WorldWideScience

Sample records for astro2010 decadal survey

  1. Astro2010 Decadal Survey Whitepaper: Coordinated Science in the Gravitational and Electromagnetic Skies

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Joshua S; Hughes, Scott A; Menou, Kristen; Adams, Allan; Anderson, Scott F; Becker, Andy; Bower, Geoffrey C; Brandt, Niel; Cobb, Bethany; Cook, Kem; Corsi, Alessandra; Covino, Stefano; Fox, Derek; Fruchter, Andrew; Fryer, Chris; Grindlay, Jonathan; Hartmann, Dieter; Haiman, Zoltan; Kocsis, Bence; Jones, Lynne; Loeb, Abraham; Marka, Szabolcs; Metzger, Brian; Nakar, Ehud; Nissanke, Samaya; Perley, Daniel A; Piran, Tsvi; Poznanski, Dovi; Prince, Tom; Schnittman, Jeremy; Soderberg, Alicia; Strauss, Michael; Shawhan, Peter S; Shoemaker, David H; Sievers, Jonathan; Stubbs, Christopher; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Ubertini, Pietro; Wozniak, Przemyslaw

    2009-01-01

    It is widely expected that the coming decade will witness the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs). The ground-based LIGO and Virgo GW observatories are being upgraded to advanced sensitivity, and are expected to observe a significant binary merger rate. The launch of The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) would extend the GW window to low frequencies, opening new vistas on dynamical processes involving massive (M >~ 10^5 M_Sun) black holes. GW events are likely to be accompanied by electromagnetic (EM) counterparts and, since information carried electromagnetically is complementary to that carried gravitationally, a great deal can be learned about an event and its environment if it becomes possible to measure both forms of radiation in concert. Measurements of this kind will mark the dawn of trans-spectral astrophysics, bridging two distinct spectral bands of information. The aim of this whitepaper is to articulate future directions in both theory and observation that are likely to impa...

  2. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with GRBs: A White Paper for the Astro2010 Decadal Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatikos, Michael; Halzen, Francis; Meszaros, Peter; Roming, Peter W A

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are relativistic cosmological beacons of transient high energy radiation whose afterglows span the electromagnetic spectrum. Theoretical expectations of correlated neutrino and/or gravitational wave (GW) emission position GRBs at an astrophysical nexus for a metamorphosis in our understanding of the Cosmos. This new dawn in the era of experimental (particle) astrophysics and cosmology is afforded by current and planned facilities enabling the novel astronomies of high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves, in concert with unprecedented electromagnetic coverage. In this white paper, we motivate GRBs as a compelling scientific theme and highlight key technical advances that may facilitate fundamental breakthroughs in the context of Swift, Fermi, IceCube and LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), whose capabilities would be augmented with JANUS (Joint Astrophysics Nascent Universe Satellite), EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope) and LISA (Laser Interfer...

  3. X-ray Studies of Planetary Systems: An Astro2010 Decadal Survey White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Feigelson, Eric; Drake, Jeremy; Elsner, Ronald; Glassgold, Alfred; Gudel, Manuel; Montmerle, Thierry; Ohashi, Takaya; Smith, Randall; Wargelin, Bradford; Wolk, Scott

    2009-01-01

    While it may seem counterintuitive that X-ray astronomy should give any insights into low-temperature planetary systems, planets orbit stars whose magnetized surfaces divert a small fraction of the stellar energy into high energy products: coronal UV and X-rays, flare X-rays and energetic particles, and a high-velocity stellar wind. In our Solar System, X-ray emission gives unique insights into the solar activity, planetary atmospheres, cometary comae, charge exchange physics, and space weath...

  4. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets WFIRST-AFTA Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Spergel, D.; Gehrels, N.; Breckinridge, J.; Donahue, M.; Dressler, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Greene, T; Guyon, O.; Hirata, C.; Kalirai, J.; Kasdin, N. J.; Moos, W.; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M.; Rauscher, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as its top priority for a new large space mission. As conceived by the decadal survey, WFIRST would carry out a dark energy science program, a microlensing program to determine the demographics of exoplanets, and a general observing program utilizing its ultra wide field. In October 2012, NASA chartered a Science Definition Team (SDT) to produce, in collaboration with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and...

  5. Wide-Field InfrarRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets WFIRST-AFTA 2015 Report

    OpenAIRE

    Spergel, D.; Gehrels, N.; C. Baltay; Bennett, D.; Breckinridge, J.; Donahue, M.; Dressler, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Greene, T; Guyon, O.; Hirata, C.; Kalirai, J.; Kasdin, N. J.; Macintosh, B.; Moos, W.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the 2014 study by the Science Definition Team (SDT) of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission. It is a space observatory that will address the most compelling scientific problems in dark energy, exoplanets and general astrophysics using a 2.4-m telescope with a wide-field infrared instrument and an optical coronagraph. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its top priority for a new large space mission. As c...

  6. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.

    2009-03-01

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  7. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cooray, Asantha R.; /UC, Irvine; Covey, Kevin R.; /Harvard U.; Csabai, Istvan; /Eotvos U.; Ferguson, Henry C.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kantor, Jeffrey; /LSST Corp.; Kent, Stephen M.; /Fermilab; Knapp, G.R.; /Princeton U.; Myers, Steven T.; /NRAO, Socorro; Neilsen, Eric H., Jr.; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Caltech, IPAC /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Harvard U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /NOAO, Tucson /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2011-11-14

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  8. Five Decades of Marine Megafauna Surveys from Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    Summer L. Martin; Kyle S Van Houtan; Jones, T. Todd; Aguon, Celestino F.; Jay T. Gutierrez; Tibbatts, R. Brent; Shawn B. Wusstig; Bass, Jamie D.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term data are critical for assessing the status, trends, abundance, and distributions of wildlife populations. However, such data streams are often lacking for protected species, especially highly mobile marine vertebrates. Using five decades of aerial surveys, we assessed changes in marine megafauna on the insular coral reef ecosystem of Guam (Marianas Archipelago in Micronesia). The data allowed estimates of relative abundance, trends, and geographic distributions for several important...

  9. Five decades of marine megafauna surveys from Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    Summer L. Martin; Kyle S Van Houtan; T Todd Jones; Aguon, Celestino F.; Jay T. Gutierrez; R. Brent Tibbatts; Shawn B. Wusstig; Bass, Jamie D.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term data are critical for assessing the status, trends, abundance, and distributions of wildlife populations. However, such data streams are often lacking for protected species, especially highly mobile marine vertebrates. Using five decades of aerial surveys, we assessed changes in marine megafauna on the insular coral reef ecosystem of Guam (Marianas Archipelago in Micronesia). The data allowed estimates of relative abundance, trends, and geographic distributions for several important...

  10. Survey of Four Decades of Addiction Prevalence Researches in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sarrami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this research is the survey of addiction and drug abuse and psychotropic drugs prevalence researches which have been done in our country in last decades Method: To do this research all addiction and drug abuse prevalence researches that have been taken place were collected and analyzed. Results: the results of the researches show that the statistics of addiction has been in an oscillation as in 1390, the survey in 15 to 64 years old people (according to 1385 census that is 50 million people, is equal to one million and three hundred thousand and twenty five persons. Conclusion: the results of the four decades of addiction prevalence in Iran show that in according to the size of the threat of drugs and psychotropic drugs and addiction prevalence and also the change of gender, matrimony, age, job and the level of addicts education, less attention has been given to the drug abuse prevalence researches in public, youngsters, students and governmental and governmental non- officials.

  11. The NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol, Cloud, Ecosystems Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Bontempi, Paula; Maring, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the National Academy of Sciences delivered a Decadal Survey (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond) for NASA, NOAA, and USGS, which is a prioritization of future satellite Earth observations. The recommendations included 15 missions (13 for NASA, two for NOAA), which were prioritized into three groups or tiers. One of the second tier missions is the Aerosol, Cloud, (ocean) Ecosystems (ACE) mission, which focuses on climate forcing, cloud and aerosol properties and interactions, and ocean ecology, carbon cycle science, and fluxes. The baseline instruments recommended for ACE are a cloud radar, an aerosol/cloud lidar, an aerosol/cloud polarimeter, and an ocean radiometer. The instrumental heritage for these measurements are derived from the Cloudsat, CALIPSO, Glory, SeaWiFS and Aqua (MODIS) missions. In 2008, NASA HQ, lead by Hal Maring and Paula Bontempi, organized an interdisciplinary science working group to help formulate the ACE mission by refining the science objectives and approaches, identifying measurement (satellite and field) and mission (e.g., orbit, data processing) requirements, technology requirements, and mission costs. Originally, the disciplines included the cloud, aerosol, and ocean biogeochemistry communities. Subsequently, an ocean-aerosol interaction science working group was formed to ensure the mission addresses the broadest range of science questions possible given the baseline measurements, The ACE mission is a unique opportunity for ocean scientists to work closely with the aerosol and cloud communities. The science working groups are collaborating on science objectives and are defining joint field studies and modeling activities. The presentation will outline the present status of the ACE mission, the science questions each discipline has defined, the measurement requirements identified to date, the current ACE schedule, and future opportunities for broader community

  12. Five decades of marine megafauna surveys from Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer L. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term data are critical for assessing the status, trends, abundance, and distributions of wildlife populations. However, such data streams are often lacking for protected species, especially highly mobile marine vertebrates. Using five decades of aerial surveys, we assessed changes in marine megafauna on the insular coral reef ecosystem of Guam (Marianas Archipelago in Micronesia. The data allowed estimates of relative abundance, trends, and geographic distributions for several important taxa: sea turtles, sharks, manta rays, small delphinids, and large delphinids. These surveys occurred in 32 years from 1963-2012 amounting to 632 flights lasting 809 hours over a 70.16 km2 area. Over this span, surveyors recorded 10,622 turtle, 1,026 shark, 60 manta ray, 7,515 small delphinid, and 95 large delphinid observations. Since the 1960s, sea turtles increased an order of magnitude (r = 0.07 and sharks decreased five-fold (r = -0.03. Turtle increases were largely restricted to one geographical area, where optimal habitat coincides with low human density and a marine protected area. Shark observations declined proximate to human population centers. Trends for the other taxa were less informative, but each taxon had geographic foci. Protections in the region may be working to recover turtle populations, but failing (or have not yet had sufficient time to recover overfished shark populations. Long-term analyses of vulnerable marine megafauna in this data-limited region are uncommon, and should be used to guide more focused studies that inform regional management and conservation of these species.

  13. US Decadal Survey Outer Solar System Missions: Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Strange, N. J.; Landau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The report of the US Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS), released in draft form March 7, 2011, identifies several mission concepts involving travel to high-priority outer solar system (OSS) destinations. These include missions to Europa and Jupiter, Saturn and two of its satellites, and Uranus. Because travel to the OSS involves much larger distances and larger excursions out of the sun's gravitational potential well than inner solar system (ISS) missions, transfer trajectories for OSS missions are stronger drivers of mission schedule and resource requirements than for ISS missions. Various characteristics of each planet system, such as obliquity, radiation belts, rings, deep gravity wells, etc., carry ramifications for approach trajectories or trajectories within the systems. The maturity of trajectory studies for each of these destinations varies significantly. Europa has been the focus of studies for well over a decade. Transfer trajectory options from Earth to Jupiter are well understood. Current studies focus on trajectories within the Jovian system that could reduce the total mission cost of a Europa orbiter mission. Three missions to the Saturn system received high priority ratings in the PSDS report: two flagship orbital missions, one to Titan and one to Enceladus, and a Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission for NASA's New Frontiers Program. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) studies of 2007-2009 advanced our understanding of trajectory options for transfers to Saturn, including solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories. But SEP trajectories depend more on details of spacecraft and propulsion system characteristics than chemical trajectories, and the maturity of SEP trajectory search tools has not yet caught up with chemical trajectory tools, so there is still more useful research to be done on Saturn transfers. The TSSM studies revealed much about Saturn-orbiting trajectories that yield efficient and timely delivery to Titan or Enceladus

  14. "An Era of Precision Astrophysics: Connecting Stars, Galaxies and the Universe," an Astro2010 Science White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Olling, Rob P; Anderson, Jay; Chaboyer, Brian C; Freedman, Wendy; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Johnston, Kenneth; Kulkarni, Shri; Lepine, Sebastien; Makarov, Valeri V; Mamajek, Eric E; Quillen, Alice C; Sahu, Kailash S; Sarajedini, Ata; Shaya, Ed J; Terndrup, Donald; Young, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    Abridged: The golden age of astrophysics is upon us with both grand discoveries (extra-solar planets, dark matter, dark energy) and precision cosmology. Fundamental understanding of the working of stars and galaxies is within reach, thanks to newly available precision measurements. We highlight the importance of distances and model independent distances and masses. Distances are fundamental in astrophysics and their knowledge can change our perception of phenomena dramatically: e.g., in antiquity, the Heliocentric model was rejected because the predicted stellar parallaxes were not observed. Distance measurements are directly related to the history & fate of the uni- verse as they provide 2 of 3 methods available to date the universe. The 1st method is based on the ages of stars, which can be ascertained if their lumi- nosities (distances) are accurately known. The 2nd method relies on cosmolo- gical methods. To 1st order, the age of the universe is the inverse H_0. As stressed by the previous decadal rep...

  15. The GALAH Survey and Galactic Archaeology in the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    The field of Galactic Archaeology aims to understand the origins and evolution of the stellar populations in the Milky Way, as a way to understand galaxy formation and evolution in general. The GALAH (Galactic Archaeology with HERMES) Survey is an ambitious Australian-led project to explore the Galactic history of star formation, chemical evolution, minor mergers and stellar migration. GALAH is using the HERMES spectrograph, a novel, highly multiplexed, four-channel high-resolution optical spectrograph, to collect high-quality R ~ 28,000 spectra for one million stars in the Milky Way. From these data we will determine stellar parameters, radial velocities and abundances for up to 29 elements per star, and carry out a thorough chemical tagging study of the nearby Galaxy. There are clear complementarities between GALAH and other ongoing and planned Galactic Archaeology surveys, and also with ancillary stellar data collected by of major cosmological surveys. Combined, these data sets will provide a revolutionary...

  16. Survey of Educational Preparation in Pediatric Audiology: A Decade Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, Robert F.; Gross, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    This study surveyed audiology program directors (N=46) and audiologists (N=70) concerning preparation in pediatric audiology, specifically general program characteristics, education and training in pediatric audiology, affiliation with a pediatric medical facility, affiliation with school systems, and perceived adequacy of preparation. Comparison…

  17. Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, David A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, John P.; Mentzell, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

  18. A Nominal Balloon Instrument Payload to Address Questions from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot; Kremic, Tibor; Dankanich, John

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey (entitled "Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013 - 2022", available online at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/2013decadal/) serves as a roadmap for activities to be pursued by the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This document outlines roughly 200 key research areas and questions in chapters covering different parts of the solar system (e.g., Mars, Small Bodies, etc.). We have reviewed the Decadal Survey to assess whether any of the key questions can be addressed by high altitude balloon-borne payloads. Although some questions can only be answered by in situ experiments, we found that approximately one quarter of the key questions were well suited to balloon payloads. In many of those cases, balloons were competitive or superior to other existing facilities, including HST, SOFIA or Keck telescopes. We will present specific telescope and instrument bench designs that are capable of addressing key questions in the Decadal Survey. The instrument bench takes advantage of two of the main benefits of high-altitude observations: diffraction-limited imaging in visible and UV wavelengths and unobstructed spectroscopy in near-IR (1 - 5 microns) wavelengths. Our optical prescription produces diffraction-limited PSFs in both visible and IR beams. We will discuss pointing and thermal stability, two of the main challenges facing a balloon-borne telescope.

  19. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  20. The Survey Two Decades of Prevalence Studies among Iran University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sarrami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the main purpose of this research was to collect and survey the prevalence studies of drug misuse and psychotropic drugs that have been done sporadically among university students from 1374 to 1392. Up to now, no survey of data has been done on these researches. Method: library has been the method of this research and 37 researches were analyzed. Findings: methodologically, the results show that many prevalence studies are with major faults. Conclusion: the studies show that less attention has been given to prevalence studies of drug addiction and useful interventions in university students. However, the rate of addiction during 2 decades has been stable cigar, hookah take the first and second places and alcohol, opium, hashish and heroine come respectively.

  1. 1992-2002: Perspective on a decade of tsunami field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.; Borrero, J. C.; Members Of Itst, .

    2003-12-01

    The past decade has seen the systematic deployment of international field survey teams (ITST), following damaging regional tsunamis. Fourteen such surveys have been carried out: Nicaragua (1992), Okushiri (1993), Mindoro (1994), Java (1994), Flores (1994), Kuriles (1994), Mexico (1995), Biak (1996), Chimbote (1996), PNG (1998), Izmit (1999), Fatu Hiva (1999), Vanuatu (1999), Peru (2001) and PNG (2002). In addition, similar techniques have been applied to the survey of important historical tsunamis such as Aleutian (1946) and Amorgos (1956). The primary goal of the field surveys is to obtain a reliable, quantitative dataset of run-up and inundation measurements, which can be used in simulation experiments based on hydrodynamic modeling, in order to unravel the mechanism of generation of the tsunami. One of the most important results obtained from the compilation of such datasets has been the emergence of the aspect ratio of the distribution of run-up in the near field as a most promising discriminant between generation by the seismic dislocation (e.g., Nicaragua; Peru, 2001; PNG 2002) and by an underwater slump (e.g., Aleutian 1946, PNG 1998). Surveying also reveals localized enhancement of run-up, controlled on a smaller scale by occasional underwater landslides (Flores, 1992), splashes against cliffs (Mexico, 1995; Peru, 2001) or interaction with steep coastal valleys (Okushiri, 1993). Field surveys have also provided insight into engineering and societal factors controlling the extent of human and property losses, such as coastal land use, building codes and materials, and public education and awareness. To foster the latter, the teams constantly repeat simple messages on tsunami mitigation during one-on-one interviews with local residents, as well as town meetings. In this respect, the successful self-evacuation at Bay Mairtele, Vanuatu in 1999 is a gratifying example of the value of education.

  2. Uncertainty Analysis in the Decadal Survey Era: A Hydrologic Application using the Land Information System (LIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, K.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Computing and algorithmic advancements are making possible a more complete accounting of errors and uncertainties in earth science modeling. Knowledge of uncertainty can be critical in many application areas and can help to guide scientific research efforts. Here, we describe a plan and progress to date for a fuller accounting of hydrologic modeling uncertainties that addresses the challenges posed by decadal survey missions. These challenges include the need to account for a wide range of error sources (e.g., model error, stochastically varying inputs, observational error, downscaling) and uncertainties (model parameters, error parameters, model selection). In addition, there is a need to incorporate into an assessment all available data, which for decadal survey missions includes the wealth of data from ground, air and satellite observing systems. Our core tool is NASA’s Land Information System (LIS), a high-resolution, high-performance, land surface modeling and data assimilation system that supports a wide range of land surface research and applications. Support for parameter and uncertainty estimation was recently incorporated into the software architecture, and to date three optimization algorithms (Levenberg-Marquardt, Genetic Algorithm, and SCE-UA) and two Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for Bayesian analysis (random walk, Differential Evolution-Monte Carlo) have been added. Results and discussion center on a case study that was the focus of Santanello et al. (2007) who demonstrated the use of remotely sensed soil moisture for hydrologic parameter estimation in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. We contrast results from uncertainty estimation to those from parameter estimation alone. We demonstrate considerable but not complete uncertainty reduction. From this analysis, we identify remaining challenges to a more complete accounting of uncertainties.

  3. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Fan, X.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Traub, W.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Goullioud, R.; Grady, K.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Peddie, C.; Rioux, N.; Seiffert, M.

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, NASA created a Science Definition Team (SDT) for WFIRST, the Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope, recommended by the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey as the highest priority for a large space mission. The SDT was chartered to work with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL to produce a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for WFIRST. Part of the original charge was to produce an interim design reference mission by mid-2011. That document was delivered to NASA and widely circulated within the astronomical community. In late 2011 the Astrophysics Division augmented its original charge, asking for two design reference missions. The first of these, DRM1, was to be a finalized version of the interim DRM, reducing overall mission costs where possible. The second of these, DRM2, was to identify and eliminate capabilities that overlapped with those of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (henceforth JWST), ESA's Euclid mission, and the NSF's ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (henceforth LSST), and again to reduce overall mission cost, while staying faithful to NWNH. This report presents both DRM1 and DRM2.

  4. Establishing Long Term Data Management Research Priorities via a Data Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Uhlir, P.; Meyer, C. B.; Robinson, E.

    2013-12-01

    competition with other priorities of the research enterprise. This presentation will introduce the Data Decadal Survey, an initial concept created in collaboration between the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) and of the National Research Council's Board on Research Data and Information (BRDI). Consistent with Executive open data policies, the Survey will provide a coordinating platform to address overarching issues and identify research needs and funding priorities in scientific data management and stewardship for the long term. The Survey would address at the broadest level gaps in data management knowledge and practices that hold back scientific progress, and recommend a strategy to address them. The goal is to provide a long term strategic vision that will increase the meaningful availability of higher quality data, create or improve tools, processes, and practices that support accreditation, accountability, traceability, and reproducibility, redirect resources previously required by scientists for data discovery, acquisition, and reformatting to performing actual science, thereby ultimately enhancing scientific knowledge.

  5. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets WFIRST-AFTA Final Report

    CERN Document Server

    Spergel, D; Breckinridge, J; Donahue, M; Dressler, A; Gaudi, B S; Greene, T; Guyon, O; Hirata, C; Kalirai, J; Kasdin, N J; Moos, W; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Rauscher, B; Rhodes, J; Wang, Y; Weinberg, D; Centrella, J; Traub, W; Baltay, C; Colbert, J; Bennett, D; Kiessling, A; Macintosh, B; Merten, J; Mortonson, M; Penny, M; Rozo, E; Savransky, D; Stapelfeldt, K; Zu, Y; Baker, C; Cheng, E; Content, D; Dooley, J; Foote, M; Goullioud, R; Grady, K; Jackson, C; Kruk, J; Levine, M; Melton, M; Peddie, C; Ruffa, J; Shaklan, S

    2013-01-01

    The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as its top priority for a new large space mission. As conceived by the decadal survey, WFIRST would carry out a dark energy science program, a microlensing program to determine the demographics of exoplanets, and a general observing program utilizing its ultra wide field. In October 2012, NASA chartered a Science Definition Team (SDT) to produce, in collaboration with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL, a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for an implementation of WFIRST using one of the 2.4-m, Hubble-quality mirror assemblies recently made available to NASA. This DRM builds on the work of the earlier WFIRST SDT, reported by Green et al. (2012). The 2.4-m primary mirror enables a mission with greater sensitivity and higher angular resolution than the 1.3-m and 1.1-m designs considered previously, increasing both the science return of the primary surveys and the capabilities of WFIRST as a Guest Ob...

  6. Wide-Field InfrarRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets WFIRST-AFTA 2015 Report

    CERN Document Server

    Spergel, D; Baltay, C; Bennett, D; Breckinridge, J; Donahue, M; Dressler, A; Gaudi, B S; Greene, T; Guyon, O; Hirata, C; Kalirai, J; Kasdin, N J; Macintosh, B; Moos, W; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Rauscher, B; Rhodes, J; Wang, Y; Weinberg, D; Benford, D; Hudson, M; Jeong, W -S; Mellier, Y; Traub, W; Yamada, T; Capak, P; Colbert, J; Masters, D; Penny, M; Savransky, D; Sterns, D; Zimmerman, N; Barry, R; Bartusek, L; Carpenter, K; Cheng, E; Content, D; Dekens, F; Demers, R; Grady, K; Jackson, C; Kuan, G; Kruk, J; Melton, M; Nemati, B; Parvin, B; Poberezhskiy, I; Peddie, C; Ruffa, J; Wallace, J K; Whipple, A; Wollack, E; Zhao, F

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the 2014 study by the Science Definition Team (SDT) of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission. It is a space observatory that will addresses the most compelling scientific problems in dark energy, exoplanets and general astrophysics using a 2.4m telescope with a wide-field infrared instrument and an optical coronagraph. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its top priority for a new large space mission. As conceived by the decadal survey, WFIRST would carry out a dark energy science program, a microlensing program to determine the demographics of exoplanets, and a general observing program utilizing its ultra wide field. In October 2012, NASA chartered a Science Definition Team (SDT) to produce, in collaboration with the WFIRST Study Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL, a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for an implementation of WFIRST using one of the 2.4-m, Hubble-quality telescope assemblies recently made availabl...

  7. VERITAS: A mission to study the highest priority Decadal Survey questions for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Hensley, S.; Campbell, B. A.; Gilmore, M. S.; Phillips, R. J.; Zebker, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography And Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Mission, a proposed NASA Discovery mission, seeks to produce high-resolution altimetry and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, thermal emissivity, and an improved gravity field. VERITAS addresses the highest priority Decadal survey questions: 1) Did Venus host ancient aqueous environments? 2) Can understanding the roles of physics, chemistry, geology, and dynamics in driving planetary atmospheres lead to a better understanding of climate change on Earth? 3) How have chemical and physical processes operated, interacted, and evolved? Using an interferometric mapping radar, a near infrared spectrometer, and radio science experiment, VERITAS will examine 1) the similarity of tessera plateau formation to continents on Earth, 2) the current forces driving tectonics and volcanism, and, perhaps most importantly, 3) inform our understanding of how stagnant lid planets evolve. Data from VIRTIS on Venus Express show that the highly deformed tessera plateaus, possible remnants of a prior regime on Venus, may be more felsic in composition than the surrounding plains, supporting the hypothesis they are similar to Earth's continents. However this interpretation is equivocal due to uncertainty in the available altimetry. VERITAS is designed to collect data with sufficient resolution to answer this question definitively, and also aid in the assessment of tesserae as a touchdown point for a future lander. Similarly, the enormous rift zones and mountain belts are manifestations of global scale tectonics within the last billion years on Venus, but present data are not adequate to determine the driving forces or whether they are presently active. VERITAS will provide such data through fine-resolution topographic maps and, if possible, measurements of any current-day crustal deformation. Finally, current data are highly suggestive of recent and active volcanism. VERITAS observations can tell us if

  8. Tools to Support the Reuse of Software Assets for the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Downs, Robert R.; Marshall, James J.; Most, Neal F.; Samadi, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group (SRWG) is chartered with the investigation, production, and dissemination of information related to the reuse of NASA Earth science software assets. One major current objective is to engage the NASA decadal missions in areas relevant to software reuse. In this paper we report on the current status of these activities. First, we provide some background on the SRWG in general and then discuss the group s flagship recommendation, the NASA Reuse Readiness Levels (RRLs). We continue by describing areas in which mission software may be reused in the context of NASA decadal missions. We conclude the paper with pointers to future directions.

  9. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Final Report

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J; Baltay, C; Bean, R; Bennett, D; Brown, R; Conselice, C; Donahue, M; Fan, X; Gaudi, B S; Hirata, C; Kalirai, J; Lauer, T; Nichol, B; Padmanabhan, N; Perlmutter, S; Rauscher, B; Rhodes, J; Roellig, T; Stern, D; Sumi, T; Tanner, A; Wang, Y; Weinberg, D; Wright, E; Gehrels, N; Sambruna, R; Traub, W; Anderson, J; Cook, K; Garnavich, P; Hillenbrand, L; Ivezic, Z; Kerins, E; Lunine, J; McDonald, P; Penny, M; Phillips, M; Rieke, G; Riess, A; van der Marel, R; Barry, R K; Cheng, E; Content, D; Cutri, R; Goullioud, R; Grady, K; Helou, G; Jackson, C; Kruk, J; Melton, M; Peddie, C; Rioux, N; Seiffert, M

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, NASA created a Science Definition Team (SDT) for WFIRST, the Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope, recommended by the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey as the highest priority for a large space mission. The SDT was chartered to work with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL to produce a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for WFIRST. Part of the original charge was to produce an interim design reference mission by mid-2011. That document was delivered to NASA and widely circulated within the astronomical community. In late 2011 the Astrophysics Division augmented its original charge, asking for two design reference missions. The first of these, DRM1, was to be a finalized version of the interim DRM, reducing overall mission costs where possible. The second of these, DRM2, was to identify and eliminate capabilities that overlapped with those of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (henceforth JWST), ESA's Euclid mission, and the NSF's ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (...

  10. A multi-decade dataset of monthly beach profile surveys and inshore wave forcing at Narrabeen, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ian L; Harley, Mitchell D; Short, Andrew D; Simmons, Joshua A; Bracs, Melissa A; Phillips, Matthew S; Splinter, Kristen D

    2016-01-01

    Long-term observational datasets that record and quantify variability, changes and trends in beach morphology at sandy coastlines together with the accompanying wave climate are rare. A monthly beach profile survey program commenced in April 1976 at Narrabeen located on Sydney's Northern Beaches in southeast Australia is one of just a handful of sites worldwide where on-going and uninterrupted beach monitoring now spans multiple decades. With the Narrabeen survey program reaching its 40-year milestone in April 2016, it is timely that free and unrestricted use of these data be facilitated to support the next advances in beach erosion-recovery modelling. The archived dataset detailed here includes the monthly subaerial profiles, available bathymetry for each survey transect extending seawards to 20 m water depth, and time-series of ocean astronomical tide and inshore wave forcing at 10 m water depths, the latter corresponding to the location of individual survey transects. In addition, on-going access to the results of the continuing monthly survey program is described. PMID:27070299

  11. A multi-decade dataset of monthly beach profile surveys and inshore wave forcing at Narrabeen, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ian L.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Short, Andrew D.; Simmons, Joshua A.; Bracs, Melissa A.; Phillips, Matthew S.; Splinter, Kristen D.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term observational datasets that record and quantify variability, changes and trends in beach morphology at sandy coastlines together with the accompanying wave climate are rare. A monthly beach profile survey program commenced in April 1976 at Narrabeen located on Sydney’s Northern Beaches in southeast Australia is one of just a handful of sites worldwide where on-going and uninterrupted beach monitoring now spans multiple decades. With the Narrabeen survey program reaching its 40-year milestone in April 2016, it is timely that free and unrestricted use of these data be facilitated to support the next advances in beach erosion-recovery modelling. The archived dataset detailed here includes the monthly subaerial profiles, available bathymetry for each survey transect extending seawards to 20 m water depth, and time-series of ocean astronomical tide and inshore wave forcing at 10 m water depths, the latter corresponding to the location of individual survey transects. In addition, on-going access to the results of the continuing monthly survey program is described. PMID:27070299

  12. A decade of modern cave surveying with terrestrial laser scanning: A review of sensors, method and application development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Mohammed Oludare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the need to survey and model caves or caverns in their correct three-dimensional geometry has increased due to two major competing motivations. One is the emergence of medium and long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technology that can collect high point density with unprecedented accuracy and speed, and two, the expanding sphere of multidisciplinary research in understanding the origin and development of cave, called speleogenesis. Accurate surveying of caves has always been fundamental to understanding their origin and processes that lead to their current state and as well provide tools and information to predict future. Several laser scanning surveys have been carried out in many sophisticated cave sites around the world over the last decade for diverse applications; however, no comprehensive assessment of this development has been published to date. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D scanning in caves during the last decade. It examines a bibliography of almost fifty high quality works published in various international journals related to mapping caves in their true 3D geometry with focus on sensor design, methodology and data processing, and application development. The study shows that a universal standard method for 3D scanning has been established. The method provides flexible procedures that make it adaptable to suit different geometric conditions in caves. Significant progress has also been recorded in terms of physical design and technical capabilities. Over time, TLS devices have seen a reduction in size, and become more compact and lighter, with almost full panoramic coverage. Again, the speed, resolution, and measurement accuracy of scanners have improved tremendously, providing a wealth of information for the expanding sphere of emerging applications. Comparatively, point cloud processing packages are not left out of the development. They are more efficient in terms of

  13. Three decades of BGR airborne geophysical surveys over the polar regions - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has been conducting geological polar research since 1979. A few years later BGR engaged in airborne geophysical projects. Investigation of the lithosphere of the continent and the continental margins was one of the key issues for BGR. Right from the beginning geophysical research was closely associated with the geological activities. The GANOVEX (German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition) program combined geological research with geophysical (mainly airborne) investigations. This proved to be a fruitful approach to many of the open questions regarding the tectonic development of the Ross Sea region. Aeromagnetic surveys evolved into a powerful tool for identifying geological structures and following them underneath the ice covered areas - not accessible to direct geological investigations. To achieve this aim it was essential to lay out these surveys with a relatively closely spaced line separation on the expense of covering large areas at the same time. Nevertheless, over many years of continues research areas of more than a just regional extent could be covered. This was, however, only possible through international collaboration. During the first years, working in the Ross Sea area, the cooperation with the US and Italian programs played a significant role, especially the GITARA (German-Italian Aeromagnetic Research in Antarctica) program has to be mentioned. GEOMAUD (Geoscientific Expedition to Dronning Maud Land) and the German-Australian joint venture PCMEGA (Prince Charles Mountains Expedition of Germany & Australia) expanded research activities to the East Antarctic shield area. In the International Polar Year (IPY), BGR played a leading role in the international project AGAP (Antarctica's GAmburtsev Province) as part of the main topic "Venture into Unknown Regions". AGAP was jointly conducted by the USA, Great Britain, Australia, China and Germany. While in the Ross Sea area even

  14. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  15. Spatially Extensive Standardized Surveys Reveal Widespread, Multi-Decadal Increase in East Antarctic Adélie Penguin Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; McKinlay, John; Newbery, Kym; Takahashi, Akinori; Kato, Akiko; Barbraud, Christophe; DeLord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are considered to be useful and practical indicators of the state of marine ecosystems because they integrate across changes in the lower trophic levels and the physical environment. Signals from this key group of species can indicate broad scale impacts or response to environmental change. Recent studies of penguin populations, the most commonly abundant Antarctic seabirds in the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea, have demonstrated that physical changes in Antarctic marine environments have profound effects on biota at high trophic levels. Large populations of the circumpolar-breeding Adélie penguin occur in East Antarctica, but direct, standardized population data across much of this vast coastline have been more limited than in other Antarctic regions. We combine extensive new population survey data, new population estimation methods, and re-interpreted historical survey data to assess decadal-scale change in East Antarctic Adélie penguin breeding populations. We show that, in contrast to the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea where breeding populations have decreased or shown variable trends over the last 30 years, East Antarctic regional populations have almost doubled in abundance since the 1980’s and have been increasing since the earliest counts in the 1960’s. The population changes are associated with five-year lagged changes in the physical environment, suggesting that the changing environment impacts primarily on the pre-breeding age classes. East Antarctic marine ecosystems have been subject to a number of changes over the last 50 years which may have influenced Adélie penguin population growth, including decadal-scale climate variation, an inferred mid-20th century sea-ice contraction, and early-to-mid 20th century exploitation of fish and whale populations. PMID:26488299

  16. Addressing Decadal Survey Science through Community Access to Highly Multiplexed Spectroscopy with BigBOSS on the KPNO Mayall Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Pilachowski, Caty; Bailey, Stephen; Barth, Aaron; Beaton, Rachel; Bell, Eric; Bernstein, Rebecca; Bian, Fuyan; Blanton, Michael; Blum, Robert; Bolton, Adam; Bond, Howard; Brodwin, Mark; Bullock, James; Carlin, Jeff; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cinabro, David; Cooper, Michael; Cota, Jorge L C; Davis, Marc; Dawson, Kyle; Dey, Arjun; Donahue, Megan; Drake, Jeremy; Ellingson, Erica; Faccioli, Lorenzo; Fan, Xiaohui; Ferguson, Harry; Gawiser, Eric; Geha, Marla; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gonzalez, Anthony; Griest, Kim; Grossan, Bruce; Guhathakurta, Raja; Harding, Paul; Heap, Sara R; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve; Jannuzi, Buell; Kalirai, Jason; Keeney, Brian; Kewley, Lisa; Kong, Xu; Lampton, Michael; Lin, Wei-Peng; de la Macorra, Axel; Macri, Lucas; Majewski, Steve; Martini, Paul; Massey, Phil; McSwain, Virginia; Miller, Adam A; Minniti, Dante; Modjaz, Maryam; Morrison, Heather; Moustakas, John; Myers, Adam; Najita, Joan; Newman, Jeffrey; Norman, Dara; Olsen, Knut; Pierce, Michael; Pope, Alexandra; Prescott, Moire; Reddy, Naveen; Reil, Kevin; Rest, Armin; Rhode, Katherine; Rockosi, Connie; Rudnick, Greg; Saha, Abhijit; Salzer, John; Sanders, David; Schlegel, David; Sesar, Branimir; Shields, Joseph; Silverman, Jeffrey; Simon, Josh; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Surace, Jason; Szalay, Alex; Ulmer, Melville; Weiner, Ben; Willman, Beth; Windhorst, Rogier; Wood-Vasey, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of a community-based discussion of the potential science impact of the Mayall+BigBOSS highly multiplexed multi-object spectroscopic capability. The KPNO Mayall 4m telescope equipped with the DOE- and internationally-funded BigBOSS spectrograph offers one of the most cost-efficient ways of accomplishing many of the pressing scientific goals identified for this decade by the "New Worlds, New Horizons" report. The BigBOSS Key Project will place unprecedented constraints on cosmological parameters related to the expansion history of the universe. With the addition of an open (publicly funded) community access component, the scientific impact of BigBOSS can be extended to many important astrophysical questions related to the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and the IGM. Massive spectroscopy is the critical missing ingredient in numerous ongoing and planned ground- and space-based surveys, and BigBOSS is unique in its ability to provide this to the US community. BigBOSS ...

  17. Life history and dynamics of a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) population: four decades of mark-recapture surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilad Bino; Grant, Tom R.; Kingsford, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia’s iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973–2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = ...

  18. Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG) Report to Paul Hertz Regarding Large Mission Concepts to Study for the 2020 Decadal Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudi, B Scott; Apai, Daniel; Bendek, Eduardo; Boss, Alan; Breckinridge, James B; Ciardi, David R; Cowan, Nicolas B; Danchi, William C; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Fortney, Jonathan J; Greene, Thomas P; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kasting, James F; Leisawitz, David T; Leger, Alain; Lille, Charles F; Lisman, Douglas P; Lo, Amy S; Malbet, Fabian; Mandell, Avi M; Meadows, Victoria S; Mennesson, Bertrand; Nemati, Bijan; Plavchan, Peter P; Rinehart, Stephen A; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B; Shao, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Stark, Christopher C; Swain, Mark; Taylor, Stuart F; Turnbull, Margaret C; Turner, Neal J; Turyshev, Slava G; Unwin, Stephen C; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; ExoPAG, on behalf of the

    2016-01-01

    This is a joint summary of the reports from the three Astrophysics Program Analysis Groups (PAGs) in response to the "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" charge given by the Astrophysics Division Director Paul Hertz. This joint executive summary contains points of consensus across all three PAGs. Additional findings specific to the individual PAGs are reported separately in the individual reports. The PAGs concur that all four large mission concepts identified in the white paper as candidates for maturation prior to the 2020 Decadal Survey should be studied in detail. These include the Far-IR Surveyor, the Habitable-Exoplanet Imaging Mission, the UV/Optical/IR Surveyor, and the X-ray Surveyor. This finding is predicated upon assumptions outlined in the white paper and subsequent charge, namely that 1) major development of future large flagship missions under consideration are to follow the implementation phases of JWST and WFIRST; 2) NASA will partner with the European Space Agency on its L3 Gravitational W...

