WorldWideScience

Sample records for astringents

  1. Astringency: A More Stringent Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yue; Gong, Naihua N.; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Despite being an everyday sensory experience, the nature of astringency perception is not clear. In this issue of Chemical Senses, Schöbel et al. demonstrate that astringency is a trigeminal sensation in human, and astringents trigger a G protein-coupled pathway in trigeminal ganglion cells in the mouse.

  2. Molecular Progress in Research on Fruit Astringency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  3. 21 CFR 349.10 - Ophthalmic astringent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic astringent. 349.10 Section 349.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.10...

  4. Mechanisms underlying astringency: introduction to an oral tribology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rutuja; Brossard, Natalia; Chen, Jianshe

    2016-03-01

    Astringency is one of the predominant factors in the sensory experience of many foods and beverages ranging from wine to nuts. The scientific community is discussing mechanisms that explain this complex phenomenon, since there are no conclusive results which correlate well with sensory astringency. Therefore, the mechanisms and perceptual characteristics of astringency warrant further discussion and investigation. This paper gives a brief introduction of the fundamentals of oral tribology forming a basis of the astringency mechanism. It discusses the current state of the literature on mechanisms underlying astringency describing the existing astringency models. The review discusses the crucial role of saliva and its physiology which contributes significantly in astringency perception in the mouth. It also provides an overview of research concerned with the physiological and psychophysical factors that mediate the perception of this sensation, establishing the ground for future research. Thus, the overall aim of the review is to establish the critical roles of oral friction (thin-film lubrication) in the sensation of astringency and possibly of some other specific sensory features.

  5. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchi, D; Poulain, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, 4 Place Jussieu, BP 126, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Konarev, P; Svergun, D I [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Tribet, C [Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et Milieux Disperses, CNRS UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: drazen@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2008-12-10

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of {beta}-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  6. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  7. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  8. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology. PMID:26776007

  9. Isolation and expression of NAC genes during persimmon fruit postharvest astringency removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ting; Wang, Miao-Miao; Wang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiaofen; Fang, Fang; Grierson, Donald; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2015-01-01

    NAC genes have been characterized in numerous plants, where they are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress, including low oxygen stress. High concentration of CO2 is one of the most effective treatments to remove astringency of persimmon fruit owing to the action of the accumulated anoxia metabolite acetaldehyde. In model plants, NAC genes have been identified as being responsive to low oxygen. However, the possible relationship between NAC transcription factors and persimmon astringency removal remains unexplored. In the present research, treatment with a high concentration of CO2 (95%) effectively removed astringency of "Mopan" persimmon fruit by causing decreases in soluble tannin. Acetaldehyde content increased in response to CO2 treatment concomitantly with astringency removal. Using RNA-seq and Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), six DkNAC genes were isolated and studied. Transcriptional analysis indicated DkNAC genes responded differentially to CO2 treatment; DkNAC1, DkNAC3, DkNAC5 and DkNAC6 were transiently up-regulated, DkNAC2 was abundantly expressed 3 days after treatment, while the DkNAC4 was suppressed during astringency removal. It is proposed that DkNAC1/3/5/6 could be important candidates as regulators of persimmon astringency removal and the roles of other member are also discussed. PMID:25599529

  10. Isolation and Expression of NAC Genes during Persimmon Fruit Postharvest Astringency Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Min

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NAC genes have been characterized in numerous plants, where they are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress, including low oxygen stress. High concentration of CO2 is one of the most effective treatments to remove astringency of persimmon fruit owing to the action of the accumulated anoxia metabolite acetaldehyde. In model plants, NAC genes have been identified as being responsive to low oxygen. However, the possible relationship between NAC transcription factors and persimmon astringency removal remains unexplored. In the present research, treatment with a high concentration of CO2 (95% effectively removed astringency of “Mopan” persimmon fruit by causing decreases in soluble tannin. Acetaldehyde content increased in response to CO2 treatment concomitantly with astringency removal. Using RNA-seq and Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE, six DkNAC genes were isolated and studied. Transcriptional analysis indicated DkNAC genes responded differentially to CO2 treatment; DkNAC1, DkNAC3, DkNAC5 and DkNAC6 were transiently up-regulated, DkNAC2 was abundantly expressed 3 days after treatment, while the DkNAC4 was suppressed during astringency removal. It is proposed that DkNAC1/3/5/6 could be important candidates as regulators of persimmon astringency removal and the roles of other member are also discussed.

  11. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    James A Kennedy; Jacqui M. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of ...

  12. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Kennedy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  13. Evaluation of unsaturated alkanoic acid amides as maskers of epigallocatechin gallate astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Backes, Michael; Reichelt, Katharina V; Ley, Jakob P; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Some foods, beverages, and food ingredients show characteristic long-lasting aftertastes. The sweet, lingering taste of high intensity sweeteners or the astringency of tea catechins are typical examples. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, causes a long-lasting astringency and bitterness. These sensations are mostly perceived as aversive and are only accepted in a few foods (e.g., tea and red wine). For the evaluation of the aftertaste of such constituents over a certain period of time, Intensity Variation Descriptive Methodology (IVDM) was used. The approach allows the measurement of different descriptors in parallel in one panel session. IVDM was evaluated concerning the inter- and intraindividual differences of panelists for bitterness and astringency of EGCG. Subsequently, the test method was used as a screening tool for the identification of potential modality-selective masking compounds. In particular, the intensity of the astringency of EGCG (750 mg kg(-1)) could be significantly lowered by 18-33% during the time course by adding the trigeminal-active compound trans-pellitorine (2E,4E-decadienoic acid N-isobutyl amide 1, 5 mg kg(-1)) without significantly affecting bitterness perception. Further, structurally related compounds were evaluated on EGCG to gain evidence for possible structure-activity relationships. A more polar derivative of 1, (2S)-2-[[(2E,4E)-deca-2,4-dienoyl]amino]propanoic acid 9, was also able to reduce the astringency of EGCG similar to trans-pellitorine but without showing the strong tingling effect. PMID:23582039

  14. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency. PMID:26948617

  15. Evolution of phenolic compounds and astringency during aging of red wine: effect of oxygen exposure before and after bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuti, Angelita; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen exposure of red wine, before (micro-oxygenation) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on the phenolic composition and astringency of wine. The astringency was evaluated by sensory analysis and by a method based on the SDS-PAGE of salivary proteins after reaction of saliva with wine (SPI, saliva precipitation index). Micro-oxygenation caused a stabilization of color, but this effect disappeared after long aging. For the wine with the lower pH a decrease of wine astringency and SPI was observed 42 months after micro-oxygenation. Oxygen ingress through the closure postbottling was positively correlated with the decrease of SPI. Therefore, the astringency and reactivity of wines toward salivary proteins of a bottled red wine can be modulated by controlled oxygen exposure during aging. For both experiments the effect of oxygen exposure depended on wine composition. PMID:23110349

  16. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  17. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  18. Persimmon breeding in Japan for pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) type with marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akihiko; Yamada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) originated in Eastern Asia, and many indigenous cultivars have been developed in China, Japan, and Korea. These cultivars are classified into four groups based on their natural astringency loss on the tree and seed formation: pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA), pollination-variant non-astringent (PVNA), pollination-constant astringent (PCA), and pollination-variant astringent (PVA). PCNA is the most desirable type because the fruit can be eaten without any postharvest treatment; therefore, one of the goals of our persimmon breeding programs is to release superior PCNA cultivars. The PCNA genotype is recessive to the other three non-PCNA genotypes, and PCNA-type F1 offspring are obtained exclusively from crosses among PCNA genotypes. Moreover, the number of superior PCNA cross-parents have been limited. In the late 1980s, inbreeding depression became obvious, especially in terms of fruit size, tree vigor, and productivity. To mitigate the inbreeding, a backcross program using PCNA [(non-PCNA × PCNA) × PCNA] was started in 1990. This process, however, was inefficient because only 15% of the offspring were PCNA, and all offspring had to be grown to the fruiting stage. Therefore, molecular markers linked to the PCNA locus were developed for discriminating PCNA offspring. A molecular marker linked to Chinese PCNA has also been developed. PMID:27069391

  19. Involvement of DkTGA1 Transcription Factor in Anaerobic Response Leading to Persimmon Fruit Postharvest De-Astringency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Gang Zhu

    Full Text Available Persimmon fruit are unique in accumulating proanthocyanidins (tannins during development, which cause astringency in mature fruit. In 'Mopanshi' persimmon, astringency can be removed by treatment with 95% CO2, which increases the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde by glycolysis, and precipitates the soluble tannin. A TGA transcription factor, DkTGA1, belonging to the bZIP super family, was isolated from an RNA-seq database and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that DkTGA1 was up-regulated by CO2 treatment, in concert with the removal of astringency from persimmon fruit. Dual-luciferase assay revealed that DkTGA1 had a small (less than 2-fold, but significant effect on the promoters of de-astringency-related genes DkADH1, DkPDC2 and DkPDC3, which encode enzymes catalyzing formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol. A combination of DkTGA1 and a second transcription factor, DkERF9, shown previously to be related to de-astringency, showed additive effects on the activation of the DkPDC2 promoter. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that DkERF9, but not DkTGA1, could bind to the DkPDC2 promoter. Thus, although DkTGA1 expression is positively associated with persimmon fruit de-astringency, trans-activation analyses with DkPDC2 indicates it is likely to act by binding indirectly DkPDC2 promoter, might with helps of DkERF9.

  20. Effect of flavonols on wine astringency and their interaction with human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Brás, Natércia F; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; de Freitas, Victor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2016-10-15

    The addition of external phenolic compounds to wines in order to improve their sensory quality is an established winemaking practice. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of quercetin 3-O-glucoside on the astringency and bitterness of wines. Sensory results showed that the addition of this flavonol to wines results in an increase in astringency and bitterness. Additionally, flavonol-human salivary protein interactions were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamic simulations (MD). The apparent Stern-Volmer (KsvApp) and the apparent bimolecular quenching constants (kqApp) were calculated from fluorescence spectra. The KsvApp was 12620±390M(-1), and the apparent biomolecular constant was 3.94×10(12)M(-1)s(-1), which suggests that a complex was formed between the human salivary proteins and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. MD simulations showed that the quercetin 3-O-glucoside molecules have the ability to bind to the IB937 model peptide. PMID:27173574

  1. Beta-cyclodextrin/surface plasmon resonance detection system for sensing bitter-astringent taste intensity of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Chen, Ronggang; Hiraoka, Masamitsu; Ujihara, Tomomi; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    2010-07-28

    To develop a methodology for creating a sensor with a receptor for specific taste substances, we focused on constructing a sensing system for the bitter-astringent taste intensity of green tea catechins: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECg), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin (EC). (1)H NMR titration experiments revealed that beta-cyclodextrin was an adequate receptor for sensing the bitter-astringent taste intensity of catechins. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system immobilized beta-cyclodextrin indicated larger responses for the gallate-type catechins in comparison to the non-gallate-type catechins. These responses corresponded to the tendency of the bitter-astringent taste intensity of the catechins felt by humans. Furthermore, the SPR system detected the larger stability of the complex between the gallate-type catechins and beta-cyclodextrin, which was interpreted as the aftertaste produced in humans by the gallate-type catechins. These results demonstrate that the beta-cyclodextrin/SPR system can sense the bitter-astringent taste intensity of the green tea catechins similar to human gustation. The methodology presented in this study can be used as a basic strategy for developing taste sensors with specific receptor functions. PMID:20572674

  2. Techniques for universal evaluation of astringency of green tea infusion by the use of a taste sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Maruyama, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Ujihara, Tomomi; Kohata, Katsunori

    2006-03-01

    A practical method for universal evaluation of the astringency of green tea infusion by a taste sensor system was established. The use of EGCg aqueous solution as a standard enabled analysis with high accuracy and reproducibility. The sensor output was converted into taste-intensity on the basis of Weber's and Weber-Fechner laws, which was named the "EIT(ast)" value ("EIT" and "ast" are abbreviations for "Estimated Intensity of Taste" and "astringency" respectively). It was clarified that green tea infusion is to be classified into eight grades on the EIT(ast) scale. Furthermore, the high correlation of the EIT(ast) value with the human gustatory sense and the high stability of the taste sensor were proved. PMID:16556977

  3. Identification of UDP-glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lilan; Yao, Shengbo; Dai, Xinlong; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wu, Yahui; Qian, Yumei; Pang, Yongzhen; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Galloylated catechins and flavonol 3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis). The mechanism involved in the formation of these metabolites remains unknown in tea plants. In this paper, 178 UGT genes (CsUGTs) were identified inC. sinensis based on an analysis of tea transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 132 of these genes were clustered into 15 previously established phylogenetic groups (A to M, O and P) and a newly identified group R. Three of the 11 recombinant UGT proteins tested were found to be involved in the in vitro biosynthesis of β-glucogallin and glycosylated flavonols. CsUGT84A22 exhibited catalytic activity toward phenolic acids, in particular gallic acid, to produce β-glucogallin, which is the immediate precursor of galloylated catechin biosynthesis in tea plants. CsUGT78A14 and CsUGT78A15 were found to be responsible for the biosynthesis of flavonol 3-O-glucosides and flavonol 3-O-galactosides, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Q373H substitution for CsUGT78A14 indicated that the Q (Gln) residue played a catalytically crucial role for flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase activity. The expression profiles of the CsUGT84A22, CsUGT78A14, and CsUGT78A15 genes were correlated with the accumulation patterns of β-glucogallin and the glycosylated flavonols which indicated that these three CsUGT genes were involved in the biosynthesis of astringent compounds inC. sinensis. PMID:26941235

  4. Novo processo de avaliação da adstringência dos frutos no melhoramento do caquizeiro New analytic process for persimmon astringency determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campo-Dall'orto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos trabalhos de melhoramento do caqui no Instituto Agronômico, é fato comum defrontar-se com grande número de frutos para serem analisados, de diferentes amostras colhidas no estádio de maturação comercial (de vez. Todas as amostras têm que passar por prova gustativa, ao lado de análises dos parâmetros de qualidade, como as do °Brix e do pH, eis que envolvem diferentes tipos de caqui - desde os fortemente adstringentes (taninosos até os praticamente desprovidos de tanino (doces. Nesse particular, pode-se aquilatar a dificuldade para o melhorista realizar tais testes, pois um grupo de caquis taninosos mascara o paladar de duas ou três amostras subseqüentes. Daí a necessidade de desenvolver um processo de análise indireta, a exemplo do presente, que consiste no tratamento da polpa dos frutos com a solução de cloreto férrico. A reação de coloração "achocolatada", em diferentes tonalidades, indica o grau de tanino que encerra, permitindo efetuar a tipificação preliminar dos caquis, sem a necessidade de degustação.In IAC persimmon breeding program there is usually the need of analyzing hundreds of fruit samples coming from different hybrid plants, aiming at the selection of the best genetic materials. Fruits are usually harvested unripe and classified as to the astringency level in tasting tests: constant "shibugaki", variable "shibugaki"/ "amagaki" and absence of astringency "amagaki". As misleading results have been obtained in tasting tests, an indirect procedure has been proposed to evaluate tannin levels in persimmon flesh. It is based on a color scale (dark blue/dark gray - astringent type; brown - variable astringency, and light gray-absence of astringency, detected after the application of 0.1 N iron chloride solution on persimmon flesh. The new method has shown good precision, allowing determination of a great number of samples in a short period of time.

  5. Tannins are Astringent

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar Ashok; Kumud Upadhyaya

    2012-01-01

    Tannins are obtained upon the decomposition of vegetation. They will generally be found in surface water supplies or shallow wells. Although these compounds are not a health risk, they are aesthetically displeasing. Tannins are difficult to remove from water. Tannins can cause a yellow to brown cast in water and may also affect a taste and odour.

  6. Remoção de adstringência de caqui: um enfoque bioquímico, fisiológico e tecnológico Removal of astringency in persimmon fruits: a biochemical, physiological and technological view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kazuhiro Edagi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Apenas na Ásia, centro de origem do caqui (Diospyros kaki L., existem mais de 2000 cultivares diferentes, das quais, a maioria é adstringente. Diante de tamanha variabilidade, existem diferentes métodos de remoção de adstringência, de tal forma que cada um deve ser adaptado a cada cultivar e local de produção. Tais métodos de destanização objetivam promover um acúmulo de acetaldeído na polpa dos frutos, o qual provoca a polimerização das moléculas de taninos solúveis, responsáveis pela adstringência, transformando-os num composto com consistência de gel, insolúvel e, assim, não adstringente. Entre os métodos mais utilizados estão: aplicação de vapor de álcool etílico, que ativa a enzima álcool dehidrogenase com subseqüente acúmulo de acetaldeído, e a promoção da anaerobiose, que induz a transformação do piruvato em acetaldeído em uma reação catalisada pela enzima piruvato descarboxilase. Neste trabalho de revisão, visa à discussão dos principais fatores a serem observados no processo de remoção da adstringência de caquis, como o método a ser utilizado, a temperatura de destanização, o tempo de exposição ao tratamento e o ponto de maturação dos frutos, entre outros.In Asia, the center of origin of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L., more than 2000 different varieties are present, most of then being astringent. Beyond such variability, there are a lot of different methods to remove the astringency of fruit and each treatment is more approachable for each cultivar and local of production. The different methods to remove the astringency are based, mostly, at the accumulation of acetaldehyde at the flesh fruit that induce the polymerization of the soluble tannin molecules, responsible for the astringency formation, turning them into an insoluble and non astringent substance. The most used methods are: ethanol vapor application which activates alcohol dehydrogenase and increases the acetaldehyde

  7. Remoção da adstringência de caquis 'Giombo' com subdosagens de etanol Astringency removal of 'Giombo' persimmon with ethanol sub-doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kazuhiro Edagi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da aplicação de subdosagens de etanol na remoção da adstringência de caqui 'Giombo'. Além disso, foi avaliada a influência da temperatura e do tempo de exposição ao etanol no processo de destanização dos frutos. Assim, foram testadas diferentes doses de etanol (1,75; 3,5 e 7mL kg-1 ou 0,3 e 0,6mL L-1 de câmara-1, tempos de exposição (6, 12, 24 e 36h e temperaturas de aplicação dos tratamentos e de armazenamento após a aplicação (5, 20 e 24°C. A exposição dos frutos à concentração de 1,75mL de etanol, durante 12 horas, foi suficiente para destanizar completamente os frutos. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, os frutos levaram quatro dias para estarem aptos ao consumo. A refrigeração de caquis 'Giombo', após o tratamento com etanol, não influenciou o posterior processo de polimerização dos taninos solúveis.The objective of this research was to evaluate ethanol sub-doses efficacy on the astringency removal of 'Giombo'. Additionally, it was evaluated the influence of temperature and ethanol exposure time on fruit deastringency. Thus, experiments were carried out with different exposition times (6, 12, 24 and 36h and ethyl alcohol concentrations (1.75; 3.5 e 7mL kg-1 or 0.3 and 0.6mL L-1 of chamber. Fruit exposition to ethanol concentration of 1.75mL during 12 h was sufficient to remove completely the persimmon fruit astringency. After the treatment application, the fruits needed 4 days to become suitable to consumption. The process of tannin polymerization is not influenced by cold storage.

  8. Antibacterial Action of a Condensed Tannin Extracted from Astringent Persimmon as a Component of Food Addictive Pancil PS-M on Oral Polymicrobial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Kiyoshi; Mukai, Yoshiharu; Saito, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Kumada, Hidefumi; Nihei, Tomotaro; Hamada, Nobushiro; Teranaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity against polymicrobial (PM) biofilms of a condensed tannin extracted from astringent persimmon (PS-M), which is contained in refreshing beverages commercially available in Japan. Salivary PM biofilms were formed anaerobically on glass coverslips for 24 and 72 h and were treated for 5 min with sterilized deionized water (DW), 0.05 and 0.2 wt% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), and 0.5-4.0 wt% PS-M solution. The colony forming units (CFU/mL) were determined and morphological changes of the biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CFUs were lower in all PS-M and CHX groups compared to the DW group. PS-M exerted a dose-dependent effect. PS-M (1.53 × 10(7)) at a dose of 4.0 wt% had the same effect as 0.2 wt% CHX (2.03 × 10(7)), regardless of the culture period. SEM revealed the biofilm structures were considerably destroyed in the 4.0 wt% PS-M and 0.2 wt% CHX. These findings indicate that the antibacterial effects of PS-M, a naturally derived substance, are comparable to those of CHX. PS-M may keep the oral cavity clean and prevent dental caries and periodontal disease related to dental plaque, as well as systemic disease such as aspiration pneumonitis. PMID:26981533

  9. Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors%烘青绿茶苦涩味及其滋味贡献物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英娜; 陈根生; 刘阳; 许勇泉; 汪芳; 陈建新; 尹军峰

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and their taste contributions, it was found that the main contributors for the bitterness of the baked green tea were EGCG and caffeine, and for the astringency were catechins and flavonoid glycosides. EGCG was the main catechin component for astringent taste, and EGC and ECG also had significant contribution. Que-rut and Que-gala were the main flavonoid glycosides, other glycosides including Myr-gala, Que-glu, Vit-rha, Kae-gala, Kae-rut, Kae-glu also had significant contribution for astringent taste. The analysis of the Dot values showed that free amino acids had no significant contribution to the umami tatste. This research preliminarily illuminated the main chemical contributors for the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and provided theory basis for the tea-quality improvement and taste-chemistry study.%对烘青绿茶苦涩味量化分析及其主要滋味贡献物质进行探讨。以不同嫩度烘青绿茶为原料,采用量化感官分析方法及化学分析手段分析了茶汤滋味分属性(包括苦味、涩味、鲜味和醇味等)和滋味化学成分含量,并建立了两者之间的相关性。研究结果表明,随着烘青绿茶嫩度的下降,其茶汤苦味、涩味和鲜爽味强度呈下降趋势,整体滋味品质也

  10. Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation%甜柿套袋微域生境与果实着色效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭创业; 苏彩虹; 张丽萍; 董少鹏

    2012-01-01

    Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation were studied with four kinds of bags. It was found that temperature difference between day and night inside dou- ble-layer bag with red interior layer was greatest among five treatments.Under the condition of sunny days, the temperature increased by 5.8 ℃ and 4.8℃ on September 18 to 21 and October 3 to 8 respectively, compared with that of the control. The effect of plastic film bag and double-layer bag on the moisture re- tention was better, which alleviated the relative humidity stress when air humidity was too low under fine, hot and dry weather. The light in double-layer bags was poor, there were only 0.8% and 0.4% PAR inside double-layer bag with red interior layer and double-layer bag with black interior layer rspectively at 14:00 pm on sunny days compared with the control. Different bagging materials formed different micro-environ- ment, which resulted in different effects on fruit coloring. The peel pigmentation was better in the treat- ment of double-layer bag with red interior layer, followed by double-layer bag with black interior layer. There was less difference between other treatments and control. On September 25, the peel pigmentation was N25B for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and 163B for control . On October 15, the peel pigmentation was 33A for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and N25B for control . It was found that at persimmon late growth stage, carotenoid content increased in all treatments, and paper bags re- duced carotenoids in peel In the late growth phase, the treatments reduced the flavonoid content except double-layer paper bags. Double-layer bag with red interior layer reduced Carotenoids and Flavonoids by 0.0178 mg. g-1 and 0.0706 mg g-1 at maturity compared with control.%对4种不同材质的果袋,进行套袋微域生境及果实着色试验,结果表明,双层内红袋处理昼夜温差较大,9月18—21日和10

  11. Effects of isoflavones on beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains Efeitos dos isoflavonóides no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros cozidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is the main limiting factor affecting soybean acceptability in the Occidental countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the effetcs of isoflavones on soybean flavor. Differences in beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains, prepared with cultivars IAS 5 and BR-36 (136 and 54 mg of total isoflavones /100 g of sample, respectively with pre-soaking and pre-heating of grains, were sensorially analised, by an unstructured category scale of ascending intensity. Differences in isoflavone contents for both soybean cultivars were maintained in the two products, despite the pre-treatments in the processing. Pre-soaking of grains intensified beany flavor in the soymilk, reducing the perception of astringency, which is caused by the aglucones that were developed in reduced amounts.The whole soybeans grains cooked under pressure (1.5 kgf/cm² at 127°C presented reduced levels of isoflavones malonyl-glucosides. Due to thermal instability, these compounds were converted to conjugated glucosides, genistin and daidzin. In the cooked whole soybean grains, no aglucones were formed and consequently it was not possible to detect differences in astringency. Results suggest that pre-heating of grains promote better flavor in soybean products.O sabor é o principal fator que limita a aceitabilidade da soja nos países ocidentais. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos dos isoflavonóides sobre o sabor da soja. Diferenças no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros de soja cozidos, preparados com as cultivares IAS 5 e BR-36 (136 e 54 mg isoflavonóides totais /100 g de amostras, respectivamente, com pré-maceração e pré-aquecimento dos grãos, foram analisadas sensorialmente, conforme uma escala não estruturada de categoria de intensidade ascendente. As diferenças no teor dos isoflavonóides das duas cultivares foram mantidas nos dois produtos

  12. Original article phenolic composition of European cranberry bush (viburnum opulus l.) Berries and astringency removal of its commercial juice

    OpenAIRE

    EKİCİ, Lütfiye; Poyrazoğlu, Ender Sinan

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic composition of the European cranberrybush (ECB) (Viburnum opulus L.) juice was determinedusing high-performance liquid chromatography. The juice contained 2037 mg kg)1 chlorogenic acid, whichwas 54% of total phenolics, and several other phenolics such as (+)-catechin, ())-epicatechin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and six different glucosides of quercetin. Because of its strong astringenttaste, the juices were treated with various doses of two different types of activat...

  13. Concrete with mineral and chemical addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the article interpretation of basic result research of cement concrete on astringent with grind wastage flotation concrete florin ore. Prove that introduction the highest wastage in composition astringent in quantitative to 20% from the masses of cement allowed find physical-technical description of concrete. More elective is Mark that, complex introduction in composition of astringent wastage of production florin and chemical plasticizer that will do contribute to acceleration velocity of hydrate wedge mineral of cement and forming strong structure of concrete

  14. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Javed; Sana Riaz; Muhammad Uzair; Gulam Mustafa; Ayesha Mohyuddin; Bashir Ahmad Ch.

    2016-01-01

    World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results...

  15. HS-GC-MS Volatile compounds recovered in freshly pressed and commercial Wonderful pomegranate juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption and production of superfruits has been increasing. Highly colored fruits often have bitter and astringent components that may make them undesirable, especially when processed. Many pomegranate volatile reports involved commercial samples, complicated isolation methods, or blending and ...

  16. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  17. Drug: D04594 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 22 Respiratory organ agents ...64 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2643 Ammonium agents D04594 Ammonia wate

  18. Drug: D04799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D04799 Hepari...noid (JAN) 3 Agents affecting metabolism 33 Blood and body fluid agents 333 Antic

  19. Drug: D06972 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D06972 Shiunkou 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  20. Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the face in winter with a scarf or mask. Avoid facial products with alcohol or other skin irritants (astringents, ... makeup helps to hide redness. Cool compresses, gel masks, and central face massage may be of some benefit. Benzoyl peroxide ...

  1. Drug: D01089 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 1 Agents affecting nervous system and sensory organs 13 Agents affecting sensory organs 131 Ophthalmic... agents 1314 Ophthalmic aseptic astringents D01089 Boric aci

  2. Quality assessment of oenological tannins utilising global selectivity chemical sensors array ("Electronic tongue")

    OpenAIRE

    Puech, Jean-Louis; Prida, A.; Isz, S.

    2007-01-01

    Oenological tannin is a common name for food additives containing tannins utilised in winemaking practices. The main taste feature of oenological tannin is the taste sensation of astringency and bitterness. In the present paper, samples of various oenological tannins (oak, chestnut, gall, tara, querbacho, grape seed and grape skin tannins) were analysed by means of a tasting panel, measuring the flavour attributes bitterness, astringency, body, duration of flavour and similarity with wine tan...

  3. Effect of processing on the physicochemical, sensory, nutritional and microbiological quality of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon

    OpenAIRE

    SANCHÍS SOLER, ELENA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) 'Rojo Brillante' is an astringent variety characterised by good growing conditions, excellent colour, size, sensory characteristics and good nutritional properties. In the last decade, its production has grown substantially in Spain given the application of high levels of CO2 to remove astringency while firmness is preserved. This technology has also increased its potential as a fresh-cut commodity. However, physical damage during processing result in degrad...

  4. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate activates TRPA1 in an intestinal enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogi, Mako; Miyashita, Megumi; Emoto, Yuri; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    A characteristic astringent taste is elicited by polyphenols. Among the polyphenols, catechins and their polymers are the most abundant polyphenols in wine and tea. A typical green tea polyphenol is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Currently, the mechanism underlying the sensation of astringent taste is not well understood. We observed by calcium imaging that the mouse intestinal endocrine cell line STC-1 responds to the astringent compound, EGCG. Among major catechins of green tea, EGCG was most effective at eliciting a response in this cell line. This cellular response was not observed in HEK293T or 3T3 cells. Further analyses demonstrated that the 67-kDa laminin receptor, a known EGCG receptor, is not directly involved. The Ca(2+) response to EGCG in STC-1 cells was decreased by inhibitors of the transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel. HEK293T cells transfected with the mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1) cDNA showed a Ca(2+) response upon application of EGCG, and their response properties were similar to those observed in STC-1 cells. These results indicate that an astringent compound, EGCG, activates the mTRPA1 in intestinal STC-1 cells. TRPA1 might play an important role in the astringency taste on the tongue. PMID:21890837

  5. Catechin content and the degree of its galloylation in oolong tea are inversely correlated with cultivation altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Heng Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The taste quality of oolong tea generated from leaves of Camellia sinensis L. cultivated in the same mountain area is positively correlated to the cultivation altitude, partly due to the inverse correlation with the astringency of the tea infusion. The astringency of oolong tea mostly results from the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly catechins and their derivatives. Four catechins, (--epicatechin (EC and (--epigallocatechin (EGC together with their gallate derivatives (with relatively high astringency, (--EC gallate (ECG and (--EGC gallate (EGCG, were detected as major compounds in oolong tea. The degrees of catechin galloylation, designated as ECG/(EC + ECG and EGCG/(EGC + EGCG, in both oolong tea infusions and their fresh tea leaves, were found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude at 200 m, 800 m, and 1300 m. A similar inverse correlation was observed when seven more oolong tea infusions and seven more fresh leaves harvested at altitude ranging from 170 m to 1600 m were recruited for the analyses. Moreover, catechin contents in oolong tea infusions were also found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude. It is proposed that catechin content and the degree of its galloylation account for, at least partly, the inverse correlation between the astringency of oolong tea and the cultivation altitude.

  6. Zapping Those Zits: Helping Teens Handle Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)

  7. Drug: D04769 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CORTICOSTEROIDS, COMBINATIONS WITH ANTIBIOTICS D07CA Corticosteroids, weak, combinations with antibiot..., anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2647 Antibiotics and adren...ics D07CA03 Prednisolone and antibiotics D04769 Fradiomycin sulfate - prednisolone mixt PubChem: 17398159 ...

  8. Paper Chromatography and UV-Vis Spectroscopy to Characterize Anthocyanins and Investigate Antioxidant Properties in the Organic Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Novak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A variety of fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, blueberries, Concord grapes, blackberries, strawberries, peaches, eggplant, red cabbage, and red onions, contain flavonoid compounds known as anthocyanins that are responsible for the blue-red color and the astringent taste associated with such foods. In addition, anthocyanins exhibit a…

  9. Investigation of possibility of magnesium-mineral composition production on the base of dolomite for immobilization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process features of producing of magnesium astringent substances on the base of magnesite and dolomite and their characteristic arc examined. The potential possibility of creation of compositional material based on caustic dolomite, that was obtained from natural dolomite raw materials of Belarus, for immobilization of radioactive waste is presented. (authors).

