Sample records for astringents

  1. Sugar and organic acid content of astringent, non-astringent, and pollination variant persimmons (abstract) (United States)

    Although persimmons are native (Diospyros virginiana) to the United States, commercial production consists almost exclusively of the Asian persimmon, Diospyros kaki. Cultivars within this species are classified by their astringency type; non-astringent, astringent, and pollination variant. In the U...

  2. Mechanisms underlying astringency: introduction to an oral tribology approach (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rutuja; Brossard, Natalia; Chen, Jianshe


    Astringency is one of the predominant factors in the sensory experience of many foods and beverages ranging from wine to nuts. The scientific community is discussing mechanisms that explain this complex phenomenon, since there are no conclusive results which correlate well with sensory astringency. Therefore, the mechanisms and perceptual characteristics of astringency warrant further discussion and investigation. This paper gives a brief introduction of the fundamentals of oral tribology forming a basis of the astringency mechanism. It discusses the current state of the literature on mechanisms underlying astringency describing the existing astringency models. The review discusses the crucial role of saliva and its physiology which contributes significantly in astringency perception in the mouth. It also provides an overview of research concerned with the physiological and psychophysical factors that mediate the perception of this sensation, establishing the ground for future research. Thus, the overall aim of the review is to establish the critical roles of oral friction (thin-film lubrication) in the sensation of astringency and possibly of some other specific sensory features.

  3. Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Astringency Removal in Mopanshi Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ping; LI Bao; ZHANG Wen; JIA Ke-gong


    Fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Mopanshi) were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas on removing astringency after harvest. Treatment of 95 % concentration of CO2 gas gave the best results; fruits turned non-astringent after 20 h, and kept the fruit firm for 7 d at room temperature. Fruits, treated with 85 and 90 % concentration of CO2 gas, turned non-astringent after 24 - 28 h, and the firmness-keeping stage was 5 - 6 d at room temperature. While the CO2 gas was at 80, 70 and 60%, the de-astringency period was 48, 72 and 96 h, and the corresponding firmness-keeping stage was 3, 2 and 1 d, respectively. Fruits, treated with 50 % concentration of CO2 gas,remained astringent.

  4. Studies of the Removal of Astringency in Japaneses Persimmon Fruits : Reference to Natural Disappearance of Astringency in Nonastringent-Type Fruits


    米森, 敬三; Yonemori, Keizo


    Many earlier resarchers have studied the removal of astringency in Japanese persimmon fruits, and have indicated that decrease of tannin content in the fruits is associated with ethanol and acetaldehyde accumulation. These volatiles, especialiy acetaldehyde, allow soluble tannins to coagulate and change into insoluble complexes, thereby leading to the loss of astringency. This mechanism of deastringency has been obtained mainly from studies of astringent-type fruits from which astringency wa...

  5. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond (United States)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.


    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  6. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchi, D; Poulain, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, 4 Place Jussieu, BP 126, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Konarev, P; Svergun, D I [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Tribet, C [Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et Milieux Disperses, CNRS UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail:


    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of {beta}-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  7. Roles of charge interactions on astringency of whey proteins at low pH. (United States)

    Vardhanabhuti, B; Kelly, M A; Luck, P J; Drake, M A; Foegeding, E A


    Whey proteins are a major ingredient in sports drink and functional beverages. At low pH, whey proteins are astringent, which may be undesirable in some applications. Understanding the astringency mechanism of whey proteins at low pH could lead to developing ways to minimize the astringency. This study compared the astringency of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) at low pH with phosphate buffer controls having the same amount of phosphate and at similar pH. Results showed that beta-LG samples were more astringent than phosphate buffers, indicating that astringency was not caused by acid alone and that proteins contribute to astringency. When comparing among various whey protein isolates (WPI) and lactoferrin at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 7.0, lactoferrin was astringent at pH 7.0 where no acid was added. In contrast, astringency of all WPI decreased at pH 7.0. This can be explained by lactoferrin remaining positively charged at pH 7.0 and able to interact with negatively charged saliva proteins, whereas the negatively charged WPI would not interact. Charge interactions were further supported by beta-LG or lactoferrin and salivary proteins precipitating when mixed at conditions where beta-LG, lactoferrin, or saliva themselves did not precipitate. It can be concluded that interactions between positively charged whey proteins and salivary proteins play a role in astringency of proteins at low pH.

  8. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins. (United States)

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H


    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology.

  9. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods. (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E


    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report that this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for

  10. Application of the SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) to the evaluation of red wine astringency. (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the astringency of red wines by means of a SDS-PAGE based-method. The optimization of the in vitro assay, named SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) that measured the reactivity of salivary proteins towards wine polyphenols, has been performed. Improvements included the choice of saliva:wine ratio, saliva typology (resting or stimulated saliva), and temperature of binding. The LOD (0.05 g/L of condensed tannin) and LOQ (0.1g/L of condensed tannin) for the binding reaction between salivary proteins and tannins added in white wine were also determined. Fifty-seven red wines were analysed by the optimised SPI, the Folin-Ciocalteu Index, the gelatine index, the content of total tannins and the sensory quantitative evaluation of astringency. A significant correlation between the SPI and the astringency of red wines was found (R(2)=0.969), thus indicating that this assay may be useful as estimator of astringency.

  11. Orosensory-directed identification of astringent mouthfeel and bitter-tasting compounds in red wine. (United States)

    Hufnagel, Jan Carlos; Hofmann, Thomas


    Application of sequential solvent extraction, followed by HPLC combined with the taste dilution analysis, enabled the localization of the most intense velvety astringent, drying, and puckering astringent, as well as bitter-tasting, compounds in red wine, respectively. Isolation of the taste components involving gel adsorption chromatography, ultrafiltration, and synthesis revealed the identification of 26 sensory-active nonvolatiles, among which several hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavon-3-ol glycosides, and dihydroflavon-3-ol rhamnosides as well as a structurally undefined polymeric fraction (>5 kDa) were identified as the key astringent components. In contradiction to literature suggestions, flavan-3-ols were found to be not of major importance for astringency and bitter taste, respectively. Surprisingly, a series of hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl esters and hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters were identified as bitter compounds in wine. Taste qualities and taste threshold concentrations of the individual wine components were determined by means of a three-alternative forced-choice test and the half-mouth test, respectively.

  12. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions. (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina


    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency.

  13. Insights on the chemical basis of the astringency of Spanish red wines. (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación


    The main goal of the present study is to provide an insight on the role played by non-volatile molecules on the different in-mouth attributes, particularly astringency. For achieving such goal, the main in-mouth sensory attributes of 34 oaked Spanish red wines were measured by a trained panel. The wine content in 30 sensory-active molecules was analysed by different HPLC based methodologies together with classical enological parameters and two proanthocyanidin indexes. Fourteen compounds (aconitic acids, polymeric proanthocyanidins, caftaric, caffeic and coutaric acids and seven quercetins) were found to be at concentrations above reported taste thresholds and to have a reasonably high range of occurrence. Two highly statistically significant models for astringency were built with those compounds. Even if the models could not be fully validated by sensory addition experiments, the research has demonstrated that wine astringency is driven by polymeric proanthocyanidins and by certain phenolic acids, the rate trans/cis-aconitic acid and flavonol profiles. The research has highlighted the existence of extremely complex interactions between non-volatile compounds on the in-mouth sensory perception. Particularly remarkable is the lack of additivity and potential antagonism found between the pairs cis/trans-aconitic acids, between aconitic and caffeic acids and between quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Also remarkable was the sweetness×astringent interaction and the matrix-dependence of the sensory responses elicited by flavonols. These results suggest the need for new paradigms and experimental procedures for fully decoding the real sensory relevance of individual non-volatile compounds in the overall wine flavour.

  14. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli. (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E


    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques - check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) - using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references ('poles') before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward's minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered 'rapid,' our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best performed 1

  15. Interactions between whey proteins and salivary proteins as related to astringency of whey protein beverages at low pH. (United States)

    Ye, A; Streicher, C; Singh, H


    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent at low pH. In the present study, the interactions between model whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin) and human saliva in the pH range from 7 to 2 were investigated using particle size, turbidity, and ζ-potential measurements and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The correlation between the sensory results of astringency and the physicochemical data was discussed. Strong interactions between β-lactoglobulin and salivary proteins led to an increase in the particle size and turbidity of mixtures of both unheated and heated β-lactoglobulin and human saliva at pH ∼3.4. However, the large particle size and high turbidity that occurred at pH 2.0 were the result of aggregation of human salivary proteins. The intense astringency in whey protein beverages may result from these increases in particle size and turbidity at these pH values and from the aggregation and precipitation of human salivary proteins alone at pH proteins in the interaction is a key factor in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages. At any pH, the increases in particle size and turbidity were much smaller in mixtures of lactoferrin and saliva, which suggests that aggregation and precipitation may not be the only mechanism linked to the perception of astringency in whey protein.

  16. 磨盘柿脱涩优化条件筛选%Screen the de-astringent optimal condition of Mopan persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 李江阔; 陈绍慧; 张平; 周志江


    In order to explore the optimal de-astringent condition of Mopan persimmon, the optimal condition of CO2 complete de-astringency, CO2 two segment de-astringency and vacuum packaging de- astringency were studied by orthogonal test. The result showed that C02 complete de-astringent condition was ambient temperature of 25 ℃, CO2 concentration of 90% and de-astringent time of 24 h, CO2 de- astringent of two stage method was ambient temperature from 18 ℃ to 20 %, packaging of plastic net andplacement 24 h after 90% CO2 de-astringent 24 h, and vacuum packaging de-astringent condition was ambient temperature from 18 % to 20 %, vacuum degree of 0.08 MPa and de-astringent time of 10 d.%为了探讨磨盘柿最佳的脱涩条件,通过正交试验对CO2全脱涩、CO2二段法脱涩和真空包装脱涩条件进行优化。结果表明,CO2全脱涩条件:环境温度为25℃、CO2浓度为90%、脱涩时间24h;CO2二段法脱涩条件:环境温度为18-20℃、网套包装、90%CO2脱涩24h后再放置24h;真空包装脱涩条件:环境温度为18~20℃、真空度0.08MPa、脱涩时间10d。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop a simple technique to remove astringency and maintain the pulp firmness of ‘Giombo’ persimmons. Fruit were packaged in three different plastic packages: low-density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP and polyethylene-polyamide (PE-PA. Packages with dimensions of 30 cm x 50 cm and 20 µm thickness were sealed under vacuum. Fruit uncovered in plastic film were used as control samples. After packaging, fruits were stored at ambient conditions (22°C and 70% RH for five days. After this period, fruits were removed from the package and kept at the same previous conditions for six days and evaluated every two days. All plastic packages showed effectiveness in removing astringency, but only PE-PA maintained pulp firmness during the six days after package removal. LDPE and PP films also caused reduction of astringency while pulp firmness was properly maintained until the fourth day. These two films did not succeed in obtaining vacuum, which was only achieved by PE-PA. PE-PA reduces astringency faster and maintains fruit firmness for a longer time at room temperature.

  18. Sensory perception of and salivary protein response to astringency as a function of the 6-n-propylthioural (PROP) bitter-taste phenotype. (United States)

    Melis, Melania; Yousaf, Neeta Y; Mattes, Mitchell Z; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Tepper, Beverly J


    Individual differences in astringency perception are poorly understood. Astringency from tannins stimulates the release of specific classes of salivary proteins. These proteins form complexes with tannins, altering their perceived astringency and reducing their bioavailability. We studied the bitter compound, 6-n-propylthioural (PROP), as a phenotypic marker for variation in astringency perception and salivary protein responses. Seventy-nine subjects classified by PROP taster status rated cranberry juice cocktail (CJC; with added sugar) supplemented with 0, 1.5 or 2.0g/L tannic acid (TA). Saliva for protein analyses was collected at rest, or after stimulation with TA or cranberry juice (CJ; without added sugar). CJC with 1.5g/L tannic acid was found to be less astringent, and was liked more by PROP non-taster males than PROP taster males, consistent with the expectation that non-tasters are less sensitive to astringency. Levels of acidic Proline Rich Proteins (aPRPs) and basic Proline Rich Proteins (bPRPs) decreased after TA, while levels of aPRPs, bPRPs and Cystatins unexpectedly rose after CJ. Increases in bPRPs and Cystatins were only observed in PROP tasters. The PROP phenotype plays a gender-specific, but somewhat limited role in the perceived astringency of tannic-acid supplemented, cranberry juice cocktail. The PROP phenotype (regardless of gender) may also be involved in the release of salivary proteins previously implicated in oral health.

  19. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine


    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique


    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  20. Ethylene-responsive transcription factors interact with promoters of ADH and PDC involved in persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit de-astringency. (United States)

    Min, Ting; Yin, Xue-ren; Shi, Yan-na; Luo, Zheng-rong; Yao, Yun-cong; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-song


    The persimmon fruit is a particularly good model for studying fruit response to hypoxia, in particular, the hypoxia-response ERF (HRE) genes. An anaerobic environment reduces fruit astringency by converting soluble condensed tannins (SCTs) into an insoluble form. Although the physiology of de-astringency has been widely studied, its molecular control is poorly understood. Both CO(2) and ethylene treatments efficiently removed the astringency from 'Mopan' persimmon fruit, as indicated by a decrease in SCTs. Acetaldehyde, the putative agent for causing de-astringency, accumulated during these treatments, as did activities of the key enzymes of acetaldehyde synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Eight DkADH and DkPDC genes were isolated, and three candidates for a role in de-astringency, DkADH1, DkPDC1, and DkPDC2, were characterized by transcriptional analysis in different tissues. The significance of these specific isoforms was confirmed by principal component analysis. Transient expression in leaf tissue showed that DkPDC2 decreased SCTs. Interactions of six hypoxia-responsive ERF genes and target promoters were tested in transient assays. The results indicated that two hypoxia-responsive ERF genes, DkERF9 and DkERF10, were involved in separately regulating the DkPDC2 and DkADH1 promoters. It is proposed that a DkERF-DkADH/DkPDC cascade is involved in regulating persimmon de-astringency.

  1. NMR and molecular modeling of wine tannins binding to saliva proteins: revisiting astringency from molecular and colloidal prospects. (United States)

    Cala, Olivier; Pinaud, Noël; Simon, Cécile; Fouquet, Eric; Laguerre, Michel; Dufourc, Erick J; Pianet, Isabelle


    In organoleptic science, the association of tannins to saliva proteins leads to the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. To decipher this interaction at molecular and colloidal levels, the binding of 4 procyanidin dimers (B1-4) and 1 trimer (C2) to a human saliva proline-rich peptide, IB7(14), was studied. Interactions have been characterized by measuring dissociation constants, sizes of complexes, number, and nature of binding sites using NMR (chemical shift variations, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, and saturation transfer diffusion). The binding sites were identified using molecular mechanics, and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the interactions was resolved by calculating the molecular lipophilicity potential within the complexes. The following comprehensive scheme can be proposed: 1) below the tannin critical micelle concentration (CMC), interaction is specific, and the procyanidin anchorage always occurs on the same three IB7(14) sites. The tannin 3-dimensional structure plays a key role in the binding force and in the tannin's ability to act as a bidentate ligand: tannins adopting an extended conformation exhibit higher affinity toward protein and initiate the formation of a network. 2) Above the CMC, after the first specific hydrophilic interaction has taken place, a random hydrophobic stacking occurs between tannins and proteins. The whole process is discussed in the general frame of wine tannins eliciting astringency.

  2. Potential role of the binding of whey proteins to human buccal cells on the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages. (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Zheng, Tao; Ye, Jack Z; Singh, Harjinder


    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent, which means that they are not appealing to consumers. The exact mechanism of astringency in whey protein beverages is yet to be fully elucidated. In this preliminary study, the binding between β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin (LF) and human oral epithelial cells (HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells) at pH 3.5 and pH 7.4 was assayed as a function of protein concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The binding of β-LG and LF to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was dependent on protein type, protein concentration, pH and time. The intensity of the binding to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was much greater for LF than for β-LG and was protein concentration dependent, which was consistent with the in vivo astringency perception of LF and β-LG. The findings demonstrated that the binding interaction between whey proteins and human oral epithelial cells may play an important role in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages.

  3. Selective adsorption of molybdenum(VI) from Mo-Re bearing effluent by chemically modified astringent persimmon. (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Wang, Haitao; Lou, Zhenning; Shan, Weijun; Xing, Zhiqiang; Deng, Guichun; Wu, Dongbei; Fang, Dawei; Biswas, Biplob Kumar


    Astringent persimmon was chemically cross-linked by formaldehyde to obtain a novel kind of adsorption gel, which was named as APF gel. The adsorption behaviors of Mo(VI) and Re(VII) along with other coexisting metals onto the APF gel were studied in the present paper. The APF gel was found to be effective for the adsorption of Mo(VI) while the gel is almost completely inert toward rhenium and calcium over the whole hydrochloric acid concentration region. The APF gel has a low affinity for iron, copper, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc ions when the concentration of HCl is higher than 1 mol/L. The gel exhibited selectivity only for Mo(VI) with a remarkably high adsorption capacity 1.05 mol/kg, and the adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir model. According to the thermodynamic and kinetic studies, the endothermic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Also, its excellent adsorption characteristics for Mo(VI) were confirmed by the adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the APF gel. The result provides a new approach for the recovery of Mo(VI) from a industrial waste effluent.

  4. Novo processo de avaliação da adstringência dos frutos no melhoramento do caquizeiro New analytic process for persimmon astringency determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campo-Dall'orto


    Full Text Available Nos trabalhos de melhoramento do caqui no Instituto Agronômico, é fato comum defrontar-se com grande número de frutos para serem analisados, de diferentes amostras colhidas no estádio de maturação comercial (de vez. Todas as amostras têm que passar por prova gustativa, ao lado de análises dos parâmetros de qualidade, como as do °Brix e do pH, eis que envolvem diferentes tipos de caqui - desde os fortemente adstringentes (taninosos até os praticamente desprovidos de tanino (doces. Nesse particular, pode-se aquilatar a dificuldade para o melhorista realizar tais testes, pois um grupo de caquis taninosos mascara o paladar de duas ou três amostras subseqüentes. Daí a necessidade de desenvolver um processo de análise indireta, a exemplo do presente, que consiste no tratamento da polpa dos frutos com a solução de cloreto férrico. A reação de coloração "achocolatada", em diferentes tonalidades, indica o grau de tanino que encerra, permitindo efetuar a tipificação preliminar dos caquis, sem a necessidade de degustação.In IAC persimmon breeding program there is usually the need of analyzing hundreds of fruit samples coming from different hybrid plants, aiming at the selection of the best genetic materials. Fruits are usually harvested unripe and classified as to the astringency level in tasting tests: constant "shibugaki", variable "shibugaki"/ "amagaki" and absence of astringency "amagaki". As misleading results have been obtained in tasting tests, an indirect procedure has been proposed to evaluate tannin levels in persimmon flesh. It is based on a color scale (dark blue/dark gray - astringent type; brown - variable astringency, and light gray-absence of astringency, detected after the application of 0.1 N iron chloride solution on persimmon flesh. The new method has shown good precision, allowing determination of a great number of samples in a short period of time.

  5. 复方烧伤膏收敛止痛的疗效观察%Analgesic effect and astringency of Compound burn ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Background:Burns are injuries caused by attaching factors such as high-temperature,strong acids,and bases etc.Areola and blister or vesticles appear at site in mild cases.Charring,serious toxic heat,consumption of yin fluid,fever,dizzy,thirst,constipation,and oliguria appear in severe cases.Compound burn ointment was developed according to modern traditional Chineses medicine principles and pathological changes of burned skin,which consisted of Sanguisorba root 120 g,Earth worm 120 g,Fibraurea stem 120 g,Dandelion herb 150 g,Dried rehmannia root 150 g,Huanglian 120 g,Yuanhu 150 g,Beeswax 120 g,Borneol 30 g,Oliva 2000 g. Objective:To investigate the analgesic and astringency of compound burn ointment. Unit: Affiliated Central Hospital of Shengyang Medical College.

  6. Antibacterial Action of a Condensed Tannin Extracted from Astringent Persimmon as a Component of Food Addictive Pancil PS-M on Oral Polymicrobial Biofilms. (United States)

    Tomiyama, Kiyoshi; Mukai, Yoshiharu; Saito, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Kumada, Hidefumi; Nihei, Tomotaro; Hamada, Nobushiro; Teranaka, Toshio


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity against polymicrobial (PM) biofilms of a condensed tannin extracted from astringent persimmon (PS-M), which is contained in refreshing beverages commercially available in Japan. Salivary PM biofilms were formed anaerobically on glass coverslips for 24 and 72 h and were treated for 5 min with sterilized deionized water (DW), 0.05 and 0.2 wt% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), and 0.5-4.0 wt% PS-M solution. The colony forming units (CFU/mL) were determined and morphological changes of the biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CFUs were lower in all PS-M and CHX groups compared to the DW group. PS-M exerted a dose-dependent effect. PS-M (1.53 × 10(7)) at a dose of 4.0 wt% had the same effect as 0.2 wt% CHX (2.03 × 10(7)), regardless of the culture period. SEM revealed the biofilm structures were considerably destroyed in the 4.0 wt% PS-M and 0.2 wt% CHX. These findings indicate that the antibacterial effects of PS-M, a naturally derived substance, are comparable to those of CHX. PS-M may keep the oral cavity clean and prevent dental caries and periodontal disease related to dental plaque, as well as systemic disease such as aspiration pneumonitis.

  7. 烘青绿茶苦涩味及其滋味贡献物质分析%Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英娜; 陈根生; 刘阳; 许勇泉; 汪芳; 陈建新; 尹军峰


    对烘青绿茶苦涩味量化分析及其主要滋味贡献物质进行探讨。以不同嫩度烘青绿茶为原料,采用量化感官分析方法及化学分析手段分析了茶汤滋味分属性(包括苦味、涩味、鲜味和醇味等)和滋味化学成分含量,并建立了两者之间的相关性。研究结果表明,随着烘青绿茶嫩度的下降,其茶汤苦味、涩味和鲜爽味强度呈下降趋势,整体滋味品质也显著下降。通过分析茶叶滋味化学成分含量及其滋味 Dot 值,发现烘青绿茶苦味的主要贡献物质是 EGCG 和咖啡碱;而涩味的主要贡献物是儿茶素和黄酮苷,其中儿茶素以 EGCG 为主,包括 EGC 和 ECG,黄酮苷以槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷(Que-rut)和槲皮素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Que-gala)为主,包括杨梅素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Myr-gala)、槲皮素-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Que-glu)、牡荆素-2"-O-鼠李糖苷(Vit-rha)、山柰酚-3-O-半乳糖苷(Kae-gala)、山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(Kae-rut)、山柰酚-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Kae-glu)等。Dot 值分析表明氨基酸对烘青绿茶鲜爽味没有显著贡献。本研究初步明确了烘青绿茶苦涩味的主要贡献物质,为茶叶品质提升和滋味化学研究提供理论基础。%The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and

  8. 1-甲基环丙烯对不同脱涩程度冰温贮藏磨盘柿生理品质的影响%Effect of 1-MCP on Physiology Quality of Mopan Persimmon with Different De-astringency Degree during Ice Temperature Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 张鹏; 寇文丽; 李江阔


    探讨1-甲基环丙烯对不同脱涩程度磨盘柿生理品质的调控效应,研究了1-甲基环丙烯对未脱涩和半脱涩冰温贮藏柿果的品质、生理代谢及软化相关指标的影响.结果表明:在冰温贮藏条件下(-0.5~-0.2℃)下,1-甲基环丙烯有效抑制不同脱涩程度柿果硬度的下降、乙醇的积累、呼吸强度和细胞膜透性的上升,减少了可滴定酸、总糖和Vc的损失,抑制可溶性单宁向不溶性单宁的转化,推迟PE活性峰的出现,降低PG活性峰的峰值.其中1-甲基环丙烯对半脱涩果实的作用效果更为明显.%In order to elucidate the regulation mechanism of 1-MCP on the physiological quality of Mopan persimmon with different de-astringency degree, the effects of 1-MCP on quality, physiological, metabolic and softening related indexes of astringent and incomplete de-astringent fruit during ice temperature storage was studied. Results showed that 1-MCP efficient inhibited the decline of fruit firmness, the accumulation of alcohol, the increase of respiration intensity and cell membrane permeability, furthermore, it was found that 1-MCP can reduced the wastage of titratable acidity, total sugar and Vc content, the change of the soluble tannin to unsolvable tannin, delayed the appearance of PE activity peaks and lowered the PG activity peaks were also detected.

  9. Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation%甜柿套袋微域生境与果实着色效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭创业; 苏彩虹; 张丽萍; 董少鹏


    Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation were studied with four kinds of bags. It was found that temperature difference between day and night inside dou- ble-layer bag with red interior layer was greatest among five treatments.Under the condition of sunny days, the temperature increased by 5.8 ℃ and 4.8℃ on September 18 to 21 and October 3 to 8 respectively, compared with that of the control. The effect of plastic film bag and double-layer bag on the moisture re- tention was better, which alleviated the relative humidity stress when air humidity was too low under fine, hot and dry weather. The light in double-layer bags was poor, there were only 0.8% and 0.4% PAR inside double-layer bag with red interior layer and double-layer bag with black interior layer rspectively at 14:00 pm on sunny days compared with the control. Different bagging materials formed different micro-environ- ment, which resulted in different effects on fruit coloring. The peel pigmentation was better in the treat- ment of double-layer bag with red interior layer, followed by double-layer bag with black interior layer. There was less difference between other treatments and control. On September 25, the peel pigmentation was N25B for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and 163B for control . On October 15, the peel pigmentation was 33A for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and N25B for control . It was found that at persimmon late growth stage, carotenoid content increased in all treatments, and paper bags re- duced carotenoids in peel In the late growth phase, the treatments reduced the flavonoid content except double-layer paper bags. Double-layer bag with red interior layer reduced Carotenoids and Flavonoids by 0.0178 mg. g-1 and 0.0706 mg g-1 at maturity compared with control.%对4种不同材质的果袋,进行套袋微域生境及果实着色试验,结果表明,双层内红袋处理昼夜温差较大,9月18—21日和10

  10. The distributions of bitter and astringent taste compounds in the bamboo shoot of Dendrocalamus latiflorus under different light intensities%不同光强下麻竹笋不同部位苦涩味物质含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪蕾; 丁兴萃; 张闪闪; 章志远; 蔡函江; 郑友苗


    This study analyzed the change of bitter and astringent taste compound content, such as tannin, flavonoid, oxalic acid and amino acid in the bamboo shoot of Dendrocalamus latiflorus under different light intensities. The results indicated that the content of tannin, flavonoid and amino acid all decreased as the decline of light intensity. The amount of oxalic acid increased initially and deceased later as the reduction of light intensity. Under the same light intensity, the taste was much better in the basal part of bamboo shoot than that of the top one. The shoot concentration of tannin and a⁃mino acid spaciously peaked at the top, i.e. 1.8-3.4 and 1.4-3.4 times higher than those at the bottom respectively. In contrast, the content of flavonoid in the shoot decreased 29�4%-60. 2% less than that in the shoot bottom. The oxalic acid content declined in order from the middle, top to the bottom part. In conclusion, the bamboo shoot of D. latiflorus behaves the most bitter and astringent taste in natural sun light. The bitter and astringent taste compounds are mostly concentrated at the top of the shoot. It is proved that lessening light intensity can improve edible taste of bamboo shoot of D. latiflorus.%以麻竹( Dendrocalamus latiflorus)笋为材料,分析不同光照强度下麻竹笋不同部位单宁、类黄酮、草酸以及氨基酸等苦涩味物质的含量。结果表明:在6种光照强度下,随着光照强度降低,单宁、类黄酮、氨基酸等苦涩味物质的含量减少,而草酸含量呈先上升后下降的趋势;在相同光照强度处理下,麻竹笋单宁、氨基酸含量以笋尖部最高,分别是笋基部的1.8~3.4、1.4~3.4倍;类黄酮含量变化趋势与其相反,笋基部到笋尖部减少了29�4%~60�2%;草酸含量在笋中部最高,其次为笋尖部,笋基部最少。在自然光照条件下,笋尖部苦涩味物质含量最高,苦涩味最重,适量降低

  11. Effects of isoflavones on beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains Efeitos dos isoflavonóides no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros cozidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi


    Full Text Available Flavor is the main limiting factor affecting soybean acceptability in the Occidental countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the effetcs of isoflavones on soybean flavor. Differences in beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains, prepared with cultivars IAS 5 and BR-36 (136 and 54 mg of total isoflavones /100 g of sample, respectively with pre-soaking and pre-heating of grains, were sensorially analised, by an unstructured category scale of ascending intensity. Differences in isoflavone contents for both soybean cultivars were maintained in the two products, despite the pre-treatments in the processing. Pre-soaking of grains intensified beany flavor in the soymilk, reducing the perception of astringency, which is caused by the aglucones that were developed in reduced amounts.The whole soybeans grains cooked under pressure (1.5 kgf/cm² at 127°C presented reduced levels of isoflavones malonyl-glucosides. Due to thermal instability, these compounds were converted to conjugated glucosides, genistin and daidzin. In the cooked whole soybean grains, no aglucones were formed and consequently it was not possible to detect differences in astringency. Results suggest that pre-heating of grains promote better flavor in soybean products.O sabor é o principal fator que limita a aceitabilidade da soja nos países ocidentais. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos dos isoflavonóides sobre o sabor da soja. Diferenças no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros de soja cozidos, preparados com as cultivares IAS 5 e BR-36 (136 e 54 mg isoflavonóides totais /100 g de amostras, respectivamente, com pré-maceração e pré-aquecimento dos grãos, foram analisadas sensorialmente, conforme uma escala não estruturada de categoria de intensidade ascendente. As diferenças no teor dos isoflavonóides das duas cultivares foram mantidas nos dois produtos

  12. Impact of Avoiding Light on Bitterness and Astringency,Tannin Content,Morphology and Distribution of Dendrocalamus latiflorus%避光对麻竹笋苦涩味及单宁含量、形态与分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章志远; 丁兴萃; 崔逢欣; 蔡函江


    Dendrocalamus latiflorus.[Method ]The distribution and morphology of tannin cells as well as the concentration of tannin in bamboo shoot of D.latiflorus were investigated on the three treatments of Mulching with soil (EP),Double-layer light-proof bagging (CLPB),and Natural growth (CK)by means of sensory evaluation,optical microscopy,transmission electron microscopy (TEM)and phospho-tungstic acid-sodium tungstate colorimetry.[Result](1 )The results of three treatments showed the bitterness and astringency were increasingly enhanced from base to top of bamboo shoot and the bitterness and astringency of three treatments was:CK>CLPB>EP.(2)The cells with tannins(CWT)of D.latiflorus could be dyed black by 2%FeCl2 solution method which made a clear distinguishing between CWT and non-tannin cells and proved to be effec-tive.(3)Most of the tannin was distributed inside the parenchyma cells,a little was found in fiber cells,but none was detected in the sieve tube and the vessel cell of vascular bundles.(4)Most of the tannin was located inside the cytoplasm and a little distributed in vacuole,the morphology of tannin were flocculent,granular and plate-like under the electron microscope.(5 )The tannin content range of the bamboo shoot under different treatment are as follows:CK:1 .15 2.67 mg·g-1 ,CLPB:1 .03 1 .43 mg·g-1 ,and EP:0.36 1 .13 mg·g-1 ,and the order of CWT distribution density of three treatments was:CK>CLPB>EP,both the order of tannin content and CWT of three treatments in different parts were:top>middle>bottom.[Conclusion]The bitterness and astringency intensity and tannin content of bamboo shoots had a positive relationship with light,and was much higher in natural light condi-tion than in light-proof one;while the CWT distribution and morphology of bamboo shoots had no relationship with light,the tannin cell morphology was just closely related to the position of bamboo shoot.Such light-proof measures as EP and CLPB significantly reduced the tannin content of bamboo shoot

  13. 1-MCP和真空包装对半脱涩磨盘柿常温保脆效果的影响%Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Vacuum Packaging on Crispiness-keeping in Room Temperature of Incomplete De-astringency Mopan persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇文丽; 李江阔; 张鹏; 张平; 农绍庄


    以磨盘柿为试材,研究室温条件下1-MCP和真空包装对半脱涩柿果的保硬保脆效果以及柿果的生理变化规律。结果表明:1-NCP结合真空包装可以有效抑制半脱涩柿果硬度的下降,呼吸强度的增加和细胞膜透性的上升,促进柿果可溶性单宁向不溶性单宁的转化,可溶性单宁在7d时下降到0.03%,硬度为18.63kg/cm,42d时硬度为17.52kg/cm,对照在21d可溶性单宁为0.02%,果实已完全软化,1-MCP结合真空包装可以有效延长室温贮藏期21d。%Mopan persimmon was used as the raw material. The effect of 1-MCP and vacuum packaging on physiology and crispiness-keeping of incomplete de-astringency persimmons under room temperature were investigated. Results showed that 1-MCP combined with individual vacuum packaging effectively inhibited the decline of fruit firmness, respiration rate and cell membrane permeability. It also promoted the change of the soluble tannin into unsolvable tannin. The soluble tannin content dropped to 0.03% at 7d and the firmness was 18.63 kg/cm2 ; at 42 d the firmness was 17.52 kg/cm2. The the control persimmon group was softened completely at the 21 st day with soluble tannin content of 0.02. Therefore, 1-MCP combined with individual vacuum packaging can effectively prolonged storage time for 21 days.

  14. An in vitro investigation of the astringency property of certain anhidrotic solutions. (United States)

    Michniak-Mikołajczak, B B


    Compounds effective in vivo in the rat as anhidrotic wee found to precipitate egg white protein. There was little correlation between the effectiveness of a compound as an antiperspirant and its ability to precipitate protein. Lanthanum chloride was an exception since it was found to be the most effective anhidrotic in the rat and also produced the highest levels of precipitate. The addition of calcium or magnesium chloride increased the quantity of protein precipitated by the anhidrotic solutions, in contrast to their effect in vivo.

  15. Astringency of Peach Fruit in Different Fruit Parts, Trees and Orchards


    久保田, 尚浩; 三村, 博美; 薬師寺, 浩子; 島村, 和夫



  16. Study on Effect of Polyphenols on Astringency Quality of Walnut Kernel%多酚对核桃仁食用品质影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克建; 齐建勋; 胡小松; 郝艳宾


    本文分析了不同品种核桃仁中多酚对其食用品质的影响.研究结果表明,核桃仁的口感品质(收敛性)与单位重量核桃仁中多酚对蛋白质的结合能力PPC(Protein Precipitation Capacity)关系紧密,核桃仁的PPC值在489.27~610.19(mg/100g)时,核桃的香味比较突出;北方核桃仁(Juglans regia L)中多酚含量一般比南方铁核桃仁(Juglans sigillata Dode)的高,核桃仁种皮颜色也比南方铁核桃仁深.

  17. Banach空间中有限族渐近非扩张映象的修正Reich-Takahshi迭代程序的收敛性%The astringency of Reich-Takahashi Iterator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保荣; 周开进



  18. Effects of Different De-astringency Treatments on Soluble Tannin Content and ADH and PPO Activities in Persimmon Fruit%不同脱涩处理对红柿果实可溶性单宁含量及ADH和PPO酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金光; 周平; 廖汝玉; 郭瑞; 杨凌; 沈清标; 吴绍钟


    以红柿"早红"为试材,使用不同体积分数的二氧化碳和乙醇对果实进行脱涩处理,结果表明:室温条件下,30%乙醇处理、40%乙醇处理和80%二氧化碳处理可使柿果中可溶性单宁含量在96 h内降到阀值之下,且乙醇处理较二氧化碳处理能更有效地降低果实中的可溶性单宁含量;同时,在此过程中,柿果中的乙醇脱氢酶ADH酶活性先上升后下降,而多酚氧化酶PPO活性则始终保持上升的趋势.

  19. Characterization of taste-active fractions in red wine combining HPLC fractionation, sensory analysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación


    Five Tempranillo wines exhibiting marked differences in taste and/or astringency were selected for the study. In each wine the non-volatile extract was obtained by freeze-drying and further liquid extraction in order to eliminate remaining volatile compounds. This extract was fractionated by semipreparative C18-reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (C18-RP-HPLC) into nine fractions which were freeze-dried, reconstituted with water and sensory assessed for taste attributes and astringency by a specifically trained sensory panel. Results have shown that wine bitterness and astringency cannot be easily related to the bitter and astringent character of the HPLC fractions, what can be due to the existence of perceptual and physicochemical interactions. While the bitter character of the bitterest fractions may be attributed to some flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and their glycosides) the development of a sensitive UPLC-MS method to quantify astringent compounds present in wines has made it possible to demonstrate that proanthocyanidins monomers, dimers, trimers and tetramers, both galloylated or non-galloylated are not relevant compounds for the perceived astringency of the fractions, while cis-aconitic acid, and secondarily vainillic, and syringic acids and ethyl syringate, are the most important molecules driving astringency in two of the fractions (F5 and F6). The identity of the chemicals responsible for the astringency of the third fraction could be assigned to some proanthocyanidins (higher than the tetramer) capable to precipitate with ovalbumin.

  20. Drug: D04594 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 22 Respiratory organ agents ...64 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2643 Ammonium agents D04594 Ammonia wate

  1. Drug: D06972 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D06972 Shiunkou 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  2. HS-GC-MS Volatile compounds recovered in freshly pressed and commercial Wonderful pomegranate juices (United States)

    Consumption and production of superfruits has been increasing. Highly colored fruits often have bitter and astringent components that may make them undesirable, especially when processed. Many pomegranate volatile reports involved commercial samples, complicated isolation methods, or blending and ...

  3. Tretinoin Topical (United States)

    ... lotions, astringents, and perfumes); they can sting your skin, especially when you first use tretinoin.Do not use any other topical medications, especially benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid (wart remover), and dandruff shampoos containing sulfur or ...

  4. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  5. Drug: D04800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04800 Mixture, Drug Heparinoid - adrenal extract - salicylic acid mixt; Amel S (TN...) Heparinoid [DR:D04799], Adrenal extract, Salicylic acid [DR:D00097] Therapeutic category: 2649 Therapeutic... anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D04800 Heparinoid - adrenal extract - salicylic acid mixt PubChem: 17398169 ...

  6. Drug: D04797 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04797 Mixture, Drug Zinc oxide starch powder (JP16); Zinc oxide starch powder (TN)...c oxides D04797 Zinc oxide starch powder (JP16) 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, as...tringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D04797 Zinc oxide starch powder (JP16) PubChem: 17398166 ...

  7. Impact of cooking formulation on descriptive flavor and ORAC values of whole grain colored rice. (United States)

    Whole grain rice is high in healthful polyphenols, which can impart less desirable flavors, such as, bitterness and astringency. Other flavors may be associated with polyphenols. Rice is prepared with water and sometimes salt and/or oil are added to the cooking water; otherwise, there is little opp...

  8. Drug: D04806 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04806 Mixture, Drug Hydrocortisone acetate - diphenhydramine hydrochloride - fradi...omycin sulfate mixt; Strong restamin cortisone (TN) Hydrocortisone acetate [DR:D00165], Diphenhydramine hydr... Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D04806 Hydrocortisone acetate

  9. Drug: D01037 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01037 Drug 1,4-Dimethyl-7-isopropylazulene (JAN); Guaiazulene; Azunol (TN) C15H18 ...tchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D01037 1,4-Dimethyl-7-isopropylazul...1 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01X OTHER OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01XA Other ophthalmologicals S01XA01 Guaiazulen D01037 1,4-Dimethyl-7-isopropylazul

  10. Drug: D04799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt of Amel S (TN) Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 2...6 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D04799 Heparinoid (JAN) 3 Agent

  11. Drug: D00069 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zyme: CYP2C8 [HSA:1558] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual or...gans 26 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D00069 ...Vitamin A oil (JP16) 3 Agents affecting metabolism 31 Vitamins 311 Vitamins A and

  12. 对含噪声数据的一种鲁棒学习算法%A Robust Learning Algorithm for Noise Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰星; 章云; 符曦


    Allowing for the limitations of LS energy functionused in BP algorithm, this paper proposes a robust learning algorithmbased on the study of how clustering puts down radom noise's effects andthe consideration of intensified training for high-quality examples.Some simulation results demonstrate that the robust algorithm is clearlysuperior to BP algorithm in anti-disturbance and astringency.

  13. Quantitative Determination of Flavonoids and Chlorogenic Acid in the Leaves of Arbutus unedo L. Using Thin Layer Chromatography


    Željan Maleš; Darija Šarić; Mirza Bojić


    The plant species Arbutus unedo shows numerous beneficial pharmacological effects (antiseptic, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, astringent, depurative, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory). For the medicinal use, standardization of extracts is a necessity, as different compounds are responsible for different biological activities. In this paper, we analyze monthly changes in the content of quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid. Methanolic ext...