  19. Life history and dynamics of a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) population: four decades of mark-recapture surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bino, Gilad; Grant, Tom R; Kingsford, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia's iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973-2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = 0.27, males Φ = 0.13. Females were highly likely to remain in the same pool (adult: P = 0.85, juvenile: P = 0.88), while residency rates were lower for males (adult: P = 0.74, juvenile: P = 0.46). We combined survival, movement and life-histories to develop population viability models and test the impact of a range of life-history parameters. While using estimated apparent survival produced unviable populations (mean population growth rate r = -0.23, extinction within 20 years), considering residency rates to adjust survival estimates, indicated more stable populations (r = 0.004, p = 0.04 of 100-year extinction). Further sensitivity analyses highlighted adult female survival and overall success of dispersal as most affecting viability. Findings provide robust life-history and viability estimates for a difficult study species. These could support developing large-scale population dynamics models required to underpin a much needed national risk assessment for the platypus, already declining in parts of its current distribution. PMID:26536832

  20. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  1. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  2. The case for a deep-atmospheric in situ mission to address the highest priority Decadal Survey questions for Venus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, S. K.; Garvin, J. B.; Glaze, L. S.; Campbell, B. A.; Fisher, M. E.; Flores, A.; Gilmore, M. S.; Johnson, N.; Kiefer, W. S.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ravine, M. A.; Webster, C. R.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Current understanding of Venus lags behind that for Mars, with a major disparity of information concerning noble and trace gases and the small scale surface processes needed for comparative studies of terrestrial planet evolution. Despite global surface mapping by Magellan, discoveries by Venera landers, and ongoing atmospheric observations by the Venus Express (VEx) orbiter, significant questions about Venus remain unanswered. To place Venus into its proper context with respect to Mars and Earth, it is necessary to obtain new measurements that address top issues identified in the National Research Council (NRC) Solar System Decadal Survey: (1) evolution of the atmosphere, history of climate, and evidence of past hydrologic cycles; (2) history of volatiles and sedimentary cycles; and (3) planetary surface evolution. To answer these questions, new measurements are needed. First and foremost, in situ noble gas measurements are needed to constrain solar system formation and Venus evolution. In particular, the isotopic ratios of Xe and Kr can provide unique insights into planetary accretion. Isotopic measurements of nitrogen (15N/14N) will place important constraints on atmospheric loss processes. Current knowledge of this ratio has a substantial uncertainty of ×20%. VEx observations of hydrogen isotopes indicate the D/H ratio above the clouds is substantially greater than measured by Pioneer Venus, and varies with height. High precision measurements of the vertical distribution of the D/H isotopic ratio below the cloud layers will provide constraints on models of the climate history of water on Venus. The majority of atmospheric mass is located below the clouds. Current data suggest intense interaction among atmospheric gases down to the surface. The haze within the cloud region of unknown composition plays a central role in the radiative balance. Photochemically-derived species (H2SO4, OCS, CO, Sn) are subjected to thermochemical reactions below the clouds

  3. Phenolic Molecules in Virgin Olive Oils: a Survey of Their Sensory Properties, Health Effects, Antioxidant Activity and Analytical Methods. An Overview of the Last Decade Alessandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lercker

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable oils, virgin olive oil (VOO has nutritional and sensory characteristics that to make it unique and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. The importance of VOO is mainly attributed both to its high content of oleic acid a balanced contribution quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids and its richness in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and may contribute to the prevention of several human diseases. The polar phenolic compounds of VOO belong to different classes: phenolic acids, phenyl ethyl alcohols, hydroxy-isochromans, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. This latter family of compounds is characteristic of Oleaceae plants and secoiridoids are the main compounds of the phenolic fraction. Many agronomical and technological factors can affect the presence of phenols in VOO. Its shelf life is higher than other vegetable oils, mainly due to the presence of phenolic molecules having a catechol group, such as hydroxytyrosol and its secoiridoid derivatives. Several assays have been used to establish the antioxidant activity of these isolated phenolic compounds. Typical sensory gustative properties of VOO, such as bitterness and pungency, have been attributed to secoiridoid molecules. Considering the importance of the phenolic fraction of VOO, high performance analytical methods have been developed to characterize its complex phenolic pattern. The aim of this review is to realize a survey on phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils bearing in mind their chemical-analytical, healthy and sensory aspects. In particular, starting from the basic studies, the results of researches developed in the last ten years will be focused.

  4. Practice patterns for prostate cancer in nine central and northern Italy radiation oncology centers: a survey including 1759 patients treated during two decades (1980-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients in Italy are offered the choice of the full spectrum of possible treatment options for their disease, but the diffusion of the more recent technological refinements among the Radiation Oncology centers is not homogeneous and there is a need to establish a reference 'historical' data source. This retrospective study describes the changing patterns in prostate cancer patient practice and the therapeutic results obtained in nine Radiation Oncology centers of Northern and Central Italy (five in Northern Italy and four in Central Italy). Methods and Materials: A total of 1759 prostate cancer patients, radically treated in the nine radiotherapy (RT) centers between 1980 and 1998, made up the study population. Data collected for each patient included clinical, pathologic, therapeutic features, and toxicity. The overall survival, disease-specific survival (DSS), and clinical relapse-free survival (RFS) were calculated for the whole series and for the subsets of patients defined by different clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic features, according to three accrual periods (A, 1980-1990; B, 1991-1994; and C, 1995-1998). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors related to survival and late adverse effects (cystitis and proctitis) probability. Results: Patient accrual increased markedly during the 2 decades considered, and the percentage of cases with Stage C or D disease dropped from 49% (period A) to 43% (period B) to 37% (period C) (p6 Gy in 44%, 84%, and 93% of the patients treated in period A, B, and C, respectively); a reduction in treated volumes, including pelvic lymphatic drainage (56-39% before 1995, 22% thereafter); and an increase in cases treated in association with hormonal therapy (50% before 1991, 80% thereafter). Lower energy (<10 MV) photon beams were progressively abandoned (12% before 1990 vs. 6-7% thereafter), along with an increase in the use of blocks (60% in the last 4 years of

  5. The BigBOSS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  6. A decade of combinatorial optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Aardal, K.I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper offers a brief overview of the developments in combinatorial optimization during the past decade. We discuss improvements in polynomial- time algorithms for problems on graphs and networks, and review the methodological and computational progress in linear and integer optimization. Some of the more prominent software packages in these areas are mentioned. With respect to obtaining approximate solutions to NP-hard problems, we survey recent positive and negative results on polynomia...

  7. Powder Diffraction: By Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, William I. F.

    This introductory chapter reviews the first 100 years of powder diffraction, decade by decade, from the earliest X-ray powder diffraction measurements of the crystal structure of graphite through to the diversity and complexity of twenty-first century powder diffraction. Carbon features as an illustrative example throughout the discussion of these ten decades from graphite and the disorder of carbon black through to lonsdaleite, the elusive hexagonal polymorph of diamond, and C60, the most symmetrical of molecules. Electronics and computing have played a leading role in the development of powder diffraction, particularly over the past 60 years, and the Moore's Law decade-by-decade rise in computing power is clear in the increasing complexity of powder diffraction experiments and material systems that can be studied. The chapter concludes with a final discussion of decades - the four decades of length-scale from the ångstrom to the micron that not only represent the domain of powder diffraction but are also the distances that will dominate twenty-first century science and technology.

  8. Training of Instrumentalists and Development of New Technologies on SOFIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Becklin, Eric E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Burton, Michael; Caroff, Lawrence J.; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Churchwell, Edward B.; Clemens, Dan P.; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2009-01-01

    This white paper is submitted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey (Astro2010)1 Committee on the State of the Profession to emphasize the potential of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to contribute to the training of instrumentalists and observers, and to related technology developments. This potential goes beyond the primary mission of SOFIA, which is to carry out unique, high priority astronomical research. SOFIA is a Boeing 747SP aircraft with a...

  9. Decade of the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    In the Fall of 2007, ten neuroscientists published a proposal for an interdisciplinary research initiative, the Decade of the Mind, that would focus on four "broad but intertwined areas": mental health, research on high-level cognitive functions, education, and computational applications (such as intelligent machines). I review the basic ideas behind the proposal and discuss the four proposed areas of research. I argue that for research on higher cognitive functions and in particular, for research and practice in education, the Decade of the Mind is a welcome initiative that may change our lives for the better. Therefore, the proposal, which is scientifically interdisciplinary in nature, has to be politically international. PMID:18289369

  10. Decades of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  11. A Decade of Suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel; Pedersen, Marianne Holm

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, al-Qaeda leader, Osama Bin Laden, was killed in Pakistan and the US president, Barack Obama, concluded a decade of global ‘war against terror’. In light of this, it seems only sensible to explore what implications the post-9/11 international developments have had on a local basis in...

  12. Decade of the Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Manfred

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Fall of 2007, ten neuroscientists published a proposal for an interdisciplinary research initiative, the Decade of the Mind, that would focus on four "broad but intertwined areas": mental health, research on high-level cognitive functions, education, and computational applications (such as intelligent machines. I review the basic ideas behind the proposal and discuss the four proposed areas of research. I argue that for research on higher cognitive functions and in particular, for research and practice in education, the Decade of the Mind is a welcome initiative that may change our lives for the better. Therefore, the proposal, which is scientifically interdisciplinary in nature, has to be politically international.

  13. A decade later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The article begins by presenting an overview of the contents of this journal that relate to the five Intangible Heritage domains identified by UNESCO. A model for digitising Intangible Heritage is presented (Tripartite Digitisation Model) and further explained by surveying and including articles...

  14. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  15. A Decade of Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a fascinating account of some of the most significant scientific discoveries and technological innovations coming out of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Laboratories. This remarkable book illustrates how the men and women of the National Laboratories are keeping us on the cutting edge. Though few Americans are familiar with the scope and scale of the work conducted at these National Laboratories, their research is literally changing our lives and bettering our planet. The book describes the scientific discoveries and technological advancements "in recognition of the men and women working in DOE's seventeen national laboratories across the country." Through highly vivid and accessible stories, this book details recent breakthroughs in three critical areas: 1) Energy and Environment, 2) National Security and 3) Life and Physical Science. The book illustrates how this government-funded research has resulted in more energy-efficient buildings; new, cleaner alternative fuels that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; safer, more efficient, nuclear power plants; improved responses to disease outbreaks; more secure and streamlined airport security; more effective treatments for cancer and other diseases; and astonishing discoveries that are altering our understanding of the universe and enabling scientific breakthroughs in fields such as nanotechnology and particle physics. Specifically, it contains 37 stories. A Decade of Discovery is truly a recent history of discovery - and a fascinating look at what the next decade holds.

  16. The Digital Money Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G.W. Birch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tenth annual Digital Money Forum, held in London at the end of March, was a good opportunity to see how the world of retail electronic payments has evolved in last decade. It looks as if the technology platforms of smart cards, wireless communications, mobile phones and cryptography are coming together within a regulatory framework to make the often discussed “war on cash” something more than just talk. The prospect of simple, inexpensive payments across all retail channels — with the attendant benefits in trade and market growth — is real and it is already clear that a technology nexus around, in particular, the mobile handset and contactless payments is going to make real difference in the way that the average person pays.

  17. The second decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available   It is ten years since the Iranian Journal of Physics Research has been in publication. For the Occasion of the 10th anniversary of its publication, we have planned several changes and modifications. These includes increasing the annual issues to four and omission of Introduction of Previously-Published Papers in International Journals section. In this article some statistical information of the published articles is given together with the index of the journals referees. As we enter the second decade of our publication, we face several questions. In this article we share these questions with our readers in the hope of finding the best possible solutions, so that we would be able to publish a better journal in future.

  18. El Cuestionario de Salud SF-36 español: una década de experiencia y nuevos desarrollos The Spanish version of the Short Form 36 Health Survey: a decade of experience and new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Vilagut

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El Cuestionario SF-36 es uno de los instrumentos de Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud (CVRS más utilizados y evaluados. Tras una década de uso este artículo revisa críticamente el contenido, propiedades métricas y nuevos desarrollos de la versión española. Métodos: Revisión de los artículos indizados en Medline (PubMed y en las bases de datos IBECS e IME que han utilizado la versión española del cuestionario. Se seleccionaron los artículos con información sobre modelo de medida, fiabilidad, validez y sensibilidad al cambio del instrumento. Resultados: Se encontraron 79 artículos, 17 de los cuales describían características métricas del cuestionario. En el 96% las escalas superaron el estándar propuesto de fiabilidad (α de Cronbach de 0,7. Las estimaciones agrupadas obtenidas por metaanálisis fueron superiores a 0,7 en todos los casos. El SF-36 mostró buena discriminación entre grupos de gravedad, correlación moderada con indicadores clínicos y alta con otros instrumentos de CVRS. El SF-36 predijo mortalidad y detectó mejoría tras la angioplastia coronaria, la cirugía de hipertrofia prostática benigna o la ventilación domiciliaria no invasiva. Los nuevos desarrollos descritos (puntuaciones basadas en normas, la versión 2, el SF-12 y el SF-8 mejoraron sus propiedades métricas y su interpretación. Conclusiones: El SF-36, conjuntamente con las nuevas versiones desarrolladas, es un instrumento muy adecuado para su uso en investigación y en la práctica clínica.Objective: The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36 is one of the most widely used and evaluated generic health-related quality of life (HRQL questionnaires. After almost a decade of use in Spain, the present article critically reviews the content and metric properties of the Spanish version, as well as its new developments. Methods: A review of indexed articles that used the Spanish version of the SF-36 was performed in Medline (PubMed, the

  19. Decades of nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States carried out the world's first nuclear test in 1945. The test marked the beginning of an arms race between the great powers that lasted for decades. Innumerable nuclear test explosions were detonated to test and refine the weapons. The arms race picked up speed in the 1950s and culminated in 1958, when the United States detonated 77 and the Soviet Union 35 nuclear explosions. This was followed by the first pause in nuclear testing, brought about through the efforts of the Pugwash organisation consisting of the world's foremost scientists. Finland, too, received its share of the radioactive fallout coming from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Rain water samples have been studied for radioactivity in Finland since the mid-1950s. The first studies to determine the internal radiation doses caused by radioactive substances in man were conducted in the late 1950s by measuring cesium and strontium contents in grass and in milk. The efficiency of research and radiation monitoring improved in the 1960s, which was also a time when training in the sector developed rapidly. In consequence, when the accident in Chernobyl took place Finland had already gained valuable experience needed for rapid determination of unexpected fallout. (orig.) (3 figs.)

  20. Book review: 'Four Decades of Marine Geosciences in India - A Retrospect, National Seminar organised in connection with 150 th year celebration of Geological Survey of India. Mangalore 14-16, March 2001'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    be realized that (a) offshore mining for placers has been abandoned in several coastal states due to environmental problems, (b) And there is hardly a paper on heavy minerals in the standard international journals for the last 10-15 years. Even if one finds a... of the seminar 'Four Decades of Marine Geosciences in India - A Retrospect', held at GSI, Mangalore in March 2001. The volume, starts with four invited papers. Dr. Ravi Shanker, the then Director General, GSI covered the energy and mineral resources of the sea...

  1. WFIRST-2.4: What Every Astronomer Should Know

    OpenAIRE

    Spergel, D.; Gehrels, N.; Breckinridge, J.; Donahue, M.; Dressler, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Greene, T; Guyon, O.; Hirata, C.; Kalirai, J.; Kasdin, N. J.; Moos, W.; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M.; Rauscher, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as its top priority for a new large space mission. The report of the WFIRST-AFTA Science Definition Team (SDT) presents a Design Reference Mission for WFIRST that employs one of the 2.4-m, Hubble-quality mirror assemblies recently made available to NASA. The 2.4-m primary mirror enables a mission with greater sensitivity and higher angular resolution than the smaller aperture designs previously considered...

  2. DECADE design and testing status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DECADE is a very high power generator that will be built at Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma, Tennessee, by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The full facility consists of 16 modules. Two full power modules (DM1 and DM2) have been built to verify the DECADE design at Physics International. Each module consists of a 570 kJ Marx generator that pulse charges a water transfer capacitor. The transfer capacitor discharges into a water output line through an array of 6 parallel triggered gas switches. The water output line then pulse charges the inductive store/opening switch pulse compression stage. When the opening switch opens, the inductive store discharges into an electron beam bremsstrahlung diode load. The initial testing of the DM1 module has been completed. The electrical design of the module will be presented, including circuit modeling results. The test data from a module will be compared to the modeling results. This test data, including reproducibility and timing accuracy, was used to predict the output from the full system of 16 modules and a subset of 4 unit modules (DECADE Quad). One option under consideration is to deploy a DECADE Quad at the testing center in Tennessee prior to the full 16 module system. The design sketch of the DECADE Quad and the predicted output based on the modeling and the demonstrated module performance is given. (author). 11 figs., 11 refs

  3. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  4. IRIN marks its first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Clark

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN has come a long way from its initial coverage of three countries. A decade later, IRIN is a multimedia news service producing daily and analytical reports, news footage and radio broadcasts spanning Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

  5. A Decade of Systems Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Han-Yu; Hofree, Matan; Ideker, Trey

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology provides a framework for assembling models of biological systems from systematic measurements. Since the field was first introduced a decade ago, considerable progress has been made in technologies for global cell measurement and in computational analyses of these data to map and model cell function. It has also greatly expanded into the translational sciences, with approaches pioneered in yeast now being applied to elucidate human development and disease. Here, we review the ...

  6. Progression of HR Practices in Danish Firms during Two Decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor

    This paper describes the spread of new work and pay practices in Danish private sector firms during the last two decades. The data source is two surveys directed at firms and carried out ten years apart. The descriptive analysis shows that large changes in the way work is organized in firms have ...

  7. Regional downscaling of decadal predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    During the last years the research field of decadal predictions gained increased attention. Its intention is to exploit the predictability derived from slowly varying components of the climate system on inter-annual to decadal time-scales. Such predictions are mostly performed using ensembles of global earth system models. The prediction systems are able to achieve a relatively high predictive skill over some oceanic regions, like the North Atlantic sector. But potential users of decadal predictions are often interested in forecasts over land areas and require a higher resolution, too. Therefore, the German research program MiKlip develops a decadal ensemble predictions system with regional downscaling as an additional option. Dynamical downscaling and a statistical-dynamical downscaling approach are applied within the MiKlip regionalization module. The global prediction system consists of the MPI-ESM model. Different RCMs are used for the downscaling, e.g. CCLM and REMO. The focus regions are Europe and Western Africa. Hindcast experiments for the period 1960 - 2013 were performed to assess the general skill of the prediction system. Of special interest is the value added by the regional downscaling. For mean quantities, like annual mean temperature and precipitation, the predictive skill is comparable between the global and the downscaled systems. For extremes on the other hand there seems to be an improvement by the RCM ensemble. The skill strongly varies on sub-continental regions and with the season. The lead time up to which a positive predictive skill can be achieved depends on the parameter and season, too. A further goal is to assess the potential for valuable information, which can be derived from predicting long-term variations of the European climate. The leading mode of decadal variability in the European/Atlantic sector is the Atlantic Multidecadal Variation (AMV). The potential predictability from AMV teleconnections especially for extreme value

  8. The 2050 Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2011-05-01

    Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology have changed out of all recognition over the last 40 years. The lecture will review some of the key scientific, technological and sociological changes which have contributed to that revolution and seek to understand the issues of maintaining that drive for discovery and understanding over the next 40 years. Some science objectives are well defined, but others may need new concepts, unexpected discoveries and quite a bit of good luck. A personal perspective will be presented on topics which the community should take seriously for the advance of astronomy and astrophysics and the role it can play for the betterment of society.

  9. Multimessenger Astronomy and Astrophysics Synergies

    CERN Document Server

    van Putten, Maurice H P M

    2012-01-01

    A budget neutral strategy is proposed for NSF to lead the implementation of multimessenger astronomy and astrophysics, as outlined in the Astro2010 Decadal Survey. The emerging capabilities for simultaneous measurements of physical and astronomical data through the different windows of electromagnetic, hadronic and gravitational radiation processes call for a vigorous pursuit of new synergies. The proposed approach is aimed at the formation of new collaborations and multimessenger data-analysis, to transcend the scientific inquiries made within a single window of observations. In view of budgetary constraints, we propose to include the multimessenger dimension in the ranking of proposals submitted under existing NSF programs.

  10. Extragalactic HI Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA). We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time prod...

  11. A New Decade of Vaccines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-09-01

    The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.

  12. Decadal opportunities for space architects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-12-01

    A significant challenge for the new field of space architecture is the dearth of project opportunities. Yet every year more young professionals express interest to enter the field. This paper derives projections that bound the number, type, and range of global development opportunities that may be reasonably expected over the next few decades for human space flight (HSF) systems so those interested in the field can benchmark their goals. Four categories of HSF activity are described: human Exploration of solar system bodies; human Servicing of space-based assets; large-scale development of space Resources; and Breakout of self-sustaining human societies into the solar system. A progressive sequence of capabilities for each category starts with its earliest feasible missions and leads toward its full expression. The four sequences are compared in scale, distance from Earth, and readiness. Scenarios hybridize the most synergistic features from the four sequences for comparison to status quo, government-funded HSF program plans. Finally qualitative, decadal, order-of-magnitude estimates are derived for system development needs, and hence opportunities for space architects. Government investment towards human planetary exploration is the weakest generator of space architecture work. Conversely, the strongest generator is a combination of three market drivers: (1) commercial passenger travel in low Earth orbit; (2) in parallel, government extension of HSF capability to GEO; both followed by (3) scale-up demonstration of end-to-end solar power satellites in GEO. The rich end of this scale affords space architecture opportunities which are more diverse, complex, large-scale, and sociologically challenging than traditional exploration vehicle cabins and habitats.

  13. GESAMP: Two decades of accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the uses of the oceans by society may lead potentially to the degradation of the marine environment. Human activities on land lead to the inadvertent or deliberate input of contaminants to the oceans which also may result in marine environmental degradation on local, regional or global scales. Potential impacts on the marine environment of human activities on land and the potential conflicts of society's utilization of the oceans require ongoing global evaluation from a multidisciplinary scientific perspective. This has been recognized for some time by the community of United Nations organizations, eight of which jointly sponsor an interdisciplinary groups of scientists to provide independent advice on existing and potential marine pollution problems. This Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) was formed two decades ago to serve as a mechanism for encouraging coordination, collaboration and harmonization of activities related to marine pollution of common interest to the co-sponsoring bodies. More recently, GESAMP has expanded its programme to include consideration of the impacts of other human activities, such as coastal development, on the marine environment. The purpose of this booklet is to briefly describe what GESAMP is, how it operates and what it accomplishes

  14. Lyme disease: the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael B Stricker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphael B Stricker, Lorraine JohnsonInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Although Lyme disease remains a controversial illness, recent events have created an unprecedented opportunity to make progress against this serious tick-borne infection. Evidence presented during the legally mandated review of the restrictive Lyme guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA has confirmed the potential for persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as the complicating role of tick-borne coinfections such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species associated with failure of short-course antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, renewed interest in the role of cell wall-deficient (CWD forms in chronic bacterial infection and progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilms has focused attention on these processes in chronic Lyme disease. Recognition of the importance of CWD forms and biofilms in persistent B. burgdorferi infection should stimulate pharmaceutical research into new antimicrobial agents that target these mechanisms of chronic infection with the Lyme spirochete. Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing. Advances in these areas have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the coming decade.Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, L-forms, cysts, biofilms, proteomics

  15. A decade of Radiometallurgy Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main thrust of the Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Radiometallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is on (1) R and D work and production of plutonium bearing nuclear fuels, (2) Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of fuels and structural materials, and (3) failure analysis of power reactor components. The main activities and achievements of the Division during the decade beginning from April 1978 are highlighted and the new thrust areas oriented towards installing a series of 235 MWe and 500 MWe PHWR units and prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) of 500 MWe capacity during the next 15 years are described in brief. The major achievements during last ten years are: (1) development and irradiation testing of mixed uranium plutonium oxide (MOX), as an alternative fuel for boiling water reactors at Tarapur, (2) setting up of a 10 tons/year pilot plant for fabrication of oxide fuels and technical support for setting up such plants, (3) development and production of plutonium rich, advanced mixed uranium plutonium monocarbide driver fuel for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor comm issioned at Kalpakkam, (4) development and fabrication of Al-233U plate fuel elements for KAMINI reactor, (5) PIE of fuel elements from Indian reactors in operation, (6) failure analysis of reactor components, and (7) in-pile performance analysis of power reactor structural materials. A list of publications during 1978-88 by the scientists of the Division is given at the end. The publications are listed under the headings: (1) fuels, (2) non-destructive evaluation, (3) engineering development, (4) welding development, (5) characterization and property evaluation, and (6) post irradiation examination. The entire text is illustrated with a number of diagrams and photographs - many of them coloured . (M.G.B.)

  16. A decade of sustainability reporting : developments and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the publication of the first separate environmental reports in 1989, the number of companies that has started to publish information on its environmental, social or sustainability policies and/or impacts has increased substantially. This article gives an overview of worldwide trends in the frequencies of reporting in the past decade, based on surveys carried out since the early 1990s. Although clear differences between countries and sectors can be noted, reporting continues to rise, and...

  17. A Decade of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A decade of observations from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite are represented in this image, which shows average chlorophyll concentrations in Earth's oceans from mid-September 1997 through the end of August 2007. Areas where plants thrive are light blue and yellow, while less productive regions are dark blue. The satellite records the amount of light that chlorophyll is soaking up as the plant converts light, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen through photosynthesis. In general, high chlorophyll concentrations correspond with a high number of healthy plants. The distribution of plants in the ocean is driven by currents and temperature. Surface currents around the Equator, for example, push away from each other (diverge), creating a well where nutrient-rich water can rise to the surface. Plants flourish in the combination of sunlight and nutrients, as illustrated by the pale blue band that circles the Earth at the Equator. Cool, nutrient-rich water also rises to the ocean's surface along the edges of continents, creating the line of productive waters along the west coasts of Africa and North, Central, and South America. The combination of interacting currents and deep water pushing up along the continental shelf gives rise to productive waters off the southeastern tip of South America. The final global pattern revealed in this image is the relationship between temperature and productivity. In general, warm water suppresses upwelling because warm surface waters are more buoyant than denser deep water. This difference in density makes it difficult for nutrient-laden cold water to rise to the surface: the lighter warm water will always want to float over it. As a result, the surface water in warm regionst ends to be nutrient poor and unable to support very many plants. Where the surface water is cool, the difference in density between the layers of the ocean is smaller, so it is easier for nutrient-rich layers from lower in

  18. DECADES Tools version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD contains the following software electricity planning, power generation planning, decision making: Paradox runtime version 5.0 (Paradox/Runtime 5.0), Paradox runtime version 8.0, DECADES Tools 1.0 set-up software, some patches for version 1.0 (directory update), DECADES 1.1 Beta 1, DECADES Tools User's Manual v. 1.0 (pdf format), Paradox User's Guide for version 5.0, Acrobat and Envoy readers, VCI Formula 1 OCX, license agreement for using DECADES Tools

  19. Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability in Subsurface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; LU Jiuyou; WANG Qi

    2012-01-01

    The nature decadal variability of the equatorial Pacific subsurface temperature is examined in the control simulation with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled model CM2.1.The dominant mode of the subsurface temperature variations in the equator Pacific features a 20-40 year period and is North-South asymmetric about the equator.Decadal variations of the thermocline are most pronounced in the southwest of the Tropical Pacific.Decadal variation of the north-south asymmetric Sea Surface wind in the tropical Pacific,especially in the South Pacific Convergence,is the dominant mechanism of the nature decadal variation of the subsurface temperature in the equatorial Pacific.

  20. A Decade of Scholarship in Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Avery M.; Padgett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The teaching environment in business schools has changed dramatically over the last decade. But the last comprehensive review of the scholarship of teaching was conducted more than a decade ago. Where and from whom do the best practices for teaching originate today? To answer this question, the authors examine marketing education scholarship…

  1. Schooling Indicators During Mexico's "Lost Decade."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    The 1980s were a "lost decade" for Latin America, due to the international debt crisis. This paper explores the lost decade's effects on schooling indicators in Mexico. Falling opportunity costs improved schooling indicators at the same time a reduced national income worsened them. Enrollment rates were stagnant. (33 references) (MLH)

  2. The Impact of IT over Five Decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Raymond, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This contribution to the Ken D. Eason special issue is an illustration of the value of socio-technical analysis applied at an organizational level. We provide a brief historical overview of socio-technical IS research and review studies investigating the impact of IT on organizational structures in...... the last five decades, identifying a dominating (new) research theme in each decade. A key overall impact of IT in all decades has been a dramatic decrease in transaction costs making it increasingly easier for organizations to source from external providers. A five level taxonomy of sourcing...

  3. Processes Understanding of Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prömmel, Kerstin; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The realistic representation of decadal climate variability in the models is essential for the quality of decadal climate predictions. Therefore, the understanding of those processes leading to decadal climate variability needs to be improved. Several of these processes are already included in climate models but their importance has not yet completely been clarified. The simulation of other processes requires sometimes a higher resolution of the model or an extension by additional subsystems. This is addressed within one module of the German research program "MiKlip II - Decadal Climate Predictions" (http://www.fona-miklip.de/en/) with a focus on the following processes. Stratospheric processes and their impact on the troposphere are analysed regarding the climate response to aerosol perturbations caused by volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric decadal variability due to solar forcing, climate change and ozone recovery. To account for the interaction between changing ozone concentrations and climate a computationally efficient ozone chemistry module is developed and implemented in the MiKlip prediction system. The ocean variability and air-sea interaction are analysed with a special focus on the reduction of the North Atlantic cold bias. In addition, the predictability of the oceanic carbon uptake with a special emphasis on the underlying mechanism is investigated. This addresses a combination of physical, biological and chemical processes.

  4. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully

  5. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  6. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960's worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected

  7. Two Decades of Dengue in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Dengue is endemic in Malaysia and the first case was documented in 1902. The disease was made notifiable in 1973 and the first outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever was reported in 1962. During the decade of 1973-1982, there were 12,077 dengue cases with a case fatality rate of 3.38%. In the following decade of 1983-1992, the number of reported cases increased to 26,361 but the case fatality rate dropped to 0.55%. The increase in incidence could be due to rising economy, rapid industrializati...

  8. Financial Forecasts for the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenburg, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    Examines implications of financial forecasts for the next decade on institutions of higher education. These address the pressures on state spending for higher education of substantially increased student enrollments, likely responses of public institutions, likely responses of state systems, and financial pressures on private institutions. Both…

  9. Educational Administration: A Decade of Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Forsyth, Patrick B., Ed.

    This book examines the extent to which recommendations contained in a report by the National Commission on Excellence in Educational Administration have been acted on and how well they have been implemented. The 12 articles in the book are grouped under 4 sections. Part 1, "Setting the Stage," includes: (1) "A Decade of Change: An Overview" (J.…

  10. Decadal climate variability in the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Gouirand, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Rainfall variability in the eastern Caribbean during the 20th century is analyzed using principal component analysis and singular value decomposition. In contrast to earlier studies that used seasonal data, here we employ continuous signal processing. The leading mode is a decadal oscillation related to third and fourth modes of sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperatures (SST) which together identify three zones of action in the Atlantic: 35°N-20°N, 20°N-5°N, and 5°N-20°S. The ability of the ECHAM4.5 model to simulate this signal is investigated. Its decadal variability is also represented through lower-order SLP and SST modes that comprise an Atlantic tripole pattern with lower pressure east of the Caribbean. Composite analysis of high and low phases of the decadal mode reflects a cool east Pacific and a more active Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone during boreal summer, conditions that favor the intensification of African easterly waves. The decadal signal has strengthened since 1970, yet the three centers of action in Atlantic SST are relatively unsynchronized.

  11. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  12. Extragalactic HI Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA). We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  13. Extragalactic HI surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-12-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  14. Decadal climate predictions using sequential learning algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Strobach, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Ensembles of climate models are commonly used to improve climate predictions and assess the uncertainties associated with them. Weighting the models according to their performances holds the promise of further improving their predictions. Here, we use an ensemble of decadal climate predictions to demonstrate the ability of sequential learning algorithms (SLAs) to reduce the forecast errors and reduce the uncertainties. Three different SLAs are considered, and their performances are compared with those of an equally weighted ensemble, a linear regression and the climatology. Predictions of four different variables--the surface temperature, the zonal and meridional wind, and pressure--are considered. The spatial distributions of the performances are presented, and the statistical significance of the improvements achieved by the SLAs is tested. Based on the performances of the SLAs, we propose one to be highly suitable for the improvement of decadal climate predictions.

  15. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  16. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  17. A Decade Miracle:Wuxi Sunmart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Miracle started A decade ago,WuXi Sunmart was just no name.At that time,feW people noticed Jiangsu Snow Leopard Atomization Pot Industry Limited Company,which was established in early 1998.as it was a small workshop with a registered capital of only RMB 1.6 million.And that iS where Wuxi Sunmart's miracle initiated and grew from.

  18. The token economy: a decade later.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazdin, A E

    1982-01-01

    In the last decade, the token economy has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token economy. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token economy. These included identifying procedures to enhance pr...

  19. Japan's Lost Decade: Lessons for Other Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Japan has suffered from sluggish economic growth and recession since the 1990s, a phenomenon dubbed "Japan's Lost Decade." The People's Republic of China, many countries in the eurozone, and the United States may face similar problems in future and they have been concerned by Japan's long-term recession. This paper will address why Japan's economy has stagnated since the bursting of its economic bubble. Our empirical analysis challenges the beliefs of some western economists, such as Paul Kru...

  20. Equity Returns in the Coming Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Richard W. Kopcke; Zhenya Karamcheva

    2011-01-01

    The majority of retirement savings is invested in cor-porate equity, attracted by the historically high average returns offered by stocks. But substantial risk also accompanies investments in stocks, a risk that seems especially costly after the recent financial crisis. Not only did the value of equity plunge, but many fore-casters also expect subpar returns from stocks over much of the coming decade as the economy recovers slowly from the recent recession. They point out that stocks in recen...

  1. Meat Consumption in Sao Paulo – Brazil: Trend in the Last Decade

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho, Aline Martins; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Regina Mara FISBERG; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. Design Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. Setting Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey yea...

  2. The DECADES project - Outline and general overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental and health-related impacts of different energy systems, including those associated with the production of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for the coming decades. This interest is highlighted by the current debate about health effects of pollution, environmental damages due to acidification of forests and lakes, concerns about the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste management, and the potential risks of global climate change induced by increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. All fuel chains within the electricity generation system involve some health risks and lead to some environmental impacts. This fact, together with the emerging needs of many countries to define their energy programmes for the coming decades, has provided the basis for a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity generating systems, particularly from an environmental and human health viewpoint. The need to design and implement sustainable strategies in the electricity sector has been stressed in many international fora such as the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment (Helsinki, 1991), the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) and the 15th Conference of the World Energy Council (Madrid, 1992). The essential goal of sustainable strategies is to provide the energy services required for supporting economic growth and improving quality of life, especially in developing countries, while minimising the health and environmental impacts of human activities. The inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation [DECADES] has been established with the objective of enhancing capabilities for incorporating health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of different

  3. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    OpenAIRE

    R Alexander Bentley; Alberto Acerbi; Paul Ormerod; Vasileios Lampos

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is signific...

  4. STAR Upgrade Plan for the Coming Decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The STAR Collaboration will complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. STAR has also embarked on an upgrade plan to extend the capabilities for measuring jets, electron/photon and leading particles in the forward rapidity region in the coming decade. Planned detector upgrades include tracking detectors for charged particles, electro-magnetic and hadronic calorimeters and particle identification detector in the forward direction. We will present physics motivations, status of detector R and D and design considerations for the forward measurements focusing on p + p/p + A and polarized p + p collisions

  5. STAR Upgrade Plan for the Coming Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan Zhong

    2013-05-01

    The STAR Collaboration will complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. STAR has also embarked on an upgrade plan to extend the capabilities for measuring jets, electron/photon and leading particles in the forward rapidity region in the coming decade. Planned detector upgrades include tracking detectors for charged particles, electro-magnetic and hadronic calorimeters and particle identification detector in the forward direction. We will present physics motivations, status of detector R&D and design considerations for the forward measurements focusing on p + p/p + A and polarized p + p collisions.

  6. STAR Upgrade Plan for the Coming Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Huan Zhong

    2013-05-02

    The STAR Collaboration will complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. STAR has also embarked on an upgrade plan to extend the capabilities for measuring jets, electron/photon and leading particles in the forward rapidity region in the coming decade. Planned detector upgrades include tracking detectors for charged particles, electro-magnetic and hadronic calorimeters and particle identification detector in the forward direction. We will present physics motivations, status of detector R and D and design considerations for the forward measurements focusing on p + p/p + A and polarized p + p collisions.

  7. The next decade in external dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Security 2020 Reduce Security Risks This Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Doug; Schneier, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Identify real security risks and skip the hype After years of focusing on IT security, we find that hackers are as active and effective as ever. This book gives application developers, networking and security professionals, those that create standards, and CIOs a straightforward look at the reality of today's IT security and a sobering forecast of what to expect in the next decade. It debunks the media hype and unnecessary concerns while focusing on the knowledge you need to combat and prioritize the actual risks of today and beyond.IT security needs are constantly evolving; this guide examine

  9. The Development in the Coming 3 Decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On June 25,2008,Summit Forum on the Development in the Coming 3 Decades,hosted by China Business Press and sponsored by BMW Brilliance,was held in Beijing Great Wall Sheraton Hotel.Worid known economists and entrepreneurs gathered together to review the expericnce of China's thirty years of reform and opening up as well as to explore the driving force of China's future development.China's five famous economists,as the representatives of the economic circle,attended the forum to engage in further communication and discussion with over 200 guests from all fields.

  10. The brain decade in debate: IV. Chronobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Roblero R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is the adapted version of an electronic symposium organized by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC which took place on June 14, 2000. The text is divided into three sections: I. The main issues, II. Chronodrugs, and III. Methods. The first section is dedicated to the perspectives of chronobiology for the next decade, with opinions about the trends of future research being emitted and discussed. The second section deals mostly with drugs acting or potentially acting on the organism's timing systems. In the third section there are considerations about relevant methodological issues concerning data analysis.

  11. The next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs

  12. Accounting for the 'Lost Decade' in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suparna Chakraborty

    2004-01-01

    There is no debate amongst economists that Japan performed poorly during the1990s. This can be seen in falling growth rates of GDP per capita, investment per capita and mounting problems of non performing loans and ballooning Government deficit. A lot of models have tried to come up with an explanation for the Lost Decade. However, none of them have yet been able to clearly account for the growth slump. At this point, it is necessary to revisit all possible distortions that might have caused ...

  13. A decade of changes in radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, J E

    1992-04-01

    Although radiation protection standards have changed remarkably little over the past decade, there have been changes in our understanding of radiation hazards that may affect the practice of radiation medicine over the next decade. With recognition of indoor radon exposure has come a new focus for public health concerns, because it is now clear that radon rather than medical exposure is the largest controllable source of radiation exposure to the general public. Continued follow-up of irradiated populations has led to an increase in our estimate of the cancer risk for high-dose exposures; this increased risk estimate is, in turn, leading to decreases in radiation exposure limits. Although our concern about the carcinogenic risk for radiation exposure has increased, our concern about genetic consequences has decreased, because no genetic effects have yet been observed in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. Studies of atomic bomb survivors have also led to a change in the focus of concern over prenatal radiation exposure; the principle risk now appears to be mental retardation rather than childhood cancer. PMID:1554578

  14. Five Decades: From Challenge to Acclaim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melina, Vesanto

    2016-07-01

    What can make your work as a dietitian so meaningful that you begin each day with enthusiasm, and if you so choose, retain that joy in your work for 5 decades or more? Three themes are: (i) doing work that profoundly makes sense to you, (ii) inspiring others (and yourself) to make healthful choices, and (iii) moving through challenges to success. Initially it can be challenging to make a living through work that is most deeply meaningful or closest to your heart. Yet it is well worth finding the balance between practicality and movement in the desired direction. Other challenges faced by dietitians involve helping others to adopt new, more healthful lifestyle choices. As health professionals, our attitudes towards plant-based diets have changed dramatically during these past decades. This article examines our evolving perspectives of plant-based diets, and uses this as an example of movement through challenges to success and acclaim. Vegetarian and vegan diets that were considered entirely inappropriate for many stages of the life cycle in the 1970s are now seen to confer health benefits. This applies to well-designed plant-based diets, thus offering a significant role for dietitians as creative leaders in this field. PMID:27524630

  15. Decadence in the Wilderness. Will to Transgression or the Strange Bird of Finnish Decadence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Lyytikäinen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The decadence that the Decadents identified in their own civilization was recognized through the model of Roman Empire, although they thought that the Romans were, even in their decadence, much more vigorous than the modern "cerebral" decadents. The figures of the late Empire, which fused the over-ripeness of culture with barbarism, were great even in their decline; the ancient uninhibited transgressions and vices fascinated the decadents although even the imagined debaucheries exhausted the modern decadents. Des Esseintes is, of course, a paradigmatic figure, connecting extreme weakness and fragility of the nervous system with wild sadistic dreams. He is capable of producing vigorous mental images, imagining sublimely horrible figures and emblems of disease, which fell on a fertile ground in later decadent writings.At the same time, the idea of the savage and the primitive which had underwent a radical change, when the romantic idea of the noble savage was replaced by the primitive as the lowest order of humanity, became fashionable even among many Decadents. This debauched barbarian or savage (whose representatives or relics the survived "primitive cultures" were marked the beginnings of human culture and was the suppressed foundation of all developed cultures. The danger of the return of this primitive side of man could threaten even the most civilized individuals or nations if the ties and restraints of culture were loosened (Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness represents this perfectly.  For the decadents, who did not see their own civilization in the terms of progress any more, and embraced ideas of entropy, dissolution and return to a state of new barbarism, the idea of the decline of their culture, thus, could become connected with the idea of the primitive "in us", the primitive lurking in the psyche of every individual and the primitive that was built in the culture itself. As the primitive became, increasingly, identified not only with

  16. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  17. Useful decadal climate prediction at regional scales? A look at the ENSEMBLES stream 2 decadal hindcasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decadal climate prediction is a branch of climate modelling with the theoretical potential to anticipate climate impacts years in advance. Here we present analysis of the ENSEMBLES decadal simulations, the first multi-model decadal hindcasts, focusing on the skill in prediction of temperature and precipitation—important for impact prediction. Whilst previous work on this dataset has focused on the skill in multi-year averages, we focus here on the skill in prediction at smaller timescales. Considering annual and seasonal averages, we look at correlations, potential predictability and multi-year trend correlations. The results suggest that the prediction skill for temperature comes from the long-term trend, and that precipitation predictions are not skilful. The potential predictability of the models is higher for annual than for seasonal means and is largest over the tropics, though it is low everywhere else and is much lower for precipitation than for temperature. The globally averaged temperature trend correlation is significant at the 99% level for all models and is higher for annual than for seasonal averages; however, for smaller spatial regions the skill is lower. For precipitation trends, the correlations are not skilful on either annual or seasonal scales. Whilst climate models run in decadal prediction mode may be useful by other means, the hindcasts studied here have limited predictive power on the scales at which climate impacts and the results presented suggest that they do not yet have sufficient skill to drive impact models on decadal timescales. (letter)

  18. One Decade of Universal Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The first decade of this century has seen the nascency of the first mathematical theory of general artificial intelligence. This theory of Universal Artificial Intelligence (UAI) has made significant contributions to many theoretical, philosophical, and practical AI questions. In a series of papers culminating in book (Hutter, 2005), an exciting sound and complete mathematical model for a super intelligent agent (AIXI) has been developed and rigorously analyzed. While nowadays most AI researchers avoid discussing intelligence, the award-winning PhD thesis (Legg, 2008) provided the philosophical embedding and investigated the UAI-based universal measure of rational intelligence, which is formal, objective and non-anthropocentric. Recently, effective approximations of AIXI have been derived and experimentally investigated in JAIR paper (Veness et al. 2011). This practical breakthrough has resulted in some impressive applications, finally muting earlier critique that UAI is only a theory. For the first time, wit...