  10. [Chemical and sensory characterization of tea (Thea sinensis) consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; José Zúñiga, María; Fuenzalida, Regina; López-Planes, Reinaldo

    2005-03-01

    By means of descriptive analysis four varieties of tea (Thea sinensis) were assesed: Argentinean OP (orange pekoe) tea (black), Brazilian OP tea (black), Ceylan OP tea (black) and Darjeeling OP tea (green). The appearance of dry tea leaves were qualitatively characterized comparing with dry leaves standard. The attributes: colour, form, regularity of the leaves, fibre and stem cutting were evaluated The differences obtained were related to the differences produced by the effect of the fermentation process. Flavour and aroma descriptors of the tea liqueur were generated by a trained panel. Colour and astringency were evaluated in comparison with qualified standards using non structured linear scales. In order to relate the sensory analysis and the chemical composition for the different varieties of tea, following determinations were made: chemical moisture, dry material, aqueous extract, tannin and caffeine. Through multifactor regression analysis the equations in relation to the following chemical parameters were determined. Dry material, aqueous extract and tannins for colour and moisture, dry material and aqueous extract for astringency, respectively. Statistical analysis through ANOVA (3 variation sources: samples, judges and replications) showed for samples four significant different groups for astringency and three different groups for colour. No significant differences between judges or repetitions were found. By multifactor regression analysis of both, colour and astringency, on their dependence of chemist results were calculated in order to asses the corresponding equations. PMID:16187684

  11. Drug: D01170 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01170 Drug Zinc oxide (JP16/USP); Zinc oxide (TN) ZnO 79.9241 81.4084 D01170.gif Astringent: Pr ... CAS: 1314-13-2 PubChem: 7848233 NIKKAJI: J44.263A ATOM ... 2 1 Z Zn 23.5808 -18.6908 2 O0 O 25.5408 -18.6908 ...

  12. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  13. Drug: D01945 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01945 Drug Lead ... acetate (JAN); Lead ... acetate trihydrate; Lead ... acetate (TN) (C2H3O2)2. 3H2O. Pb 3 ... chings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2644 Lead ... compounds D01945 Lead ... acetate (JAN) CAS: 6080-56-4 ...

  14. Drug: D04800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04800 Mixture, Drug Heparinoid - adrenal extract - salicylic acid mixt; Amel S (TN...) Heparinoid [DR:D04799], Adrenal extract, Salicylic acid [DR:D00097] Therapeutic category: 2649 Therapeutic... anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D04800 Heparinoid - adrenal extract - salicylic acid mixt PubChem: 17398169 ...

  15. 对含噪声数据的一种鲁棒学习算法%A Robust Learning Algorithm for Noise Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰星; 章云; 符曦

    2000-01-01

    Allowing for the limitations of LS energy functionused in BP algorithm, this paper proposes a robust learning algorithmbased on the study of how clustering puts down radom noise's effects andthe consideration of intensified training for high-quality examples.Some simulation results demonstrate that the robust algorithm is clearlysuperior to BP algorithm in anti-disturbance and astringency.

  16. Improving the quality of asphalt coating with carbon nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisa, Urkhanova; Nikolay, Shestakov; Aleksandr, Semenov; Natalya, Smirnyagina; Irina, Semenova

    2015-07-01

    This article deals with the possibility of modifying the binder by adding carbon nanomodifier to bitumen to improve the quality of asphalt. Addition of 0.05%-0.5% of nanomodifier significantly changes the properties of bitumen. Asphalt with this astringent has increased strength, heat resistance and shear resistance.

  17. Drug: D08733 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08733 Mixture, Drug Dexamethasone - dry distillation tar of defatting soybean mixt...; Dexamethasone - glyteer mixt; Glymesason (TN) Dexamethasone [DR:D00292], Dry distillation tar of defatting...gs, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08733 Dexamethasone - dry distillation tar of defatting soybean mixt PubChem: 96025416 ...

  18. Drug: D08734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08734 Drug Dry distillation tar of defatting soybean; Glyteer (TN) Therapeutic cat...ermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08734 Dry distillation tar of defatting soybean PubChem: 96025417 ...

  19. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with 15N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg 15N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the 15N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded that the effect

  20. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

    2005-08-19

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded

  1. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity. 

  2. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. PMID:27451159

  3. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  4. Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel

    OpenAIRE

    Vinita D Apraj; Nancy S Pandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  5. STANDARDIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN. (FAMILY: MORACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap Supriya; Gahankari Harshita

    2013-01-01

    Ficus religiosa Linn. (Moraceae) has been traditionally claimed to be useful in asthmatic conditions, antidiarrhoeal, antiviral and astringent. It also shows antivenom activity. It is used in the treatment of various diseases such as cancer, inflammation or infectious diseases. In the present study, it includes standardization parameters which are carried out on leaves where successive soxhlet extraction of dried powdered leaves was carried out using petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and ...

  6. Tannins, Peptic Ulcers and Related Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Leonia Maria Batista; Petrônio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho; Marcelo Sobral da Silva; Josean Fechine Tavares; Jose Maria Barbosa-Filho; Gedson Rodrigues de Morais Lima; Thiago Jose de Almeida Leite; Heloina de Souza Falcão; Isis Fernandes Gomes; Neyres Zinia Taveira de Jesus

    2012-01-01

    This review of the current literature aims to study correlations between the chemical structure and gastric anti-ulcer activity of tannins. Tannins are used in medicine primarily because of their astringent properties. These properties are due to the fact that tannins react with the tissue proteins with which they come into contact. In gastric ulcers, this tannin-protein complex layer protects the stomach by promoting greater resistance to chemical and mechanical injury or irritation. Moreove...

  7. Salivary Amylase Induction by Tannin-Enriched Diets as a Possible Countermeasure Against Tannins

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa, G.; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Andersen, J.; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole sa...

  8. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, John E.; Harwood, Meriel L.; Gregory R Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increas...

  9. Skrining Fitokimia Daun Muda Dan Daun Tua Gaharu(Aquilaria Malaccensis Lamk) Serta Kaitannya Dengan Umur Pohon Yang Berpotensi Sebagai Antioksidan

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Eben E J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) Are now beginning to be used as a popular health drink. Necessary preliminary testing to determine the chemical compounds that are important for human health as well as the content of astringent tannins that give flavor. For that a study has been conducted in the laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Analysis Laboratory Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, USU in July-September 2014, with testing and Crude methanol extrac...

  10. Drug: D04773 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 26 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itchin...D04773 Mixture, Drug Betamethasone valerate - gentamicin sulfate (JP16); Rinderon-V...G (TN) Betamethasone valerate [DR:D01357], Gentamicin sulfate [DR:D01063] Therapeutic category: 2647 Therapeuti...gs, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2647 Antibiotics and adrenocorti...cotropic hormone mixtures D04773 Betamethasone valerate - gentamicin sulfate (JP16) PubChem: 17398161 ...

  11. Invitro and Invivo anticancer activity of Ethanolic extract of Canthium Parviflorum Lam on DLA and Hela cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Purushoth Prabhu T; Selvakumari.S; Panneerselvam P; Sivaraman.D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Wild Jessamine, Canthium Parviflorum Lam, ( fam: Rubiaceae) is traditionally used for snake bite in some villages in shimoga district of Karnataka. Canthium Species are used in the treatment of tumor, cough, astringent and anthlementic. Objective: In this study, invitro and invivo anticancer activity of crude ethanolic extracts from the leaves of Canthium Parviflorum Lam was investigated Method: The invitro anticancer activity was measured by MTT assay and Exclusion method. The in...

  12. Drug: D01083 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01083 Drug Calcium hydroxide (JP16/USP); Calkyl (TN) CaH2O2 73.9681 74.0927 D01083.gif Astringe ... CAS: 1305-62-0 PubChem: 7848146 NIKKAJI: J43.728J ATOM ... 3 1 Z Ca 18.6306 -14.5070 2 O1a O 17.2306 -14.5070 ...

  13. Pengaruh Penggunaan Film Pelapis Ca-ALGINAT Kitosan Dan Pelapis Plastik Terhadap Kadar Pati Roti Tawar Dan Pertumbuhan Isolat Bakteri

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Firdaus

    2011-01-01

    The prepared of film coating calcium alginate chitosan with examined the characteristic has been studied. Making of the film coating performed with interaction polikationik chitosan and polianionik alginate, then added with CaCl2 so that forms astringent. Khelat Ca-alginat chitosan has thickness of 200µm. Analysis SEM shows surface morphology of Ca-alginat chitosan experiences creasing at its surface after experiencing diffusion. Effectivity test Ca-alginat chitosan proved from broadness free...

  14. CYTOTOXIC (BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY ) AND ANTIOXIDANT INVESTIGATION OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.)”

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Asaduzzaman; Dr. Md. Sohel Rana; S.M. Raqibul Hasan; Md. Monir Hossain; Nittananda Das

    2015-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) gaertn. (Family: Barringtoniaceae), a medicinal small to medium evergreen tree known as ‘Hijal’, is used in diarrhoea, dysentery, colic, flatulence, cooling, aperients expectorant, stimulating emetic, astringents to the bowel, antihelminthic, bronchitis, lumber pain, hallucinations, seminal weakness, gonorrhoea and many other ailments in rural areas of Bangladesh It is also used as traditional medicine in other countries. But till to date, sporadic attempts have b...

  15. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, M. Jordão; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...

  16. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal Manoj; Pareek Anil; Batra Nikhil; Nagori Badri Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae) is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities w...

  17. Exploration of preliminary phytochemical studies of roots of ficus racemosa

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Murti; Upendra Kumar; Mayank Panchal; Megha Shah

    2011-01-01

    Micromorphological characters for Ficus racemosa are not reported. It is usedin Ayurveda for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and piles, rheumatism, skin disorderslike sores, teeth disorders, to boost immune system, as a hypoglycemic. Literature reportsthe number of uses like anthelmentic, astringent, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activityof this plant. The main constituents in the plant are carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, ster-oids, gums, mucilage, lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol...

  18. RECENT ADVANCES ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PLANT HELICTERES ISORA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabale Pramod M.; Grampurohit Nirmala D; Banerjee Subir K; Gaikwad Dushant D; Gadhave Manoj V.

    2012-01-01

    In India, use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been in vogue from ancient times and inherited traditionally. The fruits of Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae) have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in India for the treatment of griping bowels and diarrheal diseases. The roots and the bark are expectorant, demulcent, hypoglycemic and useful in colic, scabies, gastropathy, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruits are astringents, r...

  19. Cartographie génétique des composés phénoliques de la pomme

    OpenAIRE

    Verdu, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    In relation to their antioxidant potential, phenolic compounds are usually associated with a protective effect on the human health of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. They are also widely associated to the organoleptic quality of ciders since they affect bitterness, astringency, color and aroma. Two studies have recently been published on QTL detection for the phenolic content of dessert apple. No study has yet been published for cider apple, even though they are usually more concentrate...

  20. MALDI-TOF and HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS identification of phenolic compounds in Macedonian wines and grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Márk, László; Kilár, Ferenc; Boros, Borbala; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir

    2008-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the major quality parameters in the grape and thus in the resulting wine. They contribute to sensory characteristics of wines, particularly color and astringency, and possess a wide range of biochemical and pharmaceutical effects, including antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects. These constituents can be divided into two groups: non-flavonoids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and stilbens) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, fa...

  1. Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Medić-Šarić, M.; Rastija, V.

    2009-01-01

    Wine is an excellent source of various classes of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and trihydroxystilbene resveratrol (Fig.1). Polyphenols play a major role in wine quality since they contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine, particularly color and astringency. A recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by abundant evidence of their beneficial effects on human health, such as anticarcinogenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, n...

  2. Juglans regia L. leaves as a source of bioactive phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    André SANTOS; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves are considered a source of healthcare compounds, and have been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of skin inflammations, hyperhidrosis and ulcers and for its antidiarrheic, anti-helmintic, antiseptic and astringent properties [1]. Furthermore, they have been reported as a source of phenolic compounds [2,3].The beneficial effects derived from those compounds with interesting properties, such as anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic and c...

  3. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Three Varieties of Allium sativum L. Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Narendhirakannan, R. T.; K.Rajeswari

    2010-01-01

    Many herbs possess antioxidant ingredients that provide efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Allium sativum L. is a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases, rheumatism and tumors. The antioxidant activities of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of garlic bulb of three varieties were determined by the four assays i.e. DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power ability, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity. Du...

  4. Lignan Derivatives from Krameria lappacea Roots Inhibit Acute Inflammation in Vivo and Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Lisa; Sosa, Silvio; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Bodensieck, Antje; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Bauer, Julia; Favero, Giorgia Del; De Ponti, Cristina; Heiss, Elke H; Schwaiger, Stefan; Ladurner, Angela; Widowitz, Ute; Loggia, Roberto Della; Rollinger, Judith M.; Werz, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The roots of Krameria lappacea are used traditionally against oropharyngeal inflammation. So far, the astringent and antimicrobial properties of its proanthocyanidin constituents are considered to account for the anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present study was to characterize pharmacologically a lipophilic extract of K. lappacea roots and several isolated lignan derivatives (1–11) in terms of their putative anti-inflammatory activity. The dichloromethane extract (ID50 77 μg/cm2) as...

  5. Drug: D04806 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04806 Mixture, Drug Hydrocortisone acetate - diphenhydramine hydrochloride - fradiomycin sulfate mi...s, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D04806 Hydrocortisone acetate - diphenhydramin...xt; Strong restamin cortisone (TN) Hydrocortisone acetate [DR:D00165], Diphenhydramine hydr...e hydrochloride - fradiomycin sulfate mixt PubChem: 17398175 ... ... Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 26 Epidermides 264 Analgesics, anti-itching

  6. Sensory descriptors of cocoa beans from cultivated trees of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando; Lisbeth Chacón-Martínez; David Betancur-Ancona; Héctor Escalona-Buendía; Miguel Salvador-Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    The odor and taste profile of cocoa bean samples obtained from trees cultivated in southern Mexico were evaluated by trained panelists. Seven representative samples (groups) of a total of 45 were analyzed. Four attributes of taste (sweetness, bitterness, acidity and astringency), and nine of odor (chocolate, nutty, hazelnut, sweet, acidity, roasted, spicy, musty and off-odor) were evaluated. A sample (G7) with higher scores in sweet taste and sweet and nutty odors was detected, as well as a h...

  7. A computer program based on quasi-newton arithmetic for the simulation of Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to predict the distribution and chemical behaviors of U, Pu, nitric acid in the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, a computer program is developed. The mathematical model of the program is based on quasi-Newton arithmetic. The distribution profiles of 1 A and 2 D are calculated by the computer program, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. A conclusion can be drown that the program shows better astringency and precision

  8. Pengujian Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Sebagai Obat Luka Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Leaves of palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Contain alkaloids that have the ability as an antibacterial, astringent activity of flavonoids and saponins that can stimulate the formation of collagen, which plays a role in wound healing process and. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the ethanol extract gel palm leaves for the healing of burns. Palm’ leaf powder macerated by ethanol 80% for 5 days, filtered, the residue has extraction by ethanol, then the filtrate leave for 2 day and ...

  9. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also used in dental practice for the management of periodontal disease and to prevent halitosis. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of S. officinalis in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.

  10. Drug: D02845 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02845 Drug Aluminum chloride (USP) AlCl3. 6H2O 239.9515 241.4322 D02845.gif Astringent [topical ... sification [BR:br08303] D DERMATOLOGICALS D10 ANTI-ACNE ... PREPARATIONS D10A ANTI-ACNE ... PREPARATIONS FOR TOPIC ... AL USE D10AX Other anti-acne ... preparations for topical use D10AX01 Aluminium chl ...

  11. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Archela; Luiz Henrique Dall’Antonia

    2014-01-01

    One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is impo...

  12. Study of postharvest changes in the chemical composition of persimmon by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    BALTACIOĞLU, Hande; Nevzat ARTIK

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, sugars, and L-ascorbic acid content of persimmon fruits of 6 different persimmon cultivars obtained from Ordu, Turkey, were evaluated in this study. Four astringent persimmon cultivars (Türkay, Hachiya, 07 TH 13, and Moralı) and 2 nonastringent persimmon cultivars (Tozlayıcı and Fuyu) were used for analysis. In order to determine total phenolic content in persimmon fruits, the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method was used. High-...

  13. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Pramod; Harisha, C. R.; Prajapati, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., commonly known as Agasti, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases and for processing of various formulations in Rasashastra. It is used for its astringent, antihistaminic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive and febrifugal activities. Moreover, because of its edible nature, the leaves and pods are used as flavoring items in the cuisine of South India. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out. The diagnostic chara...

  14. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Precious Metals and Removal of Hazardous Metals Using Persimmon Tannin and Persimmon Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Katsutoshi Inoue; Manju Gurung; Ying Xiong; Hidetaka Kawakita; Keisuke Ohto; Shafiq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Novel and environmentally benign adsorbents were prepared via a simple sulfuric acid treatment process using the wastes of astringent persimmon, a type of biomass waste, along with persimmon tannin extract which is currently employed for the tanning of leather and as natural dyes and paints. The effectiveness of these new biosorbents was exemplified with regards to hydrometallurgical and environmental engineering applications for the adsorptive removal of uranium and thorium from rare earths,...

  15. Study of the Relationship between Taste Sensor Response and the Amount of Epigallocatechin Gallate Adsorbed Onto a Lipid-Polymer Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhei Harada; Yusuke Tahara; Kiyoshi Toko

    2015-01-01

    A taste sensor using lipid-polymer membranes has been developed to evaluate the taste of foods, beverages and medicines. The response of the taste sensor, measured as a change in the membrane potential caused by adsorption (CPA), corresponds to the aftertaste felt by humans. The relationships between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed taste substances, quinine and iso-α acid (bitterness), and tannic acid (astringency), have been studied so far. However, that of epigallocatechin gallate ...

  16. Development of a Beef Flavor Lexicon and Its Application to Compare Flavor Profiles and Consumer Acceptance of Grain- and Pasture-Finished Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Curtis A

    2011-01-01

    Flavor lexicons are used in sensory evaluation to determine the flavor profile of a food product. The objective of this study was to develop a flavor lexicon for cooked beef, which can then be used in various projects relating to beef quality such as studies investigating animal diet, marinating, ageing, or other enhancements. A descriptive panel of 10 people was used to develop a flavor lexicon of 18 attributes, including astringent, barny, bloody, brothy, browned, gamey, grassy, juicy, fa...

  17. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Radhiah Khairon

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determin...

  18. Skrining Fitokimia dan Karakterisasi Simplisia serta Uji Efek Antidiare Ekstrak Etanol Majakani Terhadap Tikus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Eko

    2015-01-01

    Majakani or also called gall of majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) is the result of abnormal growth of young twigs of plants. Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) is naturally used as astringents. The purpose of this research was to determine the chemical compounds content, the characteristic of simplex powder and the anti-diarrheal effect of the ethanolic extract of majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) to laboratory rats that were induced with castor oil beforehand. To the m...

  19. Optimization of cocoa nib roasting based on sensory properties and colour using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    D.M.H. A.H. Farah; Zaibunnisa, A.H Zaibunnisa, A.H; Misnawi Jati

    2012-01-01

    Roasting of cocoa beans is a critical stage for development of its desirable flavour, aroma and colour. Prior to roasting, cocoa bean may taste astringent, bitter, acidy, musty, unclean, nutty or even chocolate-like, depends on the bean sources and their preparations. After roasting, the bean possesses a typical intense cocoa flavour. The Maillard or non-enzymatic browning reactions is a very important process for the development of cocoa flavor, which occurs primarily during the roasting pro...

  20. PŘÍRODNÍ LÁTKY SVÍRAVÉ A TRPKÉ CHUTI

    OpenAIRE

    Čopíková, J.; Wimmer, Z. (Zdeněk); Lapčík, O.; Cahlíková, L.; Opletal, L.; J. Moravcová; Drašar, P.

    2014-01-01

    A brief survey of the naturally occurring astringent compounds aims to show the importance of this group of renewable materials to contribute to the knowledge of the biodiversity of secondary metabolites that can be utilized among others, in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The beauty and biodiversity of this group of mostly secondary metabolites are illustrated. The article is also aimed as teaching tool for teachers and students.

  1. A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós Asensio, Manuel; González Ramos, Daniel; Tabera Moreno, Laura; González García, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the β-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefor...

  2. Auto-oxidation products of epigallocatechin gallate activate TRPA1 and TRPV1 in sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogi, Mako; Kawai, Yasushi; Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Tateyama, Michihiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The sensation of astringency is elicited by catechins and their polymers in wine and tea. It has been considered that catechins in green tea are unstable and auto-oxidized to induce more astringent taste. Here, we examined how mammalian transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1, which are nociceptive sensors, are activated by green tea catechins during the auto-oxidation process. Neither TRPV1 nor TRPA1 could be activated by any of the freshly prepared catechin. When one of the major catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was preincubated for 3h in Hank's balanced salt solution, it significantly activated both TRP channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Even after incubation, other catechins showed much less effects. Results suggest that only oxidative products of EGCG activate both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons were also activated by the incubated EGCG through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that theasinensins A and D are formed during incubation of EGCG. We found that purified theasinensin A activates both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and that it stimulates DRG neurons through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Results suggested a possibility that TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are involved in the sense of astringent taste of green tea. PMID:25422365

  3. Evolution of phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its contribution to wine sensory properties and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoshan; Neves, Ana C; Fernandes, Tiago A; Fernandes, Ana L; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Vítor; Leandro, Conceição; Spranger, Maria I

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this work was to study the evolution of the phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its relationship with some sensory properties (astringency and bitterness) and antioxidant activities. Thus, red wine was made by a classic vinification method with Castelão and Tinta Miúda grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) harvested at maturity (3:2; w/w). Samples were taken at 2 and 7 days of maceration, at second racking, at the time of bottling and at 6 and 14 months after bottling. The total polyphenols extract (TPx) in each sample was isolated by column chromatography. The phenolic composition (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins), in vitro antioxidant activity, and sensory property (astringency, bitterness) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages were evaluated through high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl radical test, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, total phenolic index, MWI (polyphenol molecular weight index), TSA (tannin specific activity), and sensory panel tasting. The results showed that the phenolic composition of red wine varied significantly during winemaking. The intensity of astringency (IA) and the intensity bitterness (IB) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages increased from 2 days of maceration until second racking and then decreased. Furthermore, MWI and TSA are positively correlated with IA and IB. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages maintained unchanged after alcoholic fermentation, which was independent of the variation of phenolic composition and sensory properties. PMID:21561162

  4. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd. As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difusão radial. Para a DIVMS, foi utilizado método de dois estágios. Foram observadas diferenças entre as espécies (PCondensed tannins (CT of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus were characterized and the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of those species were determined. Concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT of the plants was determined using butanol-HCL method; astringency was determined, using radial diffusion method, and the IVDMD was determined using two-stages method. Concentration and astringency of condensed tannins varied between species (P<0.01. Jureminha was the species that presented the highest value (2.4% TT and 13.7-3 astringency. No tannins were detected in flor-de-seda. Crude protein was higher than 16% in all studied species, and the ADF and lignin values were lower than 39 and 15%, respectively. The IVDMD was low in jureminha (43% and high in flor-de-seda (80%. The correlation between IVDMD and TT was low (r²=0.097.

  5. Uses of turmeric in dentistry: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi T

    2009-01-01

    Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a dye, a flavoring, and a medicinal herb. In India, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and luster to the skin as well as vigor and vitality to the entire body. Since turmeric has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringent, and other useful properties, it is quite useful in Dentistry also...

  6. STANDARDIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN. (FAMILY: MORACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagtap Supriya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ficus religiosa Linn. (Moraceae has been traditionally claimed to be useful in asthmatic conditions, antidiarrhoeal, antiviral and astringent. It also shows antivenom activity. It is used in the treatment of various diseases such as cancer, inflammation or infectious diseases. In the present study, it includes standardization parameters which are carried out on leaves where successive soxhlet extraction of dried powdered leaves was carried out using petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water. All these extracts were subjected for in-vitro antimicrobial activity against the strains Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by cup plate method.

  7. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk): A Review

    OpenAIRE

    WABE, Nasir Tajure

    2011-01-01

    Catha edulis (khat) is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Its young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odor. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Many different compounds are found in k...

  8. What science says about khat (Catha edulis Forsk)? Overview of chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Tajure Wabe; Mohammed Adem Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Catha edulis (khat) is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odour. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Khat contains more than 40 alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Many different compounds are found...

  9. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  10. Chemical Composition profile of Acacia Nilotica Seed Growing Wild in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abbasian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acacia Nilotica is a pioneer species, relatively high in bioactive secondary compound and are important for a variety of functions is economically used as a source of tannins, gums, timber, fuel and fodder. Babul plant is therapeutic used as Anti-cancer, anti tumours, Antiscorbutic, Astringent, anti-oxidant, Natriuretic, Antispasmodial, Diuretic, Intestinal pains and diarrhea, Nerve stimulant, Cold, Congestion, Coughs, Dysenter, Fever, Hemorrhages, Leucorrhea, Ophthalmia and Sclerosis. The aim of this study was determination of proximate composition, mineral elements (Calcium, Potassium, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Selenium and Copper contents in this endemic Iranian seed.

  11. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF KALANCHOE PINNATA ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quazi Majaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Kalanchoe pinnata is widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine as astringent, analgesic, carminative and also useful in diarrhea and vomiting. Naturalized throughout the hot and moist parts of India. In this first roots are subjected to pet.ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous solvent respectively for extraction. And evaluation of antioxidant activity was done by DPPH scavenging, Nitric oxide scavenging and reducing power assay. Methanolic extract of roots of K. pinnata was found to be most effective as antioxidant as compare to other.

  12. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  13. Drug: D00552 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00552 Drug Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN); Parathesin (TN) C9H11...D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN) 2 Agents affecting individual organs 26 Epidermides ...264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocai...cal anesthetics D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC...RHOIDS AND ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AD Local anesthetics C05AD03 Benzocai

  14. Studies on the effects of honey incorporation on quality and shelf life of aonla preserve

    OpenAIRE

    Saghir Ahmad; Nanda Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Aonla is the richest sources of Vitamin C. The raw fruit, due to its high acidic nature and astringent taste is unacceptable to the consumers. Honey is a natural high energy sweetener with many medicinal values. Keeping in view the nutritional and therapeutic values of aonla fruit and honey, aonla preserve was prepared by incorporating 7.5 and 15% of honey into them. The quality of the products was evaluated based on the physicochemical (moisture, ash, pH, TSS, browning index and Vitamin C co...

  15. Increase in information by improvement of measuring method in a multichannel taste sensor; Multichannel aji sensor no sokutei hoho no kairyo ni yoru johoryo no zoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with lipid membranes which can detect and quantify the basic taste substances in aqueous solution. The aim of the present study is to increase selectivity to adsorptive taste substances (bitter, umami and astringent taste substances) for quantification of taste by improving measuring methods. High selectivity to adsorptive taste substances is obtained by CPA measurement algorithm (CPA: Change of membrane Potential caused by Adsorption). High repeatability is also obtained by developing a cleaning technique of taste sensor. 18 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Impact du stress hydrique sur la qualité de la vendange : l'exemple des flavonoïdes

    OpenAIRE

    Ageorges, Agnes; Terrier, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    La qualité des vins dépend étroitement de la composition des raisins dont ils sont issus. Les flavonoïdes sont des métabolites secondaires de la plante influant directement sur cette qualité, impliqués notamment dans leur couleur et la stabilité de cette couleur, et leur astringence. Comme de nombreux métabolites, leur synthèse dans la baie peut varier en fonction des conditions environnementales, et en particulier de l’état hydrique de la plante. Nous présenterons les structures et propriété...

  17. Uses of turmeric in dentistry: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a dye, a flavoring, and a medicinal herb. In India, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and luster to the skin as well as vigor and vitality to the entire body. Since turmeric has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringent, and other useful properties, it is quite useful in Dentistry also. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of turmeric in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory evaluation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabernet Sauvignon wines received gamma irradiation doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 KGy and were stored at 21°C for up to 18 months. As radiation dose and storage time increased, total anthocyanin concentration decreased, while color density, hue and color age increased. Acetaldehyde concentration increased with increasing radiation dose and decreased as storage time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference in color or astringency, but off-flavors were detected in wines given a 2.4 KGy dose. Use of gamma irradiation to rapid age Cabernet Sauvignon wines did not appear to be feasible

  19. 柿果实单宁细胞特征与总酚和缩合单宁含量的关系%Correlation between Characteristics of Tannin Cells and Total Phenolics and Condensed Tannins Contents in Persimmon Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宏义; 杨勇; 杨婷婷; 夏乐晗; 王仁梓

    2014-01-01

    In this study,51 accessions of mature persimmon fruits were used as materials to investigate the correlation between characteristics of tannin cells,and total phenolics and condensed tannins contents. The sizes and quantities of the tannin cells were observed with direct extrusion of soft persimmon fruits. A calculating method for determining the volume of tannin cells was explored in unit mass of mature fruits flesh. The total phenolics and condensed tannins contents were measured. The results showed that 1) The size and quantity of tannin cells in PCA ( pollination constant astringent) cultivars were larger,while those of Chinese PCNA ( pollination constant nonastringent ) and Japanese PCNA cultivars except for 'Suruga'were smaller. Part of the PCA cultivars was similar to PVA ( pollination variant astringent) and PVNA (pollination variant nonastringent) cultivars. 2) There was extreme significant (P <0. 01) correlations between the volume of tannin cells and total phenolics content as well as condensed tannins contents of mature persimmon fruit, respectively. 3) Cluster results showed that the volume of tannin cells was able tobe used as an index for classification of different types of persimmon cultivars.