  14. Oily skin (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  15. Paper Chromatography and UV-Vis Spectroscopy to Characterize Anthocyanins and Investigate Antioxidant Properties in the Organic Teaching Laboratory (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Novak, Michael


    A variety of fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, blueberries, Concord grapes, blackberries, strawberries, peaches, eggplant, red cabbage, and red onions, contain flavonoid compounds known as anthocyanins that are responsible for the blue-red color and the astringent taste associated with such foods. In addition, anthocyanins exhibit a…

  16. Drug: D08733 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08733 Mixture, Drug Dexamethasone - dry distillation tar of defatting soybean mixt...; Dexamethasone - glyteer mixt; Glymesason (TN) Dexamethasone [DR:D00292], Dry distillation tar of, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08733 Dexamethasone - dry distillation tar of defatting soybean mixt PubChem: 96025416 ...

  17. Drug: D08734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08734 Drug Dry distillation tar of defatting soybean; Glyteer (TN) Therapeutic cat...ermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08734 Dry distillation tar of defatting soybean PubChem: 96025417 ...

  18. Drug: D00300 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2642 Antihistamine... D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamines...s Diphenhydramine D00300 Diphenhydramine (JP16/INN) Respiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Diphen

  19. Drug: D03360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2642 Antihistamine...ICS, ETC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamine... Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Diphenhydramine D03360 Diphenhydramine laurylsulfate (JAN) Target-bas...Antiparkinson Agents Anticholinergics Diphenhydramine D03360 Diphenhydramine laurylsulfate (JAN) Respiratory

  20. [Hexetidine--an oral antiseptic]. (United States)

    Kapić, Elvedina; Becić, Fahir; Becić, Ervina


    Hexetidine is very safe oral antiseptic with broad antibacterial and antifungal activity in vivo and in vitro. It has local-anesthetics, astringent and deodorant activity. Also, it has very strong antiplac effects. Resistention of microorganisms on hexetidine is short and transient. These characteristics give important therapeutic role in treatment of oral infections.

  1. Long-term Problems of Land Contaminated by Nonradioactive Hazardous Chemicals: Sources, Impacts, and Countermeasures (United States)


    pigments, wood preservatives, algicides, fire retardants, dyes and glazes, antiseptics and astringents, electroplating, deodorants , and rat poisons...other reducing ageats, including sulfur dioxide and sodium hydroxide, are commonly used to reduce chromium VI to .sromium III. % Metal powders of aluminum ...electroplating, deodorants , and rat poisons. As an environmental pollutant it is often encountered in association with other metals, including copper, iron

  2. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.


    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  3. Drug: D02845 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02845 Drug Aluminum chloride (USP) AlCl3. 6H2O 239.9515 241.4322 D02845.gif Astringent [topica...LOGICALS D10 ANTI-ACNE PREPARATIONS D10A ANTI-ACNE PREPARATIONS FOR TOPICAL USE D10AX Other anti-acne preparations for topica

  4. Compositional and sensory characterization of red wine polymers. (United States)

    Wollmann, Nadine; Hofmann, Thomas


    After isolation from red wine by means of ultrafiltration and gel adsorption chromatography, the composition of the highly astringent tasting high-molecular weight polymers was analyzed by means of HPLC-MS/MS, HPLC-UV/vis, and ion chromatography after thiolytic, alkaline, and acidic depolymerization and, on the basis of the quantitative data obtained as well as model incubation experiments, key structural features of the red wine polymers were proposed. The structural backbone of the polymers seems to be comprised of a procyanidin chain with (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate units as extension and terminal units as well as (-)-epigallocatechin as extension units. In addition, acetaldehyde was shown to link different procyanidins at the A-ring via an 1,1-ethylene bridge and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins were found to be linked to the procyanidin backbone via a C-C-linkage at position C(6) or C(8), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated the polymeric procyanidins to be esterified with various organic acids and phenolic acids, respectively. In addition, the major part of the polysaccharides present in the red wine polymeric fraction were found not to be covalently linked to procyanidins. Interestingly, sensory evaluation of individual fractions of the red wine polymers did not show any significant difference in the astringent threshold concentrations, nor in the astringency intensity in supra-threshold concentrations and demonstrated the mean degree of polymerization as well as the galloylation degree not to have an significant influence on the astringency perception.

  5. Drug: D08718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08718 Mixture, Drug dl-Camphor - l-menthol - methyl salicylate mixt; Mirusart (TN)...lgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08718 dl-Camphor - l-menthol - methyl salicylate mixt PubChem: 96025401 ...

  6. Drug: D08720 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08720 Mixture, Drug dl-Camphor - l-menthol - methyl salicylate -; diphenhydramine ...sics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08720 dl-Camphor - l-menthol - methyl salicylate - PubChem: 96025403 ...

  7. Drug: D08716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08716 Mixture, Drug dl-Camphor - l-menthol - glycyrrhetinic acid - methyl salicyla...s, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08716 dl-Camphor - l-menthol - glycyrrhetinic acid - methyl salicylate mixt PubChem: 96025399 ...

  8. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail:


    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded

  9. Impact of condensed tannin size as individual and mixed polymers on bovine serum albumin precipitation. (United States)

    Harbertson, James F; Kilmister, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Downey, Mark O


    Condensed tannins composed of epicatechin from monomer to octamer were isolated from cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) seeds and added to bovine serum albumin (BSA) individually and combined as mixtures. When added to excess BSA the amount of tannin precipitated increased with tannin size. The amount of tannin required to precipitate BSA varied among the polymers with the trimer requiring the most to precipitate BSA (1000 μg) and octamer the least (50 μg). The efficacy of condensed tannins for protein precipitation increased with increased degree of polymerisation (or size) from trimers to octamers (monomers and dimers did not precipitate BSA), while mixtures of two sizes primarily had an additive effect. This study demonstrates that astringent perception is likely to increase with increasing polymer size. Further research to expand our understanding of astringent perception and its correlation with protein precipitation would benefit from sensory analysis of condensed tannins across a range of polymer sizes.

  10. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed


    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity. 

  11. Sensory properties of virgin olive oil polyphenols: identification of deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon as a key contributor to pungency. (United States)

    Andrewes, Paul; Busch, Johanneke L H C; de Joode, Teun; Groenewegen, Anneke; Alexandre, Helene


    Polyphenols are an important functional minor component of virgin olive oils that are responsible for the key sensory characteristics of bitterness, pungency, and astringency. Polyphenols were isolated from virgin olive oils by using liquid/liquid extraction and then separated by using reverse phase HPLC followed by fraction collection. The sensory qualities of the isolated polyphenols were evaluated, and almost all fractions containing polyphenols were described as bitter and astringent. However, the fraction containing deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon produced a strong burning pungent sensation at the back of the throat. In contrast, the fraction containing the analogous deacetoxy-oleuropein aglycon, at an equivalent concentration, produced only a slight burning/numbing sensation, which was perceived more on the tongue. No other polyphenol fractions from the analyzed oils produced the intense burning sensation; thus, deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon is the polyphenol responsible for the majority of the burning pungent sensation found in pungent extra virgin olive oils.

  12. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage. (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis


    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals.

  13. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa


    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB712 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  14. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine. (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa


    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers.

  15. The role of starch and saliva in tribology studies and the sensory perception of protein-added yogurts. (United States)

    Morell, Pere; Chen, Jianshe; Fiszman, Susana


    Increasing the protein content of yogurts would be a good strategy for enhancing their satiating ability. However, the addition of protein can affect product palatability, contributing astringency or an inhomogeneous texture. Increasingly, studies mimicking oral tribology and oral lubrication have been attracting interest among food researchers because of their link with oral texture sensations. In the present study, four double-protein stirred yogurts were prepared by adding extra skimmed milk powder (MP) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) and by adding a physically modified starch to each (samples MPS and WPCS, respectively) to increase the consistency of the yogurts. The lubricating properties of the four yogurts were examined by tribological methods with the aim of relating these properties to the sensory perception described by flash profiling. Samples were also analysed after mixing with saliva. The tribology results clearly showed that addition of starch reduced the friction coefficient values regardless of the type of protein. Saliva addition produced a further decrease in the friction coefficient values in all the samples. Consequently, adding saliva is recommended when performing tribology measurements of foods in order to give a more realistic picture. The sensory results confirmed that the addition of starch reduced the astringent sensation, especially in sample WPC, while the MP and MPS samples were creamier and smoother. On the other hand, the astringency of sample WPC was not explained by the tribology results. Since this sample was described as "grainy", "gritty", "rough", "acid" and "sour", further studies are necessary to investigate the role of the number, size, shape and distribution of particles in yogurt samples, their role in astringency perception and their interaction with the perception of the tastes mentioned. Oral tribology has shown itself to be an in vitro technique that may aid a better understanding of the dynamics of in

  16. Determination of total polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids in Juglans regia leaves. (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl


    Juglans regia leaves have been widely used in traditional medicines because of its antimicrobial, antihelmintic, astringent, keratolytic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic, depurative, tonic, carminative activity. Total polyphenolic compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and flavonoids were quantified using the HPLC-PDA after the hydrolysis of the plant material with HCl. Among the flavonoids myricetin, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol were found in appreciable amount.

  17. Calculation of multi frequency of Helmholtz boundary integral equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhigao; HUANG Qibai


    The method using series expansion is presented, and the wavenumber is separated from fundamental solution of Helmholtz boundary element equation, then the system matrices dependent of wavenumber are the matrices series associated with wavenumber, and the astringency of the method is proved. The numerical results show that combined with the CHIEFmethod, the SECHIEF (Series Expansion Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation) method can not only provide uniqueness of solution and reduce the computational time but also give accurate results under the coarse elements.

  18. The role of honey in healing of bedsores in cancer patients


    Aramita Saha; Subrata Chattopadhyay; Md. Azam; Prabir Kr Sur


    Background: Honey was used to treat infected wounds as long as 2000 years before bacteria were discovered. It has been reported to have inhibitory action to around 50 species of bacteria and fungi (aspergillus, penicillium). Usually, Metronidazole powder is used in our palliative clinic for wound healing due to low cost & effectivity. Honey is cheap, easily available ingredient with high astringent activity. Objective: Objectives of the study were to find out the effectiveness of Honey in ter...

  19. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate


    Hayes, John E.; Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.


    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increas...

  20. Neuropharmacological effects of the ethanolic extract of Sida acuta


    Benjumea, Dora M; Isabel C. Gómez-Betancur; Julieta Vásquez; Fernando Alzate; Andrea García-Silva; Fontenla,José A.


    ABSTRACT Sida acuta Burm. f., Malvaceae, is regarded as astringent, tonic and useful in treating urinary diseases and blood disorders, bile, liver and as treatment for nervous diseases. Different methods were developed: sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, anxiolytic activity, test for muscle-effects, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, effect on normal body temperature. All experiments were performed in an isolated room with 12/12 h light/dark cycles at 22 ± 1 ºC. The effects d...

  1. Wound healing potential of Pañcavalkala formulations in a postfistulectomy wound



    SUMMARY Sushruta mentioned sixty measures for management of wounds. Panchavalkal is the combination of five herbs having properties like Shodhana (cleaning) and Ropana (healing) of wounds. Individual drugs and in combination have Kashaya rasa (astringent) dominant and useful in the management of Vrana (wounds) as well as Shotha (inflammations). A 35 years old male patient consulted in Shalya OPD with complaints like discharge per anum, induration and intermittent pain at perianal region since...

  2. Formation of Copper-Salivary Component Complexes and Its Effect on Sensory Perception


    Hong, Jae Hee


    Copper in drinking water elicits a persisting bitter, metallic, or astringent taste. Characteristics and perception mechanisms of copper sensation have not been fully understood. Saliva is assumed to influence copper sensations via binding of salivary electrolytes or proteins with copper. The interaction between salivary components and copper is thought to influence sensory perception by affecting volatility of aroma compounds, de-lubricating salivary proteins, and by controlling solubil...

  3. Detecting Contaminated Drinking Water: Harnessing Consumer Complaints (United States)


    decrease in the flavor intensity. If a toxicant is injected into the water, it is likely that the FAC concentration will decrease. This change may be...Sharp, pungent , irritating Colorless No Free chlorine Astringent Chlorinous Colorless No Hydrogen cyanide* Bitter, metallic Almond, peach kernels... Pungent , hydrocarbon Varies Yes Sewage Salty Septic Gary, brown Yes Soman Not reported Fruity, camphor Colorless No Sulfur mustard Not reported

  4. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel



    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...




    Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat) led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al), which ...

  6. Perbedaan Percepatan Penyembuhan Luka Bakar dari Ekstrak Kulit Buah Jengkol (Pithecellobium lobatum Benth.)




    Dog fruit (Pithecellobium lobatum Benth.) is one of the herbs are efficacious. Rind dog fruit including waste in traditional markets and provide less economic value. Leaf dog fruit efficacious as eczema, scabies, sores and ulcers medicine, the bark as lowering blood sugar and rind can be used as a skin ulcer medication, insect repellent, burn. One of the chemical compounds from dog fruit rind is tannin. Serves as an astringent tannins that cause shrinkage pores of the skin, ...

  7. Pharmacognostical Studies of the Pericarp of Lagonychium farctum (Banks and Sol. Bobr. Growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf N. E. Hamed


    Full Text Available Lagonychium farctum (Banks and Sol. Bobr. is an erect prickly trees or shrubs. It belongs to family Leguminosae. It is used in traditional system of medicine as an astringent as well as anti-dysenteric. The present study investigates various standardized parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic characters which could be helpful in authentication of the pericarp of Lagonychium farctum. (Banks & Sol. Bobr

  8. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Narayanan


    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also used in dental practice for the management of periodontal disease and to prevent halitosis. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of S. officinalis in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.

  9. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes


    Verloop, J.W.


    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncontrolled process. With the objective to make tea oxidation a more controlled process, the aim of this thesis was to understand the enzymatic oxidation reactions occurring during tea oxidation, and t...

  10. Chip electrophoresis as a novel approach to measure the polyphenols reactivity toward human saliva. (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Iturmendi, Néréa; Gambuti, Angelita; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Moio, Luigi


    Saliva is a biological fluid with a multifunctional role that makes it interesting in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. In food research, human saliva represented a useful tool by which we measure the tactile sensation elicited by polyphenol-rich beverages called astringency. A method based on SDS-PAGE analysis of saliva before and after the binding reaction with wine polyphenols has been successfully used in previous studies for measuring wine astringency by means of the saliva precipitation index. In this work, chip electrophoresis was used alternatively to SDS-PAGE and results were compared. Chip electrophoresis provides a very good reproducibility for wine and grape astringency. Moreover, this approach is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method requiring several hours for an analysis. Another advantage over traditional gel is lower sample and reagent volume requirements, as well as the lower and less toxic wastes, contributing benefits to health and environment. The application of this novel method allowed, using the principal component analysis, to distinguish grapes and wines according to the saliva precipitation index and structural characteristics determined by the phoroglucinolysis analysis.

  11. 丁樱教授妙用乌梅、乌梅炭经验拾萃%Experience of Professor DING Ying of using Fructus Mume and charred Fructus Mume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑文; 丁樱


      现代药理研究中药乌梅具有抗菌,驱虫,抗肿瘤,抗过敏,抗氧化,抗疲劳等[1]作用,长于生津止渴,敛肺止咳,安蛔。乌梅经炮制成乌梅炭后,则具有收敛止血、涩肠止泻等作用,临床上广泛用于久泻、久痢、便血、崩漏下血等。丁樱教授在30余年的临床研究中,辨证运用二药,疗效显著。%Fructus Mume has the effect of antibiosis, helminthicide, anti-tumor, anti-anaphylaxis, anti-oxygen, anti-fatigue etc, and it is good at promoting fluid production to quench thirst, astringing lung to stop cough and relieving ascaris colic. If Fructus Mume is processed into Charred Fructus Mume, it therefore has the effect of hemostasis with astringents and antidarrhea with astringent, widely used in lingering decanta, lingering dysentery, hematochezia and uterine bleeding. Professor Ding Ying has applied the two herbs on differentiation of symptoms and signs during the clinical study and research more than 30 years and great efficacy has been achieved.

  12. The colloidal state of tannins impacts the nature of their interaction with proteins: the case of salivary proline-rich protein/procyanidins binding. (United States)

    Cala, Olivier; Dufourc, Erick J; Fouquet, Eric; Manigand, Claude; Laguerre, Michel; Pianet, Isabelle


    While the definition of tannins has been historically associated with its propensity to bind proteins in a nonspecific way, it is now admitted that specific interaction also occurs. The case of the astringency perception is a good example to illustrate this phenomenon: astringency is commonly described as a tactile sensation induced by the precipitation of a complex composed of proline-rich proteins present in the human saliva and tannins present in beverages such as tea or red wines. In the present work, the interactions between a human saliva protein segment and three different procyanidins (B1, B3, and C2) were investigated at the atomic level by NMR and molecular dynamics. The data provided evidence for (i) an increase in affinity compared to shortest human saliva peptides, which is accounted for by protein "wraping around" the tannin, (ii) a specificity in the interaction below tannin critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ca. 10 mM, with an affinity scale such that C2 > B1 > B3, and (iii) a nonspecific binding above tannin CMC that conducts irremediably to the precipitation of the tannins/protein complex. Such physicochemical findings describe in accurate terms saliva protein-tannin interactions and provide support for a more subtle description by oenologists of wine astringency perception in the mouth.

  13. Evolution of phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its contribution to wine sensory properties and antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Sun, Baoshan; Neves, Ana C; Fernandes, Tiago A; Fernandes, Ana L; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Vítor; Leandro, Conceição; Spranger, Maria I


    The objective of this work was to study the evolution of the phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its relationship with some sensory properties (astringency and bitterness) and antioxidant activities. Thus, red wine was made by a classic vinification method with Castelão and Tinta Miúda grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) harvested at maturity (3:2; w/w). Samples were taken at 2 and 7 days of maceration, at second racking, at the time of bottling and at 6 and 14 months after bottling. The total polyphenols extract (TPx) in each sample was isolated by column chromatography. The phenolic composition (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins), in vitro antioxidant activity, and sensory property (astringency, bitterness) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages were evaluated through high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl radical test, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, total phenolic index, MWI (polyphenol molecular weight index), TSA (tannin specific activity), and sensory panel tasting. The results showed that the phenolic composition of red wine varied significantly during winemaking. The intensity of astringency (IA) and the intensity bitterness (IB) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages increased from 2 days of maceration until second racking and then decreased. Furthermore, MWI and TSA are positively correlated with IA and IB. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages maintained unchanged after alcoholic fermentation, which was independent of the variation of phenolic composition and sensory properties.

  14. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines. (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación


    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed.

  15. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting. (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In


    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  16. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung


    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  17. 《医学衷中参西录》中龙骨牡蛎配伍运用浅析%Analysis on Compatibility Application of Bone Fossil of Big Mammals and Oyster Shell in Yixue Zhongzhong Canxilu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少丹; 杨桢; 李冀


    Zhang Xichun is a famous Chinese medicine expert in the period of late Qing Dynasty .Yixue Zhongzhong Canxilu is his representative work .He is good at using bone fossil of big mammals and oyster shell compatibility in the treatment of various diseases .The functions are as following:convergence zhenyin and astringent yuanqi with dogwood fruit and radix paeoniae alba , astringing for stranguria with Chinese yam and radix paeoniae alba , convergence heart qi and tranquilization with heavy material with Longan , Wild Jujube and Seman Platycladi, hemostasis with astringents and compatibility Os Sepiae and Radix Rubiae , descending adverse qi for expelling phlegm with Pinellia Tuber;nourishing yin and suppressing hyperactive yang with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Hematite .%《医学衷中参西录》是张锡纯一生治学临证经验和心得的汇集,受到临床医家的推崇,其善用龙骨、牡蛎配伍收敛固涩以治疗各种病证。集中体现在以下方面:收敛真阴、固涩元气,多和山萸肉、生杭白芍配伍;收涩止淋,多和山药、芍药配伍;收敛心气、重镇安神,多和龙眼肉、酸枣仁、柏子仁配伍;收敛止血,多和海螵蛸、茜草配伍;降逆祛痰、安神定志,多和清半夏配伍;重镇降逆、滋阴潜阳,多和怀牛膝、赭石配伍。

  18. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz


    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd. As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difusão radial. Para a DIVMS, foi utilizado método de dois estágios. Foram observadas diferenças entre as espécies (PCondensed tannins (CT of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus were characterized and the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of those species were determined. Concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT of the plants was determined using butanol-HCL method; astringency was determined, using radial diffusion method, and the IVDMD was determined using two-stages method. Concentration and astringency of condensed tannins varied between species (P<0.01. Jureminha was the species that presented the highest value (2.4% TT and 13.7-3 astringency. No tannins were detected in flor-de-seda. Crude protein was higher than 16% in all studied species, and the ADF and lignin values were lower than 39 and 15%, respectively. The IVDMD was low in jureminha (43% and high in flor-de-seda (80%. The correlation between IVDMD and TT was low (r²=0.097.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quazi Majaz


    Full Text Available The plant Kalanchoe pinnata is widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine as astringent, analgesic, carminative and also useful in diarrhea and vomiting. Naturalized throughout the hot and moist parts of India. In this first roots are subjected to pet.ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous solvent respectively for extraction. And evaluation of antioxidant activity was done by DPPH scavenging, Nitric oxide scavenging and reducing power assay. Methanolic extract of roots of K. pinnata was found to be most effective as antioxidant as compare to other.

  20. Pharmacognostical Studies of the Seed of Lagonychium farctum (Banks and Sol. Bobr. Growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia M. El-Sayyad


    Full Text Available Lagonychium farctum (Banks & Sol. a wild plant growing in the deserts of Upper Egypt as a prickly perennial shrub with monopodial branches. It belongs to family Leguminosae. The plant is usually branching from the base and attains up to 2.5 m in height. It is used in traditional system of medicine as an astringent as well as antidysenteric. The present study investigates various standardized parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic characters which could be helpful in authentication of the seed of Lagonychium farctum. (Banks & Sol. Bobr.

  1. Drug: D00552 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00552 Drug Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN); Parathesin (TN) C9H11...D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN) 2 Agents affecting individual organs 26 Epidermides ...264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); anesthetics D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC...RHOIDS AND ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AD Local anesthetics C05AD03 Benzocai

  2. Natural ingredients for colouring and styling. (United States)

    Dweck, A C


    This paper examines some of the existing methods for colouring the hair and skin using natural material (such as henna) and proposes a parallel technology that exists in the dyeing of wool and fabrics to extend the colour range. Many of the listed plants and their derivatives are not found in Annex IV of the Cosmetic Directive and may not be used as colours; however, they do have other properties which may justify their inclusion into a product, for example, as astringent or anti-inflammatory agents. The paper concludes with some reported antigreying and hair styling preparations cited in the literature.

  3. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela


    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  4. Studies on the effects of honey incorporation on quality and shelf life of aonla preserve


    Saghir Ahmad; Nanda Kumaran


    Aonla is the richest sources of Vitamin C. The raw fruit, due to its high acidic nature and astringent taste is unacceptable to the consumers. Honey is a natural high energy sweetener with many medicinal values. Keeping in view the nutritional and therapeutic values of aonla fruit and honey, aonla preserve was prepared by incorporating 7.5 and 15% of honey into them. The quality of the products was evaluated based on the physicochemical (moisture, ash, pH, TSS, browning index and Vitamin C co...

  5. Chemical Composition profile of Acacia Nilotica Seed Growing Wild in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abbasian


    Full Text Available Objective: Acacia Nilotica is a pioneer species, relatively high in bioactive secondary compound and are important for a variety of functions is economically used as a source of tannins, gums, timber, fuel and fodder. Babul plant is therapeutic used as Anti-cancer, anti tumours, Antiscorbutic, Astringent, anti-oxidant, Natriuretic, Antispasmodial, Diuretic, Intestinal pains and diarrhea, Nerve stimulant, Cold, Congestion, Coughs, Dysenter, Fever, Hemorrhages, Leucorrhea, Ophthalmia and Sclerosis. The aim of this study was determination of proximate composition, mineral elements (Calcium, Potassium, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Selenium and Copper contents in this endemic Iranian seed.

  6. Sensory descriptors of cocoa beans from cultivated trees of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando


    Full Text Available The odor and taste profile of cocoa bean samples obtained from trees cultivated in southern Mexico were evaluated by trained panelists. Seven representative samples (groups of a total of 45 were analyzed. Four attributes of taste (sweetness, bitterness, acidity and astringency, and nine of odor (chocolate, nutty, hazelnut, sweet, acidity, roasted, spicy, musty and off-odor were evaluated. A sample (G7 with higher scores in sweet taste and sweet and nutty odors was detected, as well as a high association between these descriptors and the sample, analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA. Similarly, samples that showed high scores for non-desired odors in cocoas such as off-odor and musty were identified and related by PCA to roasted odor and astringent taste (G2 and G4. Based on this scores, the samples were listed in descending order by their sensory quality as G7> G5> G6> G3> G1> G4> G2.

  7. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuang Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  8. The taste sensory evaluation of medicinal plants and Chinese medicines. (United States)

    Kataoka, Masumi; Tokuyama, Emi; Miyanaga, Yohko; Uchida, Takahiro


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the artificial taste sensor in the evaluation of 11 medicinal plants and 10 Chinese medicines with bitter and/or astringent tastes, and to assess the possible application of the sensor in the evaluation of taste and quality control of medicinal products. Aqueous extracts of the six bitter medicinal plants could be classified into three types, and those of the five astringent medicinal plants into two types, on the basis of sensor output pattern profiles. These differences seem to derive from the different structures of the main components. In the principal component analysis of the taste sensor output of 10 Chinese medicines, a new measure developed, the 'Euclidean distance', defined as the distance between a control and the targeted substance on the principal component map. This measure offers a possibility for indicating the different tastes of Chinese medicines. Lastly, we confirmed that berberine adsorption on the surface of the artificial membrane of the taste sensor was of the Langmuir type. The berberine content in extracts of medicinal plants could be evaluated by the taste sensor, and it was shown to be possible to use the taste sensor for the quality control of medicinal plants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatiwal Shalabh


    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  10. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar


    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  11. Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations. (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto


    Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases.

  12. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati


    Full Text Available Changes in cocoa procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting were studied by heating up cocoa liquor of fermented beans containing 58 g kg-1 of polyphenols and the same liquor which was enriched with crude polyphenols, extracted from freeze-dried unfermented cocoa beans to a final concentration of 170 g kg-1. The liquors were roasted at 120 OC for 15, 25, 35 and 45 min with three replications. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean polyphenol was resistant against high temperature during heating of cocoa liquor 120 OC for up to 45 min. The resistance was stronger with the unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol than with fermented cocoa. High temperature promoted a small quantity of monomers up to pentamers of the fermented cocoa bean polyphenol to polymerize into higher oligomers, but did not with unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol. These results imply that the problem of lack in cocoa flavor in terms high astringency and bitterness due to high polyphenol content cannot be overcome by the application of high temperature during chocolate processing, meanwhile cocoa bean polyphenol could still give beneficial as an antioxidant even after high temperature application.Key words: Cocoa bean, polyphenol, procyanidin, tannin, roasting, antioxidant, flavor, astringency.

  13. Flavor comparison of natural cheeses manufactured in different countries. (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Chambers, Delores H


    The objective of this study was to determine the main flavor components of different natural aged cheese types from various countries and determine whether a unique sensory characteristic exists within specific countries for European cheeses. The flavor of 152 cheeses from Estonia, France, Italy, Germany, Holland, Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, and Denmark were described during 4 independent studies. The sensory data from these studies were combined. The cheeses were sorted according to milk type and texture, and flavor characteristics of these groups were described. The main flavor characteristics of the cheeses tested were salty, sweet, sour, astringent, biting, pungent, sharp, nutty, musty/earthy, dairy fat, buttery, and dairy sweet. The cluster analysis divided the cheeses into 4 clusters: clusters 1 and 2 were sour, dairy sour, salty, astringent, biting, and varied in buttery (cluster 1) and sharp notes (cluster 2). Cluster 1 and 2 were mainly composed of French cheeses, while clusters 3 and 4 represented cheeses from various countries. Cluster 3 and 4 were sweet, with cooked milk and nutty characteristics and varied from buttery (cluster 3) to sharp notes (cluster 4). Cheeses from some countries, for example, France and Estonia, generally exhibited common sensory characteristics within the specific country, but cheeses from some other countries, such as Italy, varied widely, and seemed to have no common sensory theme. Most regional cheese standards are not specific about flavor profiles and these results suggest it may be possible to start a further characterization of cheeses in some countries.

  14. 樱桃酒感官评价与电子舌感官分析的相关性研究%Study on correlation between sensory evaluation and sensors analysis of electronic tongue of cherry wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛云蔚; 张晓鸣; 肖作兵; 宋诗清; 朱建才; 顾永波


    Five different cherry wines ,which were described by sour, sweet, bitter and astringent attributes ,were analyzed by electronic tongue. The ability of discrimination cherry wines of electronic tongue was evaluated by PCA and DFA. The sensory evaluation results were correlated to response of seven sensors(ZZ,BA,BB,CA, GA,HA,JB) by PCA and PLSR. The results showed that there were better correlation between JB and sour, HA, CA and sweet,ZZ and astringent, bitter, respectively.%对五种不同樱桃酒的感官属性(酸、甜、苦、涩)进行了感官评价和电子舌指纹分析,利用主成分(PCA)与判别因子(DFA)分析对电子舌区分樱桃酒的能力进行了评价,并通过PCA、偏最小二乘法(PLSR)将感官评价结果与电子舌7根传感器(ZZ、BA、BB、CA、GA、HA、JB)响应相关联。结果表明,电子舌指纹分析系统对樱桃酒具有较好的区分辨别能力,传感器JB与酸味,传感器HA、CA与甜味,传感器ZZ与涩、苦味具有较高的相关性。

  15. 柿果实单宁细胞特征与总酚和缩合单宁含量的关系%Correlation between Characteristics of Tannin Cells and Total Phenolics and Condensed Tannins Contents in Persimmon Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宏义; 杨勇; 杨婷婷; 夏乐晗; 王仁梓


    In this study,51 accessions of mature persimmon fruits were used as materials to investigate the correlation between characteristics of tannin cells,and total phenolics and condensed tannins contents. The sizes and quantities of the tannin cells were observed with direct extrusion of soft persimmon fruits. A calculating method for determining the volume of tannin cells was explored in unit mass of mature fruits flesh. The total phenolics and condensed tannins contents were measured. The results showed that 1) The size and quantity of tannin cells in PCA ( pollination constant astringent) cultivars were larger,while those of Chinese PCNA ( pollination constant nonastringent ) and Japanese PCNA cultivars except for 'Suruga'were smaller. Part of the PCA cultivars was similar to PVA ( pollination variant astringent) and PVNA (pollination variant nonastringent) cultivars. 2) There was extreme significant (P <0. 01) correlations between the volume of tannin cells and total phenolics content as well as condensed tannins contents of mature persimmon fruit, respectively. 3) Cluster results showed that the volume of tannin cells was able tobe used as an index for classification of different types of persimmon cultivars.

  16. Sensory descriptive quantitative analysis of unpasteurized and pasteurized juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) during long-term storage. (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Zillo, Rafaela Rebessi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Prospero, Evanilda Teresinha Perissinotto; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet


    This study evaluated the effect of pasteurization followed by storage under different conditions on the sensory attributes of frozen juçara pulp using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Pasteurization of packed frozen pulp was performed by its immersion in stainless steel tank containing water (80°C) for 5 min, followed by storage under refrigerated and frozen conditions. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples (6°C) on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Sensory attributes were separated as follows: appearance (foamy, heterogeneous, purple, brown, oily, and creamy), aroma (sweet and fermented), taste (astringent, bitter, and sweet), and texture (oily and consistent), and compared to a reference material. In general, unpasteurized frozen pulp showed the highest score for foamy appearance, and pasteurized samples showed highest scores to creamy appearance. Pasteurized samples remained stable regarding brown color development while unpasteurized counterparts presented increase. Color is an important attribute related to the product identity. All attributes related to taste and texture remained constant during storage for all samples. Pasteurization followed by storage under frozen conditions has shown to be the best conservation method as samples submitted to such process received the best sensory evaluation, described as foamy, slightly heterogeneous, slightly bitter, and slightly astringent.

  17. Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak Ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines. (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Wollmann, Nadine; Wenker, Kerstin; Lösch, Sofie; Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas


    Aimed at investigating the concentrations and taste contribution of the oak-derived ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin as well as their transformation products acutissimin A/B, epiacutissimin A/B, and beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin in red wine, a highly sensitive and accurate quantification method was developed on the basis of LC-MS/MS-MRM analysis with matrix calibration. Method validation showed good recovery rates ranging from 102.4 +/- 5.9% (vescalagin) to 113.7 +/- 15.2% (epiacutissimin A). In oak-matured wines, castalagin was found as the predominant ellagitannin, followed by beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin, whereas the flavano-C-ellagitannins (epi)acutissimin A/B were present in significantly lower amounts. In contrast to the high threshold concentration levels (600-1000 micromol/L) and the puckering astringent orosensation induced by flavan-3-ols, all of the ellagitannin derivatives were found to induce a smooth and velvety astringent oral sensation at rather low threshold concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 micromol/L. Dose/activity considerations demonstrated that, among all the ellagitannins investigated, castalagin exclusively exceeded its threshold concentration in various oak-matured wine samples.

  18. [Recent progress in NIR spectroscopy technology and its application to the field of forestry]. (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Wei


    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is the most rapidly developing and the most noticeable spectrographic technique in the 80's (the last century). Its developing history and utilization in foreign countries were introduced. The authors mainly summarized the applications of NIRS to the field of forestry. The applications of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in fruit quality, timber and seed quality analysis are more active in forestry due to its rapid, timely, less expensive, non-destructive, straightforward analytic characteristics. In the last two decades, non-destructive methods using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate parameters for estimating maturity were applied to different fruits species to check the ripening status of fruits on trees or to grade fruits in the packing house, to assess fruit quality, such as sugar and acid contents, soluble solids, firmness of fruit, offers great advantages to growers in deciding when to harvest. The near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) can also be used the nondestructive quantitative assessment of the solid wood density, the moisture condition and the lignin content in bulky wood. The previous results indicated that the utility of NIRS was a selection tool in breeding programs, for example, three kids of persimmon fruits, astringent, non-astringent and half-astringent, were clearly classified by using Near-infrared (NIR) methods, and based on the combination of near infrared technology and multivariate analysis, the genetic, physiological and technical qualities of both temperate and tropical tree species on single seed basis can be characterized. It has already been shown that NIRS can predict the chemical composition of litters. NIRS is also capable of correlating the initial spectral characteristics of the litters with their short- and medium-term decomposability. The stage of decay of decomposing leaves can be predicted by using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The method is rich in

  19. "Kingly Way" of Prescription Compatibility%论方剂配伍之“王道”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏艳; 年莉


    方剂配伍常在祛邪除病的同时兼顾正气.文章从9个方面阐述讲究方剂配伍中之“王道”思想,即君以辛(香)温,佐以补敛;君以泻下,佐以补益甘缓;君以苦寒重镇,佐以养血疏调;君以补涩,佐以行气;君以止血,佐以化瘀;君以重镇安神,佐以益胃和中;君以升散,佐以苦降;君以温燥,佐以养阴;君以燥散,佐以酸敛.同时指出,治急之方应要“霸道”.%The purpose of prescription compatibility is not only to eliminate evil Qi, but also give consideration to genuine Qi. The article explains the thought of the "kingly way" of prescription compatibility from nine aspects as follow: Taking the herbs with pungent flavor and warm nature as the Sovereign drug, and tonic and astringent herbs as the Adjuvant drug;Taking the purgative herbs as the Sovereign drug, and tonic herbs or herbs with sweet flavor as the Adjuvant drug; Taking the herbs with bitter flavor and cold nature or the herbs with heavy quality as the Sovereign drug, and herbs for tonifying blood or soothing the liver as the Adjuvant drug; Taking the tonic and astringent herbs as the Sovereign drug, and herbs for promoting the movement of Qi as the Adjuvant drug;Taking the herbs for stopping bleeding as the Sovereign drug, and herbs for dispelling blood stasis as the Adjuvant drug; Taking the herbs with settling tranquilizer as the Sovereign drug, and herbs for harmonizing the stomach as the Adjuvant drug; Taking the herbs with ascending and dispersing nature as the Sovereign drug, and the bitter and descending herbs as the Adjuvant drug; Taking the herbs with warm and drying nature as the Sovereign drug, and the herbs for tonifying yin as the Adjuvant drug; Taking the herbs with drying and dispersing nature as the Sovereign drug, and astringent herbs with sour flavor as the Adjuvant drug. At the same time, the article points out that the prescription indicating for emergency should reflect the thought of "mighty

  20. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  1. [Toxic megacolon presenting as Crohn's disease]. (United States)

    Sánchez Yubero, S; López Gil, A; Pérez Rojo, J A; Kessler Saiz, P


    We introduce a young patient, without history of inflammatory bowel disease (I.B.D.) who started with an acute gastroenteritis, which in the following days progressed to a toxic megacolon. The patient had come to hospital with nausea, vomiting, fever and liquid, explosive diarrhoea without pathologic products. There was no clinical remission with astringent diet, hydroelectrolitic reposition and antidiarrheic opiates. The patient was admitted in hospital when he had blood in the diarrhoea. This progressed to a toxic megacolon in three days and the patient had to be operated on urgently. The surgeons found perforations in the colon and the pathologists diagnosed Crohn disease. Even without previous E.B.D. history we reached the diagnosis from the clinical and analytical data and the plain abdominal radiology. It was impossible to confirm the diagnosis with a colonoscopy because of the high risk of perforation. In cases like this, early surgery may save the life of the patient.

  2. Multi-objective optimization of the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system with genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fengjiao


    Full Text Available Optimization of the control strategy plays an important role in improving the performance of electric vehicles. In order to improve the braking stability and recover the braking energy, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the key parameters in the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system. Various limitations are considered in the optimization process, and the optimization results are verified by a software simulation platform of electric vehicle regenerative braking system in typical brake conditions. The results show that optimization objectives achieved a good astringency, and the optimized control strategy can increase the brake energy recovery effectively under the condition of ensuring the braking stability.

  3. Traditional Indian Herbs Punarnava and Its Medicinal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik


    Full Text Available Ayurveda considers man as an integral part of Mother Nature. Therefore the laws of nature are very well applicable for him also. Ancient philosophy which ponders the “secret of life and beyond” gives prime importance for health. It has understood the need of longevity and effectiveness to attain the supreme goal. Punarnava helps maintain efficient kidney and urinary functions with its diuretic, laxative, stomachic, diaphoretic, anthelminthic anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory action. According to Ayurveda, Punarnava is bitter, cooling, astringent to bowels, useful in biliousness, blood impurities, leucorrhoea, anaemia, inflammations, heart diseases, asthma, alternatives etc. The leaves are useful in dyspepsia, tumours, spleen enlargement and abdominal pains. According to Unani system of medicine, the leaves are appetizer, alexiteric, useful in opthalmia, in joint pains. Seeds are tonic expectorant, carminative, useful in lumbago, scabies. The seeds are considered as promising blood purifier.

  4. Factors affecting in vitro bond strength of bonding agents to human dentin. (United States)

    Powers, John M; O'Keefe, Kathy L; Pinzon, Lilliam M


    Four generations of total-etch (fourth, fifth) and self-etching (sixth, seventh) bonding agents for use with resin composites are commercially available in the United States. Innovations in bonding agents include: filled systems, release of fluoride and other agents, unit dose, self-cured catalyst, option of etching with either phosphoric acid or self-etching primer, and pH indicators. Factors that can affect in vitro bond strength to human dentin include substrate (superficial dentin, deep dentin; permanent versus primary teeth; artificial carious dentin), phosphoric acid versus acidic primers, preparation by air abrasion and laser, moisture, contaminants, desensitizing agents, astringents, and self-cured restorative materials. This article reviews studies conducted at the Houston Biomaterials Research Center from 1993 to 2003. Results show that in vitro bond strengths can be reduced by more than 50% when bonding conditions are not ideal.

  5. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq


    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  6. Pharmacognostical Evaluation and Qualitative Analysis of Saccharum spontaneum (L. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalid


    Full Text Available Saccharum spontaneum L. known as Kasa (Family: Poaceae is a traditional herb, it has excellence medicinal value; has been advocated in the treatment gynaecological troubles, respiratory disease. Roots are used as galactagogue and diuretic and in ayurveda system roots are also used as astringent, emollient, refrigerant, diuretic, purgative, tonic, aphrodisiac and useful in treatment of dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles and sexual weakness. Various parameters like macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis as well as extractive value and quantitative phytochemical screening of different extractives were studied. The major components of the extractives like total phenolic, total flavonoids were also estimated respectively. The characteristic of microscopy, physicochemical, fluorescence analysis and quantitative chemical screening were performed in root extractives of the plant material as a mean of authentication.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rema Shree et al.


