (OD induced by sodium azide caused depolarization, which, however, was significantly delayed as compared to normoxic group. When GD preceded OD for 12 h, Δψ(m hyperpolarization was induced by both GD and subsequent OD, but significant interaction between these conditions was not detected. However, when GD was extended to 48 h preceding OGD, hyperpolarization enhanced during reperfusion. This implicates synergistic effects of both conditions in that sequence. These findings provide novel information regarding the role of the two main substrates of electron transport chain (glucose and oxygen and their hyperpolarizing effect on Δψ(m during substrate deprivation, thus shedding new light on mechanisms of astrocyte resilience to prolonged ischemic injury.

  12. Distinct expression/function of potassium and chloride channels contributes to the diverse volume regulation in cortical astrocytes of GFAP/EGFP mice.

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    Jana Benesova

    Full Text Available Recently, we have identified two astrocytic subpopulations in the cortex of GFAP-EGFP mice, in which the astrocytes are visualized by the enhanced green-fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promotor. These astrocytic subpopulations, termed high response- (HR- and low response- (LR- astrocytes, differed in the extent of their swelling during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. In the present study we focused on identifying the ion channels or transporters that might underlie the different capabilities of these two astrocytic subpopulations to regulate their volume during OGD. Using three-dimensional confocal morphometry, which enables quantification of the total astrocytic volume, the effects of selected inhibitors of K⁺ and Cl⁻ channels/transporters or glutamate transporters on astrocyte volume changes were determined during 20 minute-OGD in situ. The inhibition of volume regulated anion channels (VRACs and two-pore domain potassium channels (K(2P highlighted their distinct contributions to volume regulation in HR-/LR-astrocytes. While the inhibition of VRACs or K(2P channels revealed their contribution to the swelling of HR-astrocytes, in LR-astrocytes they were both involved in anion/K⁺ effluxes. Additionally, the inhibition of Na⁺-K⁺-Cl⁻ co-transporters in HR-astrocytes led to a reduction of cell swelling, but it had no effect on LR-astrocyte volume. Moreover, employing real-time single-cell quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, we characterized the expression profiles of EGFP-positive astrocytes with a focus on those ion channels and transporters participating in astrocyte swelling and volume regulation. The PCR data revealed the existence of two astrocytic subpopulations markedly differing in their gene expression levels for inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels (Kir4.1, K(2P channels (TREK-1 and TWIK-1 and Cl⁻ channels (ClC2. Thus, we propose that the diverse volume

  13. Weak mitochondrial targeting sequence determines tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase in liver and brain cells.

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    Matthews, Gideon D; Gur, Noa; Koopman, Werner J H; Pines, Ophry; Vardimon, Lily

    2010-02-01

    Evolution of the uricotelic system for ammonia detoxification required a mechanism for tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase (GS). In uricotelic vertebrates, GS is mitochondrial in liver cells and cytoplasmic in brain. Because these species contain a single copy of the GS gene, it is not clear how tissue-specific subcellular localization is achieved. Here we show that in chicken, which utilizes the uricotelic system, the GS transcripts of liver and brain cells are identical and, consistently, there is no difference in the amino acid sequence of the protein. The N-terminus of GS, which constitutes a 'weak' mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS), is sufficient to direct a chimeric protein to the mitochondria in hepatocytes and to the cytoplasm in astrocytes. Considering that a weak MTS is dependent on a highly negative mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) for import, we examined the magnitude of DeltaPsi in hepatocytes and astrocytes. Our results unexpectedly revealed that DeltaPsi in hepatocytes is considerably more negative than that of astrocytes and that converting the targeting signal into 'strong' MTS abolished the capability to confer tissue-specific subcellular localization. We suggest that evolutional selection of weak MTS provided a tool for differential targeting of an identical protein by taking advantage of tissue-specific differences in DeltaPsi.

  14. In vitro α-synuclein neurotoxicity and spreading among neurons and astrocytes using Lewy body extracts from Parkinson disease brains.

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    Cavaliere, Fabio; Cerf, Loic; Dehay, Benjamin; Ramos-Gonzalez, Paula; De Giorgi, Francesca; Bourdenx, Mathieu; Bessede, Alban; Obeso, Jose A; Matute, Carlos; Ichas, François; Bezard, Erwan

    2017-07-01

    Synucleinopathies are a group of diseases characterized by the presence of intracellular protein aggregates containing α-synuclein (α-syn). While α-syn aggregates have been shown to induce multimodal cellular dysfunctions, uptake and transport mechanisms remain unclear. Using high-content imaging on cortical neurons and astrocytes, we here define the kinetics of neuronal and astrocytic abnormalities induced by human-derived α-syn aggregates grounding the use of such system to identify and test putative therapeutic compounds. We then aimed at characterizing uptake and transport mechanisms using primary cultures of cortical neurons and astrocytes either in single well or in microfluidic chambers allowing connection between cells and cell-types. We report that astrocytes take up α-syn-aggregates far more efficiently than neurons through an endocytic event. We also highlight that active α-syn transport occurs between cells and any cell-types. Of special interest regarding the disease, we also show that uptake and spreading of α-syn from astrocytes to neurons can lead to neuronal death. Altogether, we here show that patients-derived α-synuclein aggregates, which are taken up by neurons and astrocytes, induce a differential endogenous response in the two cell types including a peculiar astrocytic toxic gain-of-function that leads to neuronal death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic vs. Acute Interactions between Supraoptic Oxytocin Neurons and Astrocytes during Lactation: Role of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Plasticity

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    Yu-Feng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review studies of astrocytic-neuronal interactions and their effects on the activity of oxytocin (OXT neurons within the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Previous work over several decades has shown that withdrawal of astrocyte processes increases OXT neuron excitability in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON during lactation. However, chronically disabling astrocyte withdrawal does not significantly affect the functioning of OXT neurons during suckling. Nevertheless, acute changes in a cytoskeletal element of astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, occur in concert with changes in OXT neuronal activity during suckling. Here, we compare these changes in GFAP and related proteins with chronic changes that persist throughout lactation. During lactation, a decrease in GFAP levels accompanies retraction of astrocyte processes surrounding OXT neurons in the SON, resulting from high extracellular levels of OXT. During the initial stage of suckling, acute increases in OXT levels further strengthen this GFAP reduction and facilitate the retraction of astrocyte processes. This change, in turn, facilitates burst discharges of OXT neurons and leads to a transient increase in excitatory neurochemicals. This transient neurochemical surge acts to reverse GFAP expression and results in postburst inhibition of OXT neurons. The acute changes in astrocyte GFAP levels seen during suckling likely recur periodically, accompanied by rhythmic changes in glutamate metabolism, water transport, gliotransmitter release, and spatial relationships between astrocytes and OXT neurons. In the neurohypophysis, astrocyte retraction and reversal with accompanying GFAP plasticity also likely occur during lactation and suckling, which facilitates OXT release coordinated with its action in the SON. These studies of the dynamic interactions that occur between astrocytes and OXT neurons mediated by GFAP extend our understanding of

  16. Glycogenolysis, an Astrocyte-Specific Reaction, is Essential for Both Astrocytic and Neuronal Activities Involved in Learning.

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    Hertz, Leif; Chen, Ye

    2018-02-01

    In brain glycogen, formed from glucose, is degraded (glycogenolysis) in astrocytes but not in neurons. Although most of the degradation follows the same pathway as glucose, its breakdown product, l-lactate, is released from astrocytes in larger amounts than glucose when glycogenolysis is activated by noradrenaline. However, this is not the case when glycogenolysis is activated by high potassium ion (K + ) concentrations - possibly because noradrenaline in contrast to high K + stimulates glycogenolysis by an increase not only in free cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) but also in cyclic AMP (c-AMP), which may increase the expression of the monocarboxylate transporter through which it is released. Several transmitters activate glycogenolysis in astrocytes and do so at different time points after training. This stimulation is essential for memory consolidation because glycogenolysis is necessary for uptake of K + and stimulates formation of glutamate from glucose, and therefore is needed both for removal of increased extracellular K + following neuronal excitation (which initially occurs into astrocytes) and for formation of transmitter glutamate and GABA. In addition the released l-lactate has effects on neurons which are essential for learning and for learning-related long-term potentiation (LTP), including induction of the neuronal gene Arc/Arg3.1 and activation of gene cascades mediated by CREB and cofilin. Inhibition of glycogenolysis blocks learning, LTP and all related molecular events, but all changes can be reversed by injection of l-lactate. The effect of extracellular l-lactate is due to both astrocyte-mediated signaling which activates noradrenergic activity on all brain cells and to a minor uptake, possibly into dendritic spines. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the behavior, growth performance, immune parameters, and intestinal morphology of weaned piglets after simulated transport and heat stress when antibiotics are eliminated from the diet or replaced with L-glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of post-weaning transport during heat stress (HS) and thermoneutral (TN) conditions when dietary antibiotics are removed or replaced with a nutraceutical. Sixty mixed sex piglets from 10 sows (n = 6 piglets/sow) were weaned (18.8 ± 0.8 d of age) and then...

  18. Targeting astrocytes in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Li, Baoman; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-06-01

    Astrocytes are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, which are critical for development and maintenance of synaptic transmission and hence of synaptically connected neuronal ensembles. Astrocytic densities are reduced in bipolar disorder, and therefore deficient astroglial function may contribute to overall disbalance in neurotransmission and to pathological evolution. Classical anti-bipolar drugs (lithium salts, valproic acid and carbamazepine) affect expression of astroglial genes and modify astroglial signalling and homeostatic cascades. Many effects of both antidepressant and anti-bipolar drugs are exerted through regulation of glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic transmission, through K(+) buffering, through regulation of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (that controls metabolism of arachidonic acid) or through Ca(2+) homeostatic and signalling pathways. Sometimes anti-depressant and anti-bipolar drugs exert opposite effects, and some effects on gene expression in drug treated animals are opposite in neurones vs. astrocytes. Changes in the intracellular pH induced by anti-bipolar drugs affect uptake of myo-inositol and thereby signalling via inositoltrisphosphate (InsP3), this being in accord with one of the main theories of mechanism of action for these drugs.

  19. Astrocyte scar formation aids CNS axon regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A.; Burda, Joshua E.; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O’Shea, Timothy M.; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S.; Deming, Timothy J.; Sofroniew, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or deleting chronic astrocyte scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. In striking contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocyte scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents CNS axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  20. Astrocytic actions on extrasynaptic neuronal currents

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    Balazs ePal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, knowledge about astrocytic functions has significantly increased. It was demonstrated that astrocytes are not passive elements of the central nervous system, but active partners of neurons. There is a growing body of knowledge about the calcium excitability of astrocytes, the actions of different gliotransmitters and their release mechanisms, as well as the participation of astrocytes in the regulation of synaptic functions and their contribution to synaptic plasticity. However, astrocytic functions are even more complex than being a partner of the 'tripartite synapse', as they can influence extrasynaptic neuronal currents either by releasing substances or regulating ambient neurotransmitter levels. Several types of currents or changes of membrane potential with different kinetics and via different mechanisms can be elicited by astrocytic activity. Astrocyte-dependent phasic or tonic, inward or outward currents were described in several brain areas. Such currents, together with the synaptic actions of astrocytes, can contribute to neuromodulatory mechanisms, neurosensory and –secretory processes, cortical oscillatory activity, memory and learning or overall neuronal excitability. This mini-review is an attempt to give a brief summary of astrocyte-dependent extrasynaptic neuronal currents and their possible functional significance.

  1. Reconstruction and flux analysis of coupling between metabolic pathways of astrocytes and neurons: application to cerebral hypoxia

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    Akιn Ata

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a daunting task to identify all the metabolic pathways of brain energy metabolism and develop a dynamic simulation environment that will cover a time scale ranging from seconds to hours. To simplify this task and make it more practicable, we undertook stoichiometric modeling of brain energy metabolism with the major aim of including the main interacting pathways in and between astrocytes and neurons. Model The constructed model includes central metabolism (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle, lipid metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification, amino acid metabolism (synthesis and catabolism, the well-known glutamate-glutamine cycle, other coupling reactions between astrocytes and neurons, and neurotransmitter metabolism. This is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive attempt at stoichiometric modeling of brain metabolism to date in terms of its coverage of a wide range of metabolic pathways. We then attempted to model the basal physiological behaviour and hypoxic behaviour of the brain cells where astrocytes and neurons are tightly coupled. Results The reconstructed stoichiometric reaction model included 217 reactions (184 internal, 33 exchange and 216 metabolites (183 internal, 33 external distributed in and between astrocytes and neurons. Flux balance analysis (FBA techniques were applied to the reconstructed model to elucidate the underlying cellular principles of neuron-astrocyte coupling. Simulation of resting conditions under the constraints of maximization of glutamate/glutamine/GABA cycle fluxes between the two cell types with subsequent minimization of Euclidean norm of fluxes resulted in a flux distribution in accordance with literature-based findings. As a further validation of our model, the effect of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia on fluxes was simulated using an FBA-derivative approach, known as minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA. The results show the power of the

  2. Heterogeneity of astrocytes: from development to injury - single cell gene expression.

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    Vendula Rusnakova

    Full Text Available Astrocytes perform control and regulatory functions in the central nervous system; heterogeneity among them is still a matter of debate due to limited knowledge of their gene expression profiles and functional diversity. To unravel astrocyte heterogeneity during postnatal development and after focal cerebral ischemia, we employed single-cell gene expression profiling in acutely isolated cortical GFAP/EGFP-positive cells. Using a microfluidic qPCR platform, we profiled 47 genes encoding glial markers and ion channels/transporters/receptors participating in maintaining K(+ and glutamate homeostasis per cell. Self-organizing maps and principal component analyses revealed three subpopulations within 10-50 days of postnatal development (P10-P50. The first subpopulation, mainly immature glia from P10, was characterized by high transcriptional activity of all studied genes, including polydendrocytic markers. The second subpopulation (mostly from P20 was characterized by low gene transcript levels, while the third subpopulation encompassed mature astrocytes (mainly from P30, P50. Within 14 days after ischemia (D3, D7, D14, additional astrocytic subpopulations were identified: resting glia (mostly from P50 and D3, transcriptionally active early reactive glia (mainly from D7 and permanent reactive glia (solely from D14. Following focal cerebral ischemia, reactive astrocytes underwent pronounced changes in the expression of aquaporins, nonspecific cationic and potassium channels, glutamate receptors and reactive astrocyte markers.

  3. Heterogeneity of Astrocytes: From Development to Injury – Single Cell Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnakova, Vendula; Honsa, Pavel; Dzamba, David; Ståhlberg, Anders; Kubista, Mikael; Anderova, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes perform control and regulatory functions in the central nervous system; heterogeneity among them is still a matter of debate due to limited knowledge of their gene expression profiles and functional diversity. To unravel astrocyte heterogeneity during postnatal development and after focal cerebral ischemia, we employed single-cell gene expression profiling in acutely isolated cortical GFAP/EGFP-positive cells. Using a microfluidic qPCR platform, we profiled 47 genes encoding glial markers and ion channels/transporters/receptors participating in maintaining K+ and glutamate homeostasis per cell. Self-organizing maps and principal component analyses revealed three subpopulations within 10–50 days of postnatal development (P10–P50). The first subpopulation, mainly immature glia from P10, was characterized by high transcriptional activity of all studied genes, including polydendrocytic markers. The second subpopulation (mostly from P20) was characterized by low gene transcript levels, while the third subpopulation encompassed mature astrocytes (mainly from P30, P50). Within 14 days after ischemia (D3, D7, D14), additional astrocytic subpopulations were identified: resting glia (mostly from P50 and D3), transcriptionally active early reactive glia (mainly from D7) and permanent reactive glia (solely from D14). Following focal cerebral ischemia, reactive astrocytes underwent pronounced changes in the expression of aquaporins, nonspecific cationic and potassium channels, glutamate receptors and reactive astrocyte markers. PMID:23940528

  4. Astrocytic Ca2+ signals are required for the functional integrity of tripartite synapses

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    Tanaka Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal activity alters calcium ion (Ca2+ dynamics in astrocytes, but the physiologic relevance of these changes is controversial. To examine this issue further, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the expression of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate absorbent, “IP3 sponge”, attenuates astrocytic Ca2+ signaling. Results Attenuated Ca2+ activity correlated with reduced astrocytic coverage of asymmetric synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region in these animals. The decreased astrocytic ‘protection’ of the synapses facilitated glutamate ‘spillover’, which was reflected by prolonged glutamate transporter currents in stratum radiatum astrocytes and enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in response to burst stimulation. These mice also exhibited behavioral impairments in spatial reference memory and remote contextual fear memory, in which hippocampal circuits are involved. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IP3-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling correlates with the formation of functional tripartite synapses in the hippocampus.

  5. Circadian modulation of gene expression, but not glutamate uptake, in mouse and rat cortical astrocytes.

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    Christian Beaulé

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks control daily rhythms including sleep-wake, hormone secretion, and metabolism. These clocks are based on intracellular transcription-translation feedback loops that sustain daily oscillations of gene expression in many cell types. Mammalian astrocytes display circadian rhythms in the expression of the clock genes Period1 (Per1 and Period2 (Per2. However, a functional role for circadian oscillations in astrocytes is unknown. Because uptake of extrasynaptic glutamate depends on the presence of Per2 in astrocytes, we asked whether glutamate uptake by glia is circadian.We measured glutamate uptake, transcript and protein levels of the astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter, Glast, and the expression of Per1 and Per2 from cultured cortical astrocytes and from explants of somatosensory cortex. We found that glutamate uptake and Glast mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in Clock/Clock, Per2- or NPAS2-deficient glia. Uptake was augmented when the medium was supplemented with dibutyryl-cAMP or B27. Critically, glutamate uptake was not circadian in cortical astrocytes cultured from rats or mice or in cortical slices from mice.We conclude that glutamate uptake levels are modulated by CLOCK, PER2, NPAS2, and the composition of the culture medium, and that uptake does not show circadian variations.

  6. Acidosis-Induced Dysfunction of Cortical GABAergic Neurons through Astrocyte-Related Excitotoxicity.

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    Huang, Li; Zhao, Shidi; Lu, Wei; Guan, Sudong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Acidosis impairs cognitions and behaviors presumably by acidification-induced changes in neuronal metabolism. Cortical GABAergic neurons are vulnerable to pathological factors and their injury leads to brain dysfunction. How acidosis induces GABAergic neuron injury remains elusive. As the glia cells and neurons interact each other, we intend to examine the role of the astrocytes in acidosis-induced GABAergic neuron injury. Experiments were done at GABAergic cells and astrocytes in mouse cortical slices. To identify astrocytic involvement in acidosis-induced impairment, we induced the acidification in single GABAergic neuron by infusing proton intracellularly or in both neurons and astrocytes by using proton extracellularly. Compared the effects of intracellular acidification and extracellular acidification on GABAergic neurons, we found that their active intrinsic properties and synaptic outputs appeared more severely impaired in extracellular acidosis than intracellular acidosis. Meanwhile, extracellular acidosis deteriorated glutamate transporter currents on the astrocytes and upregulated excitatory synaptic transmission on the GABAergic neurons. Moreover, the antagonists of glutamate NMDA-/AMPA-receptors partially reverse extracellular acidosis-induced injury in the GABAergic neurons. Our studies suggest that acidosis leads to the dysfunction of cortical GABAergic neurons by astrocyte-mediated excitotoxicity, in addition to their metabolic changes as indicated previously.

  7. GABAergic interneuron to astrocyte signalling: a neglected form of cell communication in the brain

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    Losi, Gabriele; Mariotti, Letizia; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons represent a minority of all cortical neurons and yet they efficiently control neural network activities in all brain areas. In parallel, glial cell astrocytes exert a broad control of brain tissue homeostasis and metabolism, modulate synaptic transmission and contribute to brain information processing in a dynamic interaction with neurons that is finely regulated in time and space. As most studies have focused on glutamatergic neurons and excitatory transmission, our knowledge of functional interactions between GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes is largely defective. Here, we critically discuss the currently available literature that hints at a potential relevance of this specific signalling in brain function. Astrocytes can respond to GABA through different mechanisms that include GABA receptors and transporters. GABA-activated astrocytes can, in turn, modulate local neuronal activity by releasing gliotransmitters including glutamate and ATP. In addition, astrocyte activation by different signals can modulate GABAergic neurotransmission. Full clarification of the reciprocal signalling between different GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes will improve our understanding of brain network complexity and has the potential to unveil novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders. PMID:25225102

  8. Parenteral glutamine dipeptide supplementation does not ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaanen, H. C.; van der Lelie, H.; Timmer, J. G.; Fürst, P.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition (TPN) improved the nitrogen balance in catabolic situations. In animal studies, parenteral glutamine supplementation appeared to maintain gut integrity. This study was performed to evaluate the possible positive effects of glutamine supplementation

  9. Astrocytes restrict discharge duration and neuronal sodium loads during recurrent network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Mondragão, Miguel A; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-06-01

    Influx of sodium ions into active neurons is a highly energy-expensive process which must be strictly limited. Astrocytes could play an important role herein because they take up glutamate and potassium from the extracellular space, thereby dampening neuronal excitation. Here, we performed sodium imaging in mouse hippocampal slices combined with field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and measurement of extracellular potassium ([K(+)]o). Network activity was induced by Mg(2+)-free, bicuculline-containing saline, during which neurons showed recurring epileptiform bursting, accompanied by transient increases in [K(+)]o and astrocyte depolarizations. During bursts, neurons displayed sodium increases by up to 22 mM. Astrocyte sodium concentration increased by up to 8.5 mM, which could be followed by an undershoot below baseline. Network sodium oscillations were dependent on action potentials and activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Inhibition of glutamate uptake caused acceleration, followed by cessation of electrical activity, irreversible sodium increases, and swelling of neurons. The gliotoxin NaFAc (sodium-fluoroacetate) resulted in elevation of astrocyte sodium concentration and reduced glial uptake of glutamate and potassium uptake through Na(+) /K(+)-ATPase. Moreover, NaFAc extended epileptiform bursts, caused elevation of neuronal sodium, and dramatically prolonged accompanying sodium signals, most likely because of the decreased clearance of glutamate and potassium by astrocytes. Our experiments establish that recurrent neuronal bursting evokes sodium transients in neurons and astrocytes and confirm the essential role of glutamate transporters for network activity. They suggest that astrocytes restrict discharge duration and show that an intact astrocyte metabolism is critical for the neurons' capacity to recover from sodium loads during synchronized activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alkali metal ion binding to glutamine and glutamine derivatives investigated by infrared action spectroscopy and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, M. F.; Oomens, J.; Saykally, R. J.; Williams, E. R.

    2008-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of alkali-metal cationized glutamine are investigated by using both infrared multiple photon dissociation (TRMPD) action spectroscopy, utilizing light generated by a free electron laser, and theory. The IRMPD spectra contain many similarities that are most consistent with

  11. HIV-1 Tat Promotes Lysosomal Exocytosis in Astrocytes and Contributes to Astrocyte-mediated Tat Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; He, Johnny J

    2016-10-21

    Tat interaction with astrocytes has been shown to be important for Tat neurotoxicity and HIV/neuroAIDS. We have recently shown that Tat expression leads to increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and aggregation and activation of unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity. However, the exact molecular mechanism of astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity is not defined. In this study, we showed that neurotoxic factors other than Tat protein itself were present in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed significantly elevated lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes and plasma membrane-associated proteins in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. We confirmed that Tat expression and infection of pseudotyped HIV.GFP led to increased lysosomal exocytosis from mouse astrocytes and human astrocytes. We found that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was tightly coupled to astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was astrocyte-specific and required GFAP expression and was mediated by ER stress. Taken together, these results show for the first time that Tat promotes lysosomal exocytosis in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity through GFAP activation and ER stress induction in astrocytes and suggest a common cascade through which aberrant astrocytosis/GFAP up-regulation potentiates neurotoxicity and contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. HIV-1 Tat Promotes Lysosomal Exocytosis in Astrocytes and Contributes to Astrocyte-mediated Tat Neurotoxicity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Tat interaction with astrocytes has been shown to be important for Tat neurotoxicity and HIV/neuroAIDS. We have recently shown that Tat expression leads to increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and aggregation and activation of unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity. However, the exact molecular mechanism of astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity is not defined. In this study, we showed that neurotoxic factors other than Tat protein itself were present in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed significantly elevated lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes and plasma membrane-associated proteins in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. We confirmed that Tat expression and infection of pseudotyped HIV.GFP led to increased lysosomal exocytosis from mouse astrocytes and human astrocytes. We found that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was tightly coupled to astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was astrocyte-specific and required GFAP expression and was mediated by ER stress. Taken together, these results show for the first time that Tat promotes lysosomal exocytosis in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity through GFAP activation and ER stress induction in astrocytes and suggest a common cascade through which aberrant astrocytosis/GFAP up-regulation potentiates neurotoxicity and contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27609518

  13. Up-regulation of TREK-2 potassium channels in cultured astrocytes requires de novo protein synthesis: relevance to localization of TREK-2 channels in astrocytes after transient cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixa F Rivera-Pagán

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity due to glutamate receptor over-activation is one of the key mediators of neuronal death after an ischemic insult. Therefore, a major function of astrocytes is to maintain low extracellular levels of glutamate. The ability of astrocytic glutamate transporters to regulate the extracellular glutamate concentration depends upon the hyperpolarized membrane potential of astrocytes conferred by the presence of K+ channels in their membranes. We have previously shown that TREK-2 potassium channels in cultured astrocytes are up-regulated by ischemia and may support glutamate clearance by astrocytes during ischemia. Thus, herein we determine the mechanism leading to this up-regulation and assess the localization of TREK-2 channels in astrocytes after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. By using a cell surface biotinylation assay we confirmed that functional TREK-2 protein is up-regulated in the astrocytic membrane after ischemic conditions. Using real time RT-PCR, we determined that the levels of TREK-2 mRNA were not increased in response to ischemic conditions. By using Western blot and a variety of protein synthesis inhibitors, we demonstrated that the increase of TREK-2 protein expression requires De novo protein synthesis, while protein degradation pathways do not contribute to TREK-2 up-regulation after ischemic conditions. Immunohistochemical studies revealed TREK-2 localization in astrocytes together with increased expression of the selective glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, in brain 24 hours after transient middle cerebral occlusion. Our data indicate that functional TREK-2 channels are up-regulated in the astrocytic membrane during ischemia through a mechanism requiring De novo protein synthesis. This study provides important information about the mechanisms underlying TREK-2 regulation, which has profound implications in neurological diseases such as ischemia where astrocytes play an important role.

  14. Up-regulation of TREK-2 potassium channels in cultured astrocytes requires de novo protein synthesis: relevance to localization of TREK-2 channels in astrocytes after transient cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Pagán, Aixa F; Rivera-Aponte, David E; Melnik-Martínez, Katya V; Zayas-Santiago, Astrid; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y; Martins, Antonio H; Cubano, Luis A; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Eaton, Misty J

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity due to glutamate receptor over-activation is one of the key mediators of neuronal death after an ischemic insult. Therefore, a major function of astrocytes is to maintain low extracellular levels of glutamate. The ability of astrocytic glutamate transporters to regulate the extracellular glutamate concentration depends upon the hyperpolarized membrane potential of astrocytes conferred by the presence of K+ channels in their membranes. We have previously shown that TREK-2 potassium channels in cultured astrocytes are up-regulated by ischemia and may support glutamate clearance by astrocytes during ischemia. Thus, herein we determine the mechanism leading to this up-regulation and assess the localization of TREK-2 channels in astrocytes after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. By using a cell surface biotinylation assay we confirmed that functional TREK-2 protein is up-regulated in the astrocytic membrane after ischemic conditions. Using real time RT-PCR, we determined that the levels of TREK-2 mRNA were not increased in response to ischemic conditions. By using Western blot and a variety of protein synthesis inhibitors, we demonstrated that the increase of TREK-2 protein expression requires De novo protein synthesis, while protein degradation pathways do not contribute to TREK-2 up-regulation after ischemic conditions. Immunohistochemical studies revealed TREK-2 localization in astrocytes together with increased expression of the selective glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, in brain 24 hours after transient middle cerebral occlusion. Our data indicate that functional TREK-2 channels are up-regulated in the astrocytic membrane during ischemia through a mechanism requiring De novo protein synthesis. This study provides important information about the mechanisms underlying TREK-2 regulation, which has profound implications in neurological diseases such as ischemia where astrocytes play an important role.

  15. Astrocyte loss and astrogliosis in neuroinflammatory disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hostenbach, Stephanie; Cambron, Melissa; D'haeseleer, Miguel; Kooijman, Ron; De Keyser, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation can lead to either damage of astrocytes or astrogliosis. Astrocyte loss may be caused by cytotoxic T cells as seen in Rasmussen encephalitis, auto-antibodies such as in neuromyelitis optica (aquaporin-4 antibodies), or cytokines such as TNF-alpha in major depressive disorder.

  16. Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dringen, Ralf; Brandmann, Maria; Hohnholt, Michaela C

    2015-01-01

    component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which...... knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes....

  17. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-10-29

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.

  18. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nianzhen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca2+ elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca2+ elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca2+ wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca2+ signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca2+-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca2+ signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca2+, possibly through store-operated Ca2+ channels. The NO-induced Ca2+ signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca2+ change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca2+ influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca2+ using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca2+ release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca2+ elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca2+ wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by

  19. Glutamine synthetase is essential in early mouse embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Youji; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Vermeulen, Jacqueline L. M.; Lamers, Wouter H.; van Roon, Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally controlled manner, and functions to remove ammonia or glutamate. Furthermore, it is the only enzyme that can synthesize glutamine de novo. Since congenital deficiency of GS has not been reported, we investigated its role

  20. Impact of dietary glutamine on amino acid digestibility values and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three diets based on synthetic AAs were used to obtain nutrient values of the control diet, which were supplemented with a synthetic form of glutamine, glutamic acid and a 50 : 50 ratio of glutamine : glutamic acid. Chickens fed the control diet presented higher average daily weight gain and better FCR. None of the AID ...

  1. The effect of glutamine supplement on small intestinal morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effects of glutamine (Gln) supplement on small intestinal morphology, xylose ... diet was formulated to contain 20.3% protein and 3450 kcal DE/kg diet. Glutamine was supplemented to .... P < 0.05, and P < 0.10 was considered as a trend. RESULTS. Intestinal ...

  2. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  3. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Newman

    Full Text Available When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  4. Role of glutamine in cobinamide biosynthesis in Propionibacterium shermanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, A.A.; Pushkin, A.V.; Belozerova, E.V.; Bykhovskii, V.Ya.

    1987-01-10

    The role of glutamine as a possible donor of amide groups in the biosynthesis of vitamin B/sub 12/ was investigated. In the incubation of P. shermanii cells preliminarily exhausted with respect to nitrogen on media containing ammonium sulfate or asparagine, the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine suppressed the formation of cobinamide (factor B) from the monoamide of cobiric acid (by 75 and 59%, respectively). At the same time, the inhibitor did not affect cobinamide synthesis on a medium with glutamine. The amide group of glutamine, labeled with /sup 13/N, was used for the amidation of corrinoids four times as efficiently as the amine group. It was concluded that a glutamine-dependent synthetase, which catalyzes the amidation of cobiric acids with the formation of cobinamide, functions in cells of propionic acid bacteria.

  5. Glutamine protects function and improves preservation of small bowel segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, K; Park, J O; Bain, A; Reilly, K J; Adamson, W T; Koide, S; Zhang, W; Rombeau, J L

    1997-11-01

    Improved organ preservation is essential for the success of small bowel transplantation. Small bowel is usually preserved in UW (University of Wisconsin) solution which does not contain glutamine (Gln), the principal fuel for the enterocyte. We hypothesized that Gln-supplemented UW would improve mucosal function and structure of cold preserved small intestine. Jejunum (40 cm) was harvested from Lewis rats and preserved for 18 hr at 4 degrees C in saline; UW solution only; UW with 1, 2, or 4% Gln; and UW containing 1, 2, or 4% isonitrogenous balanced nonessential amino acids (NEAA). 14C glucose transport, mucosal protein, mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase, jejunal villous height, and histologic damage were measured. UW with 2% Gln significantly increased glucose transport and mucosal protein when compared to the 2% NEAA and UW-only groups. Two percent Gln significantly decreased histologic damage of jejunum following cold preservation. Increasing Gln to 4% did not significantly increase its efficacy when compared to the UW with 2% Gln group. There were no significant differences in the activities of mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase among the various treatment groups. The addition of Gln, optimally provided at a concentration of 2%, to UW solution may protect the preserved small bowel segments from cold ischemic injury and improve mucosal function. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  6. Beta-hydroxybutyrate alters GABA-transaminase activity in cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuka; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Fukuda, Mitsumasa; Hino, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Kana; Tanaka, Junya; Ishii, Eiichi

    2009-05-01

    The ketogenic diet has long been recognized as an effective treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Despite nearly a century of use, the mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. One of the proposed hypotheses for its anti-epileptic actions involves increased GABA concentration in the brain due to ketone bodies that become elevated with a ketogenic diet. In recent years, the notion that astrocytes could play a role in the evolution of abnormal cortical excitability in chronic neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, has received renewed attention. The present study examined the effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body, on GABA metabolism in rat primary cultured astrocytes. When beta-hydroxybutyrate was added to culture medium, GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in time- and dose-dependent manners. GABA-T enzymatic activity in beta-hydroxybutyrate-treated astrocytes was also suppressed, in accordance with its gene expression. These effects were evident after 3 days of culture, which might coincide with depleted intracellular glycogen. GABA transporter, GAT-1, gene expression was strongly suppressed in cultured astrocytes after 5 days of culture with beta-hydroxybutyrate, although other type of GABA transporters did not display significant changes. These results suggest that beta-hydroxybutyrate induced by ketogenic diet may increase GABA concentration in the epileptic brain by suppressing astrocytic GABA degradation, leading to antiepileptic effects.

  7. [Efficacy of parenteral glutamine in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva García, J G; Pereyra-García Castro, F; Suárez Llanos, J P; Ríos Rull, P; Breña Atienza, J; Palacio Abizanda, J E

    2012-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT) represents a high metabolic stress. Glutamine has proven to be effective in severe catabolic states, although there are controversial studies. To assess the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy supplemented with glutamine on the occurrence of mucositis and mean hospital stay in patients submitted to ABMT. Retrospective study of patients submitted to ABMT between 2006 and 2009. In 2008, one vial of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (20 g) was added by protocol to the PN formulations of these patients. Thirteen clinical charts since that date (glutamine group) and 13 previous charts (control group) were randomly selected (n = 26). We compared the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in both groups. In the subgroup of glutamine-treated patients, we compare the glutamine dose in the patients developing some degree of mucositis with that of those not having this complication. Mean hospital stay: 27.8 ± 7.4 days (control group) vs. 20.3 ± 5.3 days (glutamine group) (p = 0.01). The severity of mucositis was lower in the glutaminetreated group (p = 0.02). The weight-adjusted dose of L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the patients not developing mucositis was higher than in the other ones (0.32 vs. 0.24 g/kg/day; p = 0.02). Glutamine supplementation reduces the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in patients submitted to autologous bone marrow transplantation. The degree of mucositis is lower in the subgroup of patients receiving higher doses of glutamine.

  8. Disorders of Astrocytes: Alexander Disease as a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Markel; Goldman, James E

    2017-01-24

    Astrocytes undergo important phenotypic changes in many neurological disorders, including strokes, trauma, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. We have been studying the astrocytes of Alexander disease (AxD), which is caused by heterozygous mutations in the GFAP gene, which is the gene that encodes the major astrocyte intermediate filament protein. AxD is a primary astrocyte disease because GFAP expression is specific to astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). The accumulation of extremely large amounts of GFAP causes many molecular changes in astrocytes, including proteasome inhibition, stress kinase activation, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, loss of glutamate and potassium buffering capacity, loss of astrocyte coupling, and changes in cell morphology. Many of these changes appear to be common to astrocyte reactions in other neurological disorders. Using AxD to illuminate common mechanisms, we discuss the molecular pathology of AxD astrocytes and compare that to astrocyte pathology in other disorders.

  9. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-04-19

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.