  20. Evidence for functional heterogeneity both between and within four sources of condensed tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensed tannins are polymers of flavan-3-ols that are produced by many plants in a wide variety of tissues. The ability of these compounds to actively precipitate proteins has been linked to nutritional deficiencies in many animals. Four purified tannins (quebracho, wattle, pinto bean and sorghum) were compared to chemical assays and astringency towards [14C]-BSA. Quebracho and wattle tannins were much less astringent and had longer chain lengths that sorghum or pinto bean tannins. Quebracho tannin had a very high affinity for salivary proline-rich glycoproteins (PRPs) and pinto bean tannin alone had a measurable affinity for soybean trypsin inhibitor. This suggests that tannin/protein interactions in vivo may be very specific. Protein bound carbohydrate enhanced the binding of PRPs to tanning and conferred specificity on the interactions. Carbohydrate also increases the solubility of protein/tanning complexes, which may aid the animal in eliminating the complexes. [125I]-labeled condensed tannin was shown to retain the ability to discriminate between high and low affinity proteins. [125I]-labeled phenols were isolated from livers and kidneys of rats fed [125I]-labeled tannin. The techniques described in this thesis should be widely applicable to studying in vivo functions of condensed tannins

  1. Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J F

    1992-01-01

    Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

  2. Evaluation of a novel compule-based gingival retraction system in UK general dental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell John

    2014-06-01

    Twelve members were selected at random from the PREP panel, a group of UK-based dentists who are prepared to carry out research in their practices. A questionnaire was designed to determine the views of the participants, who were asked to use the retraction paste capsules where clinically indicated. They were asked to return the questionnaire after 8 weeks and the information contained therein was collated and presented mainly on visual analogue scales (VAS). A total of 160 impressions were taken using the Astringent Retraction Paste (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) plus use in the placement of 25 restorations. Of evaluators, 83% (n = 10) agreed that Astringent Retraction Paste was a suitable product for gingival retraction and 75% (n = 9) agreed that it had good haemostatic properties. Overall dispensing and handling of the paste was rated as 4.9 on a VAS scale where 1 = Inconvenient and 5 = Convenient. The viscosity of the paste was rated as 3.6 on a VAS where 1 = too thin and 5 = too thick. Good scores were achieved across all criteria for the product. Clinical Relevance: Practitioners may wish to be aware of a novel compule-based gingival retraction system. PMID:25073225

  3. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  4. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuang Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  5. Studies on the effect of environmental conditions and gamma rays on the capability of certain plant pathogenic fungi to produce the enzyme degrading tannic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannins (polyphenols and catechins) are distributed in species throughout the plant kingdom. They are commonly found in both gymnosperms as well as angiosperms. Histologically tannins are mainly physically located in the vacuoles or surface wax of plants. These storage sites keep tannins active against plant predators. Tannins themselves are found principally in the bark, leaves and immature fruits of a wide range of plants. They form complexes with proteins and other plant polymers such as polysaccharides. It is thought that the role of tannins in nature is one of the plant defense mechanisms. They have an astringent, aversive taste that is off-putting to wannabe herbivores. As an animal or insect begins to munch on plant tissues, the tannins are released from cellular compartments and bind with the proteins and other cell components, making them taste unpleasant and rather indigestible. Tannins are found in many foods and drinks such as tea plant, pomegranates, persimmons (kaki), berries (especially cranberries, strawberries and blueberries), nuts (especially hazelnuts, walnuts and pecans), beer, herbs and spices (especially cloves, tarragon, cumin, thyme, vanilla and cinnamon), legumes (especially red colored beans) and chocolate (6% tannins). It is worth to mention that apple juices, grape juices and berry juices are all high in tannins. Sometimes tannins are even added to juices to create a more astringent feel to the taste

  6. Study of the Relationship between Taste Sensor Response and the Amount of Epigallocatechin Gallate Adsorbed Onto a Lipid-Polymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Harada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A taste sensor using lipid-polymer membranes has been developed to evaluate the taste of foods, beverages and medicines. The response of the taste sensor, measured as a change in the membrane potential caused by adsorption (CPA, corresponds to the aftertaste felt by humans. The relationships between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed taste substances, quinine and iso-α acid (bitterness, and tannic acid (astringency, have been studied so far. However, that of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg has not been clarified, although EGCg is abundantly present in green tea as one of its astringent substances. This study aimed at clarifying the response of the taste sensor to EGCg and its relationship with the amount of EGCg adsorbed onto lipid-polymer membranes. The lipid concentration dependence of the CPA value was similar to that of the amount of adsorbed EGCg, indicating a high correlation between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed EGCg. The CPA value increased with increasing amount of adsorbed EGCg; however, the CPA value showed a tendency of leveling off when the amount of adsorbed EGCg further increased.

  7. Identifying key non-volatile compounds in ready-to-drink green tea and their impact on taste profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peigen; Yeo, Angelin Soo-Lee; Low, Mei-Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

    2014-07-15

    Thirty-nine non-volatile compounds in seven ready-to-drink (RTD) green tea samples were analysed and quantified using liquid chromatography. Taste reconstruction experiments using thirteen selected compounds were conducted to identify the key non-volatile tastants. Taste profiles of the reconstructed samples did not differ significantly from the RTD tea samples. To investigate the taste contribution and significance of individual compounds, omission experiments were carried out by removing individual or a group of compounds. Sensory evaluation revealed that the astringent- and bitter-tasting (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, bitter-tasting caffeine, and the umami-tasting l-glutamic acid were the main contributors to the taste of RTD green tea. Subsequently, the taste profile of the reduced recombinant, comprising of a combination of these three compounds and l-theanine, was found to not differ significantly from the sample recombinant and RTD tea sample. Lastly, regression models were developed to objectively predict and assess the intensities of bitterness and astringency in RTD green teas. PMID:24594147

  8. Study of the relationship between taste sensor response and the amount of epigallocatechin gallate adsorbed onto a lipid-polymer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yuhei; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A taste sensor using lipid-polymer membranes has been developed to evaluate the taste of foods, beverages and medicines. The response of the taste sensor, measured as a change in the membrane potential caused by adsorption (CPA), corresponds to the aftertaste felt by humans. The relationships between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed taste substances, quinine and iso-α acid (bitterness), and tannic acid (astringency), have been studied so far. However, that of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) has not been clarified, although EGCg is abundantly present in green tea as one of its astringent substances. This study aimed at clarifying the response of the taste sensor to EGCg and its relationship with the amount of EGCg adsorbed onto lipid-polymer membranes. The lipid concentration dependence of the CPA value was similar to that of the amount of adsorbed EGCg, indicating a high correlation between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed EGCg. The CPA value increased with increasing amount of adsorbed EGCg; however, the CPA value showed a tendency of leveling off when the amount of adsorbed EGCg further increased. PMID:25781512

  9. Evidence for functional heterogeneity both between and within four sources of condensed tannin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asquith, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    Condensed tannins are polymers of flavan-3-ols that are produced by many plants in a wide variety of tissues. The ability of these compounds to actively precipitate proteins has been linked to nutritional deficiencies in many animals. Four purified tannins (quebracho, wattle, pinto bean and sorghum) were compared to chemical assays and astringency towards (/sup 14/C)-BSA. Quebracho and wattle tannins were much less astringent and had longer chain lengths that sorghum or pinto bean tannins. Quebracho tannin had a very high affinity for salivary proline-rich glycoproteins (PRPs) and pinto bean tannin alone had a measurable affinity for soybean trypsin inhibitor. This suggests that tannin/protein interactions in vivo may be very specific. Protein bound carbohydrate enhanced the binding of PRPs to tanning and conferred specificity on the interactions. Carbohydrate also increases the solubility of protein/tanning complexes, which may aid the animal in eliminating the complexes. (/sup 125/I)-labeled condensed tannin was shown to retain the ability to discriminate between high and low affinity proteins. (/sup 125/I)-labeled phenols were isolated from livers and kidneys of rats fed (/sup 125/I)-labeled tannin. The techniques described in this thesis should be widely applicable to studying in vivo functions of condensed tannins.

  10. Two novel anoxia-induced ethylene response factors that interact with promoters of deastringency-related genes from persimmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Min

    Full Text Available A hypoxic environment is generally undesirable for most plants and stimulates anaerobic metabolism. It is a beneficial treatment, however, for the removal of astringency from persimmon to improve the fruit quality after harvest. High soluble tannins (SCTs content is one of most important causes of astringency. High CO2 (95% treatment effectively reduced SCTs in both "Mopan" and "Gongcheng-shuishi" persimmon fruit by causing increases in acetaldehyde. Using RNA-seq and realtime PCR, twelve ethylene response factor genes (DkERF11-22 were isolated and characterized, to determine those responsive to high CO2 treatment. Only two genes, DkERF19 and DkERF22, showed trans-activation effects on the promoters of deastringency-related genes pyruvate decarboxylase genes (DkPDC2 and DkPDC3 and the transcript levels of these genes was enhanced by hypoxia. Moreover, DkERF19 and the previously isolated DkERF9 had additive effects on activating the DkPDC2 promoter. Taken together, these results provide further evidence that transcriptome changes in the level of DkERF mRNAs regulate deastringency-related genes and their role in the mechanism of persimmon fruit deastringency is discussed.

  11. Sensory descriptors of cocoa beans from cultivated trees of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The odor and taste profile of cocoa bean samples obtained from trees cultivated in southern Mexico were evaluated by trained panelists. Seven representative samples (groups of a total of 45 were analyzed. Four attributes of taste (sweetness, bitterness, acidity and astringency, and nine of odor (chocolate, nutty, hazelnut, sweet, acidity, roasted, spicy, musty and off-odor were evaluated. A sample (G7 with higher scores in sweet taste and sweet and nutty odors was detected, as well as a high association between these descriptors and the sample, analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA. Similarly, samples that showed high scores for non-desired odors in cocoas such as off-odor and musty were identified and related by PCA to roasted odor and astringent taste (G2 and G4. Based on this scores, the samples were listed in descending order by their sensory quality as G7> G5> G6> G3> G1> G4> G2.

  12. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cocoa procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting were studied by heating up cocoa liquor of fermented beans containing 58 g kg-1 of polyphenols and the same liquor which was enriched with crude polyphenols, extracted from freeze-dried unfermented cocoa beans to a final concentration of 170 g kg-1. The liquors were roasted at 120 OC for 15, 25, 35 and 45 min with three replications. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean polyphenol was resistant against high temperature during heating of cocoa liquor 120 OC for up to 45 min. The resistance was stronger with the unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol than with fermented cocoa. High temperature promoted a small quantity of monomers up to pentamers of the fermented cocoa bean polyphenol to polymerize into higher oligomers, but did not with unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol. These results imply that the problem of lack in cocoa flavor in terms high astringency and bitterness due to high polyphenol content cannot be overcome by the application of high temperature during chocolate processing, meanwhile cocoa bean polyphenol could still give beneficial as an antioxidant even after high temperature application.Key words: Cocoa bean, polyphenol, procyanidin, tannin, roasting, antioxidant, flavor, astringency.

  13. Qualidade de caqui 'Rama forte' após armazenamento refrigerado, influenciada pelos tratamentos 1-MCP e/ou CO2 Quality of 'Rama Forte' perssimon following cold torage influenced by 1-MCP and/or CO2treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos com CO2 e 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre a adstringência (índice de tanino, firmeza da polpa e distúrbios da epiderme em caqui 'Rama Forte'. Frutos foram tratados com 1-MCP por 24 h, logo após a colheita e/ou com alto CO2 (70% por 24 ou 48 h, um dia após a colheita ou após o armazenamento refrigerado (AR. Os caquis foram armazenados sob atmosfera modificada a 0 ºC, por 45 dias, e a seguir mantidos a 23 ºC, por 9 dias. Frutos-controle (não tratados com 1-MCP nem com CO2 amoleceram em três dias e perderam aproximadamente 50% da adstringência em 6 dias após o AR. A exposição ao CO2 acelerou a redução da adstringência. Esse efeito do CO2 foi menor em frutos tratados com 1-MCP, especialmente quando o CO2 foi aplicado após o AR, por apenas 24 h. O tratamento com 1-MCP inibiu o amolecimento e a redução da adstringência, especialmente nos frutos não tratados com CO2. O amolecimento de frutos tratados com 1-MCP foi maior quando a exposição ao CO2 ocorreu antes do AR. A combinação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP e alto CO2 reduziu a incidência de podridões e manchas translúcidas, mas não alterou o desenvolvimento de pintas pretas ('estrias'. Os resultados indicam que é possível induzir perda da adstringência sem excessiva perda da firmeza da polpa de caquis 'Rama Forte' após o AR pela associação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP logo após a colheita e alto CO2 após o AR.This study evaluated the effects of CO2 and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene treatments on astringency (tannin index, flesh firmness and skin disorders on 'Rama Forte' persimmon. Fruit were treated with 1-MCP for 24 h right after harvest and/or with high CO2 (70% CO2 balanced with air for 24 or 48 h, one day after harvest or after cold storage (CS. Fruit were stored in modified atmosphere for 45 days at 0ºC and then held at 23ºC for 9 days. Control fruit (untreated with neither 1-MCP nor CO2 softened in 3 days and lost about 50

  14. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  15. Dietary inclusion of Quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii tannins on productive performances of growing pheasant females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Romboli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannins are a group of phenolic compounds which have received a lot of attention with respect to their possible nutritional and physiological actions. Tannins can be grouped into condensed and hydrolysable tannins, widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Hydrolysable tannins are polyester of phenolic acids such as gallic acid or ellagic acid or their derivatives and D-glucose. The condensed tannins are polymer of flavan-3-ols, flavan-3,4-diols or related flavanol residues linked via carbon–carbon bonds. There is evidence that high levels of tannins could produce adverse effects in animals. These effects can be instantaneous like astringency or a bitter or unpleasant taste or can have a delayed response related to antinutritional/toxic effects.

  16. Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcinia mangostana Linn,(Family; Guttiferae) is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin (1) (0.48% in yield, mp 146-152 ) and mangostin (2) (0.97% in yield, mp (179-180). The structures of these two compounds have been identified by UV, FT-IR, NMR and EIMS. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature

  17. persimmon tannin-formaldehyde gel decontamination of dilute aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in the present work, the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as (kakishibu) was found to have an extremely high affinity for uranium ion. to develop efficient adsorbent for uranium ion the juice was immobilized in formaldehyde. the removal of uranium ion onto the formed gel was found to be affected by several factors such as, concentration of formaldehyde in gel, equilibration time, solution ph, concentration of uranium ion, mass of adsorbent, presence of some cations and anions . the sorption isotherm was discussed in the light of Freundlich and Langmuir models. from Freundlich equation, the exponent 1/n was found in the range of 1>1/n0, δS0 and δG0 were calculated . the capacity of adsorbent was also determined by column technique and found to 20.20 mg/g

  18. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana

    2015-12-01

    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones. PMID:26604346

  19. Role of avian trigeminal sensory system in detecting coniferyl benzoate, a plant allelochemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubas, W J; Mason, J R

    1991-11-01

    Coniferyl benzoate, a secondary metabolite found in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and other plants, is an avian feeding deterrent of ecological and potential commercial importance. This study was conducted to determine if coniferyl benzoate is a trigeminal stimulant for birds and to ascertain if trigeminal chemoreception of coniferyl benzoate can mediate avian feeding behavior. Five European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with bilateral nerve cuts (ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve) and four starlings that had sham surgeries were fed a commercial diet treated with coniferyl benzoate. Birds receiving bilateral nerve cuts ate significantly more feed than intact birds, indicating trigeminal detection of coniferyl benzoate and trigeminal mediation of feeding behavior. In the past, trigeminal chemoreception has not been recognized as important in the detection of plant secondary metabolites despite the irritant or astringent properties of a number of them. PMID:24258600

  20. Digital Image Mosaic Technology Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Image mosaic technology is an important technology in the field of image processing. Based on the general adaptability and clustering of genetic algorithm, we improve it, and apply it to the mosaic algorithm in image processing. In this paper, we test the validity and reliability of the designed algorithm in the process of image mosaic algorithm. Based on the image illumination mosaic and painting texture mosaic image we achieve certain artistic effect. From the convergence results of general algorithm, the results of numerical show substantially concussion, oscillation amplitude reaches a maximum of . The calculation results of the genetic algorithm still have certain degree of concussion, oscillation amplitude reaches a maximum of , convergence results are slightly better than the general algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm results have no concussion, the stability is very good, and the results have better astringency.

  1. High-strength fiber concrete for industrial and civil construction (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyuyev S.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of using steelfiber for dispersed reinforce of fine-grained concrete is considered in the article. Research of steelfiber concrete patterns based on cement and compositional astringent material was held. The fine-grained cement and the binder with low water demand were used as the main binder. It is established that the application of composite binder and high density packing of the grains raises much the durability indicators. Algorithm and program for composition calculation of fine-grained steel fiber concrete based on technogenic sands enriched with Tavolzhan sands, that allow to get more compact packing of elongated pieces are developed. Optimal selection of filling material allowed to receive fiber concrete based on technogenic sand of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly with ultimate compressive strength equalled to 104,8 MPa, and with ultimate flexural strength 23,2 MPa for flexible structures.

  2. CYTOTOXIC (BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY AND ANTIOXIDANT INVESTIGATION OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia acutangula (L. gaertn. (Family: Barringtoniaceae, a medicinal small to medium evergreen tree known as ‘Hijal’, is used in diarrhoea, dysentery, colic, flatulence, cooling, aperients expectorant, stimulating emetic, astringents to the bowel, antihelminthic, bronchitis, lumber pain, hallucinations, seminal weakness, gonorrhoea and many other ailments in rural areas of Bangladesh It is also used as traditional medicine in other countries. But till to date, sporadic attempts have been made for the scientific and methodical validation of these traditional claims. In Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, all the extracts produced dose dependent cytotoxicity effect to brine shrimp nauplii with methanol extract of leaf exhibiting highest toxicity having LC50 value 46.24 μg/ml where standard vincristine sulphate had the LC50 value of 0.69 μg/ml. & In antioxidant attempt by reducing power and CUPRAC assays, pet. ether extract of leaf were found to exhibit moderate but concentration dependent reducing power respectively.

  3. Treatment of Diabete Diarrhea from the Spleen Experience%从脾论治糖尿病性腹泻体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽娟

    2011-01-01

    Professor ZHU summary treatment of diabetic diarrhea pathogenesis wins wet from the spleen of experience argument, mainly to benefiting vital energy and invigorating the spleen, or invigorating the spleen and dispersing the stagnated liver-energy, or warming and replenishing the spleen and kidney.Reconstitute aromatic drugs for resolving, or diaphoretic and wind-eliminating drugs, or astringents and hemostatics, in order to relieving the primary and secondary symptoms at the same time.%总结朱国茹教授治疗糖尿病性腹泻从脾虚湿胜病机立论的经验,以健脾益气为主,或健脾疏肝,或脾肾双补,治本的同时配合治标,酌加化湿药、祛风药、收涩药,起到标本兼顾的效果.

  4. Mimusops elengi: A Review on Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V. Kadam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethno botanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Mimusops elengi to which commonly known as Bakul and Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the ayurveda and in various folk system of medicine, the bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, some caoutchoue, wax, starch and ash and Flower contain volatile oil as well as Seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Preclinical studies have shown that Mimusops elengi or some part of its phytochemicals possess Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antihyperlipidemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antoxidant, Antipyretic, Cytotoxic, Congestive enhancing, Gingival bleeding, Gastic ulcer, Hypotensive activity

  5. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Manoj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities were attributed to the presence of a variety of active ingredients including triterpenoidal saponins , flavonol glycosides, ursolic and oleanolic acids either alone or with their derivatives. A comprehensive account of the morphology, photochemical constituents, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.

  6. Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Flavour determinants in tea infusions and their changes during manufacturing processes were studied using Camellia sinensis cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') possessing significant floral scents and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD') with common green tea odour. Metabolite profiling based on odour activity threshold revealed that 'BAS' contained higher levels of the active odorants β-ionone, linalool and its two oxides, geraniol, epoxylinalool, decanal and taste determinant catechins than 'FUD' (pmanufacturing processes, the levels of linalool and geraniol decreased whereas those of β-ionone, linalool oxides, indole and cis-jasmone increased. Compared with pan-fire treatment, steam treatment reduced the levels of catechins and proportion of geraniol, linalool and its derivatives, consequently, reducing catechin-related astringency and monoterpenol-related floral scent. Our study suggests that flavour determinant targeted modulation could be made through genotype and manufacturing improvements. PMID:27374591

  7. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  8. MENDED GENETIC BP NETWORK AND APPLICATION TO ROLLING FORCE PREDICTION OF 4-STAND TANDEM COLD STRIP MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dazhi; Sun Yikang; Wang Yanping; Cai Hengjun

    2004-01-01

    In order to make good use of the ability to approach any function of BP (back propagation) network and overcome its local astringency,and also make good use of the overall search ability of GA (genetic algorithms),a proposal to regulate the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms is suggested.An integrated network system of MGA (mended genetic algorithms) and BP algorithms has been established.The MGA-BP network's functions consist of optimizing GA performance parameters,the network's structural parameters,performance parameters,and regulating the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms.Rolling forces of 4-stand tandem cold strip mill are predicted by the MGA-BP network,and good results are obtained.

  9. A Review on Herbal Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangh Partap

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethno botanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Mimusops elengi to which commonly known as Bakul and Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the ayurveda and in various folk system of medicine, the bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, some caoutchoue, wax, starch and ash and Flower contain volatile oil as well as Seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Preclinical studies have shown that Mimusops elengi or some part of its phytochemicals possess Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antihyperlipidemic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antoxidant, Antipyretic, Cytotoxic, Congestive enhancing, Gingival bleeding, Gastic ulcer, Hypotensive activity.

  10. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  11. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F;

    2008-01-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The...... possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5......% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva...

  12. The Analysis of Economic Growth Cycle in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data of practical GDP time sequences from 1978 to 2009 provided by Henan Statistical Yearbook of every year,Hodrick-Prescott filter model is established,and it is disintegrated into tendency component(potential yield)and fluctuation component(yield gap).The critical division loci of filter model are 4 wave crest years(1980,1988,1996 and 2007),and 3 trough years(1984,1992 and 2002).Thus since the opening up and reform,the economic growth fluctuation of Henan can be divided into 3 complete cycles and 2 incomplete cycles.Based on the economic situation and background within and without province,we preliminarily conclude the stage-characteristics of all growth cycles and the probable reasons of fluctuation.On the whole,the economic growth cycle of Henan takes on astringency to some extent,and sustainability and stability are reinforced,showing the characteristics of growth-type cycle increasingly.

  13. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae. Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH . In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.

  14. Path Following Control of an AUV under the Current Using the SVR-ADRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel active disturbance rejection control (ADRC controller is proposed based on support vector regression (SVR. The SVR-ADRC is designed to force an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV to follow a path in the horizontal plane with the ocean current disturbance. It is derived using SVR algorithm to adjust the coefficients of the nonlinear state error feedback (ELSEF part in ADRC to deal with nonlinear variations at different operating points. The trend of change about ELSEF coefficients in the simulation proves that the designed SVR algorithm maintains the characteristics of astringency and stability. Furthermore, the path following errors under current in simulation has proved the high accuracy, strong robustness, and stability of the proposed SVR-ADRC. The contributions of the proposed controller are to improve the characteristics of ADRC considering the changing parameters in operating environment which make the controller more adaptive for the situation.

  15. Ethnomedicinal and Phytochemical Prospectives of Pyrus Communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Arya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinal implies the usage of medicinal plants used by a group of people on account of their traditional knowledge and phytochemical means the individual chemical that plant contains. This review involves the ethnomedicinal and phytochemical prospectives of Pyrus communis Linn. In the “The Indian Materia Medica”, the common pear or gabbu gosha is considered as ‘Amritphala’ because of its immense potenial in human health care system.Various phenolic glucoside compounds have been isolated and identified from Pyrus communis Linn. e.g. arbutin, quercitin, kaempferol, fredielin, sterols, isoquercitrin, ursolic acid,sorbitol,astragalin, phloridzin and various tannins responsible for different activities viz. in urinary therapeutics,as skin whitenining agent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, astringent, spasmolytic. Also used in diabetes because of low sucrose content.

  16. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (p<0.05). This is the first study that evaluates the toasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. PMID:27211676

  17. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  18. Pharmacognostical Evaluation and Qualitative Analysis of Saccharum spontaneum (L. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharum spontaneum L. known as Kasa (Family: Poaceae is a traditional herb, it has excellence medicinal value; has been advocated in the treatment gynaecological troubles, respiratory disease. Roots are used as galactagogue and diuretic and in ayurveda system roots are also used as astringent, emollient, refrigerant, diuretic, purgative, tonic, aphrodisiac and useful in treatment of dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles and sexual weakness. Various parameters like macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis as well as extractive value and quantitative phytochemical screening of different extractives were studied. The major components of the extractives like total phenolic, total flavonoids were also estimated respectively. The characteristic of microscopy, physicochemical, fluorescence analysis and quantitative chemical screening were performed in root extractives of the plant material as a mean of authentication.

  19. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Precious Metals and Removal of Hazardous Metals Using Persimmon Tannin and Persimmon Wastes

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    Katsutoshi Inoue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel and environmentally benign adsorbents were prepared via a simple sulfuric acid treatment process using the wastes of astringent persimmon, a type of biomass waste, along with persimmon tannin extract which is currently employed for the tanning of leather and as natural dyes and paints. The effectiveness of these new biosorbents was exemplified with regards to hydrometallurgical and environmental engineering applications for the adsorptive removal of uranium and thorium from rare earths, cesium from other alkaline metals such as sodium, hexa-valent chromium from zinc as well as adsorptive recovery of gold from chloride media. Furthermore, reductive coagulation of gold from chloride media for the direct recovery of metallic gold and adsorptive recovery of palladium and platinum using chemically modified persimmon tannin extract were studied. OPEN

  20. Bioactive properties of honey with propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, S M; Pascual-Maté, A; Fernández-Muiño, M A; López-Díaz, T M; Sancho, M T

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, propolis is used as an innovative preservative and as a bioactive food supplement. Due to its bitter and astringent flavour, propolis is hardly accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain a likeable food product made with honey and propolis, whose antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were enhanced in comparison with those of the base honeys used. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% soft propolis extracts were added to honeys and the products that most appealed to the users were subjected to further research. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities increased in all mixtures. Antimicrobial activity of the combined products showed synergic effects, resulting in higher results than those of the base honeys and propolis extracts. Therefore, honeys enriched with small amounts of propolis extracts are promising functional foods. PMID:26593609

  1. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (ptea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste. PMID:24594160

  2. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

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    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  3. Growth temperature affects sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and sugars in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Hagen, Sidsel F; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Mølmann, Jørgen A B

    2016-04-01

    Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures. PMID:26593487

  4. Quitosana no controle pós-colheita da podridão mole em caqui 'rama forte' Chitosan on the postharvest control of soft rot in 'rama forte' persimmon

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    Patrícia Cia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da quitosana, aliada ao processo de destanização, no controle de Rhizopus stolonifer em caqui 'Rama Forte' e sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo in vitro. Caquis foram submetidos ao processo de destanização com CO2 (70% / 18 horas, em tambores herméticos, sendo em seguida submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de esporos de R. stolonifer (3x10(5 esporos mL-1. Após inoculação, os frutos permaneceram por 2 horas a 25 °C, quando foram imersos em quitosana (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, por 1 minuto. Os frutos foram mantidos a 25 °C / 80% UR e avaliados quanto à severidade e incidência da podridão mole, durante cinco dias. Após o período de armazenamento, avaliaram-se a coloração de casca, a firmeza e o índice de adstringência. In vitro, avaliou-se o crescimento micelial em placas contendo meio BDA incorporado com quitosana ou ácido cítrico. Os resultados mostraram que a quitosana, a 1,5%, reduz a severidade e a incidência da podridão mole em caquis e não influencia no processo de perda de adstringência, firmeza e na coloração de casca. In vitro, a quitosana inibe completamente o crescimento micelial de R. stolonifer, em concentração tão baixa quanto 0,5%.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of chitosan in addition to de-astringency process on the control of Rhizopus stolonifer in 'Rama Forte' persimmon and on in vitro mycelial growth. Persimmon were submitted to de-astringency process using CO2 (70% / 18 h, in hermetic chambers. Next, fruit were inoculated through subcuticular injections of a R. stolonifer spore suspension (3x10(5 spore mL-1 and 2 hours later at 25 °C immersed into chitosan (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%, for 1 min. Fruit were stored at 25 °C / 80% RH, and checked for rot severity and incidence of soft rot, during 5-days of storage. After storage the skin color, firmness and astringency index were evaluated in persimmons. In vitro, mycelial

  5. Transducer modeling and compensation in high-pressure dynamic calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chikun; Li, Yongxin

    2005-12-01

    When the RBF neural network is used to establish and compensate the transducer model, the numbers of cluster need to be given in advance by using Kohonen algorithm, the RLS algorithm is complicated and the computational burden is much heavier by using it to regulate the output weights. In order to overcome the weakness, a new approach is proposed. The cluster center is decided by the subtractive clustering, and LMS algorithm is used to regulate the output weights. The noise elimination with correlative threshold plus wavelet packet transformation is used to improve the SNR. The study result shows that the network structure is simple and astringency is fast, the modeling and compensation by using the new algorithm is effective to correct the nonlinear dynamic character of transducer, and noise elimination with correlative threshold plus wavelet packet transformation is superior to conventional noise elimination methods.

  6. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Khairon, Radhiah

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin. PMID:22899953

  7. Quantitative evaluation of dermatological antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, C S; Leitch, A E; Tidman, M J

    2015-12-01

    Topical antiseptics are frequently used in dermatological management, yet evidence for the efficacy of traditional generic formulations is often largely anecdotal. We tested the in vitro bactericidal activity of four commonly used topical antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus, using a modified version of the European Standard EN 1276, a quantitative suspension test for evaluation of the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. To meet the standard for antiseptic effectiveness of EN 1276, at least a 5 log10 reduction in bacterial count within 5 minutes of exposure is required. While 1% benzalkonium chloride and 6% hydrogen peroxide both achieved a 5 log10 reduction in S. aureus count, neither 2% aqueous eosin nor 1 : 10 000 potassium permanganate showed significant bactericidal activity compared with control at exposure periods of up to 1 h. Aqueous eosin and potassium permanganate may have desirable astringent properties, but these results suggest they lack effective antiseptic activity, at least against S. aureus. PMID:26456933

  8. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILE OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Chellappan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. (P. foetida are commonly known as skunk vine or Chinese fever vine, are used for various ailments medicinally throughout Asia and other tropical parts of the world by traditional healers. The plant is mainly used for arthritis and rheumatic disorders. The whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions and has been used in tenesmus. This present work presents a detailed pharmacognostical study of the leaf of the crude drug P. foetida. The samples were studied using procedures of light, confocal microscopy, WHO recommended physico-chemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. The physico-chemical, morphological and histological parameters presented in this study may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of P. foetida and may possibly help to differentiate the drug from its adulterants.

  9. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties. PMID:26616985

  10. Variation of physicochemical and sensory properties during the aging of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Alexi Holowaty

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate infusion is widely consumed in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. One of the processing steps used in Argentina is aging. The following three methods were used to age yerba mate: 1 air humidity and temperature-controlled aging; 2 temperature-controlled aging and 3 no control. The aim of this research was to determine the physicochemical and sensory attribute differences when yerba mate was aged using these three methods. The concentration of caffeine, glucose, fructose, maltose and phenolic compounds and pH diminished in all three aging methods but by different percentages. The sensory attributes did not exhibit uniform behaviour. Astringency remained constant in the first method and diminished in the other two. Bitterness increased in all three methods but by different percentages. Sweetness  diminished in all three methods. Notably few correlations were determined between physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  11. Azadirachta indica : A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update

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    T Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research.

  12. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

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    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  13. Variations in oxygen and ellagitannins, and organoleptic properties of red wine aged in French oak barrels classified by a near infrared system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Albertin, Warren; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-08-01

    During wine aging in barrels, antioxidant molecules from wood, such as ellagitannins, are solubilized and react with wine molecules and oxygen. However, their concentrations are highly variable. Oxygen is an important factor, as it plays a role in wine parameters and organoleptic perceptions. Five barrel modalities were used; three polyphenol indices (IP), classified using the NIRS procedure, and three grain qualities. Barrels were equipped with windows to measure the oxygen using luminescence technology. The ellagitannin concentrations in the wine and its organoleptic properties were monitored. Oxygen concentrations decreased quickly during the first 8days of aging and this phenomenon was significantly more marked in barrels with a higher IP and medium grain. The ellagitannin concentrations were believed to be correlated with wood classification and oxygen consumption. Furthermore, the organoleptic properties were significantly impacted, as the wine with the lowest ellagitannin level was described as less astringent, bitter, woody, and smoky/toasty. PMID:26988516

  14. Effect of terroir on the phenolic compounds of Muscat of Bornova Wines from 3 different sub-regions of Aegean, Turkey

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    Karaoğlan Selin N. Yabaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the phenolic compounds of wines from Muscat of Bornova, a native aromatic white grape variety (Vitis vinifera grown in the Aegean region of Turkey and the influence of terroir (Menderes, Halilbeyli and Kemaliye sub- regions on these compounds were investigated. From Muscat of Bornova growing sub regions, Menderes/İzmir has a typical Mediterranean climate at around 90 m altitude which is located Eagean cost area with a fertile sandy-loamy soil; Halilbeyli/İzmir sub-region is located in inner İzmir, close to Manisa with 115 m altitude with same soil structure of Menderes. Kemaliye/Manisa has a transition climate between Mediterranean and continental climate at about 245 m altitude. Its soil is pale with a distinct amount of lime (∼30% and sandy-loamy, as well. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array dedector (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry (MS were used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Four flavanols, eight phenolic acids and a flavonol were identified and quantified. It was observed that the total phenolic content in the Halilbeyli sub-region was the highest, fol- lowed by the Menderes and Kemaliye sub-regions. Procyanidin B4 was the most abundant flavanol and quercetin-3-O-glucoside was the only flavonol identified in all regions’ wines. Sensory analysis was also used to investigate the influences of terroir. Statistically significant (0.05 regional differences were observed. Based upon sensory analysis, the wine obtained from Halilbeyli was darker in color, and had more astringency and bitterness than the others, and was the least popular wine. Kemaliye and Menderes were both preferred due to their better coloring, flavour, less astringency and bitterness attributes.