  19. The Russian economy: a decade of transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Andrés

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 Russia began a reform process that has changed the face of the country. The Russian government’s goal was the building of a market economy. This article analyzes the reforms undertaken by Russia over these last 10 years. It is divided into four sectionsthat correspond to each of the four periods into which the decade can be divided on the basis of the reforms undertaken. The first examines the period 1992-94, characterized by structural reforms; the second, the phase between 1995-97, which was marked by certain economic stabilization phenomena; the third, the years 1998-2000, marked by political and economic changes; and the fourth, the Putin period. The article concludes by drawing a number of conclusions about the reforms undertaken and their relationship to the building of a market economy in Russia.

  20. School nurse practice: a decade of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, Diane

    2006-10-01

    Good practice requires an evidence base and criteria for assessment, which was the subject of a scope review of school nurse practice across the four countries of the UK. The findings demonstrate a rich base of research into service practice, particularly in the last decade. School nursing practice has experienced a paradigm shift from a medical to a social model of care. The service now works from a public health ethos and has a preventive agenda. The focus is on the child rather than a service for schools and school nurses work in teams rather than alone. Under-resourcing continues to beleaguer school nurse practice and there are areas that need further study, particularly large-scale research into the costs and benefits of school nursing. PMID:17061663

  1. Evolutionary robotics in two decades: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sameer Gupta; Ekta Singla

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionary robotics (ER) has emerged as a fast growing field in the last two decades and has earned the attention of a number of researchers. Principles of biological evolution are applied in the form of evolutionary techniques for solving the complicated problems in the areas of robotic design and control. The diversity and the intensity of this growing field is presented in this paper through the contributions made by several researchers in the categories of robot controller design, robot body design, co-evolution of body and brain and in transforming the evolved robots in physical reality. The paper discusses some of the recent achievements in each of these fields along with some expected applications which are likely to motivate the future research. For the quick reference of the readers, a digest of all the works is presented in the paper, spanning the years and the areas of the research contributions.

  2. Liver resection over the last decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, A.; Larsen, P.N.; Rasmussen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients who underwent their primary liver resection from 1.1.1995-31.12.2004 in our institution were included. The surgical outcome was reviewed retrospectively and the five-year survival...... after resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated. RESULTS: 141 patients (71M/70F), median age 58 years (1-78), underwent a liver resection in the ten-year period. The number of resections increased from two in 1995 to 32 in 2004. Median hospital......AIMS: The results after liver resection have improved over the last decade with an operative mortality rate of less than 5% in high-volume centres. The aim of the present study was to assess the perioperative outcome after hepatic resection and to assess the long-term survival after liver resection...

  3. Nuclear Forensics: The First Two Decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the terms Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Smuggling began in the early 1990s with the reporting of finds of nuclear material by law enforcement agencies and subsequent court cases. In the beginning scientists with the relevant skills were contacted by law enforcement agencies to provide them with the evidence to obtain a conviction in the court cases. In the years since more formal working partnerships have developed between the law enforcers and the scientific community to bring Nuclear Forensics practices in line with other scientific disciplines presenting evidence in court. There have been notable advances in the scientific techniques applied to nuclear forensics, and how the international nuclear forensic community has cooperated, both within itself and with the law enforcers. This document outlines the building blocks that nuclear forensics had available to build upon, and how it has progressed and developed in the last two decades. Examples are given of developments in international cooperation and technical progress. (author)

  4. LISA in the gravitational wave decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John; Cornish, Neil

    2015-04-01

    With the expected direct detection of gravitational waves in the second half of this decade by Advanced LIGO and pulsar timing arrays, and with the launch of LISA Pathfinder in the summer of this year, this can arguably be called the decade of gravitational waves. Low frequency gravitational waves in the mHz range, which can only be observed from space, provide the richest science and complement high frequency observatories on the ground. A space-based observatory will improve our understanding of the formation and growth of massive black holes, create a census of compact binary systems in the Milky Way, test general relativity in extreme conditions, and enable searches for new physics. LISA, by far the most mature concept for detecting gravitational waves from space, has consistently ranked among the nation's top priority large science missions. In 2013, ESA selected the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for its third large mission, L3, under the Cosmic Visions Program, with a planned launch date of 2034. Recently, NASA has decided to join with ESA on the L3 mission as a junior partner. Both agencies formed a committee to advise them on the scientific and technological approaches for a space based gravitational wave observatory. The leading mission design, Evolved LISA or eLISA, is a slightly de-scoped version of the earlier LISA design. This talk will describe activities of the Gravitational Wave Science Interest Group (GWSIG) under the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG), focusing on LISA technology development in both the U.S. and Europe, including the LISA Pathfinder mission.

  5. Early decades of Madras Medical College: Apothecaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Ramya; Raman, Anantanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    The Government at Fort St George determined that a school for instructing and training candidates towards the titles of 'apothecary' was necessary to improve medical help to people in the 1830s. This led to the establishment of the medical school in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1835. The school got renamed as the Madras Medical College in 1850. From 1835, the Madras Medical School offered formal training to personnel to be called either 'apothecaries' or 'dressers' under the superintendence of William Mortimer, who was assisted by George Harding in teaching at the school. Apothecary D'Beaux and Dresser P. S. Muthuswami Mudaliar were subordinate assistants. These apothecaries were recruited essentially under the Subordinate Medical Service of Madras, which was established in 1812 and included non-commissioned medical servants. The Madras apothecaries launched the Madras Apothecaries Society in 1864, which aimed at promoting and advancing medical science and knowledge. This society existed until 1871. Formal training of apothecaries ceased in Madras by the later decades of the 19th century, although informal training continued, especially for army cadets and women. Establishment of medical schools in Royapuram (which developed as the Stanley Medical College and Hospital), Tanjavur and Madurai, in the early decades of the 20th century and the 'branch' of Madras Medical College in Calicut during the Second World War changed the complexion of training of medical personnel immensely in pre- 1947 Madras Presidency. The Royapuram and other Medical Schools in Madras trained medical practitioners granting the title 'Licensed Medical Practitioner' (LMP). Whether the apothecary-dresser training at the 'old' Madras Medical College had a role to play in these developments remains to be verified. PMID:27586218

  6. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  7. The first decade of commercial space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    In order to provide a basis for assessing the future prospects and challenges of space tourism, this paper begins with a brief overview of the history of space tourism. This is followed by a discussion on market demand and current developments in the academic community, as well as the status of traffic tools, regulations and legalization. In market demand, although studies conducted in 1990s assumed the possibility of 500,000 per year in space tourists and several billion USD of annual revenue, in 2008 a relatively modest 13,000 per year was predicted. At this time traffic transport tools including the Soyuz system, CST-100, DragonRider and International Space Station (ISS) can only provide a few tens in spare seats for space tourists per year compared to the projected 20,000 plus seat capacity of the Lynx, Dream Chaser and SpaceShipTwo (SS2) fleets, which have the potential to conduct their first full suborbital test flight and first commercial flight within the coming decade. Added to this, the US government has only a regulatory regime that supports privately owned suborbital space tourism (SST) and no government funded orbital space tourism (OST). These evidences reveal a very high and advantageous potential for SST to form a space tourism industry in the coming decade, whereas the possibility of OST is relatively low. However, even though the prosperity of SST in the coming years is expectable, its maturity, reliability and safety still need to win the confidence of the general public. For examples, the announcement of changes to fuel used in the SS2 rocket engine in May 2014 and the crash of one SS2 while performing test flight on 31 October 2014 indicated the need for much careful preparation, as any accident in commercial operation could seriously damage or even kill its future prospects.

  8. Decadal summer drought frequency in China: the increasing influence of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decadal variations in summer drought events during 1956–2005 are examined over Eastern China to identify their leading variability modes and their linkages to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), and global warming. The PDO influence is found to dominate China drought frequency from the 1960s to early 1990s via modulating the Western Pacific Subtropical High and the Mongolian High. The four-pole drought pattern produced by the PDO diminished after the early 1990s, being replaced by a dipolar drought pattern that is produced by the AMO via a Eurasian wave train emanating from North Atlantic to China. The increasing influence of the AMO on China drought since the early 1990s is further shown to be a consequence of global warming. This study indicates that the early 1990s is a time when the Atlantic began to exert a stronger influence on climate over China and even larger part of Asia. (letter)

  9. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  10. Strategy for the International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2015-10-01

    LD is a global event and process for international collaboration in space initiated by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the National Space Society and the National Science Centre FOTONIKA-LV of the University of Latvia. ILD is planned for launch in 2017, the 60th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year that marked the dawn of the space age with the launch of Sputnik. ILD is envisioned as a decade long process of international collaboration with lunar exploration concurrent with development of policies, key enabling technologies and infrastructures on the Moon and in cislunar space leading towards an eventual goal of industrial development of the Moon and economic activity beyond Earth orbit[1]. This second International Lunar Decade will build on the foundations of the ILD first proposed in by the Planetary Society in 2006 at International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM), was endorsed by ICEUM participants[3], and then by ILEWG, COSPAR and other organizations. Starting in 2007, the work plan included a series of recommendations for lunar exploration missions coordinated through the ILEWG agencies and COSPAR. Advances in technology such as CubeSats and 3D printing and fundamental changes in mind-set marked by initiatives such as the Google Lunar-X prize and asteroid mining ventures have made industrial development of the Moon a thinkable proposition. The ILD to be launched in 2017 is intended to set the stage for the Moon to become a wealth generating platform for human expansion into the solar system.ILD is being organized to engage existing organizations involved in space collaboration such as COSPAR, COPUOS, ISECG, technical and scientific organizations and others that address space policy, space law, space security, governance and related concerns. Additional organizations will be involved that deal with structures, ecosystems, financing, economic development and health and life support and

  11. GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES: GETTING A DECADE YOUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal malignancies are one of the most common malignancies encountered frequently, with rising incidence in young age due to the changing lifestyle and food habits in India. Oesophagus, stomach and colonic cancers are the commonly affected regions of the GI tract. These malignancies is known to occur in older age of fifth decade onwards. This is a study intended to highlight the rising incidence of such malignancies in the younger age in second to third decade as observed in and around Mangalore. Upper gastrointestinal malignancies are common in oesophagus and stomach, whereas lower gastrointestinal malignancies occur more commonly seen in colon. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common of all familial malignancies with peak incidence in 60 to 70 years of age, 90% of cases occur in people aged 50 or older.Risk factors include a genetic predisposition, diet and lifestyle changes in the current era. Inheritance plays a role in the pathogenesis of upto a third of CRC cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of gastrointestinal malignancies in patients less than fifty years and the association of positive family history and polyps with colorectal carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 128 cases of gastrointestinal malignancies from June 2010 to May 2012 received in and around Mangalore. The study includes endoscopic biopsies, colonoscopic biopsies partial and total colectomy specimens with growth seen anywhere from oesophagus to rectum. Representative sections are taken, processed routinely and stained with H & E. The pathological findings are then correlated with clinical data like age and sex distribution, site, family history and presence of other malignancies. RESULTS: In this study gastrointestinal malignancies were studied as upper and lower gastrointestinal lesions. Upper gastrointestinal (GI lesions were those in oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum. A total of 128 cases

  12. 房地产市场调控,要坚持更要完善--“十年调控”问卷调查的启示和思考%The Real Estate Market Regulation, to Adhere more to Improve“--“Decade control inspiration and reflection survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泓铭

    2013-01-01

    The summary analysis of 196 questionnaires were obtained for the future regulation of real estate a lot of inspiration: a decade of real estate regulation is necessary; overall evaluation is based on supply and demand remains negative imbalance prices higher and higher; ineffective regulation has three Reason: including the supply and demand for housing policy, regulatory policy evaluation supporting the negative, but also that the financial and tax pressure on local governments do not actively prime cause. Most questionnaire recommendations: to promote the basic stability of supply and demand and price regulation or primary purpose; reasonable prices rise a few boundaries; estate market regulation adjustment mechanism should be based, supplemented by government regulation; demand for housing policy, housing policy, housing, land policy , economic instruments, administrative and tax measures to improve orientation.%通过对196份问卷的总结分析,得到对于未来房地产调控的许多启示:十年房地产调控是必要的;总体评价消极的依据是供求依然失衡,房价越来越高。调控成效不彰的原因有:对住房供求政策、调控配套政策评价消极,还认为财政税收压力是地方政府不积极的首要原因。大多数问卷建议:推动供求和房价基本稳定还是调控首要目的确立;房价合理上升的几个界限;房地产调节机制应该以市场调节为主、政府调节为辅;明确住房需求政策、住房供给政策、住房土地政策、经济手段、行政手段和税收手段改进的方向。

  13. XMM-Newton: The Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe

    2016-06-01

    The recent generation of high energy observatories has enabled unprecedented progress to be made in our understanding of astrophysics in the X-ray domain. Current technical evaluations suggest that the XMM-Newton spacecraft and its scientific instruments may continue to provide first class X-ray observations well into the next decade. Other X-ray missions are planned to be launched soon, including Astro-H and e-ROSITA. Coupled with new ground-based developments, this will open up new exciting opportunities for multi-wavelength and follow-up observations, to which XMM-Newton is ideally placed to play a major role. This workshop will summarise the state of our current knowledge derived from X-ray astrophysics. We will discuss some of the major achievements over the past years, and identify a set of fundamental questions still to be addressed. Within this context a primary aim of the workshop will be to define the key scientific topics which will have the highest scientific importance and impact. We will seek to identify observing programs of maximum long-term value to the entire astronomical community. Many of these programs are likely to require large amounts of observing time on only a few carefully selected targets or sky areas. We strongly encourage innovative ideas for applications, and the formation of well organised major collaborations.

  14. A Decade Miracle:Wuxi Sunmart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Miracle started A decade ago,Wuxi Sunmart was just no name.At that time,few people noticed Jiangsu Snow Leopard Atomization Pot Industry Limited Company,which was established in early 1998,as it was a small workshop with a registered capital of only RMB 1.6 million.And that is where Wuxi Sunmart's miracle initiated and grew from.With ten years of development,Wuxi Sunmart Science and Technology Company Ltd now has a total asset of RMB 4 billion,with an annual output of various spray pumps (valves) of RMB 500 million,and a sale volume of RMB 350 million.From those years accumulation,no name has grown up into a big name,not only nation wide,but internationally.Its products are exported to more than 80 countries and regions,including North America,Western Europe,South Africa,the Middle East,Hong Kong and Macao.High reputation was received from the customers.

  15. Sildenafil: two decades of benefits or risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Luís Antônio B; Leite, Gerson S; Wichi, Rogério B; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5). A patent was registered for this drug in 1990, which expired in 2010. Since expiration, the drug has been marketed under various trade names or as generic drugs. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted addressing the effectiveness of the drug for erectile dysfunction (ED) and its safety regarding the presence or absence of specific comorbidities. After over 20 years in the market, we need to ask: has the scientific community reached a general consensus as to the overall efficacy and safety of the drug? Can we firmly state that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks? This review suggests that sildenafil is an effective and easily manageable treatment for erectile dysfunction, both in the absence and in the presence of comorbidities. After two decades of the emergence of sildenafil as a drug of choice for the treatment of ED (and the numerous studies and clinical trials undertaken during this time span), it is now possible to state that the benefits of the drug do outweigh the risks, and represent an significant improvement in the quality of life in men with ED. PMID:23758451

  16. SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was ten years ago in Rochester, New York that the first SPIDER was built. This simple acronym belies the subtleties of its inner workings; Spectral Phase Interferometry for Direct Electric-field Reconstruction (the ''f'' in field conveniently missed the cut) is a device that measures ultrashort pulses, utilizing spectral shearing interferometry and directly recovering the spectral phase. The very first SPIDER apparatus occupied nearly half an optical table, used a scanning monochromator, and had no computerized inversion routine. In the intervening decade, SPIDER has grown up. It has found a strong foothold in ultrafast laboratories throughout the world. Multiple groups have found useful new applications with this vital measurement tool, while others have contributed to the improvement of SPIDER itself, reaching to ever shorter pulses, new wavelength regimes, and making devices more sensitive, robust, smaller and faster. It also adapts to a field of research that changes rapidly. It was first designed to track and quantify the remaining spectral phase in a pulse to perfect its compression. In ten years, with the advent of pulse shapers, the real benefits of field diagnostics are becoming apparent. We have shifted away from the race towards the shortest IR pulse to a wide use of complex shaped pulses in almost every spectral range from far IR to XUV. But the quest of the shortest pulse is not over and new compression techniques utilize really broad spectra that are highly structured. All these applications provide new challenges for characterization techniques

  17. ATLAS Upgrades for the next Decades

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  18. Inflammatory breast cancer: A decade of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, Vinicius C; Rajan, Ruben; Redfern, Andrew; Saunders, Christobel

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive and rare form of breast cancer. At present, there are no established diagnostic, radiological, pathological or molecular diagnostic criteria for this entity. The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of presentation, treatment and outcomes of IBC in this institution over the course of a decade. This is a retrospective observational study using data from the Royal Perth Hospital from January 2001 to December 2010. Our results identified 57 women with IBC, representing 1.9% of all new breast cancer presentations. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple negative tumors were overrepresented (41% and 18%, respectively). Forty-four (77%) patients had early disease at diagnosis, of whom 35 underwent surgery and 16 are relapse-free. All six patients achieving complete pathological response were relapse-free in contrast to 11 (38%) with lesser responses at a median follow-up of 59 months. Median survival in 13 patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis was 21.7 months, with two patients still in remission. Clearly, this small but important group continues to offer management challenges and warrants ongoing study, including better molecular and pathological profiling of tumors to allow improved diagnostic clarity and more effective targeted therapy. PMID:26899402

  19. Towards custom made seasonal/decadal forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlstein, Irina; Spirig, Christoph; Liniger, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Climate indices offer the possibility to deliver information to the end user that can be easily applied to their field of work. For instance, a 3-monthly mean average temperature does not say much about the Heating Degree Days of a season, or how many frost days there are to be expected. Hence, delivering aggregated climate information can be more useful to the consumer than just raw data. In order to ensure that the end-users actually get what they need, the providers need to know what exactly they need to deliver. Hence, the specific user-needs have to be identified. In the framework of EUPORIAS, interviews with the end-user were conducted in order to learn more about the types of information that are needed. But also to investigate what knowledge exists among the users about seasonal/decadal forecasting and in what way uncertainties are taken into account. It is important that we gain better knowledge of how forecasts/predictions are applied by the end-user to their specific situation and business. EUPORIAS, which is embedded in the framework of EU FP7, aims exactly to improve that knowledge and deliver very specific forecasts that are custom made. Here we present examples of seasonal forecasts and their skill of several climate impact indices with direct relevance for specific economic sectors, such as energy. The results are compared to the visualization of conventional depiction of seasonal forecasts, such as 3 monthly average temperature tercile probabilities and the differences are highlighted.

  20. Geodesy and the UNAVCO Consortium: Three Decades of Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L. R.; Miller, M. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO, a non-profit, university consortium that supports geoscience research using geodesy, began with the ingenious recognition that the nascent Global Positioning System constellation (GPS) could be used to investigate earth processes. The consortium purchased one of the first commercially available GPS receivers, Texas Instrument's TI-4100 NAVSTAR Navigator, in 1984 to measure plate deformation. This early work was highlighted in a technology magazine, GPSWorld, in 1990. Over a 30-year period, UNAVCO and the community have helped advance instrument design for mobility, flexibility, efficiency and interoperability, so research could proceed with higher precision and under ever challenging conditions. Other innovations have been made in data collection, processing, analysis, management and archiving. These innovations in tools, methods and data have had broader impacts as they have found greater utility beyond research for timing, precise positioning, safety, communication, navigation, surveying, engineering and recreation. Innovations in research have expanded the utility of geodetic tools beyond the solid earth science through creative analysis of the data and the methods. For example, GPS sounding of the atmosphere is now used for atmospheric and space sciences. GPS reflectrometry, another critical advance, supports soil science, snow science and ecological research. Some research advances have had broader impacts for society by driving innovations in hazards risk reduction, hazards response, resource management, land use planning, surveying, engineering and other uses. Furthermore, the geodetic data is vital for the design of space missions, testing and advancing communications, and testing and dealing with interference and GPS jamming. We will discuss three decades (and counting) of advances by the National Science Foundation's premiere geodetic facility, consortium and some of the many geoscience principal investigators that have driven innovations in

  1. Monitoring Edentulism in Older New Zealand Adults over Two Decades: A Review and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, William Murray

    2012-01-01

    Historically, New Zealand has had the highest rates of edentulism in the world, but that rate has been falling quickly in recent decades. In 1997, projections were made for edentulism prevalence among 65-74-year-olds using national survey data from 1976 (where it was 72.3%) to 1988 (58.6%). That process assumed a logistic decline in edentulism, given that it would never have been 100% and will never get to 0%. This paper examines the validity of the projections using the estimate (29.6%) from the third national oral health survey, conducted in 2009 and considers the implications of this fall. PMID:22927852

  2. Monitoring Edentulism in Older New Zealand Adults over Two Decades: A Review and Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Murray Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, New Zealand has had the highest rates of edentulism in the world, but that rate has been falling quickly in recent decades. In 1997, projections were made for edentulism prevalence among 65–74-year-olds using national survey data from 1976 (where it was 72.3% to 1988 (58.6%. That process assumed a logistic decline in edentulism, given that it would never have been 100% and will never get to 0%. This paper examines the validity of the projections using the estimate (29.6% from the third national oral health survey, conducted in 2009 and considers the implications of this fall.

  3. Human effects on estuarine shoreline decadal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilo, A.; Freire, P.; Ceia, R.; Mendes, R. N.; Catalão, J.; Taborda, R.

    2012-04-01

    Due to their sheltered conditions and natural resources, estuaries were always attractive to human activities (industrial, agriculture, residential and recreation). Consequently, the complex interactions between anthropogenic and natural drivers increase estuarine shoreline vulnerability to climate changes impacts. The environmental sustainability of these systems depends on a fragile balance between societal development and natural values that can be further disturbed by climate change effects. This challenging task for scientific community, managers and stakeholders can only be accomplished with interdisplinary approaches. In this context, it seems clear that estuarine management plans should incorporate the concept of change into the planning of policy decisions since these natural dynamic areas are often under human pressure and are recognized as sensitive to climate change effects. Therefore, the knowledge about historical evolution of estuarine shoreline is important to provide new insights on the spatial and temporal dimensions of estuarine change. This paper aims to present and discuss shoreline changes due to human intervention in Tagus estuary, located on the west coast of Portugal. Detailed margins cartography, in a 550m fringe (drawn inland from the highest astronomical tide line), was performed based on 2007 orthophotos (spatial resolution of 0.5 m) analysis. Several classification categories were considered, as urbanized areas, industrial, port and airport facilities, agriculture spaces, green areas and natural zones. The estuarine bed (area bellow the highest astronomical tide line) was also mapped (including human occupation, natural habitats, morpho-sedimentary units) based on the geographic information above and LANSAT 7 TM+ images using image processing techniques. Aerial photographs dated from 1944, 1946, 1948, 1955 and 1958 were analyzed for a set of pilot zones in order to fully understand the decadal shoreline change. Estuarine bed presents

  4. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available. PMID:24680540

  5. J Wave Syndromes: A Decade of Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Li; Lin Yang; Chang-Cong Cui; Chao-Feng Sun; Gan-Xin Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective was to provide a brief history of J wave syndromes and to summarize our current understanding of their molecular,ionic,cellular mechanisms,and clinical features.We will also discuss the existing debates and further direction in basic and clinical research for J wave syndromes.Data Sources:The publications on key words of"J wave syndromes","early repolarization syndrome (ERS)","Brugada syndrome (BrS)" and "ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)" were comprehensively reviewed through search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date.Study Selection:Original articles,reviews and other literatures concerning J wave syndromes,ERS,BrS and STEMI were selected.Results:J wave syndromes were firstly defined by Yan et al.in a Chinese journal a decade ago,which represent a spectrum of variable phenotypes characterized by appearance of prominent electrocardiographic J wave including ERS,BrS and ventricular fibrillation (VF) associated with hypothermia and acute STEMI.J wave syndromes can be inherited or acquired and are mechanistically linked to amplification of the transient outward current (Ito)-mediated J waves that can lead to phase 2 reentry capable of initiating VF.Conclusions:J wave syndromes are a group of newly highlighted clinical entities that share similar molecular,ionic and cellular mechanism and marked by amplified J wave on the electrocardiogram and a risk of VF.The clinical challenge ahead is to identify the patients with J wave syndromes who are at risk for sudden cardiac death and determine the alternative therapeutic strategies to reduce mortality.

  6. J Wave Syndromes: A Decade of Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to provide a brief history of J wave syndromes and to summarize our current understanding of their molecular, ionic, cellular mechanisms, and clinical features. We will also discuss the existing debates and further direction in basic and clinical research for J wave syndromes. Data Sources: The publications on key words of "J wave syndromes", "early repolarization syndrome (ERS", "Brugada syndrome (BrS" and "ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI" were comprehensively reviewed through search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date. Study Selection: Original articles, reviews and other literatures concerning J wave syndromes, ERS, BrS and STEMI were selected. Results: J wave syndromes were firstly defined by Yan et al. in a Chinese journal a decade ago, which represent a spectrum of variable phenotypes characterized by appearance of prominent electrocardiographic J wave including ERS, BrS and ventricular fibrillation (VF associated with hypothermia and acute STEMI. J wave syndromes can be inherited or acquired and are mechanistically linked to amplification of the transient outward current (I to -mediated J waves that can lead to phase 2 reentry capable of initiating VF. Conclusions: J wave syndromes are a group of newly highlighted clinical entities that share similar molecular, ionic and cellular mechanism and marked by amplified J wave on the electrocardiogram and a risk of VF. The clinical challenge ahead is to identify the patients with J wave syndromes who are at risk for sudden cardiac death and determine the alternative therapeutic strategies to reduce mortality.

  7. Renewable Electricity: Insights for the Coming Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, C.; Pless, J.; Logan, J.; Zhou, E.; Arent, D. J.

    2015-02-01

    A sophisticated set of renewable electricity (RE) generation technologies is now commercially available. Globally, RE captured approximately half of all capacity additions since 2011. The cost of RE is already competitive with fossil fuels in some areas around the world, and prices are anticipated to continue to decline over the next decade. RE options, led by wind and solar, are part of a suite of technologies and business solutions that are transforming electricity sectors around the world. Renewable deployment is expected to continue due to: increasingly competitive economics; favorable environmental characteristics such as low water use, and minimal local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; complementary risk profiles when paired with natural gas generators; strong support from stakeholders. Despite this positive outlook for renewables, the collapse in global oil prices since mid-2014 and continued growth in natural gas supply in the United States--due to the development of low-cost shale gas--raise questions about the potential impacts of fossil fuel prices on RE. Today, oil plays a very minor role in the electricity sectors of most countries, so direct impacts on RE are likely to be minimal (except where natural gas prices are indexed on oil). Natural gas and RE generating options appear to be more serious competitors than oil and renewables. Low gas prices raise the hurdle for RE to be cost competitive. Additionally, although RE emits far less GHG than natural gas, both natural gas and RE offer the benefits of reducing carbon relative to coal and oil (see Section 4.1 for more detail on the GHG intensity of electricity technologies). However, many investors and decision makers are becoming aware of the complementary benefits of pairing natural gas and renewables to minimize risk of unstable fuel prices and maintain the reliability of electricity to the grid.

  8. Builders Instead of Consumers: Training Astronomers in Instrumentation & Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Tuttle, Sarah; Froning, Cynthia; Montgomery, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The astronomy community has made clear our shared scientific vision in the Astro2010 decadal survey. Who will build this future? The cost and scarcity of telescope resources makes vital learning through doing extremely difficult for students and early career researchers. What is needed now and in the future to provide a depth of knowledge, creativity, and experience in our field? At McDonald Observatory we have a clear model in answer to that question, and a long history of successfully training the next generation of instrument builders and observers. We must support and sustain small to medium range local resources such as McDonald to foster the successful growth of our field.

  9. Induced mutations in rice improvement - - a decade of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutation breeding technique has been successfully exploited in bringing about desirable changes in crop plants especially during the last decade. Seven local cultivars and IR-8 were treated with gamma rays, ethylmethane sulphonate, diethyl sulphate, hydrazine, etc. In M2 several plant and grain type mutants were recovered and grown in subsequent generations. About 36 fine grain mutants recovered from IR-8 and 125 grain shape mutants from the local cultivars were screened for their grain quality. Some of the IR-8 fine grain mutants were transluscent with higher protein content and deeper distribution of protein in the endosperm. The mutants from the local cultivars ranged in protein content from 5.5 to 13.7%. Some of the mutants had better cookin.o. quality than their controls. A survey of the World rice germplasm by the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines has shown that except for K8 and Chang-chu-ai-11, all the other dwarfs were allelic to the Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen dwarfing gene. Induced dwarfs may therefore offer alternative sources for dwarfing genes. About 63 short statured mutants were recovered from the local cultivars and genetic studies with five of the morphologically distinct dwarfs from Tellakattera have indicated their non-allelism with Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen and also amongst themselves. These dwarfs may be utilised in breeding programmes aimed at developing new high yielding varieties to avoid the genetic vulnerability. (author)

  10. BWR 90: An evolutionary ABWR plant for the next decade(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power is determined by ''conflicting'' considerations. It must be generated at acceptable cost with negligible environmental effects, and it must achieve and maintain a reasonable level of public acceptance. The latter is, however, not necessarily governed by rational assessments. The ABB approach to ''nuclear'' can be characterized as a ''cautious evolution''. In the next decade(s), its offerings will largely be based on ''evolutions'' of two successful LWR types, the BWR 90 and System 80+. Both designs can be designed, licensed and constructed in accordance with any safety regulations in force or envisaged in the Western world. This paper elaborates on BWR 90, a design that is closely based on its forerunner, taking into account experiences from design and engineering, construction and commissioning, and operation, needs for adapting to new technologies and new safety requirements, as well as possibilities for simplifications and cost savings

  11. Job Quality and Gender Inequality: Key Changes in Québec over the Last Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Cloutier; Paul Bernard; Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2010-01-01

    Using a new typology based on information available from the Labour Force Survey, the authors analyse how job quality evolved in Québec for both women and men over the last decade (1997-2007). Results show that family situation and educational attainment are two important factors in the determination of gender inequality in the labour market. The analysis emphasizes the very significant decline in gender differences with regard to job quality (from 23% to 35% according to groups), especially ...

  12. LISA and NASA's Physics of the Cosmos Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2008-01-01

    In the past year, the LISA Project at NASA has completed a major review and has thoroughly reviewed its cost estimates. This talk will summarize the conclusions of the Beyond Einstein Program Assessment, and review the main conclusions of the cost estimation work done at NASA, including reduced mission concepts. Astro2010, the decadal review which sets priorities for astronomy and astrophysics projects in the U.S., is getting organized. Preparing for and participating in Astro2010 will be a crucial activity for the NASA side of the LISA Project in thc next 18 months.

  13. Decadal variability of tropical tropopause temperature and its relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wuke; Matthes, Katja; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    Tropopause temperatures (TPTs) control the amount of stratospheric water vapour, which influences chemistry, radiation and circulation in the stratosphere, and is also an important driver of surface climate. Decadal variability and long-term trends in tropical TPTs as well as stratospheric water vapour are largely unknown. Here, we present for the first time evidence, from reanalysis and state-of-the-art climate model simulations, of a link between decadal variability in tropical TPTs and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The negative phase of the PDO is associated with anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical east and central Pacific, which enhance the zonal SST gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The latter drives a stronger Walker Circulation and a weaker Hadley Circulation, which leads to less convection and subsequently a warmer tropopause over the central equatorial Pacific. Over the North Pacific, positive sea level pressure anomalies occur, which damp vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere. This in turn slows the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and hence warms the tropical tropopause, enabling more water vapour to enter the stratosphere. The reverse chain of events holds for the positive phase of the PDO. Such ocean-troposphere-stratosphere interactions may provide an important feedback on the Earth's global surface temperature. PMID:27404090

  14. Decadal variability of tropical tropopause temperature and its relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wuke; Matthes, Katja; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    Tropopause temperatures (TPTs) control the amount of stratospheric water vapour, which influences chemistry, radiation and circulation in the stratosphere, and is also an important driver of surface climate. Decadal variability and long-term trends in tropical TPTs as well as stratospheric water vapour are largely unknown. Here, we present for the first time evidence, from reanalysis and state-of-the-art climate model simulations, of a link between decadal variability in tropical TPTs and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The negative phase of the PDO is associated with anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical east and central Pacific, which enhance the zonal SST gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The latter drives a stronger Walker Circulation and a weaker Hadley Circulation, which leads to less convection and subsequently a warmer tropopause over the central equatorial Pacific. Over the North Pacific, positive sea level pressure anomalies occur, which damp vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere. This in turn slows the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and hence warms the tropical tropopause, enabling more water vapour to enter the stratosphere. The reverse chain of events holds for the positive phase of the PDO. Such ocean-troposphere-stratosphere interactions may provide an important feedback on the Earth’s global surface temperature. PMID:27404090

  15. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure your ... how you incorporate it into your life. The survey will take 5 to 7 minutes to complete. ...

  16. Decadal scale oscillations and trend in the Indian monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2014-07-01

    The emerging need for extended climate prediction requires a consideration of the relative roles of climate change and low-frequency natural variability on decadal scale. Addressing this issue, this study has shown that the variability of the Indian monsoon rainfall (IMR) consists of three decadal scale oscillations and a nonlinear trend during 1901-2004. The space-time structures of the decadal oscillations are described. The IMR decadal oscillations are shown to be associated with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), Atlantic tripole oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans are also resolved as nonlinear decadal oscillations. The SST AMO mode has high positive correlation with IMR while the SST tripole mode and SST PDO have negative correlation. The trend in IMR increases during the first half of the period and decreases during the second half. The IMR trend is modified when combined with the three decadal oscillations.

  17. Physical Biology : challenges for our second decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    understand when the details of proteins and nucleic acids structure and function can be assumed constant when considering the cell. This problem is even more serious as we try to set higher sights and think of cells as constituents of tissue, organ and organism. Trying to understand higher-order biological systems is a bit like trying to play a board game where the pieces and rules are constantly changing, somehow in concert with what is happening at the scale of the game. Others will undoubtedly have their own view of what is really difficult and different about living systems. One of the roles of Physical Biology should therefore be to provide a needed forum to address some of these really difficult questions. Of course, most papers will operate with the safety-setting on, and will use established ideas in physics, either experimental or theoretical, to further our quantitative appreciation of living systems. These papers are without doubt an absolutely necessary part of the field, and we hope that our journal can serve as a home for the best of these. But, my real hope is that we can attract papers that really try to break new ground, that suggest ways in which the living world is not just an extremely messy example of the same phenomena that can be studied in non-biological contexts. Amazingly, this hope is actually shared by many leading biologists. In one of the most influential papers on cancer research in the past decades. Hanahan and Weinberg argue that 'one day, we imagine that cancer biology and treatment—at present, a patchwork quilt of cell biology, genetics, histopathology, biochemistry, immunology, and pharmacology—will become a science with a conceptual structure and logical coherence that rivals that of chemistry or physics.' We should take up the challenge, not just for cancer, and Physical Biology should help. Figuring out exactly how best to do this is now my responsibility, and I look forward to hearing from you and working with all of you, in order

  18. Potential Large Decadal Missions Enabled by Nasas Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  19. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Indian population since last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anuja; Yadav, Om Prakash; Narula, Sugandha; Dutta, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: India suffers lot of disparities in terms of oral health care and 95% of the Indian population suffers from periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the risk factors responsible for periodontal diseases as well as prevalence for the same in the last decade to make an attempt to develop a strategy to improve formulation of an effective oral health care policy in India. Materials and Methods: Keywords such as “prevalence of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology,” “periodontitis in India,” and “oral hygiene status in India” were searched for appropriate studies to obtain a bibliographic database. The references of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications that included studies conducted in India estimating periodontal diseases with adequate sample size. Clinical parameters, sample size, and findings for each study were tabulated from 2006 to 2015 (till September 15, 2015) in chronological order to observe the prevalence as well as epidemiology of periodontal disease in India. Results: The projection of periodontal disease is disturbing. In addition, the majority of studies done have used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) as its epidemiological tool that can grossly underestimate the presence of deep pockets. Conclusion: Current knowledge has shown that periodontitis does not present a linear progression and is not age-dependent. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. A structured all-inclusive survey of all districts of the states is a prerequisite for the constitution of an apt and cogent health care policy in our country. PMID:27114945

  20. A Decade beyond the Doctorate: The Influence of a US Postdoctoral Appointment on Faculty Career, Productivity, and Salary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijing; Webber, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The number of postdoctoral researchers has increased dramatically in the past decade. Because of the limited number of academic staff openings and the general levels of salary, the role and value of the postdoctoral appointment are changing. Using a sample of respondents with continuous data in the 1999 through 2008 "Survey of Doctoral…

  1. Innovation surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    An earlier version of this paper was prepared for the joint OECD/Eurostat workshop on innovation surveys, OECD, Paris, June 30th 1999. The paper addresses some issues about the nature of innovation surveys (particularly the new Community Innovation Surveys) and how they might be improved to take on board several crucial developments in contemporary advanced economies. In particular the following topics are discussed: the increased distribution of innovative activity across firm...

  2. Next generation global Earth atmospheric composition sounders for the decadal survey requirements and roadmaps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are two overall objectives: 1. Define the spatial resolutions and sensitivities required for the instruments; 2. Mature the technology for the limb sounder...

  3. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  4. Real-time multi-model decadal climate predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.M.; Scaife, A.A.; Boer, G.J.; Caian, M.; Doblas-Reyes, F.J.; Guemas, V.; Hawkins, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Hermanson, L.; Ho, C.K.; Ishii, M.; Kharin, V.; Kimoto, M.; Kirtman, B.; Lean, J.; Matei, D.; Merryfield, W.J.; Muller, W.A.; Pohlmann, H.; Rosati, A.; Wouters, B.; Wyser, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first climate prediction of the coming decade made with multiple models, initialized with prior observations. This prediction accrues from an international activity to exchange decadal predictions in near real-time, in order to assess differences and similarities, provide a consensus

  5. Possible Origins of the Western Pacific Warm Pool Decadal Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Bolan; WU Lixin

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the impacts of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) were investigated.Our results show that the WPWP is linked with the PDO and the AMO at multiple time scales.On the seasonal time scales,the WPWP and the PDO/AMO reinforce each other,while at decadal time scales the forcing roles of the PDO and the AMO dominate.Notably,a positive PDO tends to enlarge the WPWP at both seasonal and decadal time scales,while a positive AMO tends to reduce the WPWP at decadal time scales.Furthermore,the decadal variability of the WPWP can be well predicted based on the PDO and AMO.

  6. Likelihood Functions for Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, G

    2006-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys offer great promise for measuring cosmological parameters, but survey analysis methods have not been widely studied. Using methods developed decades ago for galaxy clustering studies, it is shown that nearly exact likelihood functions can be written down for galaxy cluster surveys. The sparse sampling of the density field by galaxy clusters allows simplifications that are not possible for galaxy surveys. An application to counts in cells is explicitly tested using cluster catalogs from numerical simulations and it is found that the calculated probability distributions are very accurate at masses above several times 10^{14}h^{-1} solar masses at z=0 and lower masses at higher redshift.

  7. Projections of U.S. Edentulism Prevalence Following 5 Decades of Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, G.D.; Akinkugbe, A.A.; Sanders, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    After decades of decline in prevalence of complete tooth loss (edentulism), the trend continues to be misinterpreted, producing flawed projections and misdirected health goals. We investigated population trends in edentulism among U.S. adults aged ≥15 yr by creating time-series data from 5 national cross-sectional health surveys: 1957-1958 (n ≈ 100,000 adults), 1971-1975 (n = 14,655 adults), 1988-1998 (n = 18,011 adults), 1999-2002 (n = 12,336 adults), and 2009-2012 (n = 10,522 adults). Birth...