    Full Text Available According to classical texts Paederia foetida is used as the genuine source plant of the drug Prasarini, it posses properties like astringent, aphrodisiac, laxative, bitter etc. In Ayurvedic practitioners Merremia tridentata ssp. tridentata and Merremia tridentata ssp. hastata are used as the source plant of this drug. However no conclusive pharmacognostic study of these plants has been performed yet. The present investigation deals with the comparative study of morphological, anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical characters of these three plants. Three plants show similarities and differences between them at morphological, anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical levels. Anatomically these three plants show differences in many characters. But phytochemical studies revealed that these plants show much similarity. - sitosterol was present in all the three plants but their concentrations shows differences. The parameters used in this study will help to identify the genuine and substitute source plants of the drug prasarini for the preparation of ayurvedic medicines and to ensure the quality of formulations.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of dermatological antiseptics. (United States)

    Leitch, C S; Leitch, A E; Tidman, M J


    Topical antiseptics are frequently used in dermatological management, yet evidence for the efficacy of traditional generic formulations is often largely anecdotal. We tested the in vitro bactericidal activity of four commonly used topical antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus, using a modified version of the European Standard EN 1276, a quantitative suspension test for evaluation of the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. To meet the standard for antiseptic effectiveness of EN 1276, at least a 5 log10 reduction in bacterial count within 5 minutes of exposure is required. While 1% benzalkonium chloride and 6% hydrogen peroxide both achieved a 5 log10 reduction in S. aureus count, neither 2% aqueous eosin nor 1 : 10 000 potassium permanganate showed significant bactericidal activity compared with control at exposure periods of up to 1 h. Aqueous eosin and potassium permanganate may have desirable astringent properties, but these results suggest they lack effective antiseptic activity, at least against S. aureus.

  9. Maceration enzymes and mannoproteins: a possible strategy to increase colloidal stability and color extraction in red wines. (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Palacios, Antonio; Ayestaran, Belén


    Different strategies were adopted to achieve increases in color stability in Tempranillo wines: (i) addition of maceration enzymes directly to the must, (ii) addition of commercial mannoproteins to the must, and (iii) inoculation of must with yeast overexpressed of mannoproteins. The addition of enzymes favored color extraction, and the wines obtained presented higher values of wine color, color intensity, bisulfite-stable color, and visually enhanced color intensity. The enzyme hydrolytic activity produced an increase in the acid polysaccharide content and polyphenol index and yielded to wines with more astringency, tannin, and length. Added mannoproteins had clearer effects on the analyzed parameters than yeast. Contrary to what may be thought, mannoproteins did not maintain the extracted polyphenols in colloidal dispersion and neither ensured color stability. These compounds clearly modified the gustative structure of the wines, enhancing the sweetness and roundness.

  10. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.


    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

  11. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes


    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  12. Investigating the fermentation of cocoa by correlating denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles and near infrared spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Snitkjær, Pia; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J


    Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste and flavour, and has to be fermented, dried and roasted in order to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. During the fermentation microbial activity outside the cocoa beans induces biochemical and physical changes inside the beans...... of the beans and the chemical processes inside the beans have been carried out previously. Recently it has been shown that Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) offers an efficient tool for monitoring the microbiological changes taking place during the fermentation of cocoa. Near Infrared (NIR......) spectroscopy has previously been used to determine various components in cocoa beans, offering a rapid alternative compared to traditional analytical methods for obtaining knowledge about changes in the chemical composition of the cocoa beans during fermentation. During a number of cocoa fermentations bean...

  13. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate. (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E


    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  14. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics. (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  15. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties. (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana


    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones.

  16. Characterization of factors that transform linoleic acid into di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids in mash. (United States)

    Kuroda, Hisao; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Kaneda, Hirotaka; Watari, Junji; Takashio, Masachika


    The qualities of beer are deteriorated by the presence of either di- or trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids, which reduce the beer 'head' and produce an astringent flavor. In this study we found that native extracts of malt mash transformed linoleic acid into di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids, but this transforming activity and lipoxygenase activity were inactivated by heating the mash at 70 degrees C for 30 min. Recombinant barley lipoxygenase 1 was not able to transform linoleic acid into di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids. The transforming activity of mash extract heated at 70 degrees C for 30 min could be restored by the addition of recombinant barley lipoxygenase 1; in contrast, the activity of boiled mash extract was not substantially restored by the recombinant enzyme. These results indicate that di- and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids are generated from linoleic acid by both lipoxygenase and a heat-stable enzymatic factor present in the mash.

  17. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Akhtar


    Full Text Available The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae. Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH . In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.

  18. Variability among strains of Aspergillus section Nigri with capacity to degrade tannic acid isolated from extreme environments. (United States)

    Lara-Victoriano, F; Veana, F; Hernández-Castillo, F D; Aguilar, C N; Reyes-Valdés, M H; Rodríguez-Herrera, R


    Tannins are polyphenolic compounds that cause astringent flavor and turbidity in food. Tannase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of tannins and is used in food industry. This study was conducted to determine the genetic variability and the tannase alleles variation in fungal strains isolated from soil and plants at five extreme areas of Coahuila, México. Two screening assays under 1 and 20 % of tannic acid were performed, with the isolations. In these assays, it was possible to identify 756 and 128 fungal strains, respectively. The major fungal variability was observed in "Cuatro Ciénegas" with 26 strains. The microorganisms were distributed in 11 groups, which correspond to Aspergillus section Nigri. AN7 and AN1 groups showed the major number of isolates from "Paila" and "Cuatro Ciénegas" locations, respectively. In the last location, the major diversity and specific richness were found. But in "Ojo Caliente," tannase allele conservations were observed.

  19. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica). (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L


    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties.

  20. The Analysis of Economic Growth Cycle in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to the data of practical GDP time sequences from 1978 to 2009 provided by Henan Statistical Yearbook of every year,Hodrick-Prescott filter model is established,and it is disintegrated into tendency component(potential yield)and fluctuation component(yield gap).The critical division loci of filter model are 4 wave crest years(1980,1988,1996 and 2007),and 3 trough years(1984,1992 and 2002).Thus since the opening up and reform,the economic growth fluctuation of Henan can be divided into 3 complete cycles and 2 incomplete cycles.Based on the economic situation and background within and without province,we preliminarily conclude the stage-characteristics of all growth cycles and the probable reasons of fluctuation.On the whole,the economic growth cycle of Henan takes on astringency to some extent,and sustainability and stability are reinforced,showing the characteristics of growth-type cycle increasingly.

  1. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  2. Wuzi Yanzong Wan Multiplying Pill of Five Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    *Source Recipe in “Danxi Treating Method" from Zhu Zhenheng of Yuan Dynasty,1282-1358 A.D. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition).  *Chief Ingredients Wolfberry fruit, Dodder seed, Chinese raspberry seed, Schisandra fruit and Plantain seed.  *Explanation Wolfberry can nourish Yin blood and essence, benefit visual power, Dodder tonify Liver and Kidney, nourish essence and calm fetus, Raspberry nourish Yin and astringe essence, Schisandra nourish Lung and Kidney, produce body fluid, Plantain increase urine to clear heat and benefit the visual power.  *Function Tonify Kidney and replenishing essence, strengthening Kidney-Yang to treat emission and impotence.  *Indication Insufficiency of Kidney-Qi, seminal emission, soreness and weakness of loins and legs, infertility.……

  3. Wuzi Yanzong Wan Multiplying Pill of Five Seeds 五子衍宗丸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@*Source Recipe in “Danxi Treating Method" from Zhu Zhenheng of Yuan Dynasty,1282-1358 A.D. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition). *Chief Ingredients Wolfberry fruit, Dodder seed, Chinese raspberry seed, Schisandra fruit and Plantain seed. *Explanation Wolfberry can nourish Yin blood and essence, benefit visual power, Dodder tonify Liver and Kidney, nourish essence and calm fetus, Raspberry nourish Yin and astringe essence, Schisandra nourish Lung and Kidney, produce body fluid, Plantain increase urine to clear heat and benefit the visual power. *Function Tonify Kidney and replenishing essence, strengthening Kidney-Yang to treat emission and impotence. *Indication Insufficiency of Kidney-Qi, seminal emission, soreness and weakness of loins and legs, infertility.

  4. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Precious Metals and Removal of Hazardous Metals Using Persimmon Tannin and Persimmon Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Inoue


    Full Text Available Novel and environmentally benign adsorbents were prepared via a simple sulfuric acid treatment process using the wastes of astringent persimmon, a type of biomass waste, along with persimmon tannin extract which is currently employed for the tanning of leather and as natural dyes and paints. The effectiveness of these new biosorbents was exemplified with regards to hydrometallurgical and environmental engineering applications for the adsorptive removal of uranium and thorium from rare earths, cesium from other alkaline metals such as sodium, hexa-valent chromium from zinc as well as adsorptive recovery of gold from chloride media. Furthermore, reductive coagulation of gold from chloride media for the direct recovery of metallic gold and adsorptive recovery of palladium and platinum using chemically modified persimmon tannin extract were studied. OPEN

  5. Silver Nanoparticles-Based Nano-drop Spectrophotometric Determination of Cationic Surfactants Coupled with Hydrophobic Interaction; An Application to Pharmaceuticals and Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Sharma


    Full Text Available The proposed work describes the nanodrop spectrophotometric determination of cationic surfactants using citrate-modified silver nanoparticles based on the aggregation of silver nanoparticles induced by cationic surfactants due to the hydrophobic effect. The visible color change in the solution of silver nanoparticle includes a red shift with the quenching of the absorption spectra. The maximum absorbance was measured at wavelength,λmax400 nm. The concentrations of cationic surfactants were determined using a nanodrop spectrophotometer with limits of detection of 15.0, 8.0, 6.0, 5.8, and 13.0 µM for dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, myristiltrimethyl ammonium bromide, cetrimoniumtrimethyl ammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of cetylpyridinium chloride in commercial mouthwasher, gum astringent and nasal spray pharmaceuticals and environmental samples.

  6. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks. (United States)

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia


    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines.

  7. Influence of different withering conditions on phenolic composition of Avanà, Chatus and Nebbiolo grapes for the production of 'Reinforced' wines. (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Urcan, Delia Elena; Lin, Lin; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana; Pop, Nastasia; Lambri, Milena; Rolle, Luca


    The impact of postharvest withering rates on the phenolic composition of 'reinforced' wines produced with partially dehydrated grapes was evaluated. The study was performed on winegrape varieties with anthocyanin profiles differently constituted of di- and tri-substituted forms. Dehydration induced limited changes in the anthocyanin profile of berry skins. Nevertheless, the greatest abundance of total anthocyanins and their more stable forms (malvidin-3-glucoside and acylated glucosides) corresponded to the wines made from slow withered Chatus grapes, which were in turn the darkest. In contrast, the wines made from withered Avanà grapes did not meet good chromatic characteristics due to low contents of total anthocyanins and high ratios between di- and tri-substituted forms. Nebbiolo wines showed intermediate values of this ratio, and therefore of clarity and color intensity. The fast process is recommended because higher percentages of galloylated flavanols in the seeds of slow withered Nebbiolo grapes may have a negative influence on wine astringency.

  8. Growth temperature affects sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and sugars in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.). (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Hagen, Sidsel F; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Mølmann, Jørgen A B


    Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures.

  9. Study on the processing of instant Mei powdered drink%青梅冲剂生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滨; 程秀云


    The parameters of processing technology of instant Mei (Japanese apricot) were studied in this paper, problem of the juice yield and juice bitterness and astringency had been solved by the technology of enzymatic hydrolysis and encapsulation. An instant Mei powdered drink was successfully made in terms of its color, flavor and acceptability.%就青梅冲剂生产工艺条件进行了一些探讨,成功地应用酶解和包埋技术,解决了梅的出汁率问题,并有效地控制了梅汁苦涩味,达到了果汁制品理想的色、香、味,进而制成方便冲剂。

  10. Path Following Control of an AUV under the Current Using the SVR-ADRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan


    Full Text Available A novel active disturbance rejection control (ADRC controller is proposed based on support vector regression (SVR. The SVR-ADRC is designed to force an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV to follow a path in the horizontal plane with the ocean current disturbance. It is derived using SVR algorithm to adjust the coefficients of the nonlinear state error feedback (ELSEF part in ADRC to deal with nonlinear variations at different operating points. The trend of change about ELSEF coefficients in the simulation proves that the designed SVR algorithm maintains the characteristics of astringency and stability. Furthermore, the path following errors under current in simulation has proved the high accuracy, strong robustness, and stability of the proposed SVR-ADRC. The contributions of the proposed controller are to improve the characteristics of ADRC considering the changing parameters in operating environment which make the controller more adaptive for the situation.

  11. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant. (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath


    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Chellappan


    Full Text Available The leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. (P. foetida are commonly known as skunk vine or Chinese fever vine, are used for various ailments medicinally throughout Asia and other tropical parts of the world by traditional healers. The plant is mainly used for arthritis and rheumatic disorders. The whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions and has been used in tenesmus. This present work presents a detailed pharmacognostical study of the leaf of the crude drug P. foetida. The samples were studied using procedures of light, confocal microscopy, WHO recommended physico-chemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. The physico-chemical, morphological and histological parameters presented in this study may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of P. foetida and may possibly help to differentiate the drug from its adulterants.

  13. Single-cultivar extra virgin olive oil classification using a potentiometric electronic tongue. (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Fernandes, Andreia; Veloso, Ana C A; Machado, Adélio A S C; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M


    Label authentication of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is of great importance. A novel approach based on a potentiometric electronic tongue is proposed to classify oils obtained from single olive cultivars (Portuguese cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural, Verdeal Transmontana; Spanish cvs. Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Picual). A meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm was applied to select the most informative sets of sensors to establish predictive linear discriminant models. Olive oils were correctly classified according to olive cultivar (sensitivities greater than 97%) and each Spanish olive oil was satisfactorily discriminated from the Portuguese ones with the exception of cv. Arbequina (sensitivities from 61% to 98%). Also, the discriminant ability was related to the polar compounds contents of olive oils and so, indirectly, with organoleptic properties like bitterness, astringency or pungency. Therefore the proposed E-tongue can be foreseen as a useful auxiliary tool for trained sensory panels for the classification of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain


    Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

  15. Tannins, peptic ulcers and related mechanisms. (United States)

    de Jesus, Neyres Zinia Taveira; de Souza Falcão, Heloina; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; de Almeida Leite, Thiago Jose; de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Batista, Leonia Maria


    This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products.

  16. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F


    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins....... The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5......% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva...

  17. Removal of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices using ultrafiltration and laccase-ultrafiltration combinations. (United States)

    Alper, Neslihan; Acar, Jale


    Phenolic compounds of fruit juices are responsible for haze and sediment formation as well as for color, bitterness and astringency. The influence of ultrafiltration (UF) and laccase-UF combination was investigated on phenolic contents of pomegranate juices and on filtration output. Laccase-treated and then ultrafiltered pomegranate juices have shown a rapid increase in their color, when compared to only ultrafiltered (control) samples. Kinetic parameters of laccase were also determined. During the oxidation period, the changes occurring in pomegranate juices were estimated from phenolic contents, color and anthocyanin measurements. Results have shown that laccase oxidation produced a significant decrease in phenolic content of pomegranate juices while juice color the increased. However, in recent literatures, the possibility to remove polyphenols in apple juices was reported. We decided in this study that laccase treatment can not be applied due to the loss of natural red color and unwanted dark brownish color formation in pomegranate juice.

  18. Variations in oxygen and ellagitannins, and organoleptic properties of red wine aged in French oak barrels classified by a near infrared system. (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Albertin, Warren; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis


    During wine aging in barrels, antioxidant molecules from wood, such as ellagitannins, are solubilized and react with wine molecules and oxygen. However, their concentrations are highly variable. Oxygen is an important factor, as it plays a role in wine parameters and organoleptic perceptions. Five barrel modalities were used; three polyphenol indices (IP), classified using the NIRS procedure, and three grain qualities. Barrels were equipped with windows to measure the oxygen using luminescence technology. The ellagitannin concentrations in the wine and its organoleptic properties were monitored. Oxygen concentrations decreased quickly during the first 8days of aging and this phenomenon was significantly more marked in barrels with a higher IP and medium grain. The ellagitannin concentrations were believed to be correlated with wood classification and oxygen consumption. Furthermore, the organoleptic properties were significantly impacted, as the wine with the lowest ellagitannin level was described as less astringent, bitter, woody, and smoky/toasty.

  19. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference. (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K


    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  20. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages. (United States)

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes


    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  1. Efficiency assessment of Flash Profiling and Ranking Descriptive Analysis: a comparative study with star fruit-powdered flavored drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira MAMEDE


    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of Flash Profiling (FP and Ranking Descriptive Analysis (RDA methods regarding sensory characterization using star fruit-flavored drink as matrix. Sample A was used as a standard. Other three samples were prepared based on sample A, by adding sugar, citric acid, carboxymethylcellulose or dye. The same panel (twelve assessors was used to carry out FP and, subsequently, RDA analysis. The qualitative training stage used in RDA method showed no difference regarding the assessors’ performance and panel consensus compared to FP. Both methods were efficient and discriminated samples in a similar way and in agreement with the physicochemical characterization. However, astringent and bitter aftertaste attributes were additionally used in sample description by RDA. The latter attribute was also relevant for samples discrimination in RDA. FP application was simpler and faster, mainly regarding time spent by the assessors; however, RDA provided more comprehensive description of samples.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dazhi; Sun Yikang; Wang Yanping; Cai Hengjun


    In order to make good use of the ability to approach any function of BP (back propagation) network and overcome its local astringency,and also make good use of the overall search ability of GA (genetic algorithms),a proposal to regulate the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms is suggested.An integrated network system of MGA (mended genetic algorithms) and BP algorithms has been established.The MGA-BP network's functions consist of optimizing GA performance parameters,the network's structural parameters,performance parameters,and regulating the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms.Rolling forces of 4-stand tandem cold strip mill are predicted by the MGA-BP network,and good results are obtained.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of Carya illinoensis. (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli Bianchin; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Pizzuti, Kauana; Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Camilla; Corrêa, Marcos Saldanha; Bolzan, Leandro Perger; Zago, Adriana; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna


    Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans.

  4. Practical uses of botanicals in skin care. (United States)

    Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P


    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed.

  5. Quitosana no controle pós-colheita da podridão mole em caqui 'rama forte' Chitosan on the postharvest control of soft rot in 'rama forte' persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cia


    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da quitosana, aliada ao processo de destanização, no controle de Rhizopus stolonifer em caqui 'Rama Forte' e sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo in vitro. Caquis foram submetidos ao processo de destanização com CO2 (70% / 18 horas, em tambores herméticos, sendo em seguida submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de esporos de R. stolonifer (3x10(5 esporos mL-1. Após inoculação, os frutos permaneceram por 2 horas a 25 °C, quando foram imersos em quitosana (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, por 1 minuto. Os frutos foram mantidos a 25 °C / 80% UR e avaliados quanto à severidade e incidência da podridão mole, durante cinco dias. Após o período de armazenamento, avaliaram-se a coloração de casca, a firmeza e o índice de adstringência. In vitro, avaliou-se o crescimento micelial em placas contendo meio BDA incorporado com quitosana ou ácido cítrico. Os resultados mostraram que a quitosana, a 1,5%, reduz a severidade e a incidência da podridão mole em caquis e não influencia no processo de perda de adstringência, firmeza e na coloração de casca. In vitro, a quitosana inibe completamente o crescimento micelial de R. stolonifer, em concentração tão baixa quanto 0,5%.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of chitosan in addition to de-astringency process on the control of Rhizopus stolonifer in 'Rama Forte' persimmon and on in vitro mycelial growth. Persimmon were submitted to de-astringency process using CO2 (70% / 18 h, in hermetic chambers. Next, fruit were inoculated through subcuticular injections of a R. stolonifer spore suspension (3x10(5 spore mL-1 and 2 hours later at 25 °C immersed into chitosan (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%, for 1 min. Fruit were stored at 25 °C / 80% RH, and checked for rot severity and incidence of soft rot, during 5-days of storage. After storage the skin color, firmness and astringency index were evaluated in persimmons. In vitro, mycelial

  6. Optimization and validation of a taste dilution analysis to characterize wine taste. (United States)

    Lopez, R; Mateo-Vivaracho, L; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V


    A procedure for the general taste dilution analysis (TDA) of wine has been optimized and applied to characterize the tastants of 5 different wines. Samples are concentrated first by vacuum distillation at 20 degrees C to obtain a dearomatized concentrate. Such concentrate is redissolved in water and injected in a semipreparative C18-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. The effluent is separated in fractions that are collected and concentrated by vacuum distillation. Sequential dilutions of the fractions are further evaluated by a sensory panel to assess the intensity of the basic tastes and in-mouth sensations. Fractions were also submitted to HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to screen for known tastants of wines. The Taste Dilution chromatograms showed that taste differences between wines are mainly located in fractions 1, 2, and 6, and are mainly related to bitterness and astringency. Different aspects of the method setup and of its reliability are evaluated and discussed.

  7. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing. (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A


    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  8. Treatment of Diabete Diarrhea from the Spleen Experience%从脾论治糖尿病性腹泻体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Professor ZHU summary treatment of diabetic diarrhea pathogenesis wins wet from the spleen of experience argument, mainly to benefiting vital energy and invigorating the spleen, or invigorating the spleen and dispersing the stagnated liver-energy, or warming and replenishing the spleen and kidney.Reconstitute aromatic drugs for resolving, or diaphoretic and wind-eliminating drugs, or astringents and hemostatics, in order to relieving the primary and secondary symptoms at the same time.%总结朱国茹教授治疗糖尿病性腹泻从脾虚湿胜病机立论的经验,以健脾益气为主,或健脾疏肝,或脾肾双补,治本的同时配合治标,酌加化湿药、祛风药、收涩药,起到标本兼顾的效果.

  9. Tannins, Peptic Ulcers and Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonia Maria Batista


    Full Text Available This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreover, in several experimental models of gastric ulcer, tannins have been shown to present antioxidant activity, promote tissue repair, exhibit anti Helicobacter pylori effects, and they are involved in gastrointestinal tract anti-inflammatory processes. The presence of tannins explains the anti-ulcer effects of many natural products.

  10. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib


    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  11. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan


    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase.

  12. Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes. (United States)

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu


    Flavour determinants in tea infusions and their changes during manufacturing processes were studied using Camellia sinensis cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') possessing significant floral scents and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD') with common green tea odour. Metabolite profiling based on odour activity threshold revealed that 'BAS' contained higher levels of the active odorants β-ionone, linalool and its two oxides, geraniol, epoxylinalool, decanal and taste determinant catechins than 'FUD' (pmanufacturing processes, the levels of linalool and geraniol decreased whereas those of β-ionone, linalool oxides, indole and cis-jasmone increased. Compared with pan-fire treatment, steam treatment reduced the levels of catechins and proportion of geraniol, linalool and its derivatives, consequently, reducing catechin-related astringency and monoterpenol-related floral scent. Our study suggests that flavour determinant targeted modulation could be made through genotype and manufacturing improvements.

  13. Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Sampath Kumar


    Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

  14. Grape tannin catechin and ethanol fluidify oral membrane mimics containing moderate amounts of cholesterol: Implications on wine tasting? (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Saad, Ahmad; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie


    Wine tasting results in interactions of tannin-ethanol solutions with proteins and lipids of the oral cavity. Among the various feelings perceived during tasting, astringency and bitterness most probably result in binding events with saliva proteins, lipids and receptors. In this work, we monitored the conjugated effect of the grape polyphenol catechin and ethanol on lipid membranes mimicking the different degrees of keratinization of oral cavity surfaces by varying the amount of cholesterol present in membranes. Both catechin and ethanol fluidify the membranes as evidenced by solid-state (2)H NMR of perdeuterated lipids. The effect is however depending on the cholesterol proportion and may be very important and cumulative in the absence of cholesterol or presence of 18 mol % cholesterol. For 40 mol % cholesterol, mimicking highly keratinized membranes, both ethanol and catechin can no longer affect membrane dynamics. These observations can be accounted for by phase diagrams of lipid-cholesterol mixtures and the role played by membrane defects for insertion of tannins and ethanol when several phases coexist. These findings suggest that the behavior of oral membranes in contact with wine should be different depending of their cholesterol content. Astringency and bitterness could be then affected; the former because of a potential competition between the tannin-lipid and the tannin-saliva protein interaction, and the latter because of a possible fluidity modification of membranes containing taste receptors. The lipids that have been up to now weakly considered in oenology may be become a new actor in the issue of wine tasting.

  15. Isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and sensory activity of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids from cocoa (Theobroma cacao). (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas


    Application of chromatographic separation and taste dilution analyses recently revealed besides procyanidins a series of N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids as the key contributors to the astringent taste of nonfermented cocoa beans as well as roasted cocoa nibs. Because these amides have as yet not been reported as key taste compounds, this paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these amino acid amides. Besides the previously reported (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine (clovamide), (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine, seven additional amides, namely, (+)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, and (+)-N-[(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, were identified for the first time in cocoa products by means of LC-MS/MS, 1D/2D-NMR, UV-vis, CD spectroscopy, and polarimetry, as well as independent enantiopure synthesis. Using the recently developed half-tongue test, human recognition thresholds for the astringent and mouth-drying oral sensation were determined to be between 26 and 220 micromol/L (water) depending on the amino acid moiety. In addition, exposure to light rapidly converted these [E]-configured N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids into the corresponding [Z]-isomers, thus indicating that analysis of these compounds in food and plant materials needs to be performed very carefully in the absence of light to prevent artifact formation.

  16. Optimization of cocoa nib roasting based on sensory properties and colour using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.H. A.H. Farah


    Full Text Available Roasting of cocoa beans is a critical stage for development of its desirable flavour, aroma and colour. Prior to roasting, cocoa bean may taste astringent, bitter, acidy, musty, unclean, nutty or even chocolate-like, depends on the bean sources and their preparations. After roasting, the bean possesses a typical intense cocoa flavour. The Maillard or non-enzymatic browning reactions is a very important process for the development of cocoa flavor, which occurs primarily during the roasting process and it has generally been agreed that the main flavor components, pyrazines formation is associated within this reaction involving amino acids and reducing sugars. The effect of cocoa nib roasting conditions on sensory properties and colour of cocoa beans were investigated in this study. Roasting conditions in terms of temperature ranged from 110 to 160OC and time ranged from 15 to 40 min were optimized by using Response Surface Methodology based on the cocoa sensory characteristics including chocolate aroma, acidity, astringency, burnt taste and overall acceptability. The analyses used 9- point hedonic scale with twelve trained panelist. The changes in colour due to the roasting condition were also monitored using chromameter. Result of this study showed that sensory quality of cocoa liquor increased with the increase in roasting time and temperature up to 160OC and up to 40 min, respectively. Based on the Response Surface Methodology, the optimised operating condition for the roaster was at temperature of 127OC and time of 25 min. The proposed roasting conditions were able to produce superior quality cocoa beans that will be very useful for cocoa manufactures.Key words : Cocoa, cocoa liquor, flavour, aroma, colour, sensory characteristic, response surface methodology.

  17. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements. (United States)

    Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A


    Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice.

  18. Phenolic Composition and Sensory Properties of Ciders Produced from Latvian Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina-Dolge Rita


    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.

  19. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age. (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A


    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  20. Effect of terroir on the phenolic compounds of Muscat of Bornova Wines from 3 different sub-regions of Aegean, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoğlan Selin N. Yabaci


    Full Text Available Characterization of the phenolic compounds of wines from Muscat of Bornova, a native aromatic white grape variety (Vitis vinifera grown in the Aegean region of Turkey and the influence of terroir (Menderes, Halilbeyli and Kemaliye sub- regions on these compounds were investigated. From Muscat of Bornova growing sub regions, Menderes/İzmir has a typical Mediterranean climate at around 90 m altitude which is located Eagean cost area with a fertile sandy-loamy soil; Halilbeyli/İzmir sub-region is located in inner İzmir, close to Manisa with 115 m altitude with same soil structure of Menderes. Kemaliye/Manisa has a transition climate between Mediterranean and continental climate at about 245 m altitude. Its soil is pale with a distinct amount of lime (∼30% and sandy-loamy, as well. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array dedector (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry (MS were used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Four flavanols, eight phenolic acids and a flavonol were identified and quantified. It was observed that the total phenolic content in the Halilbeyli sub-region was the highest, fol- lowed by the Menderes and Kemaliye sub-regions. Procyanidin B4 was the most abundant flavanol and quercetin-3-O-glucoside was the only flavonol identified in all regions’ wines. Sensory analysis was also used to investigate the influences of terroir. Statistically significant (0.05 regional differences were observed. Based upon sensory analysis, the wine obtained from Halilbeyli was darker in color, and had more astringency and bitterness than the others, and was the least popular wine. Kemaliye and Menderes were both preferred due to their better coloring, flavour, less astringency and bitterness attributes.

  1. Characterization of condensed tannins from native legumes of the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid Caracterização dos taninos condensados em leguminosas nativas do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mendes Guimarães-Beelen


    Full Text Available Despite the possible influence of tannins on the nutritional value of the forages from Caatinga vegetation, there are few studies that evaluated their tannin concentration. This study was conducted to characterize condensed tannins present in the legumes species Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá and Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, at three stages of their phenological cycle. The concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT were determined using the butanol-HCL method; astringency was by the radial diffusion method, and the monomeric composition of purified tannins by a high-performance liquid chromatograph with delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin as standards. Concentration and astringency of purified condensed tannins, as well as their monomeric composition varied between species, and in some cases among phenological cycles. The values observed were always above the limits considered beneficial for ruminal digestion (i.e. 5%. Jurema Preta presented the highest values (30.98% TT and 22% astringency at full growth stage, and Mororó the lowest (10.38% TT and 14% astringency during fructification. Jurema Preta presented a mean relationship prodelfinidin (PD: procyanidin (PC of 97:3, which did not vary during the phenological cycle, showing the high astringent capacity of these tannins. Sabiá presented a relationship of 90:20 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 40:50 at fructification. In Mororó the PD:PC relationship was more equilibrated, around 40:50 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 35:60 During fructification. Propelargonidin was not detected or was present at low concentration in the three species.Apesar da possível influência do tanino sobre o valor nutritivo das forrageiras da Caatinga, poucos são os estudos que avaliam a concentração de taninos nestas plantas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os taninos condensados

  2. 杀青方式对夏季绿茶化学成分及滋味品质的影响%Study on the Effects of the Fixation Methods on the Chemical Components and Taste Quality of Summer Green Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁丹丹; 戴伟东; 谭俊峰; 彭群华; 张悦; 林智


    As a key processing craft, fixation plays a key role in the formation of green tea quality. To study the effects of fixation methods on the summer green teas, a method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) combined with equivalent-quantification of the tea taste, in which caffeine, epigallocatechin gallate and sodium glutamate were used as bitter, astringent, and umami reference, respectively, was applied to investigate the difference of the chemical components and taste quality in summer green teas made by microwave fixation, rotary continuous fixation and steam fixation, respectively. Results of LC-MS analysis demonstrated that the contents of catechins, flavonol/flavone glycosides, procyanidins, theasinesins, amino acids, phenolic acids, and organic acids were significantly influenced by the fixation methods. Equivalent-quantification of the tea taste (umami, bitterness and astringency) also showed that fixation methods could change the taste quality of the summer green teas: the bitterness was higher in the green teas produced by rotary continuous fixation than by steam fixation then by microwave fixation; the astringency was higher in the green tea produced by steam fixation than by rotary continuous fixation then by microwave fixation; the umami scores did not exhibited statistical differences among these three groups of tea.%杀青是绿茶加工的关键工序,对绿茶品质的形成具有重要作用。为探究杀青方式对夏季绿茶化学成分及滋味品质的影响,采用超高效液相色谱-四级杆-飞行时间质谱(UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)对微波杀青、滚筒杀青、蒸汽杀青3种杀青方式加工后的夏季绿茶进行化学成分分析,同时,分别采用咖啡碱、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯和谷氨酸钠为标准苦味、涩味和鲜味物质对3种杀青方式加工的夏季绿茶进行滋味强度分析。液质联用分析

  3. 定量描述分析在茶汤滋味评定中的应用%Application of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method in sensory evaluation of tea infusion taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨悦; 华再欣; 张海伟; 王璟; 王淑娟; 夏涛; 戴前颖


    目的:研究用量化数据来判断茶叶的滋味品质,并确定茶叶感官品质特征与化学成分间的相关性。方法采用定量描述分析方法,对同一鲜叶原料加工的炒青、云尖和龙井的8种感官滋味特征分别进行定量描述,并绘制出反映滋味特征的雷达图,应用 Excel 和 SPSS18.0软件进行相关的数据分析。结果云尖在苦度、浓度、强度和涩度这4个感官特性上要弱于炒青和龙井,在鲜度这一感官特性上要强于炒青和龙井;8种茶汤滋味特征中的浓度、鲜度、苦度、涩度与茶叶化学成分具有相关性。结论定量描述分析方法可以有效地判别茶叶滋味特征,更直观地表现茶叶的滋味差异,阐明了浓度、鲜度、苦度、涩度与不同茶叶化学物质间的相关性。%Objective To determine the taste quality of tea by quantitative data, and to study the relevance of tea sensory quality characteristics and chemical composition.Methods The quantitative descriptive analysis method was used. The 8 sensory taste characteristics of Chaoqing tea, Yunjian tea and Longjing tea, made from the same fresh tea leaves were described by QDA. The radarchartsrelated to the sensory taste characteristics of 3 tea samples were made by means of mathematical statistical analysis. Excel and SPSS18.0 software were applied to related data analysis.ResultsExperimental results showed that Yunjian tea is weaker than Chaoqing tea and Longjing tea in bitterness, concentration, strength and astringent degree, while it was stronger in freshness.Eight kinds of tea taste characteristics of concentration, freshness, bitterness, and astringency showed a relevance with tea chemical composition.Conclusion QDA method could effectively distinguish the characteristics of tea taste and intuitively present differences of tea taste. Clarification of the correlations between concentration, freshness, bitterness, astringency and different chemical

  4. Inhibition effect of ferulic acid on bitterness%阿魏酸苦味抑制效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明明; 汲广全; 郑建仙


    Sensory evaluation was used for the following research of ferulic acid: 1. the sour and astringency taste intensity of ferulic acid at different concentration; 2. The bitterness inhibition effect at different concentration on saccharin sodium and caffeine; 3. The effect of 250mg/kg ferulic acid on other four basic tastes; 4. The bitterness effect of 250mg/kg ferulic acid on three sweeteners. The result showed that ferulic acid has sour and astringency at relatively high concentration without sweetness and bitterness. It is an efficient bitterness inhibitor,and had better effect on saccharin sodium than on caffeine. Furthermore,250mg/kg ferulic acid had bitterness effect on three sweeteners without interacted other 4 basic tastes.%采用感官分析评定方法,对阿魏酸做了以下研究:1、不同浓度阿魏酸的酸味和涩味强度;2、不同浓度阿魏酸对糖精钠和咖啡因的苦味抑制效果;3、250rng/kg阿魏酸对其他四种基本口味的影;4、250mg/kg阿魏酸对3种甜味剂苦味的抑制效果.结果表明:阿魏酸浓度较高时具有酸味和涩味,没有甜味和苦味;阿魏酸是一种有效的苦味抑制剂,且对糖精钠的苦味抑制效果优于对咖啡因的苦味抑制效果;250mg/kg的阿魏酸对糖精钠、安塞蜜、甜菊糖的苦味均有抑制作用,但不会对其他4种基本口味造成影响.

  5. The Sg-1 glycosyltransferase locus regulates structural diversity of triterpenoid saponins of soybean. (United States)

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao


    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1(a) allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1(b) encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1(a) and Gly-138 in Sg-1(b) proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-1(0) is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products.

  6. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar


    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  7. What is a particle-conserving Topological Superfluid? The fate of Majorana modes beyond mean-field theory (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio


    We investigate Majorana modes of number-conserving fermionic superfluids from both basic physics principles, and concrete models perspectives. After reviewing a criterion for establishing topological superfluidity in interacting systems, based on many-body fermionic parity switches, we reveal the emergence of zero-energy modes anticommuting with fermionic parity. Those many-body Majorana modes are constructed as coherent superpositions of states with different number of fermions. While realization of Majorana modes beyond mean field is plausible, we show that the challenge to quantum-control them is compounded by particle-conservation, and more realistic protocols will have to balance engineering needs with astringent constraints coming from superselection rules. Majorana modes in number-conserving systems are the result of a peculiar interplay between quantum statistics, fermionic parity, and an unusual form of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We test these ideas on the Richardson-Gaudin-Kitaev chain, a number-conserving model solvable by way of the algebraic Bethe ansatz, and equivalent in mean field to a long-range Kitaev chain.

  8. 四味洗涤浸敷治疗顽固性湿疹30例疗效观察%Clinical Observation of 30 Cases Intractable Eczema of Four Kinds of Washing to Immerse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆小妮; 张兆元


    Objective:To observe the curative effect of treatment of refractory eczema four kinds of lotion externally. Methods:30 cases were treated by four kinds of lotion for external treatment,the control group of 30 patients using Qingpeng ointment coating.Results:The effective rate of the treatment group than in control group,and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion:Four kinds of lotion with Qingrejiedu dampness astringency,treatment of intractable eczema,curative effect satisfaction.%目的::观察四味洗剂外敷治疗顽固性湿疹的疗效。方法:治疗组30例采用四味洗剂外敷治疗,对照组30例采用青鹏膏剂外涂。结果:治疗组有效率优于对照组,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:四味洗剂具有清热解毒燥湿收敛的功效,治疗顽固性湿疹,疗效满意。

  9. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine. (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F


    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management.

  10. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar


    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  11. Metals in wine--impact on wine quality and health outcomes. (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka


    Metals in wine can originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its concentration can be a significant parameter affecting consumption and conservation of wine. Since metallic ions have important role in oxide-reductive reactions resulting in wine browning, turbidity, cloudiness, and astringency, wine quality depends greatly on its metal composition. Moreover, metals in wine may affect human health. Consumption of wine may contribute to the daily dietary intake of essential metals (i.e., copper, iron, and zinc) but can also have potentially toxic effects if metal concentrations are not kept under allowable limits. Therefore, a strict analytical control of metal concentration is required during the whole process of wine production. This article presents a critical review of the existing literature regarding the measured metal concentration in wine, methods applied for their determination, and possible sources, as well as their impact on wine quality and human health. The main focus is set on aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc, as these elements most often affect wine quality and human health.

  12. Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Nelumbo nucifera. (United States)

    Paudel, Keshav Raj; Panth, Nisha


    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) is a potential aquatic crop grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in various systems of medicine including folk medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, and oriental medicine. Many chemical constituents have been isolated till the date. However, the bioactive constituents of lotus are mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Traditionally, the whole plant of lotus was used as astringent, emollient, and diuretic. It was used in the treatment of diarrhea, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The rhizome extract was used as antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of asteroidal triterpenoid. Leaves were used as an effective drug for hematemesis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia. Flowers were used to treat diarrhea, cholera, fever, and hyperdipsia. In traditional medicine practice, seeds are used in the treatment of tissue inflammation, cancer and skin diseases, leprosy, and poison antidote. Embryo of lotus seeds is used in traditional Chinese medicine as Lian Zi Xin, which primarily helps to overcome nervous disorders, insomnia, and cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and arrhythmia). Nutritional value of lotus is as important as pharmaceutical value. These days' different parts of lotus have been consumed as functional foods. Thus, lotus can be regarded as a potential nutraceutical source.

  13. Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Nelumbo nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Raj Paudel


    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae is a potential aquatic crop grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in various systems of medicine including folk medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, and oriental medicine. Many chemical constituents have been isolated till the date. However, the bioactive constituents of lotus are mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Traditionally, the whole plant of lotus was used as astringent, emollient, and diuretic. It was used in the treatment of diarrhea, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The rhizome extract was used as antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of asteroidal triterpenoid. Leaves were used as an effective drug for hematemesis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia. Flowers were used to treat diarrhea, cholera, fever, and hyperdipsia. In traditional medicine practice, seeds are used in the treatment of tissue inflammation, cancer and skin diseases, leprosy, and poison antidote. Embryo of lotus seeds is used in traditional Chinese medicine as Lian Zi Xin, which primarily helps to overcome nervous disorders, insomnia, and cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and arrhythmia. Nutritional value of lotus is as important as pharmaceutical value. These days’ different parts of lotus have been consumed as functional foods. Thus, lotus can be regarded as a potential nutraceutical source.