  15. KANDUNGAN SENYAWA BIOAKTIF DAN KARAKTERISTIK SENSORIS EKSTRAK SIMPLISIA BUNGA KAMBOJA (PLUMERIA SP.

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    LUH PUTU WRASIATI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to identify the bioactive compounds and sensory characteristics of simplisia extract of frangipani. The kinds of frangipani used in this research were ”Local Bali” frangipani and ”Cendana” frangipani which belong to Plumeria alba, and pink frangipani and ”Sudamala” frangipani which are member of Plumeria rubra. The method used in this research was explorative method to find out the bioactive compounds such as tannin, total phenol, and vitamin C content. The study also observed the sensory characteristics such as flavour, aroma, and colour of simplisia extract of frangipani. The results indicated that the highest tannin content was found in simplisia extract of ”Cendana” frangipani (4.02%, and the lowest tannin content was found in local frangipani (2.32%. The highest total phenol content was found at simplisia extract of ”Sudamala” frangipani (18.94 mg GAE/g and the lowest content was found at ”Local Bali” frangipani (15.11 mg GAE/g. The highest value of vitamin C was found in ”Cendana” frangipani (2.76 mg/100 g, and the lowest value was found at pink frangifani (1.89 mg/100 g. The panelist preference test indicated that the color of frangipani extract ranged from yellow and brown up to brownies red (color score ranged from 2.66 until 3.97. The score of frangipani extract aroma ranged from 3.58 until 4.07 with criteria of a little specific frangipani smelt until specific frangipani. While, the preference test for flavor indicated that the score of frangipani taste ranged from 3.51 until 4.12 with the criteria of rather astringent and a little sour to astringent.

  16. Optimization of cocoa nib roasting based on sensory properties and colour using response surface methodology

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    D.M.H. A.H. Farah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Roasting of cocoa beans is a critical stage for development of its desirable flavour, aroma and colour. Prior to roasting, cocoa bean may taste astringent, bitter, acidy, musty, unclean, nutty or even chocolate-like, depends on the bean sources and their preparations. After roasting, the bean possesses a typical intense cocoa flavour. The Maillard or non-enzymatic browning reactions is a very important process for the development of cocoa flavor, which occurs primarily during the roasting process and it has generally been agreed that the main flavor components, pyrazines formation is associated within this reaction involving amino acids and reducing sugars. The effect of cocoa nib roasting conditions on sensory properties and colour of cocoa beans were investigated in this study. Roasting conditions in terms of temperature ranged from 110 to 160OC and time ranged from 15 to 40 min were optimized by using Response Surface Methodology based on the cocoa sensory characteristics including chocolate aroma, acidity, astringency, burnt taste and overall acceptability. The analyses used 9- point hedonic scale with twelve trained panelist. The changes in colour due to the roasting condition were also monitored using chromameter. Result of this study showed that sensory quality of cocoa liquor increased with the increase in roasting time and temperature up to 160OC and up to 40 min, respectively. Based on the Response Surface Methodology, the optimised operating condition for the roaster was at temperature of 127OC and time of 25 min. The proposed roasting conditions were able to produce superior quality cocoa beans that will be very useful for cocoa manufactures.Key words : Cocoa, cocoa liquor, flavour, aroma, colour, sensory characteristic, response surface methodology.

  17. Phenolic Composition and Sensory Properties of Ciders Produced from Latvian Apples

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    Riekstina-Dolge Rita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.

  18. Characterization of condensed tannins from native legumes of the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid Caracterização dos taninos condensados em leguminosas nativas do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro

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    Patrícia Mendes Guimarães-Beelen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible influence of tannins on the nutritional value of the forages from Caatinga vegetation, there are few studies that evaluated their tannin concentration. This study was conducted to characterize condensed tannins present in the legumes species Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá and Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, at three stages of their phenological cycle. The concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT were determined using the butanol-HCL method; astringency was by the radial diffusion method, and the monomeric composition of purified tannins by a high-performance liquid chromatograph with delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin as standards. Concentration and astringency of purified condensed tannins, as well as their monomeric composition varied between species, and in some cases among phenological cycles. The values observed were always above the limits considered beneficial for ruminal digestion (i.e. 5%. Jurema Preta presented the highest values (30.98% TT and 22% astringency at full growth stage, and Mororó the lowest (10.38% TT and 14% astringency during fructification. Jurema Preta presented a mean relationship prodelfinidin (PD: procyanidin (PC of 97:3, which did not vary during the phenological cycle, showing the high astringent capacity of these tannins. Sabiá presented a relationship of 90:20 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 40:50 at fructification. In Mororó the PD:PC relationship was more equilibrated, around 40:50 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 35:60 During fructification. Propelargonidin was not detected or was present at low concentration in the three species.Apesar da possível influência do tanino sobre o valor nutritivo das forrageiras da Caatinga, poucos são os estudos que avaliam a concentração de taninos nestas plantas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os taninos condensados

  19. 杀青方式对夏季绿茶化学成分及滋味品质的影响%Study on the Effects of the Fixation Methods on the Chemical Components and Taste Quality of Summer Green Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁丹丹; 戴伟东; 谭俊峰; 彭群华; 张悦; 林智

    2016-01-01

    杀青是绿茶加工的关键工序,对绿茶品质的形成具有重要作用。为探究杀青方式对夏季绿茶化学成分及滋味品质的影响,采用超高效液相色谱-四级杆-飞行时间质谱(UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)对微波杀青、滚筒杀青、蒸汽杀青3种杀青方式加工后的夏季绿茶进行化学成分分析,同时,分别采用咖啡碱、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯和谷氨酸钠为标准苦味、涩味和鲜味物质对3种杀青方式加工的夏季绿茶进行滋味强度分析。液质联用分析结果表明,蒸汽杀青、滚筒杀青、微波杀青对夏季绿茶中的儿茶素、黄酮糖苷、原花青素、聚酯型儿茶素、氨基酸、酚酸和有机酸等化学成分含量具有明显的影响。滋味等效量化结果表明,杀青方式可以较明显地改变夏季绿茶的滋味,不同杀青方式加工绿茶的苦味强度为:滚筒杀青>蒸汽杀青>微波杀青;涩味强度为:蒸汽杀青>滚筒杀青>微波杀青;鲜味强度3种杀青方式间无统计学显著差异。%As a key processing craft, fixation plays a key role in the formation of green tea quality. To study the effects of fixation methods on the summer green teas, a method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) combined with equivalent-quantification of the tea taste, in which caffeine, epigallocatechin gallate and sodium glutamate were used as bitter, astringent, and umami reference, respectively, was applied to investigate the difference of the chemical components and taste quality in summer green teas made by microwave fixation, rotary continuous fixation and steam fixation, respectively. Results of LC-MS analysis demonstrated that the contents of catechins, flavonol/flavone glycosides, procyanidins, theasinesins, amino acids, phenolic acids, and organic acids were significantly influenced by the fixation methods

  20. Destanização e conservação de frutos de jambolão Detannization and conservation of Jambolan fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseana Severo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas alternativas para a redução da adstringência (destanização e conservação de frutos de jambolão (Syzygium cumini, L.. Para isso, no primeiro experimento, os frutos foram colhidos no estádio meio-maduro, mantidos sob temperatura ambiente e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: controle (atmosfera normal, 98kPa CO2, 20kPa CO2, 98kPa N2, etileno (100ppm, 1-MCP (1ppm seguido de etileno (100ppm e 3,85mL de etanol absoluto L-1. Foram avaliados os teores de acetaldeído e de taninos solúveis, a firmeza e a adstringência dos frutos. No segundo experimento, os frutos foram colhidos no estádio maduro e armazenados em atmosfera modificada passiva, sob temperatura ambiente (AMPA, 23±1°C e atmosfera modificada passiva refrigerada (AMPR, 4±1°C, pelo período de cinco, 10 e 15 dias. Frutos provenientes dos tratamentos com N2, etileno e etanol apresentaram os melhores resultados quanto à destanização, com aumento nos teores de acetaldeído e diminuição dos taninos solúveis e da adstringência; entretanto, os tratamentos com etileno e etanol causaram amolecimento excessivo nos frutos. O armazenamento em AMPR conservou melhor a coloração roxo-azulada dos frutos e, além de prevenir a incidência de fungos, auxiliou na manutenção dos teores de fenóis totais e de ácido ascórbico e na atividade antioxidante dos frutos.Alternative methods were investigated for the reduction of astringency (detannization and conservation of Jambolan fruit (Syzygium cumini, L.. In the first experiment, fruits were harvested at an intermediate ripening stage, maintained at room temperature and subjected to the following treatments: control (normal atmosphere, 98kPa CO2, 20kPa CO2, 98kPa N2, ethylene (100ppm, 1-MCP (1ppm followed by treatment with ethylene (100ppm and 3,85mL absolute ethanol L-1. Acetaldehyde, soluble tannin, fruit firmness and astringency were evaluated. In the second experiment, fruits were harvested ripe and stored under

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Rezt. in rats

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    W Panunto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Terminalia chebula Retz. has been extensively used in traditional medicine for laxative, carminative, astringent, expectorant, and tonic. The chronic toxicity of water extract has not yet been studied. To evaluate its safety, the water extract from the dried fruits of T. chebula was orally administrated in rats. For acute toxicity, a single oral administration was performed at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (five females, five males. The study of chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both female and male rats (ten females, ten males daily with the test substance at the dose of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 270 days. The results of acute toxicity showed no signs of toxicity such as general behavior changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histophatological changes of the internal organs of rats. The examinations of signs of chronic toxicity showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. Hematological and blood chemical values in treated groups were normal in comparison with the control group. Non-toxicity effect of T. chebula was present as no changes in body weight, internal organ weight, and general behaviors. Macroscopic or microscopic of internal organs or tissues in treated rats showed no changes. Therefore, the water extract of T. chebula given orally to female and male rats did not produce both acute and chronic toxicities in rats. Industrial relevance: The use of medicinal plants and preparations derived from them as dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional foods and herbal medicinal products has become more widely accepted in developing countries. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the adverse effects of these plants and their preparations. Among them, T. chebula has received high attention because decoction of its fresh and dried fruits is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several illnesses such as laxative, carminative

  2. Research on Inhibition Effects of Sodium 2-[(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl)oxy]-propionate on After-bitterness of High-intensity Sweeteners%2-[(4-甲基-1,2-苯并吡喃酮-7-基)氧基]丙酸钠对高倍甜味剂后苦味抑制效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚静; 郑建仙

    2014-01-01

    采用感官分析法,研究了不同浓度2-[(4-甲基-1,2-苯并吡喃酮-7-基)氧基]丙酸钠的苦味和涩味,2-[(4-甲基-1,2-苯并吡喃酮-7-基)氧基]丙酸钠对糖精钠、安赛蜜和甜菊糖苷这3种甜味剂后苦味的抑制效果,以及对5种基本味感的影响。结果表明:2-[(4-甲基-1,2-苯并吡喃酮-7-基)氧基]丙酸钠浓度较高时会有苦涩味;当其浓度为200 mg/kg 时可以使糖精钠、安赛蜜和甜菊糖苷的后苦味有一定程度的下降,但对每一种苦味物质的作用效果有所不同;2-[(4-甲基-1,2-苯并吡喃酮-7-基)氧基]丙酸钠有一定的增咸效果,对咖啡的苦味有一定程度的抑制作用,对酸味、甜味、鲜味基本无影响。%The bitterness and astringency intensity of different concentration of sodium-2-[(4-methyl-2-oxo-2 H-1-benzopyran-7-yl)oxy]-propionate is evaluated by sensory analysis method.Meanwhile, its inhibition effects on after-bitterness of saccharin sodium,acesulfame-K and stevia,as well as its impact on five basic tastes are measured.The results show that sodium-2-[(4-methyl-2-oxo-2 H-1-benzopyran-7-yl)oxy]-propionate has bitterness and astringency at relatively higher concentration. When its content is 200 mg/kg,the after-bitterness of saccharin sodium,acesulfame-K and stevia de-creases to a certain extent,but the effect on each bitter substance is different.Sodium-2-[(4-methyl-2-oxo-2 H-1-benzopyran-7-yl)oxy]-propionate has inhibition effect on the bitterness of coffee,while it does not affect sourness,sweetness and umami.

  3. Short-term changes in eating patterns explain the effects of condensed tannins on feed intake in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau; Silanikove; Nitsan; Barkai; Baram; Provenza; Perevolotsky

    2000-10-01

    Ingestion of condensed tannins decreases feed intake in ruminants. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) forms high-affinity complexes with tannins. In two experiments carried out on Holstein heifers, quebracho (Q) from the Aspidosperma quebracho served as source of condensed tannins. The aims of the study were (i) to quantify the effect of Q on feed intake and eating behaviour in cattle fed complete mixed diets (CMDs); (ii) to clarify if changes induced in ingestive behaviour and feed intake by Q in cattle can be reversed by feeding PEG; and (iii) to clarify if the decrease in feed intake is associated with short-term (astringency, post-ingestive malaise) or longer-term effects. In experiment 1, 500 g/day of Q was found to be the minimal dose that decreased feed intake in heifers. A ratio of PEG:Q equal to 1:12.5 did not fully restore feed intake. In experiment 2, four heifers received a random sequence of four rations in a Latin-square design with feeding cycles of ca. 7 days: CMD containing no supplements (C), or supplemented with 625 g/day of Q without PEG (Q), with 625 g/day of Q and 250 g/day of PEG (Q-PEG), or with 250 g/day of PEG without Q (PEG). Individual rations were continuously weighed in the trough and the behaviour of heifers was observed for 180 min after distribution of CMD. Overall, feeding Q was associated with lowered feed intake and shorter duration of eating bouts, mainly of the first eating bout, immediately after distribution of the diet. A larger portion of the diet was consumed subsequent to 180 min after distribution in Q-fed heifers. Eating rate and the water to food ratio were not affected by Q. The effects of Q on feed intake were attenuated by feeding PEG. Heifers adapted effectively to condensed tannins by increasing the number of eating bouts and the portion of diet consumed subsequent to 180 min after distribution, so that no differences in feed intake were noted on the last day of each feeding cycle. Data are interpreted to show that: (i

  4. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to present a sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders (GSP). The combined sensory evaluation approach, involving a descriptive and an affective test, respectively, was applied to evaluate the effect of the addition of grape skin powders from 2 grape varieties (Barbera and Chardonnay) at different levels [0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%; weight (wt) powder/wt curd] on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of innovative soft cow milk cheeses. The experimental plan envisaged 7 products, 6 fortified prototypes (at rates of Barbera and Chardonnay of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%) and a control sample, with 1 wk of ripening. By means of a free choice profile, 21 cheese experts described the sensory properties of prototypes. A central location test with 90 consumers was subsequently conducted to assess the acceptability of samples. The GSP enrichment strongly affected the sensory properties of innovative products, mainly in terms of appearance and texture. Fortified samples were typically described with a marbling aspect (violet or brown as function of the grape variety) and with an increased granularity, sourness, saltiness, and astringency. The fortification also contributed certain vegetable sensations perceived at low intensity (grassy, cereal, nuts), and some potential negative sensations (earthy, animal, winy, varnish). The white color, the homogeneous dough, the compact and elastic texture, and the presence of lactic flavors resulted the positive drivers of preference. On the contrary, the marbling aspect, granularity, sandiness, sourness, saltiness, and astringency negatively affected the cheese acceptability for amounts of powder, exceeding 0.8 and 1.6% for the Barbera and Chardonnay prototypes, respectively. Therefore, the amount of powder resulted a critical parameter for liking of fortified cheeses and a discriminant between the 2 varieties. Reducing the GSP particle size and improving the GSP

  5. Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

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    O. A. Wintola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alepidea amatymbica is an important medicinal plant in Southern Africa with a long history of traditional use for the management of conditions like colds, coughs, sore throat, influenza, asthma, and abdominal cramps. Despite the much acclaimed traditional uses of the plant, there is a dearth of scientific information on the review of this plant. Hence, this review is aimed at providing information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of A. amatymbica. This review uses all the synonyms of the plant obtained from the plant list. Google scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus were made use of in addition to the University of Fort Hare’s online databases. All the phytochemical studies on Alepidea amatymbica obtained from the literature reported the presence of kaurene-type diterpenoids and their derivatives. Pharmacological areas identified on A. amatymbica fresh and dried extract include antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, astringent, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelminthes, antihypertensive, anti-HIV, and diuretic activities. Literature search on A. amatymbica revealed the use of cell line, brine shrimps, and rats for the determination of the toxicity in the plant. Clinical trials and product development to fully exploit the medicinal value are also required to validate its folklore use in traditional medicine.

  6. Atividade antibacteriana de extratos do caule de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae Antibacterian activity of extracts from wood of Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae

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    Tânia Ueda Nakamura

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae é uma árvore nativa das florestas do Paraná, Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como adstringente, emética, no combate à leucorréia e na lavagem de úlceras e feridas. Extratos de diferentes polaridades, obtidos do caule, foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Do extrato hexânico foi isolada uma mistura de sitosterol (50,40%, estigmasterol (21,70% e campesterol (22,80%, que apresentou uma concentração mínima inibitória (CIM de 0,5mg/mL sobre Staphylococcus aureus.Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae is a native tree found in forests of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and used in folk medicine as astringent and emetic substance against leukorrhea and in the washing of ulcers and wounds. Extracts of different polarity obtained from the stem were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Hexane extract yielded a mixture of sitosterol (50,40%, stigmasterol (21,70% and campesterol (22,80% which showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0,5mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Development of a fractionation method for the detection and identification of oak ellagitannins in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina

    2010-02-15

    During maturation and ageing in oak barrels wines improve their organoleptic properties. Ellagitannins can be released from wood to the wine and be involved in oxidation reactions and seem to influence the astringency and colour properties of the wine. Nevertheless, the ellagitannins levels are lower than those of other wine constituents and, consequently, they are not easily detected. This study has developed a two-step fractionation method consisting of a solid phase extraction in C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges followed by size exclusion chromatography in hand-packed Sephadex LH-20 minicolumn for the detection of oak ellagitannins in different types of wines. An HPLC method has also been developed which allows the separation of compounds with the same m/z ratios, facilitating the ellagitannin identification by means of the mass spectrometric analyses. The main oak ellagitannins (grandinin, vescalagin, roburin E and castalagin) were isolated, detected separately and identified in a spiked wine and in three real ones, proving the usefulness of the fractionation method. PMID:20103159

  8. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling. PMID:27118482

  9. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  10. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  11. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  12. A BRIEF STUDY ON MARIGOLD (TAGETES SPECIES: A REVIEW

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    Dixit Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tagetes species belonging to family Asteraceae, are most common in plant kingdom, which is used in different areas like cosmetic preparation, medicines as well as it is most widely used as ornamentals. It is found in different colors and different fragrance. Yellow color is most common. Flowers are mainly used for the all these purposes by the extraction process. Lutein is an oxycarotenoid, or xanthophyll, containing 2 cyclic end groups (one beta and one alpha-ionone ring and the basic C-40 isoprenoid structure common to all carotenoids. It is one of the major constituents and the main pigment of Tagetes erecta. It has a strongly aromatic essential oil (Tagetes oil, quercetagetin, a glucoside of quercetagetin, phenolics, syringic acid, methyl-3, 5-dihydroxy-4- methoxy benzoate, quercetin, thienyl and ethyl gallate, terpines, and other important phytochemical constituents from the different part of the plant. The leaves are reported to be effective against piles, kidney troubles, muscularpain, ulcers, and wounds. The flower is useful in fevers, epileptic fits (Ayurveda, astringent, carminative, stomachic, scabies and liver complaints and is also employed in diseases of the eyes. It shows different pharmacological activities like Anti-bacterial Activity, Anti-microbial Activity, hepatoprotective activity, Insecticidal activity, Mosquitocidal activity, Nematicidal activity, Wound healing activity, Anti oxidant and Analgesic activity Larvicidal activity ,Sub acute toxicity studies also studies Tagetes species for Nematode Management in details.

  13. Pharmacognostic Standards for Mimusops elengi Linn - A Review

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    Rakesh S Shivatare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. Pharmacognostic studies of crude drug plays a very important role in identification, purity and quality of crude drugs. The Mimusops elengi Linn.commonly known Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. The bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, triterpenoids and flower contain volatile oil as well as seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on pharmacognostic standards of Mimusops elengi Linn. and it may be useful in developing new standards for Mimusops elengi.

  14. A Review of Herbal Medicine in Iranian Traditional Manuscripts for Treatment of Participatory Gastric Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participatory gastric headache is a type of headache described in Iranian traditional medicine. It is defined as a headache not originated from the head and neck disorders; rather the pain in the head is caused by gastric dysfunction and its disorders. Treatment of this type of headache is completely reliant on the treatment of the gastric complaint. Reviewing Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) literature, a broad spectrum of herbal medicines that could be useful in the treatment of this type of headache is described. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the therapeutic management of this disorder in ITM and evaluating related characteristics of each medicinal herb. Methods: In this study, medicinal plants prescribed for gastric headache from different ancient Iranian literature is documented. The botanical name, family name, part used, temperaments, rout of administration and dosage forms are provided in this article. Results: About 40 plants, mainly used orally, were prescribed for the treatment of participatory gastric headache. Most of them have the astringent effect, which is related to their dryness temperament. Therefore, they could strengthen the stomach and prevent ascending vapors into the brain that in turn helps to get relief from headache. In addition, they possess reinforcement effect on the brain. Conclusion: In general, herbal medicines with tonic characteristics could be effective in participatory gastric headache.

  15. What science says about khat (Catha edulis Forsk? Overview of chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology

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    Nasir Tajure Wabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Catha edulis (khat is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odour. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Khat contains more than 40 alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Many different compounds are found in khat including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The phenylalkylamines and the cathedulins are the major alkaloids which are structurally related to amphetamine. The major effects of khat include those on the gastro-intestinal system and on the nervous system. Constipation, urine retention and acute cardiovascular effects may be regarded as autonomic (peripheral nervous system effects; increased alertness, dependence, tolerance and psychiatric symptoms as effects on the central nervous system. The main toxic effects include increased blood pressure, tachycardia, insomnia, anorexia, constipation, general malaise, irritability, migraine and impaired sexual potency in men. The purpose of this review is to summarize the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology of khat (Catha edulis Forsk. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 29-37

  16. Antioxidant Action of Mangrove Polyphenols against Gastric Damage Induced by Absolute Ethanol and Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

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    Felipe Meira de-Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle, the red mangrove, has long been known as a traditional medicine. Its bark has been used as astringent, antiseptic, hemostatic, with antifungic and antiulcerogenic properties. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a buthanolic fraction of the R. mangle bark extract (RM against experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Unib-Wh rats received pretreatment of R. mangle after the induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol and ischemia-reperfusion. Gastric tissues from both methods were prepared to the enzymatic assays, the levels of sulfhydril compounds (GSH, lipid peroxides (LPO, and the activities of glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and myeloperoxidase (MPO were measured. The RM protected the gastric mucosa in both methods used, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and ischemia-reperfusion, probably, by modulating the activities of the enzymes SOD, GPx, and GR and increasing or maintaining the levels of GSH; in adittion, LPO levels were reduced. The results suggest that the RM antioxidant activity leads to tissue protection; thus one of the antiulcer mechanisms present on the pharmacological effects of R. mangle is the antioxidant property.

  17. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR THE PROMISE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

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    Jameel Mohd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present review, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were located, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire and Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae are of immense importance in oriental medicine because they are used as an aphrodisiac, diuretic and anthelmintic, as well as to treat coughs and kidney failure. Tribulus terrestris L. has reported to have antimicrobial, antihypertension, diuretic, antiacetylcholine, haemolytic activity, spermatogenesis and libido enhancer, antitumor activity and effects on cardiovascular system. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins, flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins named terrestrosins A, B, C, D and E, F-gitonis, gitnin and amides have been reported to occur in Tribulus terrestris L. Traditionally T. terrestris is used in folk medicine as a tonic, aphrodisiac, palliative, astringent, stomachic, antihypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic, cordial drug and urinary anti-infective. The ash of the whole plant is good for external application in rheumatic-arthritis.

  18. Preference Mapping of Soymilk with Different U.S. Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2016-02-01

    This study determined and compared drivers of liking for unflavored soymilk with different U.S. consumer groups. A highly trained panel documented appearance, mouthfeel and flavor attributes of 26 commercial soymilks. Twelve representative soymilks were then selected for evaluation by consumers from 3 age/cultural categories (n = 75 each category; Caucasian/African American females aged 18 to 30 y; Asian females aged 18 to 30 y; Caucasian/African American females aged 40 to 64 y). Consumers evaluated overall liking and liking and intensity of specific attributes. Results were evaluated by analysis of variance, followed by internal and external preference mapping. Age had no effect on overall liking, while ethnicity did (Caucasian/African American compared with Asian; P vanillin and sweet aromatic flavors and higher viscosity were preferred by most consumers and differences between consumer clusters were primarily in drivers of dislike. Drivers of dislike were not identified for Cluster 1 consumers while Clusters 2 and 3 consumers (n = 84, n = 80) disliked beany, green/grassy and meaty/brothy flavors and astringency. Cluster 3 (n = 80) consumers scored all soymilks higher in liking (P < 0.05) than Cluster 2 consumers, and were willing to overlook disliked attributes with the addition of sweet taste, whereas the Cluster 2 consumers were not. These findings can be utilized to produce soymilks with attributes that are well liked by target consumers and to tailor attributes for segments of the population that have not yet been accommodated. PMID:26677062

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  20. Encapsulation of Natural Polyphenolic Compounds; a Review

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    Florence Edwards-Lévy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols are valuable compounds possessing scavenging properties towards radical oxygen species, and complexing properties towards proteins. These abilities make polyphenols interesting for the treatment of various diseases like inflammation or cancer, but also for anti-ageing purposes in cosmetic formulations, or for nutraceutical applications. Unfortunately, these properties are also responsible for a lack in long-term stability, making these natural compounds very sensitive to light and heat. Moreover, polyphenols often present a poor biodisponibility mainly due to low water solubility. Lastly, many of these molecules possess a very astringent and bitter taste, which limits their use in food or in oral medications. To circumvent these drawbacks, delivery systems have been developed, and among them, encapsulation would appear to be a promising approach. Many encapsulation methods are described in the literature, among which some have been successfully applied to plant polyphenols. In this review, after a general presentation of the large chemical family of plant polyphenols and of their main chemical and biological properties, encapsulation processes applied to polyphenols are classified into physical, physico-chemical, chemical methods, and other connected stabilization methods. After a brief description of each encapsulation process, their applications to polyphenol encapsulation for pharmaceutical, food or cosmetological purposes are presented.

  1. Controlled mixed fermentation at winery scale using Zygotorulaspora florentina and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Livio; Romani, Cristina; Gobbi, Mirko; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio; Domizio, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Over the last few years the use of multi-starter inocula has become an attractive biotechnological practice in the search for wine with high flavour complexity or distinctive characters. This has been possible through exploiting the particular oenological features of some non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, and the effects that derive from their specific interactions with Saccharomyces. In the present study, we evaluated the selected strain Zygotorulaspora florentina (formerly Zygosaccharomyces florentinus) in mixed culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from the laboratory scale to the winery scale. The scale-up fermentation and substrate composition (i.e., white or red musts) influenced the analytical composition of the mixed fermentation. At the laboratory scale, mixed fermentation with Z. florentina exhibited an enhancement of polysaccharides and 2-phenylethanol content and a reduction of volatile acidity. At the winery scale, different fermentation characteristics of Z. florentina were observed. Using Sangiovese red grape juice, sequential fermentation trials showed a significantly higher concentration of glycerol and esters while the sensorial analysis of the resulting wines showed higher floral notes and lower perception of astringency. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this yeasts association has been evaluated at the winery scale indicating the potential use of this mixed culture in red grape varieties. PMID:27367967

  2. Physicochemical properties and aroma volatile profiles in a diverse collection of California-grown pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J C; Lloyd, S W; Preece, J E; Moersfelder, J W; Stein-Chisholm, R E; Obando-Ulloa, J M

    2015-08-15

    Colorful antioxidant-rich fruits often convey astringency and sourness that juice consumers may not appreciate. We assessed properties in juices from a collection of California-grown pomegranate from the National Clonal Germplasm Repository. The goal was to evaluate overall differences in germplasm with quality traits classified as sweet, sweet-sour and sour. Previous relationships noted in sweet and sour cultivar attributes were observed. Wonderful generally clustered with sweet-sour and sour cultivars. Sweet low acid cultivars occasionally clustered closely with Wonderful which is hard to rationalize. The dominant compounds were 3-hexenol and 1-hexanol which allowed separation of Kara Gul, Haku-botan and Wonderful. Aldehyde and terpene content can be used to characterize cultivars. The study represents the first data on variation in juice qualities in different sweet, sweet-sour and sour cultivars, grown in California, compared with Wonderful. Data may help the juice industry better select raw juice materials in order to ultimately satisfy consumers. PMID:25794761

  3. Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

    2015-05-01

    The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. PMID:25529700

  4. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

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    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  5. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-23

    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities. PMID:26915389

  6. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  7. Wound healing potential of Pañcavalkala formulations in a postfistulectomy wound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Rakesh Kumar; Dudhamal, Tukaram; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Mahanta, Vyasadeva

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Sushruta mentioned sixty measures for management of wounds. Panchavalkal is the combination of five herbs having properties like Shodhana (cleaning) and Ropana (healing) of wounds. Individual drugs and in combination have Kashaya rasa (astringent) dominant and useful in the management of Vrana (wounds) as well as Shotha (inflammations). A 35 years old male patient consulted in Shalya OPD with complaints like discharge per anum, induration and intermittent pain at perianal region since last five years. On inspection external opening was observed at anterior portion 1 O’ clock position which was four centimeter away from anal verge. That case was diagnosed as Bhagandara (fistula-in-ano) and was treated with partial fistulectomy and application of Guggulu based Ksharasutra in the remaining tract. The big fistulectomy wound was treated with local application of Panchavalkal ointment daily and simultaneous change of Ksharasutra. The wound was assessed daily for pain, swelling, discharge, size, and shape. The wound healed completely within two and half month with normal scar having good tissue strength. This case demonstrated that post fistulectomy wound can be treated with Panchavalkal ointment. PMID:26865745

  8. IN VITRO ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS BARK

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    Matpal Mahesh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the different extract of bark of Ficus benghalensis, family Moraceae is a very large, fast growing, evergreen tree up to 30 meters, with spreading branches and many aerial roots. Leaves stalked, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, entire, when young downy on both sides; petiole with a broad smooth greasy gland at the apex, compressed, downy; Fruit in axillary pairs, the size of a cherry, round and downy. According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leprosy. According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulernary, maturant, lessens inflammations; useful in piles etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous, chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the bark by in vitro methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The methanolic extract at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  9. Chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of khat (catha edulis forsk): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabe, Nasir Tajure

    2011-01-01

    Catha edulis (khat) is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Its young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odor. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Many different compounds are found in khat including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The phenylalkylamines and the cathedulins are the major alkaloids which are structurally related to amphetamine. The major effects of khat include those on the gastro-intestinal system and on the nervous system. Constipation, urine retention and acute cardiovascular effects may be regarded as autonomic (peripheral) nervous system effects; increased alertness, dependence, tolerance and psychiatric symptoms as effects on the central nervous system. The main toxic effects include increased blood pressure, tachycardia, insomnia, anorexia, constipation, general malaise, irritability, migraine and impaired sexual potency in men. Databases such as Pubmed, Medline, Hinary, Google search, Cochrane and Embase were systematically searched for literature on the different aspects of khat to summarize chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology of khat (Catha edulis Forsk). PMID:24494129

  10. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

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    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  11. Perception of basic tastes and threshold sensitivity during testing of selected judges

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    Peter Zajác

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE The sense of taste is one of the most important human senses. Alteration in taste perception can greately interfere to our lives, because it influences our dietary habits and consequently general human health. Many physiological and external factors can cause the loss of taste perception. These factors include for example certain diseases, the side effect of the use of certain medicaments, head trauma, gender, dietary habbits, smoking, role of saliva, age, stress and many more. In this paper we are discussing perception of basic tastes and treshold sensitivity during testing of selected groupe of 500 sensory judges. A resolution taste test and sensitivity treshold test were performed using basic tastes (sour, bitter, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, metallic. We have found that the perception of basic tastes decreese with human age. Smoking leads to significant errors in the determination of basic tastes. Different mistakes occures in different age categories. This study suggests further researches, investigating various factors influencing taste perception.  doi:10.5219/259

  12. Development of a Portable Taste Sensor with a Lipid/Polymer Membrane

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    Kiyoshi Toko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor’s performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm. The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor’s response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research.