  8. Monitoring Edentulism in Older New Zealand Adults over Two Decades: A Review and Commentary

    OpenAIRE

    William Murray Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Historically, New Zealand has had the highest rates of edentulism in the world, but that rate has been falling quickly in recent decades. In 1997, projections were made for edentulism prevalence among 65–74-year-olds using national survey data from 1976 (where it was 72.3%) to 1988 (58.6%). That process assumed a logistic decline in edentulism, given that it would never have been 100% and will never get to 0%. This paper examines the validity of the projections using the estimate (29.6%) from...

  9. A Comparative Study of Graffiti Art of Iran and England (Emphasizing Four Recent Decades)

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHROUDI, Fatemeh; PANAHI, Fatemeh; DAVOUDI, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The Graffiti art is one of the most important ways to expression the individual and group approaches of today urban areas that is the main base of the paper. This research is aimed of comparative study of Iran and England graffiti art at the time of four recent decades to survey two artists belong both countries in the names of "Tanha" and "Banksy" as case samples. The thesis results were obtained in comparative and cross-sectional method shows that an Iranian artist express more hi...

  10. Browning in Desert Boundaries in Asia in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Brown, Molly E.; Kug, Jong-Seong; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the changes in desert boundaries in Asia (Gobi, Karakum, Lut, Taklimakan, and Thar deserts) during the growing season (April October) in the years 1982 2008 were investigated by analyzing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and temperature. In the desert boundary regions, the domain mean NDVI values increased by 7.2% per decade in 1982 1998 but decreased by 6.8% per decade thereafter. Accordingly, the bare soil areas (or nonvegetated areas) of the inside of the desert boundaries contracted by 9.8% per decade in the 1990s and expanded by 8.7% per decade in the 2000s. It is noted that the five deserts experience nearly simultaneous NDVI changes although they cover a very diverse area of Asia. In contrast, changes in temperature and precipitation in the deserts show rather diverse results. In desert boundaries located along 40 N (Gobi, Taklimakan, and Karakum), the decadal changes in vegetation greenness were mainly related to regional climate during the entire analysis period. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth (i.e., greening), but precipitation reduced (19 mm per decade) and warming intensified (0.7 C per decade) in the 2000s, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth (i.e., browning). In desert boundaries below 40 N (Lut and Thar), although an increase in precipitation (8 mm per decade) led to greening in the 1990s, local changes in precipitation and temperature did not necessarily cause browning in the 2000s. Observed multidecadal changes in vegetation greenness in the present study suggest that under significant global and/or regional warming, changes in moisture availability for vegetation growth in desert boundaries are an important factor when understanding decadal changes in areas vulnerable to desertification over Asia.

  11. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    procedures. Subjectivity is rather regulated and constituted in this practice. The relevant question becomes in what particular ways subjectivity and humanness are performed here? We want to look into this question exploring the agency of surveys, their effects and the politics involved in such a scientific......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  12. Adults Don't Need Tetanus Shot Every Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_157980.html Adults Don't Need Tetanus Shot Every Decade: Study Booster shot every 30 years would protect as well as ... have always been told to get a tetanus shot every 10 years, but actually, there is very ...

  13. Ghana's Decentralization: Two decades and still crawling?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kweku Baah Inkoom

    2011-01-01

    After more than two decades of implementation, there are still debates raging on the nature, processes, financing and operationalization of the decentralization system in Ghana. Daniel Kweku Baah Inkoom looks at the legal, administrative, financial and human resource constraints.

  14. Achieving food security in China: past three decades and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Zhangyue _Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to review and assess China's food security practice over the past three decades with a view of drawing implications for further improving its food security in the future. Design/methodology/approach – A normative food security framework is used to assess China's food security achievements and examine any remaining and emerging issues in its pursuit for food security. Findings – China has done well in achieving grain security in the past three decades. However, it cann...

  15. Four decades of thermoluminescence dosimetry research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last four decades have witnessed tremendous progress in the field of thermo-luminescence dosimetry. During this period development of new and sensitive TL phosphors was reported. Application of these phosphors was exploited in different fields, such as personnel and environmental monitoring, accident and retrospective dosimetry, high dose dosimetry, archaeological and geological dating. Commensurate with these developments, progress in TL instrumentation also took place. This paper reviews some of these developments in the last four decades in India. (author)

  16. Smoking Habits among Italian Adolescents: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Charrier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002–2010 show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.

  17. Smoking habits among italian adolescents: what has changed in the last decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Berchialla, Paola; Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Borraccino, Alberto; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002-2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit. PMID:24860815

  18. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  19. Motivating Accounting Professionals in Romania. Analysis after Five Decades of Communist Ideology and Two Decades of Accounting Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Mustata, Razvan V.; Szilveszter FEKETE; Matis, Dumitru; Bonaci, Carmen Giorgiana

    2011-01-01

    Our paper focuses on accounting professionals in Romania as being a significant element when considering a national accounting system that went through complex accounting reforms of more than two decades. Since accounting policy represents an area of social and economic policy we must also consider the five decades of communist regime leaving their fingerprint on the Romanian society. It is our objective to capture the perception of the Romanian accounting profession that actually witnessed a...

  20. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a...... surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...... efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice....

  1. The Gaia Astrometric Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzetti, A

    2009-01-01

    In its all-sky survey, the ESA global astrometry mission Gaia will perform high-precision astrometry and photometry for 1 billion stars down to $V = 20$ mag. The data collected in the Gaia catalogue, to be published by the end of the next decade, will likely revolutionize our understanding of many aspects of stellar and Galactic astrophysics. One of the relevant areas in which the Gaia observations will have great impact is the astrophysics of planetary systems. This summary focuses on a) the complex technical problems related to and challenges inherent in correctly modelling the signals of planetary systems present in measurements collected with a space-borne observatory poised to carry out precision astrometry at the micro-arcsecond ($\\mu$as) level, and b) on the potential of Gaia $\\mu$as astrometry for important contributions to the astrophysics of planetary systems.

  2. Decadal Modulation of Global Surface Temperature By Internal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, A.; Fyfe, J. C.; Xie, S. P.; Dai, X.

    2014-12-01

    Despite a steady increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), global-mean surface temperature (T) has shown no discernable warming since about 2000, in sharp contrast to model simulations which on average project strong warming. The recent slowdown in observed surface warming has been attributed to decadal cooling in the tropical Pacific, intensifying trade winds, changes in El Niño activity, increasing volcanic activity and decreasing solar irradiance. Earlier periods of arrested warming have been observed but received much less attention than the recent period, and their causes are poorly understood. Here we analyze observed and model-simulated global T fields to quantify the contributions of internal climate variability (ICV) to decadal changes in global-mean T since 1920. We show that the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) has been associated with large T anomalies over both ocean and land since 1920. Combined with another leading mode of ICV, the IPO explains most of the difference between observed and model-simulated rates of decadal change in global-mean T since 1920, and particularly over the so-called "hiatus" period since about 2000. We conclude that ICV, mainly through the IPO, was largely responsible for the recent slowdown, as well as for earlier slowdowns and accelerations in global-mean T since 1920, with preferred spatial patterns different from GHG-induced warming. Recent history suggests that the IPO could reverse course and lead to accelerated global warming in the coming decades.

  3. American Nightmare: A Decade of Homelessness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    A 1989 national survey of the dimensions of homelessness found that at least three million Americans are homeless and that the shortage of affordable housing was cited as the chief cause. Information was gathered from a telephone survey of emergency shelter providers, housing advocacy organizations, and local governments in 26 communities, ranging…

  4. YRS Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauter, Sofie; Bersou, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Residents have many questions concerning their training, education, and future, especially in a professional atmosphere that is considered difficult due to increasing financial and political restrictions in the health care system. To objectify this matter, the young radiologist section (YRS) created an online survey.

  5. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  6. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra; Cristina de Souza Chaves; Zirlane Castelo Branco Coêlho; Naya Lúcia de Castro Rodrigues; Josias Martins Vale; Maria Jânia Teixeira; Francisco Josemar Alves de Oliveira; Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo; Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study’s objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal par...

  7. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  8. Dishing up the Data: A Decade of Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkissian, John

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen Parkes once again involved in a wide range of space tracking activities that have added to its illustrious legacy. This contribution is a personal recollection of those tracking efforts - both real and celluloid. We begin in a light-hearted vein with some behind-the-scenes views of the popular film, "The DISH", and then turn to more serious contributions; discussing the vital role of the telescope in alleviating the great "traffic jam" at Mars in 2003/04 and salvaging the Doppler Wind Experiment as the Huygens probe descended though the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in mid-decade. We cap off the decade with a discussion of the search for the missing Apollo 11 slow-scan TV tapes.

  9. Risky business: Incorporating decadal predictions into decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, E.

    2012-12-01

    For water and natural resources managers, decadal climate predictions offer enormous potential for decision-support, filling a considerable planning need between seasonal variations and century climate trends. As decadal predictions evolve through their current experimental phase, there is considerable opportunity for this information to be shaped by an iterative interaction between climate scientists and users. This presentation will investigate this through use of a risk-based framework developed for seasonal forecasts. The framework will be modified for decadal predictions and used to explore changing hydroclimatic risks that are decision-relevant, such as the frequency of extremes or likelihood of exceeding important thresholds. Potential applications from the water and natural resources sectors and will be used to illustrate and discuss systematic ways to manage this new "risky business" towards increasing reward.

  10. Decadal changes in Gulf of Alaska upwelling source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Buil, Mercedes; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele

    2015-03-01

    Decadal changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Gulf of Alaska are linked to long-term transitions in the marine ecosystem. While previous studies have identified the atmospheric variability of the Aleutian Low as an important driver of Ekman pumping and low-frequency SST anomalies, the role of subsurface gyre-scale dynamics remains unexplored. Using a set of reanalysis data sets from 1958 to the present, we find that subsurface temperature anomalies generated along the North Pacific Current significantly contribute through mean upwelling to decadal changes of SST in the Gulf of Alaska. This influence is comparable to the contribution associated with variations in atmospheric winds. Given the exceptional low-frequency character of the propagation of subsurface anomalies (e.g., multidecadal) along the gyre, monitoring subsurface temperature anomalies up stream along the North Pacific Current may enhance the decadal predictability of SST in the Gulf of Alaska and its impact on local marine ecosystems.

  11. Skill and Added Value of Regionalized Decadal Hindcasts for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Marianne; Feldmann, Hendrik; Mieruch, Sebastian; Kottmeier, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The German research program MiKlip aims at the development of a decadal ensemble predictions system. A module within MiKlip is dedicated to develop a regional downscaling system for the global predictions. The regional focuses of the downscaling experiments are Europe where global decadal predictions show skill. The global prediction system consists of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model MPI-ESM. For the regional downscaling over Europe the regional climate model (RCM) COSMO-CLM is applied to establish a regional ensemble for the CORDEX-EU domain with a resolution of 0.22°. In the first instance the MPI-ESM-LR decadal ensemble experiments for CMIP5 are used to force the RCM. Ten ensemble members from five hindcasts periods between 1960 and 2010 were downscaled. The regional baseline ensemble thereby obtained is analysed to determine the skill the regional experiments compared to observations and relative to the larger global ensemble. The methods include continuous and categorical skill metrics to explicate predictive skill of the regional ensemble as well as the value added to global predictions. Additionally different filter, both temporal and spatial, are applied and the results are analysed as well to possibly identify scales on which skilful prediction can be achieved. A positive skill for near surface temperature was found. This skill varies on season and region. The same is valid for the value added by regionalization. In particular multi-year averages up to nine years have shown some measures of skill. Some previous studies indicate that extremes might partly show a higher predictive skill than mean precipitation or temperatures. Skilful predictions of decadal tendencies of extremes (like droughts, heat waves or storms) also exhibit a higher value to potential users than variations of mean quantities. Therefore, the decadal variations of (moderate) extremes and their predictability are considered, too. So far there are indications

  12. EGS4 in '94: A decade of enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the developments made to the EGS4 code over the past decade. This code is a Monte Carlo code developed to study electron-photon transport properties. It is widely used, in particular in the medical physics field, it has been updated, expanded, benchmarked, and applied to a wide array of problems. The paper covers precursors to this code, a basic snapshop of its physics and calculation methods, and an overview of how it has been expanded during the past decade

  13. The history of Korea electric times for four decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports the history of Korea electric times for four decades, which is comprised of six parts, it deals with establishment of electric times and organizational systems and an editorial policy, status and pains for rebirth, open up new future, foundation of growth for the electric times, stability of organization extension of organization, establishing independent corporation, carrying out a radical reform, changing reading newspaper into seeing newspaper, ensuring internal stability, for the daily newspaper, development of contents on power industry technology, strategy for specialization, plan for campaign for patriotism, major business for four decades, today's electric times newspaper and future, and electric times years through the paper.

  14. Radial Velocity Prospects Current and Future: A White Paper Report prepared by the Study Analysis Group 8 for the Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG)

    CERN Document Server

    Plavchan, Peter; Gaudi, Scott; Crepp, Justin; Xavier, Dumusque; Furesz, Gabor; Vanderburg, Andrew; Blake, Cullen; Fischer, Debra; Prato, Lisa; White, Russel; Makarov, Valeri; Marcy, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Haywood, Raphaëlle; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Anglada, Guillem; Muirhead, Philip

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] The Study Analysis Group 8 of the NASA Exoplanet Analysis Group was convened to assess the current capabilities and the future potential of the precise radial velocity (PRV) method to advance the NASA goal to "search for planetary bodies and Earth-like planets in orbit around other stars.: (U.S. National Space Policy, June 28, 2010). PRVs complement other exoplanet detection methods, for example offering a direct path to obtaining the bulk density and thus the structure and composition of transiting exoplanets. Our analysis builds upon previous community input, including the ExoPlanet Community Report chapter on radial velocities in 2008, the 2010 Decadal Survey of Astronomy, the Penn State Precise Radial Velocities Workshop response to the Decadal Survey in 2010, and the NSF Portfolio Review in 2012. The radial-velocity detection of exoplanets is strongly endorsed by both the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey "New Worlds, New Horizons" and the NSF Portfolio Review, and the community has recommended robust...

  15. Three Rings, Three Enrichment Activities, Three Decades Earlier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, E. Jean

    2010-01-01

    Three decades ago, Dr. Joseph S. Renzulli reflected on the state of the art in gifted and talented programs. His work in schools and his evaluation of existing programs made it patently clear it was time to review existing definitions of gifted and talented students and to develop defensible programs for the gifted and talented. The result was the…

  16. Decadal modulation of global surface temperature by internal climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Aiguo; Fyfe, John C.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Dai, Xingang

    2015-06-01

    Despite a steady increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), global-mean surface temperature (T) has shown no discernible warming since about 2000, in sharp contrast to model simulations, which on average project strong warming. The recent slowdown in observed surface warming has been attributed to decadal cooling in the tropical Pacific, intensifying trade winds, changes in El Niño activity, increasing volcanic activity and decreasing solar irradiance. Earlier periods of arrested warming have been observed but received much less attention than the recent period, and their causes are poorly understood. Here we analyse observed and model-simulated global T fields to quantify the contributions of internal climate variability (ICV) to decadal changes in global-mean T since 1920. We show that the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) has been associated with large T anomalies over both ocean and land. Combined with another leading mode of ICV, the IPO explains most of the difference between observed and model-simulated rates of decadal change in global-mean T since 1920, and particularly over the so-called `hiatus' period since about 2000. We conclude that ICV, mainly through the IPO, was largely responsible for the recent slowdown, as well as for earlier slowdowns and accelerations in global-mean T since 1920, with preferred spatial patterns different from those associated with GHG-induced warming or aerosol-induced cooling. Recent history suggests that the IPO could reverse course and lead to accelerated global warming in the coming decades.

  17. Challenges, basic principles and methodologies for decadal predictability and forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the 5. coupled model inter-comparison project, an ensemble of coordinated decadal forecast simulations have been carried out, for the first time, by the climate community. This new initiative first aims at better understanding the decadal modulations that are superimposed on the anthropogenic-forced warming tendency and that are mostly explained, at such a timescale, by the internal variability in the ocean. The goal of this initiative is then to provide a first assessment of the climate predictability at decadal timescale. Forecasts differ from climate projections by the mandatory step of initialization of the model components either to direct observations or their reconstruction via the reanalyzes. They aim at simulating at best the observed fluctuations whereas projections and historical simulations only estimate the climate response to so-called external forcings such as solar activity, volcanism and anthropogenic perturbations. The goal of this article is primarily to review the basics of the decadal forecasts (concepts, methodologies, difficulties and limits) and to present preliminary and simple results on predictive skill estimated from hind-casts over 1960-2010. (authors)

  18. Poverty and the American Family: A Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, Kathryn; Kissane, Rebecca Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Because of dramatic levels of economic volatility and massive changes in welfare policies, scholars in this decade worried anew about whether our official poverty measure, adopted in the 1960s, is adequate. Poverty's causes continued to be debated, with demographic factors often pitted against policy and maternal employment changes. Some scholars…

  19. Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders: A Decade of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E.; Scahill, Lawrence; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This is a review of progress made in the understanding of Tourette syndrome (TS) during the past decade including models of pathogenesis, state-of-the-art assessment techniques, and treatment. Method: Computerized literature searches were conducted under the key words "Tourette syndrome," "Tourette disorder," and "tics." Only references…

  20. Two Decades after: "After the Wake--Postpositivistic Educational Thought"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    This essay is an updating of one that was published exactly two decades ago; in the intervening years there has been a revival of interest in positivism as a historical phenomenon in epistemology and philosophy of science (some references to which are given), but there also has been heightened awareness of the various weaknesses of the positivist…

  1. Decadal climate predictions with an high resolution coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, P. A.; Valcke, S.; Moine, M. P.; Maisonnave, E.; Coquart, L.; Cassou, C.; Terray, L.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the decadal prediction skill of sea surface temperature variability with a high resolution coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM). The HR CERFACS was developed at the CERFACS (Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique) laboratory in the framework of the EU-FP7 SPECS (Seasonal-to-decadal climate Predictions for the improvement of European Climate Services) project in order to address the question of decadal predictability with the use of a high spatial resolution. The atmospheric model is ARPEGE/IFS with a T359 spectral truncature and the oceanic model is NEMO at 0.25° resolution including the LIM2 sea ice model. Each hindcasts consist of a 10-members ensemble integrated over a 10-years period. These hindcasts are full-field initialized every year from 1993 to 2009 and initial oceanic state is given by the GLORYS2V1 (0.25° resolution) sea-surface temperatures. Members of a given ensemble (one initialization date) are generated by perturbations of the atmospheric initial conditions. We study the predictability of the global sea-surface temperature focusing on the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (SPG) and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We also investigate the prediction skill of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  2. Connecting Complex Processes: A Decade of Research on Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines research on immigrant families in the United States from the past decade from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This work has used variations on assimilation and acculturation perspectives. In the case of the assimilation perspectives, the focus has largely been on family formation, whereas research using acculturation…

  3. Crime and Perceptions after a Decade of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Crime has become central to any discussion about the consolidation of democracy in South Africa. Concerns about crime intensified in the years after 1994, as the country attempted to grapple with the apparent "crime wave" that accompanied the transition. A decade later crime is still a priority for government and a concern among citizens, but the…

  4. Gender and leadership styles : A review of the past decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engen, M.L.; Willemsen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    Research on sex differences in leadership styles over the past decade (1987-1999) is reviewed and compared with the results of a meta-analysis of studies of the previous period by Eagly and Johnson (1990). Research on transformational or charismatic leadership is included in this review. As was the

  5. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  6. Projections of U.S. Edentulism prevalence following 5 decades of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, G D; Akinkugbe, A A; Sanders, A E

    2014-10-01

    After decades of decline in prevalence of complete tooth loss (edentulism), the trend continues to be misinterpreted, producing flawed projections and misdirected health goals. We investigated population trends in edentulism among U.S. adults aged ≥ 15 yr by creating time-series data from 5 national cross-sectional health surveys: 1957-1958 (n ≈ 100,000 adults), 1971-1975 (n = 14,655 adults), 1988-1998 (n = 18,011 adults), 1999-2002 (n = 12,336 adults), and 2009-2012 (n = 10,522 adults). Birth cohort analysis was used to isolate age and cohort effects. Geographic and sociodemographic variation in prevalence was investigated with a sixth U.S. survey of 432,519 adults conducted in 2010. Prevalence through 2050 was projected with age-cohort regression models using Monte-Carlo simulation of prediction intervals. Across the 5-decade observation period, edentulism prevalence declined from 18.9% in 1957-1958 (95% confidence limits: 18.4%, 19.4%) to 4.9% in 2009-2012 (95% confidence limits: 4.0%, 5.8%). The most influential determinant of the decline was the passing of generations born before the 1940s, whose rate of edentulism incidence (5%-6% per decade of age) far exceeded later cohorts (1%-3% per decade of age). High-income households experienced a greater relative decline, although a smaller absolute decline, than low-income households. By 2010, edentulism was a rare condition in high-income households, and it had contracted geographically to states with disproportionately high poverty. With the passing of generations born in the mid-20th century, the rate of decline in edentulism is projected to slow, reaching 2.6% (95% prediction limits: 2.1%, 3.1%) by 2050. The continuing decline will be offset only partially by population growth and population aging such that the predicted number of edentulous people in 2050 (8.6 million; 95% prediction limits: 6.8 million, 10.3 million) will be 30% lower than the 12.2 million edentulous people in 2010. PMID:25146182

  7. Decadal Prediction Skill in the GEOS-5 Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Rienecker, Michele M.; Suarez, Max J.; Vikhliaev, Yury; Zhao, Bin; Marshak, Jelena; Vernieres, Guillaume; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2013-01-01

    A suite of decadal predictions has been conducted with the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office's (GMAO's) GEOS-5 Atmosphere-Ocean general circulation model. The hind casts are initialized every December 1st from 1959 to 2010, following the CMIP5 experimental protocol for decadal predictions. The initial conditions are from a multivariate ensemble optimal interpolation ocean and sea-ice reanalysis, and from GMAO's atmospheric reanalysis, the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications. The mean forecast skill of a three-member-ensemble is compared to that of an experiment without initialization but also forced with observed greenhouse gases. The results show that initialization increases the forecast skill of North Atlantic sea surface temperature compared to the uninitialized runs, with the increase in skill maintained for almost a decade over the subtropical and mid-latitude Atlantic. On the other hand, the initialization reduces the skill in predicting the warming trend over some regions outside the Atlantic. The annual-mean Atlantic meridional overturning circulation index, which is defined here as the maximum of the zonally-integrated overturning stream function at mid-latitude, is predictable up to a 4-year lead time, consistent with the predictable signal in upper ocean heat content over the North Atlantic. While the 6- to 9-year forecast skill measured by mean squared skill score shows 50 percent improvement in the upper ocean heat content over the subtropical and mid-latitude Atlantic, prediction skill is relatively low in the sub-polar gyre. This low skill is due in part to features in the spatial pattern of the dominant simulated decadal mode in upper ocean heat content over this region that differ from observations. An analysis of the large-scale temperature budget shows that this is the result of a model bias, implying that realistic simulation of the climatological fields is crucial for skillful decadal forecasts.

  8. SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, James C., IV; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory (aka SIM Lite), a micro-arcsecond astrometry space mission, has been developed in response to NASA's indefinite deferral of the SIM PlanetQuest mission. The SIM Lite mission, while significantly more affordable than the SIM PlanetQuest mission concept, still addresses the full breadth of SIM science envisioned by two previous National Research Council (NRC) Astrophysics Decadal Surveys at the most stringent 'Goal' level of astrometric measurement performance envisioned in those surveys. Over the past two years, the project has completed the conceptual design of the SIM Lite mission using only the completed SIM technology; published a 250 page book describing the science and mission design (available at the SIM website: http://sim.jpl.nasa.gov); been subject to an independent cost and technical readiness assessment by the Aerospace Corporation; and submitted a number of information responses to the NRC Astro2010 Decadal Survey. The project also conducted an exoplanet-finding capability double blind study that clearly demonstrated the ability of the mission to survey 60 to 100 nearby sun-like dwarf stars for terrestrial, habitable zone planets in complex planetary systems. Additionally, the project has continued Engineering Risk Reduction activities by building brassboard (form, fit and function to flight) version of key instrument elements and subjecting them to flight qualification environmental and performance testing. This paper summarizes the progress over the last two years and the current state of the SIM Lite project.

  9. Does patient satisfaction of general practice change over a decade?

    OpenAIRE

    Schattner Peter; Allan James; Stocks Nigel; Ramsay Emmae

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Patient Participation Program (PPP) was a patient satisfaction survey endorsed by the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and designed to assist general practitioners in continuous quality improvement (CQI). The survey was been undertaken by 3500 practices and over a million patients between 1994 and 2003. This study aimed to use pooled patient questionnaire data to investigate changes in satisfaction with primary care over time. Methods The results of 10...

  10. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  11. E-government Frameworks Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Riad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents survey of different e-government frameworks. After the new technologies that have been happened in the last decade therefore all countries move towards updating and developing their government into electronic government (e-government. E-Government has become a global phenomenon. There have been some great innovations in e-government over the last decade. Some governments compete for leadership in offering online services. In this paper more than evaluation criteria that determine the overall development of its e-government plan. The importance of citizen/end user satisfaction of the e-government e-services is a new parameter that affects e-government objectives. It is expected that the performance of e-government framework is more effective if and only if takes into its consideration.

  12. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959–2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  13. Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahav Ofer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant. We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.

  14. DECADES Tools. User's manual for version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive comparative assessment studies of electricity options and strategies rely upon methodological approaches integrating technical, economic and human health, environmental and social aspects, and on comprehensive, reliable and up-to-date information covering all relevant characteristics of the energy chains for electricity generation. Often, however, the information available for national or regional studies cannot be directly compared or adapted to new conditions because it has been collected in different formats or is based on different assumptions. Some countries, particularly developing countries, lack sufficient resources to explore the benefits of applying new technologies and to carry out comprehensive comparative assessments of different energy sources. The inter-agency joint project on databases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation, in short DECADES, was established at the beginning of 1993, when nine international organizations (EC, ESCAP, IAEA, IIASA, IBRD, OECD/NEA, OPEC, UNIDO and WMO) agreed to join their efforts towards a common objective of enhancing the capabilities for comparative assessment of different energy sources in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. One of the major achievements of the project is that an integrated software package for use on personal computers (PCs), called DECADES Tools, was developed to provide senior analysts and energy planners with an easy to use tool for carrying out decision support studies for the power sector. These tools consist of: several databases providing a comprehensive, harmonized set of technical, economic and environmental data for energy chains that use fossil fuels, nuclear power and, renewable energy sources for electricity generation; a data management system which provides user friendly access to the DECADES databases; an analytical software designed to access the information stored in the

  15. Computer Science and Game Theory: A Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Joseph Y.

    2007-01-01

    There has been a remarkable increase in work at the interface of computer science and game theory in the past decade. In this article I survey some of the main themes of work in the area, with a focus on the work in computer science. Given the length constraints, I make no attempt at being comprehensive, especially since other surveys are also available, and a comprehensive survey book will appear shortly.

  16. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  17. Oceanography in the next decade: Building new partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The field of oceanography has existed as a major scientific discipline in the United States since World War 2, largely funded by the federal government. In this report, the Ocean Studies Board documents the state of the field of oceanography and assesses the health of the partnership between the federal government and the academic oceanography community. The objectives are to document and discuss important trends in the human, physical, and fiscal resources available to oceanographers, especially academic oceanographers, over the last decade; to present the Ocean Studies Board's best assessment of scientific opportunities in physical oceanography, marine geochemistry, marine geology and geophysics, biological oceanography, and coastal oceanography during the upcoming decade; and to provide a blueprint for more productive partnerships between academic oceanographers and federal agencies.

  18. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Sienz, Frank

    2016-03-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4-7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean.

  19. Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Erickson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

  20. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A; Sienz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4-7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean. PMID:27026490

  1. Mapping supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae across decades of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.

    2016-04-01

    Ground- and space-based gamma ray observatories of the past decade have given us a new understanding of particle accelerators in our galaxy. The improved spatial resolution and sensitivity of recent gamma-ray surveys of the Galactic plane have resolved confusion of sources identified numerous sources to study the physics of particle acceleration and the diffusion of energetic particles into the galaxy. Here I highlight some recent studies of Galactic accelerators from GeV to TeV energies, that allow us to disentangle hadronic from leptonic emission, constrain cosmic ray diffusion, and measure the conditions of particle acceleration. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae are found to be the two most common Galactic sources identified in very high energy gamma rays, and the future capabilities of CTA promise a dramatic increase in our knowledge of these classes which are currently limited to only a few of the most well-studied cases.

  2. Job Quality and Gender Inequality: Key Changes in Québec over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a new typology based on information available from the Labour Force Survey, the authors analyse how job quality evolved in Québec for both women and men over the last decade (1997-2007. Results show that family situation and educational attainment are two important factors in the determination of gender inequality in the labour market. The analysis emphasizes the very significant decline in gender differences with regard to job quality (from 23% to 35% according to groups, especially for persons without children and individuals who achieved higher education. The changes represent a definite progress in the status of women in general, although some indicators also reveal degradation with respect to job quality in some of the sub-groups.  

  3. Job Quality and Gender Inequality: Key Changes in Québec over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Cloutier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a new typology based on information available from the Labour Force Survey, the authors analyse how job quality evolved in Québec for both women and men over the last decade (1997-2007. Results show that family situation and educational attainment are two important factors in the determination of gender inequality in the labour market. The analysis emphasizes the very significant decline in gender differences with regard to job quality (from 23% to 35% according to groups, especially for persons without children and individuals who achieved higher education. The changes represent a definite progress in the status of women in general, although some indicators also reveal degradation with respect to job quality in some of the sub-groups.  

  4. Multi-decadal dynamic thinning on the northwest margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas;

    Ice mass changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet have been estimated since the early 1990s from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite gravity mission, of ice sheet thinning from satellite radar altimetry and airborne laser altimetry, and of increased velocities of outlet glaciers...... from radar interferometric surveys. Prior to 2000 existing altimetry data provides comparatively limited spatial resolution and ice losses near ice sheet margins are most likely underestimated and existing data is unable to document the persisting change within outlet glaciers. Subsequent estimates...... of increasing dynamic induced ice loss. GRACE data show that this increased mass loss initiated in 2005 ceased in late 2009, thus, defining a dynamic thinning event as seen previous along the coast in southeast Greenland. Here, we present a multi-decadal perspective on ice mass change from northwestern...

  5. Sixth decade of the International Neuropsychiatric Pula Congresses

    OpenAIRE

    Barac, Boško

    2012-01-01

    The International Neuropsychiatric Pula Congresses, founded by Zagreb and Graz University Neuropsychiatry Departments in 1961, celebrated in 2010 their 50 years anniversary, successfully continuing their sixth decade. The author witnessed and participated from 1966 in their development, 23 years as their Secretary General, from 2007 the Honorary President of the INPC Kuratorium. Starting when neuropsychiatry was unique discipline, the INPC followed processes of emancipation of neurology and p...

  6. Five decades in the study of natural products*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R Govindachari

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the five-decade long fascinating journey taken by Prof. T R Govindachari towards the study of the natural products of India. A variety of Indian plants were investigated by him for the study of their constituent alkaloids and terpenoids. The concluding part of the paper summarizes the isolation and identification of the constituents of the Neem kernel, which eventually led to the first X-ray structure determination of azadirachtin A.

  7. Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric CO2 has increased at a nearly identical average rate of 3.3 and 3.2 Pg C/yr for the decades of the 1980s and the 1990s, in spite of a large increase in fossil fuel emissions from 5.4 to 6.3 Pg C/yr. Thus, the sum of the ocean and land CO2 sinks was 1 Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in to the 1980s. Here we quantify the ocean and land sinks for these two decades using recent atmospheric inversions and ocean models. The ocean and land sinks are estimated to be, respectively, 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6) and 0.7 (0.4 to 0.9) Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in the 1980s. When variability less than 5 yr is removed, all estimates show a global oceanic sink more or less steadily increasing with time, and a large anomaly in the land sink during 1990-1994. For year-to-year variability, all estimates show 1/3 to 1/2 less variability in the ocean than on land, but the amplitude and phase of the oceanic variability remain poorly determined. A mean oceanic sink of 1.9 Pg C/yr for the 1990s based on O2 observations corrected for ocean outgassing is supported by these estimates, but an uncertainty on the mean value of the order of ±0.7 Pg C/yr remains. The difference between the two decades appears to be more robust than the absolute value of either of the two decades

  8. The unfoldomics decade: an update on intrinsically disordered proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vacic Vladimir; Chen Jessica; Yang Jack Y; Romero Pedro; Meng Jingwei; Oldfield Christopher J; Dunker A Keith; Obradovic Zoran; Uversky Vladimir N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Our first predictor of protein disorder was published just over a decade ago in the Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Romero P, Obradovic Z, Kissinger C, Villafranca JE, Dunker AK (1997) Identifying disordered regions in proteins from amino acid sequence. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 1: 90–95). By now more than twenty other laboratory groups have joined the efforts to improve the prediction of prote...

  9. Reflections on a Decade of Mobiles in Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Banks

    2013-01-01

    'I’m all for discussion and debate, and I’ve taken part in my fair share over the last decade. But I’m now beginning to wonder if, after all this time, everything the ICT for Development (ICT4D) community could have said has been said. The fact that it is still talking about the same handful of challenges and issues implies that very little, if anything, has changed. Have we really made so little progress?'

  10. Reflections on a Decade of Mobiles in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Banks

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 'I’m all for discussion and debate, and I’ve taken part in my fair share over the last decade. But I’m now beginning to wonder if, after all this time, everything the ICT for Development (ICT4D community could have said has been said. The fact that it is still talking about the same handful of challenges and issues implies that very little, if anything, has changed. Have we really made so little progress?'

  11. Two decades of CGE modelling lessons from models for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Thissen, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Egypt's exceptional experience of two decades of CGE modelling is used to derive lessons for comparable analysis for other countries, give important issues for CGE modelling in general and give future modellers a guide to build on the older modelling experience. It can be derived from the CGE studies of the Egyptian economy that the model closure and the parameters to a large extent determine the results. However, there is no agreement on the closure rule one should use to describe the Egypti...

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome--two decades later.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty years have now elapsed since Ashbaugh and Petty first described the syndrome of acute respiratory failure associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. During the past two decades, significant advances have emerged in our understanding of the clinical conditions associated with the syndrome and the pathophysiological changes affecting the alveolar-capillary membrane responsible for the characteristic non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Recent data have reaffirmed the notion that...

  13. Elections have big consequences that last for decades

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Anthony; Hall, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Every election cycle, voters are told by pundits and commentators that this particular election counts and that it is likely to shape public policy for decades to come. In new research, Anthony Fowler and Andrew B. Hall find that elections definitely do have consequences; for example, a barely elected Republican is 40 percent more likely to vote conservatively in Congress than a Democrat would have. They also find that because of legislators’ ambitions and the advantage of incu...

  14. A View into a Decade of Arts Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Duma, Amy; Silverstein, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts has been involved in an intensive, sustained partnership with schools, Changing Education Through the Arts (CETA), since 1999. The CETA program is a whole school reform model designed to impact student learning and attitudes by building teachers’ capacities to make arts integration one of their primary approaches to teaching across the curriculum. During its first decade (1999 to 2009), the program formally examined its impact through three i...

  15. Deconstructing hydro: the BC electricity sector in this decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided speculation regarding the world-wide trend to deregulate electric utilities with particular focus on power deregulation in British Columbia. The four main issues facing electricity reform in British Columbia are to determine if publicly-owned assets should be privatised, how to achieve competitive electricity commodity prices in a de-regulated generation market, to determine the extent to which customers will be allowed direct access to sellers of electricity, and to determine which changes in industry structure are needed to ensure that control over the common carrier does not hinder fair competition. BC Hydro recently issued a plan for the next decade entitled the Integrated Electricity Plan which suggests that almost all growth in supply on the Hydro system will be limited to a few large projects totalling 900 megawatts, to be owned and operated by either BC Hydro or by the Columbia Power Corporation, another Crown entity. This plan is in complete contrast to the evolution of the electricity industry nearly everywhere else in the world where demand growth is being met almost entirely by small- and medium-scale non-utility resources issuing from competitive markets with minimal public funding. This article looks at why BC Hydro will probably be transformed significantly, even dismantled, in the coming decade. The article begins with a section explaining the cause and effects of major changes in the world-wide electricity industry. This is followed by a section reviewing what BC Hydro did in the 1990s while reform was taking place. The article also describes what BC Hydro intends to do in the next decade and explores reasons why this outcome is unlikely. The final section of the article provides an alternative vision of BC Hydro's future over the next decade. 1 tab., 3 figs

  16. Fiscal Transformation in Turkey over the Last Two Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Kaya; Selihan Yilar

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has made significant progress over the last two decades regarding fiscal consolidation and a strong reform of fiscal policy. The highly fragile country of the 1990s, whose primary fiscal concern was to sustain its public finances in the short term, has become a successful transition model. Now the authorities are discussing the adoption of fiscal rules as a new anchor in public finances. A draft Fiscal Rule Law was prepared and submitted to the parliament in 2010. This article examines...

  17. Actions for the Decade of Seismic Disaster Reduction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China Seismic Administration

    2001-01-01

    @@ In response to the call of the UN, China established in April 1989 the "China Committee for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (CCIDNDR)", which was chaired by a vicepremier of the State Council and involved 28 ministries and commissions. As one of the members of the Committee, China Seismic Administration (CSA) has made it a holy mission to prevent and reduce seismic disasters.

  18. Southern Ocean Sector Centennial Climate Variability and Recent Decadal Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Mojib; Martin, Torge; Park, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the notion that some contribution to the recent decadal trends observed in the Southern Hemisphere, including the lack of a strong Southern Ocean surface warming, may have originated from longer-term internal centennial variability originating in the Southern Ocean. The existence of such centennial variability is supported by the instrumental sea surface temperatures (SSTs), a multimillennial reconstruction of Tasmanian summer temperatures from tree rings, and a mill...

  19. On multidecadal and quasi-decadal North Atlantic variability

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Garcia, F.; Latif, Mojib; Biastoch, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic from 1958 through 2000, as well as data from an ocean model simulation driven with the atmospheric variability observed during the same period, are examined using multichannel singular spectrum analysis. The two leading oscillatory modes are associated with a multidecadal and a quasi-decadal period. The former is connected to a basinwide uniform SST pattern and changes in the deep North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation....

  20. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  1. Changing trends in peripartum hysterectomy over the last 4 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify changing trends in peripartum hysterectomy (PH) in a single large obstetric population over the last 40 years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was performed from 1966-2005 of patients who had PH in any of the 3 Dublin obstetric hospitals. Cases were identified, and details were obtained from the combined patient databases of each hospital. RESULTS: There were 872,379 deliveries during the study period, among which 358 women underwent PH (0.4\\/1000 deliveries). In a comparison of the study decades 1966-1975 with 1996-2005, PH decreased from 0.9 per 1000 deliveries to 0.2 of 1000 deliveries. Although the overall cesarean delivery rate has increased from 6-19% during these 2 decades, the percentage of PH that occurs in the setting of a previous cesarean delivery has increased from 27-57% (P < .00001). Indications for PH have changed significantly in this time period, with "uterine rupture" as the indication for PH decreasing from 40.5-9.3% (P < .0001) and placenta accreta as the indication increasing significantly from 5.4-46.5% (P < .00001). CONCLUSION: PH has decreased over the last 4 decades. However, alongside the rising cesarean delivery rate, there has been a marked increase in the incidence of placenta accreta.

  2. Westerly Wind Bursts, ENSO Asymmetry, and Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A. F. Z.; McPhaden, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past half century, epochs of enhanced and suppressed ENSO activity have coincided with changes in mean trade wind strength (tropical Pacific mean state) and westerly wind burst variability. Previous research has considered this westerly wind burst variability as state-dependent noise forcing for ENSO. In agreement with the observations, we find that in the current generation of coupled climate models, the westerly wind burst variability is highly correlated with decadal and multi-decadal scale Pacific mean state variability as well as ENSO variability. However, precisely how concurrent changes to ENSO, the tropical Pacific mean state, and westerly wind burst variability is still an open question. Our previous research has shown that there is a relationship between the magnitude of the state-dependence of the noise forcing and ENSO amplitude asymmetry (i.e. that the El Nino events have a larger temperature anomaly than the La Nina events) . In turn, ENSO amplitude asymmetry can produce a signal on the tropical Pacific mean state on multi-decadal timescales. Here, we develop a systematic method to investigate the hypothesis that the inherent randomness of the state-dependent noise forcing of ENSO can explain the coincident changes in ENSO variability and the tropical Pacific mean state, using a hierarchy of coupled models, from conceptual to intermediate to coupled GCMs.