  14. A new in vivo Raman probe for enhanced applicability to the body. (United States)

    Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Caspers, Peter J; Gorce, Jean-Philippe; Marriot, Chris; Puppels, Gerwin J; Singleton, Scott; van der Wolf, Martin J G


    This paper describes a new in vivo Raman probe that allows investigation of areas of the body that are otherwise difficult to access. It is coupled to a previously described commercially available in vivo Raman spectrometer that samples the skin through an optical flat. In the work presented here, the laser light emerges from a smaller pen-shaped probe. It thus works on the same principles as the original spectrometer, while its relative performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra and obtained spatial resolution is only slightly diminished. It allows the window to be placed against the subject in more curved and recessed areas of subject's body and also for them to be more comfortable while the measurements take place. Results from three areas of the body that have previously been very difficult to study are described, the mouth, axilla, and scalp. Results from the scalp and axilla strata cornea (SC) show significant differences from the "normal" SC of the volar forearm. For instance, the scalp is observed to have lower amounts of natural moisturizing factors (NMF) compared to the volar forearm within the same subjects. Also for both the axilla and scalp the lipids show a change in order as compared to the lipids in the volar forearm and also differences from each other. The potential significance of these observations is discussed. Further, we show how we can probe the mouth, in this case observing the presence of the astringent tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate within the oral mucosa.

  15. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran. (United States)

    Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor


    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.

  16. A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Tarighi


    Full Text Available Control of hemorrhage is one of the challenging situations dentists confront during deep cavity preparation and before impressions or cementation of restorations. For the best bond and least contamination it is necessary to be familiar with the hemostatic agents available on the market and to be able to choose the appropriate one for specific situations. This review tries to introduce the commercially available hemostatic agents, discusses their components and their specific features. The most common chemical agents that are widely used in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry according to their components and mechanism of action as well as their special uses are introduced. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for studies involving gingival retraction and hemostatic agents from 1970 to 2013. Key search words including: "gingival retraction techniques, impression technique, hemostasis and astringent" were searched. Based on the information available in the literature, in order to achieve better results with impression taking and using resin bonding techniques, common hemostatic agents might be recommended before or during acid etching; they should be rinsed off properly and it is recommended that they be used with etch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

  17. Antioxidant Action of Mangrove Polyphenols against Gastric Damage Induced by Absolute Ethanol and Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Meira de-Faria


    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle, the red mangrove, has long been known as a traditional medicine. Its bark has been used as astringent, antiseptic, hemostatic, with antifungic and antiulcerogenic properties. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a buthanolic fraction of the R. mangle bark extract (RM against experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Unib-Wh rats received pretreatment of R. mangle after the induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol and ischemia-reperfusion. Gastric tissues from both methods were prepared to the enzymatic assays, the levels of sulfhydril compounds (GSH, lipid peroxides (LPO, and the activities of glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and myeloperoxidase (MPO were measured. The RM protected the gastric mucosa in both methods used, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and ischemia-reperfusion, probably, by modulating the activities of the enzymes SOD, GPx, and GR and increasing or maintaining the levels of GSH; in adittion, LPO levels were reduced. The results suggest that the RM antioxidant activity leads to tissue protection; thus one of the antiulcer mechanisms present on the pharmacological effects of R. mangle is the antioxidant property.

  18. Studies on the effects of honey incorporation on quality and shelf life of aonla preserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghir Ahmad


    Full Text Available Aonla is the richest sources of Vitamin C. The raw fruit, due to its high acidic nature and astringent taste is unacceptable to the consumers. Honey is a natural high energy sweetener with many medicinal values. Keeping in view the nutritional and therapeutic values of aonla fruit and honey, aonla preserve was prepared by incorporating 7.5 and 15% of honey into them. The quality of the products was evaluated based on the physicochemical (moisture, ash, pH, TSS, browning index and Vitamin C content, it was observed that the physicochemical characteristics of the aonla preserve improved upon incorporation of honey. There was improved retention of moisture content, increased ash content, reduced browning and reduced loss of Vitamin C due to incorporation of honey. The Vitamin C content in the aonla preserve (15% honey incorporation was 133.56 mg/100 g at the end of storage. The aonla preserve sample incorporated with 15% honey was nutritionally better as compared to samples incorporated with 7.5% honey due to its better Vitamin C retention, higher mineral content, tenderness and tangy taste. The yeast and the mould detected were few to count in the control sample. Shelf life of the product was 90 days.

  19. Clinical Analysis of 26 Cases With Erythema Multiforme%26例多形红斑的临床治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨多形红斑的治疗方法效果。方法对2013年10月~2014年12月收治的多形红斑患者26例临床治疗效果分析。结果本组26例多形红斑患者,治愈24例,好转2例。结论去除可疑病因如消除感染灶,停用可疑致敏药物等。轻症者可给予抗组胺药、维生素C等内服。重症者应及时给予足量糖皮质激素,局部为抗炎、收敛、止痒、防止继发感染。%Objective To explore the treatment effect of erythema multiforme. Methods Analysis the clinical effect on 26 patients with erythema multiforme from October 2013 to December 2014. Results 26 cases of erythema multiforme patients were cured 24 cases, 2 cases improved. Conclusion The removal of suspicious causes such as the elimination of foci, disable suspicious sensitizing drugs. Mild patients can give antihistamines, orally vitamin C et al. Severe patients should be given enough corticosteroids, topical anti-inflammatory, astringent , itching, to prevent secondary infection.

  20. Sensory attributes of dishes containing shrimp paste with different concentrations of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides. (United States)

    Jinap, S; Ilya-Nur, A R; Tang, S C; Hajeb, P; Shahrim, K; Khairunnisak, M


    The shrimp paste called belacan is a traditional umami taste condiment extensively used in Malaysia that is rich in glutamate and 5'-nucleotides. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides of various types of foods prepared with belacan and to measure their sensory attributes. The concentration of free glutamic acid found in different brands of belacan was 180-530mg/100g and in local dishes 601-4207mg/100g. The total amount of 5'-nucleotides in belacan samples ranged from 0.85 to 42.25μg/g. A Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) using a list of 17 sensory attributes showed a good correlation between belacan concentration in the final food and a range of positive sensory attributes, except for bitter, sweet, sour taste and astringency. Belacan also contains bitter, sweet and sour compounds that change the positive attributes of belacan at higher concentrations. The highest aroma attributes were linked to nasi goreng belacan (belacan fried rice) while the highest flavour attributes were found in sambal belacan. There was a 32 folds significant increase of umami attributes with the addition of belacan to final foods. The optimum amount of belacan was 0.45% for asam pedas (tamarind flavoured dish with belacan), 18% for sambal belacan (chilli belacan), 1.5-2.5% for kangkong goreng belacan (stir fried water convolous with belacan), and 2% for nasi goreng belacan.

  1. Mesoporous materials as fining agents in variety Cabernet Sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Georgiana-Diana


    Full Text Available Innovative oenological products and techniques constantly need to be optimized in order to produce high quality wines that are able to fulfill the demanding consumers, with a pleasant colour, astringency, bitterness and a balanced organoleptic profile. New mesoporous materials with viability and environmental safety characteristics, might be a feasible alternative to the use of bentonite, while nowadays in the winemaking there is a major challenge caused by wastes derivate mainly from wine clarification stages. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of conventional (bentonite and activated coal and alternative (MCM-41, SBA-15, KIT-6 fining agents on enological parameters, colour, as well as on the antioxidant activity of a Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Our results show that mesoporous materials, KIT-6 and SBA-15 (6 g/L present the highest reduction on antioxidant activity with 23.08% and 24.41%, while bentonite and activated coal (1.5 g/L reduced with 20.72%, respectively 33.18%. Cluster analysis performed with the values of antioxidant activity differentiated wines treated with activated carbon from other wines.

  2. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Ansarul


    Full Text Available Costus speciosus Koen. Retz. belongs to family Zingiberaceae. It is known as Crepe zinger in English and Jom lakhuti in Assamese. Traditionally, rhizome of this plant is used as ethno-medicine for curing different health ailments. This plant is widely used for fertility control in women by the rural people of Rangia Sub-division of Kamrup District, Assam. In ayurveda, the rhizomes are ascribed to be bitter, astringent, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, purgative, antihelminthic, depurative, febrifuge, expectorant and tonic. The methanolic rhizome extract was investigated for its effect on ovary and uterus of Gonado-intact female adult mice. The extract at two different doses (250 mg/kg, 500mg/kg body weight for 10 days has showed significant decrease in ovarian weight and increase in uterine weight in comparison to normal control. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites i.e., alkaloids and flavonoids. The finding of the present study put some light showing the endocrine active effects of the Costus speciosus in animal model.

  4. A review on phyto‑pharmacological potentials of Euphorbia thymifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali


    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae is a small branched, hispidly pubescent, prostate annual herb, commonly known as laghududhika or choti-dudhi. The leaves, seeds and fresh juice of whole plant are used in worm infections, as stimulant, astringent. It is also used in bowel complaints and in many more diseases therapeutically. The present work is an extensive review of published literature concerning phytochemical and pharmacological potential of E. thymifolia. Data was searched and designed using various review modalities manually and using electronic search engines with reference to all aspects of E. thymifolia and was arranged chronologically. Complete information of the plant has been collected from the various books and journals since the last 32 years, internet databases, etc., were searched. Compiled data reflects the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the plant. This will be helpful for researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be explored and in scientific use of the plant for its wide variety of traditional therapeutic claims and also as to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional activities.

  5. Ameliorative potential of Vigna mungo seeds on hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in STZ diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangra Meenu


    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinally the seeds of Vigna mungo are used as cooling astringent, diet during fever, poultice for abscesses, soap alternative. The increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its various complications. This study was designed to examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (VME of V. mungo seeds on STZ-diabetic rats by measuring glycemia, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation parameters (MDA, PCO, and GSH and antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, CAT, and GPx. The levels of glucose, TG, TC, MDA, and PCO were increased significantly whereas the levels of serum insulin, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and Glutathione peroxidise (GPx were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. Administration of VME (200 mg/kg bw and 400 mg/kg bw p.o. to diabetic rats for 28 days showed a significant decrease in serum glucose, TG, TC, MDA, and PCO. In addition, we also summarize here that the levels of serum insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, GPx, and reduced glutathione (GSH were increased in VME treated diabetic rats. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effect of VME was compared with glibenclamide, a well-known antioxidant and antihyperglycemic drug. The findings in this study suggest that the VME possesses a significant favourable effect on antioxidant defense system in addition to its antidiabetic effect. Nonetheless, this study provides evidence that could help explain how the traditional use of V. mungo has been successful in the treatment of various disorders in humans.

  6. Sensory profile and drivers of liking for grape nectar among smoker and nonsmoker consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ramos Voorpostel


    Full Text Available Decreased gustatory and olfactory capacity is one of the problems caused by tobacco use. The objectives of this study were to determine the sensory profile of six grape nectar samples sweetened with different sweeteners and to verify the drivers of liking in two distinct consumer groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The sensory profile was constructed by twelve trained panelists using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. Consumer tests were performed with 112 smokers and 112 nonsmokers. Partial least squares regression analyses was used to identify the drivers of acceptance and rejection of the grape nectars among the two consumer groups. According to the QDA, the samples differed regarding six of the nineteen attributes generated. The absolute averages of the affective test were lower in the group of smokers; possibly because smoking influences acceptance and eating preferences, especially with regard to sweet foods. The results showed that the grape flavor was the major driver of preference for acceptance of the nectar, while astringency, wine aroma, bitterness and sweetness, and bitter aftertaste were drivers of rejection in the two groups of consumers, with some differences between the groups.

  7. What science says about khat (Catha edulis Forsk? Overview of chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Tajure Wabe


    Full Text Available Catha edulis (khat is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odour. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Khat contains more than 40 alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Many different compounds are found in khat including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The phenylalkylamines and the cathedulins are the major alkaloids which are structurally related to amphetamine. The major effects of khat include those on the gastro-intestinal system and on the nervous system. Constipation, urine retention and acute cardiovascular effects may be regarded as autonomic (peripheral nervous system effects; increased alertness, dependence, tolerance and psychiatric symptoms as effects on the central nervous system. The main toxic effects include increased blood pressure, tachycardia, insomnia, anorexia, constipation, general malaise, irritability, migraine and impaired sexual potency in men. The purpose of this review is to summarize the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology of khat (Catha edulis Forsk. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 29-37

  8. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Key Target Organ for the Health-Promoting Effects of Dietary Proanthocyanidins. (United States)

    Cires, María José; Wong, Ximena; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Gotteland, Martin


    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are polymers of flavan-3-ols abundant in many vegetable foods and beverages widely consumed in the human diet. There is increasing evidence supporting the beneficial impact of dietary PACs in the prevention and nutritional management of non-communicable chronic diseases. It is considered that PACs with a degree of polymerization >3 remain unabsorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accumulate in the colonic lumen. Accordingly, the GI tract may be considered as a key organ for the healthy-promoting effects of dietary PACs. PACs form non-specific complexes with salivary proteins in mouth, originating the sensation of astringency, and with dietary proteins, pancreatic enzymes, and nutrient transporters in the intestinal lumen, decreasing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. They also exert antimicrobial activities, interfering with cariogenic or ulcerogenic pathogens in the mouth (Streptococcus mutans) and stomach (Helicobacter pylori), respectively. Through their antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, PACs decrease inflammatory processes in animal model of gastric and colonic inflammation. Interestingly, they exert prebiotic activities, stimulating the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. as well as some butyrate-producing bacteria in the colon. Finally, PACs are also metabolized by the gut microbiota, producing metabolites, mainly aromatic acids and valerolactones, which accumulate in the colon and/or are absorbed into the bloodstream. Accordingly, these compounds could display biological activities on the colonic epithelium or in extra-intestinal tissues and, therefore, contribute to part of the beneficial effects of dietary PACs.

  9. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum). (United States)

    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André


    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry.

  10. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz


    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  11. Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Wintola


    Full Text Available Alepidea amatymbica is an important medicinal plant in Southern Africa with a long history of traditional use for the management of conditions like colds, coughs, sore throat, influenza, asthma, and abdominal cramps. Despite the much acclaimed traditional uses of the plant, there is a dearth of scientific information on the review of this plant. Hence, this review is aimed at providing information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of A. amatymbica. This review uses all the synonyms of the plant obtained from the plant list. Google scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus were made use of in addition to the University of Fort Hare’s online databases. All the phytochemical studies on Alepidea amatymbica obtained from the literature reported the presence of kaurene-type diterpenoids and their derivatives. Pharmacological areas identified on A. amatymbica fresh and dried extract include antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, astringent, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelminthes, antihypertensive, anti-HIV, and diuretic activities. Literature search on A. amatymbica revealed the use of cell line, brine shrimps, and rats for the determination of the toxicity in the plant. Clinical trials and product development to fully exploit the medicinal value are also required to validate its folklore use in traditional medicine.

  12. Quantitative Determination of Flavonoids and Chlorogenic Acid in the Leaves of Arbutus unedo L. Using Thin Layer Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željan Maleš


    Full Text Available The plant species Arbutus unedo shows numerous beneficial pharmacological effects (antiseptic, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, astringent, depurative, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory. For the medicinal use, standardization of extracts is a necessity, as different compounds are responsible for different biological activities. In this paper, we analyze monthly changes in the content of quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid. Methanolic extracts of the leaves are analyzed by HPTLC for the identification and quantification of individual polyphenol, and DPPH test is used to determine antioxidant activity. Based on the results obtained, the leaves should be collected in January to obtain the highest concentrations of hyperoside and quercitrin (0.35 mg/g and 1.94 mg/g, resp., in June, July, and October for chlorogenic acid (1.45–1.46 mg/g, and for the fraction of quercitrin and isoquercitrin in November (1.98 mg/g and 0.33 mg/g, resp.. Optimal months for the collection of leaves with the maximum recovery of individual polyphenol suggested in this work could direct the pharmacological usage of the polyvalent herbal drugs.

  13. Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment Atividade de beta-glicosidase e níveis de isoflavonóides glicosídios em cultivares de soja, influenciadas pelo ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The enzyme beta-glucosidase hydrolyses the isoflavone glucosides developing aglycones, which are compounds with anticancer effects, that are also related with the astringency observed in soybean flavor. Due to the importance of this enzyme, a study was carried out to determine beta-glucosidase activity in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars with different contents of isoflavone glucosides (enzyme substrate. The enzyme activity was determined in 51 soybean cultivars sowed in Londrina (latitude 23ºS, in Paraná State, Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5 from soybean production regions of different Brazilian states. Among the cultivars, a range of variability of 176.1 to 96.3 units of enzyme activity (cultivars IAC-2 and Embrapa 2, respectively was observed. A significant variability among cultivars could suggest genetic differences. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, the cultivar IAS 5 presented similar average of beta-glucosidase activity: 132.1, 131.9 and 132.5 units, respectively. Among locations in the states, the cultivar IAS 5 presented a variability for enzyme activity from 138.8 to 124.8 units, which were statistically different. In spite of statistics, the numerical values were not too different to assume that environmental conditions affected enzyme activity. A non-significative correlation for isoflavone glucoside concentrations and enzyme activity was observed among cultivars.

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of barks of Mimusops elengi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Subhash Bhujbal


    Full Text Available Mimusops elengi is a small or large evergreen tree (Sapotaceae of western peninsula and is found in south India. It has been in use in the indigenous system of medicine since antiquity as a specific cure for the diseases of gum and teeth. The drug has been reported to be bitter, astringent, tonic, febrifuge, and as a cure for dysentery and constipation. The cytotoxic effects of ethanolic extract of barks of M. elengi was investigated on meristimatic cells of root tips of Allium cepa. The experiment was carried out by using different concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 mg/mL of standard cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide and ethanolic extract. After 48 h and 96 h root length and mitotic index were calculated. The photomicrographs had shown the chromosomal abnormalities, stickiness, etc. with increasing concentration of ethanolic extract. The results of the presented study revealed that there is a significant decrease in percent mitotic index and root length of A. cepa with respective time and with increasing concentration.

  15. Smashing Tissue Extraction of Five Lignans From the Fruit of Schisandra chinensis. (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Song, Haiyan; Yang, Yingjie; Zhou, Hongli; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang


    Schisandra chinensis is one of the most famous herbal medicines in China, Korea and Japan. It has been widely used as a tonic, sedative, anti-aging and astringent agent. Lignans are one of its main bioactive components. The classical methods for extracting lignans, however, were tedious and energy-consuming. With the aim to develop an effective extraction method of lignans, the smashing tissue extraction (STE) technique was adopted and optimized in this study. Extraction conditions of STE have been optimized by the response surface methodology based on the Box-Behnken design. Results showed that 75% aqueous ethanol was the optimal extraction solvent, and the other optimal conditions were as follows: extraction voltage of 180 V, extraction time of 1 min, solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 19 and sample particle size of 120 mesh. Under these optimized conditions, the total content of the five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) in S. chinensis collected from Baishan City located in the northeast of China was 13.89 ± 0.014 mg/g, which was well matched with the value predicted by the model. Other techniques, including heat reflux, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction, were further compared. Results suggested that STE had the highest extraction efficiency of lignans with the shortest time. It indicates that the approach proposed in this study is a simple and efficient technique for the extraction of lignans in S. chinensis.

  16. Antiasthmatic effects of schizandrae fructus extract in mice with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungwoo Kim


    Full Text Available Background: Schizandrae fructus (SF, the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, has been used for the treatment of cough, wheezing, dry mouth, hepatitis, cardiovascular disease, and as a tonic and astringent in China, Japan, and Korea. Objective: Investigation of the antiasthmatic effects of SF. Materials and Methods: We investigated the effects of SF on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR to methacholine, production levels of antigen-specific antibodies, and histopathological changes in the lung tissue in a mouse model (Balb/c of asthma induced by repeated intranasal instillation of an antigen. Results: SF lowered AHR to methacholine (P < 0.05, antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE level (P < 0.01, and immune cell infiltration in mice with asthma. Prednisolone (PD effectively decreased AHR (P < 0.01, total antibody (P < 0.01 and IgE (P < 0.01 levels, and immune cell infiltration. SF and PD did not affect the levels of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Conclusion: Our data suggest that SF has possible application as an antiasthmatic drug. We also suggest that SF could be used as a complementary or alternative medicine to glucocorticoids.

  17. Wound healing potential of Pañcavalkala formulations in a postfistulectomy wound. (United States)

    Meena, Rakesh Kumar; Dudhamal, Tukaram; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Mahanta, Vyasadeva


    Sushruta mentioned sixty measures for management of wounds. Panchavalkal is the combination of five herbs having properties like Shodhana (cleaning) and Ropana (healing) of wounds. Individual drugs and in combination have Kashaya rasa (astringent) dominant and useful in the management of Vrana (wounds) as well as Shotha (inflammations). A 35 years old male patient consulted in Shalya OPD with complaints like discharge per anum, induration and intermittent pain at perianal region since last five years. On inspection external opening was observed at anterior portion 1 O' clock position which was four centimeter away from anal verge. That case was diagnosed as Bhagandara (fistula-in-ano) and was treated with partial fistulectomy and application of Guggulu based Ksharasutra in the remaining tract. The big fistulectomy wound was treated with local application of Panchavalkal ointment daily and simultaneous change of Ksharasutra. The wound was assessed daily for pain, swelling, discharge, size, and shape. The wound healed completely within two and half month with normal scar having good tissue strength. This case demonstrated that post fistulectomy wound can be treated with Panchavalkal ointment.

  18. Influence of four single fresh forages on volatile organic compound (VOC content and profile and sensory properties of goat Caciotta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fedele


    Full Text Available Aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of fresh single-species herbage on the VOC and sensory properties of cheese, in order to individuate specific descriptors linked to the use of fresh herbage in pureness. Two groups of Siriana housed goats were fed alternately with 2 grasses: Avena sativa (AS and Lolium perenne (LP and 2 legumes: Medicago sativa (MS and Trifolium incarnatum (TI in pureness. The milk was processed as Caciotta cheese and ripened for 20 days. The VOC analyses (by GC-MS showed the highest VOC total content in AS cheeses (226.55a.u., where alcohols was the dominant class; the lowest value (79.96a.u. was found in TI cheeses, and the dominant class was hydrocarbons. The panel test (for colour, odour, taste and final acceptability showed that cheeses from grasses’ groups were described with astringent and blue taste, those from legumes with acidic, bitter and light goaty taste. All cheeses showed goaty taste, except LP cheeses. Grasses’ cheeses showed higher final acceptability than those from legumes. The results showed that each meadow’s species, with its specific content of secondary metabolites, at specific phenological stage, was able to characterise the derived cheese products at sensorial level.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabale Pramod M.


    Full Text Available In India, use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been in vogue from ancient times and inherited traditionally. The fruits of Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in India for the treatment of griping bowels and diarrheal diseases. The roots and the bark are expectorant, demulcent, hypoglycemic and useful in colic, scabies, gastropathy, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruits are astringents, refrigerant, stomachic, vulnerary and useful in griping of bowels, flatulence of children and antispasmodic. The barks of H.isora showed prominent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and fruits against Candida albicans. The presence of flavones, triterpenoids, cucurbitacin, phytosterols, saponins, sugars and phlobatannins were demonstrated in roots and barks H.isora L. The use of medicinal plants in India contributes significantly in primary health care and it is interesting to determine whether actual pharmacological effects support the traditional uses or merely based on folklore. The review revealed that the fruits of H.isora L. were used in diarrhoeal infection and it is anti-candidial but so far no information on antibacterial activities of fruits of H. isora is available hence, attempt was made to find out phytochemical contents and antibacterial potentials of fruits of H.isora against diarrhoeal/enteric bacterial pathogens.

  20. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar. (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  1. 离散元法土-地下结构动力相互作用分析%A Dynamic Interaction Analysis of Soil-Underground Structure by Discrete Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍鹏; 李丽; 赵捷


    Based on the principle of deformation dynamics, a new discrete element model for deformable bodies is established in this paper. From the side-side contact relation and the dynamic relaxation method, theoretical formulas are derived and the corresponding calculation program is worked out according to the discrete element method (DEM). From the astringency of the calculation results in the static problem, the validity of the calculation program and the selected parameters is verified, and the motive reaction of the underground structure under artificial seismic wave is solved.%基于变形体动力学原理,建立了新的可变形块体单元模型.根据离散元法原理,采用边-边接触关系及动态松弛法,推导出其理论公式并编制了计算程序;由静力问题计算结果的收敛性,验证了计算程序和计算参数选取的正确性,求出了地下结构在人工地震波作用下的动力反应.

  2. Influence of wood barrels classified by NIRS on the ellagitannin content/composition and on the organoleptic properties of wine. (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis


    Ellagitannins are extracted from oak wood during wine aging in oak barrels. This research is based on the NIRS (Oakscan) oak wood classification according to their index polyphenolic (IP) (between 21.07 and 70.15). Their level in wood is very variable (between 5.95 and 32.91 mg/g dry wood) and influenced their concentration in red wine (between 2.30 and 32.56 mg/L after 24 months of aging) and thus their impact on wine organoleptic properties. The results show a good correlation between the NIRS classification and the chemical analysis (HPLC-UV-MS and acidic hydrolysis procedure) and with the wood ellagitannin level, the ellagitannin extraction kinetic, and the ellagitannins evolution in red wine (Cabernet Sauvignon). Moreover, a correlation between the NIRS classification and the increasing intensity of some wood aromas (woody, spicy, vanilla, and smoked/toasted), flavors (bitterness and astringency), and a decreasing intensity of fruitiness was also observed.

  3. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach. (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei


    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities.

  4. Effect of micro-oxygenation and wood type on the phenolic composition and color of an aged red wine. (United States)

    Sánchez-Iglesias, Montserrat; González-Sanjosé, Ma Luisa; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos


    Many studies have recently been published focused on the effects of micro-oxygenation on the quality of wines, its application modes, and doses, etc. However, there are still few scientific papers on how previously micro-oxygenated wines perform during storage or barrel aging. This study focused on the evolution of the phenolic composition, especially of anthocyanins, and color, together with astringency and tannins, during micro-oxygenation before barrel aging. In addition, to evaluate whether wine evolution during aging depends on barrel type, wines were aged in four different oak barrel types. Tempranillo wines, some micro-oxygenated before malolactic fermentation and others not, were aged for 12 months in American, French, Central European, and Spanish oak, following wine evolution during that period. The study was carried out for two consecutive vintages. Results showed that all wines evolved similarly; therefore, the micro-oxygenation treatment neither accelerated nor delayed the typical changes of aging. Slightly different evolutions were detected according to the barrel wood type, whether or not the wine was micro-oxygenated. The varied evolutions must therefore be associated with the differences from each oak type (structure, grain and density, composition, etc.).

  5. Retronasal perception and flavour thresholds of iron and copper in drinking water. (United States)

    Omur-Ozbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M


    Drinking water flavour has a strong role in water quality perception, service satisfaction, willingness to pay and selection of water sources. Metallic flavours are often caused by the dissolved iron and copper, commonly found in groundwater or introduced to tap water by corroding infrastructure. Taste thresholds of iron and copper have been investigated by several studies; however, reported results and test methods vary considerably. This study determined the taste thresholds of ferrous and cuprous ions in room temperature reagent water by using the one-of-five test with multi-nation panellists in the United States. For ferrous and cuprous ions, individual thresholds ranged from 0.003 to >5 mg l(-1) and 0.035 to >5 mg l(-1), respectively. Population thresholds were determined by logistic regression and geometric mean methods as 0.031 and 0.05 mg l(-1) for ferrous ion, and 0.61 mg l(-1) for cuprous ion by both methods. The components of metallic sensation were investigated by use of nose-clips while panellists ingested iron and copper solutions. Results showed that metallic sensation has a significant odour component and should be treated as a flavour instead of a taste. Ferrous, cuprous and cupric ions also produced weak bitter and salty tastes as well as astringent mouthfeel. In comparison, ferric ion produced no sensation.

  6. 响应面分析法优化余甘子含片配方%Optimizing formula of buccal tablets of emblica by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜刚; 曾程; 余鹏; 王炯; 杨海英


    在单因子试验基础上,用响应面法对余甘子含片配方主要成分淀粉糊精、蔗糖、薄荷醇进行优化.结果表明,余甘子舍片的最佳配方为:余甘子粉10 g,淀粉糊精18.3 g,蔗糖9 g,薄荷醇0.05 g.产品具有余甘子特有风味,并较好去除了苦味,减少了涩味.%The formula of buccal tablets of emblic was optimized by response surface methodology(RSM) with starch dextrin , sucrose and menthol based on single factor tests. Results showed that the optimum formula is as follows: the power of emblica 10 g, starch dextrin 18.3 g, sucrose 9 g, menthol 0. 05 g. The product maintained the special flavor of emblica, removed the bitter and reduced astringency properly.

  7. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar


    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  8. Solution for the Maze Game Based on Multi-Agent Genetic Algorithm%基于多Agent遗传算法求解迷宫游戏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少保; 赵春晓


    游戏设计的实质是设计一些相互关联的游戏规则.通过分析迷宫游戏元素之间的关系,抽象制定出一套游戏规则,并在此基础上,提出了一种以寻路个体为单个智能体的多Agent遗传算法.通过C++进行模拟仿真,实验结果验证了所提优化算法的合理性;与传统的遗传算法相比,此算法在避免早熟的同时有很快的全局收敛性.%The essence of game design is to design some related rules of the game.On the basis of the analysis of relationships among various elements in the maze game,a set of rules of the game is worked out abstractly in the paper.Then a multi-agent genetic algorithm,in which the individual of finding the maze's path is as an agent,is proposed.At last it is simulated by C++ and compared with the traditional genetic algorithm.The simulation results indicate that the proposed optimization model is reasonable and this algorithm can avoid precocious phenomena and have quicker convergence rate and better global astringency.

  9. Interaction between lysozyme and procyanidin: multilevel structural nature and effect of carbohydrates. (United States)

    Liang, Miao; Liu, Rui; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; Yu, Yanjun; Wang, Libing; He, Zhimin


    The interaction of procyanidins with proteins has aroused extensive attention due to its important relationship with the bioavailability and astringent property of polyphenols. In the present work, we have investigated the interactions of lysozyme with procyanidin dimer (B3) using various biophysical approaches, which aims to provide insights into the mechanism of protein/polyphenol aggregation. Procyanidin B3 spontaneously binds lysozyme, inducing the multilevel structural changes in lysozyme and the formation of insoluble complexes. The relationship between lysozyme aggregation and the loss of enzymatic activity was monitored using dynamic light scattering and fluorescence quenching. The influences of two carbohydrates (gum arabic and sucrose) on lysozyme/B3 aggregation were also studied. Gum arabic effectively inhibited the formation of insoluble aggregates, but was unable to restore the fluorescence and activity of lysozyme. However, sucrose concomitantly decreased the aggregate size with the recovery of fluorescence and lysozyme activity. These results proposed two probable mechanisms by which these two carbohydrates inhibit protein/polyphenol aggregation.

  10. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Key Target Organ for the Health-Promoting Effects of Dietary Proanthocyanidins (United States)

    Cires, María José; Wong, Ximena; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Gotteland, Martin


    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are polymers of flavan-3-ols abundant in many vegetable foods and beverages widely consumed in the human diet. There is increasing evidence supporting the beneficial impact of dietary PACs in the prevention and nutritional management of non-communicable chronic diseases. It is considered that PACs with a degree of polymerization >3 remain unabsorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accumulate in the colonic lumen. Accordingly, the GI tract may be considered as a key organ for the healthy-promoting effects of dietary PACs. PACs form non-specific complexes with salivary proteins in mouth, originating the sensation of astringency, and with dietary proteins, pancreatic enzymes, and nutrient transporters in the intestinal lumen, decreasing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. They also exert antimicrobial activities, interfering with cariogenic or ulcerogenic pathogens in the mouth (Streptococcus mutans) and stomach (Helicobacter pylori), respectively. Through their antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, PACs decrease inflammatory processes in animal model of gastric and colonic inflammation. Interestingly, they exert prebiotic activities, stimulating the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. as well as some butyrate-producing bacteria in the colon. Finally, PACs are also metabolized by the gut microbiota, producing metabolites, mainly aromatic acids and valerolactones, which accumulate in the colon and/or are absorbed into the bloodstream. Accordingly, these compounds could display biological activities on the colonic epithelium or in extra-intestinal tissues and, therefore, contribute to part of the beneficial effects of dietary PACs. PMID:28097121

  11. Determination of Some Ethnomedicinally Important Constituents of Aegle marmelos Fruit During Different Stages of Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Yadav; Parul Singh; Ranjana Mehrotra


    AIM: Aegle marmelos is a medicinal herb belonging to the Rutacae family. The fruit of A. marmelos at each stage of ripening is used as ethnomedicine to cure various diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the components contributing to the medicinal value of the A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine polyphenol, vitamins, organic acids and sugars in A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. RESULTS: Tannin, a polyphenol responsible for astringent and antimicrobial properties of A. marmelos fruit was found to increase during ripening. Riboflavin, a vital medicinal component was detected in traceable amount only in full-ripe A. marmelos fruit. Ribofla-vin contributes towards body growth, reproduction and red cell production. The content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) which is useful in preventing scurvy decreased significantly as fruit ripens. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the medicinal effect of A. marmelos fruit at each stage of ripening might be due to the presence of different amount of polyphenol, vitamins and organic acids.

  12. Adaptive parotid gland hypertrophy induced by dietary treatment of GSE in rats. (United States)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Matsuo, Saori; Tamura, Kei; Takahashi, Miwa; Yoshida, Midori


    In a 13-week feeding toxicity study of grape skin extract (GSE) performed previously, 5.0% GSE showed diffuse hypertrophy and basophilia in rat parotid glands. To clarify whether the change in the parotid glands was an adverse effect of GSE, 6-week-old male F344 rats were fed a diet containing 5.0% GSE or were administered a dose corresponding to the dietary concentration via gavage for 4 weeks, and the treatment was stopped for 2 weeks. To ascertain the effect of astringency, other animals were fed a diet containing 5.0% tannic acid (TA) using the same protocol as the GSE feed group. Control groups were fed a basal diet or were administered sterilized distilled water by gavage. In the GSE and TA feed groups, diffuse severe hypertrophy and basophilia in the parotid glandular epithelial cells were observed. Macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics consistent with cellular hypertrophy was less apparent after the recovery period in both feed groups. In contrast, no changes were observed in the parotid glands of the gavage GSE and control groups at week 4. Based on these findings of parotid hypertrophy without cytotoxicity, the data from this and previous studies suggest that hypertrophy of the parotid glands induced by feeding treatment with GSE is an adaptive non-adverse effect that is reversible upon removal of the sialotrophic agent.

  13. Development of a Portable Taste Sensor with a Lipid/Polymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko


    Full Text Available We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor’s performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm. The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor’s response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research.

  14. Influence of silicon oxide on the performance of TiN bottom electrode in phase change memory (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Liu, Bo; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Heng; Xia, Yangyang; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Nanfei; Li, Ying; Zhan, Yipeng; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin


    The stability of TiN which is the preferred bottom electrode contact (BEC) of phase change memory (PCM) due to its low thermal conductivity and suitable electrical conductivity, is very essential to the reliability of PCM devices. In this work, in order to investigate the effect of high aspect ratio process (HARP) SiO2 on the performance of TiN, both TiN/SiO2, TiN/SiN thin films and TiN BEC device structures are analyzed. By combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), we found that the TiN would be oxidized after the deposition of HARP SiO2 and there exist a thin ( 4 nm) oxidation interfacial layer between TiN and SiO2. Electrical measurements were performed on the 1R PCM test-key die with 7 nm and 10 nm BEC-only cells. The statistical initial resistances of BEC have wide distribution and it is confirmed that the non-uniform oxidation of TiN BEC affects the astringency of the resistance of TiN BEC. The experimental results help to optimize the process of TiN BEC, and SiN is recommended as a better choice as the linear layer.

  15. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses. (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J


    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines).

  16. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure and pasteurization on the structure and the extractability of bioactive compounds of persimmon “Rojo Brillante”. (United States)

    Hernández-Carrión, M; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, J L; Hernando, I; Quiles, A


    Rojo Brillante is an astringent oriental persimmon variety with high levels of bioactive compounds such as soluble tannins, carotenoids, phenolic acids, and dietary fiber. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and pasteurization on the structure of the fruit and on the extractability of certain bioactive compounds. The microstructure was studied using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and certain physicochemical properties (carotenoid and total soluble tannin content, antioxidant activity, fiber content, color, and texture properties) were measured. The structural changes induced by HHP caused a rise in solute circulation in the tissues that could be responsible for the increased carotenoid level and the unchanged antioxidant activity in comparison with the untreated persimmon. In contrast, the changes that took place during pasteurization lowered the tannin content and antioxidant activity. Consequently, HHP treatment could improve the extraction of potentially bioactive compoundsxsts from persimmons. A high nutritional value ingredient to be used when formulating new functional foods could be obtained using HHP.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is popularly known as the miracle tree. It is known as ‘Nimba’ in India. The Sanskrit name of neem is ‘Arishtha’ meaning the reliever of the sickness. Neem also holds medicinal value. Each and every part of neem is used in the medicines. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 4000 years. Its important phytoconstituents are nimbin, nimbinene acetylnimbinase, nimbandial, nimbolide and quercentin. Medicinal uses are purgative, antihemorrhoidal, antihelminthic, antileprotic and antipoisonous in nature. Neem bark is cool, astringent, acrid and refrigerant. It is useful in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, worm infestation. Nimibidin present in used as antipyretic and non-irritant, and it has found to be effective in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, furunculosis, arsenical dermatitis, burn ulcers, herpes labialis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis. Nimbidin and sodium nimbidmate contained in bark are reported to possess spermicidal and anti-inflammatory activity. So it is a tree that has a long history of use by humans. It is said to have medicinal, cosmetic and insecticidal potential.

  18. 基于改进灰色模型的故障预测研究%Research on fault prognostic method based on improved grey model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万领; 孟晨; 杨锁昌; 杨森


    随着系统发生故障所带来的财产损失、人员伤亡以及危害性越来越大,故障预测与健康管理(PHM)技术应用越来越广泛.该文重点介绍了改进灰色模型,并利用PSO算法实现了改进灰色模型的参数优化,然后以某制导雷达系统的波束控制中某电源组合为例采集电压信号数据,算法收敛性能很好,得到的结果用于改进灰色模型进行预测精度很高.%For more and more loss of belongings, personnel casualty and serious harm caused by fault occurring in systems, prognostic and health management/monitoring (PHM) technology is more and more widely applied. The paper mainly introduced the improved grey model, and used the PSO arithmetic to realize optimization of parameters for the improved grey model, and then a certain power supply combination in the beam control system of a certain control and guide radar was taken as an example to collect voltage signal. The arithmetic had very excellent astringency. The obtained results were used to forecast in the improved grey model, and the results showed the precision of the model was very good.

  19. Akt- and CREB-Mediated Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation Inhibition by Nexrutine, a Phellodendron amurense Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen E. Garcia


    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that plant-based diets can reduce the risk of prostate cancer. However, very little information is available concerning the use of botanicals in preventing prostate cancer. As a first step toward developing botanicals as prostate cancer preventives, we examined the effect of Nexrutine on human prostate cancer cells. Nexrutine is a herbal extract developed from Phellodendron amurense. Phellodendron extracts have been used traditionally in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years as an antidiarrheal, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent. The present study investigated its potential antitumor effect on human prostate cancer cells. Our results suggest that it inhibits tumor cell proliferation through apoptosis induction and inhibition of cell survival signaling. The results of the present study indicate that Nexrutine treatment 1 inhibits the proliferation of both androgenresponsive and androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells through induction of apoptosis; 2 reduces levels of pAkt, phosphorylated cAMP response-binding protein (pCREB, and CREB DNA-binding activity; and 3 induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells stably overexpressing Bcl-2. Further Akt kinase activity was reduced in cells treated with Nexrutine, and ectopic expression of myristoylated Akt protected from Nexrutine induced inhibition of proliferation, implicating a role for Akt signaling.

  20. Effects of tannins on fruit selection in three southern African frugivorous birds. (United States)

    Zungu, Manqoba M; Downs, Colleen T


    Tannins are common secondary compounds in plant material and are known for their ability to bind to protein which reduces nitrogen availability in the diet. In fruits, these compounds are responsible for their astringency which is thought to result in reduced food intake. In this study, the repellent effects of tannins were examined in three species of frugivorous birds: red-winged starlings Onychognathus morio, speckled mousebirds Colius striatus and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. Birds were fed artificial fruit diets containing varying levels of tannins in paired choice tests with the amount of food eaten by birds used to determine preference. Red-winged starlings were attracted to the control diet, indifferent to the medium tannin diet and deterred by the high tannin diet whereas speckled mousebirds and Cape white-eyes were not deterred at all concentrations. The discrepancy in the results was attributed to differences in taste sensitivity, tolerance levels and detoxification mechanisms of secondary compounds between species. Because fruit selection and ultimately fruit removal rates affect plant community composition, the disparity in the results suggests that frugivorous birds do not contribute equally to plant community dynamics. However, plant secondary compounds in fruits are diverse and their effects are similarly diverse and there is potential that different groups of secondary compounds generate disparate effects. Similar studies on other types of secondary compounds may thus contribute towards a broader understanding of the role of secondary compounds in mediating fruit-frugivore interactions.