  10. Arachidonic acid has protective effects on oxygen-glucose deprived astrocytes mediated through enhancement of potassium channel TREK-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Zhang, Guangru; Song, Chunli; Wang, Xuexi; Qian, Weina; Wang, Zhuanling; Liu, Yanan; Gong, Sheng; Zhou, Shuning

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain diseases. The newly discovered potassium channel "TREK-1" is a promising target for therapies against neurodegeneration. Arachidonic acid (AA) is an n-6 PUFA, as well as a potent TREK-1 activator. We previously showed that TREK-1 is expressed at high levels in astrocytes. However, the effect of AA on astrocytes in ischemia remains unknown. Here, we assessed the effects of 3-30μM AA on astrocyte apoptosis, glutamate uptake, and expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and TREK-1 under different conditions. Under normal conditions, 3-30μM AA showed no effect on astrocytic apoptosis or TREK-1 expression, whereas glutamate uptake decreased significantly and its change paralleled the decreased expression of GLT-1. When astrocytes were subjected to 4h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), 10μM AA markedly alleviated OGD-induced cell death, recovering from 63.50±1.90% to 82.96±4.63% of the control value. AA also rescued the decreased glutamate uptake and increased mRNA, as well as protein levels of GLT-1 and TREK-1. Our results provide new evidence of a protective effect of AA on astrocytes under OGD conditions, suggesting that a low concentration of AA may protect against brain ischemic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to high glutamate concentration activates aerobic glycolysis but inhibits ATP-linked respiration in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Tian, Yueyang; Shi, Xiaojie; Yang, Jianbo; Ouyang, Li; Gao, Jieqiong; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytes play a key role in removing the synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space and maintaining the glutamate below neurotoxic level in the brain. However, high concentration of glutamate leads to toxicity in astrocytes, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether energy metabolism disorder, especially impairment of mitochondrial respiration, is involved in the glutamate-induced gliotoxicity. Exposure to 10-mM glutamate for 48 h stimulated glycolysis and respiration in astrocytes. However, the increased oxygen consumption was used for proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration, but not for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP generation. When the exposure time extended to 72 h, glycolysis was still activated for ATP generation, but the mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration of astrocytes was reduced. The glutamate-induced astrocyte damage can be mimicked by the non-metabolized substrate d-aspartate but reversed by the non-selective glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA. In addition, the glutamate toxicity can be partially reversed by vitamin E. These findings demonstrate that changes of bioenergetic profile occur in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to high concentration of glutamate and highlight the role of mitochondria respiration in glutamate-induced gliotoxicity in cortical astrocytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Bicarbonate sensing in mouse cortical astrocytes during extracellular acid/base disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Naoshin, Zinnia; Defren, Sabrina; Schmaelzle, Jana; Weber, Tobias; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2017-04-15

    ) and from NBCe1-knockout (KO) mice, using ion-selective dyes, during isocapnic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis and hypocapnia. We also analysed NBCe1-mediated membrane currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes under similar conditions. Comparing WT and NBCe1-KO astrocytes, we could dissect the contribution of NBCe1, of diffusion of CO2 across the cell membrane and, after blocking carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity with ethoxyzolamide, of the role of CA, for the amplitude and rate of acid/base fluxes. Our results suggest that NBCe1 transport activity in astrocytes, supported by CA activity, renders astrocytes bicarbonate sensors in the mouse cortex. NBCe1 carried bicarbonate into and out of the cell by sensing the variations of transmembrane [HCO3(-) ], irrespective of the changes in intra- and extracellular pH, and played a major role in setting pHi responses to the extracellular acid/base challenges. We propose that bicarbonate sensing of astrocytes may have potential functional significance during extracellular acid/base alterations in the brain. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  13. The glutamate-glutamine(GABA cycle: importance of late postnatal development and potential reciprocal interactions between biosynthesis and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eHertz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The gold standard for studies of glutamate-glutamine(GABA cycling and its connections to brain biosynthesis from glucose of glutamate and GABA and their subsequent metabolism are the elegant in vivo studies by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, showing the large fluxes in the cycle. However, simpler experiments in intact brain tissue (e.g. immunohistochemistry, brain slices, cultured brain cells and mitochondria have also made important contributions to the understanding of details, mechanisms and functional consequences of glutamate/GABA biosynthesis and degradation. The purpose of this review is to attempt to integrate evidence from different sources regarding i the enzyme(s responsible for the initial conversion of -ketoglutarate to glutamate; ii the possibility that especially glutamate oxidation is essentially confined to astrocytes; and iii the ontogenetically very late onset and maturation of glutamine-glutamate(GABA cycle function. Pathway models based on the functional importance of aspartate for glutamate synthesis suggest the possibility of interacting pathways for biosynthesis and degradation of glutamate and GABA and the use of transamination as the default mechanism for initiation of glutamate oxidation. The late development and maturation are related to the late cortical gliogenesis and convert brain cortical function from being purely neuronal to becoming neuronal-astrocytic. This conversion is associated with huge increases in energy demand and production, and the character of potentially incurred gains of function are discussed. These may include alterations in learning mechanisms, in mice indicated by lack of pairing of odor learning with aversive stimuli in newborn animals but the development of such an association 10-12 days later. The possibility is suggested that analogous maturational changes may contribute to differences in the way learning is accomplished in the newborn human brain and during later development.

  14. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zeis, T.

    2015-04-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate–glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1β signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1β and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others

  15. Endothelial cell-derived nitric oxide enhances aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes via HIF-1α-mediated target gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Britta; Mesters, Jeroen R; Pellerin, Luc; Jöhren, Olaf

    2012-07-11

    Astrocytes exhibit a prominent glycolytic activity, but whether such a metabolic profile is influenced by intercellular communication is unknown. Treatment of primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes with the nitric oxide (NO) donor DetaNONOate induced a time-dependent enhancement in the expression of genes encoding various glycolytic enzymes as well as transporters for glucose and lactate. Such an effect was shown to be dependent on the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1α, which is stabilized and translocated to the nucleus to exert its transcriptional regulation. NO action was dependent on both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK signaling pathways and required the activation of COX, but was independent of the soluble guanylate cyclase pathway. Furthermore, as a consequence of NO treatment, an enhanced lactate production and release by astrocytes was evidenced, which was prevented by downregulating HIF-1α. Several brain cell types represent possible sources of NO. It was found that endothelial cells, which express the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) isoform, constitutively produced the largest amount of NO in culture. When astrocytes were cocultured with primary cultures of brain vascular endothelial cells, stabilization of HIF-1α and an enhancement in glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and monocarboxylate transporter-4 expression as well as increased lactate production was found in astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME and was not seen when astrocytes were cocultured with primary cultures of cortical neurons. Our findings suggest that endothelial cell-derived NO participates to the maintenance of a high glycolytic activity in astrocytes mediated by astrocytic HIF-1α activation.

  16. Role of astrocytes in depolarization-coupled release of glutamate in cerebellar cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Schousboe, Arne

    2004-01-01

    to AMPA (30 microM) in the presence of cyclothiazide (50 microM) to block desensitization, was of a vesicular origin. Pulses of 55 mM K+ caused a DL-TBOA resistant efflux of preloaded D-[3H]aspartate from astrocytes, indicating that this release was not mediated by glutamate transporters. The results...

  17. Astrocytic beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene Deletion Affects Memory in Aged Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Cathy Joanna; Demol, Frauke; Bauwens, Romy; Kooijman, Ron; Massie, Ann; Villers, Agnes; Ris, Laurence; De Keyser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the beta

  18. Astrocytic tracer dynamics estimated from [1-11C]-acetate PET measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Andrea; Calvetti, Daniela; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    of [1-11C]-acetate-derived tracer accumulation, estimating the transport rates in a three-compartment model of astrocytic uptake and metabolism of the tracer for a cohort of 18 volunteers from 3 groups, corresponding to healthy control individuals, cirrhotic liver and hepatic encephalopathy patients...

  19. Striatal adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expression and alcohol drinking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonnoh R; Ruby, Christina L; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Adams, Chelsea A; Young Kang, Na; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. Among its diverse functions in the brain, adenosine regulates glutamate release and has an essential role in ethanol sensitivity and preference. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling in neuroglial interaction remain elusive. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1), drink more ethanol compared with wild-type mice and have elevated striatal glutamate levels. In addition, ENT1 inhibition or knockdown reduces glutamate transporter expression in cultured astrocytes. Here, we examined how adenosine signaling in astrocytes contributes to ethanol drinking. Inhibition or deletion of ENT1 reduced the expression of type 2 excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT2) and the astrocyte-specific water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4). EAAT2 and AQP4 colocalization was also reduced in the striatum of ENT1 null mice. Ceftriaxone, an antibiotic compound known to increase EAAT2 expression and function, elevated not only EAAT2 but also AQP4 expression in the striatum. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reduced ethanol drinking, suggesting that ENT1-mediated downregulation of EAAT2 and AQP4 expression contributes to excessive ethanol consumption in our mouse model. Overall, our findings indicate that adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expressions, which control ethanol drinking in mice.

  20. Superantigen presenting capacity of human astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan-Zahraee, M; Ladiwala, U; Lavoie, P M

    2000-01-01

    We found that human fetal astrocytes (HFA) are able to support superantigen (SAG) staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-induced activation of immediately ex vivo allogenic human CD4 T cells. Using radiolabelled toxins, we demonstrate that both SEB and TSST-1...... bind with high affinity to MHC class II antigen expressing astrocytes; binding is displaceable with excess cold toxin. Competition experiments further indicate that TSST-1 and SEB at least partially compete with each other for binding to astrocytes suggesting they bind to the same HLA-DR region...

  1. Understanding the mechanisms of glutamine action in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele P. Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine (Gln is an important energy source and has been used as a supplementary energy substrate. Furthermore, Gln is an essential component for numerous metabolic functions, including acid-base homeostasis, gluconeogenesis, nitrogen transport and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, glutamine plays a significant role in cell homeostasis and organ metabolism. This article aims to review the mechanisms of glutamine action during severe illnesses. In critically ill patients, the increase in mortality was associated with a decreased plasma Gln concentration. During catabolic stress, Gln consumption rate exceeds the supply, and both plasma and skeletal muscle pools of free Gln are severely reduced. The dose and route of Gln administration clearly influence its effectiveness: high-dose parenteral appears to be more beneficial than low-dose enteral administration. Experimental studies reported that Gln may protect cells, tissues, and whole organisms from stress and injury through the following mechanisms: attenuation of NF (nuclear factor-kB activation, a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reduction in neutrophil accumulation, improvement in intestinal integrity and immune cell function, and enhanced of heat shock protein expression. In conclusion, high-doses of parenteral Gln (>0.50 g/kg/day demonstrate a greater potential to benefit in critically ill patients, although Gln pathophysiological mechanisms requires elucidation.A glutamina (Gln é uma importante fonte de energia e tem sido usada como substrato energético suplementar. Além disso, a Gln é um componente essencial para numerosas funções metabólicas tais como: homeostase ácido-base, gliconeogênese, transporte de nitrogênio e síntese de proteínas e ácidos nucléicos. Portanto, a glutamina desempenha um papel importante na homeostase celular e no metabolismo dos órgãos. Esse artigo objetiva rever os mecanismos de ação da glutamina na doen

  2. Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on glutamine and alters migratory profile of infected host bone marrow derived immune cells through SNAT2 and CXCR4 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ping Lee

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, disseminates through its host inside infected immune cells. We hypothesize that parasite nutrient requirements lead to manipulation of migratory properties of the immune cell. We demonstrate that 1 T. gondii relies on glutamine for optimal infection, replication and viability, and 2 T. gondii-infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs display both "hypermotility" and "enhanced migration" to an elevated glutamine gradient in vitro. We show that glutamine uptake by the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2 is required for this enhanced migration. SNAT2 transport of glutamine is also a significant factor in the induction of migration by the small cytokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in uninfected DCs. Blocking both SNAT2 and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4; the unique receptor for SDF-1 blocks hypermotility and the enhanced migration in T. gondii-infected DCs. Changes in host cell protein expression following T. gondii infection may explain the altered migratory phenotype; we observed an increase of CD80 and unchanged protein level of CXCR4 in both T. gondii-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated DCs. However, unlike activated DCs, SNAT2 expression in the cytosol of infected cells was also unchanged. Thus, our results suggest an important role of glutamine transport via SNAT2 in immune cell migration and a possible interaction between SNAT2 and CXCR4, by which T. gondii manipulates host cell motility.

  3. The glutamine synthetase gene family in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cánovas Francisco M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC: 6.3.1.2, L-glutamate: ammonia ligase ADP-forming is a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation and metabolism of higher plants. The current work was undertaken to develop a more comprehensive understanding of molecular and biochemical features of GS gene family in poplar, and to characterize the developmental regulation of GS expression in various tissues and at various times during the poplar perennial growth. Results The GS gene family consists of 8 different genes exhibiting all structural and regulatory elements consistent with their roles as functional genes. Our results indicate that the family members are organized in 4 groups of duplicated genes, 3 of which code for cytosolic GS isoforms (GS1 and 1 which codes for the choroplastic GS isoform (GS2. Our analysis shows that Populus trichocarpa is the first plant species in which it was observed the complete GS family duplicated. Detailed expression analyses have revealed specific spatial and seasonal patterns of GS expression in poplar. These data provide insights into the metabolic function of GS isoforms in poplar and pave the way for future functional studies. Conclusions Our data suggest that GS duplicates could have been retained in order to increase the amount of enzyme in a particular cell type. This possibility could contribute to the homeostasis of nitrogen metabolism in functions associated to changes in glutamine-derived metabolic products. The presence of duplicated GS genes in poplar could also contribute to diversification of the enzymatic properties for a particular GS isoform through the assembly of GS polypeptides into homo oligomeric and/or hetero oligomeric holoenzymes in specific cell types.

  4. Altered astrocytic swelling in the cortex of α-syntrophin-negative GFAP/EGFP mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Anderova

    Full Text Available Brain edema accompanying ischemic or traumatic brain injuries, originates from a disruption of ionic/neurotransmitter homeostasis that leads to accumulation of K(+ and glutamate in the extracellular space. Their increased uptake, predominantly provided by astrocytes, is associated with water influx via aquaporin-4 (AQP4. As the removal of perivascular AQP4 via the deletion of α-syntrophin was shown to delay edema formation and K(+ clearance, we aimed to elucidate the impact of α-syntrophin knockout on volume changes in individual astrocytes in situ evoked by pathological stimuli using three dimensional confocal morphometry and changes in the extracellular space volume fraction (α in situ and in vivo in the mouse cortex employing the real-time iontophoretic method. RT-qPCR profiling was used to reveal possible differences in the expression of ion channels/transporters that participate in maintaining ionic/neurotransmitter homeostasis. To visualize individual astrocytes in mice lacking α-syntrophin we crossbred GFAP/EGFP mice, in which the astrocytes are labeled by the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, with α-syntrophin knockout mice. Three-dimensional confocal morphometry revealed that α-syntrophin deletion results in significantly smaller astrocyte swelling when induced by severe hypoosmotic stress, oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD or 50 mM K(+. As for the mild stimuli, such as mild hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic stress or 10 mM K(+, α-syntrophin deletion had no effect on astrocyte swelling. Similarly, evaluation of relative α changes showed a significantly smaller decrease in α-syntrophin knockout mice only during severe pathological conditions, but not during mild stimuli. In summary, the deletion of α-syntrophin markedly alters astrocyte swelling during severe hypoosmotic stress, OGD or high K(+.

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase in skeletal muscle cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Stephen R.; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa; Konagaya, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    The regulation by glucocorticoids of glutamine synthetase in L6 muscle cells in culture is studied. Glutamine synthetase activity was strikingly enhanced by dexamethasone. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked by RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction process. RU38486 alone was without effect. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. Glucocorticoids regulate the expression of glutamine synthetase mRNA in cultured muscle cells via interaction with intracellular receptors. Such regulation may be relevant to control of glutamine production by muscle.

  6. Glycogen serves as an energy source that maintains astrocyte cell proliferation in the neonatal telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hitoshi; Nomura, Tadashi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of energy are required when cells undergo cell proliferation and differentiation for mammalian neuronal development. Early neonatal mice face transient starvation and use stored energy for survival or to support development. Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide that is formed by glucose, and serves as an astrocytic energy store for rapid energy requirements. Although it is present in radial glial cells and astrocytes, the role of glycogen during development remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that glycogen accumulated in glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)+ astrocytes in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream. Glycogen levels markedly decreased after birth due to the increase of glycogen phosphorylase, an essential enzyme for glycogen metabolism. In primary cultures and in vivo, the inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase decreased the proliferation of astrocytic cells. The number of cells in the G1 phase increased in combination with the up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors or down-regulation of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a determinant for cell cycle progression. These results suggest that glycogen accumulates in astrocytes located in specific areas during the prenatal stage and is used as an energy source to maintain normal development in the early postnatal stage.

  7. Astrocytic mechanisms explaining neural-activity-induced shrinkage of extraneuronal space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Østby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance and astrocyte function, the phenomenon remains unexplained. Here we present a dynamic model that accounts for current experimental data related to the shrinkage phenomenon in wild-type as well as in gene knockout individuals. We find that neuronal release of potassium and uptake of sodium during stimulation, astrocyte uptake of potassium, sodium, and chloride in passive channels, action of the Na/K/ATPase pump, and osmotically driven transport of water through the astrocyte membrane together seem sufficient for generating ECS shrinkage as such. However, when taking into account ECS and astrocyte ion concentrations observed in connection with neuronal stimulation, the actions of the Na(+/K(+/Cl(- (NKCC1 and the Na(+/HCO(3 (- (NBC cotransporters appear to be critical determinants for achieving observed quantitative levels of ECS shrinkage. Considering the current state of knowledge, the model framework appears sufficiently detailed and constrained to guide future key experiments and pave the way for more comprehensive astroglia-neuron interaction models for normal as well as pathophysiological situations.

  8. Glutamine on intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A secretion: A mechanistic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wenkai Ren; Kai Wang; jie yin; shuai chen; gang liu; bie tan; Guoyao Wu; Fuller Warren Bazer; Yunayi Peng; Yulong Yin

    2016-01-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) is one important line of defense in intestinal mucosal surface to protect the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple factors, such as intestinal microbiota, intestinal cytokines and nutrients, are highly involved in intestinal production of SIgA. Recently, glutamine has been shown to affect intestinal SIgA production, however, the underlying mechanism by which glutamine promotes intestinal SIgA secretion remains to know. Here, we...

  9. Role of Bioflavonoid Quercetin on Expression of Urea Cycle Enzymes, Astrocytic and Inflammatory Markers in Hyperammonemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanimozhi, Sivamani; Subramanian, Perumal; Shanmugapriya, Sakkaravarthy; Sathishkumar, Subramanian

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the role of quercetin on the expression of urea cycle enzymes, astrocytic, neuronal and inflammatory markers in hyperammonemic rats. Hyperammonemia (provoked by intraperitonial injections of (ammonium chloride-100 mg/kg b.w for 56 days), showed diminished expression of urea cycle enzymes [carbamyl phosphate synthetase-1 (CPS-1), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and arginase (ARG)] in liver and decreased expression of neuronal and astrocytic markers-glutamine synthase (GS) and phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG) in brain and increased expression of brain inflammatory markers such as interleukin 6 (IL6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) (by western blot analysis) and exhibited downregulated expression of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in brain and ASS in liver investigated (by RT-PCR). Oral treatment of quercetin (50 mg/kg b.w) to hyperammonemic rats (1) increased the expression of urea cycle enzymes (CPS-1, OTC, ASS and ARG), neuronal and astrocytic markers (GS and PAG) (2) decreased the expression of IL6, iNOS and NF-κB and (3) upregulated mRNA expression of SGC, GFAP and ASS. Our results specify that quercetin's antihyperammonemic effects could be through its, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects.

  10. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F.; Sheehan, David F.; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca2+ wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play important roles in providing cellular energy and buffering intracellular calcium ions. The mechanisms that control mitochondrial distribution within the processes of glial cells called astrocytes and the impact this may have on calcium signaling remains unclear. We show that activation of glutamate receptors or increased neuronal

  11. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 regulates astrocyte responses to neural injury: implications for reactive astrogliosis and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartak-Sharma Neha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive astrogliosis is a ubiquitous but poorly understood hallmark of central nervous system pathologies such as trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies have identified proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as mediators of astrogliosis during injury and disease; however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we identify astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1, a human immunodeficiency virus 1 or tumor necrosis factor α-inducible oncogene, as a novel modulator of reactive astrogliosis. AEG-1 has engendered tremendous interest in the field of cancer research as a therapeutic target for aggressive tumors. However, little is known of its role in astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated diseases. Based on its oncogenic role in several cancers, here we investigate the AEG-1-mediated regulation of astrocyte migration and proliferation during reactive astrogliosis. Methods An in vivo brain injury mouse model was utilized to show AEG-1 induction following reactive astrogliosis. In vitro wound healing and cell migration assays following AEG-1 knockdown were performed to analyze the role of AEG-1 in astrocyte migration. AEG-1-mediated regulation of astrocyte proliferation was assayed by quantifying the levels of cell proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferation cell nuclear antigen, using immunocytochemistry. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate nucleolar localization of AEG-1 in cultured astrocytes following injury. Results The in vivo mouse model for brain injury showed reactive astrocytes with increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and AEG-1 colocalization at the wound site. AEG-1 knockdown in cultured human astrocytes significantly reduced astrocyte migration into the wound site and cell proliferation. Confocal analysis showed colocalization of AEG-1 to the nucleolus of injured cultured human astrocytes. Conclusions The present findings report for the first time the novel role of AEG-1

  12. [High efficiency of L-glutamine production by coupling genetic engineered bacterial glutamine synthetase with yeast alcoholic fermentation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun-Ying; Chen, Guo-An; Xue, Bin; Zhang, Xian-Jiu; Yin, Zhi-Min

    2004-05-01

    Glutamine is an important conditionally necessary amino acid in human body. The effort is to establish a new and high efficient L-glutamine production system instead of traditional fermentaion. In this paper, high efficiency of L-glutamine production is obtained by coupling genetic engineered bacterial glutamine synthetase (GS) with yeast alcoholic fermentation system. Glutamine Synthetase gene (glnA) was amplified from Bacillus subtilis genomic DNA with primers designed according to sequences reported in EMBL data bank, then it was inserted into expression vector PET28b, the sequence of glnA was proved to be the same as that reported in the data bank by DNA sequencing. After transformation of this recombinant plasmid PET28b-glnA into BL-21 (DE3) strain, Lactose and IPTG were used to induce GS expression at 37 degrees C separately. Both of them can induce GS expression efficiently. The induced protein is proved to be soluble and occupies about 80% of the total proteins by SDS-PAGE analysis. The soluble GS was purified by Ni2+ chelating sepharose colum. After purification, the purified enzyme was proved active. Results reveal that the optmum temperature of this enzyme is 60 degrees C and optmum pH is 6.5 in biosynthetic reaction by using glutamate, ammonium choloride and ATP as substrates. After induction, the enzyme activity in crude extract of BL-21/PET28b-glnA is 83 times higher than that of original BL-21 extract. Mn2+ can obviously increase the activity and stability of this enzyme. Experiments show that the transformation efficiency of glutamate to glutamine is more than 95%. Because of the high cost from ATP, a system coupling GS with yeast for ATP regenaration was established. In this system, GS utilizes ATP released by yeast fermentation to synthesize L-glutamine. Yeast was treated by 2% toluence to increase its permeability and a yeast named YC001 with high yield of glutamine by coupling with recombinant GS was obtained. The good efficiency was achieved

  13. Distinct repertoires of microRNAs present in mouse astrocytes compared to astrocyte-secreted exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Ana; Gitler, Aaron D

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) and secrete various factors that regulate neuron development, function and connectivity. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs involved in posttranslational gene regulation. Recent findings showed that miRNAs are exchanged between cells via nanovesicles called exosomes. In this study, we sought to define which miRNAs are contained within exosomes secreted by astrocytes. We also explored whether astroglial miRNA secretion via exosomes is perturbed in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease where astrocytes play a crucial role in driving disease progression. By isolating and profiling the expression of miRNAs from primary mouse astrocytes and from the exosomes that astrocytes secrete, we compared miRNA expression in the cells and secreted vesicles. We established that miRNA expression profiles of astrocytes and their exosomes are vastly different. In addition, we determined that exosomal miRNA expression in astrocytes is not significantly perturbed in a mouse model of ALS. Astrocytes secrete numerous miRNAs via exosomes and miRNA species contained in exosomes are considerably different from miRNAs detectable in astrocytes, suggesting the existence of a mechanism to select certain miRNAs for inclusion or exclusion from exosomes. The exosomal miRNA profiling dataset we have generated will provide a resource to aid in the investigation of this selection mechanism. Finally, the miRNA expression profile in astrocyte-secreted exosomes is not perturbed by expression of mutant SOD1-G93A.

  14. ATF4 and N-Myc coordinate glutamine metabolism in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells through ASCT2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Yue, Ming; Xiao, Daibiao; Xiu, Ruijuan; Gan, Lei; Liu, Hudan; Qing, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of the MYCN gene in human neuroblastoma predicts poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. We previously showed that MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells constantly require large amounts of glutamine to support their unabated growth. However, the identity and regulation of the transporter(s) that capture glutamine in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells and the clinical significance of the transporter(s) in neuroblastoma diagnosis remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a systemic glutamine influx analysis and identified that MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells predominantly rely on activation of ASCT2 (solute carrier family 1 member 5, SLC1A5) to maintain sufficient levels of glutamine essential for the TCA cycle anaplerosis. Consequently, ASCT2 depletion profoundly inhibited glutaminolysis, concomitant with a substantial decrease in cell proliferation and viability in vitro and inhibition of tumourigenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, we identified ATF4 as a novel regulator which coordinates with N-Myc to directly activate ASCT2 expression. Of note, ASCT2 expression, which correlates with that of N-Myc and ATF4, is markedly elevated in high-stage neuroblastoma tumour samples compared with low-stage ones. More importantly, high ASCT2 expression is significantly associated with poor prognosis and survival of neuroblastoma patients. In aggregate, these findings elucidate a novel mechanism depicting how cell autonomous insults (MYCN amplification) and microenvironmental stresses (ATF4 induction) in concert coordinate ASCT2 activation to promote aggressive neuroblastoma progression, and establish ASCT2 as a novel biomarker in patient prognosis and stratification. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Antioxidants and NOS inhibitors selectively targets manganese-induced cell volume via Na-K-Cl cotransporter-1 in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmari, Khalid A; Prabhakaran, Harini; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Ramugounder, Ramakrishnan

    2015-06-12

    Manganese has shown to be involved in astrocyte swelling. Several factors such as transporters, exchangers and ion channels are attributed to astrocyte swelling as a result in the deregulation of cell volume. Products of oxidation and nitration have been implied to be involved in the pathophysiology of swelling; however, the direct link and mechanism of manganese induced astrocyte swelling has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we used rat primary astrocyte cultures to investigate the activation of Na-K-Cl cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) a downstream mechanism for free radical induced astrocyte swelling as a result of manganese toxicity. Our results showed manganese, oxidants and NO donors as potent inducer of oxidation and nitration of NKCC1. Our results further confirmed that manganese (50 μM) increased the total protein, phosphorylation and activity of NKCC1 as well as cell volume (p manganese or oxidants and NO induced activation, oxidation/nitration of NKCC1 play an important role in the astrocyte swelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoxia inducible factor-2α regulates the development of retinal astrocytic network by maintaining adequate supply of astrocyte progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Duan

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-2α in coordinating the development of retinal astrocytic and vascular networks. Three Cre mouse lines were used to disrupt floxed Hif-2α, including Rosa26(CreERT2, Tie2(Cre, and GFAP(Cre. Global Hif-2α disruption by Rosa26(CreERT2 led to reduced astrocytic and vascular development in neonatal retinas, whereas endothelial disruption by Tie2(Cre had no apparent effects. Hif-2α deletion in astrocyte progenitors by GFAP(Cre significantly interfered with the development of astrocytic networks, which failed to reach the retinal periphery and were incapable of supporting vascular development. Perplexingly, the abundance of strongly GFAP(+ mature astrocytes transiently increased at P0 before they began to lag behind the normal controls by P3. Pax2(+ and PDGFRα(+ astrocytic progenitors and immature astrocytes were dramatically diminished at all stages examined. Despite decreased number of astrocyte progenitors, their proliferation index or apoptosis was not altered. The above data can be reconciled by proposing that HIF-2α is required for maintaining the supply of astrocyte progenitors by slowing down their differentiation into non-proliferative mature astrocytes. HIF-2α deficiency in astrocyte progenitors may accelerate their differentiation into astrocytes, a change which greatly interferes with the replenishment of astrocyte progenitors due to insufficient time for proliferation. Rapidly declining progenitor supply may lead to premature cessation of astrocyte development. Given that HIF-2α protein undergoes oxygen dependent degradation, an interesting possibility is that retinal blood vessels may regulate astrocyte differentiation through their oxygen delivery function. While our findings support the consensus that retinal astrocytic template guides vascular development, they also raise the possibility that astrocytic and vascular networks may mutually regulate each other

  17. Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-31

    The Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na+-dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na+ load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na+ extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na+ following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na+ as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na+ and the metabolic machinery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Astrocytes: Tailored to Support the Demand of Neural Circuits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, proteomics, and genomics reveal the prospect of distinct highly specialized astrocyte subtypes within neural circuits.......Anatomy, physiology, proteomics, and genomics reveal the prospect of distinct highly specialized astrocyte subtypes within neural circuits....

  19. Unravelling and Exploiting Astrocyte Dysfunction in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakh, Baljit S; Beaumont, Vahri; Cachope, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes are abundant within mature neural circuits and are involved in brain disorders. Here, we summarize our current understanding of astrocytes and Huntington's disease (HD), with a focus on correlative and causative dysfunctions of ion homeostasis, calcium signaling, and neurotransmitter...

  20. Sustained Na+/H+ exchanger activation promotes gliotransmitter release from reactive hippocampal astrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation.

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    Pelin Cengiz

    Full Text Available Hypoxia ischemia (HI-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus. However, the impact of reactive astrogliosis in hippocampal damage after neonatal HI is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1 protein in mouse reactive hippocampal astrocyte function in an in vitro ischemia model (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX. 2 h OGD significantly increased NHE1 protein expression and NHE1-mediated H(+ efflux in hippocampal astrocytes. NHE1 activity remained stimulated during 1-5 h REOX and returned to the basal level at 24 h REOX. NHE1 activation in hippocampal astrocytes resulted in intracellular Na(+ and Ca(2+ overload. The latter was mediated by reversal of Na(+/Ca(2+ exchange. Hippocampal astrocytes also exhibited a robust release of gliotransmitters (glutamate and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα during 1-24 h REOX. Interestingly, inhibition of NHE1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only reduced Na(+ overload but also gliotransmitter release from hippocampal astrocytes. The noncompetitive excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA showed a similar effect on blocking the glutamate release. Taken together, we concluded that NHE1 plays an essential role in maintaining H(+ homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Over-stimulation of NHE1 activity following in vitro ischemia disrupts Na(+ and Ca(2+ homeostasis, which reduces Na(+-dependent glutamate uptake and promotes release of glutamate and cytokines from reactive astrocytes. Therefore, blocking sustained NHE1 activation in reactive astrocytes may provide neuroprotection following HI.

  1. Glutamine versus ammonia utilization in the NAD synthetase family.

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    Jessica De Ingeniis

    Full Text Available NAD is a ubiquitous and essential metabolic redox cofactor which also functions as a substrate in certain regulatory pathways. The last step of NAD synthesis is the ATP-dependent amidation of deamido-NAD by NAD synthetase (NADS. Members of the NADS family are present in nearly all species across the three kingdoms of Life. In eukaryotic NADS, the core synthetase domain is fused with a nitrilase-like glutaminase domain supplying ammonia for the reaction. This two-domain NADS arrangement enabling the utilization of glutamine as nitrogen donor is also present in various bacterial lineages. However, many other bacterial members of NADS family do not contain a glutaminase domain, and they can utilize only ammonia (but not glutamine in vitro. A single-domain NADS is also characteristic for nearly all Archaea, and its dependence on ammonia was demonstrated here for the representative enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannaschi. However, a question about the actual in vivo nitrogen donor for single-domain members of the NADS family remained open: Is it glutamine hydrolyzed by a committed (but yet unknown glutaminase subunit, as in most ATP-dependent amidotransferases, or free ammonia as in glutamine synthetase? Here we addressed this dilemma by combining evolutionary analysis of the NADS family with experimental characterization of two representative bacterial systems: a two-subunit NADS from Thermus thermophilus and a single-domain NADS from Salmonella typhimurium providing evidence that ammonia (and not glutamine is the physiological substrate of a typical single-domain NADS. The latter represents the most likely ancestral form of NADS. The ability to utilize glutamine appears to have evolved via recruitment of a glutaminase subunit followed by domain fusion in an early branch of Bacteria. Further evolution of the NADS family included lineage-specific loss of one of the two alternative forms and horizontal gene transfer events. Lastly, we identified NADS

  2. Isolation and characterization of ischemia-derived astrocytes (IDA with ability to transactivate quiescent astrocytes

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    Alejandro eVillarreal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive gliosis involving activation and proliferation of astrocytes and microglia, is a widespread but largely complex and graded glial response to brain injury. Astroglial population has a previously underestimated high heterogeneity with cells differing in their morphology, gene expression profile and response to injury. Here, we identified a subset of reactive astrocytes isolated from brain focal ischemic lesions that show several atypical characteristics. Ischemia-derived astrocytes (IDA were isolated from early ischemic penumbra and core. IDA did not originate from myeloid precursors, but rather from pre-existing local progenitors. Isolated IDA markedly differ from primary astrocytes, as they proliferate in vitro with high cell division rate, show increased migratory ability, have reduced replicative senescence and grow in the presence of macrophages within the limits imposed by the glial scar. Remarkably, IDA produce a conditioned medium that strongly induced activation on quiescent primary astrocytes and potentiated the neuronal death triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. When re-implanted into normal rat brains, eGFP-IDA migrated around the injection site and induced focal reactive gliosis. Inhibition of gamma secretases or culture on quiescent primary astrocytes monolayers facilitated IDA differentiation to astrocytes. We propose that IDA represent an undifferentiated, pro-inflammatory, highly replicative and migratory astroglial subtype emerging from the ischemic microenvironment that may contribute to the expansion of reactive gliosis.

  3. Transient Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Causes a Delayed Loss of Mitochondria and Increases Spontaneous Calcium Signaling in Astrocytic Processes.