  3. Decadal-Scale Forecasting of Climate Drivers for Marine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, J; Hobday, A J; Matear, R J; O'Kane, T J; Risbey, J S; Dunstan, P; Eveson, J P; Fulton, E A; Feng, M; Plagányi, É E; Poloczanska, E S; Marshall, A G; Thompson, P A

    2016-01-01

    Climate influences marine ecosystems on a range of time scales, from weather-scale (days) through to climate-scale (hundreds of years). Understanding of interannual to decadal climate variability and impacts on marine industries has received less attention. Predictability up to 10 years ahead may come from large-scale climate modes in the ocean that can persist over these time scales. In Australia the key drivers of climate variability affecting the marine environment are the Southern Annular Mode, the Indian Ocean Dipole, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, each has phases that are associated with different ocean circulation patterns and regional environmental variables. The roles of these drivers are illustrated with three case studies of extreme events-a marine heatwave in Western Australia, a coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef, and flooding in Queensland. Statistical and dynamical approaches are described to generate forecasts of climate drivers that can subsequently be translated to useful information for marine end users making decisions at these time scales. Considerable investment is still needed to support decadal forecasting including improvement of ocean-atmosphere models, enhancement of observing systems on all scales to support initiation of forecasting models, collection of important biological data, and integration of forecasts into decision support tools. Collaboration between forecast developers and marine resource sectors-fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, biodiversity management, infrastructure-is needed to support forecast-based tactical and strategic decisions that reduce environmental risk over annual to decadal time scales. PMID:27573049

  4. Development of Soil and Water Conservation in Last Several Decades in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    China is one of the countries suffered from very severe soil erosion over the world. It has caused a series of environmental and economic problems, and hence attracted the attentions from the Chinese government in the last several decades. To make clear the real situations of soil erosion, four times national surveys for soil and water conservation have been conducted from 1985 to 2012, this provided the crucial information to develop measures to reduce soil loss. The Law of Soil and Water Conservation of People's Republic of China was promulgated in 1991 and revised in 2010. It together with the relative regulations and technical standards have played very important roles in controlling erosion caused by human activities. National key projects of soil and water conservation were put into effect across the country, numerous small watersheds located in different regions were well treated and protected, these both contributed to the ecological improvement greatly. Undoubtedly, after several decades' efforts in soil erosion control, remarkable progresses have been achieved in environment, economy, and public awareness. In the background of "Soil and water conservation is one of the basic state policies in China", in the following years, greater achievements must be obtained under the support of more investments from governments and companies, more advanced technologies from research institutes, and deeper awareness from all people.

  5. Survey of foreign maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1992-07-01

    Magnetic levitation (maglev) transportation systems represent an innovative technology that promises to provide pollution-free, contact-free, high-speed ground transportation for the twenty-first century. Great interest in maglev systems has been developing in the United States over the past two years under the auspices of the US National Maglev Initiative. The objective of the survey presented in this report is to provide the US maglev community with information on various maglev concepts that were developed in foreign countries over the past two decades. The main maglev systems included in the survey are the German Transrapid series and the M-Bahn, the Japanese HSST and MLU series, and the British Birmingham. Each maglev system is introduced and discussed according to its type, historical development, unique features, current status, and future prospects. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are briefly noted.

  6. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  7. Heat shock proteins and cancer vaccines: developments in the past decade and chaperoning in the decade to come

    OpenAIRE

    Murshid, Ayesha; Gong, Jianlin; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular chaperone–peptide complexes extracted from tumors (heat shock protein [HSP] vaccines) have been intensively studied in the preceding two decades, proving to be safe and effective in treating a number of malignant diseases. They offer personalized therapy and target a cross-section of antigens expressed in patients' tumors. Future advances may rely on understanding the molecular underpinnings of this approach to immunotherapy. One property common to HSP vaccines is the ability to sti...

  8. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  9. Understanding Faculty Survey Nonrespondents: Their Characteristics, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Workplace Attitudes, and Reasons for Nonparticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Kiernan Robert

    2013-01-01

    College and university administrators frequently survey their faculty to inform decisions affecting the academic workplace. Higher education researchers, too, rely heavily on survey methodologies in their scholarly work. Survey response rates, however, have been declining steadily for decades, and when nonrespondents and respondents systematically…

  10. Observing Interannual to Decadal Variability of Labrador Sea Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J.; Visbeck, M.; Zantopp, R.; Dengler, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the decade 1996-2008, several moored arrays were deployed over varying time intervals and positions along the western margin of the Labrador Sea. The main objective is the quantification of the water mass exports from the Labrador Sea through observation of currents (moorings, shipboard current measurements and floats) and water masses on time scales ranging from days to decades. During mooring deployments and recoveries, ship sections were occupied with CTD and ADCP/LADCP measurements, yielding transport estimates for the different layers of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The western boundary transports in the Labrador Sea and their variability during 1997-99 were first presented by Fischer et al. (2004), who established the two-year mean section transports in the different isopycnal ranges of the DWBC at 53˚N and reported on intraseasonal variability of currents and transports. Recently, Dengler et al. (2006) evaluated the longer-term changes during 1996-2005 at the Labrador Sea Water level at 1500m depth and found interannual variability of the order of 10 to 20% of the mean flow at that level. While a weakening of the formation of classical Labrador Sea Water was observed during the last decade, accompanied by a reduced vertical extent of the classical LSW, the shallower and lighter LSW constituent increased considerably. During this period the mid-depth temperatures increased by 0.05°C per year in the center of the Labrador Sea as well as in the boundary current; however, there is no indication of corresponding trends in the boundary current flow. Here, the focus will be on a detailed investigation of the Deep Water export throughout the full depth range and near the exit of the Labrador Sea.

  11. Decadal change in the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Tsuyoshi; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    A decadal change in activity of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) was identified at a broad scale. The change was more prominent during August-October in the boreal summer. The BSISO activity during 1999-2008 (P2) was significantly greater than that during 1984-1998 (P1). Compared to P1, convection in the BSISO was enhanced and the phase speed of northward-propagating convection was reduced in P2. Under background conditions, warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in P2 were apparent over the tropical Indian Ocean and the western tropical Pacific. The former supplied favorable conditions for the active convection of the BSISO, whereas the latter led to a strengthened Walker circulation through enhanced convection. This induced descending anomalies over the tropical Indian Ocean. Thermal convection tends to be suppressed by descending anomalies, whereas once an active BSISO signal enters the Indian Ocean, convection is enhanced through convective instability by positive SST anomalies. After P2, the BSISO activity was weakened during 2009-2014 (P3). Compared to P2, convective activity in the BSISO tended to be inactive over the southern tropical Indian Ocean in P3. The phase speed of the northward-propagating convection was accelerated. Under background conditions during P3, warmer SST anomalies over the maritime continent enhance convection, which strengthened the local Hadley circulation between the western tropical Pacific and the southern tropical Indian Ocean. Hence, the convection in the BSISO over the southern tropical Indian Ocean was suppressed. The decadal change in BSISO activity correlates with the variability in seasonal mean SST over the tropical Asian monsoon region, which suggests that it is possible to predict the decadal change.

  12. Decadal Variations in NDVI and Food Production in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R. Nemani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use long-term satellite, climate, and crop observations to document the spatial distribution of the recent stagnation in food grain production affecting the water-limited tropics (WLT, a region where 1.5 billion people live and depend on local agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Overall, our analysis shows that the recent stagnation in food production is corroborated by satellite data. The growth rate in annually integrated vegetation greenness, a measure of crop growth, has declined significantly (p < 0.10 in 23% of the WLT cropland area during the last decade, while statistically significant increases in the growth rates account for less than 2%. In most countries, the decade-long declines appear to be primarily due to unsustainable crop management practices rather than climate alone. One quarter of the statistically significant declines are observed in India, which with the world’s largest population of food-insecure people and largest WLT croplands, is a leading example of the observed declines. Here we show geographically matching patterns of enhanced crop production and irrigation expansion with groundwater that have leveled off in the past decade. We estimate that, in the absence of irrigation, the enhancement in dry-season food grain production in India, during 1982–2002, would have required an increase in annual rainfall of at least 30% over almost half of the cropland area. This suggests that the past expansion of use of irrigation has not been sustainable. We expect that improved surface and groundwater management practices will be required to reverse the recent food grain production declines.

  13. Status and changing patterns on coral reefs in Thailand during the last two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsuwan, Niphon; Chankong, Anchalee; Yamarunpatthana, Chaimongkol; Chansang, Hansa; Boonprakob, Ronnawon; Petchkumnerd, Padorn; Thongtham, Nalinee; Paokantha, Sathika; Chanmethakul, Thanongsak; Panchaiyapoom, Paitoon; Bundit, On-Anong

    2013-11-01

    A long-term survey on monitoring coral reef status using the Manta-tow technique has been carried out over approximately two decades in Thailand. This paper presents results of the survey from three off-shore areas (north, central and south) in the Andaman Sea (since 1988) and from the two near-shore areas and one off-shore area in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT, since 1995). The results revealed variations in the change of live coral cover over time between different locations. Natural and direct/indirect man-made disturbances have influenced these changes. Until early 2010, reefs in the Andaman Sea were in better condition than those in the Gulf of Thailand. The coral bleaching in mid-2010, however, greatly impacted many reefs both seas. The northern off-shore area in the Andaman Sea showed the most damage, while reefs in the lower west of the Gulf of Thailand were least affected. Long-term monitoring of changes on reefs subjected to different environmental factors and human pressures is essential for the understanding and prediction of reef recovery in the face of climate change.

  14. The FCTC Turns 10: Lessons From the Fist Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather

    2016-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) stands as a landmark approach to addressing a global health problem. It represents the first time the World Health Organization (WHO) used its constitutional right to negotiate an international law and the first time the Member States of WHO agreed to a collective response to chronic, non-communicable diseases. This paper draws lessons from the FCTC's first decade in force and explores what aspects of the FCTC experience can inform future efforts to address other disease epidemics driven by corporate activity, such as alcohol and food. PMID:27180935

  15. Creative research in the chemical industry - Four decades in retrospect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuppuswamy Nagarajan

    2006-07-01

    My professional research career spanning more than four decades has been largely devoted to synthetic medicinal chemistry (Ciba, Bombay - now Mumbai - 21 years) followed by an equal number of years in process development of drugs, crop protection chemicals (Searle, Bombay) and drugs and speciality chemicals (Recon and Hikal, Bangalore). These efforts have involved several collaborators including many from other institutions and offered multitudinous challenges calling for continuous creativity in industrial setups. I was fortunate to have had a conducive environment to be able to respond to these challenges. I attempt to offer the readers in the ensuing pages a flavour of the excitement that has marked these years.

  16. VLTI status update: a decade of operations and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Merand, Antoine; Aller-Carpentier, Emmanuel; Andolfato, Luigi; Alonso, Jaime; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Blanchard, Guillaume; Boffin, Henri; Bourget, Pierre; Bristow, Paul; Cid, Claudia; de Wit, Willem-Jan; del Valle, Diego; Delplancke-Stroebele, Franccoise; Derie, Frederic; Faundez, Lorena; Ertel, Steve; Grellmann, Rebekka; Gitton, Philippe; Glindemann, Andreas; Guajardo, Patricia; Guieu, Sylvain; Guisard, Stephane; Guniat, Serge; Haguenauer, Pierre; Herrera, Christian; Hummel, Christian; La Fuente, Carlos; Lopez, Marcelo; Mardones, Pedro; Morel, Sebastien; Mueller, Andre; Percheron, Isabelle; Duc, Than Phan; Pino, Andres; Poupar, Sebastien; Pozna, Eszter; Ramirez, Andres; Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Rivas, Lionel; Rivinius, Thomas; Segovia, Alex; Schmid, Christian; Schoeller, Markus; Schuhler, Nicolas; Woillez, Julien; Wittkowski, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present the latest update of the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope interferometer (VLTI). The operations of VLTI have greatly improved in the past years: reduction of the execution time; better offering of telescopes configurations; improvements on AMBER limiting magnitudes; study of polarization effects and control for single mode fibres; fringe tracking real time data, etc. We present some of these improvements and also quantify the operational improvements using a performance metric. We take the opportunity of the first decade of operations to reflect on the VLTI community which is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Finally, we present briefly the preparatory work for the arrival of the second generation instruments GRAVITY and MATISSE.

  17. Three decades of structure- and property-based molecular design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Roche has pioneered structure- and property-based molecular design to drug discovery. While this is an ongoing development, the past three decades feature key events that have revolutionized the way drug discovery is conducted in Big Pharma industry. It has been a great privilege to have been...... of bioinformatics. It describes the strategic shift to large compound libraries and high-throughput screening with the development of novel compound storage and ultra-high-throughput screening facilities, as well as the strategic return to focused screening of small motif-based compound libraries...

  18. A decade of long-wavelength CMB measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have continued the efforts of an international collaboration begun in 1979 to measure the long-wavelength (Rayleigh-Jeans) spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We have repeated measurements at a number of wavelengths over many years, using different equipment and techniques to investigate the possibility of unsuspected systematic errors in the measurements. We conclude that our results show no evidence for significant undiagnosed systematic effects. Our results have improved in precision over ten years and yield significant limits on physical processes in the early universe. The CMB spectrum is consistent with a blackbody over>3 decades of wavelength

  19. LMFBR physics - Achievements in the last decade and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major points characterize the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) physics developments in Europe. First, most of the activities which have been devoted in Europe in the last decade to fast reactor physics have been performed with international cooperation. Second, Superphenix start-up has represented a turning point in terms of data and design methods validation.The Superphenix start-up (1985) has provided an extensive neutronics experimental data base. The major findings of relevance for reactor physics are described

  20. Contribution of solar radiation to decadal temperature variability over land

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kaicun; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Global air temperature has become the primary metric for judging global climate change. The variability of global temperature on a decadal timescale is still poorly understood. This paper shows that surface incident solar radiation (Rs) over land globally peaked in the 1930s, substantially decreased from the 1940s to the 1970s, and changed little after that. The cooling effect of this reduction of Rs accounts in part for the near-constant temperature from the 1930s into the 1970s. Since then,...

  1. Gender and leadership styles: A review of the past decade

    OpenAIRE

    van Engen, M.L.; Willemsen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    Research on sex differences in leadership styles over the past decade (1987-1999) is reviewed and compared with the results of a meta-analysis of studies of the previous period by Eagly and Johnson (1990). Research on transformational or charismatic leadership is included in this review. As was the case in previous overviews, the evidence for sex differences in leadership behavior is still mixed, yet it is clear that these sex differences have not vanished. It is argued that sex differences i...

  2. Initializing decadal climate predictions over the North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Daniela Mihaela; Pohlmann, Holger; Jungclaus, Johann; Müller, Wolfgang; Haak, Helmuth; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    Decadal climate prediction aims to predict the internally-generated decadal climate variability in addition to externally-forced climate change signal. In order to achieve this it is necessary to start the predictions from the current climate state. In this study we investigate the forecast skill of the North Atlantic decadal climate predictions using two different ocean initialization strategies. First we apply an assimilation of ocean synthesis data provided by the GECCO project (Köhl and Stammer, 2008) as initial conditions for the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Hindcast experiments are then performed over the period 1952-2001. An alternative approach is one in which the subsurface ocean temperature and salinity are diagnosed from an ensemble of ocean model runs forced by the NCEP-NCAR atmospheric reanalyzes for the period 1948-2007, then nudge into the coupled model to produce initial conditions for the hindcast experiments. An anomaly coupling scheme is used in both approaches to avoid the hindcast drift and the associated initial shock. Differences between the two assimilation approaches are discussed by comparing them with the observational data in key regions and processes. We asses the skill of the initialized decadal hindcast experiments against the prediction skill of the non-initialized hindcasts simulation. We obtain an overview of the regions with the highest predictability from the regional distribution of the anomaly correlation coefficients and RMSE for the SAT. For the first year the hindcast skill is increased over almost all ocean regions in the NCEP-forced approach. This increase in the hindcast skill for the 1 year lead time is somewhat reduced in the GECCO approach. At lead time 5yr and 10yr, the skill enhancement is still found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions. We also consider the potential predictability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Nordic Seas Overflow by comparing the predicted values to

  3. Looking Backward and Forward: A Decadal View of Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    In many scientific fields, decades are the time intervals of choice for retrospective and prospective reflections and speculations. AGU Session V02 seeks to apply this perspective to the assessment of where volcanology has been since 2000 and where it is headed in the next ten years. Most sciences progress through incremental observational, experimental and theoretical steps, accelerated by the identification of new socially-relevant applications, technological breakthroughs or conceptual insights, and jolted by largely unanticipated events. Volcanology is unusual in the dominant role that unpredictable eruptive observations play in controlling the evolution of the discipline. As a result, the most important constraints on how the field will change are virtually unknowable. At a session at the Fall AGU meeting in 2000 on "Volcanology 2010" a dozen talks sought to forecast how volcano science and policy would change in the next ten years, focusing on such topics as seismology, petrology, remote sensing, deformation, volcano-tectonic interactions, communications, graduate education, international cooperation, numerical modeling, database querying, and networking of observatories. While progress occurred in many of these areas, what was perhaps the most important influence on volcanology was not mentioned: for the first 9.5 years of the decade, there were no eruptions disastrous or novel enough to garner global public or political attention, with associated prioritization by funding agencies. The notable exception was the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in mid-2010, which captured the western world’s attention due to the magnitude of the disruption, the frustrating inability of scientists to provide guidance, and the fortunate lack of casualties. We can expect continuing technical advances in all aspects of geoscience to improve the understanding of volcanic processes in the coming decade. However, another natural disaster in 2010 might hold more relevance for how

  4. Dishing up the Data: A Decade of Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkissian, John

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen Parkes once again involved in a wide range of space tracking activities that have added to its illustrious legacy. This contribution is a personal recollection of those tracking efforts - both real and celluloid. We begin in a light-hearted vein with some behind-the-scenes views of the popular film, "The DISH", and then turn to more serious contributions; discussing the vital role of the telescope in alleviating the great "traffic jam" at Mars in 2003/04 and salvaging...

  5. Neutron Scattering from Polymers: Five Decades of Developing Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, J S

    2016-06-01

    The first three decades of my research career closely map the development of neutron scattering techniques for the study of molecular behavior. At the same time, the theoretical understanding of organization and motion of polymer molecules, especially in the bulk state, was developing rapidly and providing many predictions crying out for experimental verification. Neutron scattering is an ideal technique for providing the necessary evidence. This autobiographical essay describes the applications by my research group and other collaborators of increasingly sophisticated neutron scattering techniques to observe and understand molecular behavior in polymeric materials. It has been a stimulating and rewarding journey. PMID:27276548

  6. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  7. Generalized Lorenz-Mie theories, the third decade: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the year 2008, we have been commemorating, in several places, the hundredth anniversary of the famous 1908-paper by Mie describing the interaction between an electromagnetic plane wave and a homogeneous sphere defined by its diameter d and its complex refractive index m. Due to the existence of a prior version by Lorenz, Mie's theory may also be named as Lorenz-Mie theory (LMT). The generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) stricto sensu deals with the more general case when the illuminating wave is an arbitrary shaped beam (say: a laser beam) still interacting with a homogeneous sphere defined by its diameter d and its complex refractive index m. The name 'GLMTs' is generically used to designate various variants for other particle shapes when the method of separation of variables is used. The present paper provides a review of the work accomplished in this generalized field during the last decade (the third decade). As a convenient selection criterion, only papers citing the work of the group of Rouen have been essentially used, with ISIweb of knowledge providing a database.

  8. Clergy, nobility and crown in Decadência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.

  9. Seasonal and decadal information towards climate services: EUPORIAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Hewitt, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Societies have always faced challenges and opportunities arising from variations in climate, and have often flourished or collapsed depending on their ability to adapt to such changes. Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability and climate change have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. The European Commission have recently commissioned a major four year long project (EUPORIAS) to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The paper describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  10. The Asian battery market—a decade of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckfeld, S.; Manders, J. E.; Stevenson, M. W.

    The Asian battery industry will undergo significant change over the next decade as it adapts to the enormous economic and technological pressures of our rapidly changing world. Europe and North America in recent years have seen significant rationalisation in battery manufacturing capacity and ownership for a variety of reasons. Into the future, Asia will be no exception, but the rate and magnitude of change may conceivably be greater than that already experienced elsewhere. Rationalisation in battery manufacturing plants will occur as a result of the establishment of super plants to manufacture batteries in order to improve the economies of scale and to facilitate the heavy investment in new capital and equipment that will be required to supply the newer technology battery types. The impact of 42 V automotive systems and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries will be influential on this scenario. It is expected that China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand will feature heavily in the future Asian battery scene at the expense of some established countries and producers. The current state of the battery industry in Asia, factors driving change in Asia, and the likely implications for those companies that are currently manufacturing batteries in Asia or considering a future role in Asia within the coming decade are examined in this paper.

  11. Statistical analyses in German radiological periodicals: the last decade's development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify which statistical tests are applied in German radiological publications, to what extent their use has changed during the last decade, and which factors might be responsible for this development. Materials and Methods: The major articles published in 'ROeFO' and 'DER RADIOLOGE' during 1988, 1993 and 1998 were reviewed for statistical content. The contributions were classified by principal focus and radiological subspecialty. The methods used were assigned to descriptive, basal and advanced statistics. Sample size, significance level and power were established. The use of experts' assistance was monitored. Finally, we calculated the so-called cumulative accessibility of the publications. Results: 525 contributions were found to be eligible. In 1988, 87% used descriptive statistics only, 12.5% basal, and 0.5% advanced statistics. The corresponding figures in 1993 and 1998 are 62 and 49%, 32 and 41%, and 6 and 10%, respectively. Statistical techniques were most likely to be used in research on musculoskeletal imaging and articles dedicated to MRI. Six basic categories of statistical methods account for the complete statistical analysis appearing in 90% of the articles. ROC analysis is the single most common advanced technique. Authors make increasingly use of statistical experts' opinion and programs. Conclusions: During the last decade, the use of statistical methods in German radiological journals has fundamentally improved, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Presently, advanced techniques account for 20% of the pertinent statistical tests. This development seems to be promoted by the increasing availability of statistical analysis software. (orig.)

  12. Polish Decadence: Leopold Staff's Igrzysko in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Przybos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Decadent authors writing about the past share a common artistic practice: revisionist creativity. I argue in my Zoom sur les décadents that this particular type of creativity uses as its main device recombination of legends, myths, and historical events. Historical, cultural or religious figures are reexamined and shown in a new unexpected light. I show in my book how Villiers de Isle-Adam conflates two crucial battles of the Ancient world: Marathon (490 BC and Thermopiles (480 BC in ashort story called "Impatience de la foule." The final result of Villiers's telescoping of separate historical events is a seamless narrative. In Hugues Rebell's "Une Saison à Baia," Saint Paul attempts to convert Roman patricians who mock his incoherent speeches. In "La Gloire de Judas," Bernard Lazare departs from the Gospels and tells the tragic story of Judas whose betrayal made the salvation of the human race possible. In Lazare's short story, Judas is a self-effacing figure who doesn't act on his own but on Jesus Christ's specific order, who sworns him into secrecy.Common in French decadent fiction, religious revisionism was largely tolerated in the secular Third Republic. Whereas censorship was quick to punish naturalist authors writing about debauched clergy in contemporary France (e.g. Louis Deprez and Henry Fèvre's Autour d'un clocher decadent authors reinventing ancient religious stories and retelling the life of catholic saints enjoyed a relative freedom ofexpression.It is my hypothesis that taken out of its secular context, religious revisionism of the kind practiced by French decadents may be seen as shocking transgression in a fiercely catholic country like Poland. In the country that lost its independence in 1794 and was ever since seeking to regain it, Catholic Church was perceived as an essential ally in the struggle against main occupying powers: Orthodox Russia, and Protestant Prussia. In the course of the 19th century Catholicism and

  13. Childhood Malnutrition In China: Change Of Inequality In A Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuo; Eastwood, David B.; Yen, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    A concentration index methodology to analyze the inequality in childhood malnutrition in China is outlined. Height-for-age z score is used as a measure of childhood malnutrition. Using household survey data from nine Chinese provinces, it is found that per-capita household income, household head's education, urban residence and access to a bus stop reduced malnutrition. Child's age had a nonlinear effect on the malnutrition status. Income growth and access to public transportation reduced the...

  14. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  15. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) Omega

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrels, Neil

    2010-01-01

    [JDEM-Omega is one of the three concepts that contributed to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission advocated by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey. It is the concept on which the recommended observatory configuration is based.] The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a space-based observatory designed to perform precision measurements of the nature of dark energy in the Universe. It will make an order of magnitude progress in measuring the equation of state parameters of the Universe of most importance for understanding dark energy. JDEM-Omega is a wide-field space telescope operating in the near infrared. Dark energy measurements will be made via large surveys of galaxies and supernova monitoring. These will be an order of magnitude larger surveys than currently available and will provide enormous catalogs of astrophysical objects for many communities ranging from solar system to galaxy to galaxies/clusters to cosmology. JDEM-Omega is a mission concept collaboratively developed by NASA and the ...

  16. Forecasting fluid milk and cheese demands for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, T M; Kaiser, H M

    2006-12-01

    Predictions of future market demands and farm prices for dairy products are important determinants in developing marketing strategies and farm-production planning decisions. The objective of this report was to use current aggregate forecast data, combined with existing econometric models of demand and supply, to forecast retail demands for fluid milk and cheese and the supply and price of farm milk over the next decade. In doing so, we can investigate whether projections of population and consumer food-spending patterns will extend or alter current consumption trends and examine the implications of future generic advertising strategies for dairy products. To conduct the forecast simulations and appropriately allocate the farm milk supply to various uses, we used a partial equilibrium model of the US domestic dairy sector that segmented the industry into retail, wholesale, and farm markets. Model simulation results indicated that declines in retail per capita demand would persist but at a reduced rate from years past and that retail per capita demand for cheese would continue to grow and strengthen over the next decade. These predictions rely on expected changes in the size of populations of various ages, races, and ethnicities and on existing patterns of spending on food at home and away from home. The combined effect of these forecasted changes in demand levels was reflected in annualized growth in the total farm-milk supply that was similar to growth realized during the past few years. Although we expect nominal farm milk prices to increase over the next decade, we expect real prices (relative to assumed growth in feed costs) to remain relatively stable and show no increase until the end of the forecast period. Supplemental industry model simulations also suggested that net losses in producer revenues would result if only nominal levels of generic advertising spending were maintained in forthcoming years. In fact, if real generic advertising expenditures are

  17. Renal tumors presentation: Changing trends over two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have analyzed the changing trends in surgical treatment of renal tumors over the last 2 decades with regard to age incidence, presentation, incidental detection, and histopathology. Materials and Methods: Records of renal tumors were analyzed from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 2007. Data were split into 4 parts based on a 5-year time period, 1 for each cohort of patients: cohort 1 (1988-1992-103 patients, cohort 2 (1993-1997-161 patients, cohort 3 (1998-2002-243 patients, and cohort 4 (2003-2007-304 patients. A comparative study was performed with regard to age incidence, presentation, incidentallomas, histopathology, and management with statistical analysis. Results: Out of 811 renal tumors, 17.63% cases were benign and 82.37% were malignant. In the first cohort, 34.95% cases were detected in the seventh decade as compared with cohort 4 in which these were detected in the sixth (34.86% and fifth decades (21.38%. Incidentallomas increased from 11 (10.67% in cohort 1 to 84 (27.63% in cohort 4 (P = 0.001. The cases of surgically treated tumors increased in number from 103 to 304 in cohort 4. Among the presenting features, incidence of weight loss, flank pain, and lump decreased while other clinical syndromes were constant. Only open radical nephrectomy was performed in the first 2 consecutive timeperiods. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was increasingly used in cohort 4 as compared with cohort 3 (121 vs 32, respectively. Similarly, open nephron sparing surgery (NSS was increasingly used in cohort 4 as compared with cohort 3. Among the histopathologies, clear cell carcinoma was most common (73.35 %, but Fuhrman grading showed a trend toward more cases detected with grade 1 and 2 in cohort 4; 23.73% and 61.86%, respectively, as compared with 15.85% and 45.12% in cohort 1 (P = 0.001; more T1 tumors were detected (63.42% in cohort 4 as compared with 41.46% in cohort 1. Conclusions: A majority of renal tumors presented as symptomatic

  18. Decadal variations in a Venus general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Helen F.; Schubert, Gerald; Covey, Curtis; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Grossman, Allen; Lebonnois, Sebastien

    2011-03-01

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), a 3-dimensional Earth-based climate model, has been modified to simulate the dynamics of the Venus atmosphere. The most current finite volume version of CAM is used with Earth-related processes removed, parameters appropriate for Venus introduced, and some basic physics approximations adopted. A simplified Newtonian cooling approximation has been used for the radiation scheme. We use a high resolution (1° by 1° in latitude and longitude) to take account of small-scale dynamical processes that might be important on Venus. A Rayleigh friction approach is used at the lower boundary to represent surface drag, and a similar approach is implemented in the uppermost few model levels providing a ‘sponge layer’ to prevent wave reflection from the upper boundary. The simulations generate superrotation with wind velocities comparable to those measured in the Venus atmosphere by probes and around 50-60% of those measured by cloud tracking. At cloud heights and above the atmosphere is always superrotating with mid-latitude zonal jets that wax and wane on an approximate 10 year cycle. However, below the clouds, the zonal winds vary periodically on a decadal timescale between superrotation and subrotation. Both subrotating and superrotating mid-latitude jets are found in the approximate 40-60 km altitude range. The growth and decay of the sub-cloud level jets also occur on the decadal timescale. Though subrotating zonal winds are found below the clouds, the total angular momentum of the atmosphere is always in the sense of superrotation. The global relative angular momentum of the atmosphere oscillates with an amplitude of about 5% on the approximate 10 year timescale. Symmetric instability in the near surface equatorial atmosphere might be the source of the decadal oscillation in the atmospheric state. Analyses of angular momentum transport show that all the jets are built up by poleward transport by a meridional circulation while

  19. A survey of keystroke dynamics biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Pin Shen; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yue, Shigang

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions. PMID:24298216

  20. New Inspirations in Nature: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Maganlal Sureja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the studies on algorithms inspired by nature have shown that these methods can be efficiently used to eliminate most of the difficulties of classical methods. Nature inspired algorithms are widely used to solve optimization problems with complex nature. Various research works are carried out and algorithms are presented based on that during last few decades. Recently, some new algorithms inspired from nature are proposed to further improve the solutions obtained by the algorithms presented before. In this paper, a survey of five recently introduced Nature inspired algorithms is carried out. They include Firefly algorithm (FA, Cuckoo Search (CS, and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA. Each of these algorithms are introduced and applied on various numerical optimization functions by various authors. We have tried to review and study the papers published by the authors and present a conclusion of this survey based on the results obtained.

  1. A decade of railgun development for high pressure research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1988-07-20

    This paper summarizes a decade of effort towards development of railguns into useful high pressure tools. In 1942 the first successful railgun accelerated a 10-g projectile to about 1 km/s, and in the 1960's velocities approaching 10 km/s were achieved, but without verification of projectile integrity. Later work at the Australian National University showed the potential of railguns to launch intact projectiles. About 10 years ago efforts began to develop railguns for a variety of purposes, including high pressure shock wave equation-of-state (EOS) research. Problems and their causes in this research are now more clearly understood and efforts are being made to develop the railgun into a hypervelocity EOS tool.

  2. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: review of the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Jacob, Sharon E

    2014-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. During the last decade, there has been a heightened awareness of this disease in the pediatric population. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred children with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6 %. The most common allergens in children in North America are nickel, neomycin, cobalt, fragrance, Myroxylon pereirae, gold, formaldehyde, lanolin/wool alcohols, thimerosal, and potassium dichromate. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up. PMID:24504525

  4. 2010-2020: a decisive decade for our climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term future of the planet's climate will depend of the policies implemented in the next decades. While economic development in the last two centuries has been based on an intensive use of fossil energy resources, the major challenge for the 21. century is the transition towards low carbon energy systems. This will impose drastic changes in the dynamics of some fundamentals variables of energy development in every region, in particular the energy intensity of GDP and the carbon intensity of the energy mix. The accumulation of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and consequently the climate for the future generations will directly depend of the capability of the international community to implement the required changes in economic development patterns. (authors)

  5. The first decade of RR Lyrae space photometric observations

    CERN Document Server

    Molnár, Lászlo

    2016-01-01

    Space-based photometric telescopes stirred up stellar astrophysics in the last decade, and RR Lyrae stars have not been an exception from that either. The long, quasi-continuous, high-precision data from MOST, CoRoT and Kepler revealed a wealth of new insights about this well-known variable class. One of the most surprising mysteries turned out to be the apparent omnipresence of a common additional mode in all RRd and RRc stars. Moreover, fundamental-mode stars seem to populate two distinct classes, one of which is characterized by the presence of additional modes and/or modulation, and another limited to strict single-mode pulsation. The presence of additional modes and multiple modulations in RRab stars allowed us to construct Petersen diagrams for these parameters: while the pulsation modes show clear structures according to period ratios, there seems to be no relation between the modulation periods themselves.

  6. Plan for gas overcrowding; Development in last decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plan for gas overcrowding, is one of the most important determinations of energy politics in last decade. It is an integral plan of consumption of combustible gas; that is to say, cover the natural gas and the liquefied gas of petroleum. In this article, the UPME wants to show the results of the implementation of this measure. The analysis shows, in the first place the impact achieved in the diversification of the energetic basket, with the penetration of the combustible gas. Facts and indicators of development of the plan are given that include an evaluation of the direct financial benefit that receive the homes, when using a more economic fuel. On the other hand, it puts on of present the government effort carried out through ECOPETROL and that of some private agents to start the plan. Finally, the investments made until today and the problems of low use of some nets of transport, related with the development of the market

  7. A decade of innovation with laser speckle metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettemeyer, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Speckle Pattern Interferometry has emerged from the experimental substitution of holographic interferometry to become a powerful problem solving tool in research and industry. The rapid development of computer and digital imaging techniques in combination with minaturization of the optical equipment led to new applications which had not been anticipated before. While classical holographic interferometry had always required careful consideration of the environmental conditions such as vibration, noise, light, etc. and could generally only be performed in the optical laboratory, it is now state of the art, to handle portable speckle measuring equipment at almost any place. During the last decade, the change in design and technique has dramatically influenced the range of applications of speckle metrology and opened new markets. The integration of recent research results into speckle measuring equipment has led to handy equipment, simplified the operation and created high quality data output.

  8. Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon in Recent Decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bingyi

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of 43 years of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data and station observations reveals the connections between tropospheric temperature variations and the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon circulation. The Indian summer monsoon variation is strongly linked to tropospheric temperature over East Asia, showing significant positive correlations of mean tropospheric temperature with all-Indian summer rainfall and the monsoon circulation intensity. The result shows that Indian summer monsoon circulation underwent two weakening processes in recent decades. The first occurred in circa the mid-1960s, and the other occurred in circa the late 1970s. The finding indicates that the mean tropospheric temperature may play a crucial role in the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon intensity via changing land-sea thermal contrast. The role of the tropospheric temperature contrast between East Asia and the tropical area from the eastern Indian Ocean to the tropical western Pacific is to weaken the Indian summer monsoon circulation.

  9. Lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel: Two decades of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes a series of studies dealing with lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel in the years 1974-1997. In the first years of research we focused on a tolerant epilithic crustose species, Caloplaca aurantia in an attempt to classify locations according to their level of contamination by airborne heavy metals accumulated in the lichen. Later on our studies centered around the epiphytic fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei which is rather sensitive to air pollution. This lichen has the capability to absorb and accumulate remarkable amounts of airborne mineral elements but undergoes physiological deterioration by their impact. The presence of airborne pollutants leads to a degradation of cell membranes and chlorophyll, a decrease of ATP content and an increase of stress-ethylene formation. Suggested by the compilation of data available upon two decades of research, we proposed the application of an element enrichment factor (EEF) to distinguish between polluted and unpolluted sites. (author)

  10. The first decade of RR Lyrae space photometric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, L.

    2016-05-01

    Space-based photometric telescopes stirred up stellar astrophysics in the last decade, and RR Lyrae stars have not been an exception from that either. The long, quasi-continuous, high-precision data from MOST, CoRoT and Kepler revealed a wealth of new insights about this well-known variable class. One of the most surprising mysteries turned out to be the apparent omnipresence of a common additional mode in all RRd and RRc stars. Moreover, fundamental- mode stars seem to populate two distinct classes, one of which is characterized by the presence of additional modes and/or modulation, and another limited to strict single-mode pulsation. The presence of additional modes and multiple modulations in RRab stars allowed us to construct Petersen diagrams for these parameters: while the pulsation modes show clear structures according to period ratios, there seems to be no relation between the modulation periods themselves.

  11. Analysis of Water Consumption Changes during two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimeika, Mindaugas

    2013-11-01

    Water consumption depends on the consumers' habits, industrial companies and the nature of the activity, as well as on public users. Water consumption in Lithuania has decreased by more than three times over the past two decades. This was influenced by the changed consumers' habits, implemented water metering and increased water prices. But it has been analyzed little, how the dynamics of water consumption has been changing. This article examines the dynamics of water consumption variation over 20 years in one of Vilnius district. Variations of water consumption are analyzed in the article and the obtained results are compared with the parameters in the legal acts. Water consumption per night was analyzed in the article also, as these values could be fast and reliable assessment of water losses in network. The analysis of night water consumption was conducted and the recommended norm of night water consumption indicated.

  12. Perspectives for hot stars in the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauw, G.

    2016-06-01

    XMM-Newton has deeply changed our picture of X-ray emission of hot, massive stars. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy as well as monitoring of these objects revealed a number of previously unexpected features that challenge our understanding of the dynamics of the stellar winds of massive stars. In this contribution, I will briefly summarize the results obtained over the past 15 years and highlight the perspectives for the next decade. It is anticipated that coordinated (X-ray and optical or UV) monitoring and time-critical observations of either single or binary massive stars will become the most important topics in this field over the coming years. Synergies with existing or forthcoming X-ray observatories (NuStar, Astro-H, eROSITA) will also play a major role and will further enhance the importance of XMM-Newton in our quest for understanding the physics of hot, massive stars.

  13. Dynamic vehicle routing problems: Three decades and counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Wen, Min; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2016-01-01

    of DVRP papers according to 11 criteria. These are (1) type of problem, (2) logistical context, (3) transportation mode, (4) objective function, (5) fleet size, (6) time constraints, (7) vehicle capacity constraints, (8) the ability to reject customers, (9) the nature of the dynamic element, (10) the......Since the late 70s, much research activity has taken place on the class of dynamic vehicle routing problems (DVRP), with the time period after year 2000 witnessing a real explosion in related papers. Our paper sheds more light into work in this area over more than 3 decades by developing a taxonomy...... nature of the stochasticity (if any), and (11) the solution method. We comment on technological vis-à-vis methodological advances for this class of problems and suggest directions for further research. The latter include alternative objective functions, vehicle speed as decision variable, more explicit...

  14. A decade of comparative risk assessment - What have we learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the decade which has passed since the first comparative risk analyses (CRAs) comparing different energy forms, they have been the subject of much discussion. About 20 have been issued over the years, from both national and international sources. A major reason for occasional controversy has been the uncertainty attached to many of the values. In this study, we evaluate almost 20 studies statistically. In spite of the wide variation in assumptions and data, the chance that the uranium fuel cycle is riskier overall than coal is about one in 50. Similar types of conclusions can be drawn about coal vs. oil, etc. This amalgamation of studies allows a 'smoothing-over' of various assumptions and data sets. (author)

  15. Perspectives on the international decade for natural disaster reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Walter W.

    1990-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and disaster mitigation are the goals of nations throughout the world during the 1990's. The United States will lead this cooperative effort and marshall its national resources to reduce the disaster potential of earthquakes, floods, windstorms, landslides, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and wildfires. These natural hazards cause annual losses of approximately $10 billion in the United States and many times that throughout the world. The type and severity of the hazard varies from State-to-State in the United States. All States are at risk from flooding from sources such as precipitation, snowmelt, thunderstorms, and, along the coast, the storm surges generated in hurricanes. No State is free from the potential impacts of ground shaking induced by earthquakes. The goal of the Decade is to keep such occurrences in the future from being disasters.

  16. A panorama of Astronomy in the coming decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourard, D.

    2016-09-01

    This presentation was done as an introductive lesson at the summer school BasMatI (Bases Mathématiques pour l'instrumentation et le traitement du signal en Astronomie) held in Porquerolles in June 2015. The goal is to present the main scientific questions in Astrophysics as well as the main instrumental developments the astronomical community is considering for the next decade. In a first part of this paper, I will present the recent prospective exercise concluded in October 2014 by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU of CNRS) as well as the European ASTRONET Science Vision and Infrastructure Roadmap, updated in 2014. I will then present the main instruments the French astronomical community is using and developing.

  17. Infrared Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanets: Can we Detect Earth-Twins on a Budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade considerable progress has been made developing techniques that can be used to detect and characterize Earth twins in the mid- infrared (7-20 microns). The principal technique is called nulling interferometry, and it was invented by Bracewell in the late 1970's. The nulling technique is an interferometric equivalent of an optical coronagraph. At the present time most of the technological hurdles have been overcome for a space mission to be able to begin Phase A early in the next decade, and it is possible to detect and characterize Earth-twins on a mid- sized strategic mission budget ($600-800 million). I will review progress on this exciting method of planet detection in the context of recent work on the Exoplanet Community Forum and the US Decadal Survey (Astro2010), including biomarkers, technological progress, mission concepts, the theory of these instruments, and a.comparison of the discovery space of this technique with others also under consideration.