  1. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization. (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A


    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  2. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.


    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  3. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman


    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  4. Pharmacognostic Standards for Mimusops elengi Linn - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh S Shivatare


    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. Pharmacognostic studies of crude drug plays a very important role in identification, purity and quality of crude drugs. The Mimusops elengi Linn.commonly known Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. The bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, triterpenoids and flower contain volatile oil as well as seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on pharmacognostic standards of Mimusops elengi Linn. and it may be useful in developing new standards for Mimusops elengi.

  5. Binding affinity of hydrolyzable tannins to parotid saliva and to proline-rich proteins derived from it. (United States)

    Bacon, J R; Rhodes, M J


    Proline-rich proteins (PRP) in human parotid saliva have a high affinity for dietary polyphenolic compounds (tannins), forming stable complexes that may modulate the biological and nutritional properties of the tannin. The formation of such complexes may also have an important role in the modulation or promotion of the sensation of oral astringency perceived when tannin-rich foods and beverages are consumed. The major classes of PRP (acidic, basic, and glycosylated) have been isolated from human saliva, and the relative binding affinities of a series of hydrolyzable tannins, which are found in a number of plant-derived foods and beverages, to these PRP classes have been determined using a competition assay. All of the classes of PRP have a high capacity for hydrolyzable tannins. Within the narrow range of binding affinities exhibited, structure/binding relationships with the levels of tannin galloylation, hexahydroxydiphenoyl esterification, and degree of polymerization were identified. No individual class of human salivary PRP appears to have an exclusive affinity for a particular type of hydrolyzable tannin.

  6. Living life the natural way – Wheatgrass and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur Kamboj


    Full Text Available Abstract:The Human diet is enriched with young parts of plants (so called ―green foods‖, which can improve nutrient balance intake in natural way. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum refers to young grass of the common wheat plant, which belongs to Poaceae family. This is the most commonly found herb in India, although its nativity is currently unknown. This plant is believed to have many nutritional values; it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, laxative, astringent, diuretic, antibacterial and anti-aging properties. Its use in acidity, colitis, kidney malfunctions, atherosclerosis and swelling has been shown to be beneficial. Wheatgrass juice helps in building red blood cells and stimulates healthy tissue cell growth. 100 g of wheatgrass powder is equal to 23 kg of fresh vegetables. Ideally, wheatgrass should be taken about an hour prior to meal. This allows the body to fully metabolize it without competing with other foods, and it may also curb hunger. It is recommended that lot of water (at least a liter should be consumed with the juice to reap its maximum nutritional benefits. Taking wheatgrass as a supplement in the mid-morning or mid-afternoon is a great time for this "green" energy boost.

  7. Atividade antibacteriana de extratos do caule de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae Antibacterian activity of extracts from wood of Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Ueda Nakamura


    Full Text Available Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae é uma árvore nativa das florestas do Paraná, Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como adstringente, emética, no combate à leucorréia e na lavagem de úlceras e feridas. Extratos de diferentes polaridades, obtidos do caule, foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Do extrato hexânico foi isolada uma mistura de sitosterol (50,40%, estigmasterol (21,70% e campesterol (22,80%, que apresentou uma concentração mínima inibitória (CIM de 0,5mg/mL sobre Staphylococcus aureus.Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae is a native tree found in forests of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and used in folk medicine as astringent and emetic substance against leukorrhea and in the washing of ulcers and wounds. Extracts of different polarity obtained from the stem were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Hexane extract yielded a mixture of sitosterol (50,40%, stigmasterol (21,70% and campesterol (22,80% which showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0,5mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review. (United States)

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron


    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage.

  9. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine. (United States)

    Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad


    Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel.

  10. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini


    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  11. Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S. Sidhu


    Full Text Available The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates, and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study.

  12. A novel method for the preparation of template DNA for PCR from beer to detect materials and to develop DNA markers to evaluate the quality of beer. (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Tsushima, Ryosuke; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi


    We developed a method for the preparation of template DNAs for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from beer. We improved the method by (i) lyophilizing and pulverizing the beer to concentrate DNAs, (ii) decomposition of polysaccharides and proteins so as not to inhibit DNA extraction by the use of heat-resistant amylase and proteinase K, (iii) separation of template DNA by purification using 70% EtOH extraction and isopropyl alcohol precipitation, and (iv) the use of magnetic beads to purify DNA. We developed suitable 7 STS (sequence-tagged site) primers related to beer quality for PCR, and it proved possible to identify 16 dominant malting barley cultivars and 22 kinds of beers. To digitize the results of PCR, discriminative DNA bands were binarized as 0 (disappeared) or 1 (appeared) and subjected to multiple regression analysis. Estimation formulae for the quality of beer were developed using the above-mentioned independent variables based on the results of PCR against dependent variables related to the qualities of beer, including foam stability, bitterness, sourness and astringency. These equations showed multiple regression coefficients of 0.93, 0.82, 0.87, and 0.87 for calibration.

  13. Evaluation of the toxicity of Araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum using brine Shrimp test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos de Sá Silva


    Full Text Available Since the dawn of medicine, man has used natural products for the treatment of disease. There has been a recent increase in studies of the therapeutic characteristics plants in popular use in many places of the world. In this context, the species Centrolobium tomentosum, Fabaceae, known popularly as Araribá or Araruva, is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an astringent for wound treatment and bruises due to the large amount of tannins contained in the bark. This work used toxicity tests to assess the biological activity of ethanolic extracts from C. tomentosum with the specific objectives of obtaining concentrated extracts from the bark and wood of this species and determining the total phenols and tannins present in these extracts. We collected araribá samples in order to obtain ethanolic extracts through the percolation process. We then made a qualitative chemical identification of hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. We used the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the phenols quantification and the casein precipitation method for the tannins determination. The toxicity of extracts was evaluated using the brine shrimp bioassay (Artemia salina, in which the C. tomentosum bark extract showed moderate toxicity, with estimated LC50 = 416 μ, whereas the leaves and wood extracts of this species showed low toxicity with LC50 = 537 μ and 826 μ, respectively.

  14. Progress with respect to research work on allergenic ingredients in cosmetics and their detection methods%化妆品中致敏成分及其检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银志; 田秀梅; 余雯静; 郑利; 孙秀兰; 钱和


    综述了化妆品中的致敏成分及其检测方法;主要介绍了化妆品中易引起过敏反应的过敏原的种类,包括香精、防腐剂、对苯二胺、中药提取成分以及为满足一定的使用目的而添加的功能性成分如紫外吸收剂、收敛剂等;同时针对各种致敏成分分别讨论了其相应的检测方法,主要有斑贴试验、高效液相色谱法、气相色谱法、气相色谱-质谱法;最后提出了目前在检测方法方面存在的问题和发展方向.%Allergenic ingredients in cosmetics and their detection methods were summarized. Mainly categories of materials that facilitate allergic reaction, including fragrances, preservatives, p - phenylenediamine, herbal extracts and some functional components that added for specific purposes, such as UV absorbents, astringents, et al. Meanwhile,the detection methods of various allergenic ingredients were discussed, including patch test, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Finally, existing problems in detection methods and development trends in this field were put forward.

  15. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact. (United States)

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P


    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Mohd


    Full Text Available The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present review, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were located, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire and Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae are of immense importance in oriental medicine because they are used as an aphrodisiac, diuretic and anthelmintic, as well as to treat coughs and kidney failure. Tribulus terrestris L. has reported to have antimicrobial, antihypertension, diuretic, antiacetylcholine, haemolytic activity, spermatogenesis and libido enhancer, antitumor activity and effects on cardiovascular system. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins, flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins named terrestrosins A, B, C, D and E, F-gitonis, gitnin and amides have been reported to occur in Tribulus terrestris L. Traditionally T. terrestris is used in folk medicine as a tonic, aphrodisiac, palliative, astringent, stomachic, antihypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic, cordial drug and urinary anti-infective. The ash of the whole plant is good for external application in rheumatic-arthritis.

  17. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins. (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A


    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matpal Mahesh


    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the different extract of bark of Ficus benghalensis, family Moraceae is a very large, fast growing, evergreen tree up to 30 meters, with spreading branches and many aerial roots. Leaves stalked, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, entire, when young downy on both sides; petiole with a broad smooth greasy gland at the apex, compressed, downy; Fruit in axillary pairs, the size of a cherry, round and downy. According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leprosy. According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulernary, maturant, lessens inflammations; useful in piles etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous, chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the bark by in vitro methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The methanolic extract at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  19. Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features. (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero


    The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements.

  20. Red wine tannins fluidify and precipitate lipid liposomes and bicelles. A role for lipids in wine tasting? (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Castets, Aurore; Nallet, Frédéric; Pianet, Isabelle; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie


    Sensory properties of red wine tannins are bound to complex interactions between saliva proteins, membranes taste receptors of the oral cavity, and lipids or proteins from the human diet. Whereas astringency has been widely studied in terms of tannin-saliva protein colloidal complexes, little is known about interactions between tannins and lipids and their implications in the taste of wine. This study deals with tannin-lipid interactions, by mimicking both oral cavity membranes by micrometric size liposomes and lipid droplets in food by nanometric isotropic bicelles. Deuterium and phosphorus solid-state NMR demonstrated the membrane hydrophobic core disordering promoted by catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the latter appearing more efficient. C and EGCG destabilize isotropic bicelles and convert them into an inverted hexagonal phase. Tannins are shown to be located at the membrane interface and stabilize the lamellar phases. These newly found properties point out the importance of lipids in the complex interactions that happen in the mouth during organoleptic feeling when ingesting tannins.

  1. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract. (United States)

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana


    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid.

  2. Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds. (United States)

    Frank, Stephanie; Wollmann, Nadine; Schieberle, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas


    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from a Dornfelder red wine, 31 odor-active compounds were identified by means of HRGC-MS and comparison with reference compounds. A total of 27 odorants, judged with high FD factors by means of AEDA, was quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and acetaldehyde was determined enzymatically. In addition, 36 taste-active compounds were analyzed by means of HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS/MS, and ion chromatography. The quantitative data obtained for the identified aroma and taste compounds enabled for the first time the reconstruction of the overall flavor of the red wine. Sensory evaluation of both the aroma and taste profiles of the authentic red wine and the recombinate revealed that Dornfelder red wine was closely mimicked. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the high molecular weight fraction of red wine is essential for its astringent taste impression. By comparison of the overall odor of the aroma recombinate in ethanol with that of the total flavor recombinate containing all tastants, it was shown for the first time that the nonvolatile tastants had a strong influence on the intensity of certain aroma qualities.

  3. Stevia Glycosides: Chemical and Enzymatic Modifications of Their Carbohydrate Moieties to Improve the Sweet-Tasting Quality. (United States)

    Gerwig, Gerrit J; Te Poele, Evelien M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P


    Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeteners, especially in food, is their slight bitter aftertaste and astringency. These undesirable properties may be reduced or eliminated by modifying the carbohydrate moieties of the steviol glycosides. A promising procedure is to subject steviol glycosides to enzymatic glycosylation, thereby introducing additional monosaccharide residues into the molecules. Depending on the number and positions of the monosaccharide units, the taste quality and sweetness potency of the compounds will vary. Many studies have been performed already, and this review summarizes the structures of native steviol glycosides and the recent data of modifications of the carbohydrate moieties that have been published to provide an overview of the current progress.

  4. Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar


    Full Text Available This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research.

  5. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed. (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn


    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling.

  6. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on the physical and antioxidant properties of Quercus resinosa infusions encapsulated by spray-drying. (United States)

    Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Harte, Federico; Medina-Torres, Luis; Ochoa-Martínez, Luz Araceli; Soto-García, Marcela


    Quercus resinosa leaves are used in northern Mexico as a refreshing beverage rich in polyphenolic compounds. These leaves show astringency and hence need taste masking for incorporating in a food product. They also interact with many other food components and are not very stable to food processing environments, thus it is important to protect them and a common way is by encapsulation. In the present study the use of encapsulation by spray-drying of Quercus resinosa leaves infusions was evaluated. Q. resinosa leaves were collected, air dried, and milled prior to infusion preparation. Lactose-sodium caseinate blends at 3 different proportions (11 : 4%, 9 : 6%, and 7 : 8%) were dispersed with a constant amount of lyophilized infusion (0.075%) and processed under high-pressure homogenization (0, 100, 200, 300 MPa). Total phenolic content, DPPH kinetic analysis, deoxy-D-ribose oxidation inhibition, rheological evaluation, and particle size analysis were performed to evaluate the obtained capsules. High antioxidant activity was shown by capsules despite their very low concentration when inhibiting deoxy-D-ribose oxidation. Chain breaking rate was related to polyphenolic concentration in capsules. Using lactose-caseinate blends produces capsules of submicron to nanometer size that retain the good antioxidant capacities of original infusions.

  7. Autonomous navigation to quasi-periodic orbits near translunar libration points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wuxing; Qian Yingjing; Gao Changsheng; Li Jianqing


    Libration-point missions have been very useful and successful. Due to the unstable nat-ures of most of these orbits, the long-time stationkeeping demands frequent maneuvers and precise orbit determinations. Earth-based tracking will have to undertake much more responsibilities with the increasing number of libration missions. An autonomous navigation system could offer a better way to decrease the need for Earth-based tracking. Nevertheless, when an autonomous navigation system is applied, there are three important factors affecting autonomous navigation accuracy, i.e., the accuracy of initial conditions, the accuracy of measurements, and the accuracy of onboard dynamics for propagation. This paper focuses on analyzing the influence from the third factor and finding an appropriate navigation dynamics, which can satisfy the requirement of estimation accuracy but not cause too much burden for onboard computation. When considering the restricted three-body model and the bicircular restricted four-body model as navigation dynamics, the astrin-gency is not shown during the simulations. Meanwhile, when considering the influences of the Sun’s direct and indirect perturbations and the eccentricity of the Moon’s orbit, a new navigation dynamic model with the standard ephemerides is proposed. The simulation shows the feasibility of the proposed model.

  8. 电渗析法脱盐精制甘蔗糖蜜研究%Desalination of Sugar Cane Molasses by Electrodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯红伟; 扶雄


    Plenty of mineral salts were contented in sugar cane molasses,which played an importance role in the taste of astringency,expecially the potassium salt.In present study,ion-exchange membrane (IEM) mediated electrodialysis (ED) was applied to desalinate the sugar cane molasses.The removal rate of inorganic salt and potassium salt were 77.35% and 86.37% respectively under the optimized conditions of voltage 30 V,flow rate 70 L/h,density 25°Brix.%甘蔗糖蜜中含有大量无机盐,其中的钾盐使糖蜜呈涩味.试验通过离子交换膜电渗析法对甘蔗糖蜜进行脱盐处理.结果表明:电渗析对糖蜜脱盐有良好的效果,在工作电压为30V,流量70 L/h,糖蜜浓度为25° Brix时,糖蜜的电渗析脱盐精制脱盐率达到77.35%,脱钾率达到86.37%.

  9. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea. (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin


    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  10. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ala I Sharara; Hamza Daroub; Camille Georges; Rani Shayto; Ralph Nader; Jean Chalhoub; Ammar Olabi


    AIM: To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations.METHODS: Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution(PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid(PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate(SPS), and oral sodium sulfate(OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted(n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand? sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing(n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right(JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products.RESULTS: Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes(P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showedsignificant differences between the various samples(P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel(P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results.CONCLUSION: Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions.

  11. Lexicon Development, Consumer Acceptance, and Drivers of Liking of Quinoa Varieties. (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Ross, Carolyn F; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M


    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of commercially available varieties. To compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needs to be developed. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a lexicon of cooked quinoa and examine consumer acceptance of diverse varieties. A trained panel (n = 9) developed aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the sensory properties of 21 quinoa varieties. In addition, texture of the cooked quinoa was determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated that the developed lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in aromas, taste/flavors, and texture attributes. Specifically, quinoa variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist textures. Three varieties, "QQ74," "Linares," and "CO407D," exhibited an adhesive texture that has not been described in other commercialized quinoa. Subsequent consumer evaluation (n = 100) on 6 selected samples found that the "Commercial Red" sample was the most accepted overall whereas the least accepted was the field variety "QQ74." For all consumers, overall acceptance of quinoa was driven by higher intensities of grassy aroma, and firm and crunchy texture. Segmentation of the consumers into 4 groups was explored and showed that consumers varied in their acceptance of specific attributes, particularly texture. From the present study, the quinoa lexicon and key drivers of consumer acceptance can be utilized in the industry to evaluate quinoa varieties, product quality and processing procedures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak


    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  13. Alignment controllability of air spring vibration isolation system of a ship propulsion plant%船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统对中可控性问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜文俊; 何琳; 施亮


    对船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统对中可控性问题进行了系统研究。通过建立控制响应计算模型、多目标对中控制模型,提出了对中可控性分析方法,使得控制系统能够根据不同工作情况自主调整控制系统工作参数,以保持良好的对中控制收敛性能,并通过实验验证了该方法的可行性。该方法已应用于某型船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统,成功实现了气囊柔性支撑状态下的推进装置高效隔振。%The alignment controllability of air spring vibration isolation system of a ship propulsion plant was studied systematically.The controllability analysis was carried out through establishing a control response calculation model and a multi-object alignment control model.The control system was made to adjust control capability parameters automatically and to manifest good alignment control astringency.Experiment results confirmed the feasibility of the method.The method has been used in an air spring vibration isolation system and has realized a high vibration isolation effect triumphantly on a ship propulsive plant mounted on flexible air springs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Zafar Alam


    Full Text Available The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their livelihood by selling some of them in the local market. One hundred and twenty five medicinal plants are being used by local people in the study valley in which a diversified application of these species have been observed. These include (24 species astringent and for other skin problems, (16 species laxative, (14 species stomachic, (14 species diuretic, (11 species carminative, (10 species anthelmintic, (10 species used in reproductive disorders, (9 species are used in various hepatic disorders, (9 species used in various CNS disorders, (8 species antispasmodic, (8 species expectorant, (7 species antirheumatic, (5 species antiseptic, (4 species antidiabetic, (4 species purgative, (4 species aphrodisiac, (3 speciesanticancer, (2 species antihypertensive and (2 species for ophthalmic use. Similarly the remaining species have one or more medicinal use(s. Seventeen species of them are also collected for trade purposes that include Ajuga bracteosa, Paeonia emodi, Berberis lycium, Mentha longifolia, Diospyrus lotus, Skimmia lauriola, Zanthoxylum alatum, Morchella esculenta, , Bistorta amplexicaulis, Podophyllum emodi, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Allium sativum, Cichorum intybus, Plectranthus rugosus, Dioscorea deltoidea, Juglans regia and Polygonatum multiflorum. Market survey revealed that the collectors are often not aware of the high market value and medicinal application so most of the collected material is sold to local middle man at very low price

  15. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance. (United States)

    Shepard, L; Miracle, R E; Leksrisompong, P; Drake, M A


    Sour cream is a widely popular acidified dairy product. Volatile compounds and organic acids and their specific contributions to flavor or acceptance have not been established, nor has a comprehensive study been conducted to characterize drivers of liking for sour cream. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical and sensory properties of sour cream and to determine the drivers of liking for sour cream. Descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses followed by consumer testing were conducted. Flavor and texture attributes of 32 (22 full-fat, 6 reduced-fat, and 4 fat-free) commercial sour creams were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel. Percent solids, percent fat, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric measurements were conducted to characterize physical properties of sour creams. Organic acids were evaluated by HPLC and volatile aroma active compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing (n=201) was conducted on selected sour creams, followed by external preference mapping. Full-fat sour creams were characterized by the lack of surface gloss and chalky textural attributes, whereas reduced-fat and fat-free samples displayed high intensities of these attributes. Full-fat sour creams were higher in cooked/milky and milk fat flavors than the reduced-fat and fat-free samples. Reduced-fat and fat-free sour creams were characterized by cardboard, acetaldehyde/green, and potato flavors, bitter taste, and astringency. Lactic acid was the prominent organic acid in all sour creams, followed by acetic and citric acids. High aroma-impact volatile compounds in sour creams were 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, butyric acid, octanal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octene-3-one, and acetaldehyde. Positive drivers of liking for sour cream were milk fat, cooked/milky and sweet aromatic flavors, opacity, color intensity, and adhesiveness. This comprehensive study established

  16. Hydrodynamic analysis and shape optimization for vertical axisymmetric wave energy converters (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-chao; Liu, Heng-xu; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xue-wei


    The absorber is known to be vertical axisymmetric for a single-point wave energy converter (WEC). The shape of the wetted surface usually has a great influence on the absorber's hydrodynamic characteristics which are closely linked with the wave power conversion ability. For complex wetted surface, the hydrodynamic coefficients have been predicted traditionally by hydrodynamic software based on the BEM. However, for a systematic study of various parameters and geometries, they are too multifarious to generate so many models and data grids. This paper examines a semi-analytical method of decomposing the complex axisymmetric boundary into several ring-shaped and stepped surfaces based on the boundary discretization method (BDM) which overcomes the previous difficulties. In such case, by using the linear wave theory based on eigenfunction expansion matching method, the expressions of velocity potential in each domain, the added mass, radiation damping and wave excitation forces of the oscillating absorbers are obtained. The good astringency of the hydrodynamic coefficients and wave forces are obtained for various geometries when the discrete number reaches a certain value. The captured wave power for a same given draught and displacement for various geometries are calculated and compared. Numerical results show that the geometrical shape has great effect on the wave conversion performance of the absorber. For absorbers with the same outer radius and draught or displacement, the cylindrical type shows fantastic wave energy conversion ability at some given frequencies, while in the random sea wave, the parabolic and conical ones have better stabilization and applicability in wave power conversion.

  17. 荷叶粉对猪肉火腿肠品质特性的影响%Effect of Lotus Leaf Powder on the Quality of Pork Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 姚峥; 王路; 杜庆飞; 陈从贵


    以猪肉火腿肠(pork sausage,pS)为研究对象,考察荷叶粉添加量(0~2.0%)对PS持水性、色泽、质构及感官品质的影响.结果表明:添加荷叶粉能够显著改善PS的持水能力(蒸煮损失率CL值降低、保水性WHC值和总持水性TWBC值提高)和硬度(P<0.05);但会导致其L*值和a*值显著降低(P<0.05);添加不高于1.0%的荷叶粉,对PS的组织状态、香气、咸味、涩味和口感均无显著影响(P>0.05);综合分析结果显示,制作PS的荷叶粉适宜添加水平约为1.0%.%The effects of lotus leaf powder on water-holding capacity,color,textural properties and sensory qualities of pork sausages were investigated.The results showed that the water-binding capacity and hardness of pork sausages were improved significantly,while L* and a* values were decreased evidently by the addition of lotus leaf powder (P<0.05).No significant changes in texture,aroma,salty,astringency or taste were found when no more than 10% lotus leaf powder was added to pork sausages (P> 0.05).The proper addition level of lotus leaf powder in pork sausages was approximately 10%.

  18. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti


    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  19. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage. (United States)

    Al Mijan, Mohammad; Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo


    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding nanopowdered eggshell (NPES) into yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPES on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPES-added (0.15-0.45%, wt/vol) yogurt ranged from 4.31 to 4.66 and from 6.56 × 10(8) to 8.56 × 10(8)cfu/mL, respectively, whereas these values ranged from 4.13 to 4.44 and 8.46 × 10(8) to 1.39 × 10(9), respectively, for the control samples during storage at 5 °C for 16d, which indicates a prolonged shelf-life with NPES-supplemented yogurt. Color analysis showed that the lightness (L*) and position between red and green (a*) values were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPES. However, the position between yellow and blue (b*) value significantly increased with the addition of the concentration (0.45%, wt/vol) of NPES at d 16 of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that NPES-added yogurts showed a notably less sourness score and a higher astringency score than the control. An earthy flavor was higher in 0.45% NPES-supplemented yogurt compared with the control. Based on the results obtained from the current study, the concentration (0.15 to 0.30%, wt/vol) of NPES can be used to formulate NPES-supplemented yogurt without any significant adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties.

  20. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with nanopowdered chitosan during storage. (United States)

    Seo, M H; Lee, S Y; Chang, Y H; Kwak, H S


    This study was carried out to determine the possibility of adding nanopowdered chitosan (NPC) into cholesterol-reduced yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPC on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH values and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPC-added (0.3 to approximately 0.7%, wt/vol) and cholesterol-reduced yogurt ranged from 4.19 to 4.41 and from 4.75 x 10(8) to 9.70 x 10(8) cfu/mL, respectively, when stored at 4 degrees C for 20 d, thereby indicating a possibility of prolonging the shelf life of yogurt. In color, the a* and b* values for cholesterol-reduced yogurt were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPC (0.1 to approximately 0.7%, wt/vol); however, the L* values significantly decreased with the addition of the greatest concentration (0.7%, wt/vol) of NPC at 0-d storage. The sensory test revealed that the astringency scores significantly increased at 0-d storage when the greatest concentration (0.7%, wt/vol) of NPC was added into cholesterol-reduced yogurt. Based on the data obtained from the current study, it is concluded that concentrations (0.3 to ~0.5%, vol/vol) of NPC could be used to produce an NPC-added and cholesterol-reduced yogurt without significantly adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties.

  1. Model of PC-SAFT state equation based on simultaneous method%基于联立法的PC-SAFT状态方程模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐申骏; 祝铃钰; 陈曦


    PC?SAFT (Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory)状态方程可以准确计算聚合物的物性,但是基于序贯算法的PC-SAFT状态方程模型收敛性较差.本文在MATLAB软件环境下编制了PC-SAFT状态方程模型的计算程序并用联立法求解,将乙烯、氢气、乙烯-氢气双组分、含聚合物的多组分等体系的物性与Aspen Plus软件模拟所得的数据进行比较,结果十分吻合.同时在MATLAB软件环境下编制了序贯法求解的PC-SAFT状态方程计算程序,在收敛步数方面与联立法程序进行了比较,联立方程法显示了明显的优势.%The equation of state of PC-SAFT (Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) can be used to calculate the physical properties of polymers accurately. However, based on sequential method, the astringency of PC-SAFT is not very good. This article established the model of PC-SAFT EOS through simultaneous method in MATLAB software, and calculated the physical properties of pure ethylene, pure hydrogen, two-component system of ethylene and hydrogen as well as multi-component system containing polymer. Compared the physical properties data with the data obtained from the simulations of Aspen Plus software, the results were in great agreement. Moreover, this article established the model of PC-SAFT EOS through sequential method in MATLAB software, and compared the number of convergence steps with the model through simultaneous method, the model through simultaneous method showed obvious advantage.

  2. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae). (United States)

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes


    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively).

  3. Antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants. (United States)

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Sáenz, Claudia; Lacret, Rodney; Ruiz-Mesia, Lastenia; Arán, Vicente J; Sanz, Jesús; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A


    Extracts (34) from eight plant species of the Peruvian Amazonia currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine, mostly as antileishmanial remedies and also as painkiller, antiseptic, antipyretic, anti-inflamatory, antiflu, astringent, diuretic, antipoison, anticancerous, antiparasitic, insecticidal, or healing agents, have been tested for their antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic activity. Plant species were selected based on interviews conducted with residents of rural areas. The different plant parts were dried, powdered, and extracted by maceration with different solvents (hexane, chloroform, and 70% ethanol-water). These extracts were tested on promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum strain PB75, epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y, and the mammalian CHO cell line. Parasite viability and nonspecific cytotoxicity were analyzed by a modified MTT colorimetric assay method. The isolation and identification of pure compounds from selected extracts were performed by column chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS; mixtures), spectroscopic techniques [MS, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV)], and mono and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; COSY, HSQC, NOESY) experiments. Chondodendron tomentosum bark and Cedrela odorata were the most active extracts against Leishmania, while C. odorata and Aristoloquia pilosa were the most active against Trypanosoma, followed by Tabebuia serratifolia, Tradescantia zebrina, and Zamia ulei. Six compounds and two mixtures were isolated from Z. ulei [cycasin (1)], T. serratifolia {mixtures 1-2, and naphthoquinones 2-acetyl-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (2) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (3)}, and C. tomentosum [chondrocurine (4); (S,S')-12-O-methyl(+)-curine (5); and cycleanine (6)]. Four compounds and the two mixtures exhibited significant activity.

  4. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida da Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., (Asclepiadaceae Evaluation of molluscicidal activity of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., (Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Brustolin


    Full Text Available A Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae é uma trepadeira lenhosa nativa da Índia. As folhas são utilizadas na medicina popular como antidiabética, estomáquica, diurética refrigerante, adstringente e tônica. O extrato metanólico bruto e suas frações das partes aéreas foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. O extrato metanólico bruto e suas frações foram analisados em cromatografia em camada delgada, determinados os índices hemolítico e de espuma; e realizados os ensaios físico-químicos das partes aéreas desta espécie. Das cinco frações obtidas do extrato metanólico bruto, a fração metanólica apresentou maior atividade moluscicida e demonstrou a presença de compostos hemolíticos em cromatografia de camada delgadaGymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae is a native plant found in India. The leaves are used in folk medicine as antidiabetic, stomachic, diuretic, astringent and tonic. The methanolic extract and fractions obtained from aerial parts were used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the snail (Biomphalaria glabrata. The methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, foam and the hemolitic index were measured, and the physical and chemical characteristics of aerial parts of this species were analyzed. The methanolic extract yielded five fractions, the methanolic fraction presented moluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and showed content of hemolitic compound by thin-layer chromatography

  5. Utilização de embalagem de polietileno na conservação de caquis 'giombo' durante o armazenamento refrigerado Use of polyethylene bags on conservation of 'giombo' persimmons during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Rogéria Antoniolli


    Full Text Available Procurou-se estudar o efeito da utilização de embalagem de polietileno durante o armazenamento refrigerado de frutos de caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L., cultivar Giombo. Os frutos foram acondicionados em sacos de PEBD (0,06mm e mantidos a 1 ± 0,5ºC e 95-98% UR durante 30; 60 ou 90 dias. As características químicas e físicas dos frutos foram avaliadas ao final de cada período de armazenamento. As variáveis analisadas foram teor de taninos solúveis, firmeza da polpa, perda de matéria fresca, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e teor de ácido ascórbico. Os frutos mantiveram elevada qualidade durante os primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento, independentemente do uso da embalagem. Constatou-se, aos 60 dias, redução na qualidade comercial decorrente da baixa firmeza de polpa. A utilização de embalagem de polietileno não apresentou eficiência na remoção total da adstringência dos frutos.The purpose of this research was to study the use of polyethylene bags during the cold storage of persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Giombo. Fruits were packed in low-density polyethylene bags (0.06mm thick and kept at 1 ± 0,5ºC and 95-98% RH during 30, 60 or 90 days. Soluble tannin content, flesh firmness, water loss, soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content were evaluated. Fruits maintained a high quality during 30 days, but lost its commercial quality after 60 days of cold storage due to the reduction of flesh firmness. The use of polyethylene bags did not completely remove the astringency of the fruits.

  6. The impact of yeast starter cultures on the microbial communities and volatile compounds in cocoa fermentation and the resulting sensory attributes of chocolate. (United States)

    Batista, Nádia Nara; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas


    Theobroma cacao seeds are the main raw material for chocolate production. During their fermentation, a succession of microorganisms are responsible for the physicochemical changes occurring in the pulp and inside the beans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast inoculation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11, Pichia kluivery CCMA0237, and Hanseniaspora uvarum CCMA0236) on the profile of the volatile compounds and microbial communities in cocoa fermentation. The resulting chocolate was also evaluated by temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. The dominant microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation were S. cerevisiae, H. uvarum, H. guilliermondii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus sp., and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Similarly, S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri, Candida sp., Pediococcus sp., and A. pasteurianus were the predominant microorganisms assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) in inoculated fermentation. Sixty-seven volatile compounds were detected and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at the end of fermentation and chocolates. The main group of volatile compound found after the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations was esters (41 and 39 %, respectively). In the chocolates, the main group was acids (73 and 44 % from the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations, respectively). The TDS analyses showed a dominance of bitter and cocoa attributes in both chocolates. However, in the inoculated chocolate, lingering fruity notes were more intense, while the chocolate produced by spontaneous fermentation was more astringent. Thus, the inoculation of yeast influenced the microbial profile, which likely affected the volatile compounds that affect sensory characteristics, resulting in chocolate with dominant bitter, cocoa, and fruity attributes.

  7. 有人机—无人机群协同空战目标分配算法%Reseach on Mission Assignment Algorithm of Cooperation Air Combat for MAV and Multi-UAV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万俊; 傅裕松; 翁兴伟


    To solve the mission assignment problem for MAV (Manned Aerial Vehicle) and multi-UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) in cooperation air combat. A DPSO (Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization) is put forward. The research is divided into three situation which includes that one UCAV is assigned one target, one UCAV is assigned two targets regardless of attack order and one UCAV is assigned two targets considering attack order. And then a new particle formation method is proposed. The risk return matrix and cost function of multi-mission assignment which combines air combat capability index and dominant function are designed. The simulation result shows that the arithmetic has good astringency and it has reference value for the Multi-mission assignment for MAV and multi-UAV in cooperation air combat.%针对有人机—无人机群协同空战目标分配问题,运用离散粒子群算法,分为1架UCAV分配1个目标,1架UCAV分配2个目标时不考虑攻击先后影响和考虑攻击先后影响3种情况进行了仿真研究,提出了一种新的粒子构造方法.综合考虑空战能力指数和优势函数,构造了收益风险矩阵和多目标分配的代价函数.仿真结果具有良好收敛性,对有人机—无人机群协同空战目标分配具有参考价值.

  8. Effect of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the levels of phenolic compounds from crude extracts of bark of Spondias luta L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Melo, Mychely S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academinco de Vitoria


    Spondias luta L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajazeira, is a plant widespread in several regions of Brazil, famous for containing phenolic compounds, which are responsible for your characteristic astringent. Ionizing radiations have the ability to cross the material, ionizing atoms and molecules, causing changes in atoms and molecules important. It is known ionizing radiation promotes quantitative and qualitative changes in plant materials, increasing, decreasing or inactivating secondary substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation as a modifier of the activity of the phenolic compounds of the bark extract of S. luta L. Methods: For the dosage of phenol extracts (control, irradiated with 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy) were diluted in methanol to a final concentration of 200 mg / L. In test tubes were added 50 μL of extract plus 1 ml of distilled water and 500 μl of Folin (diluted 1:10). After 10 minutes in a dark chamber was added 2.5 ml of calcium carbonate to 20% and the content of the tube was homogenized. After 20 minutes was performed with a spectrophotometer at 735 nm. The assay was performed in triplicate and calculated from a standard curve solution of gallic acid and expressed in μEAG (GAE/mg extract). Results: The control extracts, irradiated to 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy, had, respectively, 6.25, 6.70, 6.25, 6.85, 6.45 μEAG/mg of extract. Conclusion: The results showed no significant change in the amount of phenolic compounds, showing that these compounds are radioresistant extract these doses. (author)

  9. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  10. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential. (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael


    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  11. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchima Sithisarn


    Full Text Available Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on

  12. Action Mechanism of Antinutrition and Reducing Measures of Polyphenol from Rapeseeds%菜籽多酚的抗营养作用机理及减量措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世娟; 李吕木


    Rapeseed is the third oil crop in the world and is not only the main source of edible vegetable oils in China,but also the potential source of feed proteins. Polyphenol from rapeseeds mostly remains in rapeseed meal and the byproduct of rapeseed oil processing, which restricts the utilization of rapeseed meal. In particular, when being used as animal feed, it is not welcomed due to the black color. More, it is pungent and astringent and seriously affects the animals to digest and absorb nutritive materials and is noxious to animal bodies. In this paper, the components,structures,antinutrition mechanism and reducing measures of polyphenol from rapeseeds were summarized so as to provide reference for improving the value of rapeseed meal and developing a high - quality protein resource.%油菜籽是世界第三大油料,也是我国食用植物油的主要来源和潜在的饲用蛋白源.油菜籽加工过程中,大部分的菜籽多酚留在副产品菜籽粕中,使其合理利用受到制约,尤其作为动物饲料时,不仅其色泽深黑不受欢迎,而且其辛辣味和涩味严重影响动物的适口性,降低动物对营养物质的消化和吸收,对动物体有毒性作用.研究综述了菜籽多酚的组成、结构、抗营养作用机理和减量处理措施,以期为提高菜籽粕利用价值,开发优质蛋白资源提供参考.

  13. 改进幂次趋近律的机械臂滑模控制律设计%Design of Sliding Mode Control Scheme Based on Improved Idempotent Trending Law For Robotic Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雷平; 陈自力; 张世华


    针对机械臂滑模控制中存在的抖振问题,采用趋近律的方法来进行改善,在对机械臂的控制特点和常用的滑模趋近律进行分析的基础上,针对幂次趋近律的缺点,提出了一种改进的幂次趋近律,并对其趋近性能进行了分析;根据机械臂动力学模型和改进的幂次趋近律设计了相应的滑模控制策略,对其控制策略的位置跟踪特性和抖振消除能力等进行了验证;仿真结果表明,该控制策略不仅有效地抑制了机械臂滑模控制中的抖振问题,而且保证了机械臂系统对期望轨迹的快速跟踪性,具有更好的趋近特性和收敛特性.%The trending law is used to resolve the problem of chattering in sliding mode control for robotic manipulators. The control trait of robot manipulators and common trending law are analyzed, a new trending law is proposed and its trending performance is evaluated. The correlative sliding mode control scheme based on dynamic model of robotic manipulators and new trending law is designed. Then its position tracking and chattering control performances are validated. The simulation results show that the new scheme can not only control the chattering effectively but also achieve a fast and accurate position tracking, which is of better reaching and astringency performance.

  14. Optimizing of a Horizontal Cylinder Type Cocoa Roaster for Dried Cocoa Cotyledon Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo


    Full Text Available The secondary process of cocoa is one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. One the other hand, the development for secondary cocoa process requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale business. Cocoa roaster is a basic equipment to produce good and competitive secondary cocoa products for chocolate industry. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has, therefore, designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type roaster for drying cocoa cotyledon. The cylinder has 405 mm diameter, 520 mm long and is rotated by a 1 HP (0.75 kW, 220 V, single phase and 1400 rpm electric motor. Assisted with a gear reducer, the final cylinder rotation is adjusted at approximately 6 rpm. The heat for roasting process is generated from kerosene burner. At the end of roasting, the roasted beans are cooled down by ambient air inside a cooling platform by natural air flow. The raw material used in this optimizing test was dried fine cocoa cotyledon. Field tests showed that the optimum performance of the roaster was 7 kg dried fine cocoa cotyledon loaded with roasting temperature 120 oC and 25.57 kg/h optimum capacity. The organoleptic test showed that score of aromatic, flavour, acidity, bitterness, astringency and burnt were 4.8, 5.2, 5.4, 5.2, 4.8 and 0.8 with 10 scale, also 4.2 with 5 scale for likely. The roasting time was 15—25 minutes to get 2.5—3% final water content depend on roasting temperature and cocoa cotyledon loaded. Key words: cocoa, roasting, horizontal cylinder, quality.