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    O'Donnell, John C; Jackson, Joshua G; Robinson, Michael B

    2016-07-06

    Recently, mitochondria have been localized to astrocytic processes where they shape Ca(2+) signaling; this relationship has not been examined in models of ischemia/reperfusion. We biolistically transfected astrocytes in rat hippocampal slice cultures to facilitate fluorescent confocal microscopy, and subjected these slices to transient oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) that causes delayed excitotoxic death of CA1 pyramidal neurons. This insult caused a delayed loss of mitochondria from astrocytic processes and increased colocalization of mitochondria with the autophagosome marker LC3B. The losses of neurons in area CA1 and mitochondria in astrocytic processes were blocked by ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists, tetrodotoxin, ziconotide (Ca(2+) channel blocker), two inhibitors of reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (KB-R7943, YM-244769), or two inhibitors of calcineurin (cyclosporin-A, FK506). The effects of OGD were mimicked by NMDA. The glutamate uptake inhibitor (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-l-aspartate increased neuronal loss after OGD or NMDA, and blocked the loss of astrocytic mitochondria. Exogenous glutamate in the presence of iGluR antagonists caused a loss of mitochondria without a decrease in neurons in area CA1. Using the genetic Ca(2+) indicator Lck-GCaMP-6S, we observed two types of Ca(2+) signals: (1) in the cytoplasm surrounding mitochondria (mitochondrially centered) and (2) traversing the space between mitochondria (extramitochondrial). The spatial spread, kinetics, and frequency of these events were different. The amplitude of both types was doubled and the spread of both types changed by ∼2-fold 24 h after OGD. Together, these data suggest that pathologic activation of glutamate transport and increased astrocytic Ca(2+) through reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange triggers mitochondrial loss and dramatic increases in Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic processes. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain

  4. From stem cell to astrocyte: Decoding the regulation of GFAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanski, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the main intermediate filament (IF) in astrocytes and astrocyte subpopulations such as neural stem cells (NSCs). In neurodegenerative diseases or upon brain damage, astrocytes respond to an injury with an

  5. Astrocyte-mediated regulation of multidrug resistance p-glycoprotein in fetal and neonatal brain endothelial cells: age-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baello, Stephanie; Iqbal, Majid; Gibb, William; Matthews, Stephen G

    2016-08-01

    Brain endothelial cells (BECs) form a major component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In late gestation, these cells express high levels of the multidrug transporter p-glycoprotein (P-gp; encoded by Abcb1), which prevents the passage of an array of endogenous factors and xenobiotics into the fetal brain. P-gp levels in the BECs increase dramatically in late gestation, coincident with astrocyte differentiation. However, the role of astrocytes in modulating P-gp in the developing BBB is unknown. We hypothesized that factors produced by astrocytes positively regulate P-gp in BECs. Astrocytes and BECs were isolated from fetal and postnatal guinea pigs. Levels of Abcb1 mRNA and P-gp were increased in BECs co-cultured with astrocytes compared to BECs in monoculture. Moreover, postnatal astrocytes enhanced P-gp function in fetal BECs but fetal astrocytes had no effect on postnatal BECs. These effects were dependent on secreted proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 3-100 kDa. LC/MS-MS revealed significant differences in proteins secreted by fetal and postnatal astrocytes. We propose that astrocytes are critical modulators of P-gp at the developing BBB. As such, aberrations in astrocyte maturation, observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, will likely decrease P-gp at the BBB. This would allow increased transfer of P-gp endogenous and exogenous substrates into the brain, many of which have neurodevelopmental consequences. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Amyloid-β1–42 Slows Clearance of Synaptically Released Glutamate by Mislocalizing Astrocytic GLT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimemi, Annalisa; Meabon, James S.; Woltjer, Randall L.; Sullivan, Jane M.; Diamond, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    GLT-1, the major glutamate transporter in the adult brain, is abundantly expressed in astrocytic processes enveloping synapses. By limiting glutamate escape into the surrounding neuropil, GLT-1 preserves the spatial specificity of synaptic signaling. Here we show that the amyloid-β peptide Aβ1–42 markedly prolongs the extracellular lifetime of synaptically released glutamate by reducing GLT-1 surface expression in mouse astrocytes and that this effect is prevented by the vitamin E derivative Trolox. These findings indicate that astrocytic glutamate transporter dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and suggest possible mechanisms by which several current treatment strategies could protect against the disease. PMID:23516295

  7. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis

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    Mechteld A. R. Vermeulen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of glutamine in critically ill patients remain unknown. Therefore we investigated the effect of a therapeutically relevant dose of L-glutamine on synthesis of L-citrulline and subsequent L-arginine in this group. Ten versus ten critically ill patients receiving full enteral nutrition, or isocaloric isonitrogenous enteral nutrition including 0.5 g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, were studied using stable isotopes. A cross-over design using intravenous and enteral tracers enabled splanchnic extraction (SE calculations. Endogenous rate of appearance and SE of glutamine citrulline and arginine was not different (SE controls versus alanyl-glutamine: glutamine 48 and 48%, citrulline 33 versus 45%, and arginine 45 versus 42%. Turnover from glutamine to citrulline and arginine was not higher in glutamine-administered patients. In critically ill nonseptic patients receiving adequate nutrition and a relevant dose of glutamine there was no extra citrulline or arginine synthesis and glutamine SE was not increased. This suggests that for arginine synthesis enhancement there is no need for an additional dose of glutamine when this population is adequately fed. This trial is registered with NTR2285.

  8. Glutamine for induction of remission in Crohn's disease.

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    Akobeng, Anthony K; Elawad, Mamoun; Gordon, Morris

    2016-02-08

    Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing condition of the alimentary tract with a high morbidity secondary to bowel inflammation. Glutamine plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and has been shown to reduce inflammation and disease activity in experimental models of Crohn's disease. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glutamine supplementation for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. We searched the following databases from inception to November 15, 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialised Register. Study references were also searched for additional trials. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared glutamine supplementation administered by any route to a placebo, active comparator or no intervention in people with active Crohn's disease were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess methodological quality. The primary outcome measure was clinical or endoscopic remission. Secondary outcomes included intestinal permeability, clinical response, quality of life, growth in children and adverse events. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. The overall quality of the evidence supporting the primary outcome was evaluated using the GRADE criteria. Two small RCTs (total 42 patients) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. One study (18 patients) compared four weeks of treatment with a glutamine-enriched polymeric diet (42% amino acid composition) to a standard polymeric diet (4% amino acid composition) with low glutamine content in paediatric patients ( 18 years of age) with acute exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease. The paediatric study was rated as low risk of bias. The study in adult patients was rated as

  9. The effect of glutamine infusion on the inflammatory response and HSP70 during human experimental endotoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anne Sofie; Pedersen-Skovsgaard, Theis; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Glutamine supplementation has beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, possibly in part through an attenuation of the proinflammatory cytokine response and a stimulation of heat shock protein (HSP)70. We infused either alanine-glutamine or saline...... an infusion of alanine-glutamine at a rate of 0.025 g/(kg body weight x hour) or saline for 10 hours. After 2 hours, an intravenous bolus of Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.3 ng/kg) was administered. Blood samples were collected hourly for the following 8 hours. HSP70 protein content in isolated blood...... mononuclear cells (BMNCs) was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: Plasma glutamine increased during alanine-glutamine infusion. Endotoxin reduced plasma glutamine during both trials, but plasma glutamine levels remained above baseline with alanine-glutamine supplementation. Endotoxin injection...

  10. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Brinkmann, Saskia J. H.; Buijs, Nikki; Beishuizen, Albertus; Bet, Pierre M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of

  11. Enhancement of glutamine utilization in Bacillus subtilis through the GlnK-GlnL two-component regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Takenori; Shimura, Daisuke; Asai, Kei; Sadaie, Yoshito; Hirooka, Kazutake; Fujita, Yasutaro

    2005-07-01

    During DNA microarray analysis, we discovered that the GlnK-GlnL (formerly YcbA-YcbB) two-component system positively regulates the expression of the glsA-glnT (formerly ybgJ-ybgH) operon in response to glutamine in the culture medium on Northern analysis. As a result of gel retardation and DNase I footprinting analyses, we found that the GlnL protein interacts with a region (bases -13 to -56; +1 is the transcription initiation base determined on primer extension analysis of glsA-glnT) in which a direct repeat, TTTTGTN4TTTTGT, is present. Furthermore, the glsA and glnT genes were biochemically verified to encode glutaminase and glutamine transporter, respectively.

  12. Spatial organization of astrocytes in ferret visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    López‐Hidalgo, Mónica; Hoover, Walter B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Astrocytes form an intricate partnership with neural circuits to influence numerous cellular and synaptic processes. One prominent organizational feature of astrocytes is the “tiling” of the brain with non‐overlapping territories. There are some documented species and brain region–specific astrocyte specializations, but the extent of astrocyte diversity and circuit specificity are still unknown. We quantitatively defined the rules that govern the spatial arrangement of astrocyte somata and territory overlap in ferret visual cortex using a combination of in vivo two‐photon imaging, morphological reconstruction, immunostaining, and model simulations. We found that ferret astrocytes share, on average, half of their territory with other astrocytes. However, a specific class of astrocytes, abundant in thalamo‐recipient cortical layers (“kissing” astrocytes), overlap markedly less. Together, these results demonstrate novel features of astrocyte organization indicating that different classes of astrocytes are arranged in a circuit‐specific manner and that tiling does not apply universally across brain regions and species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3561–3576, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072916

  13. The computational power of astrocyte mediated synaptic plasticity

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    Rogier eMin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in the last two decades has made clear that astrocytes play a crucial role in the brain beyond their functions in energy metabolism and homeostasis. Many studies have shown that astrocytes can dynamically modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and might participate in higher brain functions like learning and memory. With the plethora of astrocyte-mediated signaling processes described in the literature today, the current challenge is to identify which of these processes happen under what physiological condition, and how this shapes information processing and, ultimately, behavior. To answer these questions will require a combination of advanced physiological, genetical and behavioral experiments. Additionally, mathematical modeling will prove crucial for testing predictions on the possible functions of astrocytes in neuronal networks, and to generate novel ideas as to how astrocytes can contribute to the complexity of the brain. Here, we aim to provide an outline of how astrocytes can interact with neurons. We do this by reviewing recent experimental literature on astrocyte-neuron interactions, discussing the dynamic effects of astrocytes on neuronal excitability and short- and long-term synaptic plasticity. Finally, we will outline the potential computational functions that astrocyte-neuron interactions can serve in the brain. We will discuss how astrocytes could govern metaplasticity in the brain, how they might organize the clustering of synaptic inputs, and how they could function as memory elements for neuronal activity. We conclude that astrocytes can enhance the computational power of neuronal networks in previously unexpected ways.

  14. Astrocyte dysfunction triggers neurodegeneration in a lysosomal storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Malta, Chiara; Fryer, John D; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2012-08-28

    The role of astrocytes in neurodegenerative processes is increasingly appreciated. Here we investigated the contribution of astrocytes to neurodegeneration in multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a severe lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1) gene. Using Cre/Lox mouse models, we found that astrocyte-specific deletion of Sumf1 in vivo induced severe lysosomal storage and autophagy dysfunction with consequential cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic substrates. Lysosomal storage in astrocytes was sufficient to induce degeneration of cortical neurons in vivo. Furthermore, in an ex vivo coculture assay, we observed that Sumf1(-/-) astrocytes failed to support the survival and function of wild-type cortical neurons, suggesting a non-cell autonomous mechanism for neurodegeneration. Compared with the astrocyte-specific deletion of Sumf1, the concomitant removal of Sumf1 in both neurons and glia in vivo induced a widespread neuronal loss and robust neuroinflammation. Finally, behavioral analysis of mice with astrocyte-specific deletion of Sumf1 compared with mice with Sumf1 deletion in both astrocytes and neurons allowed us to link a subset of neurological manifestations of MSD to astrocyte dysfunction. This study indicates that astrocytes are integral components of the neuropathology in MSD and that modulation of astrocyte function may impact disease course.

  15. Astrocyte calcium signalling orchestrates neuronal synchronization in organotypic hippocampal slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Abe, Reimi; Nakayama, Ryota; Asada, Akiko; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are thought to detect neuronal activity in the form of intracellular calcium elevations; thereby, astrocytes can regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Little is known, however, about how the astrocyte calcium signal regulates the activity of neuronal populations. In this study, we addressed this issue using functional multineuron calcium imaging in hippocampal slice cultures. Under normal conditions, CA3 neuronal networks exhibited temporally correlated activity patterns, occasionally generating large synchronization among a subset of cells. The synchronized neuronal activity was correlated with astrocyte calcium events. Calcium buffering by an intracellular injection of a calcium chelator into multiple astrocytes reduced the synaptic strength of unitary transmission between pairs of surrounding pyramidal cells and caused desynchronization of the neuronal networks. Uncaging the calcium in the astrocytes increased the frequency of neuronal synchronization. These data suggest an essential role of the astrocyte calcium signal in the maintenance of basal neuronal function at the circuit level. PMID:24710057

  16. AQP4e-Based Orthogonal Arrays Regulate Rapid Cell Volume Changes in Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisjak, Marjeta; Potokar, Maja; Rituper, Boštjan; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Zorec, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays a key role in the regulation of water homeostasis in the brain. It is predominantly expressed in astrocytes at the blood-brain and blood-liquor interfaces. Although several AQP4 isoforms have been identified in the mammalian brain, two, AQP4a (M1) and AQP4c (M23), have been confirmed to cluster into plasma membrane supramolecular structures, termed orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) and to enhance water transport through the plasma membrane. However, the role of the newly described water-conductive mammalian isoform AQP4e is unknown. Here, the dynamics of AQP4e aggregation into OAPs and its role in the regulation of astrocyte water homeostasis have been studied. Using super-resolution structured illumination, atomic force, and confocal microscopies, the results revealed that, in female rat astrocytes, AQP4e isoform colocalizes with OAPs, affecting its structural dynamics. In hypoosmotic conditions, which elicit cell edema, OAP formation was considerably enhanced by overexpressed AQP4e. Moreover, the kinetics of the cell swelling and of the regulatory volume decrease was faster in astrocytes overexpressing AQP4e compared with untransfected controls. Furthermore, the increase in maximal cell volume elicited by hypoosmotic stimulation was significantly smaller in AQP4e-overexpressing astrocytes. For the first time, this study demonstrates an active role of AQP4e in the regulation of OAP structural dynamics and in water homeostasis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays a key role in the regulation of water homeostasis in the brain. To date, only AQP4a and AQP4c isoforms have been confirmed to enhance water transport through plasmalemma and to cluster into orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs). We here studied the dynamics, aggregation, and role in the regulation of astrocyte water homeostasis of the newly described water-conductive mammalian isoform AQP4e. Our main findings are as follows: brain edema

  17. New roles for astrocytes: the nightlife of an 'astrocyte'. La vida loca!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Philip J; Palmer, Theo D

    2003-11-01

    Like a newly popular nightspot, the biology of adult stem cells has emerged from obscurity to become one of the most lively new disciplines of the decade. The neurosciences have not escaped this trendy pastime and, from amid the noise and excitement, the astrocyte emerges as a beguiling companion to the adult neural stem cell. A once receding partner to neurons and oligodendrocytes, the astrocyte even takes on an alter ego of the stem cell itself (S. Goldman, this issue of TINS). Putting ego aside, the 'astrocyte' is also (and perhaps more importantly) an integral component of neural progenitor hotspots, where the craziness or 'la vida loca' of the nightlife might not be so wild when compared with our traditional understanding of the astrocyte. Here, astrocytes contribute to the instructive confluence of location, atmosphere and cellular neighbors that define the daily 'vida local' or everyday local life of an adult stem cell. This review discusses astrocytes as influential components in the local stem cell niche.

  18. Proton Fall or Bicarbonate Rise: GLYCOLYTIC RATE IN MOUSE ASTROCYTES IS PAVED BY INTRACELLULAR ALKALINIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Weber, Tobias; Schmälzle, Jana; Ruminot, Ivàn; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-09-02

    Glycolysis is the primary step for major energy production in the cell. There is strong evidence suggesting that glucose consumption and rate of glycolysis are highly modulated by cytosolic pH/[H(+)], but those can also be stimulated by an increase in the intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Because proton and bicarbonate shift concomitantly, it remained unclear whether enhanced glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were mediated by the changes in intracellular [H(+)] or [HCO3 (-)]. We have asked whether glucose metabolism is enhanced by either a fall in intracellular [H(+)] or a rise in intracellular [HCO3 (-)], or by both, in mammalian astrocytes. We have recorded intracellular glucose in mouse astrocytes using a FRET-based nanosensor, while imposing different intracellular [H(+)] and [CO2]/[HCO3 (-)]. Glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were augmented by a fall in intracellular [H(+)], irrespective of a concomitant rise or fall in intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Transport of HCO3 (-) into and out of astrocytes by the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) played a crucial role in causing changes in intracellular pH and [HCO3 (-)], but was not obligatory for the pH-dependent changes in glucose metabolism. Our results clearly show that it is the cytosolic pH that modulates glucose metabolism in cortical astrocytes, and possibly also in other cell types. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Glucose-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Transfer across Human Brain Endothelium and Enter Astrocytes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromnicova, Radka; Davies, Heather A.; Sreekanthreddy, Peddagangannagari; Romero, Ignacio A.; Lund, Torben; Roitt, Ivan M.; Phillips, James B.; Male, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24339894

  20. Glucose-coated gold nanoparticles transfer across human brain endothelium and enter astrocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Gromnicova

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier.

  1. MIRNAS in Astrocyte-Derived Exosomes as Possible Mediators of Neuronal Plasticity

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    Carlos Lafourcade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes use gliotransmitters to modulate neuronal function and plasticity. However, the role of small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, in astrocyte-to-neuron signaling is mostly unknown. Exosomes originate in multivesicular bodies of parent cells and are secreted by fusion of the multivesicular body limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. Their molecular cargo, consisting of RNA species, proteins, and lipids, is in part cell type and cell state specific. Among the RNA species transported by exosomes, microRNAs (miRNAs are able to modify gene expression in recipient cells. Several miRNAs present in astrocytes are regulated under pathological conditions, and this may have far-reaching consequences if they are loaded in exosomes. We propose that astrocyte-derived miRNA-loaded exosomes, such as miR-26a, are dysregulated in several central nervous system diseases; thus potentially controlling neuronal morphology and synaptic transmission through validated and predicted targets. Unraveling the contribution of this new signaling mechanism to the maintenance and plasticity of neuronal networks will impact our understanding on the physiology and pathophysiology of the central nervous system.

  2. Lrp4 in astrocytes modulates glutamatergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-Dong; Li, Lei; Liu, Fang; Huang, Zhi-Hui; Bean, Jonathan C; Jiao, Hui-Feng; Barik, Arnab; Kim, Seon-Myung; Wu, Haitao; Shen, Chengyong; Tian, Yun; Lin, Thiri W; Bates, Ryan; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Chen, Yong-Jun; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Lei; Lin, Hui-Ping; Hu, Jin-Xia; Li, Bao-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Neurotransmission requires precise control of neurotransmitter release from axon terminals. This process is regulated by glial cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We found that glutamate release in the brain was impaired in mice lacking low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4), a protein that is critical for neuromuscular junction formation. Electrophysiological studies revealed compromised release probability in astrocyte-specific Lrp4 knockout mice. Lrp4 mutant astrocytes suppressed glutamatergic transmission by enhancing the release of ATP, whose level was elevated in the hippocampus of Lrp4 mutant mice. Consequently, the mutant mice were impaired in locomotor activity and spatial memory and were resistant to seizure induction. These impairments could be ameliorated by blocking the adenosine A1 receptor. The results reveal a critical role for Lrp4, in response to agrin, in modulating astrocytic ATP release and synaptic transmission. Our findings provide insight into the interaction between neurons and astrocytes for synaptic homeostasis and/or plasticity.

  3. The pathophysiological role of astrocytic endothelin-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hostenbach, Stephanie; D'haeseleer, Miguel; Kooijman, Ron; De Keyser, Jacques

    In the normal central nervous system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is found in some types of neurons, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and endothelial cells of microvessels, but it is usually not detectable in glial cells. However, in different pathological conditions, astrocytes adapting a reactive

  4. Mitochondrial Calcium Sparkles Light Up Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Brian A; Ko, Rebecca W Y

    2017-02-27

    Discrete calcium signals in the fine processes of astrocytes are a recent discovery and a new mystery. In a recent issue of Neuron, Agarwal et al. (2017) report that calcium efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) contribute to calcium microdomains. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of astrocytic and neuronal benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons express benzodiazepine receptors. Neuronal benzodiazepine receptors were of high-affinity, K{sub D} values were 7.5-43 nM and the densities of receptors (B{sub max}) were 924-4131 fmol/mg protein. Astrocytes posses a high-affinity benzodiazepine receptor, K{sub D} values were 6.6-13 nM. The B{sub max} values were 6,033-12,000 fmol/mg protein. The pharmacological profile of the neuronal benzodiazepine receptor was that of the central-type benzodiazepine receptor, where clonazepam has a high-affinity and Ro 5-4864 (4{prime}-chlorodiazepam) has a low-affinity. Whereas astrocytic benzoidazepine receptor was characteristic of the so called peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, which shows a high-affinity towards Ro 5-4863, and a low-affinity towards clonazepam. The astrocytic benzodiazepine receptors was functionally correlated with voltage dependent calcium channels, since dihydropyridines and benzodiazepines interacted with ({sup 3}H) diazepam and ({sup 3}H) nitrendipine receptors with the same rank order of potency, showing a statistically significant correlation. No such correlation was observed in neurons.

  6. Impact of Hyperbaric Oxygenation on Body Glutamine Kinetics in Hepatic Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savilov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study body glutamine kinetics in hepatic failure and in the course use of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO. Material and methods. Experiments were performed on 210 female albino rats. HBO was thrice conducted at 3 ata as a 50-min session once daily after hepatectomy (HE, 15—20% of the liver weight; glutamine levels were measured in their visceral organs and blood from the following vessels: the aorta, v. porta, v. hepatica, v. renalis. Results. By eliminating the glutamine-excretory dysfunction of the operated liver, HBO corrects its glutamine deficiency. At the same time, HBO activates glutamine production by gastrointestinal organs with its further incretion into the portal blood flow. It also stimulates the absorption of glutamine by lung tissue and its deamidation in the latter, but causes a reduction in myocardial glutamine concentrations. By stimulating the development of arterial hyperglutaminemia, HBO prevents the development of transient glutamine deficiency in the splenocytes and delayed postoperative portal hypoglutaminemia. HBO does not exert a substantial impact on brain tissue glutamine changes, but it regulates renal glutamine kinetic changes induced by partial HE. Conclusion. Hyperbaric oxygen used for hepatic failure induced by HE recovers body kinetic disorders of glutamine in this abnormality, by concurrently regulating the adaptive changes in its metabolism in the organs, which occur in response to liver damage. Key words: glutamine, metabolism, hepatic failure, hyperoxia.

  7. Altered Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions and Epileptogenesis in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    consequent astrocyte pathology may itself contribute to the ongoing seizure activity. 5 Year 2: We recorded miniature EPSCs, evoked EPSCs and...mGFAPCreCKO mice develop spontaneous clinical seizures at the age of 2.5 months; b) TSC1mGFAPCreCKO mice show astrogliosis, activated mTOR signaling...glutamate transport and potassium buffering functions remained intact in TSC1mGFAPCreCKO mice at 1 month and 2 months of age , prior to the onset of

  8. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  9. Role of astrocytic leptin receptor subtypes on leptin permeation across hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J.; Tu, Hong; Abbott, N. Joan; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Pan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Astrocytic leptin receptors (ObR) can be upregulated in conditions such as adult-onset obesity. To determine whether the levels and subtypes of astrocytic ObR modulate leptin transport, we co-cultured hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cells and C6 astrocytoma cells in the Transwell system, and tested leptin permeation from apical to basolateral chambers. In comparison with hCMEC alone, co-culture of C6 cells reduced the permeability of paracellular markers and leptin. Unexpectedly, ObRb overex...

  10. Glutamine and its use in selected oncology settings | Tydeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review summarises the latest evidence for the use of glutamine (GLN) in oncology taking cognisance of current systematic reviews and available guidelines. Various studies in adults suggest that GLN supplementation suppresses tumour growth, by restoring the function of natural killer cells; improves protein ...

  11. Intravenous glutamine enhances COX-2 activity giving cardioprotection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuinness, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Preconditioning, a highly evolutionary conserved endogenous protective response, provides the most powerful form of anti-infarct protection known. We investigated whether acute intravenous glutamine, through an effect on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and heat shock protein (HSP) 72, might induce preconditioning.

  12. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy...

  13. effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 1 January 2014. EFFECTS OF ENTERAL GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON REDUCTION OF INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS. WITH SEVERE BURNS. D.K. Kibor, MBChB, MMed, Chuka District, Hospital, P. O. Box 8, Chuka, O.E. Nyaim, MBChB, MMed, Senior Lecturer,.

  14. Effects of Enteral Glutamine Supplementation on Reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of enteral glutamine in reducing the incidence of post burn infections in patients with severe burns. Design: A double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting: Burns unit and ward 4D of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Subjects: Sixty patients with severe burns who were randomised to two ...

  15. Antioxidant defence of L-glutamine on mitochondrial function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death all over the world. A better understanding of the processes involved in myocardial infarction has stimulated the search for biomolecules, which could limit the myocardial injury. We determined the protective activity of L-glutamine on ...

  16. Restoration Of Glutamine Synthetase Activity, Nitric Oxide Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Propolis has been proposed to be protective on neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the neuroprotective effects of honeybee propolis, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were studied in different brain ...

  17. TAp73 is a marker of glutamine addiction in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria; Erngren, Ida; Engskog, Mikael; Haglöf, Jakob; Picard, Daniel; Remke, Marc; McPolin, Phelim Hugh Redmond; Selby, Matthew; Williamson, Daniel; Clifford, Steven C; Michod, David; Hadjiandreou, Michalis; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt; Melino, Gerry; Marino, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common solid primary brain tumor in children. Remarkable advancements in the understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of these tumors have informed their recent molecular classification. However, the genotype/phenotype correlation of the subgroups remains largely uncharacterized. In particular, the metabolic phenotype is of great interest because of its druggability, which could lead to the development of novel and more tailored therapies for a subset of medulloblastoma. p73 plays a critical role in a range of cellular metabolic processes. We show overexpression of p73 in a proportion of non-WNT medulloblastoma. In these tumors, p73 sustains cell growth and proliferation via regulation of glutamine metabolism. We validated our results in a xenograft model in which we observed an increase in survival time in mice on a glutamine restriction diet. Notably, glutamine starvation has a synergistic effect with cisplatin, a component of the current medulloblastoma chemotherapy. These findings raise the possibility that glutamine depletion can be used as an adjuvant treatment for p73-expressing medulloblastoma. © 2017 Niklison-Chirou et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Synthesis of Biobased Succinonitrile from Glutamic Acid and Glutamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Nôtre, Le J.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Succinonitrile is the precursor of 1,4-diaminobutane, which is used for the industrial production of polyamides. This paper describes the synthesis of biobased succinonitrile from glutamic acid and glutamine, amino acids that are abundantly present in many plant proteins. Synthesis of the

  19. The role of glutamine in Pseudomonas mediterranea in biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Chines, Valeria; Franco, Domenico; Nicolò, Marco S; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-07-25

    In this work, in order to study the effect of glutamine as co-feeder on growth kinetics, biomass and PHA production in Pseudomonas mediterranea, different co-metabolic strategies were employed. Unrelated (glycerol and glucose) and related (sodium octanoate) carbon sources both in presence and absence of glutamine have been tested. For each cultural condition, we (i) evaluated growth kinetics and measured the cell metabolic activity by MTT assay, (ii) monitored PHA production and (iii) estimated the expression of phaC1 and phaC2 genes through RT-PCR. Our results show that the use of glutamine as co-feeder in P. mediterranea led to an improvement of the specific growth rate and cell metabolic activity and enhanced the uptake of all the carbon sources assayed. Moreover, the use of glutamine reduced significantly the time required for PHA production and increased biopolymer yield, as consequence of an early activation of phaC1 and phaC2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of glutamine supplement on small intestinal morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effects of glutamine (Gln) supplement on small intestinal morphology, xylose absorptive and growth performance of weaned piglets. Forty eight piglets weaned at 28 ± 2 days of age were randomly allotted to three treatment groups. A basal corn-soybean diet was formulated to ...

  1. Redefining the role of metallothionein within the injured brain: extracellular metallothioneins play an important role in the astrocyte-neuron response to injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Roger S; Penkowa, Milena; Dittmann, Justin

    2008-01-01

    regeneration. First, we show that MT can be detected within the extracellular fluid of the injured brain, and that cultured astrocytes are capable of actively secreting MT in a regulatable manner. Second, we identify a receptor, megalin, that mediates MT transport into neurons. Third, we directly demonstrate......A number of intracellular proteins that are protective after brain injury are classically thought to exert their effect within the expressing cell. The astrocytic metallothioneins (MT) are one example and are thought to act via intracellular free radical scavenging and heavy metal regulation......, and in particular zinc. Indeed, we have previously established that astrocytic MTs are required for successful brain healing. Here we provide evidence for a fundamentally different mode of action relying upon intercellular transfer from astrocytes to neurons, which in turn leads to uptake-dependent axonal...

  2. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and calcium increase induced by visible light in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Mei-Jie; Jou, Shuo-Bin; Guo, Mei-Jin; Wu, Hong-Yueh; Peng, Tsung-I

    2004-04-01

    Mitochondria contain photosensitive chromophores that can be activated or inhibited by light in the visible range. Rather than utilizing light energy, however, mitochondrial electron transport oxidation-reduction reaction and energy coupling could be stimulated or damaged by visible light. Our previous work demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in cultured astrocytes after visible laser irradiation. With confocal fluorescence microscopy, we found that ROS were generated mostly from mitochondria. This mitochondrial ROS (mROS) formation plays a critical role in photoirradiation-induced phototoxicity and apoptosis. In this study, we measured changes of mitochondrial calcium level ([Ca(2+)](m)) in cultured astrocytes (RBA-1 cell line) irradiated with blue light and examined the association between mROS formation and [Ca(2+)](m) level changes. Changes of intracellular ROS and [Ca(2+)](m) were visualized using fluorescent probes 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF), and rhod-2. After exposure to visible light irradiation, RBA-1 astrocytes showed a rapid increase in ROS accumulation particularly in the mitochondrial area. Increase in [Ca(2+)](m) was also induced by photoirradiation. The levels of increase in DCF fluorescence intensity varied among different astrocytes. Some of the cells generated much higher levels of ROS than others. For those cells that had high ROS levels, mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were also high. In cells that had mild ROS levels, mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were only slightly increased. The rate of increase in DCF fluorescence seemed to be close to the rate of rhod-2 fluorescence increase. There is a positive and close correlation between mitochondrial ROS levels and mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels in astrocytes irradiated by visible light.

  3. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  4. Partial enterectomy in the rat does not diminish muscle glutamine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutz, N E; Dejong, C H; Athanasas, G; Soeters, P B

    1992-12-01

    The hypothesis was posed that consumption of the amino acid glutamine by the splanchnic tissues is an important regulating mechanism for its production in muscle. Therefore, glutamine consumption or production in portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver, and hindquarter was measured by determining fluxes and intracellular concentrations after 80% enterectomy or SHAM operation in rats. Moreover, fluxes and intracellular concentrations of several other amino acids, ammonia, and liver urea production were determined concomitantly. After enterectomy, arterial glutamine concentration was increased, PDV glutamine consumption was decreased by 77%, and liver glutamine consumption was unchanged compared with values in SHAM-operated rats. Although hindquarter glutamine production remained unchanged after enterectomy, intracellular glutamate concentration (glutamine precursor) was lower, suggesting that enterectomy induces changes in muscle metabolism without changing the flux of glutamine. For the remaining gut, it was calculated that after enterectomy glutamine consumption per gram remaining gut tissue increased. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that diminished splanchnic glutamine uptake can reduce muscle glutamine production.

  5. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, S.M.; Habash, D.Z.

    2009-07-02

    Glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonium into amino acids, thus it is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism. The cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase assimilate ammonium derived from primary nitrogen uptake and from various internal nitrogen recycling pathways. In this way, cytosolic glutamine synthetase is crucial for the remobilization of protein-derived nitrogen. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase is encoded by a small family of genes that are well conserved across plant species. Members of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene family are regulated in response to plant nitrogen status, as well as to environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability and biotic/abiotic stresses. The complex regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase at the transcriptional to post-translational levels is key to the establishment of a specific physiological role for each isoenzyme. The diverse physiological roles of cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoenzymes are important in relation to current agricultural and ecological issues.

  6. Fluxes of lactate into, from, and among gap junction-coupled astrocytes and their interaction with noradrenaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eHertz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is a versatile metabolite with important roles in modulation of brain glucose utilization rate (CMRglc, diagnosis of brain-injured patients, redox- and receptor-mediated signaling, memory, and alteration of gene transcription. Neurons and astrocytes release and accumulate lactate using equilibrative monocarboxylate transporters that carry out net transmembrane transport of lactate only until intra- and extracellular levels reach equilibrium. Astrocytes have much faster lactate uptake than neurons and shuttle more lactate among gap junction-coupled astrocytes than to nearby neurons. Lactate diffusion within syncytia can provide precursors for oxidative metabolism and glutamate synthesis and facilitate its release from endfeet to perivascular space to stimulate blood flow. Lactate efflux from brain during activation underlies the large underestimation of CMRglc with labeled glucose and fall in CMRO2/CMRglc ratio. Receptor-mediated effects of lactate on locus coeruleus neurons include noradrenaline release in cerebral cortex and c-AMP-mediated stimulation of astrocytic gap junctional coupling, thereby enhancing its dispersal and release from brain. Lactate transport is essential for its multifunctional roles.

  7. Role of astrocytes in neurovascular coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Gabor C; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2011-09-08

    Neural activity is intimately tied to blood flow in the brain. This coupling is specific enough in space and time that modern imaging methods use local hemodynamics as a measure of brain activity. In this review, we discuss recent evidence indicating that neuronal activity is coupled to local blood flow changes through an intermediary, the astrocyte. We highlight unresolved issues regarding the role of astrocytes and propose ways to address them using novel techniques. Our focus is on cellular level analysis in vivo, but we also relate mechanistic insights gained from ex vivo experiments to native tissue. We also review some strategies to harness advances in optical and genetic methods to study neurovascular coupling in the intact brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Astrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases (I): function and molecular description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamón-Vivancos, T; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Matías-Guiu, J

    2015-03-01

    Astrocytes have been considered mere supporting cells in the CNS. However, we now know that astrocytes are actively involved in many of the functions of the CNS and may play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. This article reviews the roles astrocytes play in CNS development and plasticity; control of synaptic transmission; regulation of blood flow, energy, and metabolism; formation of the blood-brain barrier; regulation of the circadian rhythms, lipid metabolism and secretion of lipoproteins; and in neurogenesis. Astrocyte markers and the functions of astrogliosis are also described. Astrocytes play an active role in the CNS. A good knowledge of astrocytes is essential to understanding the mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Astrocytes Resist HIV-1 Fusion but Engulf Infected Macrophage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues and establishes long-lived viral reservoirs. These reservoirs include the CNS, in which macrophage-lineage cells, and as suggested by many studies, astrocytes, may be infected. Here, we have investigated astrocyte infection by HIV-1. We confirm that astrocytes trap and internalize HIV-1 particles for subsequent release but find no evidence that these particles infect the cell. Astrocyte infection was not observed by cell-free or cell-to-cell routes using diverse approaches, including luciferase and GFP reporter viruses, fixed and live-cell fusion assays, multispectral flow cytometry, and super-resolution imaging. By contrast, we observed intimate interactions between HIV-1-infected macrophages and astrocytes leading to signals that might be mistaken for astrocyte infection using less stringent approaches. These results have implications for HIV-1 infection of the CNS, viral reservoir formation, and antiretroviral therapy.

  10. Do stars govern our actions? Astrocyte involvement in rodent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, João Filipe; Sardinha, Vanessa Morais; Guerra-Gomes, Sónia; Araque, Alfonso; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes have emerged as important partners of neurons in information processing. Important progress has been made in the past two decades in understanding the role of astrocytes in the generation of neuron-astrocyte network outputs resulting in behavior. We review evidence for astrocyte involvement across four different behavioral domains: cognition, emotion, motor, and sensory processing. Accumulating evidence from animal models has provided a wealth of data that largely supports a direct involvement of astrocytes on diverse aspects of behavior. The development of tools for selectively controlling the temporal and spatial properties of astrocyte activity will help to consolidate our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of glutamine metabolism in leukemia cells by energy production through TCA cycle and by redox homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Mineaki; Miwa, Hiroshi; Shikami, Masato; Tsunekawa-Imai, Norikazu; Suganuma, Kazuto; Mizuno, Shohei; Takahashi, Miyuki; Mizutani, Motonori; Hanamura, Ichiro; Nitta, Masakazu

    2014-07-01

    Some cancer cells depend on glutamine despite of pronounced glycolysis. We examined the glutamine metabolism in leukemia cells, and found that HL-60 cells most depended on glutamine in the 4 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines examined: growth of HL-60 cells was most suppressed by glutamine deprivation and by inhibition of glutaminolysis, which was rescued by tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate, oxaloacetic acid. Glutamine is also involved in antioxidant defense function by increasing glutathione. Glutamine deprivation suppressed the glutathione content and elevated reactive oxygen species most evidently in HL-60 cells. Glutamine metabolism might be a therapeutic target in some leukemia.