  13. Polysaccharides and lignin from oak wood used in cooperage: Composition, interest, assays: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Alexandra; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-11-19

    It is widely accepted that alcoholic beverage quality depends on their ageing in premium quality oak wood. From the choice of wood to beverage ageing, through the different steps in cask manufacturing, many factors should be considered. One of the biggest challenge in cooperages is to take into account all these factors. Most of the studies are interested in phenolic compounds, extracted during ageing and especially involved in wine oxidation, colour, and sensory properties such as astringency and bitterness. Oak aroma volatile compounds have also been the subject of numerous studies. These compounds of interest are part of low molecular weight compounds which represent 2%-10% of oak wood composition. However, three polymers constitute the main part of oak wood: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. As far as we are aware, few studies concerning the role of these major macromolecules in oak wood have been published previously. This article reviews oak wood polysaccharides and lignin, their potential interest and different assays used to determine their content. PMID:26454166

  14. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pramod; Harisha, C R; Prajapati, P K

    2010-10-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., commonly known as Agasti, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases and for processing of various formulations in Rasashastra. It is used for its astringent, antihistaminic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive and febrifugal activities. Moreover, because of its edible nature, the leaves and pods are used as flavoring items in the cuisine of South India. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out. The diagnostic characters of this plant include stomatal characters, presence of resins, oil globules, appressed epidermal hair and mucilage cells. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (0.6%), total ash (10.75%), acid insoluble ash (0.045%), alcohol-soluble extractive (21.7%), and water-soluble extractive (30.72%). Preliminary analysis for the presence of various functional groups revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenols and proteins. Thin layer chromatographic study of the alcoholic extract showed the presence of five, six and seven spots in short UV, long UV and after spraying developing reagent, respectively. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physicochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of leaves of this particular species. PMID:21455451

  15. Development of a portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Nakashi, Kenichi; Ji, Ke; Ikeda, Akihiro; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor's performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm) with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm). The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (pHEMA) hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor's response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research. PMID:23325168

  16. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  17. RECENT ADVANCES ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PLANT HELICTERES ISORA LINN.

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    Sabale Pramod M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In India, use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been in vogue from ancient times and inherited traditionally. The fruits of Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in India for the treatment of griping bowels and diarrheal diseases. The roots and the bark are expectorant, demulcent, hypoglycemic and useful in colic, scabies, gastropathy, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruits are astringents, refrigerant, stomachic, vulnerary and useful in griping of bowels, flatulence of children and antispasmodic. The barks of H.isora showed prominent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and fruits against Candida albicans. The presence of flavones, triterpenoids, cucurbitacin, phytosterols, saponins, sugars and phlobatannins were demonstrated in roots and barks H.isora L. The use of medicinal plants in India contributes significantly in primary health care and it is interesting to determine whether actual pharmacological effects support the traditional uses or merely based on folklore. The review revealed that the fruits of H.isora L. were used in diarrhoeal infection and it is anti-candidial but so far no information on antibacterial activities of fruits of H. isora is available hence, attempt was made to find out phytochemical contents and antibacterial potentials of fruits of H.isora against diarrhoeal/enteric bacterial pathogens.

  18. A review on phyto‑pharmacological potentials of Euphorbia thymifolia L.

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    Prashant Y Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae is a small branched, hispidly pubescent, prostate annual herb, commonly known as laghududhika or choti-dudhi. The leaves, seeds and fresh juice of whole plant are used in worm infections, as stimulant, astringent. It is also used in bowel complaints and in many more diseases therapeutically. The present work is an extensive review of published literature concerning phytochemical and pharmacological potential of E. thymifolia. Data was searched and designed using various review modalities manually and using electronic search engines with reference to all aspects of E. thymifolia and was arranged chronologically. Complete information of the plant has been collected from the various books and journals since the last 32 years, internet databases, etc., were searched. Compiled data reflects the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the plant. This will be helpful for researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be explored and in scientific use of the plant for its wide variety of traditional therapeutic claims and also as to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional activities.

  19. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps. PMID:24195587

  20. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  1. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  2. Centrolobium tomentosum: macro-and microscopic diagnosis of the leaf and stem

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    Marianna Erbano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrolobium tomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Fabaceae, known as "araribá-rosa", is a large tree that is widespread throughout Brazil. The bark of its stem is used in folk medicine as an astringent and the leaves are employed as a poultice for wounds and bruises. The aim of this study was to contribute to the pharmacognostic quality control of this medicinal species through a macro- and microscopic diagnosis of its leaves and stems. Mature leaves and young stems were collected at Embrapa (Colombo, PR and analyzed using standard microtechniques. The leaves are opposite or alternate, compound, imparipinnate, oblong-lanceolate and hypostomatic with paracytic stomata. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib is biconvex with a collateral vascular bundle in a circular arrangement. The petiolule is circular and its vascular system is composed of two major vascular bundles in the middle, with smaller bundles between them. The rachis has a structure similar to the petiole, and these parts have a sclerenchymatic sheath shaped in multiple arcs, which surrounds a collateral vascular bundle that is centrally located. The stem has a uniseriate epidermis with peripheral phellogen and a sclerenchymatic sheath composed of many arcs, which surrounds the phloem. The stems and leaves also have non-glandular and glandular trichomes, phenolic compounds and idioblasts made of calcium oxalate crystals. This manuscript has an important role in the morpho-anatomical diagnosis of the Brazilian flora.

  3. Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Nelumbo nucifera

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    Keshav Raj Paudel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae is a potential aquatic crop grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in various systems of medicine including folk medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, and oriental medicine. Many chemical constituents have been isolated till the date. However, the bioactive constituents of lotus are mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Traditionally, the whole plant of lotus was used as astringent, emollient, and diuretic. It was used in the treatment of diarrhea, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The rhizome extract was used as antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of asteroidal triterpenoid. Leaves were used as an effective drug for hematemesis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia. Flowers were used to treat diarrhea, cholera, fever, and hyperdipsia. In traditional medicine practice, seeds are used in the treatment of tissue inflammation, cancer and skin diseases, leprosy, and poison antidote. Embryo of lotus seeds is used in traditional Chinese medicine as Lian Zi Xin, which primarily helps to overcome nervous disorders, insomnia, and cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and arrhythmia. Nutritional value of lotus is as important as pharmaceutical value. These days’ different parts of lotus have been consumed as functional foods. Thus, lotus can be regarded as a potential nutraceutical source.

  4. Determination of Some Ethnomedicinally Important Constituents of Aegle marmelos Fruit During Different Stages of Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Yadav; Parul Singh; Ranjana Mehrotra

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Aegle marmelos is a medicinal herb belonging to the Rutacae family. The fruit of A. marmelos at each stage of ripening is used as ethnomedicine to cure various diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the components contributing to the medicinal value of the A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine polyphenol, vitamins, organic acids and sugars in A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. RESULTS: Tannin, a polyphenol responsible for astringent and antimicrobial properties of A. marmelos fruit was found to increase during ripening. Riboflavin, a vital medicinal component was detected in traceable amount only in full-ripe A. marmelos fruit. Ribofla-vin contributes towards body growth, reproduction and red cell production. The content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) which is useful in preventing scurvy decreased significantly as fruit ripens. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the medicinal effect of A. marmelos fruit at each stage of ripening might be due to the presence of different amount of polyphenol, vitamins and organic acids.

  5. Medicinal and Environmental Indicator Species of Utricularia from Montane Forest of Peninsular Malaysia

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    Noorma Wati Haron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The carnivorous Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae is a small herb of multifarious wet habitats worldwide. Eleven of the 14 Peninsular Malaysian species range into the mountains. Distribution, disturbance adaptability and collection frequency were used to formulate their commonness category. Common (U. aurea, U. bifida, and U. minutissima and fairly common (U. gibba and U. uliginosa species are mostly lowland plants that ascend to open montane microhabitats, while the fairly common (U. striatula, narrow-range (U. caerulea pink form and U. involvens, rare (U. furcellata and U. scandens, and endemic (U. vitellina species are restricted to mountainous sites. Common species that colonise dystrophic to oligotrophic man-made sites in late succession could serve as predictors for general health and recovery of wet habitats. Rarer species are often locally abundant, their niches situated around pristine forest edges. When in decline, they indicate the beginning of problems affecting the forest. Utricularia is reportedly nutritious, mildly astringent, and diuretic. Preadapted to nutrient-poor, waterlogged soils, U. bifida is suitable as an alternative for small-scale herb cultivation on low pH, wet poor soils usually deemed not suitable for any crops.

  6. PHYSICO CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PANCHAVAKTRA RAS: A HERBO-MINERAL FORMULATION

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    Bandari Srinivasulu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Panchavaktra Ras is a rational combination of Rasadravyas and Kasthaushadhis prescribed in the management of Amavata. Panchavaktra rasa has been taken into consideration for its Pharmaceutical standardization through Standard Operative procedures. In pharmaceutical study, the drug has been prepared in 3 batches adopting Khalviya Rasayana method and physico chemical analysis was carried out on these batches. This formulation was analysed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICPOES and found the major elements Hg, S, B, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ag, C, Pb, As from medicine. The heavy metals like As, Pb and Cd were almost within permissible limits. Organoleptic features of drug are found dark grey astringent taste and pungent odour which is made of the crude drugs within the standard range. The pH of compound was 8.93-8.99 and alkaline in nature. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of Alkaloids, Saponins, Flavanoids, Tanins and Tritepenoids in this drug. The Panchavaktra Ras was subjected to estimation of Microbial contamination which was within normal limits and it does not contain harmful microbes like Enterobacteriacea, E.coli, Salmonella species. Efforts have been made to fix the analytical standards of Panchavaktra ras, which were not found, reported till date.

  7. Detoxification and mineral supplementation as functions of geophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, T.; Duquette, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    Clays employed historically in the consumption of astringent acorns plus seven edible clays from Africa were examined in relation to the functional significance of human geophagy. On the basis of sorptive maxima for tannic acid ranging from 5.6 to 23.7 mg/g, we conclude that adsorption of tannic acid in traditional acorn preparation methods in California and Sardinia helped make these nuts palatable. Calcium available in solution at pH 2.0 and 0.1 mol NaCl/L was 2.10 and 0.71 mg/g for the Sardinian and Californian clays, respectively. The African clays released calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, or zinc in amounts of nutritional significance from some clays but not from others. A clay recovered from an archaeological site occupied by Homo erectus and early H. sapiens was indistinguishable mineralogically, in detoxification capacity and in available minerals, from clays used in Africa today. We suggest that the physiological significance of geophagy made it important in the evolution of human dietary behavior.

  8. COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ETHANOBOTANICAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MELIA AZEDARACH LINN.

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    SABIRA SULTANA, HAFIZ MUHAMMAD ASIF, NAVEED AKHTAR, MUHAMMAD WAQAS, SAIF UR REHMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants, since times immemorial, have been used in virtually all cultures for therapeutic purposes. The widespread use of herbal remedies and healthcare preparations obtained from commonly used traditional herbs and medicinal plants have been traced to the occurrence of natural products with medicinal properties. In the present review, an attempt has been made to collect the botanical, phytochemical, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and toxicological information on Melia azedarach L. which is used traditionally as an anthelmintic, diuretic, emmenagouge, expectorant, vermifuge, used in piles, used as astringent, used in hysteria, leprosy, and in scrofula. Medicinally it has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, anti-malarial, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-fertility, anthelmintic, antipyretic and cytotoxic activities. The available literature on the M. azedarach L. revealed that this plant contains many phytochemical constituents including alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and rutins. The aim of this article is to review those medicinal and pharmacological properties of M. azedarach which have been or still are being learned. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.

  9. Sensory profile and drivers of liking for grape nectar among smoker and nonsmoker consumers

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    Cristiane Ramos Voorpostel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased gustatory and olfactory capacity is one of the problems caused by tobacco use. The objectives of this study were to determine the sensory profile of six grape nectar samples sweetened with different sweeteners and to verify the drivers of liking in two distinct consumer groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The sensory profile was constructed by twelve trained panelists using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. Consumer tests were performed with 112 smokers and 112 nonsmokers. Partial least squares regression analyses was used to identify the drivers of acceptance and rejection of the grape nectars among the two consumer groups. According to the QDA, the samples differed regarding six of the nineteen attributes generated. The absolute averages of the affective test were lower in the group of smokers; possibly because smoking influences acceptance and eating preferences, especially with regard to sweet foods. The results showed that the grape flavor was the major driver of preference for acceptance of the nectar, while astringency, wine aroma, bitterness and sweetness, and bitter aftertaste were drivers of rejection in the two groups of consumers, with some differences between the groups.

  10. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied. - Highlights: • The gamma irradiation treatment reduces lipoxygenases activity of soybean. • Independently of soybean cultivar, treatment 10 kGy exhibited higher percentages of reduction of lipoxygenase. • Gamma irradiation interfered few in the chemical composition of soybean. • The lipid and protein content remained stable regardless of radiation dose applied to the soybean

  11. FERONIA LIMONIA – A PATH LESS TRAVELLED

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    Qureshi Absar A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available From ancient days to recent civilization, human beings depend on nature for running their life smoothly from day to day. Plants remain a vital source of drugs and now a day’s much emphasis have been given to nutraceuticals. Feronia limonia belonging to family Rutaceae is well known in Indian traditional systems for its traditional uses. Various parts of the plant have astringent, constipating, tonic for liver and lung, diuretic, carminative, and cardiotonic traditional uses. Various important phytoconstituents like alkaloids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, coumarins, tannins, steroids etc. have been isolated from Kavith. But only few pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumour, antifungal and CNS depressant activity have been scientifically reported. From enormous traditional uses documented in various traditional system of medicine and presence of vital phytoconstituents make Kavith (Feronia limonia an important plant to be studied scientifically to prove various traditional uses. In present review we explore Kaitha’s description, traditional medicinal uses, phytoconstituents and investigated pharmacological activities in various parts of the plant to show potential ethnopharmacological importance of the plant. So that this review can serve as ready to use material for further research on the plant.

  12. A Comparative Clinical Study of Vajigandhadi Taila Basti and Agnikarma in the Management of Sciatica

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    Ashish Mhatre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Vajigandhadi Taila Basti & Agnikarma in the management of Sciatica.Vajigandhadi Taila contains Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera (Balya, Rasayan, Dashamoola Kwatha Vataghna Bala (Sida Cordifolia (Balya, Vatashama, Bilva (Aegle Marmelos (Vatghna, Astringent & Eranda Taila (Ricinus Communis (Vatashamak, Anulomaka. Both these remedies proves extremely beneficial as it can be performed on the OPD & IPD basis, gives significant relief in the symptoms e.g. radiating pain, stiffness, twitching sensation. The subjective parameters like Pain, SLR, VAD, VDS etc., were used to score clinical outcome. The average clinical improvement was calculated by proper statistical treatment. Our experience with this modality has been encouraging as the response pattern is good in considerably short duration of treatment. The patient improves gradually after 4 weeks of treatment. The pain relief provided by Agnikarma & sustained improvement with Basti presents a window of opportunity in the clinical management of Sciatica. Ideally this technique should be practically taught to the physicians and should be evaluated scientifically using principles of biophysics and nerve conduction studies.

  13. Effect of single application of homeopathic preparations Calcarea carbonica, Kalium phosphoricum, Magnesium carbonicum, Natrium muriaticum e Silicea terra on tannin contents of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Cassini. Efecto de aplicación única de los preparados homeopáticos Calcarea carbonica, Kalium phosphoricum, Magnesium carbonicum, Natrium muriaticum e Silicea terra en el tenor de tanino de Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Cassini. Efeito de aplicação única dos preparados homeopáticos Calcarea carbonica, Kalium phosphoricum, Magnesium carbonicum, Natrium muriaticum e Silicea terra no Teor de Tanino em Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Cassini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincente Wagner Dias Casali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on the effect of homeopathy in plants are being conducted by growers. Benefic effects are several, especially the production of residue-free plants, very important to medicinal plants. The objective of the present trial was to establish the reaction of Porophyllum ruderale to five different homeopathic preparations, concerning the tannin yield of leaves and roots.Homeopathic preparations elicited significant effects, either increasing, or decreasing tannin yield. Single applications of Sulphur, Natrium muriaticum, Kalium phosphoricum and Calcarea carbonica at the 4CH dynamization increased tannin yield 240-288 hours after application; Silicea terra and Magnesium carbonicum 4CH between 288-336 hours after application. Kalium phosphoricum and Calcarea carbonica were the homeopathic preparations that elicited maximal increase in tannin yield of leaves. The use of homeopathic preparations in P. ruderale employed in human nutrition may reduce tannin yield, reduce astringency and improve palatability. On the other hand, homeopathic preparations that increase pharmacologically active compounds is of interest to phytotherapy.

  14. Influence of four single fresh forages on volatile organic compound (VOC content and profile and sensory properties of goat Caciotta cheese

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    Vincenzo Fedele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of fresh single-species herbage on the VOC and sensory properties of cheese, in order to individuate specific descriptors linked to the use of fresh herbage in pureness. Two groups of Siriana housed goats were fed alternately with 2 grasses: Avena sativa (AS and Lolium perenne (LP and 2 legumes: Medicago sativa (MS and Trifolium incarnatum (TI in pureness. The milk was processed as Caciotta cheese and ripened for 20 days. The VOC analyses (by GC-MS showed the highest VOC total content in AS cheeses (226.55a.u., where alcohols was the dominant class; the lowest value (79.96a.u. was found in TI cheeses, and the dominant class was hydrocarbons. The panel test (for colour, odour, taste and final acceptability showed that cheeses from grasses’ groups were described with astringent and blue taste, those from legumes with acidic, bitter and light goaty taste. All cheeses showed goaty taste, except LP cheeses. Grasses’ cheeses showed higher final acceptability than those from legumes. The results showed that each meadow’s species, with its specific content of secondary metabolites, at specific phenological stage, was able to characterise the derived cheese products at sensorial level.

  15. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured. PMID:15030561

  16. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea. PMID:26471629

  17. Influence of steeping conditions (time, temperature, and particle size) on antioxidant properties and sensory attributes of some white and green teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Sara; Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Carloni, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of commonly used steeping times and temperatures, as well as leaf size on the antioxidant activity and sensory attributes of tea were studied. Five unblended white and green tea samples from China and Malawi, infused in hot (70 °C and 90 °C; 7 min) or cold water (room temperature: 15, 30, 60, or 120 min) either as whole leaves or as milled, were analyzed. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant power (ABTS assay) were measured. The results show that the maximum extraction efficiency occurs with cold water for 120 min and with hot water at 90 °C and that only in the case of teas from whole, large leaves, the extraction was greater in cold than in hot infusions. Moreover, tea infusions prepared from milled leaves have the greatest antioxidant activity. In the sensory evaluation of some of the tea infusions, white teas were perceived more fragrant than green ones and were judged as the most favorite by the majority of the judges, especially for the brew prepared in cold water from whole leaves; all infusions obtained from the milled leaves in fact have a more bitter and astringent taste. PMID:26017324

  18. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, J; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V

    2008-03-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva. Since abundant salivary proteins obscure the purification and identification of medium and low expressed salivary proteins, we used centrifugation to obtain saliva samples free from proteins that precipitate after tannin binding. Data from Peptide Mass Fingerprinting allowed us to identify ten different proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy of parotid salivary gland acini was observed by histology, along with a decrease in body mass in the first 4 days of the experimental period. PMID:18253799

  19. Nontargeted Analysis Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Uncovers the Effects of Harvest Season on the Metabolites and Taste Quality of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weidong; Qi, Dandan; Yang, Ting; Lv, Haipeng; Guo, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Yin; Peng, Qunhua; Xie, Dongchao; Tan, Junfeng; Lin, Zhi

    2015-11-11

    The chemical composition and taste quality of tea fluctuate seasonally. However, the compounds responsible for the seasonal variation of metabolic pattern and taste quality are far from clear. This study compared the metabolite profiles of green teas of nine varieties that were plucked in spring, summer, and autumn by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) on a reversed phase column. A multivariate analysis indicated distinct differences among the metabolite phenotypes of teas harvested in different seasons. Heat-map analysis and metabolic pathway analysis demonstrated that flavan-3-ols, theasinensins, procyanidins, quercetin-O-glycosides, apigenin-C-glycosides, and amino acids exhibited sharp seasonal fluctuations. An equivalent quantification of tea tastes showed that in summer and autumn teas, the bitterness and astringency were significantly elevated, whereas umami declined. Metabolite content comparisons and partial least-squares analysis suggested that several flavonoids and amino acids are mainly responsible for the seasonal variations in taste quality. PMID:26494158

  20. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management. PMID:27272248

  1. Alcohol, Tannins, and Mannoprotein and their Interactions Influence the Sensory Properties of Selected Commercial Merlot Wines: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diako, Charles; McMahon, Kenneth; Mattinson, Scott; Evans, Marc; Ross, Carolyn

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the interaction among alcohol, tannins, and mannoproteins on the aroma, flavor, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of selected commercial Merlot wines. Merlot wines (n = 61) were characterized for wine chemistry parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, alcohol, glucose, fructose, tannin profile, total proteins, and mannoprotein content. Agglomerative clustering of these physicochemical characteristics revealed 6 groups of wines. Two wines were selected from each group (n = 12) and profiled by a trained sensory evaluation panel. One wine from each group was evaluated using the electronic tongue (e-tongue). Sensory evaluation results showed complex effects among tannins, alcohol, and mannoproteins on the perception of most aromas, flavors, tastes, and mouthfeel attributes (P 0.930) were reported between the e-tongue and sensory perception of sweet, sour, bitter, burning, astringent, and metallic. This study showed that interactions among wine matrix components influence the resulting sensory perceptions. The strong correlation between the e-tongue and trained panel evaluations indicated the e-tongue can complement sensory evaluations to improve wine quality assessment. PMID:27442722

  2. New polymer for removal of wine phenolics: Poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ricardo I; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Guzmán, Luis; Laurie, V Felipe; Valdés, Oscar; Ávila-Salas, Fabián; López-Cortés, Xaviera; Santos, Leonardo S

    2016-12-15

    The phenolic compounds of wine contribute to color and astringency, also are responsible for the oxidation state and bitterness. Due the importance of these molecules, different techniques have been used to modulate their concentration such as natural or synthetic polymeric agents. Among the polymeric agents, PVPP is one of the most used, but lacks of selectivity and has a limited pH range. Therefore, the aim of this study was the synthesis of a new polymer, poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA), for removal of phenolic compounds, as a potential agent for the fining of wine. The new polymer affinity was studied using HPLC-DAD for different polyphenols using PVPP as a control. The results showed that the new polymer has a similar removal as PVPP, but with lower affinity to resveratrol. The interactions established between polymers and polyphenols were studied using computational chemistry methods demonstrating a direct correlation with the experimental affinity data. PMID:27451217

  3. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. PMID:26642109

  4. Potential therapeutic applications for Terminalia chebula in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Assie; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Omid; Nassiri-Toosi, Mohsen; Hamedi, Shokouhsadat

    2016-04-01

    Terminalia chebula (family: Combretaceae) is widely used in the traditional medicine of India and Iran to treat diseases that include dementia, constipation, and diabetes. This tree is known in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as halileh or halilaj and the fruit is used to develop treatments. It is described in ITM as an astringent that has a "cold" and "dry" temperament. References to the medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula were collected from important ITM sources and from modern medical databases (PubMed, Scirus, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). The medicinal properties described for this tree in ITM were compared with those reported in studies of modern phytotherapy. The results confirm that the tree referred to as halileh in traditional books is the Terminalia chebula used in present-day studies. Treatments that have not been evaluated in modern phytotherapy but have been traditionally treated with Terminalia chebula include fever, and psychological and psychiatric issues. This article confirms the medicinal uses of Terminalia chebula. PMID:27400482

  5. Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S. Sidhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates, and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study.

  6. Research of Camera Calibration Method Based on Intelligent Optimization%一种基于智能优化的摄像机标定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高忠国; 张洪; 王露露; 曹毅

    2011-01-01

    The application of an improved quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm(QPSO)in camera calibration was studied to overcome the drawbacks of traditional optimization algorithms in camera calibration,such as sensitive to original value,poor astringency,and easy to relapse into local optimization.A camera calibration method based on intelligent optimization algorithm was put forward and the calculation procedures were given.Calibration experiments results showed that the method can overcome the drawbacks of traditional optimization algorithms,has higher precision,and meet the application requirements of computer vision in packaging engineering.%针对现有包装设备上对摄像机标定中传统优化算法存在的缺点,如对初始值敏感、收敛性差、易陷入局部最优解等,研究了量子粒子群优化算法在摄像机标定中的应用,提出了一种基于智能优化的摄像机标定方法,并给出了具体的步骤。实验结果表明该标定方法可以克服传统算法的不足,具有较高的精度,可以满足计算机视觉在包装工程中的应用。

  7. Exploration of ancient literatures on insomnia%失眠病证古代文献探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶滢; 陈沛沛

    2012-01-01

    古代中医文献认为,情志所伤、饮食不节、劳倦及思虑太过、体虚久病是失眠证的主要病因,而“阳不入阴”为总病机.分析历代医家治疗失眠病证的文献,其临床用药规律以补益、安神、清热三大类药物为主线,多随证配伍化痰、行气、消食、活血、平肝、温里、固涩之品,对现代临床治疗失眠证的选方用药颇有参考价值.%It was found in ancient literatures that insomnia was caused by damage of seven emotions, improper diet, overstrain, excessive anxiety and weakness due to chronic disease, while main pathogenesis was "yang not entered in yin". This paper analyzes treatment of insomnia in ancient literatures, clinical experience and rule of medication, which is nourishing, tranquilization and clearing heat medicines combined with phlegm resolving, qi promoting, digestion, blood activity, liver soothing, inner wanning and astringing Chinese medicines. We hope that it has reference value for the treatment of insomnia in clinics.

  8. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index <0.5. Time-kill assays showed the bactericidal effect of the combination treatment at 1/8XMIC of the extract and 1/8XMIC of vancomycin, were respectively at 7.2±0.28 hr against ATCC 33591 compared to complete attenuation of the growth of the same strain after 8 hr of treatment with vancomycin alone. In conclusion, the combination extracts of Q. infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin.

  9. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients. PMID:25694686

  10. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-01

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction. PMID:26766301

  11. Effect of protease inhibitors on the sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, S S; Zervakis, J; Heffron, S; Heald, A E

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the taste properties of protease inhibitors which are essential components of drug regimes used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, the taste properties of four protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir) were investigated in unmedicated HIV-infected patients and healthy controls. Three of the four protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) were found to be predominantly bitter (with additional qualities of medicinal, metallic, astringent, sour, and burning). Nelfinavir was found to be relatively tasteless. HIV-infected and uninfected control subjects detected protease inhibitors at similar concentrations, but HIV-infected subjects perceived suprathreshold concentrations as more bitter than controls. Detection thresholds ranged from 0.0061 mM for saquinavir in HIV-infected patients to 0.0702 mM for ritonavir in uninfected control subjects. Suprathreshold studies indicated that protease inhibitors modified the taste perception of a variety of other taste compounds. These results are consistent with clinical findings that protease inhibitors produce taste complaints that can impact patient compliance. PMID:10501290

  12. Rasa Nirdhāraṇa (assessment of taste of Leonotis nepetifolia (L. R. Br.: A preliminary study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Pushpan

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: On analyzing the data it was found that Leonotis nepetifolia possess predominantly tikta rasa (bitter taste followed by Kasāya rasa (astringent taste. Recent researches and ethnomedicinal claims on Leonotis nepetifolia stand comparable with the pharmacological activities attributed to tikta and kasāya rasa in Ayurvedic classics Rasa nirdhāraṇa can be one of the preliminary steps to initiate the process of screening of an unknown drug along the lines of Ayurvedic pharmacology specially because rasa is the only perceivable parameter. According to Ayurveda, rasa of a dravya has a bearing on its karma (pharmacological action and the identification of rasa could be one of the subjective means for inferring pāρcabhautika constitution of a substance which in turn could help in tentatively inferring guṇa, vîrya and vipāka of the dravya. This paper demonstrates how a simple method can be used without any instruments to do a preliminary assessment of the rasa or taste of a plant.

  13. Predicting the Composition of Red Wine Blends Using an Array of Multicomponent Peptide-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ghanem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine.

  14. Living life the natural way – Wheatgrass and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur Kamboj

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The Human diet is enriched with young parts of plants (so called ―green foods‖, which can improve nutrient balance intake in natural way. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum refers to young grass of the common wheat plant, which belongs to Poaceae family. This is the most commonly found herb in India, although its nativity is currently unknown. This plant is believed to have many nutritional values; it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, laxative, astringent, diuretic, antibacterial and anti-aging properties. Its use in acidity, colitis, kidney malfunctions, atherosclerosis and swelling has been shown to be beneficial. Wheatgrass juice helps in building red blood cells and stimulates healthy tissue cell growth. 100 g of wheatgrass powder is equal to 23 kg of fresh vegetables. Ideally, wheatgrass should be taken about an hour prior to meal. This allows the body to fully metabolize it without competing with other foods, and it may also curb hunger. It is recommended that lot of water (at least a liter should be consumed with the juice to reap its maximum nutritional benefits. Taking wheatgrass as a supplement in the mid-morning or mid-afternoon is a great time for this "green" energy boost.

  15. Invitro and Invivo anticancer activity of Ethanolic extract of Canthium Parviflorum Lam on DLA and Hela cell lines

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    Purushoth Prabhu.T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild Jessamine, Canthium Parviflorum Lam, ( fam: Rubiaceae is traditionally used for snake bite in some villages in shimoga district of Karnataka. Canthium Species are used in the treatment of tumor, cough, astringent and anthlementic. Objective: In this study, invitro and invivo anticancer activity of crude ethanolic extracts from the leaves of Canthium Parviflorum Lam was investigated Method: The invitro anticancer activity was measured by MTT assay and Exclusion method. The invivo studies was determined in mice using Dalton’s lymphoma ascetic (DLA cells. Results: The ethanolic extacts of C.Parviflorum greatly inhibited DLA and Hela cell growth with IC50 Of 61.24μg/ml and 43.15μg/ml respectively. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number & tumour weight were noted in the tumor induced mice after treatment with Canthium Parviflorum Lam. Conclusion: Anticancer activity of Canthium Parviflorum was may be due to flavonoid present in the plant . Further studies are also in process to evaluate the most potent fraction of the plant and to isolate the constituents of the fraction

  16. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase in two cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. cultivars produced in the south of Bahia, Brazil

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    Adrielle Souza Leão MACEDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reactions leading to the formation of precursors of chocolate flavor are performed by endogenous enzymes present in the cocoa seed. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO presence and activity during fermentation of cocoa beans is responsible for the development of flavor precursors and is also implicated in the reduction of bitterness and astringency. However, the reliability of cocoa enzyme activities is complicated due to variations in different genotypes, geographical origins and methods of fermentation. In addition, there is still a lack of systematic studies comparing different cocoa cultivars. So, the present study was designed to characterize the activity of PPO in the pulp and seeds of two cocoa cultivars, PH 16 and TSH 1188. The PPO activity was determined spectrophotometrically and characterized as the optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature and the results were correlated with the conditions during the fermentation process. The results showed the specificity and differences between the two cocoa cultivars and between the pulp and seeds of each cultivar. It is suggested that specific criteria must be adopted for each cultivar, based on the optimal PPO parameters, to prolong the period of maximum PPO activity during fermentation, contributing to the improvement of the quality of cocoa beans.