  15. Optimization on Reactive Power of Power System Based on Particle Swarm and Its Improved Algorithm%基于粒子群及其改进算法的电力系统无功优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟鸣; 文波; 洪彬倬


    This paper introduces mathematic model for optimization on reactive power of power system,discusses application of modern intelligent algorithm in solving nonlinear planning of reactive power optimization and analyzes realization of ap-plication of particle swarm optimization (PSO)algorithm in optimization on reactive power of power system. Discrete parti-cle swarm optimization (DPSO)algorithm was introduced and these two methods were used for processing discrete variables. Example analysis on IEEE-30 node system verified feasibility of PSO and DPSO. It was proved that these two algorithms were of similar optimizing effectiveness but astringency of PSO was better that DPSO while DPSO was more correct and suit-able to process discrete variables than PSO.%介绍了电力系统无功优化的数学模型,论述了现代智能算法在解决无功优化的非线性规划问题中的应用,实现了粒子群优化(particle swarm optimization,PSO)算法在电力系统无功优化问题中的应用。引入离散粒子群(discrete particle swarm optimization,DPSO)算法,采用两种方法对离散变量进行处理。IEEE-30节点系统的算例分析验证了 PSO和DPSO 的可行性。这两种算法具有相近的优化效果,但 PSO 的收敛性优于 DPSO,而DPSO对离散变量的处理比 PSO更准确,也更切合实际。

  16. Preparation of Soybean Peptide from Mucorpiriformis Fischer%梨形毛霉蛋白酶在大豆多肽制备中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李理; 罗泽民; 卢向阳


    本文研究了腐乳生产菌种梨形毛霉所产蛋白酶对大豆分离蛋白的降解条件,并分析了酶解产物的疏水性、分子量分布及氨基酸组成。结果表明该蛋白酶酶促降解大豆分离蛋白的最佳条件是:温度45℃、反应时间5h、pH6.0、酶用量750U;在此条件下制备的大豆肽经质谱检测其分子量在1000D左右,完全符合大豆肽产品的要求;经品尝,该产品无任何苦涩味,色泽淡黄,无需脱盐处理,可直接调配成酸性蛋白肽饮料。%The degradation conditions of isolated soybean protein withprotease from Mucor piriformis Fischer and the hydrophobicity,distribut ion of molecular weight and amino acids composition of the hydrolysate have been stu died.The results showed the best degradation condition of soybean protein isolat ed as 45℃,pH6.0,enzyme 75OU,reaction time 5h.The molecular weight of the enzyma tic decomposition product was 1000 Dal,analyzed by Mass spectrum.the product was yellowish without any bitter and astringent odour.

  17. Investigation on antimicrobial effects of essential oil of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of its chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi


    Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.

  18. Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics. (United States)

    Aculey, Patrick C; Snitkjaer, Pia; Owusu, Margaret; Bassompiere, Marc; Takrama, Jemmy; Nørgaard, Lars; Petersen, Mikael A; Nielsen, Dennis S


    Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste, and flavor, and has to be fermented, dried, and roasted to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavor and taste. In an attempt to obtain a deeper understanding of the changes in the cocoa beans during fermentation and investigate the possibility of future development of objective methods for assessing the degree of fermentation, a novel combination of methods including cut test, colorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and GC-MS evaluated by chemometric methods was used to examine cocoa beans sampled at different durations of fermentation and samples representing fully fermented and dried beans from all cocoa growing regions of Ghana. Using colorimetry it was found that samples moved towards higher a* and b* values as fermentation progressed. Furthermore, the degree of fermentation could, in general, be well described by the spectroscopic methods used. In addition, it was possible to link analysis of volatile compounds with predictions of fermentation time. Fermented and dried cocoa beans from the Volta and the Western regions clustered separately in the score plots based on colorimetric, fluorescence, NIR, and GC-MS indicating regional differences in the composition of Ghanaian cocoa beans. The study demonstrates the potential of colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as valuable tools for determining the fermentation degree of cocoa beans. Using GC-MS it was possible to demonstrate the formation of several important aroma compounds such 2-phenylethyl acetate, propionic acid, and acetoin and the breakdown of others like diacetyl during fermentation. Practical Application: The present study demonstrates the potential of using colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as objective methods for determining cocoa bean quality along the processing chain. Development of objective methods for determining cocoa bean

  19. Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis). (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes


    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta

  20. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  1. Effect of dietary tannin source feeds on Ruminal fermentation and production of cattle; a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Sh.


    Full Text Available Generally, tannins are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom, especially among trees, shrubs and herbaceous leguminous plants. Tannins are naturally occurring polyphenols with different molecular weights and complexity that are synthesized during the secondary metabolism of plants. Tannins might bind to macromolecules (proteins, structural carbohydrates and starch and decrease their availability to digestion. Tannins based on their chemical structure and properties divided into two groups, hydrolyzable tannins (HT and Condensed tannins (CT, proanthocyanidins. Tannins are polyphenols, which directly or indirectly affect intake and digestion. They are the primary source of astringency in plants, which results from binding to proteins, forming soluble or insoluble complexes. The nature of the interaction is greatly dependent on the structure of the polyphenols and the proteins involved. Relatively low concentration of tannins (0.5% of DM intake is sufficient to destabilize the bloat proteins while high concentration (2-4% of DM intake is needed for improvement of protein utilization. High concentration (> 5% of dry weight reduces feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. Tannins containing forages will be important for small ruminants to control of gastrointestinal parasites. Animals fed condensed tannin had lower dressing percent than controlled one; with dressing percent being intermediate for animals fed hydrolysable tannin. Neither tannin source affected the animal’s consumption of the diet or the animal’s growth. Additionally, the tannin sources did not affect the meat or by-product tissues, making tannin supplementation a viable option in finishing beef cattle. Therefore, tannin source feed will have its own advantages and disadvantages on animals’ performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikini Aakruti A


    Full Text Available India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have a great potential for pharmacological activities. Bambusa bambos family Graminae is highly reputed Ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as bamboo. It is tall sized tree growing throughout India. It also occurs in Srilanka, Malaya, Peru and Myanmar. Bambusa bambos has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage as folklore medicine. It is widely used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, astringent, laxative, diuretic, anti-ulcer, anti-arthritic, anti-obesity and abortifacient activities. The various chemical constituents reported in this plant are oxalic acid, chorogenic acid, ferulicacid,coumeric acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillinic acid, caffeic acid, reducing sugars, resins, waxes, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, benzoic acid, diferuloylarabinoxylanhexasaccharide, diferuloyl oligosaccharide, (5, 5’-di-(diferul9,9’-dioyl-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-9-(1→4-D-xylopyranose] (taxiphyllin, arginine, cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenlyamine, threonine, valine, tyrosine, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, betain, choline, proteolytic enzymes, nuclease, urease. Pharmacological evaluation of various parts of the plant have demonstrated antioxidant, anthelminthic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fertility, hypothermic, anti-thyroid anti-tumour and ecbolic activities. Various phyto-pharmacological evaluations have been reported in this literature which indicates the potential of Bambusa bambos as a therapeutic agent. This review mainly focuses on traditional, botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological information of Bambusa bambos.

  3. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar. (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A


    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  4. Clinical Evaluation of Different Pre-impression Preparation Procedures of Dental Arch (United States)

    Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika; Gupta, Naveen; Agarwal, Manisha; Verma, Rohit; Rathod, Pankaj


    Background: Bubbles and voids on the occlusal surface impede the actual intercuspation and pre-impression preparation aims to reduce the incidence of air bubbles and voids as well as influences the quality of occlusal reproduction and actual clinical intercuspation in the articulator. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of different pre-impression preparation procedures of antagonistic dental arch on the quality of the occlusal reproduction of the teeth in irreversible hydrocolloid impressions and to determine most reliable pre-impression preparation method to reduce the incidence of air bubbles. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects were selected having full complement of mandibular teeth from second molar to second molar with well demarcated cusp height. 200 impressions were made with irreversible hydrocolloid material. The impressions were divided into five groups of 40 impressions each and each group had one specific type of pre-impression preparation. All the impressions were poured in die stone. A stereomicroscope with graduated eyepiece was used to count the number of bubbles on the occlusal surface of premolars and molars. The mean and standard deviations were calculated for each group. Mann–Whitney U-test was applied to find the significant difference between different groups. Results: Least bubbles were found in the group in which oral cavity was dried by saliva ejector and fluid hydrocolloid was finger painted onto the occlusal surfaces immediately before the placement of impression tray in the mouth. Conclusion: It was found that finger painting the tooth surfaces with fluid hydrocolloid immediately before the placement of loaded impression tray in the mouth was the most reliable method. The oral cavity can be cleared more easily of excess saliva by vacuum suction rather than by use of an astringent solution. PMID:26229376

  5. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovic Anne C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Extract and Essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, Population of Guilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Yassa


    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of study: Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae has cooling, soothing, astringent, and anti-inflammatory effects, and has been used in the north of Iran as a cardiotonic agent. The aim of this study was to identify components of R. damascena (cultivated in Guilan Province extract and essential oil and to study their biological activities. "nMethods: Essential oil of R. damascena was prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC/MS instrument. The antioxidant activity of hydro-alcohlic extract of petals and essential oil was measured using free radical scavenging activity with 2-2-diphenyl, 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and lipid peroxidation (ferric ammonium thiocyanate methods. "nResults: Hydro-alcoholic extract showed strong free radical scavenging capacity compared to lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects. IC50 values of the extract were 2.24 μg/mL and 520 μg/mL in free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays, respectively. The major components of essential oil were linalool (3.8%, nerol (3.05%, geraniol (15.05%, 1-nonadecene (18.56%, n-tricosane (16.68%, hexatriacontane (24.6% and n-pentacosane (3.37%. The bioassay-guided fractionation of extract led to the isolation of three flavonol glycosides: quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside. The IC 50 value of the radical scavenging activity of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside which was, 530 μg/mL was weaker than the extract. "nMajor conclusion: The petal of this cultivated rose has no bitter taste and because of its potential antioxidant activity and good taste, can be used as food flavor and a preventing agent for many diseases.

  7. A comparative evaluation of efficacy of Punica granatum and chlorhexidine on plaque and gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Ahuja


    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial infections that lead to gingival inflammation, periodontal tissue destruction, and alveolar bone loss. Acting as powerful allies in the fight against periodontal disease, natural compounds can help safeguard against lethal age-related diseases that emanate from our mouths. Punica granatum (pomegranate shrub belongs to the Punicaceae family which has been used as an astringent, hemostatic, antidiabetic, antihelmintic, and also for diarrhea and dysentery. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Punica granatum fruit as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 - Pomegranate mouthwash and Group 2 - Chlorhexidine mouthwash. Punica granatum mouthwash was prepared using raw Punica granatum fruit. Patients were instructed to use the prescribed mouthwash for 15 days. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index, the plaque index, and bleeding on probing at baseline, 7 days, and 15 days. Results: The clinical study observed significant improvement in gingival status in both the sites (P<0.05. Subjects using Punica granatum mouthwash showed significant improvement in bleeding and gingivitis score as compared with chlorhexidine. In contrast, Punica granatum was shown not to be so effective in reducing plaque scores. Chlorhexidine still remains as a standard in the reduction of plaque in subjects with gingivitis. Conclusion: Punica granatum mouthwash is beneficial in improving gingival status due to its profound styptic action, with sufficient reduction in plaque scores.

  8. Fu Yin and Suppressing Yang method in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder%扶阴抑阳法治疗广泛性焦虑症体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chinese medicine ,generalized anxiety disorder is depression ,insomnia ,affliction ,palpitations ,upset ,insomnia ,dizziness ,head-ache ,parts of the frontal ,occipital ,sweating ,dry mouth ,pharyngeal foreign body sensation ,tongue tongue body vibration ,red tongue ,thin white fur or thin yellow ,sublingual vein dark purple ,the number of vein .TCM syndrome of yin and Yang is the imbalance of yin and Yang ,yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity .Yin ,yin and Yang Yang does not enter not ,Yin insomnia ,mental tension and yang hyperactivity ,mental tension at the head Yintang Qi stasis ,neck stiffness ,so the amount of pain ,pillows ,Yin Yang and yang hyperactivity unhealing astringent diminished capacity is sweating ,palpitation .The disease belongs to deficiency and excess ,disease in the pericardium .%中医认为广泛焦虑症属郁证、不寐范畴,病症表现为,心悸、心烦,失眠、头昏、头痛,部位在额、枕部,汗出、口干,咽部异物感,伸舌时舌体振颤,舌质红,舌苔薄白或薄黄,舌下脉络紫暗,脉数。中医阴阳辨证为阴阳失调、阴虚阳亢。阴虚,阴不敛阳,阳不入阴则失眠,精神紧张为阳亢的表现,精神紧张导致头部印堂处气机淤滞,颈项部僵硬,所以额、枕头痛,阴不敛阳阳亢固涩能力减弱则出汗、心跳。病性属虚实夹杂,病位在心包。

  9. Bees Algorithm and Its Application to Optimal Regulation of Hydropower Stations%蜜蜂算法及其在水电站优化调度中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The principle and method of BA is introduced, and the ability to attain global optimum solution is discussed.Taking op-timal long-term regulation problem of hydropower stations for example, BA, SPSO, SAPSO and GAPSO are used to solve the prob-lem simultaneous.Results show that BA has fast astringency and better ability to attain global optimum solution.Thus, an additional method is proposed for solving optimal regulation of hydropower stations.%详细阐述了蜜蜂算法的优化原理及实现方法,并对算法的求解速度和全局寻优能力进行详细讨论。在此基础上,以国内广泛开展的复杂高维、非线性、多约束水库中长期优化调度问题为例,同时应用蜜蜂、基本粒子群、退火粒子群和交叉粒子群四种现代群智能优化算法进行分别求解。应用情况的对比分析表明,蜜蜂算法具有比上述其它几种算法更快的求解速度和全局寻优能力。此外,论文的研究成果也为水电站中长期发电优化调度问题提供了一种新的求解途径。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim, L. S.


    Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

  11. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle (United States)

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya


    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo. For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin–Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells. PMID:26019631

  12. 基于观测器的 LMI 振动控制算法%Observer-based LMI vibration control algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王露健; 周星德; 秦飞马; 张翔; 李勇直


    针对基于观测器的 LMI 控制器设计中一个线性矩阵不等式中出现双变量的问题,提出一种赋初值迭代求解方法。考虑到双变量中一个为正定矩阵变量、一个为标量的特点,为了保证迭代收敛性和满足矩阵正定的要求,把正定矩阵变量作为初值赋予对象。仿真分析发现所设计的控制器仅能保证控制趋势,达不到预期控制效果,为此提出了调节因子的概念。最后,以3层基准建筑物为例进行仿真分析,结果表明该方法是可行的。%In the design of an observer-based LMI (linear matrix inequality) controller, bivariate values appear in one linear matrix inequality. To solve this problem, we propose an initial value-iteration method in this paper. Of the bivariate values, one is a positive definite matrix variable and the other is a scalar. Considering these two characteristics, we take the positive definite matrix variable as the initial value, in order to ensure the astringency of the iteration and to meet the requirements of positive definite matrices. Simulation analysis shows that the designed controller can guarantee the control trend, which was far from the expected control result. We subsequently put forward the concept of a regulatory factor. As a case study, the simulation analysis of a three-storey benchmark building shows that the proposed method is feasible.

  13. QTL analysis and candidate gene mapping for the polyphenol content in cider apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy F Verdu

    Full Text Available Polyphenols have favorable antioxidant potential on human health suggesting that their high content is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They control the quality of ciders as they predominantly account for astringency, bitterness, color and aroma. In this study, we identified QTLs controlling phenolic compound concentrations and the average polymerization degree of flavanols in a cider apple progeny. Thirty-two compounds belonging to five groups of phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by reversed phase liquid chromatography on both fruit extract and juice, over three years. The average polymerization degree of flavanols was estimated in fruit by phloroglucinolysis coupled to HPLC. Parental maps were built using SSR and SNP markers and used for the QTL analysis. Sixty-nine and 72 QTLs were detected on 14 and 11 linkage groups of the female and male maps, respectively. A majority of the QTLs identified in this study are specific to this population, while others are consistent with previous studies. This study presents for the first time in apple, QTLs for the mean polymerization degree of procyanidins, for which the mechanisms involved remains unknown to this day. Identification of candidate genes underlying major QTLs was then performed in silico and permitted the identification of 18 enzymes of the polyphenol pathway and six transcription factors involved in the apple anthocyanin regulation. New markers were designed from sequences of the most interesting candidate genes in order to confirm their co-localization with underlying QTLs by genetic mapping. Finally, the potential use of these QTLs in breeding programs is discussed.

  14. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: amandaramos@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  15. XML document clustering method based on quantum genetic algorithm%基于量子遗传算法的XML聚类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勇; 谭怀亮; 李光文


    This paper maiuly targets on XML clustering with kernel methods for pattern analysis and the quantum genetic algorithm.Then, a new method based on the quantum genetic algorithm and kernel clustering algorithm was proposed.To eliminate the XML documents first, the vector space kernel's kernel matrix was generated with frequent-tag sequence, the initial clustering and clustering center with the Gaussian kernel functions were solved, then the quantum genetic algorithm's initial populations were constructed by the initial clustering center structure.Clustering of the globally optimal solutions was obtained through the combination of quantum genetic algorithm and kernel clustering algorithm.The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the improved kernel clustering algorithm and K-means in good astringency, stability and overall optimal solutions.%主要用模式分析的核方法与量子遗传算法相结合研究XML聚类,提出了一种基于量子遗传算法混合核聚算法的XML文档聚类新方法.该方法先对XML文档约简,以频繁标签序列建立向量空间核的核矩阵,用高斯核函数求解初始聚类和聚类中心,然后用初始聚类中心构造量子遗传算法的初始种群,通过量子遗传算法与核聚算法相结合求得全局最优解的聚类.实验结果表明,使用该算法的聚类比改进的核聚算法、K均值算法等单一方法具有良好的收敛性、稳定性和更高的全局最优.

  16. 基于输入输出反馈线性化的单相异步电机直接转矩控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小钢; 张超


    为克服单相异步电机直接转矩控制系统中转矩脉动较大等不足,本文提出了基于输入输出反馈线性化的控制方法。首先从单相异步电机的动态数学模型出发,通过引入新的虚拟输入变量详细阐述了输入输出反馈线性化的实线方法,给出了基于输入输出反馈线性化的单相异步电机直接转矩控制系统框图。最后,借助MATLAB/Simulink软件进行了建模与仿真。仿真结果表明,本文提出的控制方法具有良好的磁链收敛性和较小的转矩脉动。%To overcome the disadvantage of bigger torque ripples existed in direct torque control system of single-phase induction motors, this paper proposed a control method based input-output feedback linearization. Starting from the dynamic mathematical model of single-phase induction motors, the implement methods of in-put-output feedback linearization were elaborated by introducing new virtual input variables, and then the con-trol system diagram of direct torque control for single-phase induction motors was provided. Finally, modeling and simulation were performed by MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the proposed control method has a better flux astringency and lower torque ripples.

  17. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts. (United States)

    Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip


    Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic

  18. Gelatin tannate reduces the proinflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frasca G


    Full Text Available Giuseppina Frasca1, Venera Cardile1, Carmelo Puglia2, Claudia Bonina2, Francesco Bonina21Department of Biomedical Sciences, (Physiology, 2Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, ItalyBackground: Gelatin tannate is a mixture of tannic acid and gelatin. Tannic acid has astringent properties, due to its capacity to form protein–macromolecular complexes, as well as antibacterial and antioxidant properties. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of gelatin tannate by quantifying the suppression of key molecules produced during inflammatory events in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human intestinal cells. Methods: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression was determined by Western blot analysis; interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in Caco-2 cells 24 hours after treatment with LPS (1 μg/mL in presence of different concentrations of gelatin tannate. Results: ICAM-1 is induced on a wide variety of cells by inflammatory stimuli such as LPS. Our results have shown gelatin tannate as a potent inhibitor of ICAM-1 expression in LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells. IL-8 and TNF-α are important inflammatory mediators, recruiting neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. Together with LPS, adding gelatin tannate at different concentrations induced a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-8 and TNF-α released by Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that gelatin tannate exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the specific cytokines and adhesion molecules involved in several inflammatory disorders.Keywords: Caco-2, ICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-α

  19. Chronic venous leg ulcers – role of topical zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher SF


    Full Text Available Sara F Maher Physical Therapy Program, Department of Healthcare Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Topical zinc has been used in the treatment of wounds for over 3,000 years, and is reported to have antiseptic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound healing properties. Fourteen studies were identified and reviewed, to assess the efficacy of this treatment modality as either a bandage or skin protectant in the treatment of venous ulcers. The authors of three studies reported improved healing time or success rate in wounds treated with zinc-based products. However, the authors of one study attributed the faster healing rate mainly to the extra compression (that improved venous blood return, delivered by the non-elastic paste bandage, and not by the zinc oxide alone. The quality of evidence is fair, as 50% of the studies were conducted prior to 2000 and 50% of the studies utilized fewer than 45 patients randomized to two or more groups. Other treatments have been reported to be more cost-effective than zinc, including hydrocolloids, four-layer compression systems, and CircAid Thera-boots. Finally, zinc was reported to be less comfortable, less easy to use, and caused increased pain, in comparison to other products on the market. This literature review, therefore, demonstrated that current evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of zinc-based products in the treatment of venous wounds. Future research is needed focusing on larger, high-quality trials with an emphasis on quality of life issues and cost-effectiveness of treatment. Keywords: chronic wounds, leg ulcers, venous insufficiency, topical zinc

  20. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation. (United States)

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón


    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products.

  1. Processing technics of summer tea of Longquan Jinguanyin%龙泉金观音夏暑茶加工工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文萃; 汤一


    龙泉金观音不仅以“香、活、甘、韵”的优良品质,得到茶叶界的广泛赞誉,同时以春茶到冬茶的全季侯生产模式,大大提高了茶区资源利用率和茶叶生产综合经济效益。夏暑茶因苦涩味重、香气不高等鲜叶自然品质缺陷成为金观音加工之技术难点。本文总结了龙泉金福茶业公司等茶叶龙头企业的成功经验和技术要领,旨在为生产厂家不断完善金观音加工工艺提供参考,同时也希望为我省夏秋季绿茶品质的进一步改善提供借鉴。%Longquan Jinguanyin has won broad recognition in tea industry not only for its good fragrance, fresh and lively taste, sweet flavor and the lasting appeal, but also for its utilization ratio of tea resources and the comprehensive economic effectiveness of tea production, which was greatly enhanced by its manufacturing approaches of the all year round production from spring tea to winter tea. Usual summer tea has the strong bitterness and astringency but lack of fragrance, which has become the main obstacle in producing Jinguanyin. This article summarized the successful experiences and techniques of Jinfu Tea Company in Longquan country, a leading enterprises, so as provide references for manufacturers to improve their processing techniques of Jinguanyin. Discussions on improvement of summer and autumn green tea quality were made.

  2. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey. (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural


    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  3. Researching of Tannase on Debasing Content of Esterified Catechins in Instant Green Tea%单宁酶降低速溶绿茶中酯型儿茶素含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军国; 欧鸥; 陈泉宾; 王丽丽; 王秀萍; 陈林


    Esterified catechins are the major components resulting in bitterness and astringency in instant tea for the taste of additive applied products. Hence,more attention should be paid to the application of tannase in processing of instant tea for it degraded esterified catechins in tea. In this paper,the effects of tannase had been investigated on degrading esterified catechins for instant green tea solution at different concentrations,degradation values of EGCG for per unit tannase (mg)and the application of tannase in processing of instant green tea. The results showed that degradation values of EGCG for per unit tannase (mg)achieved 6. 70 mg·mg-1 at diopter of instant green tea solution 2. 35. The 3‰ addition of tea materials for tannase was suitable in applying to extracted and separated tea solution to obtain the instant tea powder with mellow taste. Comparing with only by extraction in hot water,applying tannase did not change the instant green tea significantly in the contents of tea polyphenols and catechins .%酯型儿茶素是速溶茶苦涩味的主体成分,其存在导致所应用产品口感苦涩,难以满足市场消费者的口感需求。单宁酶可降解茶叶中的酯型儿茶素组分,其在速溶茶加工中的应用值得关注。通过单宁酶对不同浓度速溶绿茶溶液的酯型儿茶素降解效果、单位单宁酶的 EGCG 降解量以及在速溶绿茶加工中的应用,结果表明,速溶绿茶溶液折光度为2.35时,单宁酶酯型儿茶素降解效果最好,单位单宁酶 EGCG 降解量可达6.70 mg·mg-1。应用于速溶绿茶加工时,单宁酶添加量以原料的3‰为宜,先提取分离后酶解,可获得口感醇和的速溶茶粉,茶多酚及儿茶素含量相较于热水提取基本不变。

  4. Study in Different Periods of Fresh Tea Leaves Active Ingredients%不同时期茶树鲜叶活性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江新凤; 杨普香; 李延升; 李文金


    To determine and compare the contents of amino acids (AA), tea polyphenols (TB), gallic acid (GA), caffeine(CAF), epicatechin gallate (EGC), epigallo catechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) in tea samples from Jiangxi province by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were extracted by hot water. The results was that tea catechin components in the five samples total content between 12.1 mg/g-18.7 mg/g, on which the highest content of traditional green tea EGCG,the highest catechin quality index was 15.66 in March to pick a bud leaf samples, The catechin astringent index was the highest percentage in that sample, CAI change in trend and the change trend of CAI and AA/TB.%为探明不同时期茶树活性成分的变化规律,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),对不同时间采摘的福鼎大白茶鲜叶氨基酸(amino acids,AA)、茶多酚(tea polyphenols,TP)、咖啡碱(caffeine,CAF)、没食子酸(gallic acid,GA)、表没食子儿茶素(epicatechin gallate,EGC)、 表儿茶素没食子酸(epicatechin gallate,ECG) 及表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(epigallocatechin gallate,EGCG)等生化成分含量进行分析比较.结果显示:福鼎大白茶鲜叶中儿茶素组分总含量在12.1 mg/g~18.7 mg/g之间,其中样品4 EGCG含量最高,3月份采摘一芽二叶鲜叶儿茶素品质指数最高为15.66,其儿茶素苦涩味指数也是样品中百分比最高的,儿茶素的品质指数与苦涩味指数、氨酚比呈正相关.

  5. Análise farmacognóstica das folhas de Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt., Bignoniaceae Pharmacognostic analysis of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. Leaves, Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sérgio Marques Alves


    Full Text Available Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. é uma Bignoniaceae amplamente utilizada na medicina popular como anti-inflamatório e adstringente, e para várias doenças como cólicas intestinais, diarréias, anemias e enfermidades da pele. Devido as suas propriedades biológicas e a produção de corante a espécie passou a ser utilizada pela indústria cosmética. A utilização de produtos naturais de origem vegetal implica no controle de qualidade farmacobotânico e em ensaios de pureza que compõem as especificações técnicas da espécie. Para isso foi realizada a descrição anatômica das folhas jovens e maduras de A. chica a partir de observações realizadas ao microscópio óptico, a partir de cortes histológicos. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais com mesofilo heterogêneo. No pecíolo, a epiderme é uniestratificada contendo tricomas e dotada de cutícula delgada. Os testes farmacopéicos incluíram a determinação da distribuição granulométrica do pó da planta, determinação do teor de umidade e de cinzas totais, além da abordagem fitoquímica da tintura, visando estabelecer parâmetros para seu controle de qualidade.Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. is a Bignoniaceae widely used in the popular medicine as anti-inflammatory and astringent agent, and for some illnesses as intestinal colic, diarrhoeas, anaemia and diseases of the skin. Its biological properties and dye biosynthesis lead the species to be used in the cosmetic industry. The use of natural products of vegetal origin implies in pharmacognostic quality control and purity assays that compose the technical specifications of the material. Therefore, the anatomical description of mature and young leaves of A. chica was carried through the use of optic microscopy on histological preparations. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. In petiole, the epidermis is unistratified, it contains trachoma and it is endowed

  6. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard. (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard


    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  7. Ficaria verna Huds. extracts and their β-cyclodextrin supramolecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hădărugă Nicoleta G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obtaining new pharmaceutical materials with enhanced properties by using natural compounds and environment-friendly methods is a continuous goal for scientists. Ficaria verna Huds. is a widespread perennial plant with applications in the treat of haemorrhoids and to cure piles; it has also anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antibiotic properties. The goal of the present study is the obtaining and characterization of new F. verna extract/β-cyclodextrin complexes by using only natural compounds, solvents, and environment-friendly methods in order to increase the quality and acceptability versus toxicity indicator. Thus, the flavonoid content (as quercetin of Ficaria verna Huds. flowers and leaves from the West side of Romania was determined and correlated with their antioxidant activity. Further, the possibility of obtaining β-cyclodextrin supramolecular systems was studied. Results F. verna flowers and leaves extracts were obtained by semi-continuous solid-liquid extraction. The raw concentrated extract was spectrophotometrically analyzed in order to quantify the flavonoids from plant parts and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The F. verna extracts were used for obtaining β-cyclodextrin complexes; these were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Karl Fischer water titration; spectrophotometry was used in order to quantifying the flavonoids and evaluates the antioxidant activity. A higher concentration of flavonoids of 0.5% was determined in complexes obtained by crystallisation method, while only a half of this value was calculated for kneading method. The antioxidant activity of these complexes was correlated with the flavonoid content and this parameter reveals possible controlled release properties. Conclusions The flavonoid content of F. verna Huds. from the West side of Romania (Banat county is approximately the same in flowers and leaves, being situated at a medium value among other

  8. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Rosangela de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.

  9. [Description, distribution, anatomy, chemical composition and uses of Mimosa tenuiflora(Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) in Mexico]. (United States)

    Camargo-Ricalde, S L


    Because of some catastrophic events which occurred in Mexico during the 1980 decade, the utilization of "tepescohuite" bark against skin wounds and burns was popularized. The media manipulated the lack of available information about its medical properties and gave erroneous information to the society propagating a lot of myths. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine its taxonomic identity and to study the distribution, bark and wood anatomy of this species, and to determine its actual and historic uses, and the compilation of the information about bark pharmacology and toxicity. Its taxonomic identity is established as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae). It blooms and fructifies from November to June, occurring in Mexico (the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, at altitudes of 0-1110 (-1520) m. In Mexico, it is found in dry forests, thorny thickets, Pinus and Pinus-Quercus forests, and in M. tenuiflora pure thickets, along roads and in resting or abandoned culture lands. This species has an aggregate distribution in the forests and a uniform one in the thickets. It presents a mean density of 9 individuals per m2, with 0.45 of frequency per quadrat and 1.69 m2 of mean coverture, and it has a wide range of tolerance to climatic and edaphic factors, confirming their invasive character. Regionally, the wood is used as fuel and fence construction, and against skin wounds and burns (bark tea, powder and/or ointment), and diverse products, such as shampoos, creams, capsules, soaps, etc., are commercialized. The bark is wrinkled, reddish-brown to grey, fibrous texture, 0.5-1.5 mm thick, resinous and with an astringent odor and flavor, and with a great quantity of tannins. The wood presents extremely short vessel elements, with alternate areolate punctuations, and simple perforated plates, vasicentric axial parenchima, confluent stripes, uniseriated rays, extremely

  10. Research and Application of Multi-Objective Artificial Bee Colony Biclustering in Gene Expression Data%多目标人工蜂群双聚类算法在基因表达数据中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林勤; 薛云; 林斯达; 何明清


    基于多目标优化的双聚类算法能够同时优化均方残差和尺寸等多个相互冲突的目标,更好地挖掘出均方残差较小、尺寸较大的双聚类,提出了一个多目标人工蜂群双聚类算法。该方法首先采用组信息对蜜源进行编码,然后使用2种交叉和1种变异操作分别实现算法的局部搜索和全局搜索,最后根据非劣排序和拥挤距离对外部档案进行修剪。在2套真实的基因表达数据集上进行实验,结果表明:与其他公开算法相比,多目标人工蜂群双聚类算法具有较好的收敛性和种群多样性,同时挖掘出具有显著生物意义的双聚类。%Biclustering algorithms based on multi-objective optimization, which can optimize several objectives sim-ultaneously in conflict with each other, such as the mean squared residue and the size. In order to mine better bi-clusters with lower mean squared residue but larger size, a novel algorithm named Multi-objective Artificial Bee Colony Biclustering is proposed. Firstly, the approach adopts a group based representation for the genes-conditions associations to encode foods, then two different crossovers and a mutation operation are used to realize local search and global search respectively. Consequently, the non-dominated sort and crowding distance are applied to prune external archives. Experiments are performed on two real gene expression datasets, and it is found that compared with competing algorithms, the method has better global astringency and diversity of the population. Besides, it can obtain significantly biological biclusters.

  11. Research on the Deck-Disposed Methods of Shipboard Aircraft Based on GA%基于GA算法的舰载机甲板布列方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保乳; 司维超; 薛建海


    首先,分析了解决舰面布放调度问题的先决条件,包括舰面战位的设置,各战位间距离的测量计算,舰载机正常的出动流程分析,出动时间计算公式的设计;其次,将舰面布放调度问题转换为带有约束条件的多目标函数求最小解问题,并给出了数学模型;再次,给出了利用遗传算法(Genetic Algorithm,GA)对问题求解的解决思路;最后,对算法50次独立运算的结果,分别从平均最短出动时间、平均最短移动距离、标准偏差以及算法的收敛性和精确性等方面进行分析,结果表明GA算法较为适合。%In this paper, the basic conditions of deck-disposed scheduling problem of carrier plane was analyzed, which included battle position setting, distance measurement between gate position and preparative position, natu-ral takeoff flow analysis, takeoff time expressions about different number of carrier plane. Second, the deck-dis-posed scheduling question was changed to multiobjective function with restriction which needed to figure out the minimum solution, and then the mathematical model was given. Third, the GA was used to solve the problem. In the end, the average shortest takeoff time, average shortest moving distance, standard deviation, astringency and accuracy of algorithm about fifty separate operations was analyzed. The results showed that GA was fitter for solving the problem.

  12. Estabilidade da polpa do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. congelada por 12 meses Stability of the bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart. frozen for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virlane Kelly Lima da Silva


    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de realizar o processamento e avaliar a estabilidade da polpa de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. submetida ao congelamento durante 12 meses. Durante o período de armazenamento não ocorreram alterações significativas nas características físico-químicas da polpa quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis, pH, atividade de água, açúcares totais e redutores, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos poliméricos e oligoméricos, pectina total e solúvel e cor L, a* , b*, enquanto que a acidez total e relação SST/AT variaram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os compostos fenólicos dímeros apresentaram aumento em função do tempo. Pelos resultados obtidos, a polpa de bacuri não pode ser considerada uma boa fonte de vitamina C. Por outro lado, apresenta baixos teores de compostos fenólicos caracterizando a polpa como, potencialmente pouco adstringente e com potencial para o processamento. A qualidade microbiológica não foi alterada durante o período de armazenamento. Os resultados apontam a eficiência do congelamento na manutenção das características físico-químicas e microbiológicas da polpa de bacuri.The objective of this work was to process and evaluate the stability of the bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. pulp submitted to freezing for 12 months. During the storage period there were significant changes in the physiochemical characteristics of the pulp as for the content of total soluble solids, pH, water activity, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, polimer and oligomeric phenolic compounds , total and soluble pectin and color L, the a*, b *,while total acidity and soluble solids varied with the storange period. The dimers phenolic compounds incresead with the time. According to the results, the bacuri pulp cannot be considered a good source of vitamin C, but it presents low contents of phenolic compounds characterizing the pulp as little astringent, thus showing potential for the processing

  13. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory profile of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi


    artificial orange than the control. Irradiation levels affected texture characteristics as body and astringency, homogeneity attribute was not affected. Color and gummy of control sample intensified with the increase of storage periods. Results lead juice irradiation promoted negatively on sensorial characteristic.

  14. Atividade vasodilatadora in vitro de espécies de Ouratea (Ochnaceae e de frações de Ouratea Semiserrata (Mart. Engl. In vitro vasodilator activity of Ouratea (Ochnaceae species and fractions from Ouratea semiserrata (Mart. engl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ydia Mariele Valadares


    Full Text Available Diversas espécies de Ouratea ocorrem no cerrado, sendo utilizadas popularmente como tônico, adstringente e antiinflamatório. No presente trabalho, os extratos hidroetanólicos de O. castanaefolia, O. spectabilis e O. semiserrata foram avaliados para atividade vasodilatadora em anéis de aorta pré-contraídos com fenilefrina. Apenas o extrato de caules de O. semiserrata (OS produziu vasodilatação significativa (63 ± 3 %, n = 6, na concentração de 100 mg/mL. O fracionamento biomonitorado de OS resultou em uma fração enriquecida em proantocinanidinas, que produziu 100 ± 5 % de vasodilatação (n = 6, na concentração de 100 mg/mL. Os teores totais de proantocianidinas foram determinados para OS e para as frações bioativas, por espectroscopia no visível. Maiores teores de proantocianidinas implicaram aumento da atividade vasodilatadora (r² = 0,9760, sugerindo que compostos desta classe devem ser responsáveis pela atividade do extrato de caules de O. semiserrata.Ouratea species occur in the cerrado vegetation and some species are popularly used as tonic, astringent and anti-inflammatory. In the present work, we assayed the vasodilator effects of O. castanaefolia, O. spectabilisand O. semiserrata hydroethanolic extracts in aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Only O. semiserrata stem extract (OS produced significant vasodilatation (63 ± 3 %, n = 6, at the concentration of 100 mg/ml. Bioguided fractionation of OS afforded a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction that produced 100 ± 5 % vasodilatation (n = 6; concentration of 100 mg/ml. The total proanthocyanidin contents were assayed for OS and for the bioactive fractions using a spectroscopic method. Higher proanthocyanidin contents implied in increased vasodilator activity (r² = 0.9760, suggesting that compounds of this class may be regarded as responsible for the activity of O. semiserrata stem extract.

  15. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam J.; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Lan; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan


    Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency, which are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenols (TP) and low levels of amino acids (AA) in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) of EBR increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration (0.5 ppm) caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential

  16. 水仙乌龙茶膨化前后滋味和香气成分分析%Analysis of the Taste and Aroma Components in Shuixian Oolong Tea Before and After Extruding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦娇; 杜冰; 陈金明; 夏雨; 李燕杰; 杨公明


    采用膨化工艺对水仙乌龙茶进行处理,分析膨化前后茶叶的香气和滋味成分的变化。结果表明:茶叶膨化后滋味成分中的水浸出物、灰分、咖啡碱与茶多酚的含量有所降低,而碳水化合物含量则有所提高。膨化后茶叶滋味成分的改变影响茶汤的滋味,咖啡碱和茶多酚的减少,使膨化后茶汤苦味和涩味变淡,而碳水化合物增加,使茶汤显得更加甘醇。茶叶膨化后,香型发生一定转变,原乌龙茶的特征成分吲哚、苯乙腈含量比例减少,橙花叔醇未检出,而热裂解产物吡嗪类、吡咯类化合物增加明显,使膨化茶叶呈现出类咖啡焦香味。%In this paper,the Shuixian Oolong tea was processed by extruding technique.The aroma and taste components in the Shuixian Oolong tea before and after extruding processing were analyzed.The results were summarized as follows: compared with the original tea,the contents of taste components such as the water soluble substance,ash and tea polyphenol in extruded tea were reduced,while the content of carbohydrate increased.The flavor of tea was affected by the changes of the components.The decrease of caffeine and tea polyphenol reduced a little of bitter and astringent taste in the extruded tea.While the increase of carbohydrates gave the extruded tea taste mellower.After extruding,the aroma feature had some changes.The characteristic ingredients of Oolong tea such as indole,benzylcyanide were reduced.And nerolidol was undetected.The pyrolysates such as pyrazines,pyrroles increased significantly because of the heat.This brought a coffee flavor to the extruded tea.Extruding processing provided a new way for the use of Shuixian Oolong tea.