  18. Large Decadal Decline of the Arctic Multiyear Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The perennial ice area was drastically reduced to 38% of its climatological average in 2007 but recovered slightly in 2008, 2009, and 2010 with the areas being 10%, 24%, and 11% higher than in 2007, respectively. However, trends in extent and area remained strongly negative at -12.2% and -13.5% decade (sup -1), respectively. The thick component of the perennial ice, called multiyear ice, as detected by satellite data during the winters of 1979-2011 was studied, and results reveal that the multiyear ice extent and area are declining at an even more rapid rate of -15.1% and -17.2% decade(sup -1), respectively, with a record low value in 2008 followed by higher values in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Such a high rate in the decline of the thick component of the Arctic ice cover means a reduction in the average ice thickness and an even more vulnerable perennial ice cover. The decline of the multiyear ice area from 2007 to 2008 was not as strong as that of the perennial ice area from 2006 to 2007, suggesting a strong role of second-year ice melt in the latter. The sea ice cover is shown to be strongly correlated with surface temperature, which is increasing at about 3 times the global average in the Arctic but appears weakly correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which controls the atmospheric circulation in the region. An 8-9-yr cycle is apparent in the multiyear ice record, which could explain, in part, the slight recovery in the last 3 yr.

  19. Decadal climate prediction with a refined anomaly initialisation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy K.

    2016-06-01

    In decadal prediction, the objective is to exploit both the sources of predictability from the external radiative forcings and from the internal variability to provide the best possible climate information for the next decade. Predicting the climate system internal variability relies on initialising the climate model from observational estimates. We present a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following key innovations: (1) the use of a weight applied to the observed anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing anomalies recorded in the observed climate, whose amplitude does not fit in the range of the internal variability generated by the model; (2) the AI of the ocean density, instead of calculating it from the anomaly initialised state of temperature and salinity. An experiment initialised with this refined AI method has been compared with a full field and standard AI experiment. Results show that the use of such refinements enhances the surface temperature skill over part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea for the first forecast year. However, part of such improvement is lost in the following forecast years. For the tropical Pacific surface temperature, the full field initialised experiment performs the best. The prediction of the Arctic sea-ice volume is improved by the refined AI method for the first three forecast years and the skill of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is significantly increased compared to a non-initialised forecast, along the whole forecast time.

  20. A two-decade Review of Medical Ethics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zahedi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nThe growing developments in science and technology have raised ethical challenges which should practically be addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Likewise, challenging issues of medical ethics have also drawn a great deal of academic attention in Iran. In other words, recent decades have been an occasion of considerable development for contemporary bioethics in Iran. At first, the ongoing initiatives to arrange the national and regional research ethics commit­tees and to compile the national strategic plan for medical ethics is worth mentioning. Currently, research ethics committees are actively established in the universities and research centers across the country. Furthermore, the subject of ethics in dif­ferent fields of science, which was followed in a traditional approach previously, is an important object of discussion cur­rently. Much research is now being undertaken in various areas of bioethics nationwide. Consequently, during the period under review, considerable articles and books have been published in the emerging subjects of bioethics. Several educa­tional workshops and courses have been frequently taken place in the universities and research centers. Foundation of aca­demic courses and fellowship in bioethics are also among the recent activities in the realm of medical ethics education in Iran. Likewise, considering several areas of bioethics that need legislation or reconsideration of previous regulations; the authorities, policy-makers, and scientists have carried out some endeavors to prepare appropriate law, codes, and guidelines. This report summarizes the bioethical activities and achievements in different fields of policy-making, organizing, teaching, and putting ethics into practice in our country during two recent decades.

  1. Decadal Periodicities in a Venus Atmosphere General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Helen; Schubert, G.; Covey, C.; Walterscheid, R.; Grossman, A.; Lebonnois, S.

    2010-10-01

    We have modified a 3-dimensional Earth-based climate model, CAM (Community Atmosphere Model), to simulate the dynamics of Venus' atmosphere. We have removed Earth-related processes and introduced parameters appropriate for Venus. We use a simplified Newtonian cooling approximation for the radiation scheme, without seasonal or diurnal cycles or topography. We use a high resolution (1 degree in latitude and longitude) to take account of small-scale dynamical processes that might be important on Venus. Rayleigh friction is used to represent surface drag and to prevent upper boundary wave reflection. The simulations generate superrotation at cloud heights with wind velocities comparable to those found in measurements. We find a significant decadal oscillation in the zonal winds at cloud top heights and below. A vacillation cycle is seen in the cloud top mid-latitude zonal jets which wax and wane on an approximate 10 year cycle. The decadal oscillations we find may be excited by an instability near the surface, possibly a symmetric instability. Analyses of angular momentum transport show that the jets are built up by poleward transport by a meridional circulation while angular momentum is redistributed to lower latitudes primarily by transient eddies. Observations suggest that a cyclic variation similar to that found in the model might occur in the real Venus atmosphere. Observations by Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus, and Venus Express reveal variability in cloud top wind magnitudes and in the structure of Venus' cloud level mid-latitude jets with timescales of 5 to 10 years. Oscillations in CO composition and in temperature above the cloud tops also exhibit a periodicity around 10 years and changes in the atmospheric SO2 content over 40 years show a periodicity around 20 to 25 years. Venus' atmosphere must be observed over multi-year time scales and below the clouds if we are to understand its dynamics.

  2. Long-lead ENSO predictability from CMIP5 decadal hindcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula L. M.; Goddard, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    Using decadal prediction experiments from the WCRP/CMIP5 suite that were initialized every year from 1960-onward, we explore long-lead predictability of ENSO events. Both deterministic and probabilistic skill metrics are used to assess the ability of these decadal prediction systems to reproduce ENSO variability as represented by the NINO3.4 index (EN3.4). Several individual systems as well as the multi-model mean can predict ENSO events 3-4 years in advance, though not for every event during the hindcast period. This long-lead skill is beyond the previously documented predictability limits of initialized prediction systems. As part of the analysis, skill in reproducing the annual cycle of EN3.4, and the annual cycle of its interannual variability is examined. Most of the prediction systems reproduce the seasonal cycle of EN3.4, but are less able to capture the timing and magnitude of the variability. However, for the prediction systems used here, the fidelity of annual cycle characteristics does not appear to be related to the system's ability to predict ENSO events. In addition, the performance of the multi-model ensemble mean is explored and compared to the multi-model mean based solely on the most skillful systems; the latter is found to yield better results for the deterministic metrics. Finally, an analysis of the near-surface temperature and precipitation teleconnections reveals that the ability of the systems to detect ENSO events far in advance could translate into predictive skill over land for several lead years, though with reduced amplitudes compared to observations.

  3. Decadal trends of global precipitation in the recent 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Zhai, Guoqing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the decadal trends of global precipitation are calculated and compared using the CMAP, GPCP and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly precipitation data over the past 30 years from 1979 to 2008. The major results include the followings: (1) The decadal trend of annually and globally averaged precipitation depends on a decreasing trend for the CMAP data, a flat trend for GPCP data, and an increasing trend for the reanalysis data. (2) The analysis of horizontal distributions of differences in temporally averaged precipitation between the second (1993-2008) and the first (1979-1993) 15 years shows that the decreasing trend in the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in precipitation over the oceans. The further analysis of difference in zonally averaged precipitation rate reveals the increased precipitation rate in both the Tropics and mid-latitudes. The reduction in precipitation over the oceans is significantly weaker in the GPCP data than in the CMAP data, which shows the flat trend in the global GPCP data. The increasing trend of global precipitation average for the reanalysis data is associated with the increase in precipitation off the equator as well as in the mid-latitudes. (3) The further analysis of precipitation statistics reveals that the decreasing trend for the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in high precipitation. The flat trend for the global GPCP data corresponds to the offset between the decrease in low precipitation and the increase in high precipitation. The increasing trend for the reanalysis data is related to the increase in high precipitation.

  4. Decadent Perfume: Under the Skin and Through the Page

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Krueger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At the fin de siècle, there is  tendency in learned discourse to discredit the salubrious properties of fragrance, and more radically, to deem perfume use potentially toxic and aberrant. It is as if suspicion of perfume supplanted the fear of miasma (smell-borne contagion as an olfactive indicator of hygienic and social danger. But unlike the involuntary absorption of disease-ridden smells, fin-de-siècle perfume abuse (be it heightened sensitivity to odor or overzealous spritzing, huffing, injecting, or imbibing was a deviant behavior, not an environmental hazard, and one—accurately or not—often ascribed to women and linked to mental and emotional instability.I posit that the more obtainable and feminized perfume became, the more toxic and symptomatic its portrayal. A growing suspicion of perfume, and vigilance to its implementation and proximity to the body, coincided with an increased likelihood that women of all classes might leave their scent trail in spaces beyond the privacy of the boudoir.The essay focuses on two remarkable yet nearly forgotten fin-de-siècle manifestations of decadent perfuming, in texts ad images whose discourse intersects with that of hygiene and medical reports of their time. The first is Edmond de Goncourt’s 1884 novel Chérie, the fictional study of a young hysteric with a decadent, erotic connection to perfume. The second, a real-life swooning perfume-lover, involves the nameless consumer to whom an unusual gadget called the Lance-parfum Rodo (1896 was marketed. Like Goncourt’s Chérie, Alphonse Mucha’s ad poster for the Rodo, and the surprisingly hazardous product itself, contribute to reciprocal discourses on the social and literary implications of permeating the body and the page with perfume. 

  5. Preliminary Evaluations of FGOALS-g2 for Decadal Predictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LIU Mimi; YU Yongqiang; LI Lijuan; LIN Pengfei; DONG Li; LIU Li

    2013-01-01

    The Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model,Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2) for decadal predictions,is evaluated preliminarily,based on sets of ensemble 10-year hindcasts that it has produced.The results show that the hindcasts were more accurate in decadal variability of SST and surface air temperature (SAT),particularly in that of Ni(n)o3.4 SST and China regional SAT,than the second sample of the historical runs for 20th-century climate (the control) by the same model.Both the control and the hindcasts represented the global warming well using the same external forcings,but the control overestimated the warming.The hindcasts produced the warming closer to the observations.Performance of FGOALS-g2 in hindcasts benefits from more realistic initial conditions provided by the initialization run and a smaller model bias resulting from the use of a dynamic bias correction scheme newly developed in this study.The initialization consists of a 61-year nudging-based assimilation cycle,which follows on the control run on 01 January 1945 with the incorporation of observation data of upper-ocean temperature and salinity at each integration step in the ocean component model,the LASG IAP Climate System Ocean Model,Version 2 (LICOM2).The dynamic bias correction is implemented at each step of LICOM2 during the hindcasts to reduce the systematic biases existing in upper-ocean temperature and salinity by incorporating multi-year monthly mean increments produced in the assimilation cycle.The effectiveness of the assimilation cycle and the role of the correction scheme were assessed prior to the hindcasts.

  6. Robotic Surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    -actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

  7. THE FUNCTIONS OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION - A SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Andries Marius Alin

    2009-01-01

    Traditional theories of intermediation are based on transaction costs and asymmetric information. In recent decades although transaction costs and asymmetric information have declined, intermediation has increased. New markets for financial futures and options are mainly markets for intermediaries rather than individuals or firms. In this paper we survey the last theoretical and empirical research on financial intermediation and functions of financial intermediation. We discuss the functions ...

  8. A Survey on Mobile Affective Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shengkai; Hui, Pan

    2014-01-01

    This survey presents recent progress on Affective Computing (AC) using mobile devices. AC has been one of the most active research topics for decades. The primary limitation of traditional AC research refers to as impermeable emotions. This criticism is prominent when emotions are investigated outside social contexts. It is problematic because some emotions are directed at other people and arise from interactions with them. The development of smart mobile wearable devices (e.g., Apple Watch, ...

  9. Brain connectivity analysis: a short survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, E. W.; A. M. Tomé; Keck, I. R.; J. M. Górriz-Sáez; Puntonet, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    This short survey the reviews recent literature on brain connectivity studies. It encompasses all forms of static and dynamic connectivity whether anatomical, functional, or effective. The last decade has seen an ever increasing number of studies devoted to deduce functional or effective connectivity, mostly from functional neuroimaging experiments. Resting state conditions have become a dominant experimental paradigm, and a number of resting state networks, among them the prominent default m...

  10. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  11. Marine magnetic mapping offshore deception Island. A two decade perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Deception Island forms the emergent part of a young active shield volcano (less than 1 Ma). It lies in the south-western part of Bransfield Strait between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland archipelago. This volcanic island has been very active during its entire evolution and its possible to distinguish different episodes of volcanic activity. Particularly, its last eruptions took place in 1967, 1969 and 1970. Its last active episode took place during the 1998-1999 Antarctic summer, when the pattern of seismic activity at Deception Island volcano changed significantly. A magmatic injection in depth is widely consider as the most probable hypothesis that explains the generation of this last seismic crisis. First magnetic surveys at Deception Island surroundings kicked-off during late 80's of the past century. Particularly, in 1988 was carried out the first magnetic survey ever performed of Port Foster (Deception volcano inner's bay). These studies continued during the period which goes from 1988 to 1991. In December 1999, January-February 2002, and December 2008, the Royal Naval Observatory of the Spanish Navy performed additional geophysical campaigns where new marine magnetic data were always recorded. In fact, Deception inner's bay was surveyed again in December 1999, and December 2008. Nowadays all this information provide us the chance of analysing the volcano and its evolution from different perspectives: a) The study and comparation of these three magnetic anomaly pictures of Deception island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008). b) The study of its offshore magnetic anomalies. In this communication we will present and discuss all these results.

  12. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J; Foppen, Ruud; Voříšek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys. PMID:26486804

  13. Lessons Learned from a Decade of Serving Data to Students and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Martin, A. M.; Riebeek, H.; Jackson, R.

    2015-12-01

    NASA holds petabytes of Earth science data from a fleet of satellites going back decades. While these data can be invaluable for use in STEM education and communication (E/C), the simple fact that the archive is public is not enough. The key to successful use is to provide technological tools in strategic combination with best practices to meet the needs of various audiences. Students and teachers need access points that are specifically tailored to meet the technology resources in the classroom; citizen scientists need to feel a connection to NASA, easy-to-use technological interfaces, and are motivated by contributing to real research activities; the general public needs short, focused, easily digested tidbits. NASA's Earth science E/C teams have developed strategies combining audience knowledge with new technical capabilities through programs like MY NASA DATA, S'COOL, Earth Observatory, Giovanni, climate.gov, etc. The capability to offer a range of resources targeted to specific audience needs has advanced along several fronts over the last decade through use of the following key strategies: Regularly publishing articles, fact sheets and image captions written with greater detail than media releases to connect basic science concepts with current NASA research. Providing for differing levels of engagement, with basic, intermediate and advanced data access tools as well as lesson plans for grades K-2 through high school. Facilitating the important scientific process of asking questions once students are actively engaged though exploration and manipulation of current Earth data delivered through desktop and mobile apps.. Providing curated data sets that students can more easily interpret. Assessing users' needs through ongoing formative evaluation. Using Analytics to make data-driven decisions about technologies and approaches. We will survey the range of approaches to enabling data use for STEM E/C and will share some of the key lessons learned.

  14. Sub-decadal- to decadal-scale climate cyclicity during the Holsteinian interglacial (MIS 11 evidenced in annually laminated sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koutsodendris

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To unravel the short-term climate variability during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 11, which represents a close analogue to the Holocene with regard to orbital boundary conditions, we performed microfacies and time series analyses on a ~3200-yr-long record of annually laminated Holsteinian lake sediments from Dethlingen, northern Germany. These biogenic varves comprise two sub-layers: A light layer, which is controlled by spring/summer diatom blooms, and a dark layer consisting mainly of amorphous organic matter and fragmented diatom frustules deposited during autumn/winter. Time series analyses were performed on the thickness of the light and dark layers. Signals exceeding the 95 % and 99 % confidence levels occur at periods that are near-identical to those known from modern instrumental data and Holocene palaeoclimatic records. Spectral peaks at periods of 90, 25, and 10.5 yr are likely associated with the 88-, 22- and 11-yr solar cycles, respectively. This variability is mainly expressed in the light layer spectra, suggesting solar influence on the palaeoproductivity of the lake. Significant signals at periods between 3 and 5 yr and at ~6 yr are strongest expressed in the dark layer spectra and may reflect an influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO during autumn/winter. Our results suggest that solar forcing and ENSO/NAO-like variability influenced central European climate during MIS 11 similar to the present interglacial, thus demonstrating the comparability of the two interglacial periods at sub-decadal to decadal timescales.

  15. Clergy, nobility and crown in Decadência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.No presente trabalho tenciono indagar as causas internas que dirigiram o império marítimo português à decadência. Depois de uma revisitação da historiografia relativa ao declínio do Estado da Índia, procedo a uma análise do triângulo de Monarca-Igreja-Nobreza durante os Descobrimentos e dos seus papéis respectivos no evoluir do Império português. É verificável que a absolutização da Coroa, a sobre-expansão do clero e a potenciação da aristocracia tornaram-se as características mais salientes e duradouras na estrutura social portuguesa depois de o país se lançar nas façanhas marítimas, do que resultou a agricultura prejudicada e indústria atrasada. A predominância dessas três instituições, por um lado, impediu a ascensão da burguesia, assim dificultando a transformação da economia

  16. Radiochemistry in India. A saga of five decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemistry in India essentially blossomed under the auspices of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) for the last 55 years or so. Major activities in this area are centred at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (BARC) and Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (IGCAR). Though there were several centers of excellence which were established by renowned radiochemists during the 1960s at the academic institutions in different parts of the country and nurtured by their close associates during the eighties and nineties, their glamour did not last long and only very few have sustained the challenges presented by social and technological upheaval of last five decades. Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), an organ of DAE has been in the forefront for promotion of education and research in nuclear sciences at academic institutions. It sponsors symposia in Nuclear and Radiochemistry (NUCAR), Nuclear Analytical Chemistry (NAC) and Applications of Radioisotopes in Chemistry, Environment and Biology (ARCEB) which are organized periodically to provide a platform for interaction of the radiochemists within and outside DAE. A professional body, viz. Indian Association of Nuclear Chemists and Allied Scientists (IANCAS), formed in early eighties at BARC, Mumbai has been spearheading the campaign to popularize the subject of radiochemistry in schools and colleges through workshops and publishing monographs and thematic bulletins regularly in the area of interest to the radiochemists. During the last five decades, radiochemistry programme at BARC has centered around attaining excellence in basic research utilizing radiations and radioisotopes to unravel various nuclear and chemical phenomena, related to actinides and fission products. This programme encompassed a number of research and development areas such as nuclear fission, nuclear reactions, nuclear probes for materials study, nuclear and chemical properties of actinides, actinide spectroscopy

  17. Decadal trends in global CO emissions as seen by MOPITT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Negative trends of carbon monoxide (CO concentrations are observed in the recent decade by both surface measurements and satellite retrievals over many regions, but they are not well explained by current emission inventories. Here, we attribute the observed CO concentration decline with an atmospheric inversion that simultaneously optimizes the two main CO sources (surface emissions and atmospheric hydrocarbon oxidations and the main CO sink (atmospheric hydroxyl radical OH oxidation by assimilating observations of CO and other chemically related tracers. Satellite CO column retrievals from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT, version 6, and surface in-situ measurements of methane and methyl-chloroform mole fractions are assimilated jointly for the period of 2002–2011. Compared to the prior simulation, the optimized CO concentrations show better agreement with independent surface in-situ measurements in terms of both distributions and trends. At the global scale, the atmospheric inversion primarily interprets the CO concentration decline as a decrease in the CO emissions, and finds noticeable trends neither in the chemical oxidation sources of CO, nor in the OH concentrations that regulate CO sinks. The latitudinal comparison of the model state with independent formaldehyde (CH2O columns retrieved from the Ozone Measurement Instrument (OMI confirms the absence of large-scale trends in the atmospheric source of CO. The global CO emission decreased by 17% during the decade, more than twice the negative trend estimated by emission inventories. The spatial distribution of the inferred decrease of CO emissions indicates contributions from both a decrease in fossil- and bio-fuel emissions over Europe, the USA and Asia, and from a decrease in biomass burning emissions in South America, Indonesia, Australia and Boreal regions. An emission decrease of 2% yr−1 is inferred in China, one of the main emitting regions, in contradiction

  18. WFIRST-2.4: What Every Astronomer Should Know

    CERN Document Server

    Spergel, D; Breckinridge, J; Donahue, M; Dressler, A; Gaudi, B S; Greene, T; Guyon, O; Hirata, C; Kalirai, J; Kasdin, N J; Moos, W; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Rauscher, B; Rhodes, J; Wang, Y; Weinberg, D; Centrella, J; Traub, W; Baltay, C; Colbert, J; Bennett, D; Kiessling, A; Macintosh, B; Merten, J; Mortonson, M; Penny, M; Rozo, E; Savransky, D; Stapelfeldt, K; Zu, Y; Baker, C; Cheng, E; Content, D; Dooley, J; Foote, M; Goullioud, R; Grady, K; Jackson, C; Kruk, J; Levine, M; Melton, M; Peddie, C; Ruffa, J; Shaklan, S

    2013-01-01

    The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as its top priority for a new large space mission. The report of the AFTA-WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) presents a Design Reference Mission for WFIRST that employs one of the 2.4-m, Hubble-quality mirror assemblies recently made available to NASA. The 2.4-m primary mirror enables a mission with greater sensitivity and higher angular resolution than the smaller aperture designs previously considered for WFIRST, increasing both the science return of the primary surveys and the capabilities of WFIRST as a Guest Observer facility. The option of adding an on-axis, coronagraphic instrument would enable imaging and spectroscopic studies of planets around nearby stars. This short article, produced as a companion to the SDT report, summarizes the key points of the WFIRST-2.4 DRM. It highlights the remarkable opportunity that the 2.4-m telescope affords for advances in many fields of astrophysics and cosmology, including dar...

  19. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  20. The cost of radiotherapy in a decade of technology evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantify changes in radiotherapy costs occurring in a decade of medical–technological evolution. Materials and methods: The activity-based costing (ABC) model of University Hospitals Leuven (UHL) radiotherapy (RT) department was adapted to current RT standards. It allocated actual resource costs to the treatments based on the departmental work-flow and patient mix in 2009. A benchmark with the former model analyzed the cost increases related to changes in RT infrastructure and practice over 10 years. Results: A considerable increase in total RT costs was observed, resulting from higher capital investments (96%) and personnel cost (103%), the latter dominating the total picture. Treatment delivery remains the most costly activity, boosted by the cost of improved quality assurance (QA), 23% of total product costs, coming along with more advanced RT techniques. Hence, cost increases at the product level are most obvious for complex treatments, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), representing cost increases ranging between 38% and 88% compared to conformal approaches. Conclusions: The ABC model provides insight into the financial consequences of evolving technology and practice. Such data are a mandatory first step in our strive to prove RT cost-effectiveness and thus support optimal reimbursement and provision of radiotherapy departments.

  1. Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoonal Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Robertson, Andrew W. [IRI (United States); Cook, Edward R. [LDEO Tree Ring Lab. (United States); D’Arrigo, Rosanne [LDEO Tree Ring Lab. (United States); Lall, Upmanu [Columbia Water Center (United States); Smyth, Padhraic J. [UCI (United States)

    2015-01-18

    We developed further our advanced methods of time series analysis and empirical model reduction (EMR) and applied them to climatic time series relevant to hydroclimate over Monsoonal Asia. The EMR methodology was both generalized further and laid on a rigorous mathematical basis via multilayered stochastic models (MSMs). We identified easily testable conditions that imply the existence of a global random attractor for MSMs and allow for non-polynomial predictors. This existence, in turn, guarantees the numerical stability of the MSMs so obtained. We showed that, in the presence of low-frequency variability (LFV), EMR prediction can be improved further by including information from selected times in the system’s past. This prediction method, dubbed Past-Noise Forecasting (PNF), was successfully applied to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Our time series analysis and forecasting methods, based on singular-spectrum analysis (SSA) and its enhancements, were applied to several multi-centennial proxy records provided by the Lamont team. These included the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for 1300–2005 from the Monsoonal Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), and a 300-member ensemble of pseudo-reconstructions of Indus River discharge for 1702–2005. The latter was shown to exhibit a robust 27-yr low-frequency mode, which helped multi-decadal retroactive forecasts with no look-ahead over this 300-year interval.

  2. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: developments over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, Gurumurthy; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Singh, Ruchi; Salotra, Poonam

    2012-03-01

    Diagnostic parameters for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani, have been redefined in the last decade with the development of serological and molecular tests, though a definitive diagnosis still banks on the century-old parasitological methods in many areas. Recombinant antigens have improved performance of serodiagnostic methods. Serology-based tests, rk39 antigen dipstick, and direct agglutination test commonly employed in the field are highly sensitive methods, however, fail to distinguish past infections. Molecular approaches have become increasingly relevant due to remarkable sensitivity, specificity, and flexibility in choice of samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a highly sensitive and specific tool used in referral labs for detection/assessment of parasite load in VL patients and subsequently in monitoring treatment response to antileishmanial agents. The method displays potential to provide threshold for distinguishing asymptomatics in endemic areas. Currently, improvement in VL diagnostics is required for successful decentralized (point-of-care) testing in field conditions and to detect VL-HIV co-infection. Techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification offer a reliable molecular diagnostic method for field application. The diagnosis based on bioanalytics/biosensors promise frontiers for point-of-care VL detection after adequate standardization. This review summarizes the recent developments in VL diagnostics, drawing attention towards the need for standardization of the diagnostics across the affected regions. PMID:22065060

  3. Astrophysics in the Next Decade: JWST and Concurrent Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Thronson, Harley A; Tielens, Alexander; The James Webb Space Telescope and Concurrent Facilities

    2009-01-01

    NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), planned for operation in about five years, will have the capability to investigate – and answer – some of the most challenging questions in astronomy. Although motivated and designed to study the very early Universe, the performance of the observatory’s instruments over a very wide wavelength range will allow the world’s scientific community unequaled ability to study cosmic phenomena as diverse as small bodies in the Solar System and the formation of galaxies. As part of preparation to use JWST, a conference was held in Tucson, Arizona in 2007 that brought together astronomers from around the world to discuss the mission, other major facilities that will operate in the coming decade, and major scientific goals for them. This book is a compilation of those presentations by some of the leading researchers from all branches of astronomy. This book also includes a "pre-history" of JWST, describing the lengthy process and some of the key individuals that initiat...

  4. The serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: two decades of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Evelien; Heyninck, Karen; Andressen, Kjetil W; Haegeman, Guy; Levy, Finn Olav; Vanhoenacker, Peter; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Like most neurotransmitters, serotonin possesses a simple structure. However, the pharmacological consequences are more complex and diverse. Serotonin is involved in numerous functions in the human body including the control of appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, mood, behavior, cardiovascular function, muscle contraction, endocrine regulation, and depression. Low levels of serotonin may be associated with several disorders, namely increase in aggressive and angry behaviors, clinical depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, and bipolar disease. These effects are mediated via different serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In this review, we will focus on the last discovered member of this serotonin receptor family, the 5-HT7 receptor. This receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and was cloned two decades ago. Later, different splice variants were described but no major functional differences have been described so far. All 5-HT7 receptor variants are coupled to Gαs proteins and stimulate cAMP formation. Recently, several interacting proteins have been reported, which can influence receptor signaling and trafficking. PMID:24042216

  5. Four decades of teaching developmental biology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz, Horst

    2003-01-01

    I have taught developmental biology in Essen for 30 years. Since my department is named Zoophysiologie (Zoophysiology), besides Developmental Biology, I also have to teach General Animal Physiology. This explains why the time for teaching developmental biology is restricted to a lecture course, a laboratory course and several seminar courses. However, I also try to demonstrate in the lecture courses on General Physiology the close relationship between developmental biology, physiology, morphology, anatomy, teratology, carcinogenesis, evolution and ecology (importance of environmental factors on embryogenesis). Students are informed that developmental biology is a core discipline of biology. In the last decade, knowledge about molecular mechanisms in different organisms has exponentially increased. The students are trained to understand the close relationship between conserved gene structure, gene function and signaling pathways, in addition to or as an extension of, classical concepts. Public reports about the human genome project and stem cell research (especially therapeutic and reproductive cloning) have shown that developmental biology, both in traditional view and at the molecular level, is essential for the understanding of these complex topics and for serious and non-emotional debate. PMID:12705670

  6. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  7. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic tuberculosis: A two decade experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahni Peush

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated hepatobiliary or pancreatic tuberculosis (TB is rare and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. We reviewed our experience over a period two decades with this rare site of abdominal tuberculosis. Methods The records of 18 patients with proven histological diagnosis of hepatobiliary and pancreatic tuberculosis were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic features, sign and symptoms, imaging, cytology/histopathology, procedures performed, outcome and follow up data were obtained from the departmental records. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on granuloma with caseation necrosis on histopathology or presence of acid fast bacilli. Results Of 18 patients (11 men, 11 had hepatobiliary TB while 7 had pancreatic TB. Two-thirds of the patients were 1 intraabdominal abscess 1 and 3 developed ATT induced hepatotoxicity. No patient died. The median follow up period was 12 months (9 – 96 months. Conclusion Tuberculosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis, particularly in young patients, with atypical signs and symptoms coming from areas where tuberculosis is endemic and preoperative tissue and/or cytological diagnosis should be attempted before labeling them as hepatobiliary and pancreatic malignancy.

  8. Sensitivity analysis in electric system expansion planning study using DECADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To cover the increasing electricity demand as a key economic and social factor of development, it is necessary to have adequate expansion police. The delay in installation of certain capabilities produces electricity deficit. In other hand, construction of oversized capacities generates excessive costs. Therefore it is important to acquire or develop adequate methodologies according to the country specific conditions to carry out electric expansion planning studies. The goal is to chose optimal solutions in order to reach sustainable development using owns energy resources and preserving the environment. In the paper the Decades methodology is used for electricity system expansion planning. Premises and main assumptions for the calculations are presented. Some electric system expansion cases are evaluated. We also present the results of a sensibility study varying the discount rate, loss of load probability energy not served cost, fuel availability and fuel and investment costs. The reliability criteria currently not used in Cuban electric system are evaluated. We discuss the results and display the conclusions and recommendations

  9. ATLAS Upgrades: a challenge for the next Decades

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, Giulio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is now running at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset for ATLAS and CMS from about few hundred fb-1 expected for LHC running in the next 10 years to 3000 fb-1 by around 2035. In parallel, the experiments need to be kept lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosities, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further maj...

  10. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats

  11. Interannual to decadal predictability in the North Atlantic Europe region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouzeau, A.; Terray, L.

    2003-04-01

    A 200-year control experiment is performed with the third version of the ARPEGE-Climat atmospheric model coupled to the ORCALIM2 (ORCA/Louvain Ice Model) sea-ice/ocean model. This study takes place in the framework of the PREDICATE project. The simulation shows low frequency fluctuations (period of 30-50 years) in the Thermohaline Circulation (THC) of about 15% of the mean transport. Two 25-year long ensemble experiments are then conducted, contrasting opposite phases of the THC: the first ensemble starts at a maximum of the intensity of the THC, the second one at a minimum. For each ensemble, the different members (6 members for each ensemble) only differ by infinitesimal perturbations of their initial atmospheric conditions. We use these ensembles to study the potential predictability at interannual to decadal time scales. The preliminary results suggest the existence of predictability up to several years in the THC and SST in the North Atlantic. On the other hand, there seems to be very little predictability (beyond one year) arising from atmospheric variables. These results are obtained using a simple predictability index introduced by Collins and Allen (2001) which measures the rate of spread of the ensembles of simulations against climatology. A cluster analysis will then be performed to investigate the modification of the frequency of occurrence of the main climatic regimes and their links with the THC states.

  12. Tatra's forests will recover from catastrophe for decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windy tornado in Tatra's national park (TANAP, High Tatras, Slovakia) at the end of 2004 caused extensive ecological catastrophe and economic losses. Wind has totally damaged the trees in more than one fourth of forest area, which is administrated by state forests of TANAP. Next fourth of forest area has impaired structure. Mostly coniferous forests have fallen down not only in High Tatras, but also in Horehronie, Kysuce, Orava and Spis. According to estimates around 2.5 million cubic meters of wood have lain on the ground in High Tatras. This wood must be precipitately processed. In another regions totally from 800 to 900 thousands cubic meters are overcame by wind. Ecological catastrophe has come in High Tatras. Totally damaged large forests areas need to be recovered for long decades. 90 per cent of annual Slovakian wood cutting represents totally 2.5 million cubic meters. The state will invest in forest recovery from sale of calamity stuff. Reforestation of one hectare of forest costs from 80 to 90 thousands Slovak crowns (∼2666-3000 USD). Another remedies at the age to five years represent from 40 to 50 thousands Slovak crowns (1333-16666 USD). Around 1.6 billion Slovak crown (∼53.333 million USD) will be needed for reforestation of 12 thousands hectares of TANAP

  13. Barodontalgia: what have we learned in the past decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadik, Yehuda

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge regarding barodontalgia, a barometric pressure-related oral (dental and other) pain. Contemporary classification, prevalence, and incidence, features, etiology, and diagnosis of this entity are presented regarding flight and diving conditions. Summarizing the past decade data, three-fourths of episodes were described as severe, sharp, and localized pain. Barodontalgia affects 11.9% of divers and 11.0% of military aircrews with a rate of 5 episodes/1,000 flight-years. Upper and lower dentitions were affected equally in flight, but more upper than lower dentition were affected in diving. The most prevalent etiologic pathologies for in-flight dental pain were faulty dental restorations (including dental barotrauma) and dental caries without pulp involvement (29.2%), necrotic pulp/periapical inflammation (27.8%), vital pulp pathology (13.9%), recent dental treatment (11.1%), and barosinusitis (9.7%). This review refutes 3 generally accepted conventions: According to the results, the current in-flight barodontalgia incidence is similar to the incidence in the first half of the 20th century, the weighted incidence of barodontalgia among aircrews are similar to the weighted incidence among divers, and the role of facial barotrauma in the etiology of in-flight barodontalgia is minor. PMID:20303049

  14. "Hello pacifist" War Resisters in Israel's First Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Simoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the history, organization, networks and political outlook of the state of Israel’s first conscientious objectors (COs in the 1950s, and the consequences they confronted, individually and as a group. Despite it being a very unlikely period for the foundation of such a movement, a small branch of ‘War Resisters’ International’ (WRI, 1921 was established in Israel in 1947. This paper discusses what can the attitudes towards COs tell of the early history of the State of Israel, especially at a time when conscientious objection was not recognized as a right almost anywhere. The history of the first Israeli COs breaks a number of assumptions, albeit contradictory ones: on the one hand it strengthens the image of Israel as a militaristic country; on the other, it shows that institutions were in Israel more tolerant towards COs than other countries; it shows that COs were the supporters of an non ethnically homogenous society and, most of all, that, even in a decade such as the 1950s, a different and deep voice was trying to make itself heard. This paper is based on primary sources from the WRI archives and on the correspondence that Israeli COs entertained with WRI in the 1950s.

  15. Exoplanet Yield Estimation for Decadal Study Concepts using EXOSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Lowrance, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The anticipated upcoming large mission study concepts for the direct imaging of exo-earths present an exciting opportunity for exoplanet discovery and characterization. While these telescope concepts would also be capable of conducting a broad range of astrophysical investigations, the most difficult technology challenges are driven by the requirements for imaging exo-earths. The exoplanet science yield for these mission concepts will drive design trades and mission concept comparisons.To assist in these trade studies, the Exoplanet Exploration Program Office (ExEP) is developing a yield estimation tool that emphasizes transparency and consistent comparison of various design concepts. The tool will provide a parametric estimate of science yield of various mission concepts using contrast curves from physics-based model codes and Monte Carlo simulations of design reference missions using realistic constraints, such as solar avoidance angles, the observatory orbit, propulsion limitations of star shades, the accessibility of candidate targets, local and background zodiacal light levels, and background confusion by stars and galaxies. The python tool utilizes Dmitry Savransky's EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator) design reference mission simulator that is being developed for the WFIRST Preliminary Science program. ExEP is extending and validating the tool for future mission concepts under consideration for the upcoming 2020 decadal review. We present a validation plan and preliminary yield results for a point design.

  16. An atmospheric origin of the multi-decadal bipolar seesaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Zhang, Xiangdong; Guan, Zhaoyong; Sun, Bo; Yang, Xin; Liu, Chengyan

    2015-03-01

    A prominent feature of recent climatic change is the strong Arctic surface warming that is contemporaneous with broad cooling over much of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Longer global surface temperature observations suggest that this contrasting pole-to-pole change could be a manifestation of a multi-decadal interhemispheric or bipolar seesaw pattern, which is well correlated with the North Atlantic sea surface temperature variability, and thus generally hypothesized to originate from Atlantic meridional overturning circulation oscillations. Here, we show that there is an atmospheric origin for this seesaw pattern. The results indicate that the Southern Ocean surface cooling (warming) associated with the seesaw pattern is attributable to the strengthening (weakening) of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, which can be traced to Northern Hemisphere and tropical tropospheric warming (cooling). Antarctic ozone depletion has been suggested to be an important driving force behind the recently observed increase in the Southern Hemisphere's summer westerly winds; our results imply that Northern Hemisphere and tropical warming may have played a triggering role at an stage earlier than the first detectable Antarctic ozone depletion, and enhanced Antarctic ozone depletion through decreasing the lower stratospheric temperature.

  17. Potential tropical Atlantic impacts on Pacific decadal climate trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Timmermann, A.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    The tropical Pacific cooling from the early 1990s to 2013 has contributed to the slowdown of globally averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The origin of this regional cooling trend still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the remote impact of Atlantic SST anomalies, as well as local atmosphere-ocean interactions, contributed to the eastern Pacific cooling during this period. By assimilating observed three-dimensional Atlantic temperature and salinity anomalies into a coupled general circulation model, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the observed Pacific decadal trends of SST and sea level pressure (SLP), albeit with reduced amplitude. Although a major part of the Pacific SLP trend can be explained by equatorial Pacific SST forcing only, the origin of this low-frequency variability can be traced back further to the remote impacts of equatorial Atlantic and South Atlantic SST trends. Atlantic SST impacts on the atmospheric circulation can also be detected for the Northeastern Pacific, thus providing a linkage between Atlantic climate and Western North American drought conditions.

  18. Three decades of neoliberalism in Mexico: the destruction of society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Asa Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberalism has been implemented in Latin America for about three decades. This article reviews Mexico's neoliberal trajectory to illustrate the political, economic, and social alterations that have resulted from this process. It finds that representative democracy has been perverted through fear, putting central political decisions in the hands of power groups with special interests. The border between the state of law and the state of exception is blurred. Economic structural adjustment with liberalization and privatization has provoked recurrent crisis, but has been maintained, leading to the destruction of the national productive structure in favor of supranational corporations, particularly financial capital. The association between criminal economy and economic criminality is also discussed. The privatization of social benefits and services requires state subsidies and allows the privatization of profits and the socialization of losses. The social impact of this process has been devastating, with a polarized income distribution, falling wages, increased precarious jobs, rising inequality, and extreme violence. Health conditions have also deteriorated and disorders associated with violence, chronic stress, and a changing nutritional culture have become dominating. However, in Latin America, massive, organized political and social mobilization has broken the vicious neoliberal circle and elected progressive governments that are struggling to reverse social and economic devastation. PMID:25813500

  19. President and Parliament in Russia: a decade of tense relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Xavier València i Montes

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The breaking-up of the Soviet state meant the birth of Russia as an independent state. This transformation was, however, not reflected in the new institutional design until the passage of the new constitution in 1993. The instability generated in Russia’sinstitutional relations—specifically between the legislative and executive branches of government—has indeed lasted through the decade of Russia’s independence as a state. During this period, the Federation President has taken on a dominant role in the politicalleadership of the state while the Parliament has been relegated to a secondary role in Russia’s power structure. This situation has resulted in conflict between these institutions that has been marked by various situations and periods. After this brief review of theconstitutional rules governing relations between the executive and legislative branches, the article focuses on an analysis of the periods this stormy relationship has gone through and then concludes with the important issue of the democratic nature or lack thereof ofRussians.

  20. Three decades of hepatitis B control with vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliane; C; Meireles; Rui; Tato; Marinho; Pierre; Van; Damme

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) continues to represent a major health problem and can lead to acute liver failure, acute hepatitis, chronic carriership, chronic hepatitis of HBV, liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver transplantation and death. There is a marked difference in the geographic distribution of carriers. More than 240 million people worldwide are chronic HBV carriers. Mother-to-child transmission remains the most important mechanism of infection in countries with a high prevalence of HBV. Percutaneous/parenteral transmission and unsafe sexual practices are important mode of spread transmission of HBV in other countries. Vaccination against HBV is the gold measure for primary prevention and control of the disease. Currently, 179 countries have added HBV vaccination to their routine vaccination programs with great results. Neonatal immunization with HBV vaccine has been one of the most highly effective measures in public health and the first anti-cancer program to be launched. In this paper we review the achievements for the last three decades.