  12. Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, W. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)]|[Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7200 (United States); Haydon, P.G. [Department of Zoology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  13. Astrocytes mediate in vivo cholinergic-induced synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Navarrete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic transmission represents the cellular basis of learning and memory. Astrocytes have been shown to regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, their involvement in specific physiological processes that induce LTP in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that in vivo cholinergic activity evoked by sensory stimulation or electrical stimulation of the septal nucleus increases Ca²⁺ in hippocampal astrocytes and induces LTP of CA3-CA1 synapses, which requires cholinergic muscarinic (mAChR and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR activation. Stimulation of cholinergic pathways in hippocampal slices evokes astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations, postsynaptic depolarizations of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and LTP of transmitter release at single CA3-CA1 synapses. Like in vivo, these effects are mediated by mAChRs, and this cholinergic-induced LTP (c-LTP also involves mGluR activation. Astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations and LTP are absent in IP₃R2 knock-out mice. Downregulating astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal by loading astrocytes with BAPTA or GDPβS also prevents LTP, which is restored by simultaneous astrocyte Ca²⁺ uncaging and postsynaptic depolarization. Therefore, cholinergic-induced LTP requires astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations, which stimulate astrocyte glutamate release that activates mGluRs. The cholinergic-induced LTP results from the temporal coincidence of the postsynaptic activity and the astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal simultaneously evoked by cholinergic activity. Therefore, the astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal is necessary for cholinergic-induced synaptic plasticity, indicating that astrocytes are directly involved in brain storage information.

  14. Systemic application of AAV vectors targeting GFAP-expressing astrocytes in Z-Q175-KI Huntington's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Tatyana; Dvorzhak, Anton; Wójtowicz, Anna Maria; Harms, Christoph; Grantyn, Rosemarie

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) affects both neurons and astrocytes. To target the latter and to ensure brain-wide transgene expression, adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors can be administered intravenously, as AAV vectors cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enable preferential transduction of astrocytes due to their close association with blood vessels. However, there is a possibility that the subclass of GFAP-expressing astrocytes performs a distinct role in HD and reacts differently to therapeutic measures than the rest of the astrocytes. The gfaABC1D promoter allows specific targeting of the GFAP-expressing astrocytes (~25% of S100β-expressing astrocytes). We have examined the expression of three different transgenes (GCaMP6f, Kir4.1 and GLT1) and tested the effects of the AAV serotypes 9 and rh8. The AAV vectors were injected into the tail vein of 1-year-old homozygous Z-Q175-KI HD mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. At this age, HD mice exhibit motor symptoms, including pronounced hypokinesia and circling behaviour. The expression times ranged from 3 to 6weeks. The target cell population was defined as the cells expressing S100β in addition to GFAP. Viewfields in the dorsal striatum and the overlaying cortex were evaluated and the transduction rate was defined as the percentage of target cells that expressed the reporter transgene (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP, or Tomato). In all cases, the transduction rate was higher in the cortex than in the striatum. AAV9 was more efficient than AAVrh8. One of the injected constructs (AAV9-gfaABC1D-GLT1-Tomato) was tested for the first time. GLT1, the principal astrocytic glutamate transporter, is deficient in HD and therefore considered as a potential target for gene therapy. At a dose of 1.86×1011 vector genome (vg) per animal, the fraction of GLT1-Tomato+ cells in the striatum and the cortex amounted to 30% and 49%, respectively. In individual Tomato+ HD astrocytes, treatment with the GLT1 vector

  15. The multi-dimensional roles of astrocytes in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Koji; Komine, Okiru

    2017-10-17

    Despite significant progress in understanding the molecular and genetic aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, the precise and comprehensive pathomechanisms remain largely unknown. In addition to motor neuron involvement, recent studies using cellular and animal models of ALS indicate that there is a complex interplay between motor neurons and neighboring non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, in non-cell autonomous neurodegeneration. Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells that play numerous supportive roles in maintaining the brain environment. In neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, astrocytes change their shape and molecular expression patterns and are referred to as reactive or activated astrocytes. Reactive astrocytes in ALS lose their beneficial functions and gain detrimental roles. In addition, interactions between motor neurons and astrocytes are impaired in ALS. In this review, we summarize growing evidence that astrocytes are critically involved in the survival and demise of motor neurons through several key molecules and cascades in astrocytes in both sporadic and inherited ALS. These observations strongly suggest that astrocytes have multi-dimensional roles in disease and are a viable therapeutic target for ALS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Astrocyte Hypertrophy Contributes to Aberrant Neurogenesis after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a widespread epidemic with severe cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. TBIs typically result in a relatively rapid inflammatory and neuroinflammatory response. A major component of the neuroinflammatory response is astrocytes, a type of glial cell in the brain. Astrocytes are important in maintaining the integrity of neuronal functioning, and it is possible that astrocyte hypertrophy after TBIs might contribute to pathogenesis. The hippocampus is a unique brain region, because neurogenesis persists in adults. Accumulating evidence supports the functional importance of these newborn neurons and their associated astrocytes. Alterations to either of these cell types can influence neuronal functioning. To determine if hypertrophied astrocytes might negatively influence immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, astrocyte and newborn neurons were analyzed at 30 days following a TBI in mice. The results demonstrate a loss of radial glial-like processes extending through the granule cell layer after TBI, as well as ectopic growth and migration of immature dentate neurons. The results further show newborn neurons in close association with hypertrophied astrocytes, suggesting a role for the astrocytes in aberrant neurogenesis. Future studies are needed to determine the functional significance of these alterations to the astrocyte/immature neurons after TBI.

  17. Lactate release from astrocytes to neurons contributes to cocaine memory formation

    KAUST Repository

    Boury-Jamot, Benjamin

    2016-10-12

    The identification of neural substrates underlying the long lasting debilitating impact of drug cues is critical for developing novel therapeutic tools. Metabolic coupling has long been considered a key mechanism through which astrocytes and neurons actively interact in response of neuronal activity, but recent findings suggested that disrupting metabolic coupling may represent an innovative approach to prevent memory formation, in particular drug-related memories. Here, we review converging evidence illustrating how memory and addiction share neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms implicating lactate-mediated metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons. With several aspects of addiction depending on mnemonic processes elicited by drug experience, disrupting lactate transport involved in the formation of a pathological learning, linking the incentive, and motivational effects of drugs with drug-conditioned stimuli represent a promising approach to encourage abstinence.

  18. Long-term NMDAR antagonism correlates reduced astrocytic glutamate uptake with anxiety-like phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Zimmer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of glutamate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR hypofunction has been extensively studied in schizophrenia; however, less is known about its role in anxiety disorders. Recently, it was demonstrated that astrocytic GLT-1 blockade leads to an anxiety-like phenotype. Although astrocytes are capable of modulating NMDAR activity through glutamate uptake transporters, the relationship between astrocytic glutamate uptake and the development of an anxiety phenotype remains poorly explored. Here, we aimed to investigative whether long-term antagonism of NMDAR impacts anxiety-related behaviors and astrocytic glutamate uptake. Memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, was administered daily for 24 days to healthy adult CF-1 mice by oral gavage at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg. The mice were submitted to a sequential battery of behavioral tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze tests. We then evaluated glutamate uptake activity and the immunocontents of glutamate transporters in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that long-term administration of memantine induces anxiety-like behavior in mice in the light-dark box and elevated plus-maze paradigms. Additionally, the administration of memantine decreased glutamate uptake activity in both the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus without altering the immunocontent of either GLT-1 or GLAST. Remarkably, the memantine-induced reduction in glutamate uptake was correlated with enhancement of an anxiety-like phenotype. In conclusion, long-term NMDAR antagonism with memantine induces anxiety-like behavior that is associated with reduced glutamate uptake activity but that is not dependent on GLT-1 or GLAST protein expression. Our study suggests that NMDAR and glutamate uptake hypofunction may contribute to the development of conditions that fall within the category of anxiety disorders.

  19. Effects of repeated high-dose methamphetamine and ceftriaxone post-treatments on tissue content of dopamine and serotonin as well as glutamate and glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althobaiti, Yusuf S; Almalki, Atiah H; Das, Sujan C; Alshehri, Fahad S; Sari, Youssef

    2016-11-10

    Repeated exposure to high doses of methamphetamine (METH) is known to alter several neurotransmitters in certain brain regions. Little is known about the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, known to upregulate glutamate transporter subtype 1, post-treatment on METH-induced depletion of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) tissue content in brain reward regions. Moreover, the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on glutamate and glutamine tissue content are not well understood. In this study, Wistar rats were used to investigate the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on tissue content of dopamine/5-HT and glutamate/glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Rats received either saline or METH (10mg/kg, i.p. every 2h×4) followed by either saline or CEF (200mg/kg, i.p, every day×3) post-treatment. METH induced a significant depletion of dopamine and 5-HT in the NAc and PFC. Importantly, dopamine tissue content was completely restored in the NAc following CEF post-treatment. Additionally, METH caused a significant decrease in glutamate and glutamine tissue content in PFC, and this effect was attenuated by CEF post-treatment. These findings demonstrate for the first time the attenuating effects of CEF post-treatment on METH induced alterations in the tissue contents of dopamine, glutamate, and glutamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and activation by glutamine metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Li

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, which is mainly caused by accumulation of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. The mechanisms of activation and proliferation of HSCs, two key events after liver damage, have been studied for many years. Here we report a novel pathway to control HSCs by regulating glutamine metabolism. We demonstrated that the proliferation of HSCs is critically dependent on glutamine that is used to generate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG and non-essential amino acid (NEAA. In addition, both culture- and in vivo-activated HSCs have increased glutamine utilization and increased expression of genes related to glutamine metabolism, including GLS (glutaminase, aspartate transaminase (GOT1 and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1. Inhibition of these enzymes, as well as glutamine depletion, had a significant inhibitory effect on HSCs activation. In addition to providing energy expenditure, conversion of glutamine to proline is enhanced. The pool of free proline may also be increased via downregulation of POX expression. Hedgehog signaling plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine metabolism, as well as TGF-β1, c-Myc, and Ras signalings, via transcriptional upregulation and repression of key metabolic enzymes in this pathway. Finally, changes in glutamine metabolism were also found in mouse liver tissue following CCl4-induced acute injury.Glutamine metabolism plays an important role in regulating the proliferation and activation of HSCs. Strategies that are targeted at glutamine metabolism may represent a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  1. Environmental cystine drives glutamine anaplerosis and sensitizes cancer cells to glutaminase inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Alexander; Danai, Laura V; Gui, Dan Y; Waingarten, Chiara Y; Lewis, Caroline A

    2017-01-01

    Many mammalian cancer cell lines depend on glutamine as a major tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerotic substrate to support proliferation. However, some cell lines that depend on glutamine anaplerosis in culture rely less on glutamine catabolism to proliferate in vivo. We sought to understand the environmental differences that cause differential dependence on glutamine for anaplerosis. We find that cells cultured in adult bovine serum, which better reflects nutrients available to cells in vivo, exhibit decreased glutamine catabolism and reduced reliance on glutamine anaplerosis compared to cells cultured in standard tissue culture conditions. We find that levels of a single nutrient, cystine, accounts for the differential dependence on glutamine in these different environmental contexts. Further, we show that cystine levels dictate glutamine dependence via the cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT/SLC7A11. Thus, xCT/SLC7A11 expression, in conjunction with environmental cystine, is necessary and sufficient to increase glutamine catabolism, defining important determinants of glutamine anaplerosis and glutaminase dependence in cancer. PMID:28826492

  2. A stochastic modeling of isotope exchange reactions in glutamine synthetase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmiruk, N. V.; Boronovskiy, S. E.; Nartsissov, Ya R.

    2017-11-01

    The model presented in this work allows simulation of isotopic exchange reactions at chemical equilibrium catalyzed by a glutamine synthetase. To simulate the functioning of the enzyme the algorithm based on the stochastic approach was applied. The dependence of exchange rates for 14C and 32P on metabolite concentration was estimated. The simulation results confirmed the hypothesis of the ascertained validity for preferred order random binding mechanism. Corresponding values of K0.5 were also obtained.

  3. Complement susceptibility in glutamine deprived breast cancer cells

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    Boackle Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs inhibit complement-mediated killing of human cells by human complement, a property that confers protection from complement to malignant breast cancer cells and that thwarts some immunotherapies. Metabolic mechanisms may come into play in protecting cancer cells from the complement system subsequent to relatively low levels of complement deposition. Results In differentiating these mechanisms, two types of human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 (adenocarcinoma and Bcap37 (medullary carcinoma were cell-cycle synchronized using glutamine-deprivation followed by restoration. These cells were examined for the expression of two mCRPs (CD59 and CD55, and for subsequent susceptibility to antibody-mediated complement-induced membrane damage. After glutamine restoration, MCF7 and Bcap37 cells were synchronized into the G2/M phase and an average increased expression of CD59 and CD55 occurred with a corresponding resistance to complement-mediated damage. Blocking CD59 inhibitory function with monoclonal antibody revealed that CD59 played a key role in protecting unsynchronized Bcap37 and MCF7 cancer cells from the complement membrane attack complex. Interestingly, glutamine-deprivation did not significantly affect the expression of proteins e.g., the surface level of CD59 or CD55, but did increase the susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. One possible explanation is that glutamine-deprivation may have slowed the turnover rate of mCRPs, preventing the cells from replacing pre-existing mCRPs, as they became neutralized by covalent C4b and C3b depositions. Conclusion Taken together the findings are consistent with the conclusion that future immunotherapies should aim to achieve a highly specific and profound activation and deposition of complement as well as to disrupt the synthesis and expression of CD59 and CD55 by the cancer cells.

  4. The effect of immunonutrition (glutamine, alanine on fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Küçükalp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been various studies related to fracture healing. Glutamine is an amino acid with an important role in many cell and organ functions. This study aimed to make a clinical, radiological, and histopathological evaluation of the effects of glutamine on fracture healing. Methods: Twenty rabbits were randomly allocated into two groups of control and immunonutrition. A fracture of the fibula was made to the right hind leg. All rabbits received standard food and water. From post-operative first day for 30 days, the study group received an additional 2 ml/kg/day 20% L-alanine L-glutamine solution via a gastric catheter, and the control group received 2 ml/kg/day isotonic via gastric catheter. At the end of 30 days, the rabbits were sacrificed and the fractures were examined clinically, radiologically, and histopathologically in respect to the degree of union. Results: Radiological evaluation of the control group determined a mean score of 2.5 according to the orthopaedists and 2.65 according to the radiologists. In the clinical evaluation, the mean score was 1.875 for the control group and 2.0 for the study group. Histopathological evaluation determined a mean score of 8.5 for the control group and 9.0 for the study group. Conclusion: One month after orally administered glutamine–alanine, positive effects were observed on fracture healing radiologically, clinically, and histopathologically, although no statistically significant difference was determined.

  5. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  6. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: lostrow1@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  7. The metabolic trinity, glucose-glycogen-lactate, links astrocytes and neurons in brain energetics, signaling, memory, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2017-01-10

    Glucose, glycogen, and lactate are traditionally identified with brain energetics, ATP turnover, and pathophysiology. However, recent studies extend their roles to include involvement in astrocytic signaling, memory consolidation, and gene expression. Emerging roles for these brain fuels and a readily-diffusible by-product are linked to differential fluxes in glycolytic and oxidative pathways, astrocytic glycogen dynamics, redox shifts, neuron-astrocyte interactions, and regulation of astrocytic activities by noradrenaline released from the locus coeruleus. Disproportionate utilization of carbohydrate compared with oxygen during brain activation is influenced by catecholamines, but its physiological basis is not understood and its magnitude may be affected by technical aspects of metabolite assays. Memory consolidation and gene expression are impaired by glycogenolysis blockade, and prevention of these deficits by injection of abnormally-high concentrations of lactate was interpreted as a requirement for astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling in memory and gene expression. However, lactate transport was not measured and evidence for presumed shuttling is not compelling. In fact, high levels of lactate used to preserve memory consolidation and induce gene expression are sufficient to shut down neuronal firing via the HCAR1 receptor. In contrast, low lactate levels activate a receptor in locus coeruleus that stimulates noradrenaline release that may activate astrocytes throughout brain. Physiological relevance of exogenous concentrations of lactate used to mimic and evaluate metabolic, molecular, and behavioral effects of lactate requires close correspondence with the normal lactate levels, the biochemical and cellular sources and sinks, and specificity of lactate delivery to target cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of glutamine deficiency in ICU patients: a cross-sectional analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Arista; Dolman, Robin Claire; van Graan, Averalda Eldorine; Blaauw, Renee

    2016-08-02

    Not only is glutamine deficiency an independent predictor of mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, but glutamine supplementation is also recommended for its proven outcome benefits. However, recent data suggest that early glutamine supplementation in certain patient groups increase mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma glutamine levels of adult ICU patients in the South African setting and to determine relationships between glutamine levels, gender, diagnostic categories and selected inflammatory markers. The data from this study will be used as baseline measurement to support a large scale study that will be undertaken in the South African ICU population. This cross-sectional, analytical study included 60 mixed adult ICU patients within 24 h post ICU admission. Plasma glutamine levels were determined on admission. The relationship between glutamine levels, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP); as well as gender- and diagnosis-related differences in glutamine levels were also investigated. A non-parametric ROC curve was computed to determine the CRP concentration cut-off point above which glutamine becomes deficient. The median plasma glutamine level (497 μmol/L) was in the normal range; however, 38.3 % (n = 23) of patients had deficient (930 μmol/L). No significant difference could be detected between glutamine levels and gender or diagnosis categories as a group. When only the medical and surgical categories were compared, the median plasma glutamine level of the medical patients were significantly lower than that of the surgical patients (p = 0.042). Glutamine showed inverse associations with CRP levels (r = -0.44, p < 0.05) and IL-6 concentrations (r = -0.23, p = 0.08). A CRP cut-off value of 95.5 mg/L was determined above which glutamine levels became deficient. About a third of patients (38 %) were glutamine deficient on admission to ICU, whereas some presented with supra

  9. Astrocyte-Derived Tissue Transglutaminase Interacts with Fibronectin: A Role in Astrocyte Adhesion and Migration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, M.E.; Breve, J.J.P.; Fratantoni, S.; Schreurs, M.W.J.; Bol, J.G.J.M.; Jongenelen, C.A.M.; Drukarch, B.; van Dam, A.M.W.

    2011-01-01

    An important neuropathological feature of neuroinflammatory processes that occur during e.g. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the formation of an astroglial scar. Astroglial scar formation is facilitated by the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) such as fibronectin.

  10. Immune and inflammatory responses in the CNS : Modulation by astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; aschner, michael; hidalgo, juan

    2008-01-01

    Beyond their long-recognized support functions, astrocytes are active partners of neurons in processing information, synaptic integration, and production of trophic factors, just to name a few. Both microglia and astrocytes produce and secrete a number of cytokines, modulating and integrating the...

  11. Synapse-specific astrocyte gating of amygdala-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Mario; Jamison, Stephanie; Robin, Laurie M; Zhao, Zhe; Martin, Eduardo D; Aguilar, Juan; Benneyworth, Michael A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Araque, Alfonso

    2017-11-01

    The amygdala plays key roles in fear and anxiety. Studies of the amygdala have largely focused on neuronal function and connectivity. Astrocytes functionally interact with neurons, but their role in the amygdala remains largely unknown. We show that astrocytes in the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM) determine the synaptic and behavioral outputs of amygdala circuits. To investigate the role of astrocytes in amygdala-related behavior and identify the underlying synaptic mechanisms, we used exogenous or endogenous signaling to selectively activate CeM astrocytes. Astrocytes depressed excitatory synapses from basolateral amygdala via A 1 adenosine receptor activation and enhanced inhibitory synapses from the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala via A 2A receptor activation. Furthermore, astrocytic activation decreased the firing rate of CeM neurons and reduced fear expression in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Therefore, we conclude that astrocyte activity determines fear responses by selectively regulating specific synapses, which indicates that animal behavior results from the coordinated activity of neurons and astrocytes.

  12. TREK-1 mediates isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiyun; Peng, Zhengwu; Yang, Liu; Liu, Xue; Xie, Yaning; Cai, Yanhui; Xiong, Lize; Zeng, Yi

    2017-09-05

    There are growing concerns that anaesthetic exposure can cause extensive apoptotic degeneration of neurons and the impairment of normal synaptic development and remodelling. However, little attention has been paid to exploring the possible cytotoxicity of inhalation anaesthetics, such as isoflurane, in astrocytes. In this research, we determined that prolonged exposure to an inhalation anaesthetic caused cytotoxicity in astrocytes, and we identified the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for this process. Astrocytes were exposed to isoflurane, and astrocytic survival was then measured via LDH release assays, MTT assays, and TUNEL staining. TWIK-related potassium (K+) channel-1 (TREK-1) over-expression and knockdown models were also created using lentiviruses. The levels of TREK-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured via Western blot and qRT-PCR. Prolonged exposure to isoflurane decreased primary astrocytic viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, with prolonged exposure to isoflurane, the TREK-1 level increased, and the BDNF level was reduced. TREK-1 knockdown promoted the survival of astrocytes and increased BDNF expression following isoflurane exposure. Overdoses of and prolonged exposure to isoflurane induce cytotoxicity in primary astrocytes. TREK-1 plays an important role in isoflurane-induced cultured astrocytic cytotoxicity by down-regulating the expression of BDNF.

  13. [Imbalance of system of glutamin - glutamic acid in the placenta and amniotic fluid at placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Linde, V A

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid has been investigated in the placenta and amniotic fluid under conditions of placental insufficiency. The development of placental insufficiency is characterized by the increased content of glutamic acid and a decrease of glutamine in both placenta and amniotic fluid. These changes changes were accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these amino acids. There was a decrease in glutamate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutaminase activity with the simultaneous decrease of glutamine synthetase activity. The compensatory decrease in the activity of glutamine keto acid aminotransferase did not prevent a decrease in the glutamine level. The impairments in the system glutamic acid-glutamine were more pronounced during the development of premature labor.

  14. Neuroimmunological Implications of AQP4 in Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ikeshima-Kataoka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The brain has high-order functions and is composed of several kinds of cells, such as neurons and glial cells. It is becoming clear that many kinds of neurodegenerative diseases are more-or-less influenced by astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4, a membrane-bound protein that regulates water permeability is a member of the aquaporin family of water channel proteins that is expressed in the endfeet of astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS. Recently, AQP4 has been shown to function, not only as a water channel protein, but also as an adhesion molecule that is involved in cell migration and neuroexcitation, synaptic plasticity, and learning/memory through mechanisms involved in long-term potentiation or long-term depression. The most extensively examined role of AQP4 is its ability to act as a neuroimmunological inducer. Previously, we showed that AQP4 plays an important role in neuroimmunological functions in injured mouse brain in concert with the proinflammatory inducer osteopontin (OPN. The aim of this review is to summarize the functional implication of AQP4, focusing especially on its neuroimmunological roles. This review is a good opportunity to compile recent knowledge and could contribute to the therapeutic treatment of autoimmune diseases through strategies targeting AQP4. Finally, the author would like to hypothesize on AQP4’s role in interaction between reactive astrocytes and reactive microglial cells, which might occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, a therapeutic strategy for AQP4-related neurodegenerative diseases is proposed.

  15. Involvement of astrocyte metabolic coupling in Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle

    2015-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis.

  16. Optical modulation of astrocyte network using ultrashort pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Ku, Taeyun; Chong, Kyuha; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Chulhee

    2012-03-01

    Astrocyte, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, has been one of major topics in neuroscience. Even though many tools have been developed for the analysis of astrocyte function, there has been no adequate tool that can modulates astrocyte network without pharmaceutical or genetic interventions. Here we found that ultrashort pulsed laser stimulation can induce label-free activation of astrocytes as well as apoptotic-like cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Upon irradiation with high intensity pulsed lasers, the irradiated cells with short exposure time showed very rapid mitochondria fragmentation, membrane blebbing and cytoskeletal retraction. We applied this technique to investigate in vivo function of astrocyte network in the CNS: in the aspect of neurovascular coupling and blood-brain barrier. We propose that this noninvasive technique can be widely applied for in vivo study of complex cellular network.

  17. Hypothalamic lipid-laden astrocytes induce microglia migration and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Chu-Sook; Tu, Thai Hien; Kim, Min-Seon; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, Dong Hee; Lee, Byung Ju; Choi, Hye-Seon; Park, Taesun; Choi, Myung-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo; Ha, Tae Youl; Yu, Rina

    2017-06-01

    Obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation is closely associated with various metabolic complications and neurodegenerative disorders. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system, play a crucial role in pathological hypothalamic inflammatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic astrocytes accumulate lipid droplets under saturated fatty acid-rich conditions, such as obese environment, and that the lipid-laden astrocytes increase astrogliosis markers and inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1) at the transcript and/or protein level. Medium conditioned by the lipid-laden astrocytes stimulate microglial chemotactic activity and upregulate transcripts of the microglia activation marker Iba-1 and inflammatory cytokines. These findings indicate that the lipid-laden astrocytes formed in free fatty acid-rich obese condition may participate in obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation through promoting microglia migration and activation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. A critical role for astrocytes in hypercapnic vasodilation in brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, C; Sutherland, B A; Choi, H B

    2017-01-01

    is decreased and vasodilation triggered by astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i in vitro and by hypercapnia in vivo is inhibited.Astrocyte synthetic pathways, dependent on glutathione, are involved in cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 Reductions in glutathione levels in ageing, stroke or schizophrenia could lead...... increases in astrocyte calcium signaling which in turn stimulates COX-1 activity and generates downstream PgE2 production. We demonstrate that astrocyte calcium-evoked production of the vasodilator, PgE2, is critically dependent on brain levels of the antioxidant, glutathione. These data suggest a novel...... role for astrocytes in the regulation of CO2-evoked CBF responses. Furthermore, these results suggest that depleted glutathione levels, which occur in ageing and stroke, will give rise to dysfunctional cerebral blood flow regulation and may result in subsequent neuronal damage....

  19. Astrocytes Control Neuronal Excitability in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fellin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Though accumulating evidence shows that the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 mediates some of the actions of extracellular glutamate after cocaine use, the cellular events underlying this action are poorly understood. In this review, we will discuss recent results showing that mGluR5 receptors are key regulators of astrocyte activity. Synaptic release of glutamate activates mGluR5 expressed in perisynaptic astrocytes and generates intense Ca2+ signaling in these cells. Ca2+ oscillations, in turn, trigger the release from astrocytes of the gliotransmitter glutamate, which modulates neuronal excitability by activating NMDA receptors. By integrating these results with the most recent evidence demonstrating the importance of astrocytes in the regulation of neuronal excitability, we propose that astrocytes are involved in mediating some of the mGluR5-dependent drug-induced behaviors.

  20. Activity-dependent modulation of intracellular ATP in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ulrike; Seim, Pauline; Enzbrenner, Yvonne; Köhler, Susanne; Sicker, Marit; Hirrlinger, Johannes

    2017-11-01

    Brain function is absolutely dependent on an appropriate supply of energy. A shortfall in supply-as occurs, for instance, following stroke-can lead rapidly to irreversible damage to this vital organ. While the consequences of pathophysiological energy depletion have been well documented, much less is known about the physiological energy dynamics of brain cells, although changes in the intracellular concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the major energy carrier of cells, have been postulated to contribute to cellular signaling. To address this issue more closely, we have investigated intracellular ATP in cultured primary cortical astrocytes by time-lapse microscopy using a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor for ATP. The cytosolic ATP sensor signal decreased after application of the neurotransmitter glutamate in a manner dependent on both glutamate concentration and glutamate transporter activity, but independent of glutamate receptors. The application of dopamine did not affect ATP levels within astrocytes. These results confirm that intracellular ATP levels in astrocytes do indeed respond to changes in physiological activity and pave the way for further studies addressing factors that affect regulation of ATP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fine Astrocyte Processes Contain Very Small Mitochondria: Glial Oxidative Capability May Fuel Transmitter Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Amin; Haseleu, Julia; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-12-01

    The peripheral astrocyte process (PAP) is the glial compartment largely handling inactivation of transmitter glutamate, and supplying glutamate to the axon terminal. It is not clear how these energy demanding processes are fueled, and whether the PAP exhibits oxidative capability. Whereas the GFAP-positive perinuclear cytoplasm and stem process are rich in mitochondria, the PAP is often considered too narrow to contain mitochondria and might thus not rely on oxidative metabolism. Applying high resolution light microscopy, we investigate here the presence of mitochondria in the PAPs of freshly dissociated, isolated astrocytes. We provide an overview of the subcellular distribution and the approximate size of astrocytic mitochondria. A substantial proportion of the astrocyte's mitochondria are contained in the PAPs and, on the average, they are smaller there than in the stem processes. The majority of mitochondria in the stem and peripheral processes are surprisingly small (0.2-0.4 µm), spherical and not elongate, or tubular, which is supported by electron microscopy. The density of mitochondria is two to several times lower in the PAPs than in the stem processes. Thus, PAPs do not constitute a mitochondria free glial compartment but contain mitochondria in large numbers. No juxtaposition of mitochondria-containing PAPs and glutamatergic synapses has been reported. However, the issue of sufficient ATP concentrations in perisynaptic PAPs can be seen in the light of (1) the rapid, activity dependent PAP motility, and (2) the recently reported activity-dependent mitochondrial transport and immobilization leading to spatial, subcellular organisation of glutamate uptake and oxidative metabolism.

  2. Characteristics and Efficiency of Glutamine Production by Coupling of a Bacterial Glutamine Synthetase Reaction with the Alcoholic Fermentation System of Baker’s Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Shinji; Ohshima, Yoshifumi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Tochikura, Tatsurokuro; Tachiki, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Glutamine production with bacterial glutamine synthetase (GS) and the sugar-fermenting system of baker’s yeast for ATP regeneration was investigated by determining the product yield obtained with the energy source for ATP regeneration (i.e., glucose) for yeast fermentation. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was accumulated temporarily prior to the formation of glutamine in mixtures which consisted of dried yeast cells, GS, their substrate (glucose and glutamate and ammonia), inorganic phosphate, and cofactors. By an increase in the amounts of GS and inorganic phosphate, the amounts of glutamine formed increased to 19 to 54 g/liter, with a yield increase of 69 to 72% based on the energy source (glucose) for ATP regeneration. The analyses of sugar fermentation of the yeast in the glutamine-producing mixtures suggested that the apparent hydrolysis of ATP by a futile cycle(s) at the early stage of glycolysis in the yeast cells reduces the efficiency of ATP utilization. Inorganic phosphate inhibits phosphatase(s) and thus improves glutamine yield. However, the analyses of GS activity in the glutamine-producing mixtures suggested that the higher concentration of inorganic phosphate as well as the limited amount of ATP-ADP caused the low reactivity of GS in the glutamine-producing mixtures. A result suggestive of improved glutamine yield under the conditions with lower concentrations of inorganic phosphate was obtained by using a yeast mutant strain that had low assimilating ability for glycerol and ethanol. In the mutant, the activity of the enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, especially fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, was lower than that in the wild-type strain. PMID:9687456

  3. Phosphoinositide metabolism and adrenergic receptors in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.; de Vellis, J.

    1986-03-01

    Agonist-induced phosphoinositide (PI) breakdown functions as a signal generating system. Diacylglycerol, one breakdown product of phosphotidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate hydrolysis, can stimulate protein kinase C, whereas inositol triphosphate, the other product, has been proposed to be a second messenger for Ca/sup + +/ mobilization. Using purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat brain, the effects of adrenergic agonists and antagonists at 10/sup -5/ M were measured on PI breakdown. Astrocytes grown in culture were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, and basal (/sup 3/H) inositol phosphate (IP/sub 1/) accumulation was measured in the presence of Li/sup +/. Epinephrine > norepinephrine (NE) were the most active stimulants of IP/sub 1/ production. The ..cap alpha../sub 1/ adrenoreceptor blockers, phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine, added alone had no effect on IP/sub 1/ production was reduced below basal levels. Propranolol partially blocked the effects of NE. Clonidine and isoproterenol, separately added, reduced IP/sub 1/ below basal levels and when added together diminished IP/sub 1/ accumulation even further. The role of adrenergic stimulation in the production of c-AMP.

  4. [Use of glutamine in total parenteral nutrition of bone marrow transplant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura Dulcinea; Alhambra Expósito, María R; Manzano García, Gregorio; Molina Puertas, María J; Calañas Continente, Alfonso; Bahamondez Opazo, Rodrigo; Muñoz Jiménez, Concepción; Rojas Contreras, Rafael; Gálvez Moreno, María A

    2015-04-01

    Glutamine is an essential amino acid for nucleotide synthesis and an important energy resource for cellular division. There is contradictory evidence about its benefits as part of parenteral nutrition. More than 75% of bone marrow transplant patients (BMTP) have, during their evolution, digestive tract complications limiting enteral nutrition, for this reason, sometimes total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is required. Our aim was to analyze the relation between the use of glutamine in TPN of BMTP, and the evolution of clinical acute complications as mucositis, graft versus host disease (GVHD) and infections days of stay and days of TPN. observational retrospective study. All BMTP with total parenteral nutrition during the period 2007-2013 were included. We analyzed days of stay, days of nutrition, glutamine use and acute complications. Results were analyzed in SPSS 15.0. 73 BMTP were divided in two comparable groups depending on glutamine use. The mean age was 36,96 ± 12,89 years. 47,9% of patients received glutamine in TPN. Patients who received glutamine had a mean stay of 31,49±7,41 days with 14,11±5,87 days of TPN compared with the non-glutamine group with 32,16±7,99 and 15,50±7,71 days respectively (p=0,71 y 0,39). Mucositis lasted 12,23±5,66 days in the glutamine group, and 15,50±7,71 days in the non-glutamine group (p=0,042). Severe grades of GVHD (II,III) was observed in 20,6% of the non glutamine group compared with the 13,7% of the other group (p=0,636). In patients with glutamine suplementation, mucositis last 12,23±5,66 days compared with 15,50±7,71 days in the non-glutamine group (p=0,042).13,7% of all patients suffered infections while receiving TPN with glutamine compared with 16,4% in patients who did not receive glutamine (p=0,700). In our group, a statistically significant reduction in the duration of mucositis was observed in patients who received parenteral glutamine. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All

  5. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Wiebke [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hayata-Takano, Atsuko [Molecular Research Center for Children' s Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamo, Toshihiko [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakazawa, Takanobu, E-mail: takanobunakazawa-tky@umin.ac.jp [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Kazuki [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Program for Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Academic Initiatives, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shintani, Norihito [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ago, Yukio [Laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Farfan, Camille [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-27

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. - Highlights: • We develop a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes. • Neuron-specific labeling is achieved using Scg10 and synapsin promoters. • Astrocyte-specific labeling is generated using the minimal GFAP promoter. • Nuclear localization of fluorescent proteins is achieved with histone 2B protein.

  6. The role of astrocytes in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-García, J J

    2017-09-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which astrocytes play an important role as CNS immune cells. However, the activity of astrocytes as antigen-presenting cells (APC) continues to be subject to debate. This review analyses the existing evidence on the participation of astrocytes in CNS inflammation in MS and on several mechanisms that modify astrocyte activity in the disease. Astrocytes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS because they express toll-like receptors (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classI andII. In addition, astrocytes participate in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in modulating T cell activity through the production of cytokines. Future studies should focus on the role of astrocytes in order to find new therapeutic targets for the treatment of MS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Human astrocytes: secretome profiles of cytokines and chemokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung S Choi

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play a key role in maintenance of neuronal functions in the central nervous system by producing various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which act as a molecular coordinator of neuron-glia communication. At the site of neuroinflammation, astrocyte-derived cytokines and chemokines play both neuroprotective and neurotoxic roles in brain lesions of human neurological diseases. At present, the comprehensive profile of human astrocyte-derived cytokines and chemokines during inflammation remains to be fully characterized. We investigated the cytokine secretome profile of highly purified human astrocytes by using a protein microarray. Non-stimulated human astrocytes in culture expressed eight cytokines, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, GROα (CXCL1, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL8, MCP-1 (CCL2, MIF and Serpin E1. Following stimulation with IL-1β and TNF-α, activated astrocytes newly produced IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNF-α, IP-10 (CXCL10, MIP-1α (CCL3 and RANTES (CCL5, in addition to the induction of sICAM-1 and complement component 5. Database search indicated that most of cytokines and chemokines produced by non-stimulated and activated astrocytes are direct targets of the transcription factor NF-kB. These results indicated that cultured human astrocytes express a distinct set of NF-kB-target cytokines and chemokines in resting and activated conditions, suggesting that the NF-kB signaling pathway differentially regulates gene expression of cytokines and chemokines in human astrocytes under physiological and inflammatory conditions.