  17. Effect of curd washing on the properties of reduced-calcium and standard-calcium Cheddar cheese. (United States)

    Hou, Jia; McSweeney, Paul L H; Beresford, Thomas P; Guinee, Timothy P


    Washed (W) and nonwashed (NW) variants of standard (SCa) and reduced-calcium (RCa) Cheddar cheeses were made in triplicate, ripened for a 270-d period, and analyzed for composition and changes during maturation. Curd washing was applied to cheeses to give a target level of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture of 3.9 g/100 g in the W cheese, compared with a value of 5.3 g/100 g of lactose plus lactic acid in cheese moisture in the control NW cheeses. The 4 cheese types were denoted standard calcium nonwashed (SCaNW), standard calcium washed (SCaW), reduced-calcium nonwashed (RCaNW), and reduced-calcium washed (RCaW). The mean calcium level was 760 mg/100 g in the SCaNW and SCaW and 660 mg/100 g in the RCaNW and RCaW cheeses. Otherwise the gross composition of all cheeses was similar, each with protein, fat, and moisture levels of ~26, 32, and 36 g/100 g, respectively. Curd washing significantly reduced the mean level of lactic acid in the SCaW cheese and residual lactose in both SCaW and RCaW cheeses. The mean pH of the standard-calcium cheese over the 270-d ripening period increased significantly with curd washing and ripening time, in contrast to the reduced-calcium cheese, which was not affected by the latter parameters. Otherwise curd washing had little effect on changes in populations of starter bacteria or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria, proteolysis, rheology, or color of the cheese during ripening. Descriptive sensory analysis at 270 d indicated that the SCaW cheese had a nuttier, sweeter, less fruity, and less rancid taste than the corresponding SCaNW cheese. In contrast, curd washing was not as effective in discriminating between the RCaW and RCaNW cheeses. The RCaW cheese had a more buttery, caramel odor and flavor, and a more bitter, less sweet, and nutty taste than the SCaW cheese, whereas the RCaNW had a more pungent and less fruity flavor, a less fruity odor, a saltier, more-bitter, and less acidic taste, and a more astringent mouthfeel than

  18. 有机种植方式对烟叶产量和内在品质的影响%Effect of Organic Cultivation on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖金成; 赵剑华; 戴勋; 胡保文; 郑武; 张晓龙; 邓国宾


    对K326、KRK26、红花大金元3个烤烟品种开展有机和常规种植,研究有机种植方式对烤后烟叶内在品质及工业可用性的影响.结果表明:与常规种植相比,烤烟有机种植产量显著下降(P<0.01),平均减产17.7%,均价平均提高25.6%,上等烟比例平均提高19.2%,中上等烟比例平均提高9.8%,产值变化规律不明显;烟叶总糖(TS)、还原糖(RS)含量极显著增加(P<0.01),烟碱(NIC)、总氮(TN)、钾(K)含量及主要中性致香物质、总致香产物含量显著降低(P<0.05).评吸结果表明,有机烟叶烟气醇和度、燃烧性稍差,香气量略显不足,但烟气舒适性较好,香气质细腻,烟碱含量适中,刺激性较小,其工业可用性整体优于常规烟叶.%Effect of organic cultivation on the quality and commercial value of the flue-cured tobacco varieties, K326, KRK26 and HD, was studied. As compared with the conventional method, the organic cultivation caused significant tobacco yield decline (P<0. 01) with an average reduction of 17.7%. On the other hand, its average market price increased 25. 6%. The proportion of high-grade tobacco increased 19. 2%, the proportion of medium-grade tobacco increased 9. 8%, and the production value was not significantly different. The contents of TS and RS increased significantly (P<0. 01); NIC, TN, K+ , main neutral aroma substances and total aroma substances decreased very significantly (P<0. 01) or significantly (P<0. 05). Sensory evaluation on the tobacco samples indicated that the organic tobacco leaves gave slight more alcoholic scent, slightly lower combustibility, less fragrant but more pleasant and delicate aroma, and less astringent nicotine flavor than its conventional counterpart, suggesting a possible somewhat superior commercial value.

  19. Effects of 1-MCP and Film Packaging Treatments on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Mopan Persimmons%1-MCP和薄膜包装对磨盘柿采后生理及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 李江阔; 孟宪军; 张平


    In order to seek an effective deastringency and crispness-keeping technique for astringent persimmons, the effects of different 1-MCP concentration, polyvinylhloride( PVC) and vacuum packaging methods on physiology and storage of Mopan persimmons under ambient temperature were investigated. Results showed that 1-MCP combined with individual vacuum packaging effectively inhibited the decline of fruit firmness, the increase of ethylene production and respiration intensity, malondialdehyde ( MDA) content and peel tissue relative conductance, prevented the evaporation of fruit moisture during storage, promoted the change of the soluble tannin content to insoluble tannin content and prolonged ambient shelf life time to 14 d. Therefore, 0. 5 to 1. 0 μL/L 1-MCP of combined with individual vacuum packaging was a suitable treatment method for Mopan persimmons.%为寻求一种有效的涩柿脱涩保脆集成技术,对不同浓度1-MCP处理的磨盘柿采用PVC袋自发气调包装和真空包装两种方式,在室温条件下果实的生理变化规律及脱涩保脆效果进行了研究.试验表明:1-MCP结合单果真空包装处理有效抑制了柿果实硬度的下降、乙烯生成量和呼吸强度的增加、果实丙二醛(MDA)和果皮组织相对电导率的升高,防止贮藏期间果实水分的散失,促进果实可溶性单宁向不可溶性单宁的转化,可使磨盘柿常温货架寿命延长14 d.0.5~1.0μL/L 1-MCP结合单果真空包装是较为理想的处理方式.

  20. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David


    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at 25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo BENASSI


    differentiated mainly by taste attributes (acid, "astringent", alcoholic, sweet and fruity, correlated with dimension 1 (25% of variance, and one appearance attribute (yellow color, associated with dimension 2 (9% of variance.

  2. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids in Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li


    Full Text Available Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency that are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenol (TP and low levels of amino acids (AA in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration of EBR (0.5 ppm caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate (GOGAT enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential implication

  3. Study On The Traditional Chinese Medicine Of Cor Pulmonale%肺心病缓解期的中药运用规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏正平; 胡学军; 谭光波; 王帅; 甘荣; 柏莹


    目的:通过文献研究,探讨肺心痛缓解期的中药运用规律;方法:检索国内近15年( 1996 -2010)现有中医及中西医结合期刊杂志肺心痛缓解期研究的有关报道,对本病处方用药方法进行分析、总结,提炼整理出本病的中药运用规律;结果:在符合纳入标准的151首方剂中,涉及中药85味,运用频次最高的药物分别是补气药(频率22.6%)、止咳化痰药(频率为17.4%)、活血化瘀药(频率12.1%),其次为利水渗湿药、清热药、补血药、解表药、补阳药、理气药、收涩药等.结论:近代临床医师在肺心痛缓解期的中药运用中,以补虚为主,泻实为次,注重益气温(补)阳、活血化瘀、化痰降浊三法的综合运用,注重调理和改善肺、脾、肾三脏功能.%Objective: Analyzes the traditional Chinese medicine of cor pulmonale through the literature research. Method: Search clinical reports about cor pulmonale in TCM or Chinese and Western integration domestic literatures from 1996 to 2010, statistics the law of the traditional Chinese medicines of cor pulmonale. Result: There are 85 traditional Chinese medicines in the 151 Qualified TCM Prescriptions. The highest used frequencies of of the traditional Chinese medicines are qi invigorating drugs (22.6% ), Antitussive and Phlegm drugs (17.4% ), Blood - activating and Stasis -eliminating Drugs(12.1% ) ,the next drugs are damp - draining diuretic, heat - clearing drugs, blood - tonifying drugs, exterior — releasing drugs, yang — tonifying drugs, qi - regulating drugs, astringent drugs. Conclusion: Tonifying and replenishing medicine is more import than reducing excessiveness medicine in traditional Chinese medicine to Cor Pulmonale. We should pay attention to the comprehensive application of invigorating qi and wanning yang, activating blood and resolving stasis, resolving phlegm and lowering chaotic. Conditioning the lungs,the spleen and the kidney.

  4. Antioxidant capacity of the leaf extract obtained from Arrabidaea chica cultivated in Southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Tiemy Guinoza Siraichi

    Full Text Available Arrabidaea chica leaf extract has been used by people as an anti-inflammatory and astringent agent as well as a remedy for intestinal colic, diarrhea, leucorrhea, anemia, and leukemia. A. chica is known to be a good producer of phenolics. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated its antioxidant activity. The phenolic composition of A. chica leaves was studied by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC-DAD and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS, and isoscutellarein, 6-hydroxyluteolin, hispidulin, scutellarein, luteolin, and apigenin were identified. The extract from leaves of A. chica was tested for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, β-carotene bleaching test, and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP method. The crude extract quenched DPPH free radicals in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 of the extract was 13.51 µg/mL. The β-carotene bleaching test showed that the addition of the A. chica extract in different concentrations (200 and 500 µg/mL prevented the bleaching of β-carotene at different degrees (51.2% ±3.38% and 94% ±4.61%, respectively. The TRAP test showed dose-dependent correlation between the increasing concentrations of A. chica extract (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 µg/mL and the TRAP values obtained by trolox (hydro-soluble vitamin E 0.4738±0.0466, 1.981±0.1603, and 6.877±1.445 µM, respectively. The 2 main flavonoids, scutellarein and apigenin, were separated, and their antioxidant activity was found to be the same as that of the plant extract. These 2 flavonoids were quantified in the plant extract by using a validated HPLC-UV method. The results of these tests showed that the extract of A. chica had a significant antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the presence of the mixture of flavonoids in the plant extract, with the main contribution of scutellarein and apigenin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Tenguria et al


    Full Text Available Plant polyphenols have been studied largely because of the possibility that they might underlie the protective effects afforded by fruit and vegetable intake against cancer and other chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to estimate the total polyphenolic content in aqueous and methanolic extract prepared from the bark of Acacia nilotica plant species. Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex Del commonly known as babul, kikar or Indian gum Arabic tree, has been recognized worldwide as a multipurpose tree. Mostly it occurs as an isolated tree and rarely found in patches to a limited extent in forests and has been widely planted on farms throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent. The bark, root, gum, leaves and flowers have found use for skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, diabetes, eczema, wound healing, burning sensation and as an astringent, demulcent, anti-asthmatic. For present work the bark of well identified A. nilotica (L plant for the extraction of phytochemicals was done from the village Khargawali (Hoshangabad district. 20-20 grams of the fine powdered sample were subjected to soxhlet extraction with 200 ml distilled water and 40% methanol separately at 70oC and 50oC respectively, for 24 hours and concentrated. The percentage yield so obtained was 35 and 32.5% respectively. The extracts were then subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening of alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides the results of which refers to data given in this article. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method with suitable modification. When compared with the gallic acid standard curve the aqueous extract of 0.01 mg/ml dilution contains 0.323 mg/ml approx of total polyphenol content and that of the methanolic extract of the same concentration shows 0.422 mg/ml approx concentration of TPC. Thus from the present study it can be concluded that the aqueous and

  6. 闽南乌龙茶烘焙的研究进展%The research advance of baking process in Minnan Oolong tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 孙威江


    With fierce competition, the sale of Fen-flavor Oolong tea ran to difficulty. The manufacturing of high-aroma Oolong tea becomes popular in Minnan district. The roasting process plays a critical role in shaping of flavor and improvements of tea quality. The black brown color of leaves developed from browning reactions during roasting process; baking odors came from browning reactions while the flower and fruit smell preserved and promoted in baking process; isomerizations of tea polyphenol compounds reduced the bitter and astringency taste, sugars added the sweet taste by means of decomposition and participation of browning reactions. The study on improvements of the leaf color, smell and taste of Oolong tea were reviewed in this paper, aroma and flavor substances were summarized, with the anticipation of the possible contribution to prove its chemical mechanism and provide theoretical basis and reference for further studies.%激烈市场环境下,闽南清香型乌龙茶销售陷入困境,浓香型乌龙茶开始回归,“清转浓”正如火如荼地进行。烘焙是形成浓香型乌龙茶风味的关键工艺,具有提升茶叶品质的重要作用。烘焙型茶叶通过褐化反应形成乌润色泽;烘烤香由褐化反应产生,焙火前已形成的花果香在烘焙中得以保留和提升;多酚类物质异构化减少茶汤苦涩味,糖类物质通过分解、参与褐化反应的方式增加甜醇滋味。本文对焙火提高乌龙茶色、香、味等方面品质的研究进行了综述,总结了已发现的呈香、呈味物质,为探索烘焙对茶叶品质形成的化学机制提供理论依据和参考。

  7. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  8. Estudio de genotoxicidad de Picrasma crenata (Vell. Engl. -Simaroubaceae- Genotoxicity study on Picrasma crenata (Vell. Engl.-Simaroubaceae-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. Roldán


    Full Text Available En la medicina popular se utiliza el leño de Picrasma crenata en infusión como pediculicida y como tónico amargo no astringente. Los principios activos responsables de la actividad son los quasinoides. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: determinar la actividad de las infusiones sobre el desarrollo de raíces y la división celular mediante el Test de Allium cepa; analizar la correlación de las concentraciones y los parámetros macro y microscópicos e interpretar la posible genotoxicidad de la infusión. Las concentraciones empleadas fueron 2,5 mg%; 5,0 mg%, 10,0 mg%, 20,0 mg% y 40,0 mg%. Se observó una correlación estadísticamente significativa de las concentraciones con las longitudes de las raíces y las anomalías macroscópicas; además, una correlación significativa de los índices mitóticos con las longitudes de las raíces y las anomalías microscópicas. Así, se puede inferir que los extractos en las concentraciones ensayadas podrían presentar actividad genotóxica.Infusions of Picrasma crenata woods are used in folk medicine against lice and as a non astringent bitter tonic. The active principles responsible for the activity are the quasinoides. The objectives of this work are: to establish the activity of the infusions on the development by roots and the cellular division by means of the Test of Allium cepa; to analyze the correlation of the concentrations with macro and microscopic parameters and to conclude about the possible genotoxicity of the infusion. The used concentrations were 2.5 mg%; 5,0 mg%, 10,0 mg%, 20,0 mg% and 40,0 mg%. A statistically significant correlation between the concentrations and the roots lengths and macroscopic aberrations and a significant correlation between the mitotic index and the roots lengths and microscopic aberrations have been observed. Thus, it is possible to deduce that the extracts in the tested concentrations could present genotoxic activity.

  9. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .


    , intensity of after taste and preference, than the recent harvest and two years stored coffee. recent harvest had higher body, bitterness, and astringency, than that of one and two years stored coffee. The main off-flavor of recent harvest coffee was green and grassy, the one year stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy, and sour, while the two years stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy and moldy. The flavor change in the first year was higher than in the second year storage. The varieties, that had lowest change on flavor during storage, were BP 416 A, AS 1, P 88, BP 432 A and S 795. Key words: Coffee, Arabica, variety, clone, storage, quality, flavor, color.

  10. Clinical investigation, the etiology and pathogenesis of chronic superficial gastritis%慢性浅表性胃炎临床症状调查与病因病机分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴桥; 宋立明; 尚志刚; 王双印; 崔会茹


    目的:调查慢性浅表性胃炎中医症状分布规律,探讨其病因病机。方法:采用流行病学的调查方法,首先根据文献确定观察的证候和症状,然后设计统一表格进行。结果:441例慢性浅表性胃炎中医症状的出现频率前6位依次为舌苔黄腻420次(95.23%),脉沉涩399次(90.47%),舌暗357次(80.95%),胃脘近心窝处疼痛336次(76.19%),胃脘胀满335次(75.76%),呃逆气上冲胸胁315次(71.42%)。症状群平均评分依次为胃中湿热象391.94分,胃气上逆象445.8分,胃络瘀阻象482.33分,其他症状193.71分,前3者之间仍然没有显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论:湿热成为慢性浅表性胃炎的主要病因,胃络瘀阻和胃气上逆,成为慢性浅表性胃炎的主要病机。%Objective:To investigate the clinical symptoms distribution of chronic superficial gastritis. Methods:Design a unified tables based on Epidemiological survey method. Results: The frequency of 441 cases of chronic superficial gastritis before clinical symptoms were six yellow greasy tongue 420 times (95.23%), pulse astringent 399 times (90.47%), dark tongue 357 times (80.95%), epigastric chest pain at nearly 336 times (76.19%), epigastric fullness 335 times (75.76%), red chest 315 times (71.42%) on the gas hiccups. Conclusion:Shire becomes chronic superficial gastritis main cause;Weiluo Yuzu and Weiqi Shangni become main pathogenesis of chronic superficial gastritis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria A.B. CARDELLO


    mangas, exceto acidez e adstringência.The chemical and biochemical composition of mango, varies according to the cultivation conditions, variety and maturation state, generally containing a high level of ascorbic acid. In order to establish the correlation between the activity of the ascorbate oxidase [E.C.], and ascorbic acid level in the ripening process of the Haden mango (Mangífera índica L., sample of the fruits related to hard green stage (zero, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days stored at 20 ± 2oC, were tested. The samples were obtained by cutting small cubes of 8 cm3 from pulps of 8 mangoes with texture without significant difference (p£0.05 at Magness-Taylor pressure tester scale. In each sample the activity of ascorbate oxidase was followed, in order to check its participation in possible substrate losses during the ripening fruits. The ascorbic acid level and sensory profile also was determined periodically during the ripening period. The enzymatic activity was spectrophotometrically determined at 245 nm and 30oC. The ascorbic acid was analyzed according modified AOAC methodology, and sensory analysis by descriptive quantitative analysis. Data were analyzed using correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey's test, principal component analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis. During the ripening, the ascorbate oxidase activity increased (from 0 to 5.0 x 10-1 U/ml and the ascorbic acid level decreased (from 209.3 mg to 110.0 mg per 100g of pulp, showing a significant (p£0.05 inverse linear correlation (r=-0.98. The descriptors terms for mangoes were: characteristic flavor, characteristic aroma, sourness, astringency, yellow coloration of pulp, sweetness and succulence. The sensory profile presented significant improvement during ripening. All sensory attributes increased significantly (p£0.05 except sourness and astringency, wich decreased during the ripening of mangoes.

  12. Concentrações de cera de carnaúba na qualidade de pêssegos cv. Esmeralda armazenados sob refrigeração = Concentrations of carnauba wax on the quality of cv. Esmeralda peaches after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim


    wax. ‘Esmeralda’ peaches showed small firmness in the treatments with 75% and 100% of wax. Fruits treated with wax with 50%, 75% and 100% showed small percentage of rottenness. The sensorial evaluation showedthat acidity and astringency in fruits treated with wax decreased. The utilization of 50% wax, associated with cold storage, reduced weight loss and rottenness, maintaining the pulp firmness. Thus, it is possible to store peaches cv. Esmeralda during 30 days at 0ºC and four days at 8ºC.

  13. Theoretical Analysis on Nature of Fixed and Itinerant Effects in Chinese Materia Medica%中药走守药性的理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦乃球; 邓家刚; 冼寒梅; 韦建信


    中药药性理论是祖国医药理论体系中的重要组成部分,是中国历代医家在长期的医疗实践中,以阴阳、五行、脏腑、经络、治则等中医理论为基础,根据药物的性质特征及患者用药之后的反应而高度概括的一种理性认识.自古以来,中药药性理论一直指导着中医临床的准确辨证施药,对中华民族的医疗保健和繁衍生息有着不可磨灭的贡献.中药药性理论是学习、研究、运用中药所必须掌握的基本理论知识,其概念内涵包括四气、五味、归经、升降浮沉、毒性、补泻、润燥、滑涩、刚柔、走守、峻缓等内容.可见,以走守概括中药的作用特征,亦是中药药性理论的组成内容之一.虽然历代医家对中药走守药性的论述尚显凌乱,但该药性对于阐释药物作用机理以及临床选药、配伍组方的指导意义却不容忽视.%Theory of Chinese materia medica (CMM) nature was an important part in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theoretical system. During the long term practice, based on TCM theories of yin and yang, five elements, zang-fu, meridian and treatment principle, herbal features and patients' reactions were highly summarized into recognition and understanding. Since ancient time, theory of CMM nature has always guided the accurate syndrome differentiation and medication in TCM clinical practice. It contributed to the healthcare and reproduction of Chinese people. Theory of CMM nature is the basic theoretical knowledge which must be mastered in the study and research. Its concepts contained four-qi, five tastes, channel tropism, ascending and descending, toxicity, tonification and reducing, moisture and dryness, smooth and astringent, softness and hardness, fixed and itinerant effect, strong and mild. Using fixed and itinerant effects in the summarization of CMM function is one of the components in CMM nature theories. Although discussions on this theory from practitioners

  14. Enraizamento de estacas de Trichilia catigua A. Juss (catigua em diferentes estações do ano Rooting of Trichilia catigua A. Juss (catigua stem cuttings in different seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Valmorbida


    Full Text Available Pertencente à família Meliaceae, Trichilia catigua A. Juss possui casca com propriedades adstringente, inseticida, purgativa, tônica, bactericida, antiinflamatória e antidepressiva. Este estudo objetivou enraizar estacas de ramos lenhosos da espécie em diferentes estações do ano. Para tal, estacas com aproximadamente 15 cm de comprimento, coletadas de árvores adultas, foram preparadas da parte apical e mediana dos ramos e submetidas aos reguladores vegetais AIB (ácido indolbutírico, ANA (ácido naftalenoacético e AIA (ácido 3-indolacético. Determinaram-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas e mortas e, quando enraizadas, seu comprimento e diâmetro. Na primavera de 2004, as estacas foram submetidas às concentrações de 1.000 e 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB, ANA e AIA e avaliadas aos 90 dias. As maiores porcentagens de enraizamento foram iguais a 33,33; 25,00; 22,91; e 23,43%, respectivamente com AIB 1.000, 2.000 mg L-1 e ANA 1.000 e 2.000 mg L-1. No verão, outono, inverno e primavera de 2005 os experimentos foram conduzidos com AIB, ANA e AIA nas concentrações de 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 mg L-1, sendo as avaliações realizadas aos 120 dias. A maior porcentagem de enraizamento, igual a 19,17%, foi obtida com AIB 3.000 mg L-1. Na primavera de 2006 foram testadas as doses iguais a 1.000, 2.000, 3.000, 4.000 e 5.000 mg L-1 de AIB e 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 mg L-1 de ANA. A maior porcentagem de enraizamento, 41,67%, foi obtida com a utilização de 5.000 mg L-1 de AIB.Trichilia catigua A. Juss contains substances with astringent, insecticidal, purgative, tonic, bactericidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-depressive properties in its barks. This study aimed at rooting of hardwood cuttings of this species in different seasons. Stem cuttings -about 15 cm long- were collected from adult trees and were prepared from the apical and medial part of the branches. The cuttings were treated with the plant regulators AIB (indole-3-butyric acid, NAA (naphthalene

  15. 基于混沌多目标粒子群优化算法的云服务选择%Cloud Service Selection Based on Chaotic Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 卫波; 王晋东; 张恒巍


    随着云计算环境中各种服务数量的急剧增长,如何从功能相同或相似的云服务中选择满足用户需求的服务成为云计算研究中亟待解决的关键问题。为此,建立带服务质量约束的多目标服务组合优化模型,针对传统多目标粒子群优化(MOPSO)算法中解的多样性差、易陷入局部最优等缺点,设计基于混沌多目标粒子群优化(CMOPSO)算法的云服务选择方法。采用信息熵理论来维护非支配解集,以保持解的多样性和分布的均匀性。当种群多样性丢失时,引入混沌扰动机制,以提高种群多样性和算法全局寻优能力,避免陷入局部最优。实验结果表明,与MOPSO算法相比,CMOPSO算法的收敛性和解集多样性均得到改善,能够更好地解决云计算环境下服务动态选择问题。%With the explosive number growth of services in cloud computing environment, how to select the services that can meet user’s requirement from the services which have same or similar function becomes the key problem to be resolved in cloud computing. So a multi-objective service composition optimization model with Quality of Service(QoS) restriction is built, and since some disadvantages of the traditional Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization(MOPSO) algorithm, such as less diversity of solutions and falling into local extremum easily, a method of Chaotic MOPSO(CMOPSO) algorithm is proposed. This algorithm uses the information entropy theory to maintain non-dominated solution set so as to retain the diversity of solution and the uniformity of distribution. When the diversity of population disappears, it introduces chaotic disturbance mechanism to improve the diversity of population and the ability of global optimization algorithm to avoid falling into local extremum. Experimental result shows that the astringency and the diversity of solution set of CMOPSO algorithm are better than traditional MOPSO algorithm, and

  16. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milella Rosa Anna


    Full Text Available In plant foods are naturally present some bioactive compounds, that are compounds having or not nutritional value and with biological activity that is expressed in reducing the risk of developing many chronic diseases, therefore leading a key protective effect on our health. Within this group of compounds the antioxidants are included. The importance of antioxidants contained in food is associated with their ability to exert in vivo, in the human body, beneficial effects against chronical- degenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress and age. It has been attributed a positive role to grape polyphenols in terms of increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses, thanks to regulation of genes coding for key enzymes of antioxidant system. For the polyphenols it has also been recognized a specific action of tumor growth inhibition, linked to the modulation of enzymes involved in carcinogenesis or to the inhibition of growth factors and cell proliferation activation. After carbohydrates and acids, the phenolic compounds represent the largest group among grape constituents. The synthesis of these secondary metabolites takes place in two distinct phases of vine growth cycle: fruit set and maturation. The polyphenolic composition contributes to grapes and wine sensory properties, such as color, flavor, astringency, and determines the antioxidant capacity of the extract. These metabolites are mainly related to the variety and their content is influenced by climatic and environmental factors. Among the polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxicinnamiltartaric acids, flavonols, flavans, stilbene and resveratrol are of particular interest. Despite numerous studies in the vine-wine industry on polyphenols quantification and qualification, we don't know much about the environmental conditions that affect their synthesis in grapes and how they are extracted from it in wine production. Therefore, the aim of this work has been the study of antioxidant property and

  17. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da


    brown, in addition to lacking been accepted sensorially. Further, eight combinations have been studied among acidification (pH<4.0), pasteurization (85 degree C/5 min.) and storage at 6 degree C and -18 degree C for 60 days with biweekly tests. The pasteurized and acidified pulp was that best maintained the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and the freezing storage was the variable of the better result. The evaluation of quality pulp dehydrated by freeze and spray drying, packaged in bags of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene-coated aluminum layer (PA) for 120 days at room temperature and protected from light, revealed that both processes conferred physicochemical quality satisfactory and conservation during storage, the packaging PA is the most suitable due to lower absorption of moisture and prevention of oxidation. Sensorially, as reconstituted juice and added to sugar and banana nanica, jucara pulp freeze dried was the more accepted. For the QDA have been trained team for the evaluation of frozen and post packaging pasteurized samples (85 degree C/5 min.) stored under refrigeration and freezing, in order to obtain the sensory profile of each. The frozen pasteurized pulp presented the best sensory characteristics, being described as aerated, slightly heterogeneous, taste slightly bitter and slightly astringent. (author)

  18. Seismic wave field simulation of several typical geological models%几种典型地质模型的地震波场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佼; 张智; 董超; 陈立波; ; 李飞


    Stability condition and astringency of difference equation,the elimination of dispersion are important in seismic wave numerical modeling.From the factors in modeling result,based on two-dimensional acoustic wave equation,the seismic wave numerical modeling is shown by finite difference method with two-order ab-sorbing boundary condition in the wave-field of heterogeneous media and inhomogeneous media.By theory cal-culation and finite difference wave equation numerical modeling in the heterogeneous model,the strata model, the fault model and the anticline model,this method can achieve ideal results if the parameters are reasonable. Through the finite difference method,the wave equation is derived by Taylor series,which makes inherent errors in scattering the wave equation.The low-order difference method may increase the numerical dispersion,and vice versa,the high-order difference method leads to small errors and exact solutions.Meanwhile,larger spatial sampling interval and sampling time interval are better in the calculation rate,but may decrease the correspond-ing numerical dispersion.So consideration must be given to both the accuracy and speed in the finite difference wave equation numerical modeling.%在地震波场数值模拟中,边界条件的选取、差分方程的稳定性条件和收敛性以及频散的消除对于模拟质量至关重要。在综合考虑这些影响因素的基础上,对二维声波方程采用有限差分方法,利用二阶吸收边界条件,模拟了均匀模型、层状模型、断层模型、背斜模型等几种典型介质模型的地震波场。模拟结果揭示了参数的选取对模拟精度的影响程度。通过泰勒级数展开推导得到有限差分波动方程,造成离散的波动方程固有误差的存在。差分阶数越低,频散越严重;相反,有限差分的误差就越小,就越接近于精确解;此外,空间和时间采样间隔越大,会加快计算速度,同时可能会产

  19. Total polyphenols and bioactivity of seeds and sprouts in several legumes. (United States)

    Chon, Sang-Uk


    Seeds and sprouts from legume crop plants have received attention as functional foods, because of their nutritive values including amino acid, fiber, trace elements, vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Consumption of seeds and sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. The seeds and sprouts are excellent examples of functional food defined as lowering the risk of various diseases and/or exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value. Phenolic compounds are considered as secondary metabolites that are synthesized by plants during normal development and in response to stress conditions, and the compounds occur ubiquitously in plants as the diversified group of phytochemicals derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Plant phenolics include simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, lignans, and lignins. In plant, phenolics may act as phytoalexins, antifeedants, attractants for pollinators, contributors to the plant pigmentation, antioxidants, and protective agents against UV light, among others. In food, phenolics may contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, odor, and oxidative stability of products. In addition, health-protecting capacity of some and antinutritional properties of other plant phenolics are of great importance to producers, processors and consumers. Several researches were conducted to compare the content of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme activity from seeds and sprouts of legume plants. Total phenolics (TP) content and total flavonoids (TF) level were highest in soybean sprout extracts, followed by cowpea and mungbean sprout extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was higher in cowpea or mungbean sprouts than in soybean sprouts. Among antioxidant enzymes

  20. Clinical Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine External Treatment Combined with Nano Silver Antibacterial Medical Dressings Applied to Mixed Hemorrhoid after Operation%中药外敷结合纳米银医用抗菌敷料改善混合痔术后创面的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓业巍; 王华胜; 张胜威


    Objective:To explore the clinical effects of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment with Nano silver antibacterial medical dressings on the reduction of wound exudate and the ease of injured area post-operation of mixed hemorrhoid.Metheds:136 patients within the outer shell pierced after surgery were randomly divided into two groups.The treatment group(68 cases) was given Nano silver antibacterial medical dressings,while the control group(68 cases) was given Vaseline oil sands.Both groups were given traditional Chinese medicine external treatment with clearing heat and promoting diurests,promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis,astringency and hemostasis(Composion:Alum 20 g,glauber's salt 15 g,gallnut 25 g,pepper 15 g,plantain seed 15 g,argyi 30 g,radix angelicae 15 g,sophora flavescens 15 g,rhizoma 6 g).Postoperative patients wound exudate and pain of the wound were observed.Results:Compared the two groups,the treatment group was superior to the control group after the treatment of the first,second,third day(P <0.05).Compared with control group,treatment group wound exudation significantly reduced,shorten healing time,reduce pain apparently,and the difference had statistical significance (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Nano silver dressing can reduce mixed hemorrhoid postoperative wound exudation,promote wound healing,reduce wound pain,which combined with the Chinese medicine external treatment is better.%目的:探讨中药外敷与纳米银医用敷料对混合痔术后创面的渗出减少及创面减轻的临床疗效.方法:选择136例混合痔患者均行外剥内扎术后,按随机数字表单盲法随机分为两组,治疗组68例采用纳米银敷料,对照组68例采用凡士林油沙,两组均采用清热利湿、活血化瘀、收敛止血的中药外敷(方药组成:白矾20 g,芒硝15 g,五倍子25 g,花椒15 g,车前子15 g,艾叶30 g,白芷15 g,苦参15 g,升麻6 g).观察术后患者创面渗出及疼痛情况.结果:治疗后第1

  1. 穴位注射联合中药颗料外洗治疗手部湿疹疗效观察%Efficacy observation of point injection combined Chinese medicine granule washing treatment of hand eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    the control group (P<0.05).ConclusionPoint injection combined Chinese medicine granule washing treatment of hand eczema can improve clinical symptoms by the protection, soothing, astringent, anti-allergy that promote the improvement of clinical efficacy.

  2. Study on the Technology of Fermentation with Acid-resistant Saccharomyces sake A%耐酸性清酒酵母A发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋军; 吴天祥; 李运华


    [目的]为生产优质清酒奠定理论基础.[方法]以优质粳米为原料,在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验法研究耐酸性清酒酵母A的发酵规律.[结果]水料比为1~2时,清酒酒精度较高.水料比为0.5时,发酵醪的糖浓度和渗透压较高.水料比为3时,发酵醪的淀粉浓度降低,清酒酒精度低.酒母量为20%时,利于清酒双边发酵,清酒的可溶物含量约为11%.米曲量为30%~50%时,清酒色度低,苦涩味轻.乳酸添加量为8‰~12‰时,发酵结束后米曲中糖化酶的活力约为290 mg/(g·h).乳酸量超过12‰时,酶活力下降比较快,清酒有异杂味感.15 ℃下发酵21 d的清酒酒精度达17.1% (V/V),淀粉利用率为88.1%.[结论]利用耐酸性清酒酵母发酵生产清酒,简化了生产工艺,缩短了发酵时间,提高了原料利用率.%[Objective]The purpose of the study was to lay a theoretical foundation for producing high-quality sake. [Method]With high-quality round shaped rice as raw material, on the basis of single factor experiment, the fermentation law of acid-resistant Saccharomyces sake A was studied through orthogonal experiment. [Result]When the water-material ratio was 1-2, the alcohol degree of sake was higher. When the water-material ratio was 0.5, the sugar concentration and osmotic pressure of fermenting mash were higher. When the water-material ratio was 3, the starch concentration of fermenting mash was decreased and the alcohol degree of sake was low. When the seeding yeast dosage was 20%, it was favorable to the dual fermentation of sake and the soluble content of sake was about 11%. When the rice starter dosage was 30%-50%, the sake had low colority and light bitterness and astringency. When the lactic addition was 8‰-12‰, the activity of Aspergillus oryzae was about 290 mg/g when the fermentation was finished. When the lactic content was higher than 12‰, the enzyme activity was decreased faster and the sake had off-flavors. The

  3. 附子白及同方配伍规律与应用条件探析%Study on Applicable Conditions and Compatibility Rules of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoma in Same Prescription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于大猛; 瞿融; 杨杰


    Objective: Study on applicable conditions and compatibility rules of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoraa in the same prescription. Method: There were 84464 herbal prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine, among which twenty-seven herbal prescriptions contained aconite and salep. The author analyzed their functions and mechanisms and regularity of application. Result: By analyzing 27 prescriptions that contained Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoma, we found that the pathogenesis of all the recipes were Yang deficiency, coagulated cold and blood stasis. Compatibility rules were as follows. Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata was used as a sovereign drug to warm Yang, dispel cold and clear the way. Bletillae Rhizoma and Ampelopsis Radix were commonly used for eliminating slough, promoting granulation and astringing sores. Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Saposhnikoviae Radix were primarily applied to dispel pathogenic wind and resolve superficies. Angelicae Radix Sinensis and Rhizoma Ligustici were used to activate blood and dissolve stasis. Radix Aucklandiae and Semen Armeniacae Amarum were usually applied to harmonize and regulate the Qi activity. Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Scutellariae Radix were used as a supplementary drug to clear heat and toxin. So we inferred wind-expelling and cold-removing drugs as well as blood-activating and stasis-dissolving drugs might attenuate toxicity originated from Aconiti Lateralis Preparata compounding with Bletillae Rhizoma. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix might be an' antidote' to Aconiti Lateralis Preparata compounding with Bletillae Rhizoma. Conclusion: It is not opposite absolutely because the aconite and salep can be used together under reasonable condition.%目的:附子、白及配伍规律与应用条件的研究.方法:在“中国中医药数据库”84 464首方剂中,共检索出含附子白及处方27首,对其主治、病机、配伍规律进行分析.

  4. Effect of fruity solvent on the milk flavor and production performance of dairy cows%果味剂对奶风味及奶牛生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 马燕芬; 高民


    24 Holstein cows in premetaphase lactation stage with similar weight, lactation period, parities, milk, good health were selected and divided into 4 groups, each group had 6 cows. The trail was conducted to use apple flavor, banana flavor, mixed fruit flavor to feed the cows, and the aim was to assess production performance of dairy cows and flavor components in milk samples. The result showed: CD Compared with the control group, 3 fruity solvents all could slow the downward trend of milk production, especially the banana flavor group (Decreasing degree for milk production: the banana flavor is 0.5%, the apple flavor is 11.9%, the mixed fruit flavor is 8.86% and the control group is 13.5%. (2) Sensory evaluation to milk sample, 4 groups had no obvious differences at colour, structural state, creamy flavor, fruit flavor, sweetness, sourness, bitterness, astringency, forage taste and cowtail taste, but comprehensive flavor had obvious difference (P apple flavor group > banana flavor group = the control group.%试验选择了24头泌乳前中期的同一胎次、健康无病、具有相近体重、产奶量与泌乳期的荷斯坦奶牛,将其分为4组,每组6头牛,在奶牛日粮中添加苹果味果味剂、香蕉味果味剂、混合香型果味剂,并设置对照组(不添加果味剂)进行奶牛饲养试验.对奶牛的生产性能以及奶样中风味物质进行评定.试验结果表明:①在奶牛生产性能方面,与对照组相比,3种果味剂都有减缓产奶量下降的趋势,其中香蕉味的作用效果最好(产奶量下降:香蕉味0.5%,苹果味11.9%,混合味8.86%,对照13.5%).②对奶样进行感官评价,在单独的色泽、组织状态、奶香味、果香味、甜味、酸味、苦味、涩味、饲草味和牛体味中,4种样品基本没有差异,4个样品的综合风味存在显著差异(P<0.05),在风味的总得分上,混合风味>苹果风味>香蕉风味=对照组.

  5. Wound healing activity of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Periyanayagam


    activity of EAAH (leaves may be due to its phenolic content (flavonoids, triterpenoids constituents especially ursolic acid. Both of them known to have astringent property which is responsible for wound contraction and increased rate of epithelialisation along with the supportive anti-microbial activity. More over trace elements like Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu, Manganese (Mn, Iron (Fe supports wound healing property as essential trace mineral are required for cellular growth and replication. This present investigation provides scientific evidence to ethnomedical use of A.heterophyllus leaves in wound healing activity. Our study showed significant enhancement of wound repair and therefore can be beneficially, safely used as auxiliary therapy in diabetic patient with foot ulcers in addition to the other available treatment as the leaves possesses scientifically validated traditional use in diabetes

  6. Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić-Šarić, M.


    Full Text Available Wine is an excellent source of various classes of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and trihydroxystilbene resveratrol (Fig.1. Polyphenols play a major role in wine quality since they contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine, particularly color and astringency. A recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by abundant evidence of their beneficial effects on human health, such as anticarcinogenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, numerous studies have been performed in the attempt to analyze polyphenols in wine. This paper reviews the current advances in the determination of polyphenols in wine by the major chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The great complexity of the polyphenolic content of wine and the difficulty in obtaining some of the standards usually require sample preparation before analysis. Two methods for sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are most commonly applied. Hydrolysis is applied frequently, but not exclusively, to remove the sugar moieties from glycosides.TLC on silica gel plates is useful for the rapid and low-cost separation and identification of the polyphenols present in wine (Fig. 2. Densitometric quantitative analysis of polyphenols in wine extracts is usually performed by scanning the TLC plates with UV light at wavelengths of 350–365 nm or 250–260 nm (Fig. 3. For the evaluation of the most efficient mobile phase and an optimal choice of the combination of two or more mobile phases, two methods may be applied: information theory and numerical taxonomy. HPLC currently represents the most popular technique for the analysis of polyphenols in wine. For this purpose, a reversed-phase HPLC method that uses gradient elution with binary elution system is usually employed. Routine detection is based on measurement of UV-Vis absorption with a diode

  7. Perfil sensorial de iogurte light, sabor pêssego Sensory profile of peach flavored light yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. R. Santana


    consensually defined sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges and trained. They used the following as criteria: discriminant power, reproducibility and individual consensus. Twelve descriptors were devised showing similarities and differences among the light yogurt samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeter non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The data were analysed by ANOVA, the Tukey test and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results showed a great difference in the sensory profile of light yogurts, where sample C showed more variation. The PCA showed sample A to be more distinguished by the sweetness, flavor of peach and firmness of fruit pieces. Sample B was characterized by the brightness, peach color and creamy aspect. Sample C had a higher intensity of sourness and astringency, a more farinaceous texture and more artificial aroma of peach. According to the acceptability test, all the products were accepted positively for all evaluated attributes. Sample C which contains soy protein in its formulation showed that this ingredient was not noticed by the judges and did not interfere in it being accepted.

  8. Determinação da formulação e caracterização do néctar de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh Formulation determination and characterisation of the camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto N. Maeda


    Full Text Available O camu-camu é um fruto silvestre, encontrado nas margens de rios e lagos da Amazônia, com grande potencial econômico pelas suas características agronômicas, tecnológicas e nutricionais. Entretanto, seu consumo ainda é restrito, devido à alta acidez, amargor e adstringência da casca, necessitando, dessa forma, de tecnologias adequadas para o seu uso. O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar a formulação ideal do néctar de camu-camu e avaliar as suas caraterísticas físicas e físico-químicas. Para a obtenção do néctar, foram elaboradas nove formulações com diferentes concentrações de polpa e açúcar, as quais foram submetidas ao teste de preferência de 30 provadores não treinados. Dentre as formulações testadas, a de maior preferência foi a preparada com 17,5% de açúcar e 17% de polpa, a qual apresentou valor de L Hunter de 32,00, aHunter de 3,22 e bHunter de -0,38, ácido ascórbico de 382,07 mg/100 mL, antocianinas de 2,51 mg/100 g e aceitabilidade global de 89,1%. Os resultados demonstram a viabilidade tecnológica e nutricional do néctar de camu-camu por ser um produto atraente de cor, sabor, aroma, aceitabilidade e como fonte de Vitamina C.Camu-camu is a wild fruit distributed throughout the banks of lakes and rivers in Amazonia, which presents a great economical potential on account of its agronomic, technological and nutritional features. Nevertheless, its consumption is still restricted due to its high acidity, bitterness, and skin astringency, thus needing the use of proper technologies for its use. The objective of the present study was to determine the ideal camu-camu nectar formulation and to assess its physical and physical-chemical characteristics. Nine formulations with different pulp and sugar concentrations, which were submitted to a preference test by a board of 30 untrained tasters, were prepared in order to obtain the nectar. Among the tested formulations, the one presenting the highest

  9. 张景岳真阴精气理论在糖尿病肾病治疗中的应用探讨∗%Application of ZHANG Jingyue’ s theory of genuine yin and vital essence on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳红芳; 张向伟


    essence. After the analysis of clinical trials, we think that the core pathogenesis of DN is deficiency of genuine yin leading to deficiency syndrome transforming to excess syndrome. And the five rules of Chi-nese medical treatment on DN are listed as:the primary therapeutic principle is nourishing genuine yin;the primary therapy is powerfully tonifying genuine yin through the way of reinforcing qi and producing genuine yin, through the way of controlling and astringing essence to strengthen effects, and through the way of eliminating pathogenic factors and recovering essence to aid to nourishing genuine yin.