  1. Achievements during the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Peter; Brooks, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases continue to produce major disability around the world. Advances in therapy - particularly for the inflammatory diseases - have the potential to eradicate the inflammation and thus prevent joint destruction. Surgical advances include minimally invasive and computer-assisted robotic surgery, and advances in arthroscopic surgery. The development of new musculoskeletal tissues - tendons, cartilage and bone using nanotechnology and stem cells - has the potential to revolutionise the way we approach these chronic destructive diseases as well as major trauma. With the rapid increase in these conditions with an ageing population, new models of care will need to be developed to ensure that the right care is delivered at the right time by the most appropriately trained health professional and at a reasonable cost. The Bone and Joint Decade has played a significant role in focussing researchers, clinicians and health educators on these diseases and also in drawing them to the attention of Governments around the globe. While there is still much to be done, the journey has commenced and will continue into the future with education, research and service delivery into these important conditions being further enhanced. PMID:22794093

  2. Army Malaria Institute – its Evolution and Achievements. Third Decade (2nd Half: 1990-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Edstein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the third decade (1990-1995 after the establishment of the Army Malaria Research Unit was characterised by substantial progress in meeting the challenges posed by drug-resistant malaria. In view of the rapid emergence of drug resistance, laboratory/field studies were carried out to develop novel and improved methods to assess and monitor changes in patterns of parasite susceptibility to antimalarial drugs. The high malaria attack rates observed during training exercises in Papua New Guinea (PNG in 1988/1989 underscored the urgent need to provide better protection for soldiers deployed to malarious areas. This led to doxycycline substituting pyrimethamine/dapsone (Maloprim® for prevention of falciparum malaria, but relapsing vivax malaria remained a problem. Laboratory investigations with tafenoquine indicated that this long-acting drug could eventually replace the cumbersome primaquine eradication course for prevention of vivax malaria. Furthermore, alternative antibiotics and halofantrine might be able to be used for prevention and treatment of falciparum malaria. Other studies showed that, apart from acting synergistically with dapsone, proguanil and PS-15 (experimental antifolate potentiated the activity of atovaquone (new antimalarial against drug-resistant parasites. Further investigations with Mannich base compounds revealed some of them to be more potent than amodiaquine or pyronaridine. Personal protection measures against insect bites were expanded by testing the effectiveness of various formulations of insect repellents when applied to skin, uniforms and bednets. After completing the survey of Anopheles farauti in northern Australia during the previous quinquennium, its spatial distribution was analysed in relation to detailed topography and historical climate records. Further anopheline surveys were performed in the Torres Strait and four PNG provinces to enhance future malaria control activities in these areas.

  3. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Oliveira Serra, Maria Aparecida; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Branco Coêlho, Zirlane Castelo; de Castro Rodrigues, Naya Lúcia; Martins Vale, Josias; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; de Oliveira, Francisco Josemar Alves; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992-1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992-1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992-1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed. PMID:26692338

  4. Understanding the Trends of Atmospheric Methane in the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Logan, J. A.; McElroy, M. B.; Duncan, B. N.; Yantosca, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. After steady growth that resulted in an increase in atmospheric CH4 concentration by a factor of 2.5 over the past three centuries, the growth rate slowed in the 1980s; superimposed on the recent trend is significant interannual variability. In this study, various sources of information are utilized to quantify the contributions of individual CH4 sources and sinks to the trends of CH4 in the past decade. The GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional chemical transport model with assimilated meteorology is used to test a number of hypotheses regarding recent trends in emissions. The model is evaluated with observations from the NOAA CMDL network. The model accounts for interannual variations in meteorology and concentrations of OH radical. In the baseline simulation, emissions are scaled to yearly country-by-country socioeconomic and other data: livestock populations and rice harvest areas are taken from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization; statistics on natural gas consumption and flaring from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center are used; data on coal production from British Petroleum are used; and precipitation rate and soil temperature from NCEP reanalyses are used to calculate natural wetland emissions, the sensitivities for which are based on the results obtained by Walter et al. [2001a,b]. The absolute strength for each of the sources in the base year of 1988 is chosen so that the budget satisfies mass balance constraints for total CH4 as well as individual isotopomers while producing good agreement with 1988 observed CH4 at various sites. Preliminary results indicate that the model simulates well the horizontal and vertical distribution, seasonal cycle, and long-term trend of CH4, capturing over 70% of the variance in the observed time series between 1988 and 1998 at many sites. However, an overestimate of the growth rate in the Northern Hemisphere as well

  5. PHENIX EXPERIMENT AT RHIC: DECADAL PLAN 2004-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAJC,W.ET. AL.

    2003-11-30

    The PHENIX Collaboration has developed a plan for the detailed investigation of quantum chromodynamics in the next decade. The demonstrated capabilities of the PHENIX experiment to measure rare processes in hadronic, leptonic and photonic channels, in combination with RHIC's unparalleled flexibility as a hadronic collider, provides a physics program of extraordinary breadth and depth. A superlative set of measurements to elucidate the states of both hot and cold nuclear matter, and to measure the spin structure of the proton has been identified. The components of this plan include: (1) Definitive measurements that will establish the nature of the matter created in nucleus+nucleus collisions, that will determine if the description of such matter as a quark-gluon plasma is appropriate, and that will quantify both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium features of the produced medium. (2) Precision measurements of the gluon structure of the proton, and of the spin structure of the gluon and sea-quark distributions of the proton via polarized proton+proton collisions. (3) Determination of the gluon distribution in cold nuclear matter using proton+nucleus collisions. Each of these fundamental fields of investigation will be addressed through a program of correlated measurements in some or all of the following channels: (1) Particle production at high transverse momentum, studied via single particle inclusive measurements of identified charged and neutral hadrons, multi-particle correlations and jet production. (2) Direct photon, photon+jet and virtual photon production. (3) Light and heavy vector mesons. (4) Heavy flavor production. These measurements, together with the established PHENIX abilities to identify hadrons at low transverse momentum, to perform detailed centrality selections, and to monitor polarization and luminosity with high precision create a superb opportunity for performing world-class science with PHENIX for the next decade. A portion of this

  6. Web Survey Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin O. Shropshire; Hawdon, James E.; James C. Witte

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Survey2001, we analyze how visual images embedded in a web-based survey can (1) reduce nonresponse in the specific case that a respondent prematurely terminates the survey and (2) preserve measurement validity. Page-by-page progression through the survey is modeled as a survival process with early termination seen as failure. While images had no apparent effect on the termination process, respondent interest in the survey topic was linked to early termination. These results hi...

  7. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  8. High energy industrial electron accelerators: A decade of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although industrial radiation processing is well established (for making tires, cable, and for sterilization) the industry remains a minor part of the world's overall manufacturing base. It has certainly not realized its full potential. But it is growing, and the barriers to implementation are being steadily removed. These barriers have included the lack of knowledge of radiation processes in the manufacturing and chemical industries and a lack reliable high penetration accelerators with sufficient energy to penetrate for sterilization, cross-linking or polymer degradation. The last decade has seen the emergence of accelerators with reliability equal to the other equipment in the process. Reliability has been designed into accelerators by technology choices that permit low stress designs and taking advantage of control tools not formerly available. AECL's IMPELA accelerators are such an example. In the past few years new industrial uses for radiation have moved to the commercial scale, and not in the areas where the pioneers may have predicted. Sewage and medical wastes are still not being routinely treated on any large scale. However, aircraft parts and pulp for viscose (rayon) are poised to become commercial in the next round, and the emergence of wide-scale food irradiation, while still far from a certainty, may soon be at hand. The authors see that the need for more reliable or more powerful electron accelerators has waned. The development thrust has moved to providing a total and integrated system of product tracking and handling equipment, on-line dose monitoring and the provision of X-ray sources. It is in this way that electron accelerators distinguish themselves from gamma sterilization in the traditional market while retaining the inherent high power advantage to open up new applications. (author)

  9. Scenarios for the Nuclear fuel cycle in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some ask: What is the most important event in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in recent years? One obvious answer is: the dramatic increase in the price of uranium in the international market. The 'spot' or short term delivery price of uranium, increased from $10.90 US dol/lb U3O8 in June 2003 to $14.40 US dol/lb U3O8 in December 2003, a 34% increase in just six months. Then it jumped again to $20.50 US dol/lb U3O8 by December 2004, an increase of 42% that year. Now, by June of 2005, the spot price has climbed another 41% in six months to $29.00 dol/lb U3O8. Altogether this is a 270% jump in the spot price in just two years. In the same period, the long-term contract price increased from $ 11.75 US dol/lb U3O8 to $30.00 US dol/lb U3O8 - an increase of 255%. These 'adjustments' are a shock to fuel buyers similar to that adjustment of tectonic plates that caused the terrible 'tsunami' in the coast of East Asia last December. This 'adjustment' occurred in a market that most buyers had thought had developed stability - but this was a stability which we now know was mainly due to the supply of large excess inventories of uranium from several countries, including military stocks in the CIS and USA. But what the future holds may be even more dramatic. This paper examines some of the critical elements that will shape the future U3O8 supply/demand relationship, and prices, in the coming decade. (Author)

  10. The Haystack Observatory REU Program: the First Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. B.; Salah, J. E.

    1996-05-01

    The MIT Haystack Observatory is a multidisciplinary research facility consisting of groups working actively in radio astronomy, atmospheric sciences, geodesy, and instrumentation development to support all three efforts. Its tradition of supporting undergraduate involvement in its research programs was formalized in 1987 under the Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (REU) of the National Science Foundation. Each summer 8 to 10 REU students, augmented by 4-6 students supported under research grants and contracts, are recruited nationally for our summer internship program. The students work with staff mentors whose project descriptions are exploded by paper and electronic mail to over 200 undergraduate institutions. The undergraduates also contribute to the Observatory's pre-college outreach activities by participating in the NSF Young Scholars Program held each summer at Haystack. A schedule of seminars and gatherings encourage communication between the REU participants and attempt to ensure each student is exposed to a representative view of other research areas besides their own. The format encourages the staff mentor to view the student as a junior collaborator, and the student works with, rather than for, the staff member. Many students have subsequently reported their work at meetings of professional societies, and in refereed publications. We will recount the strengths and weaknesses noted in the program's first decade, and some of the problems encountered in its implementation. Tracking data on the students will be presented where available: a large fraction of REU participants subsequently have chosen graduate study in scientific fields. In addition to providing the students with valuable research experiences, we believe that the Haystack REU alumni have benefitted from the program by acquiring important assets in critical thinking, communications skills, and the use of modern tools in analyzing problems. Benefits have also accrued to the

  11. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y.; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F.; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  12. Oxygen trends over five decades in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendardo, I.; Gruber, N.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate long-term trends in dissolved oxygen in the North Atlantic from 1960 to 2009 on the basis of a newly assembled high-quality dataset consisting of oxygen data from three different sources: CARINA, GLODAP and the World Ocean Database. Oxygen trends are determined along isopycnal surfaces for eight regions and five water masses using a general least-squares linear regression method that accounts for temporal auto-correlation. Our results show a significant decrease of oxygen in the Upper (UW), Mode (MW) and Intermediate (IW) waters in almost all regions over the last 5 decades. Over the same period, oxygen increased in the Lower Intermediate Water (LIW) and Labrador Sea Water (LSW) throughout the North Atlantic. The observed oxygen decreases in the MW and IW of the northern and eastern regions are largely driven by changes in circulation and/or ventilation, while changes in solubility are the main driver for the oxygen decrease in the UW and the increases in the LIW and LSW. From 1960 until 2009 the UW, MW, and IW horizons have lost a total of -57 ± 34 Tmol, while the LIW and LSW horizons have gained 46 ± 47 Tmol, integrating to a roughly constant oxygen inventory in the North Atlantic. Comparing our oxygen trends with those of the oceanic heat content, we find an O2 to heat change ratio of -3.6 ± 2.8 nmol J-1 for the UW, MW and IW, and a ratio of -2.8 ± 3.4 nmol J-1 for the LIW and LSW. These ratios are substantially larger than those expected from solubility alone.

  13. A decade of invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases. METHODS: The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials. RESULTS: In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011. The general case fatality rate in the years 2010-2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009-2011 revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics.

  14. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications. PMID:26581424

  15. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species. PMID:24759324

  16. Low-temperature geothermal utilization in Iceland - Decades of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsson, Gudni [Iceland GeoSurvey (ISOR), Reykjavik (Iceland); University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Gunnlaugsson, Einar [Reykjavik Energy, Reykjavik (Iceland); Jonasson, Thorgils [National Energy Authority (Orkustofnun), Reykjavik (Iceland); Olafsson, Magnus [Iceland GeoSurvey (ISOR), Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2010-12-15

    Geothermal energy plays a key role in the economy of Iceland and it supplies about 89% of the space heating requirements. A large fraction of the country's district heating services (hitaveitas) use energy from low-temperature geothermal systems, which are mostly located outside the volcanic zone. Many of the geothermal district heating services have been in operation for several decades and much can be learned from their operation, in particular regarding long-term management of low-temperature geothermal resources. In most cases down-hole pumps are used, but there are examples of large-scale artesian flow still being maintained. The Reykjavik geothermal district heating service is the world's largest such service. It started operation on a small scale in 1930, and today it serves Reykjavik and surrounding communities, about 58% of the total population of Iceland. The Reykjavik district heating service utilizes three low-temperature systems. The production and response (pressure, chemistry, and temperature) histories of these systems and six other low-temperature geothermal systems are discussed. Four of the systems are very productive and reach equilibrium at constant production. Two are much less productive and do not attain equilibrium, while three are of intermediate productivity. Groundwater inflow has caused temperature decline and chemical changes in two of the systems. Several problems have faced the Icelandic low-temperature operations, such as excessive pressure drawdown caused by overexploitation, colder water inflow, and sea water incursion. None of the district heating systems has ceased operation and solutions have been found to these problems. The solutions include improving the energy efficiency of the associated heating systems, deeper and more focussed drilling (e.g., directional drilling), finding new drilling targets (even new drilling areas), and injection, as well as technical solutions on the surface. The long utilization case

  17. Painful Temporomandibular Disorder: Decade of Discovery from OPPERA Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, G D; Ohrbach, R; Greenspan, J D; Fillingim, R B; Bair, E; Sanders, A E; Dubner, R; Diatchenko, L; Meloto, C B; Smith, S; Maixner, W

    2016-09-01

    In 2006, the OPPERA project (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment) set out to identify risk factors for development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). A decade later, this review summarizes its key findings. At 4 US study sites, OPPERA recruited and examined 3,258 community-based TMD-free adults assessing genetic and phenotypic measures of biological, psychosocial, clinical, and health status characteristics. During follow-up, 4% of participants per annum developed clinically verified TMD, although that was a "symptom iceberg" when compared with the 19% annual rate of facial pain symptoms. The most influential predictors of clinical TMD were simple checklists of comorbid health conditions and nonpainful orofacial symptoms. Self-reports of jaw parafunction were markedly stronger predictors than corresponding examiner assessments. The strongest psychosocial predictor was frequency of somatic symptoms, although not somatic reactivity. Pressure pain thresholds measured at cranial sites only weakly predicted incident TMD yet were strongly associated with chronic TMD, cross-sectionally, in OPPERA's separate case-control study. The puzzle was resolved in OPPERA's nested case-control study where repeated measures of pressure pain thresholds revealed fluctuation that coincided with TMD's onset, persistence, and recovery but did not predict its incidence. The nested case-control study likewise furnished novel evidence that deteriorating sleep quality predicted TMD incidence. Three hundred genes were investigated, implicating 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as risk factors for chronic TMD, while another 6 SNPs were associated with intermediate phenotypes for TMD. One study identified a serotonergic pathway in which multiple SNPs influenced risk of chronic TMD. Two other studies investigating gene-environment interactions found that effects of stress on pain were modified by variation in the gene encoding catechol O

  18. Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Post-docs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 1-2 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s

  19. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  20. Seagrasses in tropical Australia, productive and abundant for decades decimated overnight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter C Pollard; Margaret Greenway

    2013-03-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide unique coastal habitats critical to the life cycle of many species. Seagrasses are a major store of organic carbon. While seagrasses are globally threatened and in decline, in Cairns Harbour, Queensland, on the tropical east coast of Australia, they have flourished. We assessed seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour between 1953 and 2012 from historical aerial photographs, Google map satellite images, existing reports and our own surveys of their distribution. Seasonal seagrass physiology was assessed through gross primary production, respiration and photosynthetic characteristics of three seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii and Zostera muelleri. At the higher water temperatures of summer, respiration rates increased in all three species, as did their maximum rates of photosynthesis. All three seagrasses achieved maximum rates of photosynthesis at low tide and when they were exposed. For nearly six decades there was little change in seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour. This was most likely because the seagrasses were able to achieve sufficient light for growth during intertidal and low tide periods. With historical data of seagrass distribution and measures of species production and respiration, could seagrass survival in a changing climate be predicted? Based on physiology, our results predicted the continued maintenance of the Cairns Harbour seagrasses, although one species was more susceptible to thermal disturbance. However, in 2011 an unforeseen episodic disturbance – Tropical Cyclone Yasi – and associated floods lead to the complete and catastrophic loss of all the seagrasses in Cairns Harbour.

  1. International Workshop on First Decadal Review Of The Edgeworth-kuiper-belt : Towards New Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera, Luis; Towards New Frontiers

    2004-01-01

    A decade after the confirmation of the Kuiper Belt's existence, 80 of the world's experts gathered in Chile to review what has been learned since 1992. This record of the meeting is enhanced by several specially solicited papers covering additional material not presented at the conference. The volume includes papers on the dynamics of the trans-Neptunian region, the results of deep surveys for the new objects and the evidence for an outer Edge to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. Physical observations of many objects are described and attempts are made to bring these data into some coherent picture of the distant solar system. The interior physics of these distant, icy objects, and the link between the Kuiper Belt and dust disks around other stars are also considered. Of particular interest is a set of papers on how the surfaces of distant asteroids are affected by various types of radiation, an area crucial to the interpretation of data being collected by large ground based telescopes. Suitable for professi...

  2. The near-Earth asteroids population from two decades of observations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricarico, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Determining the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) population is the focus of intense research, with the most recent models converging to a population of approximately 1,000 km-sized NEAs and up to approximately $10^8$ NEAs with absolute magnitude $H<28$. Here we show that the NEAs population is significantly smaller than previous estimates, with $900 \\pm 10$ NEAs larger than 1 km, approximately 10% lower than most recent estimates. Additionally, we estimate the population of small NEAs at 430,000 $\\pm$ 30,000 for $H<28$, a decrease by two orders of magnitude. These results are enabled by an analysis of the combined observations of nine of the leading asteroid surveys over the past two decades. This reduced population tracks very accurately the orbital distribution of recently discovered large NEAs, and produces an estimated Earth impact rate for small NEAs in good agreement with the bolide data. Data hint at a possible decrease of the average albedo in small NEAs that would reconcile the small difference betw...

  3. Visceral artery aneurysms: Incidence, management, and outcome analysis in a tertiary care center over one decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence, management, and outcome of visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) over one decade. 233 patients with 253 VAA were analyzed according to location, diameter, aneurysm type, aetiology, rupture, management, and outcome. VAA were localized at the splenic artery, coeliac trunk, renal artery, hepatic artery, superior mesenteric artery, and other locations. The aetiology was degenerative, iatrogenic after medical procedures, connective tissue disease, and others. The rate of rupture was much higher in pseudoaneurysms than true aneurysms (76.3 % vs.3.1 %). Fifty-nine VAA were treated by intervention (n = 45) or surgery (n = 14). Interventions included embolization with coils or glue, covered stents, or combinations of these. Thirty-five cases with ruptured VAA were treated on an emergency basis. There was no difference in size between ruptured and non-ruptured VAA. After interventional treatment, the 30-day mortality was 6.7 % in ruptured VAA compared to no mortality in non-ruptured cases. Follow-up included CT and/or MRI after a mean period of 18.0 ± 26.8 months. The current status of the patient was obtained by a structured telephone survey. Pseudoaneurysms of visceral arteries have a high risk for rupture. Aneurysm size seems to be no reliable predictor for rupture. Interventional treatment is safe and effective for management of VAA. (orig.)

  4. Rural Panel Surveys in Developing Countries: A Selective Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIDONG; WANG; GUIHUA; XIE; LINGXIN; HAO

    2014-01-01

    Rural panel surveys are the most appropriate source of data for studying the unprecedented rapid migration and urbanization currently taking place in China and other developing countries. This paper provides a selective review, focusing on the panel survey methodologies of several studies, which are organized based on our proposed four key elements of panel surveys: representativeness, retrospect-prospect, multilevel tracking, and temporality. To maximize heterogeneity in urbanization and development over the last three decades, we select rural panel surveys from five Asian countries: India, Indonesia, Nepal, Thailand, and China. We analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the selected panel surveys to provide directions for designing future rural panel surveys in China and elsewhere in the developing world.

  5. Lifted Graphical Models: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalkova, Lilyana

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a survey of work on lifted graphical models. We review a general form for a lifted graphical model, a par-factor graph, and show how a number of existing statistical relational representations map to this formalism. We discuss inference algorithms, including lifted inference algorithms, that efficiently compute the answers to probabilistic queries. We also review work in learning lifted graphical models from data. It is our belief that the need for statistical relational models (whether it goes by that name or another) will grow in the coming decades, as we are inundated with data which is a mix of structured and unstructured, with entities and relations extracted in a noisy manner from text, and with the need to reason effectively with this data. We hope that this synthesis of ideas from many different research groups will provide an accessible starting point for new researchers in this expanding field.

  6. The Nainital-Cape Survey-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Santosh; Chowdhury, Sowgata; Chakradhari, N K; Joshi, Y C; van Heerden, P; Medupe, T; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Kuhn, R B

    2016-01-01

    The Nainital-Cape survey is a dedicated ongoing survey programme to search for and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars to understand their internal structure and evolution. The main aims of this survey are to find new pulsating Ap and Am stars in the northern and southern hemisphere and to perform asteroseismic studies of these new pulsators. The survey is conducted using high-speed photometry. The candidate stars were selected on the basis of having Stromgren photometric indices similar to those of known pulsating CP stars. Over the last decade a total of 337 candidate pulsating CP stars were observed for the Nainital-Cape survey, making it one of the longest ground-based surveys for pulsation in CP stars in terms of time span and sample size. The previous papers of this series presented seven new pulsating variables and 229 null results. In this paper we present the light curves, frequency spectra and the various astrophysical parameters of the 108 additional CP stars observed si...

  7. Surveys, Astrometric Follow-up & Population Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jedicke, Robert; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen; Spahr, Timothy; Yeomans, Donald K

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid surveys are the backbone of asteroid science, and with this in mind we begin with a broad review of the impact of asteroid surveys on our field. We then provide a brief history of asteroid discoveries so as to place contemporary and future surveys in perspective. Surveys in the United States have discovered the vast majority of the asteroids and this dominance has been consolidated since the publication of Asteroids III. Our descriptions of the asteroid surveys that have been operational since that time are focussed upon those that have contributed the vast majority of asteroid observations and discoveries. We also provide some insight into upcoming next-generation surveys that are sure to alter our understanding of the small bodies in the inner solar system and provide evidence to untangle their complicated dynamical and physical histories. The Minor Planet Center, the nerve center of the asteroid discovery effort, has improved its operations significantly in the past decade so that it can manage th...

  8. Wide Field Surveys and Astronomical Discovery Space

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, A

    2007-01-01

    I review the status of science with wide field surveys. For many decades surveys have been the backbone of astronomy, and the main engine of discovery, as we have mapped the sky at every possible wavelength. Surveys are an efficient use of resources. They are important as a fundamental resource; to map intrinsically large structures; to gain the necessary statistics to address some problems; and to find very rare objects. I summarise major recent wide field surveys - 2MASS, SDSS, 2dfGRS, and UKIDSS - and look at examples of the exciting science they have produced, covering the structure of the Milky Way, the measurement of cosmological parameters, the creation of a new field studying substellar objects, and the ionisation history of the Universe. I then look briefly at upcoming projects in the optical-IR survey arena - VISTA, PanSTARRS, WISE, and LSST. Finally I ask, now we have opened up essentially all wavelength windows, whether the exploration of survey discovery space is ended. I examine other possible a...

  9. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcones, Almudena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Others, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-04

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  10. Collaborative Research. Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelSole, Timothy [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of the proposed research was to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be

  11. Analysis of satellite precipitation over East Africa during last decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of East Africa (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over East Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and

  12. The V4: a Decade after the EU Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard NEŽINSKÝ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to give a picture of the sources of economic growth in the V4 countries during the decade following their EU entry and to crosscheck  the  results  obtained  by  parametric  and  non-parametric  approaches.  Growth accounting technique is used to depict dynamics of the V4 countries evolution since 1995 up to 2013. The poor post-crisis performance reflected in TFP indicator is in line with  the  result  of  the  absence  of  technological  progress  obtained  by  data envelopment analysis. Sources  of  the  economic  growth  are  identified  by growth  accounting  based  on  Solow-Swan  model.  Non-parametrical  part  employs  an SBM  measure  of  efficiency  in  Data  envelopment  analysis as  an application  of  linear programming optimization. Main findings include determining faster-than-average economic growth of the  V4  followed  by  a  considerable  decline  both  in  total  factor  productivity  and  in catching-up rate in the after-crisis period. DEA approach reveals excessive use of labor in all of the V4 countries and finds almost negligibletechnological change. The main concern for economic policy in the V4 as well as the entire EU continues to be tackling unemployment and facilitating factors´ productivity by structural reforms. The paper makes use of parametric and non-parametric approaches  with  a  view  to  cross-checking  the  results  obtained  on  the  technological change within the EU at large and across the V4 countries in particular.

  13. DOE, IAEA collaborate to put decades of nuclear research online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Decades of nuclear research supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies are being made searchable on the World Wide Web, as part of a collaborative effort between the DOE and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The project aims to give researchers, academics, and the general public access to vast volumes of valuable nuclear-related research over the internet. As part of its knowledge preservation mandate, the IAEA' s International Nuclear Information System(INIS) works to preserve nuclear knowledge by digitizing historic nuclear energy research documents dating from 1970 through the early 1990s. Collections from over 29 countries are now digitally available and several additional digital preservation projects are ongoing or are being established, particularly in the Latin America and Caribbean regions. ''Thanks to the collaborative work of the IAEA and its Member States, scientists and students in the nuclear field now have instant access to important research and technical information over the internet,'' said IAEA Deputy Director General for Nuclear Energy Yury Sokolov. ''Our INIS programme continues to work to preserve and provide access to publications and documents on the peaceful applications of nuclear technology.'' The DOE project is one of the larger programmes in the INIS project, and includes more than 180,000 documents from the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). OSTI is the U.S. representative to INIS and has had its own digitization focus in recent years. The novel partnership highlights the longstanding mutual benefits of DOE participation in INIS. In essence, it opens up previous research on the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy by making it freely and quickly available to scientists and engineers. By making scientific data electronically available, the INIS database helps scientists and students to attain volumes of data that are otherwise inaccessible

  14. The Planetary Data System--preparing for a New Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; Knopf, William P.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.

    2015-11-01

    In order to improve NASA’s ability to serve the Planetary Science Community, the Planetary Data System (PDS) has been transformed. NASA has used the highly successful virtual institute model (e.g., for NASA’s Astrobiology Program) to re-compete the Science Nodes within the PDS Structure. The new institute structure will facilitate our efforts within the PDS to improve both archive searchability and product discoverability. We will continue the adaption of the new PDS4 Standard, and enhance our ability to work with other archive/curation activities within NASA and with the community of space faring nations (through the IPDA). PDS science nodes will continue to work with NASA missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented.The Science nodes were selected through a Cooperative Agreement Notice (NNH15ZDA006C) which specifically allowed the community to propose specific archive concepts. The selected nodes are: Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Rings-Moon Systems, Planetary Geosciences, Planetary Plasma Interactions, Atmospheres, and Small Bodies. Other elements of the PDS include an Engineering Node, the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility, and a small project office.The prime role of the PDS is unchanged. We archive and distribute scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research.In this presentation we discuss recent changes in the PDS, and our future activities to build on the new Institute. Near term efforts include developing a PDS Roadmap for the next decade lead by PDS Chief Scientist, Dr

  15. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1990-03-01

    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  16. Multi-decadal Variability of the Wind Power Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner Bossi, Nicolas; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Prieto, Luis; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the long-term wind power variability is essential to provide a realistic outlook on the power output during the lifetime of a planned wind power project. In this work, the Power Output (Po) of a market wind turbine is simulated with a daily resolution for the period 1871-2009 at two different locations in Spain, one at the Central Iberian Plateau and another at the Gibraltar Strait Area. This is attained through a statistical downscaling of the daily wind conditions. It implements a Greedy Algorithm as classificator of a geostrophic-based wind predictor, which is derived by considering the SLP daily field from the 56 ensemble members of the longest homogeneous reanalysis available (20CR, 1871-2009). For calibration and validation purposes we use 10 years of wind observations (the predictand) at both sites. As a result, a series of 139 annual wind speed Probability Density Functions (PDF) are obtained, with a good performance in terms of wind speed uncertainty reduction (average daily wind speed MAE=1.48 m/s). The obtained centennial series allow to investigate the multi-decadal variability of wind power from different points of view. Significant periodicities around the 25-yr frequency band, as well as long-term linear trends are detected at both locations. In addition, a negative correlation is found between annual Po at both locations, evidencing the differences in the dynamical mechanisms ruling them (and possible complementary behavior). Furthermore, the impact that the three leading large-scale circulation patterns over Iberia (NAO, EA and SCAND) exert over wind power output is evaluated. Results show distinct (and non-stationary) couplings to these forcings depending on the geographical position and season or month. Moreover, significant non-stationary correlations are observed with the slow varying Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index for both case studies. Finally, an empirical relationship is explored between the annual Po and the

  17. US Pneumonia Hospitalizations, a Decade of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Marie R.; Zhu, Yuwei; Moore, Matthew R.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Grijalva, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the US childhood immunization schedule in 2000 has substantially reduced vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in both young children and unvaccinated older children and adults. All-cause pneumonia hospitalizations also markedly declined in young children by 2004. Because of concern about increases in disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes, we assessed whether the pneumonia reduction in young children was sustained through 2009 and whether pneumonia hospitalizations in older age groups also declined. Methods Annual all-cause pneumonia hospitalization rates were estimated using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Pneumonia hospitalizations were defined by pneumonia listed first or listed in another position if sepsis, meningitis or empyema was the first listed diagnosis. Average annual rates in pre-PCV7 (1997–1999) and late PCV7 years (2007–2009) were used to estimate annual declines in pneumonia hospitalizations. Results Annual pneumonia hospitalization rates declined by 551.1 (95% confidence interval 445.1–657.1) per 100,000 children aged <2 years, translating to 47,172 fewer hospitalizations annually compared to expected based on pre-PCV7 rates. The decline of 1300.8 (984.0–1617.6) pneumonia hospitalizations per 100,000 adults aged ≥85 years translated to 73,243 fewer hospitalizations annually. Pneumonia hospitalizations declined by 8.4 (0.6–16.2), 85.3 (7.0–163.6), and 359.8 (199.6–520.0) per 100,000 adults aged 18–39, 65–74 and 75–84 years, respectively. Overall, we estimated an age-adjusted annual reduction of 54.8 (41.1–68.5) per 100,000 or 168,182 fewer pneumonia hospitalizations annually. Conclusions Declines in childhood pneumonia were sustained during the decade since PCV7 introduction. Substantial reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations in adults were also observed. PMID:23841730

  18. Decadal trends in global CO emissions as seen by MOPITT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Broquet, G.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Pison, I.; Saunois, M.

    2015-12-01

    Negative trends of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations are observed in the recent decade by both surface measurements and satellite retrievals over many regions of the globe, but they are not well explained by current emission inventories. Here, we analyse the observed CO concentration decline with an atmospheric inversion that simultaneously optimizes the two main CO sources (surface emissions and atmospheric hydrocarbon oxidations) and the main CO sink (atmospheric hydroxyl radical OH oxidation). Satellite CO column retrievals from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), version 6, and surface observations of methane and methyl chloroform mole fractions are assimilated jointly for the period covering 2002-2011. Compared to the model simulation prescribed with prior emission inventories, trends in the optimized CO concentrations show better agreement with that of independent surface in situ measurements. At the global scale, the atmospheric inversion primarily interprets the CO concentration decline as a decrease in the CO emissions (-2.3 % yr-1), more than twice the negative trend estimated by the prior emission inventories (-1.0 % yr-1). The spatial distribution of the inferred decrease in CO emissions indicates contributions from western Europe (-4.0 % yr-1), the United States (-4.6 % yr-1) and East Asia (-1.2 % yr-1), where anthropogenic fuel combustion generally dominates the overall CO emissions, and also from Australia (-5.3 % yr-1), the Indo-China Peninsula (-5.6 % yr-1), Indonesia (-6.7 % y-1), and South America (-3 % yr-1), where CO emissions are mostly due to biomass burning. In contradiction with the bottom-up inventories that report an increase of 2 % yr-1 over China during the study period, a significant emission decrease of 1.1 % yr-1 is inferred by the inversion. A large decrease in CO emission factors due to technology improvements would outweigh the increase in carbon fuel combustions and may explain this decrease. Independent

  19. Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. ► So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. ► A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. ► The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. ► We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988–2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for

  20. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  1. Return to 'Giant's Footprint' 3 Decades After Mariner 7 Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for full-resolution image. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for full-resolution image. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for full-resolution image. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for full-resolution image.As we head into the 21st Century, it seems hard to believe that human beings have been sending spacecraft toward Mars for more than 3 decades already. The first spacecraft to reach Mars was Mariner 4 in 1965. This success was followed by two spacecraft in 1969, Mariners 6 and 7. Now the wonders and alien beauty of Mars continue to unfold with each day that the Mars Global Surveyor--which arrived in September 1997--continues to radio its data to Earth.Mars exploration was always difficult and each bit of data returned from the planet is a marvel. On August 5, 1969, the Mariner 7 spacecraft flew past Mars at a minimum altitude of about 4200 km. It acquired 14 wide/narrow angle image pairs during the few minutes of the 'near encounter' flyby. One of these image pairs, 7N19/7N20, shows the south polar region and contains a feature that at the time was nicknamed 'the Giant's Footprint.' Shown in the first two pictures, above, the feature consists of two adjoining craters, one about 80 km (50 mi) in diameter and the other about 50 km (31 mi) across near latitude 76oS, longitude 276oW. The oblique geometry of the Mariner 7 image enhances the impression of a footprint.The 'Giant's Footprint' was almost missed when Mariner 7 suffered a near-catastrophic battery failure just a few days before the encounter--on July 30--that put the spacecraft sporadically out of contact with Earth for two days. Ground controllers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)recovered the spacecraft, re-planned its imaging sequence based on results from the Mariner 6 flyby on July 31, and salvaged all of the mission's science goals in under a week!In the 1970's, the larger crater in

  2. Elementary engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Jayanta Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Elementary Engineering Surveying is a text book for students attending the first course on Engineering Survey. The book is written very concisely and to the point for student to devout less time for study without compromising the quality of understanding and learning the elements of engineering survey. The book has eleven chapters prepared in modular form with an aim to carry out field surveying systematically. Starting from fundamentals of surveying, chapters include measurement of horizontal and vertical distances and angles, surveying instruments and their working with due importance to map

  3. The FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Elston, R J; McKenzie, E; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Cardona, G; Dey, A; Dickinson, M; Eisenhardt, P R M; Jannuzi, B T; Lin, Y T; Mohr, J J; Raines, S N; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Elston, Richard J.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Kenzie, Eric Mc; Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cardona, Gustavo; Dey, Arjun; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Mohr, Joseph J.; Stern, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Using the Florida Multi-object Imaging Near-IR grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS), we have conducted the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), a deep imaging survey covering 7.1 square degrees within the 18.6 sq. deg NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) regions. FLAMEX is the first deep, wide-area near-infrared survey to image in both the J and Ks filters, and is larger than any previous NIR surveys of comparable depth. The intent of FLAMEX is to facilitate the study of galaxy and galaxy cluster evolution at 11 galaxy clusters detected using the joint FLAMEX, NDWFS, and Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey data sets.

  4. Handbook of web surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bethlehem, Jelke

    2011-01-01

    BEST PRACTICES TO CREATE AND IMPLEMENTHIGHLY EFFECTIVE WEB SURVEYS Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to tips for detecting error, this book thoroughly introduces readers to the this cutting-edge technique and offers tips for creating successful web surveys. The authors provide a history of web surveys and go on to explore the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of dat

  5. Positive Constitutional Economics II—A Survey of Recent Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the economic effects of constitutional rules has made substantial progress over the last decade. This survey provides an overview of this rapidly growing research area and also discusses a number of methodological issues and identifies underresearched areas. It argues that the next logical step of Positive Constitutional Economics is to endogenize constitutional rules.

  6. Survey of the patents intensity in advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey about a sectorial diagnostic of advanced ceramics, using patents of the Industrial Properties National Institute, as a reference documentation is presented. The mains points for generating technology in 80 decade are identified, by the institutions/company titularies of patents. (C.G.C.)

  7. Sheltered Workshops Employee Satisfaction Survey. Part Two: Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Evelyn H.; Lauricella, John

    The special employment program in Yooralla Society of Victoria (Australia) began operation two decades ago with establishment of sheltered workshops. As part of an overall review of Yooralla's programs, a survey was conducted as a first stage in evaluation of the workshops--Ability Industries and Ability Press. The aim of the research project was…

  8. Survey Data Cleaning Guidelines: (SPSS and Stata). 1st Edition.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaver, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to outline the steps in the process of preparing data for analysis after data entry is complete. Examples of commands are given for both SPSS – version 19 – and Stata – version 11. These steps are a culmination of two decades of working with agricultural surveys in Kenya, Zambia, Mali and Mozambique.

  9. GRB Probes of the High-z Universe with EXIST

    CERN Document Server

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission concept is optimized for study of high-z GRBs as probes of the early Universe. With a High Energy Telescope (HET) incorporating a 4.5m^2 5-600keV (CZT; 0.6mm pixels) detector plane for coded aperture imaging a 90deg x 70deg (>10% coding fraction) field of view with 2' resolution and 5 sigma sources, EXIST will perform rapid (7, EXIST will open a new era in studies of the early Universe as well as carry o ut a rich program of AGN and transient-source science. An overview of the GRB science objectives and a brief discussion of the overall mission design and operations is given, and example high-z GRB IRT spectra are shown. EXIST is being proposed to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey as a 5 year Medium Class mission that could be launched as early as 2017.

  10. Small-body surveys and the Minor Planet Center perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, T.

    2014-07-01

    Surveys for small bodies in the Solar System have dramatically expanded capacity and capability over the last two decades; the principal reason being the shift from photographic to digital imaging and reduction techniques. This talk will discuss our current knowledge of minor planet and comet populations, as well as the main surveys responsible for the discovery of these objects. Amateur and professional contributions to the Solar System inventory will be discussed as well. Lastly there will be a discussion of future surveys, with an emphasis on the lessons learned from Pan-STARRS and NEOWISE.

  11. Drift dynamics in a coupled model initialized for decadal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Cassou, Christophe; Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Fernandez, Elodie; Terray, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Drifts are always present in models when initialized from observed conditions because of intrinsic model errors; those potentially affect any type of climate predictions based on numerical experiments. Model drifts are usually removed through more or less sophisticated techniques for skill assessment, but they are rarely analysed. In this study, we provide a detailed physical and dynamical description of the drifts in the CNRM-CM5 coupled model using a set of decadal retrospective forecasts produced within CMIP5. The scope of the paper is to give some physical insights and lines of approach to, on one hand, implement more appropriate techniques of initialisation that minimize the drift in forecast mode, and on the other hand, eventually reduce the systematic biases of the models. We first document a novel protocol for ocean initialization adopted by the CNRM-CERFACS group for forecasting purpose in CMIP5. Initial states for starting dates of the predictions are obtained from a preliminary integration of the coupled model where full-field ocean surface temperature and salinity are restored everywhere to observations through flux derivative terms and full-field subsurface fields (below the prognostic ocean mixed layer) are nudged towards NEMOVAR reanalyses. Nudging is applied only outside the 15°S-15°N band allowing for dynamical balance between the depth and tilt of the tropical thermocline and the model intrinsic biased wind. A sensitivity experiment to the latitudinal extension of no-nudging zone (1°S-1°N instead of 15°, hereafter referred to as NOEQ) has been carried out. In this paper, we concentrate our analyses on two specific regions: the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic basins. In the Pacific, we show that the first year of the forecasts is characterized by a quasi-systematic excitation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events whatever the starting dates. This, through ocean-to-atmosphere heat transfer materialized by diabatic heating

  12. Paleoceanography and Beyond: Changing Perspectives over more than four Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The astonishing developments in understanding the earth as a developing system through time has resulted, during the last four decades, from a complex interplay between new technologies, the acceptance in the 1960's of plate tectonics and the adoption of a succession of critical paradigm shifts involving past earth system processes. Technologically, ocean drilling and coring, ice coring, marine geophysics and developing geochemical instrumentation have played key roles. Development of paleoceanography has been central to this understanding because of a necessary global perspective from its beginning. Early acceptance of the idea that changing ocean circulation, due to plate tectonic change, affected heat transfer and hence global climate and biosphere evolution stimulated the field. Development of planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy played an early, critical step in the development of paleoceanography because of the need for global stratigraphic correlation. This advancement capitalized on existing taxonomic and biostratigraphic developments of the 1960's prior to the plate tectonic revolution and the development of magnetobiostratigraphy when Cenozoic study was largely a land-based enterprise. The advent of ocean drilling led to remarkable advances in understanding of the earth's global evolution through the adoption of a succession of new paradigms during the 1970's and 1980's. These included recognition of a central role of Antarctica in global Cenozoic oceanic, climatic and biospheric evolution; the dynamic role of changes in thermohaline circulation and the deep sea in response to polar cryospheric development; and the affect of continentally-derived regional oceanic salinity changes on changing thermohaline circulation, the so called conveyor-belt hypothesis of late Quaternary climate change. Other critical paradigm shifts involved acceptence of the critical role of changing atmospheric greenhouse gas composition on climate change over different time

  13. SURVEY, VICTORIA COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, SANDERS COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, CARROLL COUNTY, NH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, SOLANO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Solano County California, hydrographic survey data collected by Harned Surveying and Engineering (HSE). Data collection period January 1, 2011 through March 1, 2011.