  8. Characterisation of the expression of NMDA receptors in human astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chak Lee

    Full Text Available Astrocytes have long been perceived only as structural and supporting cells within the central nervous system (CNS. However, the discovery that these glial cells may potentially express receptors capable of responding to endogenous neurotransmitters has resulted in the need to reassess astrocytic physiology. The aim of the current study was to characterise the expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs in primary human astrocytes, and investigate their response to physiological and excitotoxic concentrations of the known endogenous NMDAR agonists, glutamate and quinolinic acid (QUIN. Primary cultures of human astrocytes were used to examine expression of these receptors at the mRNA level using RT-PCR and qPCR, and at the protein level using immunocytochemistry. The functionality role of the receptors was assessed using intracellular calcium influx experiments and measuring extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in primary cultures of human astrocytes treated with glutamate and QUIN. We found that all seven currently known NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, NR2D, NR3A and NR3B are expressed in astrocytes, but at different levels. Calcium influx studies revealed that both glutamate and QUIN could activate astrocytic NMDARs, which stimulates Ca2+ influx into the cell and can result in dysfunction and death of astrocytes. Our data also show that the NMDAR ion channel blockers, MK801, and memantine can attenuate glutamate and QUIN mediated cell excitotoxicity. This suggests that the mechanism of glutamate and QUIN gliotoxicity is at least partially mediated by excessive stimulation of NMDARs. The present study is the first to provide definitive evidence for the existence of functional NMDAR expression in human primary astrocytes. This discovery has significant implications for redefining the cellular interaction between glia and neurons in both physiological processes and pathological conditions.

  9. Overexpression of Eg5 correlates with high grade astrocytic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiong; Liu, Xichun; Mare, Marcus; Dumont, Aaron S; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Dong; Xiong, Zhenggang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between Eg5 and histopathological grade of astrocytoma, Eg5 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical examination on 88 specimens including 25 cases of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), 22 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), 20 cases of diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), and 21 cases of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I). The histopathological characteristics and Eg5 expression level of each tumor were assessed and statistically analyzed. Astrocytic tumors exhibited significant correlation of expression of Eg5 with higher WHO histopathological grades (p neoplasm, and it may represent an independent diagnostic and prognostic factor in grading astrocytic tumors and predicting prognosis of astrocytic tumor patients.

  10. Oxidative metabolism of astrocytes is not reduced in hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Mouridsen, Kim; Hansen, Mikkel B

    2014-01-01

    of the brain to measure the contribution of astrocytes to the previously observed reduction of brain oxidative metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis and HE, compared to patients with cirrhosis without HE, and to healthy subjects. We used a new kinetic model to estimate uptake from blood to astrocytes......In patients with impaired liver function and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), consistent elevations of blood ammonia concentration suggest a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HE. Ammonia and acetate are metabolized in brain both primarily in astrocytes. Here, we used dynamic [(11)C]acetate PET...

  11. {open_quotes}The effects of diabetes on the activity of the enzyme glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Hexsoamine synthetic pathway (HexNSP) controls the supply of essential substrates for glycoprotein synthesis. In vitro studies suggest that increased flux of glucose via the hexsoamine synthetic pathway may play a role in glucose induced insulin resistance of glucose transport. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase (GFAT) controls flux into the hexsoamine synthetic pathway; the major products are UDPN-acetylhexosamines (UDP.HexNac=UDP.GlcNAc= UDP.GalNac). I examined whether diabetes ({approximately} 7 days post intravenous streptozotocin, and genetically linked) affects the activity of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate in rat and mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Nucleotide linked HexNAc were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography(HPLC) in deproteinized hind limb muscle extracts.

  12. Effect of L-glutamine levels in piglets diets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysacharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pardo L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of different levels of L-glutamine on weaned and immunologically challenged piglets with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS on performance parameters, serum cortisol and defense cells. Materials and methods. Four levels of L –glutamine were evaluated (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% as well as the addition, or no addition, of LPS (0.3μg. 96 piglets were used (48 castrated males and 48 females of Agroceres x PenArlan lineage, with an initial age of 21 days and 6.06±0.852 kg live weight. An experimental design was used on randomized blocks in a factorial setting 4 x 2 (levels of L- glutamine with or without challenge. Results. Cubic effect was shown for daily weight gain of unchallenged animals, and was better with the addition of 0.41% L- glutamine. Feed conversion improved with increased levels of L -glutamine for challenged animals. In the evaluation of defense cells, there was interaction of leukocytes with the levels of L- glutamine and the immune challenge. Eosinophils and lymphocytes showed a quadratic effect for the levels of L –glutamine, with a maximum value of 1.30% and 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions. L -glutamine supplementation of up to 2% in the diet improves feed conversion and favors the immune serum of weaned piglets challenged with LPS of E. coli.

  13. Glutamine Randomized Studies in Early Life: The Unsolved Riddle of Experimental and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrossini Briassouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine may have benefits during immaturity or critical illness in early life but its effects on outcome end hardpoints are controversial. Our aim was to review randomized studies on glutamine supplementation in pups, infants, and children examining whether glutamine affects outcome. Experimental work has proposed various mechanisms of glutamine action but none of the randomized studies in early life showed any effect on mortality and only a few showed some effect on inflammatory response, organ function, and a trend for infection control. Although apparently safe in animal models (pups, premature infants, and critically ill children, glutamine supplementation does not reduce mortality or late onset sepsis, and its routine use cannot be recommended in these sensitive populations. Large prospectively stratified trials are needed to better define the crucial interrelations of “glutamine-heat shock proteins-stress response” in critical illness and to identify the specific subgroups of premature neonates and critically ill infants or children who may have a greater need for glutamine and who may eventually benefit from its supplementation. The methodological problems noted in the reviewed randomized experimental and clinical trials should be seriously considered in any future well-designed large blinded randomized controlled trial involving glutamine supplementation in critical illness.

  14. Coordination of glucose and glutamine utilization by an expanded Myc network

    OpenAIRE

    Kaadige, Mohan R; Elgort, Marc G; Ayer, Donald E

    2010-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant circulating nutrients and support the growth and proliferation of all cells, in particular rapidly growing and dividing cancer cells. Several recent studies implicate an expanded Myc network in how cells sense and utilize both glucose and glutamine. These studies reveal an unappreciated coordination between glycolysis and glutaminolysis, potentially providing new targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

  15. Effects of l-Glutamine Deprivation on Growth of HVJ (Sendai Virus) in BHK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Nagata, Ikuya; Kunii, Akira

    1974-01-01

    l-Glutamine requirement for viral maturation was found in BHK-HVJ cells, a cell line of baby hamster kidney cells persistently infected with HVJ (Sendai virus). Synthesis of envelope protein in BHK-HVJ cells was markedly suppressed by deprivation of l-glutamine, whereas development of nucleocapsid (S) antigen was less affected. More detailed examination of this phenomenon was carried out by using a cytolytic system. Growth of HVJ in BHK cells cultured in media deprived of various amino acids was investigated, and omission of l-glutamine from culture medium resulted in a marked inhibitory effect on the release of infectious virus and synthesis of envelope protein, although synthesis of virus-specific RNA and nucleocapsid antigen in the cells was readily detected. When l-glutamine was restored to the culture medium, infectious virus and envelope protein could be detected. l-Glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, or l-alanine could be substituted for l-glutamine. Effects of l-glutamine deprivation on HVJ growth in several other cells were also investigated. The growth of HVJ in the cells other than BHK and FL cells was not suppressed by lack of l-glutamine. Growth of Sindbis virus in BHK cells was also markedly retarded in the absence of l-glutamine. PMID:4362861

  16. Cysteine digestive peptidases function as post-glutamine cleaving enzymes in tenebrionid stored product pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereals have storage proteins with high amounts of the amino acids glutamine and proline. Therefore, storage pests need to have digestive enzymes that are efficient in hydrolyzing these types of proteins. Post-glutamine cleaving peptidases (PGP) were isolated from the midgut of the stored product pe...

  17. Plasma glutamine is a minor precursor for the synthesis of citrulline: A multispecies study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamine is considered the main precursor for citrulline synthesis in many species, including humans. The transfer of 15N from 2[15N]-glutamine to citrulline has been used as evidence for this precursor-product relationship. However, work in mice has shown that nitrogen and carbon tracers follow di...

  18. Regulation of the spatiotemporal pattern of expression of the glutamine synthetase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie-Venema, H.; Hakvoort, T. B.; van Hemert, F. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase, the enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia into glutamine, is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally controlled manner. The first part of this review focuses on its spatiotemporal pattern of expression, the factors that regulate

  19. Hepatocytes explanted in the spleen preferentially express carbamoylphosphate synthetase rather than glutamine synthetase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Been, W.; Charles, R.; Moorman, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Urea cycle enzymes and glutamine synthetase are essential for NH3 detoxification and systemic pH homeostasis in mammals. Carbamoylphosphate synthetase, the first and flux-determining enzyme of the cycle, is found only in a large periportal compartment, and glutamine synthetase is found only in a

  20. Majority of dietary glutamine is utilized in first pass in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, S.R.D.; Schierbeek, H.; Bet, P.M.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Lafeber, H.N.; van Goudoever, J.B.; van Elburg, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid for very low-birth weight infants by virtue of its ability to play an important role in several key metabolic processes of immune cells and enterocytes. Although glutamine is known to be used to a great extend, the exact splanchnic metabolism in

  1. Regulation of Amidase Formation in Mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO Lacking Glutamine Synthetase Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Herst, Patricia M.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    The formation of amidase was studied in mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO lacking glutamine synthetase activity. It appeared that catabolite repression of amidase synthesis by succinate was partially relieved when cellular growth was limited by glutamine. Under these conditions, a correlation

  2. Majority of dietary glutamine is utilized in first pass in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.; Schierbeek, Henk; Bet, Pierre M.; Vermeulen, Marijn J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2010-01-01

    Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid for very low-birth weight infants by virtue of its ability to play an important role in several key metabolic processes of immune cells and enterocytes. Although glutamine is known to be used to a great extent, the exact splanchnic metabolism in

  3. L-Glutamine Metabolism Is Not A Major Source Of Increased Free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutamine has been implicated in the generation of free radicals and free radicals-induced impairment of vascular responses to nitrovasodilators may underlie the pathogenesis of vasospasm in 2K-1C hypertension. Plasma glutamine levels were therefore determined in 2K-1C and 1K-1C hypertensive rats in order to ...

  4. Cytokine Responses in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Glutamine-enriched Enteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeij, Linda; van Zwol, Annelies; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Twisk, Jos Wr; Nieuwenhuis, Edward Es; Fetter, Willem Pf

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may present with a lower infection rate, which may result from enhanced antimicrobial innate or Th1 cytokine responses. We investigated whether glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in VLBW infants

  5. Glucose, Lactate and Glutamine but not Glutamate Support Depolarization-Induced Increased Respiration in Isolated Nerve Terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Andersen, Vibe H; Bak, Lasse K; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    Synaptosomes prepared from various aged and gene modified experimental animals constitute a valuable model system to study pre-synaptic mechanisms. Synaptosomes were isolated from whole brain and the XFe96 extracellular flux analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience) was used to study mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic rate in presence of different substrates. Mitochondrial function was tested by sequentially exposure of the synaptosomes to the ATP synthase inhibitor, oligomycin, the uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone) and the electron transport chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A. The synaptosomes exhibited intense respiratory activity using glucose as substrate. The FCCP-dependent respiration was significantly higher with 10 mM glucose compared to 1 mM glucose. Synaptosomes also readily used pyruvate as substrate, which elevated basal respiration, activity-dependent respiration induced by veratridine and the respiratory response to uncoupling compared to that obtained with glucose as substrate. Also lactate was used as substrate by synaptosomes but in contrast to pyruvate, mitochondrial lactate mediated respiration was comparable to respiration using glucose as substrate. Synaptosomal respiration using glutamate and glutamine as substrates was significantly higher compared to basal respiration, whereas oligomycin-dependent and FCCP-induced respiration was lower compared to the responses obtained in the presence of glucose as substrate. We provide evidence that synaptosomes are able to use besides glucose and pyruvate also the substrates lactate, glutamate and glutamine to support their basal respiration. Veratridine was found to increase respiration supported by glucose, pyruvate, lactate and glutamine and FCCP was found to increase respiration supported by glucose, pyruvate and lactate. This was not the case when glutamate was the only energy substrate.

  6. An isogenic blood-brain barrier model comprising brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Scott G; Stebbins, Matthew J; Morales, Bethsymarie Soto; Asai, Shusaku W; Vatine, Gad D; Svendsen, Clive N; Palecek, Sean P; Shusta, Eric V

    2017-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical in maintaining a physical and metabolic barrier between the blood and the brain. The BBB consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that line the brain vasculature and combine with astrocytes, neurons and pericytes to form the neurovascular unit. We hypothesized that astrocytes and neurons generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could induce BBB phenotypes in iPSC-derived BMECs, creating a robust multicellular human BBB model. To this end, iPSCs were used to form neural progenitor-like EZ-spheres, which were in turn differentiated to neurons and astrocytes, enabling facile neural cell generation. The iPSC-derived astrocytes and neurons induced barrier tightening in primary rat BMECs indicating their BBB inductive capacity. When co-cultured with human iPSC-derived BMECs, the iPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes significantly elevated trans-endothelial electrical resistance, reduced passive permeability, and improved tight junction continuity in the BMEC cell population, while p-glycoprotein efflux transporter activity was unchanged. A physiologically relevant neural cell mixture of one neuron: three astrocytes yielded optimal BMEC induction properties. Finally, an isogenic multicellular BBB model was successfully demonstrated employing BMECs, astrocytes, and neurons from the same donor iPSC source. It is anticipated that such an isogenic facsimile of the human BBB could have applications in furthering understanding the cellular interplay of the neurovascular unit in both healthy and diseased humans. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 843. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Blockade of Glutamine Synthetase Enhances Inflammatory Response in Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Erika M; Menga, Alessio; Lebrun, Aurore; Hooper, Douglas C; Butterfield, D Allan; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Castegna, Alessandra

    2017-03-10

    Microglial cells are brain-resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia. GS inhibition enhances release of inflammatory mediators of LPS-activated microglia in vitro, leading to perturbation of the redox balance and decreased viability of cocultured neurons. GS inhibition also decreases insulin-mediated glucose uptake in microglia. In vivo, microglia-specific GS ablation enhances expression of inflammatory markers upon LPS treatment. In the spinal cords from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), GS expression levels and glutamine/glutamate ratios are reduced. Recently, metabolism has been highlighted as mediator of immune cell function through the discovery of mechanisms that (behind these metabolic changes) modulate the inflammatory response. The present study shows for the first time a metabolic mechanism mediating microglial response to a proinflammatory stimulus, pointing to GS activity as a master modulator of immune cell function and thus unraveling a potential therapeutic target. Our study highlights a new role of GS in modulating immune response in microglia, providing insights into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with inflammation and new strategies of therapeutic intervention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 351-363.

  8. [Methionine sulfoximine and phosphinothricin--glutamine synthetase inhibitors and activators and their herbicidal activity (A review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, Z G; Solov'eva, N A; Sidel'nikova, L I

    2003-01-01

    Derivatives of methionine sulfoximine (MSO) and phosphinothrycin (PPT), which are analogues of glutamate, exhibit selective herbicidal activity. This effect is accounted for by impairments of nitrogen metabolism, resulting from inhibition of its key enzyme in plants, glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2). Inhibition of the enzyme causes ammoniac nitrogen to accumulate and terminates the synthesis of glutamine. Changes in the content of these two metabolites (excess ammonium and glutamine deficiency) act in a concert to cause plant death. However, low concentrations of MSO, PPT, and their metabolites produce an opposite effect: glutamine synthetase is activated, with concomitant stimulation of plant growth and productivity. The mechanisms whereby MSO and PPT affect glutamine synthetase activity are discussed in the context of nitrogen metabolism in plants.

  9. Lack of cardioprotection from metabolic support with glutamine or glutamate in a porcine coronary occlusion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens; Mæng, Michael; Mortensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous experimental studies indicate that glutamine or glutamate may provide cardioprotection by improving the oxidative metabolism in myocardial ischemia. We investigated the effect of glutamine or glutamate, given during reperfusion, on resulting infarct size and hemodynamic recovery...... outcome measures were the hemodynamic variables. RESULTS: The infarct sizes as a proportion of the area at risk (mean+/-SD) were: control group, 0.64 +/- 0.19 (n = 9); glutamine group, 0.87 +/- 0.07 (p Glutamine increased systemic...... vascular resistance, while glutamate preserved cardiac output during infusion. CONCLUSION: Substrate supplementation with the anaplerotic precursors glutamine and glutamate is ineffective as adjunctive therapy for severe myocardial ischemia. Beneficial effects documented in less complex experimental...

  10. Influence of glutamine on the effect of resistance exercise on cardiac ANP in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various nutritional supplements (herbs, vitamins, and micronutrients improve responses and adaptations to resistance exercise. ANP is a heart hormone that contributes to fluid, electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis through its natriuretic and vasodilative actions. In the present study, the adaptation of ANP in response to resistance exercise was investigated in rats supplemented with glutamine for five weeks. The results showed that supplementation with glutamine did not influence the number of ANP granules per atrial cardiocyte in sedentary animals. In exercised-trained rats, the number and diameter of the granules was significantly higher in comparison with the control group and in exercised animals supplemented with glutamine there was significant increase in the number and diameter of ANP granules compared with controls. Altogether, these data indicated that in resistance exercise rats, glutamine significantly enhances cardiac ANP thus implicating the beneficial effects of glutamine supplementation to the ANP system.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of enteral glutamine supplementation in very low birth weight infants: plasma amino acid concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.; van Elburg, R.M.; Teerlink, T.; Lafeber, H.N.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Fetter, W.P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Glutamine depletion has negative effects on the functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion, as enteral nutrition is limited in the first weeks of life. Enteral glutamine supplementation may

  12. A Randomized controlled trial of enteral glutamine supplementation in very low birth weight infants: Plasma amino acid concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Teerlink, T.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Fetter, Willem P. F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Glutamine depletion has negative effects on the functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion, as enteral nutrition is limited in the first weeks of life. Enteral glutamine supplementation may

  13. Astrocyte regulation of sleep circuits: experimental and modeling perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso eFellin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated within neural circuits, astrocytes have recently been shown to modulate brain rhythms thought to mediate sleep function. Experimental evidence suggests that local impact of astrocytes on single synapses translates into global modulation of neuronal networks and behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of current conceptual models of sleep generation and function, each of which have historically focused on neural mechanisms. We highlight the implications and the challenges introduced by these results from a conceptual and computational perspective. We further provide modeling directions on how these data might extend our knowledge of astrocytic properties and sleep function. Given our evolving understanding of how local cellular activities during sleep lead to functional outcomes for the brain, further mechanistic and theoretical understanding of astrocytic contribution to these dynamics will undoubtedly be of great basic and translational benefit.

  14. Stavudine, an anti‑retroviral drug induces reactive astrocytes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stavudine, an anti‑retroviral drug induces reactive astrocytes in motor cortex of albino mice. Agnes A. Nwakanma, Theresa B. Ekanem, Moses B. Ekong, Mokutima A. Eluwa, Eme E. Osim, Terkula Kpela ...

  15. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE: Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the

  16. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    OpenAIRE

    Sica, Roberto E.; Caccuri, Roberto; Quarracino, Cecilia; Capani, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS) by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dement...

  17. Astrocyte activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and altered glutamatergic gene expression during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willias Masocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal astrocyte activation contributes to the pathogenesis of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP in animal models. We examined glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an astrocyte marker immunoreactivity and gene expression of GFAP, glutamate transporters and receptor subunits by real time PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at 7 days post first administration of paclitaxel, a time point when mice had developed thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC, an area in the brain involved in pain perception and modulation, was chosen because changes in this area might contribute to the pathophysiology of PINP. GFAP transcripts levels were elevated by more than fivefold and GFAP immunoreactivity increased in the ACC of paclitaxel-treated mice. The 6 glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1 EAAC1, EAAT4, VGLUT-1 and VGLUT-2 quantified were not significantly altered by paclitaxel treatment. Of the 12 ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits transcripts analysed 6 (GLuA1, GLuA3, GLuK2, GLuK3, GLuK5 and GLuN1 were significantly up-regulated, whereas GLuA2, GLuK1, GLuK4, GLuN2A and GLuN2B were not significantly altered and GLuA4 was lowly expressed. Amongst the 8 metabotropic receptor subunits analysed only mGLuR8 was significantly elevated. In conclusion, during PINP there is astrocyte activation, with no change in glutamate transporter expression and differential up-regulation of glutamate receptor subunits in the ACC. Thus, targeting astrocyte activation and the glutamatergic system might be another therapeutic avenue for management of PINP.

  18. An Efficient Platform for Astrocyte Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Julia TCW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence implicates the importance of glia, particularly astrocytes, in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and robust method for the differentiation of highly pure populations of replicative astrocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, via a neural progenitor cell (NPC intermediate. We evaluated this protocol across 42 NPC lines (derived from 30 individuals. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that hiPSC-astrocytes from four individuals are highly similar to primary human fetal astrocytes and characteristic of a non-reactive state. hiPSC-astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimulants, display phagocytic capacity, and enhance microglial phagocytosis. hiPSC-astrocytes also possess spontaneous calcium transient activity. Our protocol is a reproducible, straightforward (single medium, and rapid (<30 days method to generate populations of hiPSC-astrocytes that can be used for neuron-astrocyte and microglia-astrocyte co-cultures for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Novel approaches in astrocytic protection following brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes have gained a broad attention in the last years, as they exert multiple functions for brain maintenance and neuronal protection. Astrocytes are metabolic regulators of the brain, important for the preservation of blood–brain barrier characteristics, clearance of toxic substances and generation of antioxidant molecules and growth factors for neurons and other glial cells. For these reasons, the protection of astrocytes has become of primordial importance for the prevention of neuronal death during pathologies such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, Ischemia, and others. Currently, different approaches are being used for the protection of astrocytes diseases, including the use of growth factors, steroid molecules derivatives, mesenchymal stem cell factors, nicotine and others. Moreover, the combined use of experimental approaches with bioinformatics tools such as the ones obtained through system biology has allowed a broader knowledge in astrocytic protection both in normal and pathological conditions. In this work, we highlight some of these recent approaches in astrocytic protection, and how they could be used for the study of restorative therapies for the brain in pathological conditions.

  20. Metabolic aspects of Neuronal – Oligodendrocytic - Astrocytic (NOA interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I Amaral

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas astrocytes have been in the limelight on the metabolic glucose interaction scene for a while, oligodendrocytes are still waiting for a place. We would like to call oligodendrocyte interaction with astrocytes and neurons: NOA (neuron – oligodendrocyte – astrocyte interactions. One of the reasons to find out more about oligodendrocyte interaction with neurons and astrocytes is to detect markers of healthy oligodendrocyte metabolism, to be used in diagnosis and treatment assessment in diseases such as Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and multiple sclerosis in which oligodendrocyte function is impaired, possibly due to glutamate toxicity. Glutamate receptors are expressed in oligodendrocytes and also vesicular glutamate release in the white matter has received considerable attention. It is also important to establish if the glial precursor cells recruited to damaged areas are developing oligodendrocyte characteristics or those of astrocytes. Thus, it is important to study astrocytes and oligodendrocytes separately to be able to differentiate between them. This is of particular importance in the white matter where the number of oligodendrocytes is considerable. The present review summarizes the not very extensive information published on glucose metabolism in oligodendrocytes in an attempt to stimulate research into this important field.

  1. Targeting of astrocytic glucose metabolism by beta-hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdebenito, Rocío; Ruminot, Iván; Garrido-Gerter, Pamela; Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Forero-Quintero, Linda; Alegría, Karin; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W; Barros, L Felipe

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of ketogenic diets and intermittent fasting against neurological disorders has brought interest to the effects of ketone bodies on brain cells. These compounds are known to modify the metabolism of neurons, but little is known about their effect on astrocytes, cells that control the supply of glucose to neurons and also modulate neuronal excitability through the glycolytic production of lactate. Here we have used genetically-encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer nanosensors for glucose, pyruvate and ATP to characterize astrocytic energy metabolism at cellular resolution. Our results show that the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate strongly inhibited astrocytic glucose consumption in mouse astrocytes in mixed cultures, in organotypic hippocampal slices and in acute hippocampal slices prepared from ketotic mice, while blunting the stimulation of glycolysis by physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. The inhibition of glycolysis was paralleled by an increased ability of astrocytic mitochondria to metabolize pyruvate. These results support the emerging notion that astrocytes contribute to the neuroprotective effect of ketone bodies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and contributes to radiation sensitivity of A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Daniel R.; Siegel, Eric R.; Hiatt, Gloria; Desai, Abhishek; Penney, Rosalind B.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Griffin, Robert J.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased glutamine uptake is known to drive cancer cell proliferation, making tumor cells glutamine-dependent. Glutamine provides additional carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Glutamate is a precursor for glutathione synthesis, and we investigated the hypothesis that glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and thereby contributes to cellular defense systems. Methods The importance of glutamine for glutathione synthesis was studied in H460 and A549 lung cancer cell lines using glutamine-free medium and Bis-2-(5-phenyl-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) a GLS inhibitor. Metabolic activities were determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Results A significant correlation between glutamine consumption and glutathione excretion was demonstrated in H460 and A549 tumor cells. Culturing in the presence of [13C5]glutamine demonstrated that by 12 hrs >50% of excreted glutathione is derived from glutamine. Culturing in glutamine-free medium or treatment with BPTES, a glutaminase (GLS)-specific inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and viability, and abolished glutathione excretion. Treatment with glutathione-ester prevented BPTES induced cytotoxicity. Inhibition of GLS markedly radiosensitized the lung tumor cell lines, suggesting an important role of glutamine-derived glutathione in determining radiation sensitivity. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that a significant amount of extracellular glutathione is directly derived from glutamine. This finding adds yet another important function to the already known glutamine dependence of tumor cells and probably tumors as well. General significance Glutamine is essential for synthesis and excretion of glutathione to promote cell growth and viability. PMID:26825773

  3. Interrupted Glucagon Signaling Reveals Hepatic α Cell Axis and Role for L-Glutamine in α Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, E Danielle; Li, Mingyu; Prasad, Nripesh; Wisniewski, Scott N; Von Deylen, Alison; Spaeth, Jason; Maddison, Lisette; Botros, Anthony; Sedgeman, Leslie R; Bozadjieva, Nadejda; Ilkayeva, Olga; Coldren, Anastasia; Poffenberger, Greg; Shostak, Alena; Semich, Michael C; Aamodt, Kristie I; Phillips, Neil; Yan, Hai; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Corbin, Jackie D; Vickers, Kasey C; Levy, Shawn E; Dai, Chunhua; Newgard, Christopher; Gu, Wei; Stein, Roland; Chen, Wenbiao; Powers, Alvin C

    2017-06-06

    Decreasing glucagon action lowers the blood glucose and may be useful therapeutically for diabetes. However, interrupted glucagon signaling leads to α cell proliferation. To identify postulated hepatic-derived circulating factor(s) responsible for α cell proliferation, we used transcriptomics/proteomics/metabolomics in three models of interrupted glucagon signaling and found that proliferation of mouse, zebrafish, and human α cells was mTOR and FoxP transcription factor dependent. Changes in hepatic amino acid (AA) catabolism gene expression predicted the observed increase in circulating AAs. Mimicking these AA levels stimulated α cell proliferation in a newly developed in vitro assay with L-glutamine being a critical AA. α cell expression of the AA transporter Slc38a5 was markedly increased in mice with interrupted glucagon signaling and played a role in α cell proliferation. These results indicate a hepatic α islet cell axis where glucagon regulates serum AA availability and AAs, especially L-glutamine, regulate α cell proliferation and mass via mTOR-dependent nutrient sensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An immunocytochemical investigation of glial morphology in the Pacific hagfish: radial and astrocyte-like glia have the same phylogenetic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, H; Derouiche, A; Korf, H W

    1994-09-01

    This study attempts to reconstruct the early phylogenetic history of macroglial cells among craniates. Since glia does not fossilize, such a reconstruction must be based on a cladistic comparison of glial characters in the Recent craniate taxa (hagfishes, lampreys, and gnathostomes); however, there are only few data on glial morphology and none on glial immunocytochemistry in hagfishes. Therefore, we investigated the presence and localization of various macroglia-specific epitopes in the brain and spinal cord of the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stouti (Myxinoidea) by means of immunocytochemistry. Antibodies directed against S100-protein and vimentin showed no cross reactivity. Antibodies directed against glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase labelled various glial structures. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-like immunoreactivity was observed in ependymal cells with radially oriented processes in some regions. However, throughout the entire CNS, labelling of non-ependymal cells and their processes prevailed. The processes of these cells made occasional vascular contacts and they also made contacts with neuronal perikarya. Glutamine synthetase-like immunoreactivity was also found in some processes with radial orientation and in ependymal cells; but the antibody stained mainly non-ependymal cells which gave rise to a felt-like meshwork of interdigitating fine and very fine processes penetrating the neuropil of the entire brain. Additionally, there was labelling in the walls of blood vessels and in processes enwrapping individual neurons. The occurrence of glial fibrillary acidic protein- and glutamine synthetase-like immunoreactivity in non-ependymal glial elements in the brain of hagfishes and the relative scarcity of labelling in radial glial elements necessitates a re-interpretation of the evolutionary history of glial cells. Non-ependymal macroglia with immunocytochemical and morphological characters resembling typical (mammalian) astrocytes

  5. A metabolic core model elucidates how enhanced utilization of glucose and glutamine, with enhanced glutamine-dependent lactate production, promotes cancer cell growth: The WarburQ effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Chiara; Colombo, Riccardo; Gaglio, Daniela; Mastroianni, Fabrizia; Pescini, Dario; Westerhoff, Hans Victor; Mauri, Giancarlo; Vanoni, Marco; Alberghina, Lilia

    2017-09-01

    Cancer cells share several metabolic traits, including aerobic production of lactate from glucose (Warburg effect), extensive glutamine utilization and impaired mitochondrial electron flow. It is still unclear how these metabolic rearrangements, which may involve different molecular events in different cells, contribute to a selective advantage for cancer cell proliferation. To ascertain which metabolic pathways are used to convert glucose and glutamine to balanced energy and biomass production, we performed systematic constraint-based simulations of a model of human central metabolism. Sampling of the feasible flux space allowed us to obtain a large number of randomly mutated cells simulated at different glutamine and glucose uptake rates. We observed that, in the limited subset of proliferating cells, most displayed fermentation of glucose to lactate in the presence of oxygen. At high utilization rates of glutamine, oxidative utilization of glucose was decreased, while the production of lactate from glutamine was enhanced. This emergent phenotype was observed only when the available carbon exceeded the amount that could be fully oxidized by the available oxygen. Under the latter conditions, standard Flux Balance Analysis indicated that: this metabolic pattern is optimal to maximize biomass and ATP production; it requires the activity of a branched TCA cycle, in which glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation cooperates to the production of lipids and proteins; it is sustained by a variety of redox-controlled metabolic reactions. In a K-ras transformed cell line we experimentally assessed glutamine-induced metabolic changes. We validated computational results through an extension of Flux Balance Analysis that allows prediction of metabolite variations. Taken together these findings offer new understanding of the logic of the metabolic reprogramming that underlies cancer cell growth.

  6. Predominant role of plasma membrane monoamine transporters in monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Fumito; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Iida, Tomomitsu; Harada, Ryuichi; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Miura, Yamato; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters should be immediately removed from the synaptic cleft to avoid excessive neuronal activity. Recent studies have shown that astrocytes and neurons are involved in monoamine removal. However, the mechanism of monoamine transport by astrocytes is not entirely clear. We aimed to elucidate the transporters responsible for monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line. First, we confirmed that 1321N1 cells transported dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Kinetics analysis suggested the involvement of low-affinity monoamine transporters, such as organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 and 3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). Monoamine transport in 1321N1 cells was not Na(+) /Cl(-) dependent but was inhibited by decynium-22, an inhibitor of low-affinity monoamine transporters, which supported the importance of low-affinity transporters. RT-PCR assays revealed that 1321N1 cells expressed OCT3 and PMAT but no other neurotransmitter transporters. Another human astrocytoma-derived cell line, U251MG, and primary human astrocytes also exhibited the same gene expression pattern. Gene-knockdown assays revealed that 1321N1 and primary human astrocytes could transport monoamines predominantly through PMAT and partly through OCT3. These results might indicate that PMAT and OCT3 in human astrocytes are involved in monoamine clearance. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Increased glutamine catabolism mediates bone anabolism in response to WNT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Courtney M; Esen, Emel; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Long, Fanxin

    2015-02-01

    WNT signaling stimulates bone formation by increasing both the number of osteoblasts and their protein-synthesis activity. It is not clear how WNT augments the capacity of osteoblast progenitors to meet the increased energetic and synthetic needs associated with mature osteoblasts. Here, in cultured osteoblast progenitors, we determined that WNT stimulates glutamine catabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and consequently lowers intracellular glutamine levels. The WNT-induced reduction of glutamine concentration triggered a general control nonderepressible 2-mediated (GCN2-mediated) integrated stress response (ISR) that stimulated expression of genes responsible for amino acid supply, transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation, and protein folding. WNT-induced glutamine catabolism and ISR were β-catenin independent, but required mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. In a hyperactive WNT signaling mouse model of human osteosclerosis, inhibition of glutamine catabolism or Gcn2 deletion suppressed excessive bone formation. Together, our data indicate that glutamine is both an energy source and a protein-translation rheostat that is responsive to WNT and suggest that manipulation of the glutamine/GCN2 signaling axis may provide a valuable approach for normalizing deranged protein anabolism associated with human diseases.

  8. Glutamine supplementation influences immune development in the newly weaned piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian R; Ball, Ron O; Baracos, Vickie E; Field, Catherine J

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine changes that occur in immune function during the early post-weaning period and the effect of supplementing glutamine (gln, 4% w/w) to the weaning diet of piglets. Dutch-Landrace piglets (n=10/group) were killed prior to weaning (21 d) or randomized to one of two nutritionally complete weaning diets with or without gln. With age there was an increased ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) cells to proliferate (rate of (3)H-thymidine uptake) to T cell mitogens (Ppiglets produced less of a Th-1 type response after stimulation (Pweaning diet significantly (P<0.05) modified immune cells in the MLN, in a potentially beneficial manner (with respect to mucosal infections) by preventing an increase in antigen naïve CD4+ cells, increasing the proliferative response to pokeweed mitogen and supporting a Th-1 type cytokine response after T cell (phytohemagglutinin) stimulation.