  10. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  11. Rules of Property of Drugs Used by State Medical Master Yan Zhenghua Based on Data Mining%基于数据挖掘的国医大师颜正华临床用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉瑞; 郭位先; 张晓朦; 张冰


    Objective To analyze the rules of property of the drugs used by State Medical Master Yan Zhenghua in clinical.Methods The prescriptions used by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database, which was based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistant software. After analyzed by the software, such as using the module to analyze the prescriptions, the medication characters of the prescriptions can be got from the database.Results Drugs of warm nature were used with the highest frequency 7998 times, followed by the cool 7866 times, leveling 6763 times, cold 3942 times, and hot 95 times. From the property of five flavors, the most used flavor of drugs was bitter 15260 times, followed by sweet 10810 times, pungent 10453 times, sour 2794 times, salty 1651 times, mild 1203 times, and astringency 186 times. In the frequency of the channel tropism involved, the highest is of liver channel 14237 times, followed by lung 10452 times and spleen 10061 times.Conclusion Pro. Yan was accustomed to using the drugs that were of warm and cool natures, and sweet and pungent flavors, and also the drugs that have action on the collateral channels of liver, lung and spleen, which were the same as the experience from Pro. Yan.%目的:探讨国医大师颜正华临床用药规律。方法收集颜正华教授处方,基于“中医传承辅助平台系统(V2.0.1)”构建处方数据库,采用软件方剂分析等模块,分析处方用药基本特点。结果就四气而言,温性药物频次最多(7998次),其次为凉性(7866次)、平性(6763次)、寒性(3942次)、热性(95次);就五味而言,苦味药物频次最多(15260次),其次为甘味(10810次)、辛味(10453次)、酸味(2794次)、咸味(1651次)、淡味(1203次)、涩味(186次);就归经而言,肝经频次最多(14237次),其次为肺经(10452次)、脾经(10061次)等。结论颜正华教授处方用药以温、凉药为主,甘、辛味药居多,药物归经以肝、肺、脾经为主

  12. 鲜榨苹果汁的理化特性和感官品质相关性%Correlations between Physico-chemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality of Fresh Apple Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚宏; 王周利; 李彩霞; 岳田利; 赵镭


    The aim of the present study was to explore the correlations between physico-chemical characteristics and sensory measures of fresh apple juice from 9 varieties. The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations among partial physico-chemical characteristics of apple juice; 2) significant correlations were found between physicochemical characteristics and sensory measures of apple juice. The fruity aroma of apple juice was significantly correlated with its pH and titratable acidity. A positive correlation was observed between the faint scent and color value or total sugar content. The astringent taste had a positive correlation with the titratable acidity total phenol content or buffer capacity, but revealed a negative correlation with the pH, sugar/acid ratio or solid/acid ratio. The acidic taste was correlated with the pH, total sugar content, titratable acidity, buffer capacity, sugar/acid ratio or solid/acid ratio. Moreover, the sweet taste presented a correlation with soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity, buffer capacity or solid/acid ratio; 3)the developed regression model for taste evaluation of apple juice was significant, indicating that there are good correlations between physico-chemical characteristics and sensory measures of fresh apple juice. Thus physicochemical characteristics can be measures for predictive analysis of the sensory quality of fresh apple juice.%以9种苹果鲜榨汁为材料,通过理化指标测定和感官评价,研究鲜榨苹果汁理化特性和感官品质之间的相关性。结果表明:1)部分理化指标之间具有显著的相关性;2)理化指标与感官特性之间存在显著的相关性:苹果香与pH值、可滴定酸含量有显著的相关性;清香与色值、总糖含量呈正相关;涩味与可滴定酸含量、多酚含量、缓冲容量成正相关,与pH值、糖酸比、固酸比呈现显著的负相关;酸味与pH值、总糖含量、可滴定酸含量、缓

  13. OA01.48. Prativish chincha ras in the management of Dhatura poising (United States)

    Singh, Babita


    Purpose: Dhatura is an important deliriant poison grouped under sthavara upavisha and phalavisha. It affects the Central Nervous system. Dhatura is important ingredient of large number of medicinal formulations. In the Ayurvedic text,, Basavarajeeyam, Chincha Rasa (Tamarind) has been described to be possessing antidote action to counter toxicity of Dhatura. This study attempts to establish the activity and mechanism of action of chincha rasa against toxic effects of Dhatura by means of chemical analysis. Method: 1) Collection of drugs, 2) Authentication of three drugs in Govt. authorised institute, 3) i) Preparation of Chincha rasa (According to charaka), ii) Preparation of Chincha pakwa phal (According to Sharangdhar), 4) Physical and Chemical study of Dhatur seed, i) Preparation of Dhatur Churna (According to Sharangdhar) and Analytical Study of three drugs, 5) Methods of determination of an antidote. Result: Laboratory experiments were carried out to obtain values of specific parameters for Dhatur seeds, chincha patra ras (tamarind leafe juice) and chincha pakwa phal (ripe tamarind fruit). Conclusion: On the basis of observations and results found in chemical study and reported literature, the study came with the following conclusions. 1) The chincha patra rasa and Chincha pakwa phal rasa both contain Hordenine which has the antibacterial activity and stimulates the central nervous system providing relief from unquenchable thirst, muttering and delirium (indistinct and inaudible words unsteady gait) 2) Because of tannins, Chinchapatra ras and Chincha pakwaphal ras have astringent property, which counteract the toxic symptoms of Dhatur like dermatitis, rash and exfoliation of the skin. 3) Because of glycosides and tannins, chincha patra rasa and chincha pakwaphal have diuretic property which counteract the toxic symptoms of dhatura like urinary retention and inability to pass urine. 4) The tartaric acid present in chincha patra ras and chincha pakwaphal ras

  14. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.


    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 {mu}g/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 {+-} 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  15. Obtenção de extratos de guaraná ricos em cafeína por processo enzimático e adsorção de taninos Production of caffeine-rich guarana extracts using an enzymatic process and tannin adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Dias Ribeiro


    astringency and a dark colour to the final product. In this work the development of an enzymatic process to obtain non-alcoholic guarana extracts with low tannin concentrations and high caffeine contents was studied using an experimental design and adsorption processes. By way of a fractional factorial design the quantities of 0.25% (v/v pectinase and 0.1% (v/v glucoamylase were determined, which were maintained in the central composite design, obtaining as the optimal conditions: 0.23% (v/v cellulase, 0.86% (v/v hemicellulase, 1% (v/v alpha-amylase, 5.5 h extraction time, 200 rpm and 50 °C, producing a caffeine/tannin ratio of 1.65. Using a magnesium oxide adsorption process at 10% (w/v, a caffeine/tannin ratio of 7.3 was obtained.

  16. Clarificação e concentração de suco de caju por processos com membranas Clarification and concentration of cashew apple juice by membrane processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Cianci


    pectinolitic enzyme was used during 1 hour for enzymatic hydrolysis. Clarification was carried out in a tubular microfiltration membrane followed by concentration of the clarified juice in an osmosis reverse plate and frame system. The average permeate flux were 184.0 e 11.3L/hm² , for microfiltration and reverse osmosis, respectively. Tannins that are responsible for juice astringency were retained by microfiltration membrane and it was not verified in clarified and concentrated juices. Clarified juice with 12,1° Brix was concentrated up to 28,6° Brix and vitamin C content increased from 162mg/100g in clarified juice to 372mg/100g in the concentrate.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺群; 高凌霞; 尚军


    The consolidation process of the conventional triaxial compression test is a three -dimensional compression under the action of spheric stress while seepage occurs only in the vertical direction , which has differences and some similarities with the process of Terzaghi ’ s one-dimensional consolidation .Therefore , Terzaghi ’ s one-dimensional consolidation theory can ’ t be used directly to solve the problem .Based on the effective stress principle , Darcy’ s law and the assumption of linear material , a water pressure dissipation theory equation was set up for consolidation stage of conventional triaxial compression test , and the corresponding power series solution derived from the method of separation of variables and the finite element solution were provided .The example analysis showed that the solution of power series had poor astringency in the early stage of consolidation but good stability when the degree of consolidation is slightly larger .A comparison of the calculation results of the theoretical equation with test results of the double pressure chamber effective stress path triaxial compression test indicated that the theoretical equation could reveal the main characteristics of the consolidation stage of triaxial test .Theoretical analysis showed that , the difference lay mainly in the objective existence that ideal assumption and real soil properties were not exactly uniform .%常规三轴试验的固结阶段属于球应力作用下的三维压缩而渗流只发生在竖向的特殊过程,与Terzaghi一维固结过程既有区别又有一定的共同点,因此不能直接用Terzaghi一维固结理论解决该问题。基于有效应力原理、Darcy定律和线性材料假设,建立常规三轴试验固结阶段的水压力消散理论方程,并进一步给出其分离变量法的幂级数解和有限元解答。算例分析表明,幂级数解在固结初期收敛性较差,只有当固结度稍大时才表现出良好的稳定

  18. 基于HPSO算法和GA的舰载机甲板布放方法比较%Comparison of deck-disposed methods for shipboard aircraft based on HPSO and GA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司维超; 韩维; 史玮韦


    The deck-disposed scheduling methods of carrier planes about De Gaulle are researched based on different optimization algorithms, which can be used to solve the same questions of another aircraft carrier. First, the basic conditions of deck-disposed scheduling problem of carrier planes are analysed, which includes battle position setting, distance measurement between gate position and preparative position, natural takeoff flow analysis, takeoff time expressions about different numbers of carrier planes. Second, the deck-disposed scheduling question is changed into a multiobjective functions with restriction which needs to figure out the mini-mum solution, then the mathematical model is proposed. Third, the honeybee particle swarm optimization ( HPSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) are used to solve the problem separately. In the end, the average shortest take-off time, average shortest moving distance, standard deviation and the astringency and accuracy of algorithms about fif-ty separate operations are compared. The result shows that HPSO is fitter than GA for solving the problem.%以戴高乐航母为研究对象,基于不同优化算法,对其舰面舰载机布放问题的解决方法进行比较,以此作为解决其他类型航母同样问题的参考.首先,分析了解决舰载机舰面布放调度问题的先决条件,包括舰面战位的设置;各战位间距离的测量计算;舰载机正常的出动流程分析;舰载机出动时间计算公式的设计.其次,将舰载机舰面布放调度问题转换为带有约束条件的多目标函数求最小解问题,并给出了数学模型.再次,给出了利用改进的粒子群优化(honeybee particle swarm optimization,HPSO)算法和遗传算法(genetic algorithm,GA)对问题求解的解决思路.最后,对两种算法50次独立运算的结果,分别从平均最短出动时间、平均最短移动距离、标准偏差以及算法的收敛性和精确性等方面进行

  19. The Research into Pressing Points of Ancient and Modern Times%点按法应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢巧瑜; 廖军; 黄萍萍; 郑春水; 张乐; 郑佳璇


    Pressing points is one of the most common basic manipulation,and widely used in treating all kinds of diseases in clinical practice.It has very good functions of warming meridians and expelling cold and stopping cold,unblocking and activating meridians,clearing away heat and calming mind and astringing.It has small contact area,good penetration,and is widely applicable to all parts of the body,so it is often clinically used to treat all kinds of diseases,mainly especially in bone and soft tissue injury,especially old injury in muscles or deep bone or pain points of obstinate arthralgia.The modern medical research into pressing points focuses on biomechanics of the technique,including researching and producing biomechanics of the technique determination instrument,achieving mutual penetration between subjects;Biomechanics indexes of the technique:direction and size and continued time;In terms of working mechanism,mainly into analgesic mechanism aspects involving neurological,circulatory,immunology of modern medicine.However,the working mechanism of pressing points has not been fully revealed yet,the technique standards including mechanical quantitative standard needs further exploring.What's more,besides strengthening both the experimental and clinical studies,thinking and reform of technique teaching should not be ignored in order to promote construction and development of massage subject,and better serve the cause of human health.%点按法是临床上最常用的基础手法之一,被广泛应用于临床各种疾病.点按法具有较好的温经散寒止痛、开通闭塞活络、清热安神收敛功效.点按法接触面积小,有较好的深透性,可广泛应用于全身各个部位,因此常用于治疗临床各科病证.其中以骨伤科和软组织损伤方面居多,特别是对肌肉或骨缝深处的旧伤或顽痹之痛点,有明显“以痛止痛”的作用.现代医学对点按法实验研究大多围绕手法的生物力学进行研究,主要包

  20. Tratamiento oral del síndrome diarreico en terneros con zeolita natural (Oral treatment of the diarrhea syndrome in calves with natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cuesta Mazorra


    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de la zeolita natural en el tratamiento del síndrome diarreico en terneros. La evaluación se realizó en unestudio controlado, aleatorizado y multicéntrico. La hipótesis de trabajo contempló que la terapia experimental sería equivalente a la del control con polvo antidiarreico, formulado comercial utilizado comúnmente en Cuba para el tratamiento de esta entidad. Se incluyeronen el ensayo 120 terneros de ambos sexos, mestizos Holstein x Cebú, de edades entre 1 a 90 días, por lo que el universo de estudio omprendió animales pertenecientes a grandes unidades (vaquerías y recrías de cinco empresas pecuarias de la provincia de Villa Clara,sometidos a sistema intensivo de explotación y manejo. Los ratamientosestudio y control fueron administrados oralmente con una frecuencia de dos veces al día, preferiblemente en la mañana y en la tarde durante 5 días como máximo, al cabo de los cuales se efectuóla evaluación clínica final y se indicó el estudio de laboratorio final 5 días después de finalizar el tratamiento. En las condiciones del ensayo la zeolita natural tuvo una eficacia del 68,3%, menor a lagrupo control (96,7% con diferencias significativas (p < 0,05. Sin embargo, un balance del costo-beneficio permite recomendar la utilización de la zeolita natural como una buena alternativa en eltratamiento de estos procesos. The effectiveness of the natural zeolite in the treatment of the diarrhea syndrome in calves was evaluated. The evaluation wascarried out in a controlled, randomized and multicentric study. The working hypothesis contemplated that the experimental therapy would be equivalent to that of the control with powder astringent formulated commercial utilized commonly in Cuba for the treatment ofthis entity. In the assay were included 120 calves of both sexes, crossbreed Holstein x Zebu, of ages between 1 to 90 days, forwhat the universe of study understood animals belonging to big units (dairies and

  1. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on botanical compendia for potential cosmeceutic species from Atlantic Forest Levantamento etnofarmacognóstico em compêndios botânicos de espécies da Mata Atlântica com potencial cosmecêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maique W. Biavatti


    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is one of the most endangered ecosystems on earth, and is acknowledged as an area with truly exceptional levels of biodiversity under enormous levels of stress. Cosmeceutics cover a border area between pharmaceuticals for skin diseases and cosmetics. Natural products for external application, to improve the appearance of the skin or for skin treatment, have always been observed and used by native cultures. The present work deals with the ethnopharmacognostic analysis of two botanical compendia (BC, named: Dicionário das Plantas Úteis do Brasil - e das exóticas cultivadas, compiled by Pio Correa (PC Flora Ilustrada Catarinense (FIC. From these BC, reported species with cosmeceutical uses or with related physico-chemical or organoleptic characteristics were selected, updated, searched for scientific background and highlighted if endangered. PC and FIC specified that 245 plant species, belonging to 98 plant families, are used in Brazil for cosmeceutical, cosmetic or skin remedies. The families most widely represented were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Annonaceae, Clusiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Bignoniaceae and Solanaceae The most frequently cited plant parts were bark, followed by leaves and aerial parts. The most frequently cited properties were astringency and tonic effect followed by uses in skin disorders and wound healing, emollient characteristic, anti-inflammatory uses and healing of skin ulcers, antiseptic effects, parasiticide and skin lightening properties and aphrodisiacs. According to the Pubmed survey, most of the selected species (65% have not been previously investigated for potential cosmeceutical applications, nor have their chemical composition been investigated.A Mata Atlântica é um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do planeta, sendo reconhecida como uma área de grande biodiversidade sob alto nível de stress. A área cosmecêutica abrange medicamentos de uso tópico e cosméticos, e o uso de

  2. Based on four organs of TCM to analyze pulse of anemia%基于中医四脏分型的贫血脉象解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方英嵩; 滕晶


    The physiological process of the blood generation ,the blood transformation and so on is a complex cycle system . The basic theory of TCM thinks that the heart has the role of producing the blood animate .The spleen can has the power to produce and dominate the blood .The liver can recuperate the movement of the gas ,store the blood and prevent the bleeding . The kidney who can store the sperm ,is the most fundamental source of the blood and has the astringent effect of the blood . In the four ,any organ dysfunction is possibly lead to a decreased production and a loss of blood components ,resulting in a reduction in the capacity of the red blood cells which exist in the peripheral blood system .To sum up it ,the anemia is close-ly connected with the heart ,the live ,the spleen and the kidney .The“Systematic dialectical sphygmology” ,which is putfor-wed by Doc .Qi ,is a pulse system based on the study of the ancient and modern pulse results and the numerous clinical practice .According to the“Systematic dialectical sphygmology” ,the anemia has the pulse characteristics which are the dilute pulse ,the slippery pulse ,the fine pulse ,the weak pulse and the shen pulse .%血液的生成、转化等生理过程是一个复杂的循环体系。中医学认为,心主血脉,具有生成血液的作用;脾主生血统血,具有生化、统摄血液的作用;肝主藏血,具有贮藏血液、调节血量、防止出血的作用;肾藏精,为气血津液最根本的来源,且具有固摄血液的作用。任一脏器功能紊乱均有可能导致血液成分生成减少、丢失等病理环节的出现,导致外周血红细胞容量的减少,故贫血的产生与心、脾、肝、肾关系密切。“系统辨证脉学”是齐向华教授在古今脉学成果研究和大量临床实践的基础上总结和归纳出的脉学体系。根据“系统辨证脉学”分析可知,贫血多具有稀、滑、细、弱、沉的脉象特征。

  3. Applications of Enzymatic Technologies in Tea Drinks%酶解技术在茶饮料研发中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐赏; 金益英; 郭爱秀; 成官哲; 李言郡; 欧凯; 朱慧


    酶解技术在茶饮料研发,特别是绿茶饮料的制备中,具有十分广阔的应用前景。它既可提升茶饮料整体的鲜爽感、降低苦涩味,同时又可最大限度地保留茶叶中原本的有效成分、增加质感,而且减轻了生产上茶汤澄清工艺的压力。本实验研究了不同浓度(0.1%~0.5%)的单宁酶、细胞壁水解酶、风味蛋白酶和复合多糖酶对于茶叶提取液的可溶性固形物含量(Brix)、茶多酚、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)和表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)含量的影响。同时,结合单一酶的实验结果,采用这几种酶的复合和单一酶应用于绿茶汤提取中,并制备绿茶饮料进行感官评定和游离氨基酸分析。结果表明,当同时添加0.2%单宁酶、0.1%细胞壁水解酶(纤维素酶∶果胶酶为1∶1)、0.1%复合多糖酶、0.2%风味蛋白酶,茶水比1∶15,60℃下保温1h时,制备的绿茶饮料的整体感官评定分数最高,其氨基酸总量由57.16mg/L上升至75.11mg/L,茶氨酸含量由28.2mg/L上升至41.40mg/L。%In the researches and development of tea drinks, the prospects of enzymatic technologies are broad. It can improve the fresh flavor as well as decrease the bitter and astringent taste. What’s more, it keeps effective components in teas as much as possible, thus make the filtration processing in tea drinks manufacturing more convenient.The effects of different concentrations(0.1%~0.5%) of tannase, celluase, pectinase, flavourzyme and viscozyme on soluble solid content (Brix), polyphenols, EGCG and ECG were studies. And according to the results, the combination of these enzymes was used in green tea soup processing to make tea drinks. Sensory evaluation and free amino acid analysis were used to identify the scores of the green tea drinks by different treating methods. The results suggest, when 0.2%tannase, 0.05% celluase, 0.05% pectinase, 0.2% flavourzyme and 0

  4. The Characteristics and the Modern Research of Potency Cold%药性寒的特点及现代研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖开; 苗明三


    Objective:To investigate the relationship between the potency cold and functionality,the pharmacological effects,Chinese medicine attending,modern medicine attending,Smell,Meridian,chemical composition.Methods:The application of "traditional Chinese medicine functions-pharmacology-clinical database system",the query" cold "with the frequency of association between the pharmacological effects,Smell,Meridian,the function,Chinese medicine attending,modern medicine attending,chemical composition,based on the number of the frequency,take the highest frequency covers 2/3 as the basic category,the highest frequency covers the remaining 2/ 3 as joint areas,remaining as expansion areas.Results:the basic functions of the potency cold are heat,detoxification,cooling blood,swelling;basic pharmacological effects of potency cold are anti-bacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-tumor,antipyretic,diuretic,affect the cardiovascular system,lowering blood pressure,sedation,analgesic,anti-cancer; the TCM Indications of potency cold are carbuncles,sore throat,jaundice,erysipelas,external treatment of eczema,boils,eczema,Wind hot cold,the hot leaching,the hot leaching astringent pain,pharyngitis,nose bleeding,red eyes,sore,vomiting blood,Mumps,blood in the stool,edema fullness; the modern medicine attending of potency cold are burns,eczema,psoriasis,dysentery,hepatitis,coronary heart disease,hypertension,hyperlipidemia,constipation gallbladder inflammation,herpes zoster,cervical erosion,flat warts,gastric ulcer,chronic bronchitis,chronic bronchitis,urticaria,mumps,whooping cough;the basic Smell often combined with potency cold is sweet and bitter; the basic Meridian of potency cold are liver,lung,stomach,heart,kidney; the basic chemical composition of potency cold are organic acids,alkaloids,carbohydrates,inorganic substances,amino acids,glycosides,llavonoids,esters,tannins,volatile oils.Conclusion:To determine the relationship between the potency cold and functionality,the pharmacological

  5. Analysis and Evaluation of Polyphenols Quality of High Polyphenols Content Tea Varieties in Guizhou%贵州高茶多酚茶树品种多酚品质分析评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华富; 高秀兵; 刘晓霞; 曹雨; 周顺珍; 周国兰


    Fudingdabaicha',the EGCG of high polyphenols content varieties was 24.7%,12.5%,17.8% higher than that of ‘Fudingdabaicha',while the total catechins content was 33.7%,24.3%,23.1% higher than that of ‘Fudingdabaicha'.It indicated that these three high polyphenols content tea varieties had some advantages in quality.All polyphenols reversed threshold values of these three high polyphenols content varieties were between 40%-60% of water extract,suggesting the green tea production with good quality.Comprehensively considering the catechin quality index and the astringent index,which were 3.98,4.49 6.06 and 9.41,9.24,10.51 of the tree high polyphenols content varieties respectively,the polyphenols quality of ‘Qianmei 502 ' was better than that of the other two high polyphenols content tea varieties,‘ Qianmei 419' and ‘ Qianmei 701'.

  6. Perfil sensorial de pó de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. alcalinizado Sensory profile and acceptance of alkalinized cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Bispo


    , queimado e adstringente, assim como de cor marrom e marrom avermelhado mais escura. Todos os processos levaram à obtenção de amostras com alta solubilidade e fraco sabor amargo.The Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (ADQ was used aiming to show the sensory characterization of cocoa powder samples representing the range of a central composite design, 2³ of the process of alkalization of the cocoa "nibs" using variables independent such as temperature (60, 72, 90 and 108 ºC, time (30, 54, 90, 126 and 150min and concentration of K2CO3(0.0, 1.22, 3.0 and 4.78%. Two commercial samples of alkalinized cocoa powder were appraised. The analysis of the flavour was accomplished in the alkalinized cocoa powders and the other atributes in the chocolate beverage form (2% of the alkalinized cocoa powders and 7% of sugar in skimmed sterilized milk. Twelve panelists were selectedbased in their to detect setterness, reliability and agreement with the panel. The data were evaluated by means of variance analysis ANOVA for the factors sample and panelist, as well as of the interaction sample x panelist. The Tukey test was applied for comparison of the averages of samples at the level of 5%. The principal components technique was applied to the data, obtaining the configuration of the samples considering all attributes. Roughly samples with K2CO3 between 1.22 to 3.0% and one of the commercial samples were considered with stronger chocolate flavour, as well as, weaker alkaline flavour and taste. Samples with K2CO3 with 4,78% were considered the darkest color and strongest alkaline flavour and astringency. For the chocolate beverage there was no significant difference at 5% level in relation to solubility and bitter flavor.

  7. Establishment of Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Nephrotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicine Based on Traditional Chinese Medical Theory%基于中医传统理论建立中药肾毒性的Logistic回归预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红杰; 陈亮; 李天昊; 詹莎; 陈灵修; 陈利国


    Objective To study the correlation of nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine with the four properties, five flavors and channel tropism for the establishment of prediction model of nephrotoxicity,and to evaluate the model. MethodsThe data of 111 kinds of Chinese herbal medicine with nephrotoxicity and 398 kinds of Chinese herbal medicine without nephrotoxicity were collected after literature search. The collected data covered the four properties (cold,hot,warm,cool,and neutral),five flavors(sour,bitter,sweet,pungent,salty,tasteless and astringent)and channel tropism(lung meridian,large intestine meridian,stomach meridian,spleen meridian,heart meridian,small intestine meridian,bladder meridian,kidney meridian,pericardium meridian,triple energizer meridian,gall bladder meridian,and liver meridian)of the included herbs. The correlation of nephrotoxic or non-nephrotoxic Chinese herbal medicine with the four properties,five flavors and channel tropism was analyzed. The unconditional Logistic regression(LR)was applied to screen the variables to be input. LR prediction model was set up. Receiver operating characteristics(ROC)curve of the LR prediction model was drawn,the area under the curve,sensitivity,specificity and overall accuracy were calculated,and the accuracy of prediction model was evaluated.ResultsChinese herbal medicine with or without nephrotoxicity was correlated with the four properties and five flavors(P 0.05). There were 12 variables selected for the LR from four properties and five flavors. Four variables,which were hot and neutral of the properties,bitter and sweet of the flavors,were selected to establish the LR prediction model(cutoff value being 0.28).ConclusionThe 12 of 24 variables from four properties,five flavors and channel tropism of Chinese herbal medicine,are correlated with the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine,of which 4 variables including hot and neutral from four properties,bitter and sweet from five flavors affect the

  8. Professor WEI Pin-kang's Experience in Treating Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting: an Analysis of Herbal Medication%魏品康教授防治化疗导致恶心呕吐用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施俊; 魏品康


    Objective To summarize the herbal medication by Professor WEI Pin-kang's prescriptions in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Methods On the basis of outpatient and inpa-tients' medical records concerning CINV from case-database (keywords: chemotherapy and vomiting), data of 143 patients and 143 effective prescriptions were collected. The herbs and those category, nature, flavor and meridian distribution were summarized by frequency method using SPSS 13.0 Software. The couple herbs were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis. Results A total of 144 herbs were used (2 353 frequencies). Six groups of herbs [frequency >5%, cumulative relative frequency (CRF) 58.89% ] were used frequently as follow : the herbs for regulating qi (17.81%), resolving phlegm (13.51%), invigorating qi (8.07%), relieving food retention (7.44%), calming Gan to stop endogenous wind (7.05%), and warming the interior (5.01%). The most frequently used herbs ( >20 frequencies, CRF 77.31 %) had 31 species as follow: the herbs for regulating qi (6 species), calming Gan to stop endogenous wind (4 species), resolving phlegm (3 species), external application (2 species), invigorating qi (2 species), warming the interior (2 species), activating blood and removing blood stasis (2 species), promoting diuresis and resolving dampness (1 species), purgation (1 species) , invigorating blood (1 species), relieving exterior syndrome with pungent-warm property (1 species), relieving exterior syndrome with pungent-cool property (1 species), astringent (1 species), resolving dampness with aromatic property (1 species), calming the mind (1 species), eliminating heat and dampness (1 species), relieving food retention (1 species). Frequency of Rhizoma Pinelliae was 127 including Rhizoma Pinetliae (processed with ginger) 83 (65.35%). Frequency of prepared Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was 85 (95.51% of Prea- praed Rhizoma Rhei). These herts were mostly of warm nature (43.99%). The total frequency of

  9. Study on Medication Rules of Dunhuang ManuscriptsFu Xing Jue Based on Data Mining%敦煌遗书《辅行诀》用药规律数据挖掘研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ), antitussive and antiasthmatic medicine (Inulae Flos), inducing astringency medicine (Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus) as characteristic medication. High-frequency medicines constitute Dunhuang medical prescription of Xiaoyindan Decoction, which can be used to treat epidemic. Conclusion This article concluded the compatibility rules of Dunhuang manuscripts Fu Xing Jue, provide references for clinical medication and research and development of new medicine.%目的:运用数据挖掘技术分析敦煌遗书《辅行诀》用药规律,以期为临床利用敦煌方药辨治内科疾病提供依据。方法计算机录入敦煌遗书《辅行诀》治疗内科疾病的中医方剂,采用Excel 2003软件建立相应数据库,运用数据挖掘方法分析其用药规律。结果整理出敦煌遗书《辅行诀》中医方剂61首,涉及药物66味,药物总使用频次336次。所用核心单味药依次为甘草、白芍、干姜、生姜、黄芩、旋覆花、人参、大枣、竹叶、五味子、桂枝等;药物类别以补虚药、清热药、解表药、温里药、化痰止咳平喘药为主,累计频率为80.66%;药味以苦、甘、辛为主,累计频率达83.91%;药性以寒、温、平为主,累计频率达87.95%;归经以胃、肺、脾、心、肾、肝经为主,累计频率达86.15%。敦煌医术类方剂治疗内科疾病临床用药配伍以补气药甘草、人参、大枣,补血药白芍,滋阴药麦门冬为主,次以清热药竹叶、黄芩为辅,再以解表药生姜、桂枝,温里药干姜,化痰止咳平喘药旋覆花,收涩药五味子等为特色用药。高频次药物构成敦煌医术类方剂中治疗天行病的小阴旦汤。结论本研究总结出了敦煌《辅行诀》临床用药配伍规律体系,可为临床用药及研发新药提供参考。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  11. 清热药的特点及现代研究%Modern Research and Relationship of Heat-clearing Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞奇; 白明; 苗明三


    Objective:To explore relationship between heat-c1earing traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacological action,traditional Chinese medical indications,modern medical indications,medicine properties,flavour of a medicine,channel tropism,chemical composition.Methods:Use the " properties and flavour of traditional Chinese medicine database systems ",inquiry associated frequency between function " Heat-clearing" and pharmacological action,traditional Chinese medical indications,modern medical indications,medicine properties,flavour of a medicine,channel tropism,chemical composition,according to the frequency,take cover 2/3 of most high frequency for basic area,take cover 2/3 of remaining most high frequency for joint area,remaining for extended area.Results:Basic pharmacological action of heat-clearing traditional Chinese medicine are antibacterial,anti-inflammatory,antitumor,antipyretic,calm,affecting the cardiovascular system,diuresis; TCM basic indications are carbuncle swollen,jaundice,sore throat pain and swelling,boils,vomiting blood,eyes red swelling and pain,heat astringent pain,nose bleeding,edema,inflammation of the throat,erysipelas,headache,snake bite,wind heat cold ; modern medicine basic indications are eczema,bacillary dysentery,hypertension,chronic bronchitis,colds,burns,whooping cough,stomach ulcers,hepatitis,mumps,pneumonia,herpes zoster,edema,pain and swelling of the throat,duodenal ulcer,suppurative otitis media,dermatitis,headache,coronary heart disease,bronchitis,verruca,acute tonsillitis,diarrhea,hyperlipidemia,cough,jaundice;basic medicine properties of heat-cleating TCM are cold,micro-cold;basic flavour of a medicine combined with heatclearing traditional Chinese medicine are bitter,sweet; basic channel tropisms are liver,lung,stomach,large intestine,heart;the basic chemical compositions of heat-cleating traditional Chinese medicine are organic acid,flavonoids,glycosides,alkaloids,sugars,tannins,amino acids,esters,volatile oil


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A


    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  13. 《张氏医通》辨治血证机理%Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment Mechanism of Blood Syndrome in Comprehensive Medicine According to Master Zhang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁盈戈; 刘明; 朱平生


    are not the same and neither are the differentiation and treatment.During treatment,Master Zhang especially values the stomach qi.Since blood syndrome impairs healthy qi,consumptive disease regardless of which kind of blood syndrome is treated from the distinguishing of the deficiency and excess of stomach qi.For patients with flooding hematemesis and feeble and big pulse,the hot tendency hasn't astringed and decoction cannot be given instantly.For urgent cases,hot child urine or lotus root juice can be used to nourish yin and purge fire;after half a day and when the pulse recovers to certain degree,decoctions for regulation and nourishment can be applied.While for patients with hematemesis and once spitting,he would spit a whole bowl of blood or purple-black blood clots which wouldn't coagulate after being spit.This is because the hematemesis originates from the stomach which is the sea of water and grain and full of qi and blood.It fails to coagulate since there is qi of food essence in the blood.It is caused by impairment of the middle energizer qi by overstrain or overdrinking or overeating.The treatment shouldn't be stopped immediately because sudden stop may lead to accumulation of deteriorated blood which is the origin of blood stasis,and the unknown sudden attack of it would cause serious results.But it shouldn't be purged for the reason that it may impair the blood again.It is advisable to regulate stomach qi to tranquilize the blood.

  14. TCM Trace Element Data (19)%中药微量元素数据(19)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增禧; 潘伟健; 谭永基; 劳志华; 黄丽仪; 肖永兵


    Chinese medicine trace element data are published by the type of botanicals , animal drugs ,biological carapace drugs , minerals, medicines and Chinese medicines , which is subdivided into relieving drugs , diarrhea prescription , antipyretic , diuretics for eliminating dampness , damp -dispel agent & diuret , cold dispelling agent , aromatic dampness drug , qi regulating agent , blood regulating agent , nourishing medicine , astringents , eliminate sputum drugs , digestants , analgesics , tranquilizing by nourishing the heart tranquilizing by nourishing the heart , external application drug , insect repellents , traditional Chinese medicine decoction . 747 kinds of detection of a total of 6 780 flavor Chinese medicine , each drug including the drug name, scientific name, family and genus, location, origin, element content, analytical methods and literature sources are expressed in form .Each medicine was determined of maximun 38 , at least 4 and average 17 elements.Total 120,000 element data demonstrated . Each data meaning is well profound , such as the serial number for the 113′s yellow baicalensis of total 20 element determination in Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Henan, Jilin, Shaanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and other 50 different origin yellow baicalensis . Another example is the serial number 114 kiwi of total 23 element determination in eight different parts including flowers, fruit, leaves, branches, stems, roots, bark, juice.From the point of view of the elements to study traditional Chinese medicine from different areas , different parts of the medicinal properties of very scientific value and practical significance .Solution form, heat, qi, regulating blood herbal can also use a pattern recognition method to the study of trace elements and traditional Chinese medicine, to guide rational drug use and compatibility -depth study of the relationship between the traditional Chinese medicine and the element data

  15. 中药微量元素数据(23)%TCM Trace Element Data (23)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增禧; 潘伟健; 谭永基; 劳志华; 黄丽仪; 肖永兵


    Chinese medicine trace element data are published by the type of botanicals, animal drugs, biological carapace drugs, minerals, medicines and Chinese medicines, which is subdivided into relieving drugs, diarrhea prescription, antipyretic, diuretics for eliminating dampness, damp -dispel agent & diuret, cold dispelling agent, aromatic dampness drug, qi regulating agent, blood regulating agent, nourishing medicine, astringents, eliminate sputum drugs, digestants, analgesics, tranquilizing by nourishing the heart tranquilizing by nourishing the heart, external application drug, insect repellents, traditional Chinese medicine decoction. 747 kinds of detection of a total of 6 780 flavor Chinese medicine, each drug including the drug name, scientific name, family and genus, location, origin, element content, analytical methods and literature sources are expressed in form.Each medicine was determined of maximun 38, at least 4 and average 17 elements.Total 120,000 element data demonstrated. Each data meaning is well profound, such as the serial number for the 113′s yellow baicalensis of total 20 element determination in Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Henan, Jilin, Shaanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and other 50 different origin yellow baicalensis. Another example is the serial number 114 kiwi of total 23 element determination in eight different parts including flowers, fruit, leaves, branches, stems, roots, bark, juice.From the point of view of the elements to study traditional Chinese medicine from different areas, different parts of the medicinal properties of very scientific value and practical significance.Solution form, heat, qi, regulating blood herbal can also use a pattern recognition method to the study of trace elements and traditional Chinese medicine, to guide rational drug use and compatibility -depth study of the relationship between the traditional Chinese medicine and the element data, and find much unexpected

  16. 中药微量元素数据(21)%TCM Trace Element Data (21)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增禧; 潘伟健; 谭永基; 劳志华; 黄丽仪; 肖永兵


    药很有帮助,甚至有些可用替代药,而且用中药治疗的阴虚、阳虚、气虚、阴阳两虚与中药中的元素的种类和含量息息相关。中医药不再是验方,是科学“数据”方。%Chinese medicine trace element data are published by the type of botanicals, animal drugs, biological carapace drugs, minerals, medicines and Chinese medicines, which is subdivided into relieving drugs, diarrhea prescription, antipyretic, diuretics for eliminating dampness, damp -dispel agent & diuret, cold dispelling agent, aromatic dampness drug, qi regulating agent, blood regulating agent, nourishing medicine, astringents, eliminate sputum drugs, digestants, analgesics, tranquilizing by nourishing the heart tranquilizing by nourishing the heart, external application drug, insect repellents, traditional Chinese medicine decoction. 747 kinds of detection of a total of 6 780 flavor Chinese medicine, each drug including the drug name, scientific name, family and genus, location, origin, element content, analytical methods and literature sources are expressed in form.Each medicine was determined of maximun 38, at least 4 and average 17 elements.Total 120,000 element data demonstrated. Each data meaning is well profound, such as the serial number for the 113′s yellow baicalensis of total 20 element determination in Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Henan, Jilin, Shaanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and other 50 different origin yellow baicalensis. Another example is the serial number 114 kiwi of total 23 element determination in eight different parts including flowers, fruit, leaves, branches, stems, roots, bark, juice.From the point of view of the elements to study traditional Chinese medicine from different areas, different parts of the medicinal properties of very scientific value and practical significance.Solution form, heat, qi, regulating blood herbal can also use a pattern recognition method to the study of

  17. TCM Trace Element Data (22)%中药微量元素数据(22)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增禧; 潘伟健; 谭永基; 劳志华; 黄丽仪; 肖永兵


    能指导临床用药很有帮助,甚至有些可用替代药,而且用中药治疗的阴虚、阳虚、气虚、阴阳两虚与中药中的元素的种类和含量息息相关。中医药不再是验方,是科学“数据”方。%Chinese medicine trace element data are published by the type of botanicals , animal drugs , biological carapace drugs , minerals, medicines and Chinese medicines , which is subdivided into relieving drugs , diarrhea prescription , antipyretic , diuretics for eliminating dampness , damp -dispel agent & diuret , cold dispelling agent , aromatic dampness drug , qi regulating agent , blood regulating agent , nourishing medicine , astringents , eliminate sputum drugs , digestants , analgesics , tranquilizing by nourishing the heart tranquilizing by nourishing the heart , external application drug , insect repellents , traditional Chinese medicine decoction . 747 kinds of detection of a total of 6 780 flavor Chinese medicine , each drug including the drug name, scientific name, family and genus, location, origin, element content, analytical methods and literature sources are expressed in form .Each medicine was determined of maximun 38 , at least 4 and average 17 elements.Total 120,000 element data demonstrated . Each data meaning is well profound , such as the serial number for the 113′s yellow baicalensis of total 20 element determination in Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Henan, Jilin, Shaanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and other 50 different origin yellow baicalensis . Another example is the serial number 114 kiwi of total 23 element determination in eight different parts including flowers, fruit, leaves, branches, stems, roots, bark, juice.From the point of view of the elements to study traditional Chinese medicine from different areas , different parts of the medicinal properties of very scientific value and practical significance .Solution form, heat, qi, regulating blood herbal can also