  17. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, TUSCALOSAA COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, UTAH COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, Kent COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, GLADES COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. Source-FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, ELBERT COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, CAROLINE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. SURVEY, OUACHITA PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution...

  8. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  9. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  10. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  12. SURVEY, York County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  13. SURVEY, BENTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, Stafford County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  15. SURVEY, Cecil County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  16. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, CHARLES COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  18. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  19. SURVEY, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  20. SURVEY, FREMONT COUNTY, COLORADO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, CITRUS County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. HCAHPS Hospital Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) Hospital Survey The intent of the HCAHPS initiative is to provide a standardized survey...

  3. SURVEY, Caroline COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  4. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  5. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  6. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  7. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  8. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten;

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  9. Cosmology with SKA Radio Continuum Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Matt J; Blake, Chris; Brown, Michael L; Lindsay, Sam N; Raccanelli, Alvise; Santos, Mario; Schwarz, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Radio continuum surveys have, in the past, been of restricted use in cosmology. Most studies have concentrated on cross-correlations with the cosmic microwave background to detect the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, due to the large sky areas that can be surveyed. As we move into the SKA era, radio continuum surveys will have sufficient source density and sky area to play a major role in cosmology on the largest scales. In this chapter we summarise the experiments that can be carried out with the SKA as it is built up through the coming decade. We show that the SKA can play a unique role in constraining the non-Gaussianity parameter to \\sigma(f_NL) ~ 1, and provide a unique handle on the systematics that inhibit weak lensing surveys. The SKA will also provide the necessary data to test the isotropy of the Universe at redshifts of order unity and thus evaluate the robustness of the cosmological principle.Thus, SKA continuum surveys will turn radio observations into a central probe of cosmological research in th...

  10. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2004-01-01

    Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends theory and practice, conventional techniques and GPS, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying.Detailed guidance is given on how and when the principle surveying instruments (theodolites, Total Stations, levels and GPS) should be used. Concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful results are explained. Rigorous explanations of the theoretical aspects of surveying are given, while at the same time a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice is provided. An accompanying least squares adjustment program

  12. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data. PMID:18940417

  13. Three Decades of Very Long Baseline Interferometry Monitoring of the Parsec-Scale Jet in 3C 345

    CERN Document Server

    Schinzel, Frank K; Zensus, J Anton

    2009-01-01

    The 16th magnitude quasar 3C 345 (redshift z=0.5928) shows structural and emission variability on parsec scales around a compact unresolved radio core. For the last three decades it has been closely monitored with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), yielding a wealth of information about the physics of relativistic outflows and dynamics of the central regions in AGN. We present here preliminary results for the long-term jet evolution, based on the 15 GHz monitoring data collected by the MOJAVE survey and various other groups over the last ~14 years and combined with data from earlier VLBI observations of 3C 345 which started in 1979. We discuss the trajectories, kinematics, and flux density evolution of enhanced emission regions embedded in the jet and present evidence for geometrical (e.g. precession) and physical (e.g. relativistic shocks and plasma instability) factors determining the morphology and dynamics of relativistic flows on parsec scales.

  14. A new vision of ocean biogeochemistry after a decade of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) has completed a decade of intensive process and time-series studies on the regional and temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes in five diverse ocean basins. Its field program also included a global survey of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ocean, including estimates of the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the ocean and the atmosphere, in cooperation with the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). This Special Report describes the case for studying the ocean carbon cycle, some of the most significant findings from the JGOFS field program, some of the results emerging from the synthesis and modelling efforts currently underway, a summary of major JGOFS achievements thus far, and a summary of the work that remains to be done

  15. On the Impact of Bootstrap in Survey Sampling and Small-Area Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, P.

    2003-01-01

    Development of valid bootstrap procedures has been a challenging problem for survey samplers for the last two decades. This is due to the fact that in surveys we constantly face various complex issues such as complex correlation structure induced by the survey design, weighting, imputation, small-area estimation, among others. In this paper, we critically review various bootstrap methods developed to deal with these challenging issues. We discuss two applications where the bootstrap has been ...

  16. ESO imaging survey: infrared deep public survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. F.; Miralles, J.-M.; da Costa, L.; Madejsky, R.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Mignano, A.; Arnouts, S.; Benoist, C.; Dietrich, J. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Zaggia, S.

    2006-09-01

    This paper is part of the series presenting the final results obtained by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. It presents new J and Ks data obtained from observations conducted at the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) using the SOFI camera. These data were taken as part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS) carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey program, significantly extending the earlier optical/infrared EIS-DEEP survey presented in a previous paper of this series. The DPS-IR survey comprises two observing strategies: shallow Ks observations providing nearly full coverage of pointings with complementary multi-band (in general {UBVRI}) optical data obtained using ESO's wide-field imager (WFI) and deeper J and Ks observations of the central parts of these fields. Currently, the DPS-IR survey provides a coverage of roughly 2.1 square degrees ( 300 SOFI pointings) in Ks with 0.63 square degrees to fainter magnitudes and also covered in J, over three independent regions of the sky. The goal of the present paper is to briefly describe the observations, the data reduction procedures, and to present the final survey products which include fully calibrated pixel-maps and catalogs extracted from them. The astrometric solution with an estimated accuracy of ⪉0.15 arcsec is based on the USNO catalog and limited only by the accuracy of the reference catalog. The final stacked images presented here number 89 and 272, in J and K_s, respectively, the latter reflecting the larger surveyed area. The J and Ks images were taken with a median seeing of 0.77 arcsec and 0.8 arcsec. The images reach a median 5σ limiting magnitude of JAB˜23.06 as measured within an aperture of 2´´, while the corresponding limiting magnitude in KsAB is 21.41 and 22.16 mag for the shallow and deep strategies. Although some spatial variation due to varying observing conditions is observed, overall the observed limiting magnitudes are consistent with those originally proposed. The quality of the data

  17. Minimal changes and missed opportunities: a decade look at nurse practitioners in the lower Mississippi River Delta states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenbrock, Thomas; Buron, Bill; Odell, Ellen; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. southern region has one of most socioeconomically deprived and poorest health care outcomes in the county. The aims of this study were to determine changes of nurse practitioners (NPs) and their practice in lower Mississippi River Delta over the past decade and to examine differences of NPs' employment in health professional storage areas (HPSAs) and rural areas. A nonexperimental quantitative survey technique was used in the years 2000 and 2010. Other data sources included Health Resources and Services Administration that identified HPSA and the U.S. Census Bureau used to distinguish urban and rural areas. NPs are younger, and more are graduates of master's and doctorate degrees, but they are not reflective of the race they serve. Approximately, 25% of NPs worked in HPSA, and 50% worked in the rural area both in 2000 and in 2010. This proportion has remained blatantly steady during the past decade. Employment in rural health centers and family practice as a specialty declined; however, self-employment was on the rise. Nursing schools and health care institutions should be collaborating to develop plans and implementation strategies to recruit and retain NPs in the Mississippi River Delta rural and HPSAs. PMID:24939337

  18. Towards the Prediction of Decadal to Centennial Climate Processes in the Coupled Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhengyu [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Kutzbach, J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jacob, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prentice, C. [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-05

    In this proposal, we have made major advances in the understanding of decadal and long term climate variability. (a) We performed a systematic study of multidecadal climate variability in FOAM-LPJ and CCSM-T31, and are starting exploring decadal variability in the IPCC AR4 models. (b) We develop several novel methods for the assessment of climate feedbacks in the observation. (c) We also developed a new initialization scheme DAI (Dynamical Analogue Initialization) for ensemble decadal prediction. (d) We also studied climate-vegetation feedback in the observation and models. (e) Finally, we started a pilot program using Ensemble Kalman Filter in CGCM for decadal climate prediction.

  19. Results of the staff survey: your priorities

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles which will give some details about the results of the Staff Association staff survey To know your priorities and the evolution of your concerns over the last decade we study how, in each of our latest three surveys, you chose from a list of 15 items the five most important and classified them by assigning them a priority, from the most important to the fifth most important. The list of fifteen items, and a short description, follows. Career evolution (classification, level of recruitment, advancement, promotion) Salary level Family policy (recognition of partners, allowances, school fees, kindergarten, nursery, crèche, parental leave) Health insurance Non-residence and international indemnity Annual salary adjustment (cost variation index) Contract policy (duration, recruitment, award of IC, conditions of the beginning and ending of the contract) Motivation at work (interest, team, supervision, mobility, reward scheme) Pensions (retirement, disability, o...

  20. Community outlook survey

    OpenAIRE

    Community Affairs Office

    2010-01-01

    In July 2010, the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas launched the Community Outlook Survey, a quarterly online survey to assess community and economic development in the Eleventh District of the Federal Reserve System--Texas, northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico. ; This seven-question survey focuses on changes in financial well-being for low- and moderate-income (LMI) populations as well as service providers' capacity to serve the needs of these clients. The Bank uses providers' responses t...

  1. Hidrografske meritve : Hydrographic Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Kolenc

    2005-01-01

    Hydrographic surveys are required for a wide range of civil works engineering and construction activities. They support construction of hydrotechnical objects (dams, hydro-powerplants etc.), safe navigation, flood control missions and topographic survey of wetlands. All this caused development of various surveying methods through years but despite continuous improvements of technology and software, the hydrographic field of work is still one of great pretension.

  2. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  3. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  4. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  5. Effects of two decades of rising sea surface temperatures on sublittoral macrobenthos communities in Northern Ireland, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Claire E; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Edwards, Hugh; Bennett, Stephanie C; Breen, Joe P; Picton, Bernard E

    2013-04-01

    We examined whether two decades of rising sea surface temperatures have resulted in significant changes in the benthic community and frequency of occurrence of Northern and Southern species in three areas of Northern Ireland, using visual census data collected by SCUBA surveys undertaken during two periods: pre-1986 and post-2006. We found little evidence to suggest that rising sea surface temperatures have contributed to the changes in benthic assemblage structure between the pre-1986 and post-2006 surveys. However, there were slight but not significant declines in extreme Northern species at Rathlin Island, and increases in the mean number and frequency of occurrence of extreme Southern species in all three areas. There were also substantial declines in the spatial presence of 7 extreme Northern species and notable increases in distribution of 19 extreme Southern species. In contrast, there were no clear trends in the intermediate to Northern and intermediate to Southern species. These results suggest that rising sea surface temperatures have had significant impacts on the occurrence of rarer marine invertebrate species at the edges of their biogeographic range however the trends differed between areas in Northern Ireland. PMID:23321298

  6. A course on professional development for astronomy graduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Eileen D.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasingly wide-spread recognition in astronomy that professional training must broaden beyond its traditional approaches to academic classes and research. Many recent community advisory reports, including the National Academy of Sciences Decadal survey, Astro2010, recommend that graduate education accommodate the variety of career paths taken by graduates, taking into account the wide range of activities scientists engage in and the skills necessary to succeed in career options both inside and outside academia and specific scientific disciplines. In response to this need, Indiana University has recently offered a new graduate seminar in astronomy to provide this broader perspective and to prepare students for a variety of career paths after graduate school. The course uses a mixture of class discussion on selected topics supplemented by short readings, activities that prepare students for seeking employment and practice some necessary skills, and discussions with astronomers who have followed a variety of career paths. An important part of the seminar is the practical preparation of complete applications for typical positions students are likely to pursue following graduation, and the revision of these applications to be appropriate for a non-traditional career path. The goal of the course is to make students aware of the many options for careers that will be available to them and the skills that will be important for their success, and to equip students with strategies for following a personally satisfying career path.

  7. NASA funding opportunities for optical fabrication and testing technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    NASA requires technologies to fabricate and test optical components to accomplish its highest priority science missions. The NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities Report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to `Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is next generation X-ray and UVOIR telescopes. Each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR) identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) programs.

  8. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arcones, Almudena; Beers, Timothy; Berstein, Lee; Blackmon, Jeff; Bronson, Messer; Brown, Alex; Brown, Edward; Brune, Carl; Champagne, Art; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib; Escher, Jutta; Fields, Brian; Frohlich, Carla; Herwig, Falk; Hix, William Raphael; Iliadis, Christian; Lynch, William; McLaughlin, Gail; Meyer, Bradley; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Nunes, Filomena; O'Shea, Brian; Prakash, Madappa; Pritychenko, Boris; Reddy, Sanjay; Rehm, Ernst; Rogachev, Grigory; Rutledge, Robert; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Michael; Stairs, Ingrid; Steiner, Andrew; Strohmayer, Tod; Timmes, Frank; Townsley, Dean; Wiescher, Michael; Zegers, Remco; Zingale, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9- 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12-13, 2014. In summ...

  9. Training of Instrumentalists and Development of New Technologies on SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Edwin F; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Becklin, Eric E; Bjoraker, Gordon; Burton, Michael; Caroff, Lawrence J; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Churchwell, Edward B; Clemens, Dan P; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale P; Dinerstein, Harriet L; Dunham, Edward W; Fazio, Giovanni G; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert D; Genzel, Reinhard; Graf, Paul; Greenhouse, Matthew A; Harper, Doyal A; Harvey, Paul M; Harwit, Martin; Hildebrand, Roger H; Hollenbach, David J; Lane, Adair P; Larson, Harold P; Lord, Steven D; Madden, Suzanne; Melnick, Gary J; Neufeld, David A; Olkin, Catherine B; Packham, Christopher C; Roellig, Thomas L; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sandford, Scott A; Sellgren, Kristen; Simpson, Janet P; Storey, John W V; Telesco, Charles M; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Tokunaga, Alan T; Townes, Charles H; Walker, Christopher K; Werner, Michael W; Whitcomb, Stanley E; Wolf, Juergen; Woodward, Charles E; Young, Erick T; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This white paper is submitted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey (Astro2010)1 Committee on the State of the Profession to emphasize the potential of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to contribute to the training of instrumentalists and observers, and to related technology developments. This potential goes beyond the primary mission of SOFIA, which is to carry out unique, high priority astronomical research. SOFIA is a Boeing 747SP aircraft with a 2.5 meter telescope. It will enable astronomical observations anywhere, any time, and at most wavelengths between 0.3 microns and 1.6 mm not accessible from ground-based observatories. These attributes, accruing from the mobility and flight altitude of SOFIA, guarantee a wealth of scientific return. Its instrument teams (nine in the first generation) and guest investigators will do suborbital astronomy in a shirt-sleeve environment. The project will invest $10M per year in science instrument development over a lifetime o...

  10. Development of lightweight blazed transmission gratings and large-area soft x-ray spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alex R.; Guan, Dong; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2013-09-01

    Large area, high resolving power spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band can only be achieved with a state-of-the-art diffraction grating spectrometer, comprised of large collecting-area focusing optics with a narrow point spread function, large-area high-resolving power diffraction gratings, and small pixel, order sorting x-ray detectors. Recently developed critical-angle transmission (CAT) gratings combine the advantages of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed figure and alignment tolerances) and blazed reflection gratings (high broad band diffraction efficiency, utilization of higher diffraction orders). Several new mission concepts containing CAT grating based spectrometers (AEGIS, AXSIO, SMART-X) promise to deliver unprecedented order-of-magnitude improvements in soft x-ray spectroscopy figures of merit related to the detection and characterization of emission and absorption lines, thereby addressing high-priority questions identified in the Astro2010 Decadal Survey "New Worlds New Horizons". We review the current status of CAT grating fabrication, present recent fabrication results, and describe our plans and technology development roadmap for the coming year and beyond.

  11. Progress in the development of critical-angle transmission gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alex R.; Mukherjee, Pran; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2012-09-01

    Recently developed Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology - in combination with x-ray CCD cameras and large collecting-area focusing optics - will enable a new generation of soft x-ray spectrometers with unprecedented resolving power and effective area and with at least an order of magnitude improvement in figures-of-merit for emission and absorption line detection. This technology will be essential to address a number of high-priority questions identified in the Astro2010 Decadal Survey “New Worlds New Horizons” and open the door to a new discovery space. CAT gratings combine the advantages of soft x-ray transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed figure and alignment tolerances, transparent at high energies) and blazed reflection gratings (high broad band diffraction efficiency, utilization of higher diffraction orders to increase resolving power). We report on progress in the fabrication of large-area (31× 31 mm2) free-standing gratings with two levels of low-blockage support structures using highly anisotropic deep reactive-ion etching.

  12. The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development: Business as Usual in the End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, John; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the literature supporting the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and a sample of its key products suggests that it failed to acknowledge or challenge neoliberalism as a hegemonic force blocking transitions towards genuine sustainability. The authors argue that the rationale for the Decade was idealistic and that…

  13. Extracting science from surveys of our Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    James Binney

    2011-07-01

    Our knowledge of the Galaxy is being revolutionized by a series of photometric, spectroscopic and astrometric surveys. Already an enormous body of data is available from completed surveys, and data of ever-increasing quality and richness will accrue at least until the end of this decade. To extract science from these surveys, we need a class of models that can give probability density functions in the space of the observables of a survey – we should not attempt to ‘invert’ the data from the space of observables into the physical space of the Galaxy. Currently just one class of model has the required capability, the so-called ‘torus models’. A pilot application of torus models to understand the structure of the Galaxy’s thin and thick discs has already produced two significant results: a major revision of our best estimate of the Sun’s velocity with respect to the local standard of rest, and a successful prediction of the way in which the vertical velocity dispersion in the disc varies with distance from the Galactic plane.

  14. Tri-Decadal Global Landsat Orthorectified ETM+ Pan-Sharpened Mosaics: 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive holds data collected by the Landsat suite of satellites, beginning...

  15. Decadal-scale thermohaline variability in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, K.; Swart, S.; Meijers, A.; Ansorge, I.; Speich, S.

    2016-05-01

    An enhanced Altimetry Gravest Empirical Mode (AGEM), including both adiabatic and diabatic trends, is developed for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) south of Africa using updated hydrographic CTD sections, Argo data, and satellite altimetry. This AGEM has improved accuracy compared to traditional climatologies and other proxy methods. The AGEM for the Atlantic Southern Ocean offers an ideal technique to investigate the thermohaline variability over the past two decades in a key region for water mass exchanges and transformation. In order to assess and attribute changes in the hydrography of the region, we separate the changes into adiabatic and diabatic components. Integrated over the upper 2000 dbar of the ACC south of Africa, results show mean adiabatic changes of 0.16 ± 0.11°C decade-1 and 0.006 ± 0.014 decade-1, and diabatic differences of -0.044 ± 0.13°C decade-1 and -0.01 ± 0.017 decade-1 for temperature and salinity, respectively. The trends of the resultant AGEM, that include both adiabatic and diabatic variability (termed AD-AGEM), show a significant increase in the heat content of the upper 2000 dbar of the ACC with a mean warming of 0.12 ± 0.087°C decade-1. This study focuses on the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) mass where negative diabatic trends dominate positive adiabatic differences in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), with results indicating a cooling (-0.17°C decade-1) and freshening (-0.032 decade-1) of AAIW in this area, whereas south of the SAZ positive adiabatic and diabatic trends together create a cumulative warming (0.31°C decade-1) and salinification (0.014 decade-1) of AAIW.

  16. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  17. Sandhills native bee survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes the results of a bee survey conducted in Sandhills region of north and south Carolina on May 18th and 19th 2006. Part of the survey was...

  18. Detail and survey radioautographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Wm.W.

    1949-04-19

    The much used survey or contact type of radioautograph is indispensible for a study of the gross distribution of radioactive materials. A detail radioautograph is equally indispensible. The radioautograph makes possible the determination of plutonium with respect to cells. Outlines of survey and detail techniques are given.

  19. EHRA research network surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos;

    2015-01-01

    of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over...

  20. Aerial radiometric surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of aerial radiometric surveys in the Argentine Republic concerning to uranium and other radiactive elements search, are described. This paper is divided into three chapters: the first concerns with the fundaments of gammametric surveys; the second, with the data processing and the third with the interpretation of the results. (Author)

  1. The FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Markova, N.; Evans, C.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; De Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi-epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  2. Seven Survey Sins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    As pressure builds to assess students, teachers, and schools, educational practitioners and policy makers are increasingly looking toward student perception surveys as a promising means to collect high-quality, useful data. For instance, the widely cited Measures of Effective Teaching study lists student perception surveys as one of the three key…

  3. IT Barometer survey, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs.......Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs....

  4. The Deep Lens Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Dell'Antonio, I P; Becker, A C; Margoniner, V E; Cohen, J; Norman, D; Loomba, D; Squires, G; Wilson, G; Stubbs, C; Hennawi, J F; Spergel, D N; Boeshaar, P C; Clocchiatti, A; Hamuy, M; Bernstein, G; González, A; Guhathakurta, R; Hu, W; Seljak, U; Zaritsky, D

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Lens Survey (DLS) is a deep BVRz' imaging survey of seven 2x2 degree fields, with all data to be made public. The primary scientific driver is weak gravitational lensing, but the survey is also designed to enable a wide array of other astrophysical investigations. A unique feature of this survey is the search for transient phenomena. We subtract multiple exposures of a field, detect differences, classify, and release transients on the Web within about an hour of observation. Here we summarize the scientific goals of the DLS, field and filter selection, observing techniques and current status, data reduction, data products and release, and transient detections. Finally, we discuss some lessons which might apply to future large surveys such as LSST.

  5. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1994, the city of Cincinnati, Ohio was named the most livable city in America by Places Rated Almanac (Clark, 1993. Couched within this distinction is the variance of perceived categorizations as the building blocks of a utopian-esque society such as a robust job market, low cost of living, affordable housing, highly educated populous, high arts and recreation and low crime rates. What happened within under a decade that transformed the national perception of the queen city from the most livable city in 1994 to the most recent and largest urban hot bed of racial and civil unrest since the Los Angeles riots? However, no study has explicitly assessed the perceptions of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of this study is to assess perceptions about crime in the local community since the 2001 Cincinnati riots. Methods: We surveyed 71 participants as part of a cross-sectional study designed to assess perception of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. We conducted a questionnaire of a random sample of African American residents in Cincinnati, Ohio. The city of Cincinnati was chosen because of its large African American community and in part due to its long lasting history of police violence and riots in the African American community.  Analyses: Most participants felt the level of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was a very serious problem. However, a large majority of both males (22.6% and females (10% believed crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was somewhat serious. The remaining respondents perceived crime in Cincinnati as serious (males: 16.1%, females: 12.5% or not at all serious (males 3.2%, females: 0%. A larger portion of the males (54.8% than females (40% responded that in the last 3- year’s crime in Cincinnati, Ohio relatively stayed the same.  Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in

  6. Changes in topsoil organic carbon of croplands in mainland China over the last two decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; SUN Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    By searching literature databases, we obtained more than 200 articles published since 1993 that related to the measurements of topsoil organic carbon (SOC) in different regions. To objectively evaluate the changes in the SOC over the last two decades, we selected 132 representative articles from these documented articles. More than sixty thousand soil samples and/or sampling sites were included in the selected articles. Results from analyzing these data sets indicated that the concentration of SOC increased in 53%-59%, decreased in 30%-31% and stabilized in 4%-6% of the national croplands, respectively. A further investigation showed that the total increment of SOC in Chinese croplands ranged from 311.3 Tg to 401.4 Tg. In terms of administrative region, significant increase occurred in eastern and northern China and decrease in northeastern China, respectively. When evaluated by soil great groups, the SOC increased considerably in paddy soils and fluvo-aquic soils and reduced conspicuously in black soils. The increase of SOC is attributed to the amendments of crop residues and organic manure, the augment of synthetic fertilizer application and the optimal combination of nutrients, and the development of no-tillage and reduced-tillage practice. Water loss and soil erosion and low input induced a great decrease of the SOC in black soils. In order to effectively enhance soil C sequestrations and to greatly control the SOC reduction in northeastern China, future efforts should be made in developing new techniques, training farmers and consummating the policy of governmental compensation, by which the application of crop straw, the improvement of fertilization, the practice of no-tillage and reduced-tillage, and the control of water loss and soil erosion could be further realized. To respond to the increasing pressure from the Kyoto Protocol thenceforward, four aspects were further addressed for future research needs, including the quantification of SOC storage in the

  7. Survey of foreign graduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In the 1983 American Institute of Physics (AIP) Graduate Student Survey, the issue of foreign versus national students in U.S. graduate programs was explored. In the past decade, the number of entering graduate students from foreign nations in American universities has risen from about 600 to about 1100, an increase from 23% in 1973 to 40% in 1983 of all entering physics graduate students in the United States. There are more than 10,000 graduate students in physics in the United StatesThe benefits, or lack thereof, of having foreign graduate students raises a number of philosophical points. Like all students, foreign students learn from academic programs; but at high competitive levels, they contribute as well. The essence of growth in any academic program is described by the creativity supplied by ever incoming students. In an academically competitive system the question of foreign students displacing U.S. students in graduate programs has no definition. On the other hand, what about the graduate job market after graduation? Some would point to the return of foreign graduates to their homeland as an example of U.S. education efforts not benefitting U.S. society, at least directly. Others worry about foreign graduates flooding the U.S. job market.

  8. Variability in surface inversion characteristics over India in winter during the recent decades

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U S Iyer; S G Nagar

    2011-02-01

    The variation in surface inversions during the recent decades over 20 stations in the Indian region is documented. Radiosonde data at 00UTC for the period 1971–2000 has been used to compute the inversion frequency. The depth and strength of the inversions as well as the wind speed through the inversion layer have also been computed. The frequency of inversions at stations north of 20°N is ∼20–60% higher than stations located south of 20°N. Moreover, all the stations show frequencies increasing from the 1st to the 3rd decade. Most of the stations show decreasing depth and increasing strength significant at 99% level. With the exception of Nagpur and Hyderabad which show high frequency of very deep inversions increasing from the 1st to the 3rd decade, the decadal variations of inversion depth at most of the other stations show that shallow and moderate inversions occur more frequently than deep or very deep inversions. Decadal variations in inversion strength show weak inversion frequencies decreasing from the 1st to the 3rd decade while moderate/strong inversions occur more frequently at most stations. Frequencies of very strong inversions are low or absent. Wind speeds are either weak or moderate with frequencies increasing from the 1st to the 3rd decade. Low frequency of strong winds and negligible frequency of very strong winds are observed.

  9. MiKlip-PRODEF: Probabilistic Decadal Forecast for Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Mark; Haas, Rabea; Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    The demand for skilful climate predictions on time-scales of several years to decades has increased in recent years, in particular for economic, societal and political terms. Within the BMBF MiKlip consortium, a decadal prediction system on the global to local scale is currently being developed. The subproject PRODEF is part of the MiKlip-Module C, which aims at the regionalisation of decadal predictability for Central and Western Europe. In PRODEF, a combined statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) and a probabilistic forecast tool are developed and applied to the new Earth system model of the Max-Planck Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM), which is part of the CMIP5 experiment. Focus is given on the decadal predictability of windstorms, related wind gusts as well as wind energy potentials. SDD combines the benefits of both high resolution dynamical downscaling and purely statistical downscaling of GCM output. Hence, the SDD approach is used to obtain a very large ensemble of highly resolved decadal forecasts. With respect to the focal points of PRODEF, a clustering of temporal evolving atmospheric fields, a circulation weather type (CWT) analysis, and a storm damage indices analysis is applied to the full ensemble of the decadal hindcast experiments of the MPI-ESM in its lower resolution (MPI-ESM-LR). The ensemble consists of up to ten realisations per yearly initialised decadal hindcast experiments for the period 1960-2010 (altogether 287 realisations). Representatives of CWTs / clusters and single storm episodes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a horizontal resolution of 0.22°. For each model grid point, the distributions of the local climate parameters (e.g. surface wind gusts) are determined for different periods (e.g. each decades) by recombining dynamical downscaled episodes weighted with the respective weather type frequencies. The applicability of the SDD approach is illustrated with examples of decadal forecasts of the MPI

  10. Pacific Decadal Variability and Central Pacific Warming El Niño in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lorenzo, Emanuele

    2015-02-27

    This research aimed at understanding the dynamics controlling decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean and its interactions with global-scale climate change. The first goal was to assess how the dynamics and statistics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the modes of Pacific decadal variability are represented in global climate models used in the IPCC. The second goal was to quantify how decadal dynamics are projected to change under continued greenhouse forcing, and determine their significance in the context of paleo-proxy reconstruction of long-term climate.

  11. Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cause of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America is investigated by analyzing data from a multi-decadal integration with a state of the art coupled ocean-atmosphere model and observations. About one third of the low-frequency climate variability in the region of interest can be attributed to a cycle involving unstable air-sea interactions between the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific and the Aleutian low pressure system. The existence of this cycle provides a basis for long-range climate forecasting over the western United States at decadal time scales. (orig.)

  12. A Survey of Concurrent Object-oriented Languages (Cools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalim Qureshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress in hardware and networking has changed the computing environment from sequential to parallel. During the last decade object oriented programing has made a widespread influence. Many attempts have been made to combine both developments. The main objective was to provide the advantages of object oriented software design at the increased power of parallel machines. This survey covers the well known characteristics of both object oriented paradigm and parallel programming and then mark the design space with possible combinations by identifying various interdependencies and key concepts. The survey presents the characteristics and feature tables for 111 proposed languages.

  13. The new camera calibration system at the US Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Modern computerized photogrammetric instruments are capable of utilizing both radial and decentering camera calibration parameters which can increase plotting accuracy over that of older analog instrumentation technology from previous decades. Also, recent design improvements in aerial cameras have minimized distortions and increased the resolving power of camera systems, which should improve the performance of the overall photogrammetric process. In concert with these improvements, the Geological Survey has adopted the rigorous mathematical model for camera calibration developed by Duane Brown. An explanation of the Geological Survey's calibration facility and the additional calibration parameters now being provided in the USGS calibration certificate are reviewed. -Author

  14. FLEXI Project Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohunen, Anna; Krzanik, Lech; Kuvaja, Pasi; Similä, Jouni; Rodriguez, Pilar; Hyysalo, Jarkko; Linna, Tommi

    FLEXI Project Management Survey (FLEXI PMS) has been established to gain detailed knowledge on how the software industry - in particular successful companies - manages agile software development. FLEXI PMS investigates the actual agile values, principles, practices and contexts. The survey is supported by a careful literature review and analysis of existing studies. Special attention is attached to large, multi-site, multi-company and distributed projects - the target area of FLEXI project. The survey is intended to provide solid data for further knowledge acquisition and project/company positioning with regard to feasible agile management practices.

  15. Telephony user survey

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Let us know your needs to better plan the transition to a new CERN telephony system.   CERN is planning to upgrade its telephony network and replace the system with a new and modern VoIP infrastructure. We strive to make this transition as beneficial and smooth as possible for you. Please let us know more about your current working environment, expectations and suggestions by responding to this survey: https://cern.ch/tel-survey. The more answers we get, the better the new system will serve everyone in the future. The survey will take you about five minutes to complete; we are counting on your feedback!

  16. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  17. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  18. Central Bank Communication and Monetary Policy: A Survey of Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Alan S. Blinder; Michael Ehrmann; Marcel Fratzscher; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades, communication has become an increasingly important aspect of monetary policy. These real-world developments have spawned a huge new scholarly literature on central bank communication —mostly empirical, and almost all of it written in this decade. We survey this evergrowing literature. The evidence suggests that communication can be an important and powerful part of the central bank’s toolkit since it has the ability to move financial markets, to enhance the predicta...

  19. Monument set for KEKB MR tunnel surveying network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new set of monuments was installed for the SuperKEKB project. SuperKEKB is a next-generation B-factory which uses the same tunnel as KEKB. Many magnets will be replaced or relocated for SuperKEKB in order to realize collisions with extremely small beams. Placing survey monuments in the accelerator tunnel, which was built three decades ago, was not an easy task for many reasons, as will be discussed in this report. (author)

  20. Twenty years of rural entrepreneurship: a bibliometric survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Pato; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship, in general, and rural entrepreneurship, in particular, has become a dynamic field of research in the last two decades. It seems therefore timely to present a quantitative survey of the literature in this area, aimed at identifying the most important sub-topics, contributors and their geographical distribution, major outlets, main empirical methodologies employed, as well as the most frequently studied countries. Based on 181 articles published in journals indexed in Scopus (...

  1. A Survey of the Economics of Patent Systems and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Andrew; Langinier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The last several decades have seen increases in patenting activity worldwide, as well as growing issues related to patent quality. In response to these quality issues a recent patent literature has emerged, that investigates the behavior and incentives of patent examiners, applicants, and third parties. In this paper, we provide an overview of patent procedures, patent systems and a survey of the new economic literature on patent systems. Both theoretical and empirical papers are considered. ...

  2. A survey of results on mobile phone datasets analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Vincent D; Krings, Gautier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review some advances made recently in the study of mobile phone datasets. This area of research has emerged a decade ago, with the increasing availability of large-scale anonymized datasets, and has grown into a stand-alone topic. We will survey the contributions made so far on the social networks that can be constructed with such data, the study of personal mobility, geographical partitioning, urban planning, and help towards development as well as security and privacy issues.

  3. A Comprehensive Study of Educational Timetabling - a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2013-01-01

    Educational timetabling is one of the most researched subjects within the range of timetabling problems. There has been a significant increase in effcient planning problems within educational timetabling the last couple of decades. In this paper we will highlight some of the main trends and research achievements within educational planning problems. Furthermore it is an aim to make a differentiation between the different planning problems. This survey is concentrated on the four main educatio...

  4. Peru country specific database implementation for comparative assessment of electricity options and strategies (DECADES Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of the cases study carried out using the DECADES computer tools on assessment of the electricity supply plan for expansion in Peru in the framework of the IAEA Research Contract No. 9274

  5. Neonatal brachial plexus injury: comparison of incidence and antecedents between 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2011-04-01

    We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.

  6. MurCSS: A Tool for Standardized Evaluation of Decadal Hindcast Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Illing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available MurCSS (Murphy-Epstein decomposition and Continuous Ranked Probability Skill Score is a tool for standardized evaluation of decadal hindcast-prediction systems written in Python using CDO [1] and can be downloaded at a href="https://github.com/illing2005/murcss" https://github.com/illing2005/murcss . It analyzes decadal hindcast experiments in a deterministic and probabilistic way following and extending the framework suggested by Goddard et al. [2]. It was developed as part of the MiKlip (a major project for decadal climate prediction funded by BMBF in Germany evaluation system to improve the comparability within the project during development stages and interim test phases. It is easily applicable by other modeling groups working on decadal prediction because it complies with international standards.

  7. Five Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Five Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents It ... 50th anniversary of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), known to many as NIH's "basic research ...

  8. Adjustable Speed Drives in the Next Decade. Future Steps in Industry and Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Paul; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    The main trends for the next decade within the multi-disciplinarian field of adjustable speed drives are discussed, and a number of topics are especially addressed in this paper. The topics include market development over the last decade, historical development in power converter volume and weigh......, future drive demands, power converter architecture, interfacing to the grid, motor types, and control principles. Furthermore, some of the possibilities and trends related to decentral ?intelligence? and Internet connection are discussed.......The main trends for the next decade within the multi-disciplinarian field of adjustable speed drives are discussed, and a number of topics are especially addressed in this paper. The topics include market development over the last decade, historical development in power converter volume and weight...

  9. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

  10. Proteomics dedicated to biofilmology: What have we learned from a decade of research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Arbia; Jouenne, Thierry; Cosette, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Advances in proteomics techniques over the past decade, closely integrated with genomic and physicochemical approach, have played a great role in developing knowledge of the biofilm lifestyle of bacteria. Despite bacterial proteome versatility, many studies have demonstrated the ability of proteomics approaches to elucidating the biofilm phenotype. Though these investigations have been largely used for biofilm studies in the last decades, they represent, however, a very low percentage of proteomics works performed up to now. Such approaches have offered new targets for combating microbial biofilms by providing a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative overview of their protein cell content. Herein, we summarized the state of the art in knowledge about biofilm physiology after one decade of proteomic analysis. In a second part, we highlighted missing research tracks for the next decade, emphasizing the emergence of posttranslational modifications in proteomic studies stemming from recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. PMID:26068406

  11. Linkage Between Mei-yu Precipitation and North Atlantic SST on the Decadal Timescale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Wei; LI Chongyin; WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; LI Weijing

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between mei-yu and North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). Results show that they are significantly associated with each other on the decadal timescale. Both mei-yu precipitation and mei-yu duration are characterized by significant decadal variability. Their decadal components are closely correlated with a triple mode of North Atlantic SSTA in the preceding winter. Regression analysis demonstrates that the wintertime North Atlantic SSTA may impose a delayed impact on East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) circulation and mei-yu on the decadal timescale. The persistency of SSTA plays an important role during this course. The triple SSTA mode can persist from winter until late spring. It is suggested that the springtime SSTA may excite a stationary wave-train propagating from west Eurasia to East Asia and exert an impact on mei-yu.

  12. Ghosts of yellowstone: multi-decadal histories of wildlife populations captured by bones on a modern landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Miller

    Full Text Available Natural accumulations of skeletal material (death assemblages have the potential to provide historical data on species diversity and population structure for regions lacking decades of wildlife monitoring, thereby contributing valuable baseline data for conservation and management strategies. Previous studies of the ecological and temporal resolutions of death assemblages from terrestrial large-mammal communities, however, have largely focused on broad patterns of community composition in tropical settings. Here, I expand the environmental sampling of large-mammal death assemblages into a temperate biome and explore more demanding assessments of ecological fidelity by testing their capacity to record past population fluctuations of individual species in the well-studied ungulate community of Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone. Despite dramatic ecological changes following the 1988 wildfires and 1995 wolf re-introduction, the Yellowstone death assemblage is highly faithful to the living community in species richness and community structure. These results agree with studies of tropical death assemblages and establish the broad capability of vertebrate remains to provide high-quality ecological data from disparate ecosystems and biomes. Importantly, the Yellowstone death assemblage also correctly identifies species that changed significantly in abundance over the last 20 to ∼80 years and the directions of those shifts (including local invasions and extinctions. The relative frequency of fresh versus weathered bones for individual species is also consistent with documented trends in living population sizes. Radiocarbon dating verifies the historical source of bones from Equus caballus (horse: a functionally extinct species. Bone surveys are a broadly valuable tool for obtaining population trends and baseline shifts over decadal-to-centennial timescales.

  13. South Pacific Decadal Variability Since the 1790s and Changes in Earth Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsley, B. K.; Wu, H. C.; Dassie, E. P.; Schrag, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in oceanic heat storage may be partly responsible for the most recent stall (or hiatus) in rising Earth surface temperatures since ~2000 C.E. Instrumental data indicates that this most recent stall is coincident with a phase reversal of the North Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The main locations for this heat exchange with the atmosphere appear to be the tropical and mid-latitude regions of the surface ocean, primarily in the Pacific. We have been investigating poorly understood decadal surface ocean variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region. Despite very sparse instrumental water temperature data in the South Pacific to define the decadal changes at the sea surface and in the upper water column, the available data suggests a disproportionately large role of the Southwest Pacific in decadal-scale changes in heat sequestration. We have generated coral Sr/Ca-derived sea surface temperature (SST) time-series extending back to 1791 C.E. from Fiji, Tonga and Rarotonga (FTR) in the SPCZ region of the subtropical Southwest Pacific and show that decadal-scale SST fluctuations in this broad region are concurrent with the PDO at least since ~1930 C.E. Beginning in the mid-20th century, when more reliable instrumental temperature and ocean heat content data exist, decades of warmer South Pacific subtropical SST co-occur with elevated South Pacific upper ocean (0-700m) heat content. These decadal-scale South Pacific warming events coincide with decadal-scale stalls or plateaus in rising global temperatures. Cross wavelet coherence analysis reveals an increase in the frequency of decadal SST variability from a period near 30 years throughout the 1800s to ~20 years in the later half of the 20th century. Our results provide strong supporting evidence that decadal-scale changes in global surface temperatures are in-part, related to heat storage in the upper water column in the subtropical Pacific. Our results also suggest that decadal-scale stalls

  14. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  15. Muskox survey, Nunivak Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial survey completed July 1958 is presented with results. Muskox were located and plotted on a map. Animals were also classified by Adult bull, calve, cows and...

  16. National Nursing Home Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  17. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and...

  18. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  19. NMFS Reef Survey Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reef Environmental Survey Project (REEF) mission to educate and enlist divers in the conservation of marine habitats is accomplished primarily through its Fish...

  20. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...