  9. Glutamine supplementation in sick children: is it beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Elise; Hankard, Régis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln) supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  10. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Mok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  11. Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Glutamate Carrier SLC25A22 in Astrocytes Leads to Intracellular Glutamate Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Goubert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier family 25 (SLC25 drives the import of a large diversity of metabolites into mitochondria, a key cellular structure involved in many metabolic functions. Mutations of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier SLC25A22 (also named GC1 have been identified in early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE and migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI but the pathophysiological mechanism of GC1 deficiency is still unknown, hampered by the absence of an in vivo model. This carrier is mainly expressed in astrocytes and is the principal gate for glutamate entry into mitochondria. A sufficient supply of energy is essential for the proper function of the brain and mitochondria have a pivotal role in maintaining energy homeostasis. In this work, we wanted to study the consequences of GC1 absence in an in vitro model in order to understand if glutamate catabolism and/or mitochondrial function could be affected. First, short hairpin RNA (shRNA designed to specifically silence GC1 were validated in rat C6 glioma cells. Silencing GC1 in C6 resulted in a reduction of the GC1 mRNA combined with a decrease of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier activity. Then, primary astrocyte cultures were prepared and transfected with shRNA-GC1 or mismatch-RNA (mmRNA constructs using the Neon® Transfection System in order to target a high number of primary astrocytes, more than 64%. Silencing GC1 in primary astrocytes resulted in a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (Phosphate (NAD(PH formation upon glutamate stimulation. We also observed that the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC was functional after glucose stimulation but not activated by glutamate, resulting in a lower level of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP in silenced astrocytes compared to control cells. Moreover, GC1 inactivation resulted in an intracellular glutamate accumulation. Our results show that mitochondrial glutamate transport via GC1 is important in sustaining glutamate homeostasis in

  12. Reduced parietooccipital white matter glutamine measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in treated graves' disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Else Rubæk; Elberling, T.V.; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2008-01-01

    and a battery of biochemical, affective, and cognitive tests were used. RESULTS: Previously reported findings of reduced choline and myo-inositol in acute Graves' disease were confirmed and reversibility was demonstrated. Parieto-occipital white matter glutamine was and remained significantly reduced (P ....01). Acute phase parieto-occipital white matter total choline correlated significantly (r = -0.57; P glutamine (r = -0.52; P ....01) and parietooccipital white matter glutamate (r = -0.54; P glutamine in white matter, the decreasing glutamate in occipital gray matter...

  13. Astrocytes as a source for Extracellular matrix molecules and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWiese

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research of the past 25 years has shown that astrocytes do more than participating and building up the blood brain barrier and detoxify the active synapse by reuptake of neurotransmitters and ions. Indeed, astrocytes express neurotransmitter receptors and, as a consequence, respond to stimuli. Deeper knowledge of the differentiation processes during development of the central nervous system (CNS might help explaining and even help treating neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and psychiatric disorders in which astrocytes have been shown to play a role. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes develop from a multipotent stem cell that prior to this has produced primarily neuronal precursor cells. This switch towards the more astroglial differentiation is regulated by a change in receptor composition on the cell surface and responsiveness of the respective trophic factors Fibroblast growth factor (FGF and Epidermal growth factor (EGF. The glial precursor cell is driven into the astroglial direction by signaling molecules like Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, and EGF. However, the early astrocytes influence their environment not only by releasing and responding to diverse soluble factors but also express a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM molecules, in particular proteoglycans of the lectican family and tenascins. Lately these ECM molecules have been shown to participate in glial development. In this regard, especially the matrix protein Tenascin C (Tnc proved to be an important regulator of astrocyte precursor cell proliferation and migration during spinal cord development. On the other hand, ECM molecules expressed by reactive astrocytes are also known to act mostly in an inhibitory fashion under pathophysiological conditions. In this regard, we further summarize recent data concerning the role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and Tnc under pathological

  14. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  15. Role of astrocytic leptin receptor subtypes on leptin permeation across hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J; Tu, Hong; Joan Abbott, N; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Pan, Weihong

    2010-12-01

    Astrocytic leptin receptors (ObR) can be up-regulated in conditions such as adult-onset obesity. To determine whether the levels and subtypes of astrocytic ObR modulate leptin transport, we co-cultured hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cells and C6 astrocytoma cells in the Transwell system, and tested leptin permeation from apical to basolateral chambers. In comparison with hCMEC alone, co-culture of C6 cells reduced the permeability of paracellular markers and leptin. Unexpectedly, ObRb over-expression in C6 cells increased leptin permeation whereas ObRa over-expression showed no effect when compared with the control group of pcDNA-transfected C6 cells. By contrast, the paracellular permeability to the sodium fluorescein control was unchanged by over-expression of ObR subtypes. Leptin remained intact after crossing the monolayer as shown by HPLC and acid precipitation, and this was not affected by C6 cell co-culture or the over-expression of different ObR subtypes. Thus, increased expression of ObRb (and to a lesser extent ObRe) in C6 cells specifically increased the permeation of leptin across the hCMEC monolayer. Consistent with the evidence that the most apparent regulatory changes of ObR during obesity and inflammation occur in astrocytes, the results indicate that astrocytes actively regulate leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier, a mechanism independent of reduction of paracellular permeability. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Couto, R.; Stevenson, J.H.; Caprio, F.J. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-(U-14C)malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain.

  17. MeCP2 modulates gene expression pathways in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Dag H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in MECP2 encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2 cause the X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. Rett syndrome patients exhibit neurological symptoms that include irregular breathing, impaired mobility, stereotypic hand movements, and loss of speech. MeCP2 protein epigenetically modulates gene expression through genome-wide binding to methylated CpG dinucleotides. While neurons have the highest level of MeCP2 expression, astrocytes and other cell types also express detectable levels of MeCP2. Recent studies suggest that astrocytes likely control the progression of Rett syndrome. Thus, the object of these studies was to identify gene targets that are affected by loss of MeCP2 binding in astrocytes. Methods To identify gene targets of MeCP2 in astrocytes, combined approaches of expression microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation of MeCP2 followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq were compared between wild-type and MeCP2-deficient astrocytes. MeCP2 gene targets were compared with genes in the top 10% of MeCP2 binding levels in gene windows either within 2 kb upstream of the transcription start site, or the ‘gene body’ that extended from transcription start to end site, or 2 kb downstream of the transcription end site. Results A total of 118 gene transcripts surpassed the highly significant threshold (P 1.2 in expression microarray analysis from triplicate cultures. The top 10% of genes with the highest levels of MeCP2 binding were identified in two independent ChIP-seq experiments. Together this integrated, genome-wide screen for MeCP2 target genes provided an overlapping list of 19 high-confidence MeCP2-responsive gene transcripts in astrocytes. Validation of candidate target gene transcripts by RT-PCR revealed that expression of Apoc2, Cdon, Csrp and Nrep were consistently responsive to MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes. Conclusions The first MeCP2 ChIP-seq and gene expression microarray analysis in

  18. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Eva M; Koehler, Yvonne; Dringen, Ralf [Center for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, PO Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany); Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 5-7, D-45117 Essen (Germany)

    2011-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO{sub 3} already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 {sup 0}C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 {sup 0}C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  19. Reactive astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease: A double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heejung; Lee, C Justin

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic and fatal disease, in which neuronal damage at its late stage cannot be easily reversed. Because AD progression is caused by multiple factors including diverse cellular processes, studies on AD pathogenesis at the molecular and cellular level are challenging. Based on the lessons from unsuccessful neuron-focused research for an AD cure, non-cell autonomous mechanisms including brain inflammation and reactive astrocytes have recently been in the spotlight as potential therapeutic targets for AD. Studies have shown that reactive astrocytes are not only the result of inflammatory defense reactions, but also an active catabolic decomposer that acts by taking up amyloid beta toxins. Here, we give an overview of the characteristics of reactive astrocytes as pathological features of AD. Reactive astrocytes exert biphasic effects, that is, beneficial or detrimental depending on multiple factors. Many efforts have been put forth for defining and characterizing molecular signatures for the beneficial and detrimental reactive astrocytes. In the foreseeable future, manipulating and targeting each established molecular signature should have profound therapeutic implications for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Interferon-Gamma Promotes Infection of Astrocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael Rodrigues; Mariante, Rafael M.; Silva, Andrea Alice; dos Santos, Ana Luiza Barbosa; Roffê, Ester; Santiago, Helton; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is crucial for immunity against intracellular pathogens such as the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). IFNγ is a pleiotropic cytokine which regulates activation of immune and non-immune cells; however, the effect of IFNγ in the central nervous system (CNS) and astrocytes during CD is unknown. Here we show that parasite persists in the CNS of C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain despite the increased expression of IFNγ mRNA. Furthermore, most of the T. cruzi-bearing cells were astrocytes located near IFNγ+ cells. Surprisingly, in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with IFNγ promoted the infection of astrocytes by T. cruzi increasing uptake and proliferation of intracellular forms, despite inducing increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Importantly, the effect of IFNγ on T. cruzi uptake and growth is completely blocked by the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody Infliximab and partially blocked by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME. These data support that IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi and critically implicate IFNγ-stimulated T. cruzi-infected astrocytes as sources of TNF and NO, which may contribute to parasite persistence and CNS pathology in CD. PMID:25695249

  1. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  2. Investigation on the suitable pressure for the preservation of astrocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotome, S; Shimizu, A [Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Soka University, 1-326 Tangi-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Nakajima, K [Department of Bioinformatics, Soka University, 1-326 Tangi-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Yoshimura, Y, E-mail: sotome_shinichi@yahoo.co.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Defence Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    The effects of pressure on the survival rate of astrocytes in growth medium (DMEM) were investigated at room temperature and at 4{sup 0}C, in an effort to establish the best conditions for the preservation. Survival rate at 4{sup 0}C was found to be higher than that at room temperature. The survival rate of astrocytes preserved for 4 days at 4{sup 0}C increased with increasing pressure up to 1.6 MPa, but decreased with increasing pressure above 1.6 MPa. At 10 MPa, all astrocytes died. The survival rate of cultured astrocytes decreased significantly following pressurization for 2 hours and the subsequent preservation for 2 days at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain pressure when preserving astrocytes. These results indicate that the cells can be stored at 4{sup 0}C under pressurization without freezing and without adding cryoprotective agents. Moreover, it may be possible to use this procedure as a new preservation method when cryopreservation is impractical.

  3. Effects of Hydro Alcoholic Extraction of Valeriana on Astrocyte Raphe Magnus in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajad Hatami joni

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of hydro alcoholic extract of valerian increases astrocytes number and decreases their size in nucleus of raphe Magna, which indicated the effect of this extraction on proliferation of astrocytes increasing.

  4. Control of excitatory CNS synaptogenesis by astrocyte-secreted proteins Hevin and SPARC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hakan Kucukdereli; Nicola J. Allen; Anthony T. Lee; Ava Feng; M. Ilcim Ozlu; Laura M. Conatser; Chandrani Chakraborty; Gail Workman; Matthew Weaver; E. Helene Sage; Ben A. Barres; Cagla Eroglu

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes regulate synaptic connectivity in the CNS through secreted signals. Here we identified two astrocyte-secreted proteins, hevin and SPARC, as regulators of excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro and in vivo...

  5. Histone acetylation in astrocytes suppresses GFAP and stimulates a reorganization of the intermediate filament network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanski, Regina; Sneeboer, Marjolein A M; van Bodegraven, Emma J; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kropff, Wietske; Vermunt, Marit W.; Creyghton, Menno P; De Filippis, Lidia; Vescovi, Angelo; Aronica, Eleonora; van Tijn, P.; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament in astrocytes and is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms during development. We demonstrate that histone acetylation also controls GFAP expression in mature astrocytes. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with

  6. Methylene Blue Protects Astrocytes against Glucose Oxygen Deprivation by Improving Cellular Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Gourav; Winters, Ali; Rich, Ryan M.; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism. In addition, MB has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration and brain injury. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of MB in astrocytes. Cell viability assays showed that MB treatment significantly protected primary astrocytes from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) & reoxygenation induced cell death. We also studied the effect of MB on cellular oxygen and glucose metabolism in primary astrocytes following OGD-reoxygenation injury. MB treatment significantly increased cellular oxygen consumption, glucose uptake and ATP production in primary astrocytes. In conclusion our study demonstrated that MB protects astrocytes against OGD-reoxygenation injury by improving astrocyte cellular respiration. PMID:25848957

  7. Methylene blue protects astrocytes against glucose oxygen deprivation by improving cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Gourav; Winters, Ali; Rich, Ryan M; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism. In addition, MB has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration and brain injury. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of MB in astrocytes. Cell viability assays showed that MB treatment significantly protected primary astrocytes from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) & reoxygenation induced cell death. We also studied the effect of MB on cellular oxygen and glucose metabolism in primary astrocytes following OGD-reoxygenation injury. MB treatment significantly increased cellular oxygen consumption, glucose uptake and ATP production in primary astrocytes. In conclusion our study demonstrated that MB protects astrocytes against OGD-reoxygenation injury by improving astrocyte cellular respiration.

  8. The α2β2 isoform combination dominates the astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity and is rendered nonfunctional by the α2.G301R familial hemiplegic migraine type 2-associated mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Anca; Larsen, Brian Roland; Assentoft, Mette; Holm, Rikke; Holt, Leanne Melissa; Vilhardt, Frederik; Vilsen, Bente; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Olsen, Michelle Lynne; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-11-01

    Synaptic activity results in transient elevations in extracellular K+ , clearance of which is critical for sustained function of the nervous system. The K+ clearance is, in part, accomplished by the neighboring astrocytes by mechanisms involving the Na+ /K+ -ATPase. The Na+ /K+ -ATPase consists of an α and a β subunit, each with several isoforms present in the central nervous system, of which the α2β2 and α2β1 isoform combinations are kinetically geared for astrocytic K+ clearance. While transcript analysis data designate α2β2 as predominantly astrocytic, the relative quantitative protein distribution and isoform pairing remain unknown. As cultured astrocytes altered their isoform expression in vitro, we isolated a pure astrocytic fraction from rat brain by a novel immunomagnetic separation approach in order to determine the expression levels of α and β isoforms by immunoblotting. In order to compare the abundance of isoforms in astrocytic samples, semi-quantification was carried out with polyhistidine-tagged Na+ /K+ -ATPase subunit isoforms expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes as standards to obtain an efficiency factor for each antibody. Proximity ligation assay illustrated that α2 paired efficiently with both β1 and β2 and the semi-quantification of the astrocytic fraction indicated that the astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase is dominated by α2, paired with β1 or β2 (in a 1:9 ratio). We demonstrate that while the familial hemiplegic migraine-associated α2.G301R mutant was not functionally expressed at the plasma membrane in a heterologous expression system, α2+/G301R mice displayed normal protein levels of α2 and glutamate transporters and that the one functional allele suffices to manage the general K+ dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Studies towards the synthesis of ATP analogs as potential glutamine synthetase inhibitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salisu, S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In research directed at the development of adenine triphosphate (ATP) analogs as potential glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitors, adenine and allopurinol derivatives have been synthesized either as novel ATP analogs or as scaffolds...

  10. 3-substituted anilines as scaffolds for the construction of glutamine synthetase and DXP-reductoisomerase inhibitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutorwa, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Synthetic Communications Volume 39, Issue 15, 2009 3-Substituted Anilines as Scaffolds for the Construction of Glutamine Synthetase and DXP-Reductoisomerase Inhibitors Marius Mutorwaa, Sheriff Salisua, Gregory L. Blatchbc, Colin Kenyond & Perry T...

  11. Physical mapping of the human glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase gene (GFPT) to chromosome 2p13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, T.E.; Mudri, S.L.; McKnight, G.L. [ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-03-20

    Diabetic hyperglycemia influences insulin resistance through a process termed glucose toxicity. Implicated as a source of the mediators of this toxicity is an increased intracellular glucose metabolism through the hexosamine pathway. The hexosamine pathway itself is controlled by the rate-limiting enzyme glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), which is the first enzyme of the pathway. It has been shown that there is a close correlation between the glucose-mediated reduction of GFAT activity and the onset of insulin desensitization of the glucose transport system, a condition associated with insulin-resistant states of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity. To gain a better understanding of the molecular regulation of GFAT and its role in the induction of insulin resistance, we previously isolated and cloned the cDNA for the human form of this enzyme and expressed the functional protein in Escherichia coli. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  12. SDF 1-alpha (CXCL12) triggers glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes on a millisecond time scale: imaging analysis at the single-vesicle level with TIRF microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Corrado; Marchaland, Julie; Regazzi, Romano; Bezzi, Paola

    2008-07-31

    Chemokines are small chemotactic molecules widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. A number of papers, during the past few years, have suggested that they have physiological functions in addition to their roles in neuroinflammatory diseases. In this context, the best evidence concerns the CXC-chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1alpha or CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4, whose signalling cascade is also implicated in the glutamate release process from astrocytes. Recently, astrocytic synaptic like microvesicles (SLMVs) that express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) and are able to release glutamate by Ca2+-dependent regulated exocytosis, have been described both in tissue and in cultured astrocytes. Here, in order to elucidate whether SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 system can participate to the brain fast communication systems, we investigated whether the activation of CXCR4 receptor triggers glutamate exocytosis in astrocytes. By using total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy and the membrane-fluorescent styryl dye FM4-64, we adapted an imaging methodology recently developed to measure exocytosis and recycling in synaptic terminals, and monitored the CXCR4-mediated exocytosis of SLMVs in astrocytes. We analyzed the co-localization of VGLUT with the FM dye at single-vesicle level, and observed the kinetics of the FM dye release during single fusion events. We found that the activation of CXCR4 receptors triggered a burst of exocytosis on a millisecond time scale that involved the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. These results support the idea that astrocytes can respond to external stimuli and communicate with the neighboring cells via fast release of glutamate.

  13. Form follows function: astrocyte morphology and immune dysfunction in SIV neuroAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Renner, Nicole A; Sansing, Hope A; Didier, Peter J; MacLean, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Cortical function is disrupted in neuroinflammatory disorders, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Astrocyte dysfunction includes retraction of foot processes from the blood-brain barrier and decreased removal of neurotransmitters from synaptic clefts. Mechanisms of astrocyte activation, including innate immune function and the fine neuroanatomy of astrocytes, however, remain to be investigated. We quantified the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes per square millimeter and the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to examine innate immune activation in astrocytes. We also performed detailed morphometric analyses of gray and white matter astrocytes in the frontal and parietal lobes of rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), both with and without encephalitis, an established model of AIDS neuropathogenesis. Protoplasmic astrocytes (gray matter) and fibrous astrocytes (deep white matter) were imaged, and morphometric features were analyzed using Neurolucida. Gray matter and white matter astrocytes showed no change in cell body size in animals infected with SIV regardless of encephalitic status. In SIV-infected macaques, both gray and white matter astrocytes had shorter, less ramified processes, resulting in decreased cell arbor compared with controls. SIV-infected macaques with encephalitis showed decreases in arbor length in white matter astrocytes and reduced complexity in gray matter astrocytes compared to controls. These results provide the first evidence that innate immune activation of astrocytes is linked to altered cortical astrocyte morphology in SIV/HIV infection. Here, we demonstrate that astrocyte remodeling is correlated with infection. Perturbed neuron-glia signaling may be a driving factor in the development of HAND.

  14. Differential Effects of Sodium Acetoacetate and Acetoacetic Acid Infusions on Alanine and Glutamine Metabolism in Man

    OpenAIRE

    Féry, Françoise; Balasse, Edmond O.

    1980-01-01

    It has been suggested that ketone bodies might participate in the nitrogen-sparing process occurring during prolonged starvation by inhibiting the muscular production of alanine and glutamine, which are the main gluconeogenic amino acids. The results of the ketone infusion studies on which this theory is based have been reevaluated in this study by following the plasma levels of ketone bodies, alanine, glutamine, and other substrates during 11.5 h in five groups of normal overnight-fasted sub...

  15. Glutamine-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition and Probiotics in Four Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ren-Ying; Wan, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Quan; Lu, Li-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Qi; Wu, Ying-Jie; Cai, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition (PN) and probiotics in adult autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) patients. Four adult AIE patients were identified from April 2006 to January 2012. Clinical and nutritional data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Glutamine-supplemented PN started immediately when the AIE diagnosis was confirmed. The total PN duration was 351 days. According to the PN prescription, the average caloric intake ranged from 20 to 25 kca...

  16. Robustness in Escherichia coli Glutamate and Glutamine Synthesis Studied by a Kinetic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lodeiro, Aníbal; Melgarejo, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic control of glutamine and glutamate synthesis from ammonia and oxoglutarate in Escherichia coli is tight and complex. In this work, the role of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) regulation in this control was studied. Both enzymes form a linear pathway, which can also have a cyclic topology if glutamate–oxoglutarate amino transferase (GOGAT) activity is included. We modelled the metabolic pathways in the linear or cyclic topologies using a coupled nonlinear...

  17. Glutamine protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing cisplatin accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Eun Young; Jung, Myeong Hee; Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Jung Ill; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Chung, Hye Jin; Chang, Se-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug but induces acute kidney injury (AKI). Cisplatin-induced AKI depends on several signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells. Glutamine is a substrate for the synthesis of glutathione, the most abundant intracellular thiol and antioxidant, and plays an important role in protecting cells from apoptosis induced by different stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of glutamine on cisplatin-induced AKI. Rats ...

  18. Induction of functional dopamine neurons from human astrocytes in vitro and mouse astrocytes in a Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti di Val Cervo, Pia; Romanov, Roman A; Spigolon, Giada; Masini, Débora; Martín-Montañez, Elisa; Toledo, Enrique M; La Manno, Gioele; Feyder, Michael; Pifl, Christian; Ng, Yi-Han; Sánchez, Sara Padrell; Linnarsson, Sten; Wernig, Marius; Harkany, Tibor; Fisone, Gilberto; Arenas, Ernest

    2017-05-01

    Cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disease have focused on transplantation of the cell types affected by the pathological process. Here we describe an alternative strategy for Parkinson's disease in which dopamine neurons are generated by direct conversion of astrocytes. Using three transcription factors, NEUROD1, ASCL1 and LMX1A, and the microRNA miR218, collectively designated NeAL218, we reprogram human astrocytes in vitro, and mouse astrocytes in vivo, into induced dopamine neurons (iDANs). Reprogramming efficiency in vitro is improved by small molecules that promote chromatin remodeling and activate the TGFβ, Shh and Wnt signaling pathways. The reprogramming efficiency of human astrocytes reaches up to 16%, resulting in iDANs with appropriate midbrain markers and excitability. In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, NeAL218 alone reprograms adult striatal astrocytes into iDANs that are excitable and correct some aspects of motor behavior in vivo, including gait impairments. With further optimization, this approach may enable clinical therapies for Parkinson's disease by delivery of genes rather than cells.

  19. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Eliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n=5 were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4 versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p<=0.10, and two patients in the control group died of bacterial infections (50% vs. 0%, p<=0.10. Days in the ICU, in the hospital, and with ventilation numerically favored glutamine therapy, although without statistical significance. The supplements were usually well tolerated, and no patient required discontinuation of the program. The conclusion was that glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  20. Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ren Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2 were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n=20 and control (normal saline, n=20 groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5 or to culture medium (control. Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (p<0.05. In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53 and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR. L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5. More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells’ beating function at a low pH level.

  1. Cerebral glutamine concentration and lactate-pyruvate ratio in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, P.N.; Hauerberg, J.; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Hyperammonemia causes brain edema and high intracranial pressure (ICP) in acute liver failure (ALF) by accumulation of glutamine in brain. Since a high-level glutamine may compromise mitochondrial function, the aim of this study was to determine if the lactate-pyruvate ratio is associated...... with a rise in the glutamine concentration and ICP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 13 patients with ALF (8F/5M; median age 46 (range 18-66) years) the cerebral extracellular concentrations of glutamine, lactate, and pyruvate were measured by in vivo brain microdialysis together with ICP and cerebral perfusion...... pressure (CPP). RESULTS: The cerebral glutamine concentration was 4,396 (1,011-9,712) microM, lactate 2.15 (1.1-4.45) mM, and pyruvate 101 (43-255) microM. The lactate-pyruvate ratio was 21 (16-40), ICP 20 (2-28) mmHg, and CPP 72 (56-115) mmHg. Cerebral glutamine concentration correlated with the lactate...

  2. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Sica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, Huntington’s dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  3. Astrocytes as an HIV Reservoir: Mechanism of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guan-Han; Henderson, Lisa; Nath, Avindra

    2016-01-01

    If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-tocell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have the ability to directly bind to CXCR4, triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4. In this review, we closely examine the evidence for HIV infection of astrocytes in the brain and the mechanisms for viral entry and regulation in this cell type, and discuss an approach for controlling this viral reservoir.

  4. Autophagy in astrocytes: a novel culprit in lysosomal storage disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Malta, Chiara; Fryer, John D; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Neurodegeneration is a prominent feature of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Emerging data identify autophagy dysfunction in neurons as a major component of the phenotype. However, the autophagy pathway in the CNS has been studied predominantly in neurons, whereas in other cell types it has been largely unexplored. We studied the lysosome-autophagic pathway in astrocytes from a murine model of multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a severe form of LSD. Similar to what was observed in neurons, we found that lysosomal storage in astrocytes impairs autophagosome maturation and this, in turn, has an impact upon the survival of cortical neurons and accounts for some of the neurological features found in MSD. Thus, our data indicate that lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction in astrocytes is an important component of neurodegeneration in LSDs.

  5. Astrocytes and synaptic plasticity in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Abraham, Wickliffe C

    2017-06-01

    Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity phenomena such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression are candidate mechanisms for storing information in the brain. Regulation of synaptic plasticity is critical for healthy cognition and learning and this is provided in part by metaplasticity, which can act to maintain synaptic transmission within a dynamic range and potentially prevent excitotoxicity. Metaplasticity mechanisms also allow neurons to integrate plasticity-associated signals over time. Interestingly, astrocytes appear to be critical for certain forms of synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity mechanisms. Synaptic dysfunction is increasingly viewed as an early feature of AD that is correlated with the severity of cognitive decline, and the development of these pathologies is correlated with a rise in reactive astrocytes. This review focuses on the contributions of astrocytes to synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity in normal tissue, and addresses whether astroglial pathology may lead to aberrant engagement of these mechanisms in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Novel cell separation method for molecular analysis of neuron-astrocyte co-cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.; Camargo, N.K.; Carney, K.E.; Oliet, S.H.R.; Smit, A.B.; Verheijen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the importance of astrocyte-neuron communication in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity has become increasingly clear. Since neuron-astrocyte interactions represent highly dynamic and reciprocal processes, we hypothesized that many astrocyte genes may be regulated as a

  7. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...... in astrocytic-neuronal networks. We reproduce local and global dynamical patterns observed experimentally....

  16. Expression of neuronal antigens by astrocytes derived from EGF-generated neuroprogenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinstine, M; Iacovitti, L

    1996-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that astrocytes reacting to CNS injury can express antigens normally associated with neurons. The origin of the reactive astrocytes, i.e., whether they are newly differentiated glial cells or preexisting astrocytes somehow triggered to express neuronal markers, remains difficult to determine using an in vivo model system. An in vitro model may prove more manageable. In the present study, primary brain cultures and EGF-generated neuroprogenitor cells were used to study the expression of neuronal antigens by established (primary) and nascent astrocytes, respectively. Astrocytes derived directly from dissociated mouse brains exhibited a flat morphology typical of type 1 astrocytes. These cells were nestin and GFAP positive and, in most cases, the antigens were colocalized. Primary astrocytes did not appear to express the putative neuronal markers GABA, Tau, or MAP2. Nascent astrocytes derived from EGF-generated progenitor cells showed a similar pattern of GFAP and nestin immunoreactivity. Contrary to primary astrocytes, many GFAP-intensive, stellate astrocytes exhibited Tau and MAP2. These cells also exhibited an intense nestin immunoreactivity. These data suggest that the reactive astrocytes expressing neuronal antigens in response to CNS trauma may be derived from neural progenitor cells rather than from previously differentiated astrocytes.

  17. Contributions of Glycogen to Astrocytic Energetics during Brain Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 mol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K+ level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound. PMID:24515302

  18. Astrocytes pathology in ALS: A potential therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Sonja

    2017-06-15

    The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are multifactorial and include genetic and environmental factors. Nowadays, it is well accepted that neuronal loss is driven by non-cell autonomous toxicity. Non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, have been described to significantly contribute to motoneuron cell death and disease progression in cell culture experiments and animal models of ALS. Astrocytes are essential for neuronal survival and function by regulating neurotransmitter and ion homeostasis, immune response, blood flow and glucose uptake, antioxidant defence and growth factor release. Based on their significant functions in "housekeeping" the central nervous system (CNS), they are no longer thought to be passive bystanders but rather contributors to ALS pathogenesis. Findings from animal models have broadened our knowledge about different pathomechanisms in ALS, but therapeutic approaches to impede disease progression failed. So far, there is no cure for ALS and effective medication to slow down disease progression is limited. Targeting only a single aspect of this multifactorial disease may exhibit therapeutic limitations. Hence, novel cellular targets must be defined and new pharmaceutical strategies, such as combinatorial drug therapies are urgently needed. The present review discusses the physiological role of astrocytes and current hypotheses of astrocyte pathology in ALS. Furthermore, recent investigation of potential drug candidates in astrocyte cell culture systems and animal models, as well as data obtained from clinical trials, will be addressed. The central role of astrocytes in ALS pathogenesis makes them a promising target for pharmaceutical interventions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Astrocytes in oligodendrocyte lineage development and white matter pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasi eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available White matter is primarily composed of myelin and myelinated axons. Structural and functional completeness of myelin is critical for the reliable and efficient transmission of information. White matter injury has been associated with the development of many demyelinating diseases. Despite a variety of scientific advances aimed at promoting re-myelination, their benefit has proven at best to be marginal. Research suggests that the failure of the re-myelination process may be the result of an unfavorable microenvironment. Astrocytes, are the most ample and diverse type of glial cells in central nervous system which display multiple functions for the cells of the oligodendrocytes lineage. As such, much attention has recently been drawn to astrocyte function in terms of white matter myelin repair. They are different in white matter from those in grey matter in specific regards to development, morphology, location, protein expression and other supportive functions. During the process of demyelination and re-myelination, the functions of astrocytes are dynamic in that they are able to change functions in accordance to different time points, triggers or reactive pathways resulting in vastly different biologic effects. They have pivotal effects on oligodendrocytes and other cell types in the oligodendrocyte lineage by serving as an energy supplier, a participant of immunological and inflammatory functions, a source of trophic factors and iron and a sustainer of homeostasis. Astrocytic impairment has been shown to be directly linked to the development of neuromyelities optica. In addition, astroctyes have also been implicated in other white matter conditions such as psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Inhibiting specifically detrimental signaling pathways in astrocytes while preserving their beneficial functions may be a promising approach for

  20. NT2 derived neuronal and astrocytic network signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Hill

    Full Text Available A major focus of stem cell research is the generation of neurons that may then be implanted to treat neurodegenerative diseases. However, a picture is emerging where astrocytes are partners to neurons in sustaining and modulating brain function. We therefore investigated the functional properties of NT2 derived astrocytes and neurons using electrophysiological and calcium imaging approaches. NT2 neurons (NT2Ns expressed sodium dependent action potentials, as well as responses to depolarisation and the neurotransmitter glutamate. NT2Ns exhibited spontaneous and coordinated calcium elevations in clusters and in extended processes, indicating local and long distance signalling. Tetrodotoxin sensitive network activity could also be evoked by electrical stimulation. Similarly, NT2 astrocytes (NT2As exhibited morphology and functional properties consistent with this glial cell type. NT2As responded to neuronal activity and to exogenously applied neurotransmitters with calcium elevations, and in contrast to neurons, also exhibited spontaneous rhythmic calcium oscillations. NT2As also generated propagating calcium waves that were gap junction and purinergic signalling dependent. Our results show that NT2 derived astrocytes exhibit appropriate functionality and that NT2N networks interact with NT2A networks in co-culture. These findings underline the utility of such cultures to investigate human brain cell type signalling under controlled conditions. Furthermore, since stem cell derived neuron function and survival is of great importance therapeutically, our findings suggest that the presence of complementary astrocytes may be valuable in supporting stem cell derived neuronal networks. Indeed, this also supports the intriguing possibility of selective therapeutic replacement of astrocytes in diseases where these cells are either lost or lose functionality.

  1. Theophylline potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mizue; Takano, Katsura; Kawabe, Kenji; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the functions of astrocytes is important for understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of various neurodegenerative diseases. Theophylline is a common drug for bronchial asthma and occasionally develops side-effects, such as acute encephalopathy; although the pathogenic mechanism of the side-effects is unknown. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitricoxide (NO) production is generally used for an index of the activation of astrocyte in vitro. In this study, in order to elucidate the effect of theophylline on the astrocytic functions, we examined the LPS-induced NO production and the expression of iNOS in cultured rat cortex astrocytes.Theophylline alone could not induce the NO production; however, NO production induced by LPS was enhanced by theophylline in a dose-dependent manner; and by isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was further increased by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, a membrane-permeable cAMP analog; and by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator. When the cells were preincubated with Rp-8-Br-cAMP, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was decreased. The extent of iNOS protein expression induced by LPS was also enhanced by theophylline.It is likely that phosphodiesterase inhibition is a major action mechanism for the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production in astrocytes. Theophylline-induced acute encephalopathy might be due to the hyper-activation of astrocytes via cAMP signaling to produce excess amount of NO.

  2. SSa ameliorates the Glu uptaking capacity of astrocytes in epilepsy via AP-1/miR-155/GLAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Bi, Yongfeng; Ding, Li; Zhu, Weiwei; Ye, Ming

    2017-11-25

    Neuronal glutamate (Glu) release has been reported to mediate the neuronal injury of epilepsy, while Saikosaponin a (Ssa) was shown to ameliorate the epilepsy that induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). However, potential interactions between glutamate release and Ssa has not been fully identified. Herein, PTZ-induced rat model were established to evaluate the neuron injury, while Ssa was used to treat the model rat. Rat astrocytes were isolated and induced by PTZ to construct cell models of epilepsy, real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine genes' expression. Luciferase reporter assay were performed to validate the relationship between miR-155-5p and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). The level of Glu was sampled for HPLC measurement. Ssa treatment could decrease the level of Glu in hippocampus of rat. PTZ-induced astrocytes pretreated with Ssa significantly decreased the expression of AP-1 and miR-155, but increased the expression of GLAST, furthermore, PTZ stimulation enables astrocytes to uptake large amount of extracellular Glu. AP-1 could bind with the promoter of miR-155 to promote its transcription. MiR-155 tragets GLAST to govern its expression. Ssa treatment played pivotal roles in PTZ-induced epilepsy by promoting the expression of GLAT1 and uptaking of Glu, which was mediated by the expression of AP-1 and miR-155. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Glutamine Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate ventilator settings may cause overwhelming inflammatory responses associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Here, we examined potential benefits of glutamine (GLN on a two-hit model for VILI after acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. Rats were intratracheally challenged with hydrochloric acid as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, then randomly received intravenous GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution (vehicle control thirty min before different ventilator strategies. Rats were then randomized to receive mechanical ventilation as a second hit with a high tidal volume (TV of 15 mL/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP or a low TV of 6 mL/kg with PEEP of 5 cm H2O. We evaluated lung oxygenation, inflammation, mechanics, and histology. After ventilator use for 4 h, high TV resulted in greater lung injury physiologic and biologic indices. Compared with vehicle treated rats, GLN administration attenuated lung injury, with improved oxygenation and static compliance, and decreased respiratory elastance, lung edema, extended lung destruction (lung injury scores and lung histology, neutrophil recruitment in the lung, and cytokine production. Thus, GLN administration improved the physiologic and biologic profiles of this experimental model of VILI based on the two-hit theory.

  4. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve.