  17. THE NATURE'S GIFT TO MANKIND: NEEM

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    Upma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is popularly known as the miracle tree. It is known as ‘Nimba’ in India. The Sanskrit name of neem is ‘Arishtha’ meaning the reliever of the sickness. Neem also holds medicinal value. Each and every part of neem is used in the medicines. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 4000 years. Its important phytoconstituents are nimbin, nimbinene acetylnimbinase, nimbandial, nimbolide and quercentin. Medicinal uses are purgative, antihemorrhoidal, antihelminthic, antileprotic and antipoisonous in nature. Neem bark is cool, astringent, acrid and refrigerant. It is useful in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, worm infestation. Nimibidin present in used as antipyretic and non-irritant, and it has found to be effective in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, furunculosis, arsenical dermatitis, burn ulcers, herpes labialis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis. Nimbidin and sodium nimbidmate contained in bark are reported to possess spermicidal and anti-inflammatory activity. So it is a tree that has a long history of use by humans. It is said to have medicinal, cosmetic and insecticidal potential.

  18. What is a particle-conserving Topological Superfluid? The fate of Majorana modes beyond mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    We investigate Majorana modes of number-conserving fermionic superfluids from both basic physics principles, and concrete models perspectives. After reviewing a criterion for establishing topological superfluidity in interacting systems, based on many-body fermionic parity switches, we reveal the emergence of zero-energy modes anticommuting with fermionic parity. Those many-body Majorana modes are constructed as coherent superpositions of states with different number of fermions. While realization of Majorana modes beyond mean field is plausible, we show that the challenge to quantum-control them is compounded by particle-conservation, and more realistic protocols will have to balance engineering needs with astringent constraints coming from superselection rules. Majorana modes in number-conserving systems are the result of a peculiar interplay between quantum statistics, fermionic parity, and an unusual form of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We test these ideas on the Richardson-Gaudin-Kitaev chain, a number-conserving model solvable by way of the algebraic Bethe ansatz, and equivalent in mean field to a long-range Kitaev chain.

  19. 电渗析法脱盐精制甘蔗糖蜜研究%Desalination of Sugar Cane Molasses by Electrodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯红伟; 扶雄

    2009-01-01

    Plenty of mineral salts were contented in sugar cane molasses,which played an importance role in the taste of astringency,expecially the potassium salt.In present study,ion-exchange membrane (IEM) mediated electrodialysis (ED) was applied to desalinate the sugar cane molasses.The removal rate of inorganic salt and potassium salt were 77.35% and 86.37% respectively under the optimized conditions of voltage 30 V,flow rate 70 L/h,density 25°Brix.%甘蔗糖蜜中含有大量无机盐,其中的钾盐使糖蜜呈涩味.试验通过离子交换膜电渗析法对甘蔗糖蜜进行脱盐处理.结果表明:电渗析对糖蜜脱盐有良好的效果,在工作电压为30V,流量70 L/h,糖蜜浓度为25° Brix时,糖蜜的电渗析脱盐精制脱盐率达到77.35%,脱钾率达到86.37%.

  20. Characterization of the polyphenol composition of 20 cultivars of cider, processing, and dessert apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) grown in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Witrick, Katherine A; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hurley, E Kenneth; Peck, Gregory M; Stewart, Amanda C

    2014-10-15

    Polyphenols and maturity parameters were determined in 20 apple cultivars with potential for hard cider production grown in Virginia, U.S.A. Concentrations of five classes of polyphenols were significantly different across cultivar for both peel and flesh. Total polyphenol concentration ranged from 0.9 μg/g wwb in flesh of Newtown Pippin to 453 μg/g wwb in peel of Red Delicious. Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig cultivars contained the highest concentration of total flavan-3-ols in flesh, indicating potential to impart desired astringency and bitterness to cider under processing conditions where extraction of polyphenols from peel is minimal. These results can inform selection of fruit juice, extracts, and byproducts for investigations of bioactivity and bioavailability of polyphenols, and provide baseline data for horticultural and processing research supporting the growing hard cider industry in Virginia. Based on these data, cultivars Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig show high potential for cider production in Virginia. PMID:25228269

  1. Evaluación sensorial de tortillas de maíz recién elaboradas y empacadas Sensory evaluation of freshly made and packed maize tortillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gricelda Vázquez Carrillo

    2011-02-01

    dough and nixtamalized flour; nixtamalized maize flour tortillas; Mexican packaged tortillas and packed tortillas from the United States of America. The attributes of the freshly made tortillas were: smell of nixtamal, astringency, no lumpiness, high pH (8.4-8.8, lower moisture level (44 and 47.5%, lower glossiness (L= 76% and a slight yellow color (93.7 and 89.4º. Packaged tortillas had a smell of acetic acid, had no astringency, were lumpy, had a higher moisture level (48.6 and 49%, glossiness (L= 90% and were cream-colored (95.1-94.6º. These aspects are related to an acidic pH (5.3-5.8. The attributes identifed in the freshly made tortillas are inherent to this food, whereas packaged tortillas displayed different sensory attributes to the traditional tortillas.

  2. Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    These ingredients are derived from various species of the acacia plant. Only material derived from Acacia senegal are in current use according to industry data. The concentration at which these ingredients are reported to be used ranges from 9% in mascara to 0.0001% in tonics, dressings, and other hair-grooming aids. Gum arabic is a technical name for Acacia Senegal Gum. Gum arabic is comprised of various sugars and glucuronic acid residues in a long chain of galactosyl units with branched oligosaccharides. Gum arabic is generally recognized as safe as a direct food additive. Little information is available to characterize the extracts of other Acacia plant parts or material from other species. Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract was generally described as containing saponins, alkaloids, and malic acid with parabens and potassium sorbate added as preservatives. Cosmetic ingredient functions have been reported for Acacia Decurrens Extract (astringent; skin-conditioning agent--occlusive) and Acacia Farnesiana Extract (astringent), but not for the other Acacias included in this review. Toxicity data on gum arabic indicates little or no acute, short-term, or subchronic toxicity. Gum arabic is negative in several genotoxicity assays, is not a reproductive or developmental toxin, and is not carcinogenic when given intraperitoneally or orally. Clinical testing indicated some evidence of skin sensitization with gum arabic. The extensive safety test data on gum arabic supports the safety of Acacia Senegal Gum and Acacia Senegal Gum Extract, and it was concluded that these two ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. It was not possible, however, to relate the data on gum arabic to the crude Acacias and their extracts from species other than Acacia senegal. Therefore, the available data were considered insufficient to support the safety of Acacia Catechu Gum, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Wax, Acacia Decurrens

  3. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  4. 有人机—无人机群协同空战目标分配算法%Reseach on Mission Assignment Algorithm of Cooperation Air Combat for MAV and Multi-UAV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万俊; 傅裕松; 翁兴伟

    2012-01-01

    To solve the mission assignment problem for MAV (Manned Aerial Vehicle) and multi-UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) in cooperation air combat. A DPSO (Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization) is put forward. The research is divided into three situation which includes that one UCAV is assigned one target, one UCAV is assigned two targets regardless of attack order and one UCAV is assigned two targets considering attack order. And then a new particle formation method is proposed. The risk return matrix and cost function of multi-mission assignment which combines air combat capability index and dominant function are designed. The simulation result shows that the arithmetic has good astringency and it has reference value for the Multi-mission assignment for MAV and multi-UAV in cooperation air combat.%针对有人机—无人机群协同空战目标分配问题,运用离散粒子群算法,分为1架UCAV分配1个目标,1架UCAV分配2个目标时不考虑攻击先后影响和考虑攻击先后影响3种情况进行了仿真研究,提出了一种新的粒子构造方法.综合考虑空战能力指数和优势函数,构造了收益风险矩阵和多目标分配的代价函数.仿真结果具有良好收敛性,对有人机—无人机群协同空战目标分配具有参考价值.

  5. THE EFFECT OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS WHEN USED AS DISEASE MODIFYING ANTIREUMATIC DRUGS (DMARD’S IN AMAVATA (RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panthulu Raghupathi Goud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD’S are therapeutic agents which rapidly reduce the intensity of inflammation and facilitate induction of remission. The sages of Ayurveda invented many remedies to combat this disease. Here an effort is made to evaluate once again the efficacy of some of the remedies. Ama and Vata are the two chief pathognomonic factors in causing Amavata. Ama has the qualities of heaviness (guru, unctuousness (Snigdha, immobility (Sthira, bulkiness (Sthula, and sliminess or stickiness (Pichhila. Vata has the properties of lightness (Laghu, dryness (Ruksha, movement (Chala, subtleness (Sukshma, and clearness (Vishada. Ama is the undigested food which results due to Mandagni (sluggish digestive fire which is caused due to various reasons. All types of metabolic fires (Agnis become sluggish in this disease. The stagnant Ama is called Ama visha. Ama is the substance which is the resultant of improper digestion of the food due to hypo-functioning of the gastric juices (Jatharagni. The drugs having the qualities of Tiktam (astringent, Deepana (appetizer and Katu (pungent modify the disease due to their qualities. The purgation property (Virechana guna modifies the process of disease. Castor oil (Eranda Tailam cures Vata diseases. It has been observed that after administration of Castor oil, the fluid from the inflamed joints and tissues has been drained away. Castor oil relieves pain, reduces inflammation and swelling, increases lymphatic circulation, reduces flatulence, stimulates the liver and the gall bladder, and reduces toxins. A scientific study on the effect of castor oil on humans found castor oil to be an antitoxin, and as having an impact on the lymphatic system enhancing the immune functioning of the body. Panchakola churnam is anti-inflammatory; it is an anti-oxidant, an immunomodulator, and a rejuvenator too. Hingu Triguna Tailam is digestive, carminative, analgesic and anti-rheumatic.

  6. Identification and sensory evaluation of dehydro- and deoxy-ellagitannins formed upon toasting of oak wood (Quercus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-05-16

    Traditionally, spirits such as whiskey are matured in toasted wood barrels to improve the sensory quality of the final beverage. In order to gain first insight into the puzzling road map of thermal ellagitannin transformation chemistry and provide evidence for the changes in sensory active nonvolatiles in oak wood during toasting, the purified oak ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, their corresponding dimers roburin A and roburin D, and 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin were thermally treated in model experiments. Besides mouth-coating and golden-brown colored melanoidin-type polymers, individual major reaction products were produced as transient intermediates which were identified for the first time by means of LC-MS/MS and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy. Depending strongly on the stereochemistry, castalagin is oxidized to the previously unreported dehydrocastalagin, whereas its diastereomer vescalagin, differing only in the stereochemistry at carbon C-1, is most surprisingly converted into deoxyvescalagin. Comparative model experiments with 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin revealed castalagin, vescalagin, dehydrocastalagin, and deoxyvescalagin as typical reaction products, thus indicating decarboxylation as a key step in the thermal degradation of that ellagitannin. Similar to the ellagitannin monomers, LC-MS/MS analyses gave strong evidence that the corresponding dimer roburin A, containing the vescalagin configuration at C-1, was converted into the deoxyroburin A, whereas roburin D, exhibiting the castalagin configuration at C-1, was oxidized to give the dehydroroburin D. Human sensory experiments revealed that the ellagitannin derivatives imparted an astringent mouth-coating sensation with threshold concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 126.0 micromol/L, depending strongly on their chemical structure. PMID:17444655

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Extract and Essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, Population of Guilan

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    N Yassa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of study: Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae has cooling, soothing, astringent, and anti-inflammatory effects, and has been used in the north of Iran as a cardiotonic agent. The aim of this study was to identify components of R. damascena (cultivated in Guilan Province extract and essential oil and to study their biological activities. "nMethods: Essential oil of R. damascena was prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC/MS instrument. The antioxidant activity of hydro-alcohlic extract of petals and essential oil was measured using free radical scavenging activity with 2-2-diphenyl, 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and lipid peroxidation (ferric ammonium thiocyanate methods. "nResults: Hydro-alcoholic extract showed strong free radical scavenging capacity compared to lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects. IC50 values of the extract were 2.24 μg/mL and 520 μg/mL in free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays, respectively. The major components of essential oil were linalool (3.8%, nerol (3.05%, geraniol (15.05%, 1-nonadecene (18.56%, n-tricosane (16.68%, hexatriacontane (24.6% and n-pentacosane (3.37%. The bioassay-guided fractionation of extract led to the isolation of three flavonol glycosides: quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside. The IC 50 value of the radical scavenging activity of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside which was, 530 μg/mL was weaker than the extract. "nMajor conclusion: The petal of this cultivated rose has no bitter taste and because of its potential antioxidant activity and good taste, can be used as food flavor and a preventing agent for many diseases.

  8. Effect of 60Co gamma radiation on the levels of phenolic compounds from crude extracts of bark of Spondias luta L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spondias luta L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajazeira, is a plant widespread in several regions of Brazil, famous for containing phenolic compounds, which are responsible for your characteristic astringent. Ionizing radiations have the ability to cross the material, ionizing atoms and molecules, causing changes in atoms and molecules important. It is known ionizing radiation promotes quantitative and qualitative changes in plant materials, increasing, decreasing or inactivating secondary substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation as a modifier of the activity of the phenolic compounds of the bark extract of S. luta L. Methods: For the dosage of phenol extracts (control, irradiated with 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy) were diluted in methanol to a final concentration of 200 mg / L. In test tubes were added 50 μL of extract plus 1 ml of distilled water and 500 μl of Folin (diluted 1:10). After 10 minutes in a dark chamber was added 2.5 ml of calcium carbonate to 20% and the content of the tube was homogenized. After 20 minutes was performed with a spectrophotometer at 735 nm. The assay was performed in triplicate and calculated from a standard curve solution of gallic acid and expressed in μEAG (GAE/mg extract). Results: The control extracts, irradiated to 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy, had, respectively, 6.25, 6.70, 6.25, 6.85, 6.45 μEAG/mg of extract. Conclusion: The results showed no significant change in the amount of phenolic compounds, showing that these compounds are radioresistant extract these doses. (author)

  9. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  10. Effect of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the levels of phenolic compounds from crude extracts of bark of Spondias luta L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Melo, Mychely S., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: mychely.melo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academinco de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Spondias luta L. (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajazeira, is a plant widespread in several regions of Brazil, famous for containing phenolic compounds, which are responsible for your characteristic astringent. Ionizing radiations have the ability to cross the material, ionizing atoms and molecules, causing changes in atoms and molecules important. It is known ionizing radiation promotes quantitative and qualitative changes in plant materials, increasing, decreasing or inactivating secondary substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation as a modifier of the activity of the phenolic compounds of the bark extract of S. luta L. Methods: For the dosage of phenol extracts (control, irradiated with 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy) were diluted in methanol to a final concentration of 200 mg / L. In test tubes were added 50 μL of extract plus 1 ml of distilled water and 500 μl of Folin (diluted 1:10). After 10 minutes in a dark chamber was added 2.5 ml of calcium carbonate to 20% and the content of the tube was homogenized. After 20 minutes was performed with a spectrophotometer at 735 nm. The assay was performed in triplicate and calculated from a standard curve solution of gallic acid and expressed in μEAG (GAE/mg extract). Results: The control extracts, irradiated to 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 15 kGy and 20 kGy, had, respectively, 6.25, 6.70, 6.25, 6.85, 6.45 μEAG/mg of extract. Conclusion: The results showed no significant change in the amount of phenolic compounds, showing that these compounds are radioresistant extract these doses. (author)

  11. The impact of yeast starter cultures on the microbial communities and volatile compounds in cocoa fermentation and the resulting sensory attributes of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Nádia Nara; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2016-02-01

    Theobroma cacao seeds are the main raw material for chocolate production. During their fermentation, a succession of microorganisms are responsible for the physicochemical changes occurring in the pulp and inside the beans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast inoculation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11, Pichia kluivery CCMA0237, and Hanseniaspora uvarum CCMA0236) on the profile of the volatile compounds and microbial communities in cocoa fermentation. The resulting chocolate was also evaluated by temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. The dominant microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation were S. cerevisiae, H. uvarum, H. guilliermondii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus sp., and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Similarly, S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri, Candida sp., Pediococcus sp., and A. pasteurianus were the predominant microorganisms assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) in inoculated fermentation. Sixty-seven volatile compounds were detected and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at the end of fermentation and chocolates. The main group of volatile compound found after the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations was esters (41 and 39 %, respectively). In the chocolates, the main group was acids (73 and 44 % from the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations, respectively). The TDS analyses showed a dominance of bitter and cocoa attributes in both chocolates. However, in the inoculated chocolate, lingering fruity notes were more intense, while the chocolate produced by spontaneous fermentation was more astringent. Thus, the inoculation of yeast influenced the microbial profile, which likely affected the volatile compounds that affect sensory characteristics, resulting in chocolate with dominant bitter, cocoa, and fruity attributes. PMID:27162390

  12. 控制系统的满意优化效用理论研究及应用%Satisfactory Optimization Utility Theory and Its Application for Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑霞; 金炜东

    2011-01-01

    The basic characteristics of satisfactory optimization are put forward which are different from the traditional optimization, and a new satisfactory optimization model of parameter design of control system is proposed. Through the utility function and its expectation function, the satisfactory algorithm based on utility function is put forward, and the characters of boundary closed convexity and the basic operation characters under nonnegative measurable value function are discussed, which offers the basic theory for the application of the proposed algorithm. A simulation example of single loop control system is given to prove that the satisfactory optimization algorithm under the utility function has a favorable astringency.%提出了满意优化不同于传统优化的基本特点,并依此建立了控制系统参数设计的满意优化模型.由所建立的效用函数及其期望,设计了效用函数下的满意优化算法,并进一步探讨了文中所设计的效用函数具有有界闭凸性及其在可测非负实值函数下的基本运算性质,为该算法的应用推广提供了理论基础.单回路控制系统下的仿真算例数据表明,效用函数下的满意优化算法具有良好的收敛性.

  13. New member of the R2R3-MYB transcription factors family in grapevine suppresses the anthocyanin accumulation in the flowers of transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, J Ricardo; Pérez-Díaz, Jorge; Madrid-Espinoza, José; González-Villanueva, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko; Ruiz-Lara, Simón

    2016-01-01

    In grapevine, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the main flavonoids in berries, which are associated to organoleptic properties in red wine such as color and astringency. Flavonoid pathway is specifically regulated at transcriptional level and several R2R3-MYB proteins have shown to act as positive regulators. However, some members of this family have shown to repress the flavonoid biosynthesis. In this work, we present the characterization of VvMYB4-like gene, which encodes a putative transcriptional factor highly expressed in the skin of berries at the pre veraison stage in grapevine. Its over-expression in tobacco resulted in the loss of pigmentation in flowers due a decrease in anthocyanin accumulation. Severity in anthocyanin suppression observed in petals could be associated with the expression level of the VvMYB4-like transgene. Expression analysis of flavonoid structural genes revealed the strong down-regulation of the flavonoid-related genes anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) genes and also the reduction of the anthocyanin-related gene UDP glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (UFGT), which was dependent of the transgene expression. In addition, expression of VvMYB4-like in the model plant Arabidopsis showed similar results, with the higher down-regulation observed in the AtDFR and AtLDOX genes. These results suggest that VvMYB4-like may play an important role in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine acting as a transcriptional repressor of flavonoid structural genes. PMID:26497001

  14. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  15. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  16. Relaxant effects of Hydrastis canadensis L. and its major alkaloids on guinea pig isolated trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haq, H; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M; Leone, M G; Silvestrini, B; Saso, L

    2000-11-01

    Hydrastis or goldenseal, one of the most popular medicinal herbs in the U.S.A., is used in mild pathological conditions like cold and flu, based on the pharmacological properties of its active components, berberine (anticholinergic, antisecretory, and antimicrobial) and beta-hydrastine (astringent). We previously reported the relaxant effect of a total ethanolic extract of hydrastis on carbachol precontracted isolated guinea pig trachea, and with the present study, using the same experimental model, we aimed at evaluating the contribution of its major alkaloids, berberine, beta-hydrastine, canadine and canadaline to the total effect. Furthermore, using specific pharmacological tools, like timolol and xanthine amine congener, we attempted to elucidate its mechanism of action. The EC50 of berberine, beta-hydrastine, canadine and canadaline, were 34.2+/-0.6, 72.8+/-0.6, 11.9+/-1.2 and 2.4+/-0.8 microg/ml, respectively. Timolol effectively antagonized the effect of canadine (EC50 = 19.7+/-3.0 microg/ml) and canadaline (EC50 = 17.1+/-1.2 microg/ml) but not that of berberine and beta-hydrastine, while xanthine amine congener antagonized the effect of beta-hydrastine (EC50 = 149.9+/-35.3 microg/ml) and canadaline (EC50 = 26.1+/-3.0 microg/ml) but not that of berberine and canadine. Besides, the hydrastis extract, at concentrations between 0.01 and 0.1 microg/ml, potentiated the relaxant effect of isoprenaline on carbachol-precontracted isolated guinea pig trachea. These data, which are insufficient to draw definite mechanistic conclusions, indicate that the aforementioned alkaloids may act by interacting with adrenergic and adenosinic receptors. PMID:11129501

  17. Analysis of characters of bitter flavor in Chinese medicinal%苦味药材性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪玉佳; 王鹏; 李佳; 张永清; 滕佳林; 王振国

    2012-01-01

    Bitter flavor(taste) is an important part of the theory of Chinese herbal property. Different material composition not only aflect the medicinal characters,but also affect the the properties and flavors of Chinese materia medica. Total 1 728 Chinese medicinal which cold or heat property were described definitely in Herbal Medicine were selected. The relationship between bitter flavor and the characters was studied by using mathematical statistical methods. The results showed that the bitter flavor was effected by texture,flavor,taste,external color. The more crisp,bitter and astringent the Chinese medicinal is,the more bitter it is. The more sweet,salty,spicy and white the Chinese medicinal is,the less bitter it is.%苦味是中药药性理论的重要组成部分.不同的物质组成影响着药材性状,也影响着药材性味.选取《中华本草》所载1 728种寒热药性明确的中药,运用数学统计方法,研究了中药苦味与药材性状的关系,认为药材质地、气味、味道、外观颜色共同影响着中药苦味.药材性状质脆、味苦或味涩越多的中药,药材性味越偏向苦味;药材性状气香、味甘、味咸、味辛和白色越多的中药,药材性味越远离苦味.

  18. 荷叶粉对猪肉火腿肠品质特性的影响%Effect of Lotus Leaf Powder on the Quality of Pork Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 姚峥; 王路; 杜庆飞; 陈从贵

    2013-01-01

    以猪肉火腿肠(pork sausage,pS)为研究对象,考察荷叶粉添加量(0~2.0%)对PS持水性、色泽、质构及感官品质的影响.结果表明:添加荷叶粉能够显著改善PS的持水能力(蒸煮损失率CL值降低、保水性WHC值和总持水性TWBC值提高)和硬度(P<0.05);但会导致其L*值和a*值显著降低(P<0.05);添加不高于1.0%的荷叶粉,对PS的组织状态、香气、咸味、涩味和口感均无显著影响(P>0.05);综合分析结果显示,制作PS的荷叶粉适宜添加水平约为1.0%.%The effects of lotus leaf powder on water-holding capacity,color,textural properties and sensory qualities of pork sausages were investigated.The results showed that the water-binding capacity and hardness of pork sausages were improved significantly,while L* and a* values were decreased evidently by the addition of lotus leaf powder (P<0.05).No significant changes in texture,aroma,salty,astringency or taste were found when no more than 10% lotus leaf powder was added to pork sausages (P> 0.05).The proper addition level of lotus leaf powder in pork sausages was approximately 10%.

  19. Exploration of preliminary phytochemical studies of roots of ficus racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Murti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphological characters for Ficus racemosa are not reported. It is usedin Ayurveda for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and piles, rheumatism, skin disorderslike sores, teeth disorders, to boost immune system, as a hypoglycemic. Literature reportsthe number of uses like anthelmentic, astringent, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activityof this plant. The main constituents in the plant are carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, ster-oids, gums, mucilage, lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol acetate,α-amyrin acetate, leucoan-thocyanidin, and leucoanthocyanin. It is characterized by the presence of thick walled cork,several layered regularly arranged. Epidermis is thin walled and single layered, cortex andhypodermis is distinct, fibres and vessels are lignified, medullary rays are thick walled andlignified. Centre is occupied by the pith which is thin walled and has parenchymatous cells.Phytochemical investigation of root shows, total ash (7.0 % w/w, acid insoluble ash (3.0 %w/w, and water soluble ash (4.0 % w/w. Loss on drying is 1.584 % w/w. Alcohol solubleextractive value (3.2% w/w, water soluble extractive value (10.4 % w/w, chloroform solubleextractive value (1.06 % w/w and ether soluble extractive value (4.8% w/w. Alcoholic andaqueous extracts obtained from the plant are 10.6% w/w and 9.2% w/w. In alcoholic extractand aqueous extract, tannins and saponins are present in in major amount respectively.Other constituents include carbohydrate, glycosides, phenolic compounds, gums and muci-lage were present

  20. 白芍不同炮制品的配伍应用研究分析%Research and Analysis of the Difference Processed Product Compatibility of Medicines Application in Radix Paeoniae Alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立忠; 吴镝

    2015-01-01

    目的:探析白芍不同炮制品的配伍运用效果。方法运用薄层色谱法分别分析白芍原药材和不同加工炮制品(柴胡、黄芪、甘草、当归、牡蛎)的运用情况。结果白芍具有敛阴收汗、补血养肝以及平肝止痛等功用,能治疗月经不调、腹泻、腹痛等疾病,同时还具有美白祛斑等功效。结论白芍通过与其他药物进行配伍炮制,具有更佳广泛的应用范围,且能增加药物功效。%Objective To explore the difference processed product compatibility of medicines application in radix paeoniae alba.Methods Used thin layer chromatography respectively, the analysis of the use of crude radix paeoniae alba and different processed ( bupleurum root, astragalus root, liquorice root, chinese angelica root, oyster ).Results The root of herbaceous peony with astringing Yin sweat, blood and liver and calming the liver pain function, in the clinical treatment of menstruation is not moved, abdominal pain and diarrhea disease. At the same time, also has whitening freckle effect.Conclusion Radix paeoniae alba by processing of compatibility with other drugs, has better extensive scope of health care and to increase the efifcacy of drugs.

  1. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention. PMID:26778456

  2. Comparison of milk oxidation by exposure to LED and fluorescent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothersen, C; McMahon, D J; Legako, J; Martini, S

    2016-04-01

    Light-induced oxidation of milk has been well studied. Exposure of milk to UV light facilitates the oxidation of fats to aldehydes, and the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids, both of which contribute to off-flavors. In addition, vitamin A and riboflavin are easily degraded by UV light. These reactions occur rapidly and are exacerbated by bright fluorescent lights in retail dairy cases. The invention of white light-emitting diodes (LED) may provide a solution to this oxidation problem. In this study, fresh milk containing 1% fat and fortified with vitamin A and riboflavin was exposed to LED at 4,000 lx, or fluorescent light at 2,200 lx for 24 h. Milk samples exposed to LED or fluorescent light, as well as milk protected from light, were analyzed by a consumer acceptance panel, and a trained flavor panel. In addition, vitamin A, riboflavin, and the production of volatile compounds were quantified. Exposure to light resulted in a reduction of cooked/sweet, milkfat, and sweet flavors and increased the intensity of butterscotch, cardboard, and astringency. In general, exposure to fluorescent light resulted in greater changes in the milk than exposure to LED even though the LED was at higher intensity. Consumers were able detect off-flavors in milk exposed to fluorescent light after 12 h and LED after 24 h of exposure. The riboflavin and vitamin A content was reduced by exposure to fluorescent light, whereas there was no significant reduction caused by LED compared with the non-light-exposed control. Production of hexanal, heptanal, 2-heptanal, octanal, 2-octanal nonanal, dimethyl sulfide, and caproic acid vinyl ester from the light-induced degradation of fats was significantly higher with fluorescent than LED. Production of these compounds was significantly higher with both light treatments than in the control milk. This study indicates that LED is less destructive to milk than fluorescent light. PMID:26874418

  3. Research on multi-issue Agent negotiation based on fairness%多Agent自动协商的公平性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑素娥; 左保河; 孙甜

    2011-01-01

    An optimized multi-Agent negotiation model is built in order to make the Agent negotiations quick.Based on this model, a negotiation learning algorithm that considers the fairness of both negotiators is introduced.This algorithm evaluates offers from the opponent Agent based on the satisfaction degree,learning online to get the opponent's knowledge from interactive instances of history and negotiation of this time, making concessions dynamically based on fair object.Through building the trading negotiation simulation model, it can validate the astringency of this algorithm.The result shows the model based on this algorithm is high efficient and fair.%为了能够快速、高效地进行Agent协商,构建一个优化的多Agent协商模型.在这个模型的基础上,提出了一个基于协商各方公平性的协商学习算法.算法采用塞于满意度的思想评估协商对手的提议,根据对方Agent协商历史及本次协商交互信息,通过在线学习机制预测对方Agent协商策略,动态得出协商妥协度并向对方提出还价提议.最后,通过买卖协商仿真实验验证了该算法的收敛性,表明基于该算法的模型工作的高效性、公平性.

  4. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages. PMID:21929332

  5. The role of honey in healing of bedsores in cancer patients

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    Aramita Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground: Honey was used to treat infected wounds as long as 2000 years before bacteria were discovered. It has been reported to have inhibitory action to around 50 species of bacteria and fungi (aspergillus, penicillium. Usually, Metronidazole powder is used in our palliative clinic for wound healing due to low cost & effectivity. Honey is cheap, easily available ingredient with high astringent activity. Objective: Objectives of the study were to find out the effectiveness of Honey in terms of rate of wound healing & pain control in bedsores of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: 40 cancer patients with bedsore wounds were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio i.e. 20 in each arm for Study Arm (Honey plus Metronidazole powder and Control Arm (only Metronidazole powder, attending Palliative clinic of our department in between July 2010 to September 2011.Washing of the wound with normal saline done daily before application of above medicaments. Change of posture & soft bed were encouraged in both groups. A pre designed interview proforma, standardised Bates Jensen Wound Assessment Tool and Visual Analogue Pain assessment scale were used to collect and assess data. Results: There was significant difference in wound healing status (F value = 6.523; Critical Difference =14.03, P<0.05 from day 10 and pain reduction also (F value = 6.638 and Critical Difference = 1.667, P<0.05 from day 7 in study arm. Conclusion: Application of honey dressing provides a better wound healing, rapid pain relief in cancer patients with bedsores in palliative settings.