  5. Versatile and simple approach to determine astrocyte territories in mouse neocortex and hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Grosche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides their neuronal support functions, astrocytes are active partners in neuronal information processing. The typical territorial structure of astrocytes (the volume of neuropil occupied by a single astrocyte is pivotal for many aspects of glia-neuron interactions. METHODS: Individual astrocyte territorial volumes are measured by Golgi impregnation, and astrocyte densities are determined by S100β immunolabeling. These data are compared with results from conventionally applied methods such as dye filling and determination of the density of astrocyte networks by biocytin loading. Finally, we implemented our new approach to investigate age-related changes in astrocyte territories in the cortex and hippocampus of 5- and 21-month-old mice. RESULTS: The data obtained by our simplified approach based on Golgi impregnation were compared to previously published dye filling experiments, and yielded remarkably comparable results regarding astrocyte territorial volumes. Moreover, we found that almost all coupled astrocytes (as indicated by biocytin loading were immunopositive for S100β. A first application of this new experimental approach gives insight in age-dependent changes in astrocyte territorial volumes. They increased with age, while cell densities remained stable. In 5-month-old mice, the overlap factor was close to 1, revealing little or no interdigitation of astrocyte territories. However, in 21-month-old mice, the overlap factor was more than 2, suggesting that processes of adjacent astrocytes interdigitate. CONCLUSION: Here we verified the usability of a simple, versatile method for assessing astrocyte territories and the overlap factor between adjacent territories. Second, we found that there is an age-related increase in territorial volumes of astrocytes that leads to loss of the strict organization in non-overlapping territories. Future studies should elucidate the physiological relevance of this adaptive reaction of

  6. Plasma glutamine levels before cardiac surgery are related to post-surgery infections; an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buter, Hanneke; Koopmans, Matty; Kemperman, Ramses; Jekel, Lilian; Boerma, Christiaan

    2016-11-25

    A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections. We performed a single-centre prospective, observational study in a closed-format, 20-bed, mixed ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included consecutive patients after elective cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood samples were collected on the day prior to surgery and at admission on the ICU. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (Regional Review Committee Patient-related Research, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, nWMO 115, April 28th 2015). Ninety patients were included. Pre-operative plasma glutamine level was 0.42 ± 0.10 mmol/l and post-operative 0.38 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001). There was no relation between duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic occlusion time and changes in plasma glutamine levels. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of a positive culture during the post-operative course and pre-operative plasma glutamine levels (p = 0.04). Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower just after cardiac surgery compared to pre-operative levels. We did not find a relation between the decrease in plasma glutamine levels and the duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic clamp time. There was a correlation between pre-operative plasma glutamine levels and the presence of a positive culture after cardiac surgery

  7. Plasma glutamine levels before cardiac surgery are related to post-surgery infections; an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Buter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC. But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections. Methods We performed a single-centre prospective, observational study in a closed-format, 20-bed, mixed ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included consecutive patients after elective cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood samples were collected on the day prior to surgery and at admission on the ICU. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (Regional Review Committee Patient-related Research, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, nWMO 115, April 28th 2015. Results Ninety patients were included. Pre-operative plasma glutamine level was 0.42 ± 0.10 mmol/l and post-operative 0.38 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001. There was no relation between duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic occlusion time and changes in plasma glutamine levels. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of a positive culture during the post-operative course and pre-operative plasma glutamine levels (p = 0.04. Conclusion Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower just after cardiac surgery compared to pre-operative levels. We did not find a relation between the decrease in plasma glutamine levels and the duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic clamp time. There was a correlation between pre-operative plasma glutamine levels

  8. The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; van de Schoor, P A

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated previous claims that ingestion of glutamine and of protein-carbohydrate mixtures may increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis following intense exercise. Eight trained subjects were studied during 3 h of recovery while consuming one of four drinks in random order....... Drinks were ingested in three 500 ml boluses, immediately after exercise and then after 1 and 2 h of recovery. Each bolus of the control drink contained 0.8 g x kg(-1) body weight of glucose. The other drinks contained the same amount of glucose and 0.3 g x kg(-1) body weight of 1) glutamine, 2) a wheat...... hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks...

  9. Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δC) in Organs of Weaned Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Borges Amorim; Dirlei Antonio Berto; Mayra Anton Dib Saleh; Filipe Garcia Telles; Juliana Célia Denadai; Maria Márcia Pereira Sartori; Fabiana Golin Luiggi; Luan Sousa Santos; Carlos Ducatti

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and physiological alterations occur in the digestive system of weanling piglets, compromising the performance in subsequent phases. This experiment aimed at verifying the influence of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides on the carbon turnover in the pancreas and liver of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. Four diets were evaluated: glutamine, glutamic acid or nucleotides-free diet (CD); containing 1% glutamine (GD); containing 1% glutamic acid (GAD) and containing 1% nucleotides...

  10. GLUTAMIN MEMPERCEPAT WAKTU PEMULIHAN JUMLAH SEL LIMFOSIT LIEN SETELAH AKTIVITAS FISIK MAKSIMAL PADA MENCIT (GLUTAMINE SHORTENS RECOVERY TIME OF LIEN LYMPHOCYTES AFTER EXCESSIVE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jawi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The immunologic? system? of the body requires? suitable recovery time after? excessive physical? activity. The recovery? time of spleen lymphocytes after? excessive? physical activity? in one? investigation was? 3? days. The? aim? of this? research is to identify?the role of? glutamine? in shortening? the recovery time of? spleen? lymphocytes? after?excessive physical activity. The? study? was conducted? on? 70? adults? Balb/c mice which? were? divided? into? 7? groups, with? a randomized control? group post-test? only design. In this? study? an observation? was made on? spleen? lymphocytes? of control, after? excessive? physical activity(in the the? form of swimming? until? near? drowning with glutamine,? without glutamine ?and? after? the? recovery time of 1 and 2 days? of? each of? the 10 mice. Spleen? lymphocytes? were? counted in spleen preparation by mikroskop. The data obtained were tested? by? one way Anova. The findings? showed? that the number of spleen? lymphocytes significantly decrease after? excessive? physical activity?? in the?glutamine? and? non glutamine groups ( p < 0,05.The number of spleen? lymphocytes? was? not different as compered to control group or returned? to normal after recovery? time? of 1? day? in? the? glutamine group (p > 0,05 .?In the nonglutamine group the number of spleen lymphocytes was different from control group until 2 days (p<0,05 . From this finding it can be concluded that glutamine? shortens the recovery time of spleen lymphocytes? after? excessive? physical activity in mice.

  11. Maize glutamine synthetase cDNAs: isolation by direct genetic selection in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snustad, D P; Hunsperger, J P; Chereskin, B M; Messing, J

    1988-12-01

    Maize glutamine synthetase cDNA clones were isolated by genetic selection for functional rescue of an Escherichia coli delta glnA mutant growing on medium lacking glutamine. The Black Mexican Sweet cDNA library used in this study was constructed in pUC13 such that cDNA sense strands were transcribed under the control of the lac promoter. E. coli delta glnA cells were transformed with cDNA library plasmid DNA, grown briefly in rich medium to allow phenotypic expression of the cDNAs and the pUC13 ampr gene, and challenged to grow on agar medium lacking glutamine. Large numbers of glutamine synthetase cDNA clones have been identified in individual 150-mm Petri dishes; all characterized cDNA clones carry complete coding sequences. Two cDNAs identical except for different 5' and 3' termini have been sequenced. The major open reading frame predicts a protein with an amino acid sequence that exhibits striking similarity to the amino acid sequences of the predicted products of previously sequenced eukaryotic glutamine synthetase cDNAs and genes. In addition, the maize glutamine synthetase cDNAs were shown to contain a 5' mini-ORF of 29 codons separated by 37 nucleotide pairs from the major ORF. This mini-ORF was shown not to be essential for the functional rescue of the E. coli delta glnA mutant. Expression of the cDNAs in E. coli is presumed to be due to the function of a polycistronic hybrid lac messenger RNA or translational fusions encoded by the pUC plasmids. Proteins of the expected sizes encoded by two different pUC clones were shown to react with antibodies to tobacco glutamine synthetase.

  12. Effects of glutamine on brain development in very preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Pouwels, Petra J W; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-11-01

    The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the number of serious neonatal infections in very preterm children, which may benefit long-term brain development. The aims of the current follow-up study were to (1) determine the long-term effects of glutamine-enriched feeding in the first month after birth in very preterm children on measures of brain development at school age, and (2) elucidate a potential mediating role of serious neonatal infections. Fifty-two very preterm children who originally took part in a randomized controlled trial on enteral glutamine supplementation between day 3 and 30 after birth participated at a mean (SD) age of 8.6 (0.3) years. Measures of brain development included volumetric outcomes of major brain structures, as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter tracts. Glutamine supplementation in the first month was associated with medium-sized increases in white matter (d = 0.54, P = .03), hippocampus (d = 0.47, P = .02), and brain stem (d = 0.54, P = .04) volumes at school age. Exploratory analyses using an uncorrected P value indicated higher FA values of the bilateral cingulum hippocampal tract in the glutamine group. All differences were either strongly associated (hippocampus volume, brain stem volume, and FA values of cingulum hippocampal tract) or completely mediated (white matter volume) by the lower number of serious neonatal infections in the glutamine group. Short-term glutamine supplementation after birth increases white matter, hippocampus, and brain stem volumes in very preterm children at school age, mediated by a decrease in serious neonatal infections.

  13. Does oral glutamine improve insulin sensitivity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santiago, Lournaris; Mauras, Nelly; Hossain, Jobayer; Weltman, Arthur L; Darmaun, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    The decline in insulin sensitivity (SI) associated with puberty increases the difficulty of achieving glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamine supplementation affects blood glucose by enhancing SI in adolescents with T1D. Thirteen adolescents with T1D (HbA1C 8.2 ± 0.1%) were admitted to perform afternoon exercise (four 15-min treadmill/5-min rest cycles of exercise) on two occasions within a 4-wk period. They were randomized to receive a drink containing either glutamine (0.25 g/kg) or placebo before exercise, at bedtime, and early morning in a double-blind, crossover design. Blood glucose was monitored overnight, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed the following morning. Blood glucose concentration dropped comparably during exercise on both days. However, the total number of nocturnal hypoglycemic events (17 versus 7, P = 0.045) and the cumulative probability of overnight hypoglycemia (50% versus 33%, P = 0.02) were higher on the glutamine day than on the placebo day. During clamp, glucose infusion rate was not affected by glutamine supplementation (7.7 ± 1 mg • kg-1 • min-1 versus 7.0 ± 1; glutamine versus placebo; P = 0.4). Oral glutamine supplementation decreases blood glucose in adolescents with T1D after exercise. Insulin sensitivity, however, was unaltered during the euglycemic clamp. Although the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated, studies to explore the potential use of glutamine to improve blood glucose control are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Small RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of TREK-1 potassium channel in cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tang, Ronghua; Liu, Yang; Song, Jingjiao; Yu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Wei; Xie, Minjie

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of TREK-1 silencing on the function of astrocytes. Three 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes (siT1, siT2, siT3) targeting TREK-1 were constructed. Cy3-labeled dsRNA oligmers were used to determine the transfection efficiency in cultured astrocytes. TREK-1-specific siRNA duplexes (siT1, siT2, siT3) at the optimal concentration were transfected into cultured astrocytes, and the most efficient siRNA was identified by the method of immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting. The proliferation of astrocytes tranfected with TREK-1-targeting siRNA under hypoxia condition was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The results showed that TREK-1 was expressed in cultured astrocytes. The dsRNA oligmers targeting TREK-1 could be transfected efficiently in cultured astrocytes and down-regulate the expression of TREK-1 in astrocytes. Moreover, the down-regulation of TREK-1 in astrocytes contributed to the proliferation of astrocytes under hypoxia condition as determined by cell cycle analysis. It was concluded that siRNA is a powerful technique that can be used to knockdown the expression of TREK-1 in astrocytes, which helps further investigate the function of TREK-1 channel in astrocytes under physicological and pathological condition.

  15. Coincident Generation of Pyramidal Neurons and Protoplasmic Astrocytes in Neocortical Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magavi, Sanjay; Friedmann, Drew; Banks, Garrett; Stolfi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes, one of the most common cell types in the brain, are essential for processes ranging from neural development through potassium homeostasis to synaptic plasticity. Surprisingly, the developmental origins of astrocytes in the neocortex are still controversial. To investigate the patterns of astrocyte development in the neocortex we examined cortical development in a transgenic mouse in which a random, sparse subset of neural progenitors undergoes CRE/lox recombination, permanently labeling their progeny. We demonstrate that neural progenitors in neocortex generate discrete columnar structures that contain both projection neurons and protoplasmic astrocytes. Ninety-five percent of developmental cortical columns labeled in our system contained both astrocytes and neurons. The astrocyte to neuron ratio of labeled cells in a developmental column was 1:7.4, similar to the overall ratio of 1:8.4 across the entire gray matter of the neocortex, indicating that column-associated astrocytes account for the majority of protoplasmic astrocytes in neocortex. Most of the labeled columns contained multiple clusters of several astrocytes. Dividing cells were found at the base of neuronal columns at the beginning of gliogenesis, and later within the cortical layers, suggesting a mechanism by which astrocytes could be distributed within a column. These data indicate that radial glia are the source of both neurons and astrocytes in the neocortex, and that these two cell types are generated in a spatially restricted manner during cortical development. PMID:22492032

  16. GASTRIC RESIDUAL VOLUME BY MAGNETIC RESSONANCE AFTER INTAKE OF MALTODEXTRIN AND GLUTAMINE: a randomized double-blind, crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi R BRIANEZ; Caporossi,Cervantes; Yure W de MOURA; Lorena A DIAS; Regis V LEAL; Aguilar-Nascimento,José E.

    2014-01-01

    ContextThe addition of glutamine in preoperative drinks may enhance the benefits of carbohydrate alone.ObjectivesTo evaluate the gastric residual volume after the intake of a beverage containing carbohydrate plus glutamine.MethodsEleven healthy volunteers (24-30 years-old) were randomized in a crossover fashion to intake 400 mL (4h before) and 200 mL (2h before) of a beverage containing either 12.5% maltodextrin (carbohydrate group) or 12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g of glutamine (glutamine grou...

  17. Astrocytes in development, aging and disease: starring GFAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, J.

    2010-01-01

    We show in this thesis that different subtypes of astrocytes comprise specialized GFAP-IF networks, that change during development, aging and Alzheimer’s disease. The novel functions that have emerged for the IF network suggest these changes can play an important part in the specialized function of

  18. The Indispensable Roles of Microglia and Astrocytes during Brain Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemst, Kitty; Noctor, Stephen C; Lucassen, Paul J; Hol, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Glia are essential for brain functioning during development and in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the various roles of both microglia and astrocytes, and their interactions during brain development. Although both cells are fundamentally different in origin and function, they often affect the same

  19. The indispensable roles of microglia and astrocytes during brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemst, Kitty; Noctor, Stephen C.; Lucassen, Paul J.; Hol, Elly M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/F-1891-2013

    2016-01-01

    Glia are essential for brain functioning during development and in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the various roles of both microglia and astrocytes, and their interactions during brain development. Although both cells are fundamentally different in origin and function, they often affect the same

  20. Homocysteine Induces Glial Reactivity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Aline; Bellaver, Bruna; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Santos, Camila Leite; Nonose, Yasmine; Kolling, Janaina; Dos Santos, Tiago M; de Assis, Adriano M; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-03-02

    Astrocytes are dynamic glial cells associated to neurotransmitter systems, metabolic functions, antioxidant defense, and inflammatory response, maintaining the brain homeostasis. Elevated concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) are involved in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. In line with this, our hypothesis was that Hcy could promote glial reactivity in a model of cortical primary astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. Thus, cortical astrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of Hcy (10, 30, and 100 μM) during 24 h. After the treatment, we analyzed cell viability, morphological parameters, antioxidant defenses, and inflammatory response. Hcy did not induce any alteration in cell viability; however, it was able to induce cytoskeleton rearrangement. The treatment with Hcy also promoted a significant decrease in the activities of Na(+), K(+) ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as in the glutathione (GSH) content. Additionally, Hcy induced an increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In an attempt to elucidate the putative mechanisms involved in the Hcy-induced glial reactivity, we measured the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) transcriptional activity and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, which were activated and inhibited by Hcy, respectively. In summary, our findings provide important evidences that Hcy modulates critical astrocyte parameters from adult rats, which might be associated to the aging process.

  1. How do astrocytes shape synaptic transmission? Insights from electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn eDallérac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A major breakthrough in neuroscience has been the realization in the last decades that the dogmatic view of astroglial cells as being merely fostering and buffering elements of the nervous system is simplistic. A wealth of investigations now shows that astrocytes actually participate in the control of synaptic transmission in an active manner. This was first hinted by the intimate contacts glial processes make with neurons, particularly at the synaptic level, and evidenced using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Calcium imaging has provided critical evidence demonstrating that astrocytic regulation of synaptic efficacy is not a passive phenomenon. However, given that cellular activation is not only represented by calcium signaling, it is also crucial to assess concomitant mechanisms. We and others have used electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously record neuronal and astrocytic activity, thus enabling the study of multiple ionic currents and in depth investigation of neuro-glial dialogues. In the current review, we focus on the input such approach has provided in the understanding of astrocyte-neuron interactions underlying control of synaptic efficacy.

  2. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang-Nan [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China); Wang, Guang-Hui [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: chenzhong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine > pyrilamine > astemizole > triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the

  3. Dynamic volume changes in astrocytes are an intrinsic phenomenon mediated by bicarbonate ion flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M Florence

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, the major type of non-neuronal cells in the brain, play an important functional role in extracellular potassium ([K(+](o and pH homeostasis. Pathological brain states that result in [K(+](o and pH dysregulation have been shown to cause astrocyte swelling. However, whether astrocyte volume changes occur under physiological conditions is not known. In this study we used two-photon imaging to visualize real-time astrocyte volume changes in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus CA1 region. Astrocytes were observed to swell by 19.0±0.9% in response to a small physiological increase in the concentration of [K(+](o (3 mM. Astrocyte swelling was mediated by the influx of bicarbonate (HCO(3- ions as swelling was significantly decreased when the influx of HCO(3- was reduced. We found: 1 in HCO(3- free extracellular solution astrocytes swelled by 5.4±0.7%, 2 when the activity of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC was blocked the astrocytes swelled by 8.3±0.7%, and 3 in the presence of an extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA inhibitor astrocytes swelled by 11.4±0.6%. Because a significant HCO(3- efflux is known to occur through the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA channel, we performed a series of experiments to determine if astrocytes were capable of HCO(3- mediated volume shrinkage with GABA channel activation. Astrocytes were found to shrink -7.7±0.5% of control in response to the GABA(A channel agonist muscimol. Astrocyte shrinkage from GABA(A channel activation was significantly decreased to -5.0±0.6% of control in the presence of the membrane-permeant CA inhibitor acetazolamide (ACTZ. These dynamic astrocyte volume changes may represent a previously unappreciated yet fundamental mechanism by which astrocytes regulate physiological brain functioning.

  4. Asparagine and glutamine ladders promote cross-species prion conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Timothy D; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Jiang, Lin; Rodriguez, José A; Alderson, Nazilla; Eisenberg, David S; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2017-09-20

    Prion transmission between species is governed in part by primary sequence similarity between the infectious prion aggregate, PrPSc, and the cellular prion protein of the host, PrPC A puzzling feature of prion formation is that certain PrPC sequences, such as that of bank vole, can be converted by a remarkably broad array of different mammalian prions, whereas others, such as rabbit, show robust resistance to cross-species prion conversion. To examine the structural determinants that confer susceptibility or resistance to prion conversion, we systematically tested over 40 PrPC variants of susceptible and resistant PrPC sequences in a prion conversion assay. Five key residue positions markedly impacted prion conversion, four of which were in steric zipper segments where side chains from amino acids tightly interdigitate in a dry interface. Strikingly, all 5 residue substitutions modulating prion conversion involved the gain or loss of an asparagine or glutamine residue. For 2 of 4 positions, N and Q residues were not interchangeable, revealing a strict requirement for either an N or Q residue. Bank voles have a high number of N and Q residues and a high N:Q ratio. These findings suggest that a high number of N and Q residues at specific positions may stabilize β-sheets and lower the energy barrier for crossspecies prion transmission, potentially due to hydrogen bond networks from side chain amides forming extended N/Q ladders. These data also suggest that multiple PrPC segments containing N/Q residues may act in concert along a replicative interface to promote prion conversion. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Decreased functions of astrocytes on carbon nanofiber materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Janice L; Waid, Michael C; Shi, Riyi; Webster, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers possess excellent conductivity properties, which may be beneficial in the design of more effective neural prostheses; however, limited evidence on their cytocompatibility properties currently exists. The objective of the present in vitro study was to determine cytocompatibility properties of formulations containing carbon nanofibers pertinent to neural implant applications. Substrates were prepared from four different types of carbon fibers, two with nanoscale diameters (nanophase, or less than or equal to 100 nm) and two with conventional diameters (or greater than 100 nm). Within these two categories, both a high and a low surface energy fiber were investigated and tested. Carbon fibers were compacted in a manual hydraulic press via a uniaxial loading cycle. Astrocytes (glial scar tissue-forming cells) were seeded onto the substrates for adhesion, proliferation, and long-term function studies (such as total intracellular protein and alkaline phosphatase activity). Results provided the first evidence that astrocytes preferentially adhered and proliferated on carbon fibers that had the largest diameter and the lowest surface energy. Based on these results, composite substrates were also formed using different weight percentages (0-25 wt%) of the nanophase, high surface energy fibers in a polycarbonate urethane matrix. Results provided the first evidence of decreased adhesion of astrocytes with increasing weight percents of the high surface energy carbon nanofibers in the polymer composite; this further demonstrates that formulations containing carbon fibers in the nanometer regime may limit astrocyte functions leading to decreased glial scar tissue formation. Positive interactions with neurons, and, at the same time, limited astrocyte functions leading to decreased gliotic scar tissue formation are essential for increased neuronal implant efficacy.

  6. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang-Nan; Wang, Guang-Hui; Chen, Zhong

    2012-04-15

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine>pyrilamine>astemizole>triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5⁻/⁻ mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the major

  8. Characterization of the L-glutamate clearance pathways across the blood-brain barrier and the effect of astrocytes in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans Cc; Aldana, Blanca I; Groth, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to characterize the clearance pathways for L-glutamate from the brain interstitial fluid across the blood-brain barrier using a primary in vitro bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte co-culture. Transporter profiling was performed using uptake studies of radiolabeled L-glutamate with co...

  9. [Intravenous glutamine and early nasojejunal nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis -- a prospective randomized clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdú, Nóra; Belágyi, Tibor; Issekutz, Akos; Bartek, Péter; Gartner, Béla; Oláh, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is still one of the great challenges in gastro-intestinal surgery. According to recent studies, intravenously administered glutamine with total parenteral nutrition may be beneficial in the prevention of infectious complications and may reduce mortality rate. However, it has not been investigated yet, whether i.v. glutamine is able to achieve the same effect with early enteral nutrition as well. The objective of our prospective randomized double-blind study was to explore the effects of intravenously administered glutamine with early nasojejunal nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis. Forty-five patients with severe acute pancreatitis (with a Glasgow score at least 3 and/or a CRP level above 150 mg/ml on admission) were randomized into two groups. Group Glutamine (n = 24) was given 0.5 g/kg/die glutamine intravenously, while the control group (n = 21) received normal amino acid solution in the same quantity for 7 days. Nasojejunal nutrition was introduced 48 hours after admission in case of all patients, and their management was the same in every other aspect, too. The primary end-points of the study were the rate of pancreas-specific infectious complications and organ failure, and the secondary end-points were the necessity for radiological and surgical interventions, length of hospital stay and mortality rate. In group Glutamine, infected acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFC) were detected in 4 patients, 2 patients had post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections (PNPFC), 2 patients had infected pseudocysts and 2 patients had walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN). Ten patients were cured by ultrasound assisted puncture or drainage successfully. No surgical intervention was necessary. In the control group, 4 patients had infected APFC, 2 patients had infected PNPFC, infected pseudocysts and infected WOPN were diagnosed in 3 cases. Radiological intervention was effective in 9 cases, but 3 patients needed surgery

  10. Glutamine Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkay Aydoğmuş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a form of nosocomial pneumonia that increases patient morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay, and healthcare costs. Glutamine preserves the intestinal mucosal structure, increases immune function, and reduces harmful changes in gut permeability in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN. We hypothesized that TPN supplemented by glutamine might prevent the development of VAP in patients on mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit (ICU. Material and Methods: With the approval of the ethics committee and informed consent from relatives, 60 patients who were followed in the ICU with mechanical ventilator support were included in our study. Patients were divided into three groups. The first group received enteral nutrition (n=20, and the second was prescribed TPN (n=20 while the third group was given glutamine-supplemented TPN (n=20. C-reactive protein (CRP, sedimentation rate, body temperature, development of purulent secretions, increase in the amount of secretions, changes in the characteristics of secretions and an increase in requirement of deep tracheal aspiration were monitored for seven days by daily examination and radiographs. Results: No statistically significant difference was found among groups in terms of development of VAP (p=0.622. Conclusion: Although VAP developed at a lower rate in the glutamine-supplemented TPN group, no statistically significant difference was found among any of the groups. Glutamine-supplemented TPN may have no superiority over unsupplemented enteral and TPN in preventing VAP.

  11. Dietary glutamine supplementation affects macrophage function, hematopoiesis and nutritional status in early weaned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borelli, Primavera; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; de Oliveira Pires, Ivanir Santana; Tirapegui, Julio

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the effect that early weaning associated with the ingestion of either a glutamine-free or supplemented diet has on the functioning of peritoneal macrophages, hematopoiesis and nutritional status of mice. Swiss Webster mice were early weaned on their 14th day of life and distributed to two groups, being fed either a glutamine-free diet (-GLN) or a glutamine-supplemented diet (+GLN). Animals belonging to a control group (CON) were weaned on their 21st day of life. The -GLN and +GLN groups had a lower lean body mass, carcass protein and ash content, plasma glutamine concentration and lymphocyte counts both in the peripheral blood and bone marrow when compared to the CON group (Psupplementation with glutamine reversed both the lower concentrations of protein and DNA in the muscle and liver, as well as the reduced capacity of spreading and synthesizing nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 in cultures of peritoneal macrophages obtained from the -GLN group (Psupplemented diet cannot substitute maternal milk in respect to immunological and metabolic parameters.

  12. LRH-1-dependent programming of mitochondrial glutamine processing drives liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pan; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Stein, Sokrates; Demagny, Hadrien; Ryu, Dongryeol; Moullan, Norman; Wang, Xu; Can, Emine; Zamboni, Nicola; Comment, Arnaud; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina

    2016-06-01

    Various tumors develop addiction to glutamine to support uncontrolled cell proliferation. Here we identify the nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) as a key regulator in the process of hepatic tumorigenesis through the coordination of a noncanonical glutamine pathway that is reliant on the mitochondrial and cytosolic transaminases glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1), which fuel anabolic metabolism. In particular, we show that gain and loss of function of hepatic LRH-1 modulate the expression and activity of mitochondrial glutaminase 2 (GLS2), the first and rate-limiting step of this pathway. Acute and chronic deletion of hepatic LRH-1 blunts the deamination of glutamine and reduces glutamine-dependent anaplerosis. The robust reduction in glutaminolysis and the limiting availability of α-ketoglutarate in turn inhibit mTORC1 signaling to eventually block cell growth and proliferation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of LRH-1 in coordinating glutamine-induced metabolism and signaling to promote hepatocellular carcinogenesis. © 2016 Xu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Astrocytes and mitochondria from adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ABCD1)-deficient mice reveal that the adrenoleukodystrophy-associated very long-chain fatty acids target several cellular energy-dependent functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruska, Nicol; Schönfeld, Peter; Pujol, Aurora; Reiser, Georg

    2015-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder resulting from defective ABCD1 transport protein. ABCD1 mediates peroxisomal uptake of free very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) as well as their CoA-esters. Consequently, VLCFA accumulate in patients' plasma and tissues, which is considered as pathogenic X-ALD triggering factor. Clinical symptoms are mostly manifested in neural tissues and adrenal gland. Here, we investigate astrocytes from wild-type control and a genetic X-ALD mouse model (Abcd1-knockout), exposed to supraphysiological VLCFA (C22:0, C24:0 and C26:0) concentrations. They exhibit multiple impairments of energy metabolism. Furthermore, brain mitochondria from Abcd1(-/-) mice and wild-type control respond similarly to VLCFA with increased ROS generation, impaired oxidative ATP synthesis and diminished Ca(2+) uptake capacity, suggesting that a defective ABCD1 exerts no adaptive pressure on mitochondria. In contrast, astrocytes from Abcd1(-/-) mice respond more sensitively to VLCFA than wild-type control astrocytes. Moreover, long-term application of VLCFA induces high ROS generation, and strong in situ depolarization of mitochondria, and, in Abcd1(-/-) astrocytes, severely diminishes the capability to revert oxidized pyridine nucleotides to NAD(P)H. In addition, observed differences in responses of mitochondria and astrocytes to the hydrocarbon chain length of VLCFA suggest that detrimental VLCFA activities in astrocytes involve defective cellular functions other than mitochondria. In summary, we clearly demonstrate that VLCFA increase the vulnerability of Abcd1(-/-) astrocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. TNF-? promotes extracellular vesicle release in mouse astrocytes through glutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kaizhe; Ye, Ling; Lu, Hongfang; Chen, Huili; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Yunlong; Zheng, Jialin C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-? promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expressio...

  15. Regulation of neurotrophic factors and energy metabolism by antidepressants in astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Jean Luc

    2013-09-01

    There is growing evidence that astrocytes are involved in the neuropathology of major depression. In particular, decreases in glial cell density observed in the cerebral cortex of individuals with major depressive disorder are accompanied by a reduction of several astrocytic markers suggesting that astrocyte dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depression. In rodents, glial loss in the prefrontal cortex is sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors and antidepressant treatment prevents the stress-induced reduction of astrocyte number in the hippocampus. Collectively, these data support the existence of a link between astrocyte loss or dysfunction, depressive-like behavior and antidepressant treatment. Astrocytes are increasingly recognized to play important roles in neuronal development, neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and maintenance of brain homeostasis. It is also well established that astrocytes provide trophic, structural, and metabolic support to neurons. In this article, we review evidence that antidepressants regulate energy metabolism and neurotrophic factor expression with particular emphasis on studies in astrocytes. These observations support a role for astrocytes as new targets for antidepressants. The contribution of changes in astrocyte glucose metabolism and neurotrophic factor expression to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants remains to be established. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

  16. Injured astrocytes are repaired by Synaptotagmin XI-regulated lysosome exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreetama, S C; Takano, T; Nedergaard, M; Simon, S M; Jaiswal, J K

    2016-04-01

    Astrocytes are known to facilitate repair following brain injury; however, little is known about how injured astrocytes repair themselves. Repair of cell membrane injury requires Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle exocytosis. In astrocytes, lysosomes are the main Ca(2+)-regulated exocytic vesicles. Here we show that astrocyte cell membrane injury results in a large and rapid calcium increase. This triggers robust lysosome exocytosis where the fusing lysosomes release all luminal contents and merge fully with the plasma membrane. In contrast to this, receptor stimulation produces a small sustained calcium increase, which is associated with partial release of the lysosomal luminal content, and the lysosome membrane does not merge into the plasma membrane. In most cells, lysosomes express the synaptotagmin (Syt) isoform Syt VII; however, this isoform is not present on astrocyte lysosomes and exogenous expression of Syt VII on lysosome inhibits their exocytosis. Deletion of one of the most abundant Syt isoform in astrocyte--Syt XI--suppresses astrocyte lysosome exocytosis. This identifies lysosome as Syt XI-regulated exocytic vesicle in astrocytes. Further, inhibition of lysosome exocytosis (by Syt XI depletion or Syt VII expression) prevents repair of injured astrocytes. These results identify the lysosomes and Syt XI as the sub-cellular and molecular regulators, respectively of astrocyte cell membrane repair.

  17. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases induces astrocytic differentiation of neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Dhara, Sujoy K; Swetenburg, Raymond; Mithani, Miloni; Cao, Kaixiang; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Fan, Yuhong; Stice, Steven L

    2013-07-01

    Understanding how to specify rapid differentiation of human neural progenitor towards enriched non-transformed human astrocyte progenitors will provide a critical cell source to further our understanding of how astrocytes play a pivotal role in neural function and development. Human neural progenitors derived from pluripotent embryonic stem cells and propagated in adherent serum-free cultures provide a fate restricted renewable source for quick production of neural cells; however, such cells are highly refractive to astrocytogenesis and show a strong neurogenic bias, similar to neural progenitors from the early embryonic central nervous system (CNS). We found that several astrocytic genes are hypermethylated in such progenitors potentially preventing generation of astrocytes and leading to the proneuronal fate of these progenitors. However, epigenetic modification by Azacytidine (Aza-C) and Trichostatin A (TSA), with concomitant signaling from BMP2 and LIF in neural progenitor cultures shifts this bias, leading to expression of astrocytic markers as early as 5days of differentiation, with near complete suppression of neuronal differentiation. The resultant cells express major astrocytic markers, are amenable to co-culture with neurons, can be propagated as astrocyte progenitors and are cryopreservable. Although previous reports have generated astrocytes from pluripotent cells, the differentiation required extensive culture or selection based on cell surface antigens. The development of a label free and rapid differentiation process will expedite future derivation of astrocytes from various sources pluripotent cells including, but not limited to, human astrocytes associated with various neurological diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Progenitor and Mature Human Astrocytes Reveals Transcriptional and Functional Differences with Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Steven A; Clarke, Laura E; Caneda, Christine; Plaza, Colton A; Blumenthal, Paul D; Vogel, Hannes; Steinberg, Gary K; Edwards, Michael S B; Li, Gordon; Duncan, John A; Cheshier, Samuel H; Shuer, Lawrence M; Chang, Edward F; Grant, Gerald A; Gephart, Melanie G Hayden; Barres, Ben A

    2016-01-06

    The functional and molecular similarities and distinctions between human and murine astrocytes are poorly understood. Here, we report the development of an immunopanning method to acutely purify astrocytes from fetal, juvenile, and adult human brains and to maintain these cells in serum-free cultures. We found that human astrocytes have abilities similar to those of murine astrocytes in promoting neuronal survival, inducing functional synapse formation, and engulfing synaptosomes. In contrast to existing observations in mice, we found that mature human astrocytes respond robustly to glutamate. Next, we performed RNA sequencing of healthy human astrocytes along with astrocytes from epileptic and tumor foci and compared these to human neurons, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells (available at http://www.brainrnaseq.org). With these profiles, we identified novel human-specific astrocyte genes and discovered a transcriptome-wide transformation between astrocyte precursor cells and mature post-mitotic astrocytes. These data represent some of the first cell-type-specific molecular profiles of the healthy and diseased human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unperturbed posttranscriptional regulatory Rev protein function and HIV-1 replication in astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Chauhan

    Full Text Available Astrocytes protect neurons, but also evoke proinflammatory responses to injury and viral infections, including HIV. There is a prevailing notion that HIV-1 Rev protein function in astrocytes is perturbed, leading to restricted viral replication. In earlier studies, our finding of restricted viral entry into astrocytes led us to investigate whether there are any intracellular restrictions, including crippled Rev function, in astrocytes. Despite barely detectable levels of DDX3 (Rev-supporting RNA helicase and TRBP (anti-PKR in primary astrocytes compared to astrocytic cells, Rev function was unperturbed in wild-type, but not DDX3-ablated astrocytes. As in permissive cells, after HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes, viral-encoded Tat and Rev proteins had robust regulatory activities, leading to efficient viral replication. Productive HIV-1 infection in astrocytes persisted for several weeks. Our findings on HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes demonstrated that the intracellular environment is conducive to viral replication and that Tat and Rev functions are unperturbed.

  20. Mechanistic Basis for ATP-Dependent Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase by Tabtoxinine-β-lactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Garrett J; Fang, Luting; Schaefer, Jacob; Singh, Sukrit; Bowman, Gregory R; Wencewicz, Timothy A

    2018-01-09

    Tabtoxinine-β-lactam (TβL), also known as wildfire toxin, is a time- and ATP-dependent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase produced by plant pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Here we demonstrate that recombinant glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli phosphorylates the C3-hydroxyl group of the TβL 3-(S)-hydroxy-β-lactam (3-HβL) warhead. Phosphorylation of TβL generates a stable, noncovalent enzyme-ADP-inhibitor complex that resembles the glutamine synthetase tetrahedral transition state. The TβL β-lactam ring remains intact during enzyme inhibition, making TβL mechanistically distinct from traditional β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin. Our findings could enable the design of new 3-HβL transition state inhibitors targeting enzymes in the ATP-dependent carboxylate-amine ligase superfamily with broad therapeutic potential in many disease areas.

  1. Glutamine methylation in histone H2A is an RNA-polymerase-I-dedicated modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessarz, Peter; Santos-Rosa, Helena; Robson, Sam C

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes are decorated with numerous post-translational modifications capable of influencing many DNA processes. Here we describe a new class of histone modification, methylation of glutamine, occurring on yeast histone H2A at position 105 (Q105) and human H2A at Q104. We identify Nop1...... as the methyltransferase in yeast and demonstrate that fibrillarin is the orthologue enzyme in human cells. Glutamine methylation of H2A is restricted to the nucleolus. Global analysis in yeast, using an H2AQ105me-specific antibody, shows that this modification is exclusively enriched over the 35S ribosomal DNA...... and increased transcription at the ribosomal DNA locus. These features are phenocopied by mutations in FACT complex components. Together these data identify glutamine methylation of H2A as the first histone epigenetic mark dedicated to a specific RNA polymerase and define its function as a regulator of FACT...

  2. Quantification of l-alanyl-l-glutamine in mammalian cell culture broth: Evaluation of different detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömer, Jens O; Dietmair, Stefanie; Jacob, Shana S; Nielsen, Lars K

    2011-09-01

    l-Alanyl-l-glutamine (also known as Ala-Gln or GlutaMAX) is widely used as a stable l-glutamine source in cell culture for the production of biopharmaceuticals. System approaches for the optimization of production processes require the analysis of all major substrates and products. We have compared four alternative detection systems for l-alanyl-l-glutamine in culture broth. Matrix effects prevented the use of ultraviolet or evaporative light scattering detection. Fluorescence detection used in routine amino acid protocols is compatible with culture broth and has a broad linear dynamic range. Mass spectrometry has superior sensitivity and can be integrated into quantitative metabolomic workflows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased STAT3 Phosphorylation Mediates Cell Swelling in Ammonia-Treated Astrocyte Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam R. Jayakumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF. Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Since these signaling events are known to be regulated by the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, we examined the state of STAT3 activation in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes, and determined whether altered STAT3 activation and/or protein expression contribute to the ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. STAT3 was found to be dephosphorylated (inactivated at Tyrosine705 in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes. Total STAT3 protein level was also reduced in ammonia-treated astrocytes. We also found a significant increase in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type-1 (PTPRT-1 protein expression in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes, and that inhibition of PTPRT-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT3 after ammonia treatment. Additionally, exposure of cultured astrocytes to inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases diminished the ammonia-induced cell swelling, while cultured astrocytes over-expressing STAT3 showed a reduction in the astrocyte swelling induced by ammonia. Collectively, these studies strongly suggest that inactivation of STAT3 represents a critical event in the mechanism of the astrocyte swelling associated with acute liver failure.

  4. Transplantation of specific human astrocytes promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J A Davies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human

  5. The Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil up-regulates astrocytic glutamate transport subsequent to actin remodelling in murine cultured astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cl; O'Shea, Rd; Bischof, L

    2011-01-01

    immunocytochemistry) induced by Fasudil was accompanied by reduced phalloidin staining of F-actin and increased V(max) for [(3) H]-d-Asp uptake. Immunoblotting after biotinylation demonstrated that Fasudil increased the expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2 on the cell surface. Immunocytochemistry indicated that Fasudil...

  6. Assessment of C-phycocyanin effect on astrocytes-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative brain injury using 2D and 3D astrocyte tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seul Ki; Park, Jun Sang; Luo, Lidan; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Lee, Hoo Cheol; Shim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2015-09-24

    Drugs are currently being developed to attenuate oxidative stress as a treatment for brain injuries. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is an antioxidant protein of green microalgae known to exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative brain injury. Astrocytes, which compose many portions of the brain, exert various functions to overcome oxidative stress; however, little is known about how C-Pc mediates the antioxidative effects of astrocytes. In this study, we revealed that C-Pc intranasal administration to the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats ensures neuroprotection of ischemic brain by reducing infarct size and improving behavioral deficits. C-Pc also enhanced viability and proliferation but attenuated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of oxidized astrocytes, without cytotoxicity to normal astrocytes and neurons. To elucidate how C-Pc leads astrocytes to enhance neuroprotection and repair of ischemia brain, we firstly developed 3D oxidized astrocyte model. C-Pc had astrocytes upregulate antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and neurotrophic factors BDNF and NGF, while alleviating inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1β and glial scar. Additionally, C-Pc improved viability of 3D oxidized neurons. In summary, C-Pc was concluded to activate oxidized astrocytes to protect and repair the ischemic brain with the combinatorial effects of improved antioxidative, neurotrophic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  7. Determination of Glucose Utilization Rates in Cultured Astrocytes and Neurons with [14C]deoxyglucose: Progress, Pitfalls, and Discovery of Intracellular Glucose Compartmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F; Sokoloff, Louis; Driscoll, Bernard F

    2017-01-01

    2-Deoxy-D-[ 14 C]glucose ([ 14 C]DG) is commonly used to determine local glucose utilization rates (CMR glc ) in living brain and to estimate CMR glc in cultured brain cells as rates of [ 14 C]DG phosphorylation. Phosphorylation rates of [ 14 C]DG and its metabolizable fluorescent analog, 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), however, do not take into account differences in the kinetics of transport and metabolism of [ 14 C]DG or 2-NBDG and glucose in neuronal and astrocytic cells in cultures or in single cells in brain tissue, and conclusions drawn from these data may, therefore, not be correct. As a first step toward the goal of quantitative determination of CMR glc in astrocytes and neurons in cultures, the steady-state intracellular-to-extracellular concentration ratios (distribution spaces) for glucose and [ 14 C]DG were determined in cultured striatal neurons and astrocytes as functions of extracellular glucose concentration. Unexpectedly, the glucose distribution spaces rose during extreme hypoglycemia, exceeding 1.0 in astrocytes, whereas the [ 14 C]DG distribution space fell at the lowest glucose levels. Calculated CMR glc was greatly overestimated in hypoglycemic and normoglycemic cells because the intracellular glucose concentrations were too high. Determination of the distribution space for [ 14 C]glucose revealed compartmentation of intracellular glucose in astrocytes, and probably, also in neurons. A smaller metabolic pool is readily accessible to hexokinase and communicates with extracellular glucose, whereas the larger pool is sequestered from hexokinase activity. A new experimental approach using double-labeled assays with DG and glucose is suggested to avoid the limitations imposed by glucose compartmentation on metabolic assays.

  8. Astrocyte - neuron lactate shuttle may boost more ATP supply to the neuron under hypoxic conditions - in silico study supported by in vitro expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnaz Isil A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuro-glial interactions are important for normal functioning of the brain as well as brain energy metabolism. There are two major working models - in the classical view, both neurons and astrocytes can utilize glucose as the energy source through oxidative metabolism, whereas in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH it is the astrocyte which can consume glucose through anaerobic glycolysis to pyruvate and then to lactate, and this lactate is secreted to the extracellular space to be taken up by the neuron for further oxidative degradation. Results In this computational study, we have included hypoxia-induced genetic regulation of these enzymes and transporters, and analyzed whether the ANLSH model can provide an advantage to either cell type in terms of supplying the energy demand. We have based this module on our own experimental analysis of hypoxia-dependent regulation of transcription of key metabolic enzymes. Using this experimentation-supported in silico modeling, we show that under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in a given time period ANLSH model does indeed provide the neuron with more ATP than in the classical view. Conclusions Although the ANLSH is energetically more favorable for the neuron, it is not the case for the astrocyte in the long term. Considering the fact that astrocytes are more resilient to hypoxia, we would propose that there is likely a switch between the two models, based on the energy demand of the neuron, so as to maintain the survival of the neuron under hypoxic or glucose-and-oxygen-deprived conditions.

  9. Gene expression is altered in piglet small intestine by weaning and dietary glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; Zhou, Huaijun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2008-06-01

    Dietary supplementation of glutamine prevents intestinal dysfunction and atrophy in weanling piglets, but the underlying mechanism(s) are largely unknown. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that weaning or glutamine may modulate expression of genes that are crucial for intestinal metabolism and function. In Expt. 1, we obtained small intestine from 28-d-old pigs weaned at 21 d of age and from age-matched suckling piglets. In Expt. 2, piglets were weaned at 21 d of age and then had free access to diets supplemented with 1% L-glutamine (wt:wt) or isonitrogenous L-alanine (control). At d 28, we collected small intestine for biochemical and morphological measurements and microarray analysis of gene expression using the Operon Porcine Genome Oligo set. Early weaning resulted in increased (52-346%) expression of genes related to oxidative stress and immune activation but decreased (35-77%) expression of genes related to macronutrient metabolism and cell proliferation in the gut. Dietary glutamine supplementation increased intestinal expression (120-124%) of genes that are necessary for cell growth and removal of oxidants, while reducing (34-75%) expression of genes that promote oxidative stress and immune activation. Functionally, the glutamine treatment enhanced intestinal oxidative-defense capacity (indicated by a 29% increase in glutathione concentration), prevented jejunal atrophy, and promoted small intestine growth (+12%) and body weight gain (+19%) in weaned piglets. These findings reveal coordinate alterations of gene expression in response to weaning and aid in providing molecular mechanisms for the beneficial effect of dietary glutamine supplementation to improve nutrition status in young mammals.

  10. [Effect of glutamine on small intestinal repair in weanling rats after chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zu-xiong; Ye, Li-yan; Zheng, Zhi-yong; Chen, Xin-min; Ren, Rong-na; Tong, Guo-yuan

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the nutrient effect of glutamine on small intestinal repair in weanling rats after chronic diarrhea. Forty 21-day-old wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (8 in each). Animal model of chronic diarrhea was induced by a lactose enriched diet in the weanling Wistar rat, normal control group was fed with a standard semipurified diet, and after 14 days the rats in both groups were killed to test the establishment of the model. After the establishment of the model, the other groups were fed with the standard semipurified diet to recover for 7 days, and were randomly divided into three groups: non-intervention group, glutamine (Gln)-intervention group and control group. Glutamine concentrations in blood was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Morphological changes including villus height and villus surface area of the jejunum were measured under a light microscope and electron microscope, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an index of cell proliferation was observed using immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. The diarrhea rate in model group was 100 percent, average diarrhea index was 1.16 +/- 0.06, but both diarrhea rate and average diarrhea index in control group were 0 (P 0.05). And compared with non-intervened group, except for body weight (P > 0.05), plasma glutamine, villus height, villus surface area and expression of PCNA were all significantly increased in Gln-intervened group. Chronic diarrhea can induce malnutrition and reduce the villus height, villus surface area, expression of PCNA and plasm glutamine concentration. Oral glutamine could improve the proliferation of crypt cell and promote repair of intestinal mucosa after chronic diarrhea.

  11. Influence of enterectomy on peripheral tissue glutamine efflux in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Y M; Tracey, K J; Hesse, D G; Albert, J D; Barie, P S; Lowry, S F

    1990-03-01

    Glutamine and alanine are dominant nitrogen carriers from skeletal muscle stores to splanchnic organs. In addition, these amino acids may also serve as a primary energy source for the gastrointestinal tract during injury. To investigate these contributions, we studied extremity amino acid efflux during hypocaloric dextrose feedings and during total parenteral nutrition in a population of normal volunteers (NL VOL) (n = 9), a group of patients with sepsis who had undergone laparotomy without bowel resection and were in the intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 7), and patients with sepsis after laparotomy (PT) (n = 2) who had recently undergone greater than 80% bowel resection. Circulating alanine and glutamine levels were significantly lower in the patients compared with NL VOL under both feeding conditions. The peripheral output of alanine was higher in the ICU group than in the NL VOL during hypocaloric feedings. Glutamine efflux, however, was independent of either the counterregulatory hormone or substrate background. By contrast, enterectomy was associated with a marked decrease of extremity glutamine efflux compared with NL VOL or the ICU patients who did not undergo enterectomy (-62 +/- 9 nmol/min/dl tissue in the PT vs -265 +/- 32 nmol/min/dl tissue in the NL VOL and -311 +/- 58 nmol/min/dl tissue in the ICU group) during the dextrose feedings; this difference persisted during subsequent total parenteral nutrition (+12 +/- 13 nmol/min/dl tissue in PT vs -178 +/- 56 nmol/min/dl tissue in the NL VOL and -287 +/- 81 nmol/min/dl tissue in the ICU group). These data suggest that distinct mechanisms regulate peripheral alanine and glutamine balance and that the gastrointestinal tract provides a feedback signal to peripheral tissues to maintain glutamine mobilization under both nonstressed and stressed conditions.

  12. Parenteral glutamine supplementation in critical illness: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The potential benefit of parenteral glutamine (GLN) supplementation has been one of the most commonly studied nutritional interventions in the critical care setting. The aim of this systematic review was to incorporate recent trials of traditional parenteral GLN supplementation in critical illness with previously existing data. Methods All randomized controlled trials of parenterally administered GLN in critically ill patients conducted from 1997 to 2013 were identified. Studies of enteral GLN only or combined enteral/parenteral GLN were excluded. Methodological quality of studies was scored and data was abstracted by independent reviewers. Results A total of 26 studies involving 2,484 patients examining only parenteral GLN supplementation of nutrition support were identified in ICU patients. Parenteral GLN supplementation was associated with a trend towards a reduction of overall mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75, 1.03, P = 0.10) and a significant reduction in hospital mortality (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51, 0.90, P = 0.008). In addition, parenteral GLN was associated with a strong trend towards a reduction in infectious complications (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.73, 1.02, P = 0.09) and ICU length of stay (LOS) (WMD –1.91, (95% CI -4.10, 0.28, P = 0.09) and significant reduction in hospital LOS (WMD -2.56, 95% CI -4.71, -0.42, P = 0.02). In the subset of studies examining patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN), parenteral GLN supplementation was associated with a trend towards reduced overall mortality (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71, 1.01, P = 0.07). Conclusions Parenteral GLN supplementation given in conjunction with nutrition support continues to be associated with a significant reduction in hospital mortality and hospital LOS. Parenteral GLN supplementation as a component of nutrition support should continue to be considered to improve outcomes in critically ill patients. PMID:24745648

  13. Glutamine Assimilation and Feedback Regulation of L-acetyl-N-glutamate Kinase Activity in Chlorella variabilis NC64A Results in Changes in Arginine Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaeva, Ekaterina; Forchhammer, Karl; Ermilova, Elena

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine is a metabolite of central importance in nitrogen metabolism of microorganisms and plants. The Chlorella PII signaling protein controls, in a glutamine-dependent manner, the key enzyme of the ornithine/arginine biosynthesis pathway, N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) that leads to arginine formation. We provide evidence that glutamine promotes effective growth of C. variabilis strain NC64A. The present study shows that externally supplied glutamine directly influences the internal pool of arginine in NC64A. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonium to glutamine. The results of this study demonstrate that glutamine acts as a negative effector of GS activity. These data emphasize the importance of glutamine-dependent coupling of metabolism and signaling as components of an efficient pathway allowing the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and sustaining growth of Chlorella. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. 7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Glutamine Reveals Altered Concentrations in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakkar, Katharine N; Rösler, Lara; Wijnen, Jannie P; Boer, Vincent O.; Klomp, Dennis W J; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate

  15. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  16. Long-term effects of neonatal glutamine-enriched nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, Annelies; Neu, Josef; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants have investigated the effect of parenteral or enteral glutamine supplementation on morbidity, mortality, and outcome in the neonatal period. No evidence of toxicity of glutamine supplementation was found in these clinical trials, but the

  17. Organ-specific activity of the 5' regulatory region of the glutamine synthetase gene in developing mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie-Venema, H.; de Boer, P. A.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) converts ammonia and glutamate into glutamine. We assessed the activity of the 5' regulatory region of the GS gene in developing transgenic mice carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of 3150 bp of the upstream sequence of the rat GS

  18. Organization and expression of genes in the genomic region surrounding the glutamine synthetase gene Gln1 from Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykjaer, T; Danielsen, D; She, Q

    1997-01-01

    within the 23326-bp genomic region analysed. The LjGln1 gene encodes a cytosolic glutamine synthetase and the LjKrm (Kinesin repeat motif) gene encodes a polypeptide with similarity to a repeated motif present in the microtubule-associated kinesin light chain protein. Transcripts of the glutamine...

  19. Dose intercomparison for 400–500 keV electrons using FWT-60 film and glutamine (spectrophotometric readout) dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, B. L.; Nilekani, S. R.; Gehringer, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the dose and the depth dose measurements with FWT-60 film and glutamine (Spectrophotometric readout) dosimeters for 400–500 keV electrons. The glutamine powder was spread uniformly in polyethylene bags and the powder thickness in each bag was 5 mg cm−2. Both techniques show...

  20. Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, E G; Silljé, H H; Vermeulen, E E; Kalhorn, J W; Verkleij, A J; Boonstra, J; Verrips, C T

    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ammonia and glutamine decreases the expression of many nitrogen catabolic genes to low levels. To discriminate between ammonia- and glutamine-driven repression of GAP1, PUT4, GDH1 and GLN1, a gln1-37 mutant was used. This mutant is not able to convert ammonia

  1. Gastric residual volume by magnetic ressonance after intake of maltodextrin and glutamine: a randomized double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianez, Luigi R; Caporossi, Cervantes; de Moura, Yure W; Dias, Lorena A; Leal, Regis V; de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E

    2014-01-01

    The addition of glutamine in preoperative drinks may enhance the benefits of carbohydrate alone. To evaluate the gastric residual volume after the intake of a beverage containing carbohydrate plus glutamine. Eleven healthy volunteers (24-30 years-old) were randomized in a crossover fashion to intake 400 mL (4h before) and 200 mL (2h before) of a beverage containing either 12.5% maltodextrin (carbohydrate group) or 12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g of glutamine (glutamine group) in two different moments 7 days apart. Magnetic ressonance was performed to measure the gastric residual volume (mL) 120 and 180 minutes after the last ingestion. Gastric residual volume similar to basal condition was found after 2h and 3h of the intake of beverages. There was no difference in the mean ±SD GRV (mL) found at 120 minutes (carbohydrate group: 22.9±16.6 and glutamine group: 19.7±10.7) and at 180 minutes (carbohydrate group: 21.5±24.1 and glutamine group: 15.1±10.1) between the two drinks. Gastric emptying is efficient, and occurs in up to two hours after the intake of a beverage containing either carbohydrate alone or carbohydrate associated with glutamine. The addition of glutamine to carbohydrate-enriched drink seems to be safe for the use up to 2h before an operation.

  2. Extracellular Electrophysiological Measurements of Cooperative Signals in Astrocytes Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Ana L. G.; Inácio, Pedro M. C.; Elamine, Youssef; Asgarifar, Sanaz; Lourenço, Ana S.; Cristiano, Maria L. S.; Aguiar, Paulo; Medeiros, Maria C. R.; Araújo, Inês M.; Ventura, João; Gomes, Henrique L.

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes are neuroglial cells that exhibit functional electrical properties sensitive to neuronal activity and capable of modulating neurotransmission. Thus, electrophysiological recordings of astroglial activity are very attractive to study the dynamics of glial signaling. This contribution reports on the use of ultra-sensitive planar electrodes combined with low noise and low frequency amplifiers that enable the detection of extracellular signals produced by primary cultures of astrocytes isolated from mouse cerebral cortex. Recorded activity is characterized by spontaneous bursts comprised of discrete signals with pronounced changes on the signal rate and amplitude. Weak and sporadic signals become synchronized and evolve with time to higher amplitude signals with a quasi-periodic behavior, revealing a cooperative signaling process. The methodology presented herewith enables the study of ionic fluctuations of population of cells, complementing the single cells observation by calcium imaging as well as by patch-clamp techniques. PMID:29109679

  3. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungjun [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Ryoung, E-mail: msong@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Bioimaging Research Center and Cell Dynamics Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  4. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  5. Biomechanical and proteomic analysis of INF- {beta}-treated astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara, Daniele; Leporatti, Stefano; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross [National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-INFM, ISUFI, University of Lecce, Italian Institute of Technology (IIT) Research Unit, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martignago, Roberta; Nuccio, Franco De; Nicolardi, Giuseppe; Maffia, Michele [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bonsegna, Stefania; Santino, Angelo, E-mail: michele.maffia@unile.i, E-mail: ross.rinaldi@unile.i [Institute of Sciences of Food Production CNR, Unit of Lecce I-73100 (Italy)

    2009-11-11

    Astrocytes have a key role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including multiple sclerosis and were proposed as the designed target for immunotherapy. In this study we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and proteomics methods to analyse and correlate the modifications induced in the viscoleastic properties of astrocytes to the changes induced in protein expression after interferon- {beta} (IFN-{beta}) treatment. Our results indicated that IFN-{beta} treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the Young's modulus, a measure of cell elasticity, in comparison with control cells. The molecular mechanisms that trigger these changes were investigated by 2DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis) and confocal analyses and confirmed by western blotting. Altered proteins were found to be involved in cytoskeleton organization and other important physiological processes.

  6. Involvement of Astrocytes in Mediating the Central Effects of Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frago, Laura M.; Chowen, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Although astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned about their molecular and functional features. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones and metabolic factors, including the appetite-promoting hormone ghrelin. The metabolic effects of ghrelin are largely opposite to those of leptin, as it stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure. Ghrelin is also involved in glucose-sensing and glucose homeostasis. The widespread expression of the ghrelin receptor in the central nervous system suggests that this hormone is not only involved in metabolism, but also in other essential functions in the brain. In fact, ghrelin has been shown to promote cell survival and neuroprotection, with some studies exploring the use of ghrelin as a therapeutic agent against metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we highlight the possible role of glial cells as mediators of ghrelin’s actions within the brain. PMID:28257088

  7. [Astrocytes and microglia: active players in synaptic plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzano, Rémi

    2017-12-01

    Synaptic plasticity consists in a change in structure and composition of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. For a long time, synaptic plasticity had been thought as a neuronal mechanism only under the control of neural network activity. However, recently, with the growing knowledge about glial physiology, plasticity has been reviewed as a mechanism influenced by the synaptic environment. Thus, it appears that astrocytes and microglia modulate these mechanisms modifying neural environment by clearance of neurotransmitters, releasing essential factors and modulating inflammation. Moreover, glia can change its own activity and the expression pattern of many factors that modulate synaptic plasticity according to the environment. Hence, these populations of "non-neuronal" cells in the central nervous system seem to be active players in synaptic plasticity. This review discusses how glia modulates synaptic plasticity focusing on long-term potentiation and depression, and questions the role of the signaling processes between astrocytes and microglia in these mechanisms. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  8. Reactive Astrocytes Protect Melanoma Cells from Chemotherapy by Sequestering Intracellular Calcium through Gap Junction Communication Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingtang Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases are highly resistant to chemotherapy. Metastatic tumor cells are known to exploit the host microenvironment for their growth and survival. We report here that melanoma brain metastases are surrounded and infiltrated by activated astrocytes, and we hypothesized that these astrocytes can play a role similar to their established ability to protect neurons from apoptosis. In coculture experiments, astrocytes, but not fibroblasts, reduced apoptosis in human melanoma cells treated with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This chemoprotective effect was dependent on physical contact and gap junctional communication between astrocytes and tumor cells. Moreover, the protective effect of astrocytes resulted from their sequestering calcium from the cytoplasm of tumor cells. These data suggest that brain tumors can, in principle, harness the neuroprotective effects of reactive astrocytes for their own survival and implicate a heretofore unrecognized mechanism for resistance in brain metastasis that might be of relevance in the clinic.

  9. The increase in the number of astrocytes in the total cerebral ischemia model in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudabayeva, M.; Kisel, A.; Chernysheva, G.; Smol'yakova, V.; Plotnikov, M.; Khodanovich, M.

    2017-08-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell class in the CNS. Astrocytic therapies have a huge potential for neuronal repair after stroke. The majority of brain stroke studies address the damage to neurons. Modern studies turn to the usage of morphological and functional changes in astroglial cells after stroke in regenerative medicine. Our study is focused on the changes in the number of astrocytes in the hippocampus (where new glia cells divide) after brain ischemia. Ischemia was modeled by occlusion of tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sin., a. carotis communis sin. Astrocytes were determined using immunohistochemical labeling with anti GFAP antibody. We found out that the number of astrocytes increased on the 10th and 30th days after stroke in the CA1, CA2 fields, the granular layer of dentate gyrus (GrDG) and hilus. The morphology of astrocytes became reactive in these regions. Therefore, our results revealed long-term reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus region after total ischemia in rats.

  10. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as

  11. The 3' untranslated region of the two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS(1)) genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) regulates transcript stability in response to glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bindu; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2010-10-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to produce glutamine. The GS enzyme is located either in the chloroplast (GS(2)) or in the cytoplasm (GS(1)). GS(1) is encoded by a small gene family and the members exhibit differential expression pattern mostly attributed to transcriptional regulation. Based on our recent finding that a soybean GS(1) gene, Gmglnβ ( 1 ) is subject to its 3'UTR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation as a transgene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) we have raised the question of whether the 3'UTR-mediated transcript destabilization is a more universal phenomenon. Gene constructs consisting of the CaMV35S promoter driving the reporter gene, GUS, followed by the 3'UTRs of the two alfalfa GS(1) genes, MsGSa and MsGSb, were introduced into alfalfa and tobacco. The analysis of these transformants suggests that while both the 3'UTRs promote transcript turnover, the MsGSb 3'UTR is more effective than the MsGSa 3'UTR. However, both the 3'UTRs along with Gmglnβ ( 1 ) 3'UTR respond to nitrate as a trigger in transcript turnover. More detailed analysis points to glutamine rather than nitrate as the mediator of transcript turnover. Our data suggests that the 3'UTR-mediated regulation of GS(1) genes at the level of transcript turnover is probably universal and is used for fine-tuning the expression in keeping with the availability of the substrates.

  12. Astrocyte pathology in Alexander disease causes a marked inflammatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Markel; Putilina, Maria; Riemer, Ellen C; Goldman, James E

    2015-10-01

    Astrocytes and microglia are commonly involved in a wide variety of CNS pathologies. However, they are typically involved in a secondary response in which many cell types are affected simultaneously and therefore it is difficult to know their contributions to the pathology. Here, we show that pathological astrocytes in a mouse model of Alexander disease (AxD; GFAP (Tg);Gfap (+/R236H)) cause a pronounced immune response. We have studied the inflammatory response in the hippocampus and spinal cord of these mice and have found marked microglial activation, which follows that of astrocytes in a spatial pathological progression, as shown by increased levels of Iba1 and microglial cell (Iba1+) density. RNA sequencing and subsequent gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that a majority of the most upregulated genes in GFAP (Tg);Gfap (+/R236H) mice are directly associated with immune function and that cytokine and chemokine GO attributes represent nearly a third of the total immune attributes. Cytokine and chemokine analysis showed CXCL10 and CCL2 to be the most and earliest increased molecules, showing concentrations as high as EAE or stroke models. CXCL10 was localized exclusively to astrocytes while CCL2 was also present in microglia. Despite the high levels of CXCL10 and CCL2, T cell infiltration was mild and no B cells were found. Thus, mutations in GFAP are sufficient to trigger a profound inflammatory response. The cellular stress caused by the accumulation of GFAP likely leads to the production of inflammatory molecules and microglial activation. Examination of human AxD CNS tissues also revealed microglial activation and T cell infiltrates. Therefore, the inflammatory environment may play an important role in producing the neuronal dysfunction and seizures of AxD.

  13. Methamphetamine compromises gap junctional communication in astrocytes and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Paul; Nwagbo, Chisom; Martinez, Luis R; Eugenin, Eliseo A

    2016-05-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that results in psychological and physical dependency. The long-term effects of meth within the CNS include neuronal plasticity changes, blood-brain barrier compromise, inflammation, electrical dysfunction, neuronal/glial toxicity, and an increased risk to infectious diseases including HIV. Most of the reported meth effects in the CNS are related to dysregulation of chemical synapses by altering the release and uptake of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. However, little is known about the effects of meth on connexin (Cx) containing channels, such as gap junctions (GJ) and hemichannels (HC). We examined the effects of meth on Cx expression, function, and its role in NeuroAIDS. We found that meth altered Cx expression and localization, decreased GJ communication between neurons and astrocytes, and induced the opening of Cx43/Cx36 HC. Furthermore, we found that these changes in GJ and HC induced by meth treatment were mediated by activation of dopamine receptors, suggesting that dysregulation of dopamine signaling induced by meth is essential for GJ and HC compromise. Meth-induced changes in GJ and HC contributed to amplified CNS toxicity by dysregulating glutamate metabolism and increasing the susceptibility of neurons and astrocytes to bystander apoptosis induced by HIV. Together, our results indicate that connexin containing channels, GJ and HC, are essential in the pathogenesis of meth and increase the sensitivity of the CNS to HIV CNS disease. Methamphetamine (meth) is an extremely addictive central nervous system stimulant. Meth reduced gap junctional (GJ) communication by inducing internalization of connexin-43 (Cx43) in astrocytes and reducing expression of Cx36 in neurons by a mechanism involving activation of dopamine receptors (see cartoon). Meth-induced changes in Cx containing channels increased extracellular levels of glutamate and resulted in higher

  14. "Cell therapy for stroke: use of local astrocytes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek eChouchane

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stroke refers to a variety of conditions caused by the occlusion or hemorrhage of blood vessels supplying the brain, which is one of the main causes of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide. In the last years, cell-based therapies have been proposed as a new approach to ameliorate post stroke deficits. However, the most appropriate type of cell to be used in such therapies, as well as their sources, remains a matter of intense research. A good candidate cell should, in principle, display high plasticity to generate diverse types of neurons and, at the same type, low risk to cause undesired outcomes, such as malignant transformation. Recently, a new approach grounded on the reprogramming of endogenous astrocytes towards neuronal fates emerged as an alternative to restore neurological functions in several central nervous system diseases. In this perspective, we review data about the potential of astrocytes to become functional neurons following expression of neurogenic genes and discuss the potential benefits and risks of reprogramming astrocytes in the glial scar to replace neurons lost after stroke.

  15. Metabolic Interplay between Astrocytes and Neurons Regulates Endocannabinoid Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Viader

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG is a retrograde lipid messenger that modulates synaptic function, neurophysiology, and behavior. 2-AG signaling is terminated by enzymatic hydrolysis—a reaction that is principally performed by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL. MAGL is broadly expressed throughout the nervous system, and the contributions of different brain cell types to the regulation of 2-AG activity in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we genetically dissect the cellular anatomy of MAGL-mediated 2-AG metabolism in the brain and show that neurons and astrocytes coordinately regulate 2-AG content and endocannabinoid-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity and behavior. We also find that astrocytic MAGL is mainly responsible for converting 2-AG to neuroinflammatory prostaglandins via a mechanism that may involve transcellular shuttling of lipid substrates. Astrocytic-neuronal interplay thus provides distributed oversight of 2-AG metabolism and function and, through doing so, protects the nervous system from excessive CB1 receptor activation and promotes endocannabinoid crosstalk with other lipid transmitter systems.

  16. Expression of Ski and its role in astrocyte proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Wang, X-W; Zhou, K-S; Nan, W; Guo, Y-Q; Kou, J-L; Wang, J; Xia, Y-Y; Zhang, H-H

    2017-10-24

    Ski, as an evolutionarily conserved protein, is a versatile transcriptional regulator which widely distributes in various tissues and species. Recently, we have demonstrated for the first time that Ski was strikingly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury (SCI) in vivo, which indicates that maybe Ski is a new molecule that controls astrocytes' biological properties after SCI. However, the accurate distributions and functions of Ski in astrocytes after central nervous system (CNS) injury are still unclear. Astrocytes were collected from rats' cerebral cortex. To elucidate the expression and role of Ski in reactive astrocytes, we performed an activated astrocytes model induced by LPS and scratch injury in vitro. Our results showed that Ski gradually increased and reached a peak at 4days, then declined at 6days after induction by LPS. Up-regulation of Ski was accompanied with the increase in proliferation-related proteins including PCNA, CDK4 and CyclinD1. Furthermore, immunofluorescent staining analysis also demonstrated a highly positive relationship between Ski and GFAP, PCNA in astrocytes. These results indicated that Ski might play an important role in astrocyte proliferation. To further explore the role of Ski, astrocytes were transfected with Ski-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). We found that the primary activated astrocytes' proliferation decreased significantly after transfection with Ski-specific siRNA. Surprisingly, Ski knockdown also weakened the primary astrocyte migration. Based on the above, we could conclude that Ski might play a crucial role in astrocyte proliferation and migration. This discovery might contribute to a promising therapeutic intervention in CNS injury. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Astrocytes Modulate Distribution and Neuronal Signaling of Leptin in the Hypothalamus of Obese Avy Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; Xu, Changlei; Wu, Xiaojun; Bouret, Sebastien G.; Kastin, Abba J

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic activity modulates neuronal uptake and signaling of leptin in the adult-onset obese agouti viable yellow (Avy) mouse. In the immunohistochemical study, Avy mice were pretreated with the astrocyte metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) vehicle intracerebroventricularly (icv) followed 1 h later by Alexa568-leptin. Confocal microscopy showed that fluorocitrate pretreatment reduced astrocytic uptake of Alexa568-leptin 30 min a...

  18. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadi, Monika; Allaman, Igor; Lengacher, Sylvain; Grenningloh, Gabriele; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte)-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA) paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4), alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes.

  19. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tadi

    Full Text Available We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4, alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes.

  20. Learning-Induced Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Reveals a Role of Neuron -Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling in Long Term Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Tadi, Monika

    2015-10-29

    We examined the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism and particularly those encoding glia (astrocyte)-specific functions in the dorsal hippocampus subsequent to learning. Context-dependent avoidance behavior was tested in mice using the step-through Inhibitory Avoidance (IA) paradigm. Animals were sacrificed 3, 9, 24, or 72 hours after training or 3 hours after retention testing. The quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed learning-induced changes in the expression of genes thought to be involved in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling in a time dependent manner. Twenty four hours following IA training, an enhanced gene expression was seen, particularly for genes encoding monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4), alpha2 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase and glucose transporter type 1. To assess the functional role for one of these genes in learning, we studied MCT1 deficient mice and found that they exhibit impaired memory in the inhibitory avoidance task. Together, these observations indicate that neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes metabolic adaptations following learning as indicated by the change in expression of key metabolic genes.

  1. Computational simulation: astrocyte-induced depolarization of neighboring neurons mediates synchronous UP states in a neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriu, Takayuki; Kakimoto, Yuta; Araki, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    Although recent reports have suggested that synchronous neuronal UP states are mediated by astrocytic activity, the mechanism responsible for this remains unknown. Astrocytic glutamate release synchronously depolarizes adjacent neurons, while synaptic transmissions are blocked. The purpose of this study was to confirm that astrocytic depolarization, propagated through synaptic connections, can lead to synchronous neuronal UP states. We applied astrocytic currents to local neurons in a neural network consisting of model cortical neurons. Our results show that astrocytic depolarization may generate synchronous UP states for hundreds of milliseconds in neurons even if they do not directly receive glutamate release from the activated astrocyte.

  2. Guanine derivatives modulate extracellular matrix proteins organization and improve neuron-astrocyte co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Helena; Francisco, Sheila S; Mendes-de-Aguiar, Cláudia B N; Romão, Luciana F; Boeck, Carina R; Trentin, Andréa G; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Tasca, Carla I

    2007-07-01

    Guanine derivatives (GD) have been shown to exert relevant extracellular effects as intercellular messengers, neuromodulators in the central nervous system, and trophic effects on astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes have been pointed out as the major source of trophic factors in the nervous system, however, several trophic effects of astrocytic-released soluble factors are mediated through modulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In this study, we investigated the effects of guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) and guanosine (GUO) on the expression and organization of ECM proteins in cerebellar astrocytes. Moreover, to evaluate the effects of astrocytes pre-treated with GMP or GUO on cerebellar neurons we used a neuron-astrocyte coculture model. GMP or GUO alters laminin and fibronectin organization from a punctate to a fibrillar pattern, however, the expression levels of the ECM proteins were not altered. Guanine derivatives-induced alteration of ECM proteins organization is mediated by activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), CA(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways. Furthermore, astrocytes treated with GMP or GUO promoted an increased number of cerebellar neurons in coculture, without altering the neuritogenesis pattern. No proliferation of neurons or astrocytes was observed due to GMP or GUO treatment. Our results show that guanine derivatives promote a reorganization of the ECM proteins produced by astrocytes, which might be responsible for a better interaction with neurons in cocultures.

  3. Striatal astrocytes produce neuroblasts in an excitotoxic model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nato, Giulia; Caramello, Alessia; Trova, Sara; Avataneo, Valeria; Rolando, Chiara; Taylor, Verdon; Buffo, Annalisa; Peretto, Paolo; Luzzati, Federico

    2015-03-01

    In the adult brain, subsets of astrocytic cel