  6. A Case Study of Homemade Qufushengji Ointment in the Treatment of Bedsore Disease%自制祛腐生肌膏治疗褥疮病的病例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚家友; 禹琪; 姚宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of Qufushengji ointment in the treatment of bedsore.Methods 26 cases of elderly patients with bedsore Qufushengji ointment in the treatment of stage I - IV period.Results 20 cases were cured, 6 cases improved. Which I bedsore treatment time 4-7 days, secondary bedsore treatment time 7-15 days, phase III bedsore treatment time 15-120, stage IV decubitus treatment 90-200 days.Conclusion Qufushengji ointment with drugs of activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis, eliminating corruption, has the advantage of economy, no pain, no side effects such as, worthy of clinical application of push, astringing sores myogenic, anti-infiammatory, pain, promote wound healing, treatment of various types of bedsore is wide.%目的:观察祛腐生肌膏治疗褥疮的疗效。方法用祛腐生肌膏治疗Ⅰ期--Ⅳ期中老年褥疮病人26例。结果20例治愈,6例好转后出院。其中Ⅰ期褥疮治疗时间4—7天,Ⅱ期褥疮治疗时间7—15天,Ⅲ期褥疮治疗时间15—120,Ⅳ期褥疮治疗90—200天。结论祛腐生肌膏具有活血化瘀、祛腐有效的药物,具有经济、无痛、无副作用等优点,值得临床应用推、敛疮生肌、消炎、止疼,促进创面愈合的作用,是治疗各型褥疮较广。

  7. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

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    Mahmood Zafar Alam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their livelihood by selling some of them in the local market. One hundred and twenty five medicinal plants are being used by local people in the study valley in which a diversified application of these species have been observed. These include (24 species astringent and for other skin problems, (16 species laxative, (14 species stomachic, (14 species diuretic, (11 species carminative, (10 species anthelmintic, (10 species used in reproductive disorders, (9 species are used in various hepatic disorders, (9 species used in various CNS disorders, (8 species antispasmodic, (8 species expectorant, (7 species antirheumatic, (5 species antiseptic, (4 species antidiabetic, (4 species purgative, (4 species aphrodisiac, (3 speciesanticancer, (2 species antihypertensive and (2 species for ophthalmic use. Similarly the remaining species have one or more medicinal use(s. Seventeen species of them are also collected for trade purposes that include Ajuga bracteosa, Paeonia emodi, Berberis lycium, Mentha longifolia, Diospyrus lotus, Skimmia lauriola, Zanthoxylum alatum, Morchella esculenta, , Bistorta amplexicaulis, Podophyllum emodi, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Allium sativum, Cichorum intybus, Plectranthus rugosus, Dioscorea deltoidea, Juglans regia and Polygonatum multiflorum. Market survey revealed that the collectors are often not aware of the high market value and medicinal application so most of the collected material is sold to local middle man at very low price

  8. Sensory characteristics changes of red Grenache wines submitted to different oxygen exposures pre and post bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Wirth, Jérémie; Diéval, Jean-Baptiste; Vidal, Stéphane; Cheynier, Véronique

    2010-02-15

    It is widely accepted that oxygen contributes to wine development by impacting its colour, aromatic bouquet, and mouth-feel properties. The wine industry can now also take advantage of engineered solutions to deliver known amounts of oxygen into bottles through the closures. This study was aimed at monitoring the influence of oxygen pick-up, before (micro-oxygenation, Mox) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on wine sensory evolution. Red Grenache wines were prepared either by flash release (FR) or traditional soaking (Trad) and with or without Mox during elevage (FR+noMox, FR+Mox, Trad+noMox, Trad+Mox). The rate of nano oxygenation was controlled by combining consistent oxygen transfer rate (OTR) closures and different oxygen controlled storage conditions. Wine sensory characteristics were analyzed by sensory profile, at bottling (T0) and after 5 and 10 months of ageing, by a panel of trained judges. Effects of winemaking techniques and OTR were analyzed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering) and analysis of variance. Results showed that, at bottling, Trad wines were perceived more animal and FR wines more bitter and astringent. Mox wines showed more orange shade. At 5 and 10 months, visual and olfactory differences were observed according to the OTR levels: modalities with higher oxygen ingress were darker and fruitier but also perceived significantly less animal than modalities with lower oxygen. Along the 10 months of ageing, the influence of OTR became more important as shown by increased significance levels of the observed differences. As the mouth-feel properties of the wines were mainly dictated by winemaking techniques, OTR had only little impact on "in mouth" attributes. PMID:20103141

  9. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN SOME ANTIPERSPIRANT FORMULATIONS MARKETED IN NIGERIA

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    Kasim, L. S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

  10. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  11. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea. PMID:22642545

  12. OA03.03. A clinical study on effect of yoni prakshalan with pancha valkal kwatha in the management of kaphaja yonivapada w.s.r. to candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattar, Prabhavati

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ayurved has elaborated Gynecological disorders under the entity of yoni vapadas. Kaphaj yoni vapat is one among the twenty yonivapadas, which shoes the symptoms of picchila yonisrava along with yoni kandu. All females of reproductive age group are prone for kaphaj yoni vapat at some time or other and is important Gynecological disorders now a days, in spite of several researches done and plenty of medicines in various forms being available now a days. Pancha valkal kawatha is used for stanika chikitsa(yoni prakshalan), these drug having the qualities of stambhana,kashay rasa, sotha hara and kapha shama beneficial for yonirogas. In this clinical study pancha valkal kwatha has shown significant improvement in white discharge, itching and backache. Method: Research conducted on 10 patients from IPD & OPD of Prasuti Tantra & Stree Roga of SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan. The selection was done on the basis of chief complaints of Kaphaj yonivyapat such as vaginal discharge, itching associated with backache and presence of Candida albicans was proved by vaginal smear. Sthanik chikitsa with Panch valkal kwatha was given for duration of 7 days and patients were asked to maintain local hygiene. Follow up was for 1 week. Result: Out of 10 patients, 6 patients were totally cured from the symptoms and mild improvement was observed in the remaining 4 patients at the end of treatment. Conclusion: The drug Pancha valkal kawatha is kapha shamaka, stambhaka and having the properties like astringent, antiseptic (kashaya rasa) and wound healing (vrana ropana). Because of these properties it helps in increasing local cell immunity and prevent recurrence of symptoms in patients.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat

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    M. Minaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Baneh tree or Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica is an endemic plant of Iran which belongs to Anacardiaceae family. It has various traditional uses including astringent and anti-diarrheal as well as improving some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal upsets. In this study we decided to investigate the effects of various fractions of baneh gum with different doses in an animal model of ulcerative colitis as one of the important chronic inflammatory bowel diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Methods: The volatile oil and aqueous baneh gum suspensions were prepared and the constituents of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC/MS. They were used to treat colitis induced by acetic acid 4% in rats. Three doses of gum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered both orally (p.o. and intra-rectally (i.r. while volatile oil was administered p.o. with doses 100, 200 and 400 µl/kg for four constitutive days. Anti-inflammatory effects of the test compounds were compared with oral prednisolone and hydrocortisone enema. Wet colon weight/ length ratio and tissue damage scores and area as well as indices of colitis and tissue myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated for each specimen. Results: Alpha-pinene was the main constituent of baneh volatile oil (41.23%. We observed therapeutic effects in applied doses of oral gum as well as volatile oil to reduce all indices of colitis and myeloperoxidase activity. Unlike the oral form of gum, its rectal administration was not significantly effective to improve colitis. Conclusion: This research has proved the anti-inflammatory potential of oral gum of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica and its volatile oil in an experimentally induced colitis.

  14. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

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    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  15. ANTIMICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NEW NATURAL ANTISEPTIC FORMULATION ON NON-INFECTED VENOUS LEG ULCER: PILOT STUDY

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    Ivana Binić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous leg ulcers represent a significant public health problem that will increase as the population ages. Numerous herbs and their extracts are potentially conducive to wound healing, including the ability to serve as antimicrobial, antifungal, astringent etc. The aim of the study was to establish the in-vivo antimicrobial effects of herbal hydrogel formulation DermaplantG. The major components of the DermaplantG were the extracts of Allii bulbus, Hyperici herba and extract of Calendulae flos. A total of 12 patients with non-infected venous leg ulcers were treated twice daily, for 5 weeks, with new hydrogel formulation. All ulcers showed clinical signs of contamination or colonization without signs of systemic infection. Premoistening the swab with sterile saline was considered when the surface of the wound was dry. The tip of the swab was rolled on its side in a zigzag pattern for at least one full rotation. Standard methods for isolation and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were used. On baseline assessment, a large number of different types of bacteria were detected in all venous leg ulcers. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were isolated from almost all controls.On baseline, mixed bacterial flora (50% was isolated in six venous leg ulcers (five ulcers with S. aureus-P. aeruginosa and one ulcer with E.coli-Enterobacter spp-P.aeruginosa. At the end of the treatment in DermaplantG group in 8 venous ulcers were detected S. aureus (66.66% and P. aeruginosa (16.66%, and one venous leg ulcers was detected as sterile (8.33%. The number of different types of isolated bacterial species decreased significantly (P<0.05 after the use of DermaplantG herbal preparations. Therapy in DermaplantG group was administered without any side effects.The preliminary results of this pilot study demonstrate potential antimicrobial effects of herbal therapy on non-infected venous leg ulcers.

  16. Chronic venous leg ulcers – role of topical zinc

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    Maher SF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sara F Maher Physical Therapy Program, Department of Healthcare Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Topical zinc has been used in the treatment of wounds for over 3,000 years, and is reported to have antiseptic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound healing properties. Fourteen studies were identified and reviewed, to assess the efficacy of this treatment modality as either a bandage or skin protectant in the treatment of venous ulcers. The authors of three studies reported improved healing time or success rate in wounds treated with zinc-based products. However, the authors of one study attributed the faster healing rate mainly to the extra compression (that improved venous blood return, delivered by the non-elastic paste bandage, and not by the zinc oxide alone. The quality of evidence is fair, as 50% of the studies were conducted prior to 2000 and 50% of the studies utilized fewer than 45 patients randomized to two or more groups. Other treatments have been reported to be more cost-effective than zinc, including hydrocolloids, four-layer compression systems, and CircAid Thera-boots. Finally, zinc was reported to be less comfortable, less easy to use, and caused increased pain, in comparison to other products on the market. This literature review, therefore, demonstrated that current evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of zinc-based products in the treatment of venous wounds. Future research is needed focusing on larger, high-quality trials with an emphasis on quality of life issues and cost-effectiveness of treatment. Keywords: chronic wounds, leg ulcers, venous insufficiency, topical zinc

  17. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: amandaramos@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  18. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  19. QTL analysis and candidate gene mapping for the polyphenol content in cider apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy F Verdu

    Full Text Available Polyphenols have favorable antioxidant potential on human health suggesting that their high content is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They control the quality of ciders as they predominantly account for astringency, bitterness, color and aroma. In this study, we identified QTLs controlling phenolic compound concentrations and the average polymerization degree of flavanols in a cider apple progeny. Thirty-two compounds belonging to five groups of phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by reversed phase liquid chromatography on both fruit extract and juice, over three years. The average polymerization degree of flavanols was estimated in fruit by phloroglucinolysis coupled to HPLC. Parental maps were built using SSR and SNP markers and used for the QTL analysis. Sixty-nine and 72 QTLs were detected on 14 and 11 linkage groups of the female and male maps, respectively. A majority of the QTLs identified in this study are specific to this population, while others are consistent with previous studies. This study presents for the first time in apple, QTLs for the mean polymerization degree of procyanidins, for which the mechanisms involved remains unknown to this day. Identification of candidate genes underlying major QTLs was then performed in silico and permitted the identification of 18 enzymes of the polyphenol pathway and six transcription factors involved in the apple anthocyanin regulation. New markers were designed from sequences of the most interesting candidate genes in order to confirm their co-localization with underlying QTLs by genetic mapping. Finally, the potential use of these QTLs in breeding programs is discussed.

  20. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aphanamixis polystachya Bark

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    Alluri V. Krishnaraju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Free radical stress leads to tissue injury and progression of disease conditions such as arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hepatic injury, aging and ischemia, reperfusion injury of many tissues, gastritis, tumor promotion, neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenesis. Safer antioxidants suitable for long term use are needed to prevent or stop the progression of free radical mediated disorders. Approach: Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provided efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. A. polystachya bark was a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases, rheumatism and tumors. Antioxidant activity of the crude extracts of bark of A. polystachya were assessed using NBT, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. The potent fraction (AP-110/82C was tested for in vivo efficacy Results: The methanol, aqueous methanol and water extracts exhibited potent antioxidant activity compared to known antioxidants. In vivo studies on potent fraction AP-110/82C demonstrated dose dependent reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde (320.6, 269.3 and 373.69 µM mg-1 protein with simultaneous improvement in hepatic glutathione (6.9, 17.1 and 5.8 µg mg-1 protein and catalase levels (668.9, 777.0 and 511.94 µg mg-1 protein respectively for 50, 100 mg kg-1 doses and control compared to control group. Conclusion: Due to its natural origin and potent free-radical scavenging ability A. polystachya could be used as a potential preventive intervention for free radical-mediated diseases.

  1. Irradiation effect on antifungal potential Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) essential oil, a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Widely used as a food condiment and flavoring, used in perfumery and medicine. The nutmeg has many biological properties as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal and parasiticide. Previous research has revealed interesting antimicrobial effect of nutmeg essential oil. Spices irradiation is a worldwide process used and this technique is an effective pathogenic microorganisms control providing consumers food security. By the fact nutmeg not only used in food, but also as an essential oil raw material this study investigated the nutmeg different irradiation doses influence on the possible antimicrobial potential oil. The aim of this study was evaluate the antifungal potential oil from unirradiated and irradiated nutmeg in the fungus Guignardia citricarpa that causes serious damage in orange plantations. The Myristica fragrans samples were irradiated in 60Co irradiator at doses of 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The oil was used in 50 and 100% of concentration (irradiated and not irradiated). The essential oil in high concentration could be a good substitute for the pesticides used to control the fungus Guignardia citricarpa, the nutmeg irradiation treatment with the doses 5.0 and 10.0 kGy did not changed the results in the essential oil effectiveness. It is clear that is necessary others studies with others doses to verify the radiation ionizing influence in the essential oil activity and the oil application efficiency in the field against the fungus. (author)

  2. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  3. Antioxidant capacity of the leaf extract obtained from Arrabidaea chica cultivated in Southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Tiemy Guinoza Siraichi

    Full Text Available Arrabidaea chica leaf extract has been used by people as an anti-inflammatory and astringent agent as well as a remedy for intestinal colic, diarrhea, leucorrhea, anemia, and leukemia. A. chica is known to be a good producer of phenolics. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated its antioxidant activity. The phenolic composition of A. chica leaves was studied by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC-DAD and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS, and isoscutellarein, 6-hydroxyluteolin, hispidulin, scutellarein, luteolin, and apigenin were identified. The extract from leaves of A. chica was tested for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, β-carotene bleaching test, and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP method. The crude extract quenched DPPH free radicals in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 of the extract was 13.51 µg/mL. The β-carotene bleaching test showed that the addition of the A. chica extract in different concentrations (200 and 500 µg/mL prevented the bleaching of β-carotene at different degrees (51.2% ±3.38% and 94% ±4.61%, respectively. The TRAP test showed dose-dependent correlation between the increasing concentrations of A. chica extract (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 µg/mL and the TRAP values obtained by trolox (hydro-soluble vitamin E 0.4738±0.0466, 1.981±0.1603, and 6.877±1.445 µM, respectively. The 2 main flavonoids, scutellarein and apigenin, were separated, and their antioxidant activity was found to be the same as that of the plant extract. These 2 flavonoids were quantified in the plant extract by using a validated HPLC-UV method. The results of these tests showed that the extract of A. chica had a significant antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the presence of the mixture of flavonoids in the plant extract, with the main contribution of scutellarein and apigenin.

  4. Estabilidade da polpa do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. congelada por 12 meses Stability of the bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart. frozen for 12 months

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    Virlane Kelly Lima da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de realizar o processamento e avaliar a estabilidade da polpa de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. submetida ao congelamento durante 12 meses. Durante o período de armazenamento não ocorreram alterações significativas nas características físico-químicas da polpa quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis, pH, atividade de água, açúcares totais e redutores, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos poliméricos e oligoméricos, pectina total e solúvel e cor L, a* , b*, enquanto que a acidez total e relação SST/AT variaram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os compostos fenólicos dímeros apresentaram aumento em função do tempo. Pelos resultados obtidos, a polpa de bacuri não pode ser considerada uma boa fonte de vitamina C. Por outro lado, apresenta baixos teores de compostos fenólicos caracterizando a polpa como, potencialmente pouco adstringente e com potencial para o processamento. A qualidade microbiológica não foi alterada durante o período de armazenamento. Os resultados apontam a eficiência do congelamento na manutenção das características físico-químicas e microbiológicas da polpa de bacuri.The objective of this work was to process and evaluate the stability of the bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. pulp submitted to freezing for 12 months. During the storage period there were significant changes in the physiochemical characteristics of the pulp as for the content of total soluble solids, pH, water activity, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, polimer and oligomeric phenolic compounds , total and soluble pectin and color L, the a*, b *,while total acidity and soluble solids varied with the storange period. The dimers phenolic compounds incresead with the time. According to the results, the bacuri pulp cannot be considered a good source of vitamin C, but it presents low contents of phenolic compounds characterizing the pulp as little astringent, thus showing potential for the processing

  5. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory profile of orange juice

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    Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi

    2003-04-01

    artificial orange than the control. Irradiation levels affected texture characteristics as body and astringency, homogeneity attribute was not affected. Color and gummy of control sample intensified with the increase of storage periods. Results lead juice irradiation promoted negatively on sensorial characteristic.

  6. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

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    Prafulla Adkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100 g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32 mg and 102.85 mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8 mg Iron, and 121 and 325 mg phosphorus in 100 g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85 Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total

  7. 腹泻型肠易激综合征脐疗的组方药物性味规律研究%Study on the Nature and Flavor Law of Herbs in Navel Therapy for Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璇; 柳春梅; 于岩瀑; 马玉侠

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the characteristics of navel therapy treatment for diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome(IBS)-D,and to provide a novel therapy for IBS-D. Methods:Taking ancient Chinese medical classics as the literature references ,records of diarrhea treated with navel therapy from 650 ancient tradition-al Chinese medicine books were retrieved to establish the data base using Microsoft Excel software and to be analyzed statistically. Results:There are 40 herbs for the navel therapy. Among the herbs ,warm and heat herbs appear 80 times,accounting for 62.5%,cold and cool herbs appear 26 times,accounting 20.30%,neutral herbs 22 times,accounting for 17.2%,spicy herbs appear 78 times,sweet herbs 43 times,bitter herbs 43 times,sour herbs 14 times,salty herbs 9 times,bland herbs 8 times and astringent herbs 5 times. Conclu-sion:Warm and hot herbs are predominant for navel therapy according to the nature while spicy ,sweet and bitter herbs are predominant according to the taste ,in which spicy herbs appear with the highest frequency.%目的:研究脐疗治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征(IBS-D)的临床用药特点,为脐疗治疗IBS-D选方用药提供新思路. 方法:以《中华医典》为文献检索源,从与脐疗相关的650 本中医古籍文献中检索其中有关脐疗治疗泄泻的条文,应用 Microsoft excel建立数据库,并进行统计分析. 结果:脐疗用药 40 种,温热类药物共出现 80 频次,占 62.50%;寒凉类药物共出现 26 次,占20.30%;平性药物共出现22次,占17.20%;辛味药物出现78次,甘味药出现43次,苦味药出现43次,酸、咸、淡、涩四种药味出现分别是14次、9次、8次、5次. 结论:药性以温热类居多;味以辛、甘、苦居首,其中辛味药所占频次最多.

  8. 不同发酵时间米酒滋味品质变化的研究%A Comparative Study on the Taste Profile Characterization of Rice Wine in Different Fermentation Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于博; 郭壮; 汤尚文; 蔡宏宇; 杨成聪; 潘振菲; 刘倩

    2015-01-01

    采用电子舌技术和多变量统计学方法相结合的手段,对不同发酵时间米酒的滋味品质进行了评价。发酵过程中米酒的酸味、苦味、涩味、鲜味和咸味均会发生显著的变化,其中发酵12 h~24 h时其变化最为明显。通过主成分分析、基于马氏距离的聚类和多元方差分析发现,按照滋味整体结构相似性的大小可以将米酒的发酵过程划分为0~12 h,12 h~36 h和36 h~84 h三个阶段,其中发酵12小时后米酒的滋味才开始形成,而发酵12 h~36 h可能是米酒滋味品质形成的关键阶段。%In this paper, the taste profile characterizations of rice wine in different fermentation time were studied by electronic tongue and multivariate statistics. There were significant differences of sourness , bitterness, astringency, umami and saltiness of rice wine in different fermentation time, and especially have the most changes during 12 h-24 h. Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis based on mahalanobis distance analysis and MANOVA analysis all showed that the fermentation process of rice wine could divided into three stages based on the taste profile similarity, namely 0-12 h, 12 h-36 h and 36 h-84 h. We also found the tasta of rice wine has begun to form after fermented 12 h fermentation , and the fermentation from 12 h to 36 h was probably a key state for of tasta profile formation.

  9. Ficaria verna Huds. extracts and their β-cyclodextrin supramolecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hădărugă Nicoleta G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obtaining new pharmaceutical materials with enhanced properties by using natural compounds and environment-friendly methods is a continuous goal for scientists. Ficaria verna Huds. is a widespread perennial plant with applications in the treat of haemorrhoids and to cure piles; it has also anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antibiotic properties. The goal of the present study is the obtaining and characterization of new F. verna extract/β-cyclodextrin complexes by using only natural compounds, solvents, and environment-friendly methods in order to increase the quality and acceptability versus toxicity indicator. Thus, the flavonoid content (as quercetin of Ficaria verna Huds. flowers and leaves from the West side of Romania was determined and correlated with their antioxidant activity. Further, the possibility of obtaining β-cyclodextrin supramolecular systems was studied. Results F. verna flowers and leaves extracts were obtained by semi-continuous solid-liquid extraction. The raw concentrated extract was spectrophotometrically analyzed in order to quantify the flavonoids from plant parts and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The F. verna extracts were used for obtaining β-cyclodextrin complexes; these were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Karl Fischer water titration; spectrophotometry was used in order to quantifying the flavonoids and evaluates the antioxidant activity. A higher concentration of flavonoids of 0.5% was determined in complexes obtained by crystallisation method, while only a half of this value was calculated for kneading method. The antioxidant activity of these complexes was correlated with the flavonoid content and this parameter reveals possible controlled release properties. Conclusions The flavonoid content of F. verna Huds. from the West side of Romania (Banat county is approximately the same in flowers and leaves, being situated at a medium value among other

  10. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2006-12-01

    , intensity of after taste and preference, than the recent harvest and two years stored coffee. recent harvest had higher body, bitterness, and astringency, than that of one and two years stored coffee. The main off-flavor of recent harvest coffee was green and grassy, the one year stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy, and sour, while the two years stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy and moldy. The flavor change in the first year was higher than in the second year storage. The varieties, that had lowest change on flavor during storage, were BP 416 A, AS 1, P 88, BP 432 A and S 795. Key words: Coffee, Arabica, variety, clone, storage, quality, flavor, color.

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

    2014-03-01

    The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

  12. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE VINHAS RIESLING ITÁLICO NACIONAIS UTILIZANDO PERFIL LIVRE SENSORY EVALUATION OF BRAZILIAN WELCHRIESLING WINES BY FREE-CHOICE PROFILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo BENASSI

    1998-08-01

    differentiated mainly by taste attributes (acid, "astringent", alcoholic, sweet and fruity, correlated with dimension 1 (25% of variance, and one appearance attribute (yellow color, associated with dimension 2 (9% of variance.

  13. 闽南乌龙茶烘焙的研究进展%The research advance of baking process in Minnan Oolong tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 孙威江

    2015-01-01

    With fierce competition, the sale of Fen-flavor Oolong tea ran to difficulty. The manufacturing of high-aroma Oolong tea becomes popular in Minnan district. The roasting process plays a critical role in shaping of flavor and improvements of tea quality. The black brown color of leaves developed from browning reactions during roasting process; baking odors came from browning reactions while the flower and fruit smell preserved and promoted in baking process; isomerizations of tea polyphenol compounds reduced the bitter and astringency taste, sugars added the sweet taste by means of decomposition and participation of browning reactions. The study on improvements of the leaf color, smell and taste of Oolong tea were reviewed in this paper, aroma and flavor substances were summarized, with the anticipation of the possible contribution to prove its chemical mechanism and provide theoretical basis and reference for further studies.%激烈市场环境下,闽南清香型乌龙茶销售陷入困境,浓香型乌龙茶开始回归,“清转浓”正如火如荼地进行。烘焙是形成浓香型乌龙茶风味的关键工艺,具有提升茶叶品质的重要作用。烘焙型茶叶通过褐化反应形成乌润色泽;烘烤香由褐化反应产生,焙火前已形成的花果香在烘焙中得以保留和提升;多酚类物质异构化减少茶汤苦涩味,糖类物质通过分解、参与褐化反应的方式增加甜醇滋味。本文对焙火提高乌龙茶色、香、味等方面品质的研究进行了综述,总结了已发现的呈香、呈味物质,为探索烘焙对茶叶品质形成的化学机制提供理论依据和参考。

  14. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Rosangela de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.

  15. The effect of various substances on the suppression of the bitterness of quinine-human gustatory sensation, binding, and taste sensor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoko; Tanigake, Atsu; Miyanaga, Yohko; Ogawa, Tazuko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Kenji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of suppression of the perceived bitterness of quinine by various substances and to examine the mechanism of bitterness suppression. The following compounds were tested for their ability to suppress bitterness: sucrose, a natural sweetener; aspartame, a noncaloric sweetener; sodium chloride (NaCl) as the electrolyte; phosphatidic acid, a commercial bitterness suppression agent; and tannic acid, a component of green tea. These substances were examined in a gustatory sensation test in human volunteers, a binding study, and using an artificial taste sensor. Sucrose, aspartame, and NaCl were effective in suppressing bitterness, although at comparatively high concentrations. An almost 80% inhibition of bitterness (calculated as concentration %) of a 0.1 mM quinine hydrochloride solution required 800 mM of sucrose, 8 mM of aspartame, and 300 mM NaCl. Similar levels of bitterness inhibition by phosphatidic acid and tannic acid (81.7, 61.0%, respectively) were obtained at much lower concentrations (1.0 (w/v)% for phosphatidic acid and 0.05 (w/v)% for tannic acid). The mechanism of the bitterness-depressing effect of phosphatidic acid and tannic acid was investigated in terms of adsorption and masking at the receptor site. With phosphatidic acid, 36.1% of the bitterness-depressing effect was found to be due to adsorption, while 45.6% was due to suppression at the receptor site. In the case of 0.05 (w/v)% tannic acid, the total bitterness-masking effect was 61.0%. The contribution of the adsorption effect was about 27.5% while the residual masking effect at the receptor site was almost 33%. Further addition of tannic acid (0.15 (w/v)%), however, increased the bitterness score of quinine, which probably represents an effect of the astringency of tannic acid itself. Finally, an artificial taste sensor was used to evaluate or predict the bitterness-depressing effect. The sensor output profile was shown to reflect the

  16. 脉冲染料激光治疗高原地区面部毛细血管扩张症372例疗效观察%Observation of the Clinic Effect of 372 Plateau People Facial Telangiectasia Treated by Pulsed Dye Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽; 刘军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinic effect of pulsed dye laser treated for plateau people facial telangiectasia. Methods Three hundreds and seventy-two plateau people facial telangiectasia patients were treated by pulsed dye laser(595nm). The parameters were adjusted according to the disease severity. The suitable energy density was that could make the lesions present gray or occur purpura instantly. 10% ~30% light spot overlap was promised. Results After 1-3 times treatment,the 372 patients were all have wonderful results, the expand vessel were all disappear. The effective rate was 100%. There was no skin injury, and there was obvious additional effect of skin whitening, pores astringent and skin rejuvenation. Conclusion 595nm pulsed dye laser is a safe, effective method on treating plateau people facial telangiectasia.%目的 探讨595nm脉冲染料激光治疗高原地区面部毛细血管扩张症的临床疗效.方法 用595nm脉冲染料激光治疗仪治疗面部毛细血管扩张症372例,根据病变程度调整治疗参数,以激光照射瞬间皮损呈浅灰色或轻微紫癜色为适宜能量密度,光斑间可有10%~30%的重叠.结果 372例患者通过1~3次激光治疗后,扩张毛细血管完全消除,有效率为100%.治疗后皮肤无损伤,且有明显的美白淡斑、收缩毛孔及嫩肤的功效.结论 用595nm脉冲染料激光治疗高原地区的面部毛细血管扩张症安全性高,且疗效确切.

  17. Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Maintaining Quality and Shelf Life Extension of Persimmon Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorria, M. Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of using Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP of persimmon fruits to extend its availability for export purpose to perform the consumers and markets demands were investigated during two successive seasons of 2007 and 2008. Hachia and Triumph persimmon fruits were harvested at three quarter color stage and enclosed in different packaging materials of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE bags at the thickness of 2, 4 and 7 :m LDPE. 100% Nitrogen gas was flushed into the bags for complete replacing of normal air while control fruits were packed with aerobic atmosphere for each thickness. Fruit quality characteristics i.e. fruit firmness, respiration rate, fruit color, Softening as days to eat soft, soluble solid content, total acidity, ascorbic acid content, total phenols and total tannins were assessed periodically after storage periods at 0ºC and after 7 days at 20ºC and 80-85% RH. Packaging fruits at 7 μm Low Density Polyethylene film (LDPE with N2 (100% can be more effective in keeping fruits firm with the least respiration rate during storage and after ripening at 20ºC than 4 and 2 μm LDPE films and control fruits for the two cultivars respectively. Lightness (L* and Chroma (C* color parameters had the significant highest values in fruits received (N2 application and packaged with7 μm LDPE after 90 d storage at 0ºC and 7d ripe. SSC had slight insignificant decrease throughout the storage period at 20ºC due to different polyethylene packaging films and 100% N2 exposure, also untreated fruits showed the same direction. LDPE film at 7 μm thickness recorded the highest content of ascorbic acid but with the least level of acidity and phenols content followed by 4 and 2 μm films throughout storage and ripening periods.Total tannins as indicator of removing fruit astringency were as storage period extend and the thickness of LDPE films increase in packed persimmon fruits in the two cultivars respectively. Moreover, Triumph

  18. Análise farmacognóstica das folhas de Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt., Bignoniaceae Pharmacognostic analysis of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. Leaves, Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sérgio Marques Alves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. é uma Bignoniaceae amplamente utilizada na medicina popular como anti-inflamatório e adstringente, e para várias doenças como cólicas intestinais, diarréias, anemias e enfermidades da pele. Devido as suas propriedades biológicas e a produção de corante a espécie passou a ser utilizada pela indústria cosmética. A utilização de produtos naturais de origem vegetal implica no controle de qualidade farmacobotânico e em ensaios de pureza que compõem as especificações técnicas da espécie. Para isso foi realizada a descrição anatômica das folhas jovens e maduras de A. chica a partir de observações realizadas ao microscópio óptico, a partir de cortes histológicos. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais com mesofilo heterogêneo. No pecíolo, a epiderme é uniestratificada contendo tricomas e dotada de cutícula delgada. Os testes farmacopéicos incluíram a determinação da distribuição granulométrica do pó da planta, determinação do teor de umidade e de cinzas totais, além da abordagem fitoquímica da tintura, visando estabelecer parâmetros para seu controle de qualidade.Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. is a Bignoniaceae widely used in the popular medicine as anti-inflammatory and astringent agent, and for some illnesses as intestinal colic, diarrhoeas, anaemia and diseases of the skin. Its biological properties and dye biosynthesis lead the species to be used in the cosmetic industry. The use of natural products of vegetal origin implies in pharmacognostic quality control and purity assays that compose the technical specifications of the material. Therefore, the anatomical description of mature and young leaves of A. chica was carried through the use of optic microscopy on histological preparations. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. In petiole, the epidermis is unistratified, it contains trachoma and it is endowed

  19. New spectroscopic techniques for wine analysis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the presented thesis was the development of new, rapid tools for wine analysis based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) - spectroscopy. The results of this thesis are presented in the form of five publications. In publication I a sensor for assessing the main sensory property of red wine polyphenols (tannins), namely astringency, was developed on basis of the underlying chemical reaction between the tannins and the proline-rich proteins in the saliva. The interaction of polyphenols (tannins) with proline rich proteins (gelatin) has been studied using an automated flow injection system with FTIR detection. In Publication II FTIR-spectroscopy of polyphenolic wine extracts combined with multivariate data analysis was applied for the varietal discrimination of Austrian red wines. By hierarchical clustering it could be shown that the mid-infrared spectra of the dry extracts contain information on the varietal origin of wines. The classification of the wines was successfully performed by soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). Publication III describes the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine by Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with FTIR-detection, where a diamond attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-element was employed for the design of a rugged detector. Partly or completely co-eluting peaks were chemometrically resolved by multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Publication IV reports the first application of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) for molecular specific laser detection in liquid chromatography. Using a laser wavelength of 9.3721 μm glucose and fructose could be specifically detected and quantified in red wine in spite of the presence of organic acids. Publication V presents the development of an automated method for measuring the primary amino acid concentration in wines and musts by

  20. Effects of the Addition of Yeast Polysaccharides on the Quality of Mulberry Wine%酵母多糖的添加对桑葚酒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊蕊; 张将; 刘峻溪; 王霄倩; 李志宇; 孙玉霞

    2015-01-01

    以桑葚(品种为粤葚大10)为原料酿酒,在酿造过程中添加酵母多糖,通过对酒精发酵结束后不同时期桑葚发酵酒的色度、色调、单宁、花色苷、盐酸指数等品质指标的分析以及感官品评,探究酵母多糖的添加对桑葚酒色素稳定性的影响.结果表明,添加酵母多糖可以增加桑葚酒的色度、色调以及单宁含量;可以减弱桑葚酒的涩味,使其口感更加圆润,香气更加优雅、丰富;对花色苷含量及稳定性并无显著影响.酒精发酵结束后添加酵母多糖更加有利于提升桑葚酒的品质.%In this study, mulberry was used as raw materials to produce mulberry wine, yeast polysaccharides was added during the fermenta-tion, and the effects of yeast polysaccharides on the stability of pigments in mulberry wine were explored through wine sensory evaluation and analysis of wine quality indexes (colority, color degree, tannin content, anthocyanins content, and HCl index etc.) in different periods after the fermentation. The results showed that, the addition of yeast polysaccharides could increase wine chromaticity, color degree and tannin content, and reduce the astringency of mulberry wine and make better wine fruity taste and more elegant wine aroma, however, it had no significant ef-fects on the content and the stability of anthocyanins. The experiments proved that the addition of yeast polysaccharides after the fermentation was more beneficial to improving the quality of mulberry wine.

  1. 中药肝毒性与四气、五味及归经的相关性%Correlations between Hepatotoxicity and Four Properties,Five Tastes, Meridian Entry of Chinese Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禄保平; 贾睿

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the correlations between hepatotoxicity and four properties;five tastes,meridian entry of Chinese materia medica. Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity were regarded as the research objects, which were collected from published reports and monographs. The property theory of Chinese materia medica were referred to . The regularities of four properties, five tastes, arid meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity, and the correlations between hepatotoxicity and property theory of Chinese materia medica were analyzed. ①The differences in terms of four properties of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity or general Chinese herbs were obvious(P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was cold, warm, neutral, cool and hot, which was similar between two kinds of Chinese herbs. There was no correlation between hepatotoxicity and four properties; ②The difference in terms of five tastes of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity was obvious ( P < 0. 05) , and the order from high to low was bitter, acrid, sweet, sour, astringent, salty and bland. The difference in terms of five tastes of of general Chinese herbs was also obvious (P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was bitter, sweet, acrid, salty, astringent, sour and bland. There existed some correlation between hepatotoxicity and five tastes ( P < 0. 05, rp = 0. 137 ) ;③The differences in terms of meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity or general Chinese herbs were obvious(P <0. 05) , and the order from high to low was liver, lung,stomach, spleen, kidney, heart, large intestine, bladder, gallbladder, small intestine, pericardium and triple energizer meridian, which was similar between two kinds of Chinese herbs. There was no correlation between hepatotoxicity and meridian entry. The differences in terms of four properties, five tastes and meridian entry of Chinese herbs with hepatotoxicity are obvious. Comparied with general Chinese herbs, there is no correlation between hepatotoxicity and

  2. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on botanical compendia for potential cosmeceutic species from Atlantic Forest Levantamento etnofarmacognóstico em compêndios botânicos de espécies da Mata Atlântica com potencial cosmecêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maique W. Biavatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is one of the most endangered ecosystems on earth, and is acknowledged as an area with truly exceptional levels of biodiversity under enormous levels of stress. Cosmeceutics cover a border area between pharmaceuticals for skin diseases and cosmetics. Natural products for external application, to improve the appearance of the skin or for skin treatment, have always been observed and used by native cultures. The present work deals with the ethnopharmacognostic analysis of two botanical compendia (BC, named: Dicionário das Plantas Úteis do Brasil - e das exóticas cultivadas, compiled by Pio Correa (PC Flora Ilustrada Catarinense (FIC. From these BC, reported species with cosmeceutical uses or with related physico-chemical or organoleptic characteristics were selected, updated, searched for scientific background and highlighted if endangered. PC and FIC specified that 245 plant species, belonging to 98 plant families, are used in Brazil for cosmeceutical, cosmetic or skin remedies. The families most widely represented were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Annonaceae, Clusiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Bignoniaceae and Solanaceae The most frequently cited plant parts were bark, followed by leaves and aerial parts. The most frequently cited properties were astringency and tonic effect followed by uses in skin disorders and wound healing, emollient characteristic, anti-inflammatory uses and healing of skin ulcers, antiseptic effects, parasiticide and skin lightening properties and aphrodisiacs. According to the Pubmed survey, most of the selected species (65% have not been previously investigated for potential cosmeceutical applications, nor have their chemical composition been investigated.A Mata Atlântica é um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do planeta, sendo reconhecida como uma área de grande biodiversidade sob alto nível de stress. A área cosmecêutica abrange medicamentos de uso tópico e cosméticos, e o uso de

  3. Tratamiento oral del síndrome diarreico en terneros con zeolita natural (Oral treatment of the diarrhea syndrome in calves with natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cuesta Mazorra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de la zeolita natural en el tratamiento del síndrome diarreico en terneros. La evaluación se realizó en unestudio controlado, aleatorizado y multicéntrico. La hipótesis de trabajo contempló que la terapia experimental sería equivalente a la del control con polvo antidiarreico, formulado comercial utilizado comúnmente en Cuba para el tratamiento de esta entidad. Se incluyeronen el ensayo 120 terneros de ambos sexos, mestizos Holstein x Cebú, de edades entre 1 a 90 días, por lo que el universo de estudio omprendió animales pertenecientes a grandes unidades (vaquerías y recrías de cinco empresas pecuarias de la provincia de Villa Clara,sometidos a sistema intensivo de explotación y manejo. Los ratamientosestudio y control fueron administrados oralmente con una frecuencia de dos veces al día, preferiblemente en la mañana y en la tarde durante 5 días como máximo, al cabo de los cuales se efectuóla evaluación clínica final y se indicó el estudio de laboratorio final 5 días después de finalizar el tratamiento. En las condiciones del ensayo la zeolita natural tuvo una eficacia del 68,3%, menor a lagrupo control (96,7% con diferencias significativas (p < 0,05. Sin embargo, un balance del costo-beneficio permite recomendar la utilización de la zeolita natural como una buena alternativa en eltratamiento de estos procesos. The effectiveness of the natural zeolite in the treatment of the diarrhea syndrome in calves was evaluated. The evaluation wascarried out in a controlled, randomized and multicentric study. The working hypothesis contemplated that the experimental therapy would be equivalent to that of the control with powder astringent formulated commercial utilized commonly in Cuba for the treatment ofthis entity. In the assay were included 120 calves of both sexes, crossbreed Holstein x Zebu, of ages between 1 to 90 days, forwhat the universe of study understood animals belonging to big units (dairies and

  4. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 μg/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 ± 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  5. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.

    2004-07-01

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 {mu}g/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 {+-} 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  6. 鲜榨苹果汁的理化特性和感官品质相关性%Correlations between Physico-chemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality of Fresh Apple Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚宏; 王周利; 李彩霞; 岳田利; 赵镭

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the correlations between physico-chemical characteristics and sensory measures of fresh apple juice from 9 varieties. The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations among partial physico-chemical characteristics of apple juice; 2) significant correlations were found between physicochemical characteristics and sensory measures of apple juice. The fruity aroma of apple juice was significantly correlated with its pH and titratable acidity. A positive correlation was observed between the faint scent and color value or total sugar content. The astringent taste had a positive correlation with the titratable acidity total phenol content or buffer capacity, but revealed a negative correlation with the pH, sugar/acid ratio or solid/acid ratio. The acidic taste was correlated with the pH, total sugar content, titratable acidity, buffer capacity, sugar/acid ratio or solid/acid ratio. Moreover, the sweet taste presented a correlation with soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity, buffer capacity or solid/acid ratio; 3)the developed regression model for taste evaluation of apple juice was significant, indicating that there are good correlations between physico-chemical characteristics and sensory measures of fresh apple juice. Thus physicochemical characteristics can be measures for predictive analysis of the sensory quality of fresh apple juice.%以9种苹果鲜榨汁为材料,通过理化指标测定和感官评价,研究鲜榨苹果汁理化特性和感官品质之间的相关性。结果表明:1)部分理化指标之间具有显著的相关性;2)理化指标与感官特性之间存在显著的相关性:苹果香与pH值、可滴定酸含量有显著的相关性;清香与色值、总糖含量呈正相关;涩味与可滴定酸含量、多酚含量、缓冲容量成正相关,与pH值、糖酸比、固酸比呈现显著的负相关;酸味与pH值、总糖含量、可滴定酸含量、缓

  7. Perfil sensorial de iogurte light, sabor pêssego Sensory profile of peach flavored light yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. R. Santana

    2006-09-01

    consensually defined sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges and trained. They used the following as criteria: discriminant power, reproducibility and individual consensus. Twelve descriptors were devised showing similarities and differences among the light yogurt samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeter non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The data were analysed by ANOVA, the Tukey test and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results showed a great difference in the sensory profile of light yogurts, where sample C showed more variation. The PCA showed sample A to be more distinguished by the sweetness, flavor of peach and firmness of fruit pieces. Sample B was characterized by the brightness, peach color and creamy aspect. Sample C had a higher intensity of sourness and astringency, a more farinaceous texture and more artificial aroma of peach. According to the acceptability test, all the products were accepted positively for all evaluated attributes. Sample C which contains soy protein in its formulation showed that this ingredient was not noticed by the judges and did not interfere in it being accepted.

  8. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-08-01

    brown, in addition to lacking been accepted sensorially. Further, eight combinations have been studied among acidification (pH<4.0), pasteurization (85 degree C/5 min.) and storage at 6 degree C and -18 degree C for 60 days with biweekly tests. The pasteurized and acidified pulp was that best maintained the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and the freezing storage was the variable of the better result. The evaluation of quality pulp dehydrated by freeze and spray drying, packaged in bags of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene-coated aluminum layer (PA) for 120 days at room temperature and protected from light, revealed that both processes conferred physicochemical quality satisfactory and conservation during storage, the packaging PA is the most suitable due to lower absorption of moisture and prevention of oxidation. Sensorially, as reconstituted juice and added to sugar and banana nanica, jucara pulp freeze dried was the more accepted. For the QDA have been trained team for the evaluation of frozen and post packaging pasteurized samples (85 degree C/5 min.) stored under refrigeration and freezing, in order to obtain the sensory profile of each. The frozen pasteurized pulp presented the best sensory characteristics, being described as aerated, slightly heterogeneous, taste slightly bitter and slightly astringent. (author)

  9. Concentrações de cera de carnaúba na qualidade de pêssegos cv. Esmeralda armazenados sob refrigeração = Concentrations of carnauba wax on the quality of cv. Esmeralda peaches after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

    2007-10-01

    wax. ‘Esmeralda’ peaches showed small firmness in the treatments with 75% and 100% of wax. Fruits treated with wax with 50%, 75% and 100% showed small percentage of rottenness. The sensorial evaluation showedthat acidity and astringency in fruits treated with wax decreased. The utilization of 50% wax, associated with cold storage, reduced weight loss and rottenness, maintaining the pulp firmness. Thus, it is possible to store peaches cv. Esmeralda during 30 days at 0ºC and four days at 8ºC.

  10. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    brown, in addition to lacking been accepted sensorially. Further, eight combinations have been studied among acidification (pH<4.0), pasteurization (85 degree C/5 min.) and storage at 6 degree C and -18 degree C for 60 days with biweekly tests. The pasteurized and acidified pulp was that best maintained the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and the freezing storage was the variable of the better result. The evaluation of quality pulp dehydrated by freeze and spray drying, packaged in bags of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene-coated aluminum layer (PA) for 120 days at room temperature and protected from light, revealed that both processes conferred physicochemical quality satisfactory and conservation during storage, the packaging PA is the most suitable due to lower absorption of moisture and prevention of oxidation. Sensorially, as reconstituted juice and added to sugar and banana nanica, jucara pulp freeze dried was the more accepted. For the QDA have been trained team for the evaluation of frozen and post packaging pasteurized samples (85 degree C/5 min.) stored under refrigeration and freezing, in order to obtain the sensory profile of each. The frozen pasteurized pulp presented the best sensory characteristics, being described as aerated, slightly heterogeneous, taste slightly bitter and slightly astringent. (author)

  11. Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić-Šarić, M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine is an excellent source of various classes of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and trihydroxystilbene resveratrol (Fig.1. Polyphenols play a major role in wine quality since they contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine, particularly color and astringency. A recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by abundant evidence of their beneficial effects on human health, such as anticarcinogenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, numerous studies have been performed in the attempt to analyze polyphenols in wine. This paper reviews the current advances in the determination of polyphenols in wine by the major chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The great complexity of the polyphenolic content of wine and the difficulty in obtaining some of the standards usually require sample preparation before analysis. Two methods for sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are most commonly applied. Hydrolysis is applied frequently, but not exclusively, to remove the sugar moieties from glycosides.TLC on silica gel plates is useful for the rapid and low-cost separation and identification of the polyphenols present in wine (Fig. 2. Densitometric quantitative analysis of polyphenols in wine extracts is usually performed by scanning the TLC plates with UV light at wavelengths of 350–365 nm or 250–260 nm (Fig. 3. For the evaluation of the most efficient mobile phase and an optimal choice of the combination of two or more mobile phases, two methods may be applied: information theory and numerical taxonomy. HPLC currently represents the most popular technique for the analysis of polyphenols in wine. For this purpose, a reversed-phase HPLC method that uses gradient elution with binary elution system is usually employed. Routine detection is based on measurement of UV-Vis absorption with a diode

  12. Obtenção de extratos de guaraná ricos em cafeína por processo enzimático e adsorção de taninos Production of caffeine-rich guarana extracts using an enzymatic process and tannin adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Dias Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    astringency and a dark colour to the final product. In this work the development of an enzymatic process to obtain non-alcoholic guarana extracts with low tannin concentrations and high caffeine contents was studied using an experimental design and adsorption processes. By way of a fractional factorial design the quantities of 0.25% (v/v pectinase and 0.1% (v/v glucoamylase were determined, which were maintained in the central composite design, obtaining as the optimal conditions: 0.23% (v/v cellulase, 0.86% (v/v hemicellulase, 1% (v/v alpha-amylase, 5.5 h extraction time, 200 rpm and 50 °C, producing a caffeine/tannin ratio of 1.65. Using a magnesium oxide adsorption process at 10% (w/v, a caffeine/tannin ratio of 7.3 was obtained.

  13. 黄连温胆汤加减临证治验%Clinical experience on modified Huanglian Wendan Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹秀琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the clinical experience of treating the diseases caused by emotional disorders with modified Huanglian Wendan Decoction. Methods: Sweet, nourishing and greasy drugs such as Licorice root (Radix Glycyrrhizae) and Chinese dates (Fructus Ziziphi Jujubae) are excluded from Huanglian Wendan Decoction so as to remove heat-phlegm and Bupleurum root (Radix Bupleuri), Curcuma root (Radix Curcumae) and Silk tree bark (Albizziae Cortex) are added to soothe the liver and relieve the depressed qi; at the same time, we also flexibly modify the recipe according to syndromes and adopt psychological counseling as a adjusting measure in the treatment of many emotional disorders. In case of predawn diarrhea, the drugs for strengthening the spleen, resolving dampness, astringing and arresting diarrhea [e.g. Atractylodes rhizome(Rhizoma Atractylodis), Bighead atractylodes rhizotne(Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Oriental water plantain rhizomclRhizoma Alismatis), Gordon euryale(Semen Euryales), Dark Plum fruit(Fructus Mume),etc] should be added to this recipe; in case of anxiety, the drugs for tranquilizing the mind [e.g. Dragon's bone(Fossilia Ossis Mastodi), Oyster shell(Concha Ostieae), Magnetite (Magnetium), fried Wild or spiny jujube seed(Semen Ziziphi Spinosae Praeparata), Fleece-flower stem(Caulis Polygoni Multiflori),etc.] should be added to this recipe; in case of low fever, the drugs for clearing away heart-heat, purging fire, nourishing yin and clearing away heat, combined with the drugs for purging fu-organs and expelling pathogenic heat [e.g. Capejasmuie fruit (Fructus Gardeniae), Gypsum (Gypsum Fibrosum), Wind-weed rhizome [Rhizoma Anemarrhenae], Phellodendron bark (Cortex Phellodendri) and Rhubarb root (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei)] so as to remove pathogenic heat. Results: The above-mentioned recipes have satisfactory curative effect in predawn diarrhea, anxiety and low fever. Conclusion: Huanglian Wendan Decoction is effective for the diseases

  14. Determinação da formulação e caracterização do néctar de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh Formulation determination and characterisation of the camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto N. Maeda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu é um fruto silvestre, encontrado nas margens de rios e lagos da Amazônia, com grande potencial econômico pelas suas características agronômicas, tecnológicas e nutricionais. Entretanto, seu consumo ainda é restrito, devido à alta acidez, amargor e adstringência da casca, necessitando, dessa forma, de tecnologias adequadas para o seu uso. O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar a formulação ideal do néctar de camu-camu e avaliar as suas caraterísticas físicas e físico-químicas. Para a obtenção do néctar, foram elaboradas nove formulações com diferentes concentrações de polpa e açúcar, as quais foram submetidas ao teste de preferência de 30 provadores não treinados. Dentre as formulações testadas, a de maior preferência foi a preparada com 17,5% de açúcar e 17% de polpa, a qual apresentou valor de L Hunter de 32,00, aHunter de 3,22 e bHunter de -0,38, ácido ascórbico de 382,07 mg/100 mL, antocianinas de 2,51 mg/100 g e aceitabilidade global de 89,1%. Os resultados demonstram a viabilidade tecnológica e nutricional do néctar de camu-camu por ser um produto atraente de cor, sabor, aroma, aceitabilidade e como fonte de Vitamina C.Camu-camu is a wild fruit distributed throughout the banks of lakes and rivers in Amazonia, which presents a great economical potential on account of its agronomic, technological and nutritional features. Nevertheless, its consumption is still restricted due to its high acidity, bitterness, and skin astringency, thus needing the use of proper technologies for its use. The objective of the present study was to determine the ideal camu-camu nectar formulation and to assess its physical and physical-chemical characteristics. Nine formulations with different pulp and sugar concentrations, which were submitted to a preference test by a board of 30 untrained tasters, were prepared in order to obtain the nectar. Among the tested formulations, the one presenting the highest

  15. [The roots of Cha and Gambir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to trace the origin of tea. The author believes the ancient Chinese tea, "chia", is either Jicha (water extract from the pith of Acacia catechu that grows naturally in the mountainous border between the Yunnan province of China and southern Asian countries) or Jicha-Kagikazura (water extract from the young branches and leaves of Uncaris gambir, originally found in India/Sri Lanka). Both were pulverized after being kiln-dried and then mixed with water to produce a thick suspension, or tea. Although the drink is bitter and has an astringent property, it has a particular flavor with a refreshing after-taste. Its components with medicinal properties include tannin, catechin, and various flavonoids, making us believe it was worthwhile for the people at the time to consume the drink regularly. Generally speaking, tea cultivation in China flourished south of the Yangzi Jiang River including the present Zhejiang and Anhui provinces. Depending on the regions, there were words for tea in various languages, including the names of places where particular teas were grown. In addition to the names that appear in the famous Chajing book, it is interesting to note Da Fang pronounced tea as "TAH". Because the area south of the Yangzi Jiang has traditionally been active in foreign trade since the ancient and middle ages. People in this region consumed various foreign originated teas as well. This included Gambir, which was introduced to southern Asia (including present Malaysia and Indonesia) and was consumed as an herbal tea under names such as Guo Luo or Ju Luo teas. Paan, from India, also uses Gambir paste and was a popular chewing refreshment to prevent diseases caused by miasma as well as to keep one's mouth clean. The name A-sen-yaku used in Japan was taken from the plant name Acasia, and Gambir was used to dye Buddhist monks' Ke-Ra bags to a blackish yellow color. The Daikanwa dictionary states the Ra in the name, which means thin silk, was later

  16. Study on the Technology of Fermentation with Acid-resistant Saccharomyces sake A%耐酸性清酒酵母A发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋军; 吴天祥; 李运华

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为生产优质清酒奠定理论基础.[方法]以优质粳米为原料,在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验法研究耐酸性清酒酵母A的发酵规律.[结果]水料比为1~2时,清酒酒精度较高.水料比为0.5时,发酵醪的糖浓度和渗透压较高.水料比为3时,发酵醪的淀粉浓度降低,清酒酒精度低.酒母量为20%时,利于清酒双边发酵,清酒的可溶物含量约为11%.米曲量为30%~50%时,清酒色度低,苦涩味轻.乳酸添加量为8‰~12‰时,发酵结束后米曲中糖化酶的活力约为290 mg/(g·h).乳酸量超过12‰时,酶活力下降比较快,清酒有异杂味感.15 ℃下发酵21 d的清酒酒精度达17.1% (V/V),淀粉利用率为88.1%.[结论]利用耐酸性清酒酵母发酵生产清酒,简化了生产工艺,缩短了发酵时间,提高了原料利用率.%[Objective]The purpose of the study was to lay a theoretical foundation for producing high-quality sake. [Method]With high-quality round shaped rice as raw material, on the basis of single factor experiment, the fermentation law of acid-resistant Saccharomyces sake A was studied through orthogonal experiment. [Result]When the water-material ratio was 1-2, the alcohol degree of sake was higher. When the water-material ratio was 0.5, the sugar concentration and osmotic pressure of fermenting mash were higher. When the water-material ratio was 3, the starch concentration of fermenting mash was decreased and the alcohol degree of sake was low. When the seeding yeast dosage was 20%, it was favorable to the dual fermentation of sake and the soluble content of sake was about 11%. When the rice starter dosage was 30%-50%, the sake had low colority and light bitterness and astringency. When the lactic addition was 8‰-12‰, the activity of Aspergillus oryzae was about 290 mg/g when the fermentation was finished. When the lactic content was higher than 12‰, the enzyme activity was decreased faster and the sake had off-flavors. The

  17. Effect of added Punica granatum peel fruits and Nigella sativa seeds on immunology and performance of suckling buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G3. Concentration of creatinine was relatively less in the treated groups G2 and G3 than G1. Group 3 possessed greater IgG content than that in G2 and G3 serum. Addition of Pg-p and NS in ration limited the number of calves having symptoms of diarrhoea due to increased level of antibodies and antibacterial effect. The effect of Pgp and NS in decreasing the number of diseased calves may be due to increase the level of antibodies and anti bacterial effect. The action of tannins against bacteria and yeasts can be established by a relation between their molecular structure and their toxicity, astringent properties or other mechanisms. Digestibility of DM, CF and EE were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 compared with G1 and G2. The improved nutrients digestibility with added NS seeds might be due to the role of medical plant as inhibitors of gram positive bacteria and improved ruminal fermentation by increasing bacterial activity, which in turn increases digestibility. The Present results are revealing dietary supplementation of Pg-p in starter of buffalo calves was successful in improving growth rate of the animal. Moreover, Pg-p reduced the number of cases affected by microorganisms into the half number. Those effects were augmented by adding NS seeds in G3 as evidenced by improved immunity in treated animals hence achievement of better growth performance. (author)

  18. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de melão amarelo minimamente processado submetido a tratamentos químicos Sensory profile and consumer acceptance of minimally processed melon submitted to chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2010-09-01

    product by the consumer. The fruits were selected, washed, sanitized, minimally processed as cubes, and divided into four lots that consisted of: control, cubes treated with calcium chloride solution (1%, cubes treated with ascorbic acid (1%, and cubes covered with sodium alginate (1%. The cubes were conditioned were conditioned in polyethylene terephthalate trays, covered by a lid, and stored at 5 ± 1 ºC and 73 ± 5% RH for 8 days. On the 1th, 3rd, 5th, and 8th days after the processing, the melons were evaluated by eight trained sensory panelists using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The consumer acceptance test was conducted in a laboratory with fifty non-trained panelists using hedonic and purchase intention scales besides the consumption frequency. The QDA showed that the treatments did not affect the prolongation of the shelf-life of minimally processed melons. The parameters used in the quality testing of the fruits submitted to the chemical treatments were: fresh and bright appearance, characteristic fresh smell and, acid, salty, bitter, fresh, astringent, watery, characteristic, and unusual tastes. The consumer acceptance test indicated that the melons treated with calcium chloride and ascorbic acid were more accepted for the panelists and showed that there was no significant difference in the purchase intention.

  19. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  20. Effect of heating rate on the quality of Longjing tea during baking and aroma-improving process%升温速率对龙井茶烘焙提香品质效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱作春; 汤一; 潘蓉; 胡书琴

    2013-01-01

    In the tea refining process,baking and aroma-improving technology is widely used in many kinds of dry tea to improve and stabilize the tea quality.Through baking process,not only the moisture of tea could be effectively reduced but also the harmful bacteria could be killed,which is good for preservation; furthermore,baking promotes the dehydration saccharification and isomerization of tea components which is good for tea quality by the way of reducing the bitterness,astringent taste and removing stale taste and miscellaneous taste of tea.So far,research on baking and aroma-improving technology was limited to baking temperature,baking time and so on.Considering that different heating rates in baking and aroma-improving process has different thermal effects on tea.It usually heats up faster on tea surface,but slower inside the tea due to the thermal conductivity factor,therefore,fast heating rate usually leads to uneven heating effect and to the decreases of tea quality.In this work,baking treatments with different heating rates were applied to Longjing tea,and the effects of heating rates on the tea quality were investigated.Middle and low grade Longjing teas were used as tested materials.Different baking treatments were carried out with final temperature of 110 ℃ and heating rates of 4,6 and 8 ℃/min respectively.Treatment A4 was directly heated at 110 ℃ for 45 minutes,and the unheated Longjing tea as a control.Different baking time was implemented in accordance with different heating rates to ensure that all the tea with different treatments received the same total heat.The effects of heating rate on the tea quality were estimated by sensory evaluation,quality component determination and gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) for aroma analysis.The results indicated that different heating rates in baking process had obvious impact on the tea quality.Values from chemical tests showed that the slow heating rate resulted in the higher contents of amino acids

  1. 温热类中药材“形、色、嗅、味”特征初步分析%Preliminary analysis on morphological characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines in hot property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟华强; 王燕平; 黄璐琦; 金世元; 王永炎

    2013-01-01

    ; 29 yellow cases,accounting for 25.4% ; 16 black cases,accounting for 14.1% ; 15 green cases,accounting for 13.2% ; and 9 white cases,accounting for 8.9%.By odor,there were 62 cases with aroma (including slight aroma),accounting for 54.4% ; 28 cases with slight odor,accounting for 24.6% ; 13 cases without odor,accounting for 11.4% ; 7 cases with specific odor,taking up 6.1% ; 4 fishy cases,taking up 3.5%.By taste,there were 36 cases in pungent taste (including slight pungent),occuping 31.6% ; 35 cases in bitter taste (inclucling shght bitter),taking up 30.7% ; 19 sweet cases (including slight sweet),occuping 16.6% ; 5 salt cases (including slight salt),occuping 4.5% ; 4 sour cases (including slight sour),occuping 3.5% ; 11 cases in flat taste,occuping 9.6% ; 3 astringent cases,occupying 2.6% ; and 1 numb-taste case,oocuping 0.9%.In terms of texture,hard herbs (including hard and solid ones) occupied 39.4% ; crisp herbs occupied 24.6% ; light-weigh herbs occupied 12.3% ; heavy-weigh herbs occupied 3.5% ; loose herbs occupied 2.6% ; and tough herbs occupied 5.3%.Conclusion:The morphologic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines in hot property show certain regularity.They are mostly cylindrical,red,pungent and hard,with aroma.

  2. 清热药的特点及现代研究%Modern Research and Relationship of Heat-clearing Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞奇; 白明; 苗明三

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore relationship between heat-c1earing traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacological action,traditional Chinese medical indications,modern medical indications,medicine properties,flavour of a medicine,channel tropism,chemical composition.Methods:Use the " properties and flavour of traditional Chinese medicine database systems ",inquiry associated frequency between function " Heat-clearing" and pharmacological action,traditional Chinese medical indications,modern medical indications,medicine properties,flavour of a medicine,channel tropism,chemical composition,according to the frequency,take cover 2/3 of most high frequency for basic area,take cover 2/3 of remaining most high frequency for joint area,remaining for extended area.Results:Basic pharmacological action of heat-clearing traditional Chinese medicine are antibacterial,anti-inflammatory,antitumor,antipyretic,calm,affecting the cardiovascular system,diuresis; TCM basic indications are carbuncle swollen,jaundice,sore throat pain and swelling,boils,vomiting blood,eyes red swelling and pain,heat astringent pain,nose bleeding,edema,inflammation of the throat,erysipelas,headache,snake bite,wind heat cold ; modern medicine basic indications are eczema,bacillary dysentery,hypertension,chronic bronchitis,colds,burns,whooping cough,stomach ulcers,hepatitis,mumps,pneumonia,herpes zoster,edema,pain and swelling of the throat,duodenal ulcer,suppurative otitis media,dermatitis,headache,coronary heart disease,bronchitis,verruca,acute tonsillitis,diarrhea,hyperlipidemia,cough,jaundice;basic medicine properties of heat-cleating TCM are cold,micro-cold;basic flavour of a medicine combined with heatclearing traditional Chinese medicine are bitter,sweet; basic channel tropisms are liver,lung,stomach,large intestine,heart;the basic chemical compositions of heat-cleating traditional Chinese medicine are organic acid,flavonoids,glycosides,alkaloids,sugars,tannins,amino acids,esters,volatile oil

  3. Investigation on the Medicinal Fern Resources of Dryopteridaceae in Dashiwei Tiankeng Group%大石围天坑群鳞毛蕨科药用蕨类植物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏仕林; 张婷婷; 马博

    2011-01-01

    用价值提供资料.%[Objective]To investigate the medicinal fern resources of Dryopteridaceae in Dashiwei Tiankeng group. [ Method]Through field investigation, sample collection,data reference and sample identification,the medicinal fem resources of Dryopteridaceae in Dashiwei Tiankeng group were investigated,and their geographical distribution and medicinal value were introduced. [ Result] Four genera of medicinal fern resources of Dryopteridaceae,which were Arachniodes Blume,Cyrtomium Presl,Dryopteris Adanson and Polystichum Roth,were found out in Dashiwei Tiankeng Group,of the four genera,there were a total of 15 species,one species of Arachniodes Blume,which was Arachiodes assamica (Kuhn) Ohwi; five species of Cyrtomium, Presl,which were C.fortunei J. Sm,C. Hookerianum( Presl) C. Chr.C. Caryotideum( Wall, ex Hook, et Grev. )Presl,C. Balan-sae(Chrit)C. Chr. And C.forunei J. Sm; five species of Dryopteris Adanson,which were Dryopteris fuscipes C. Chr,D. Sieboldii (van Houtte)O. Ktze. ,D. Ryopteris varia (L )O. Ktze,D). Dickinsii (Baker)C. Chr. And D. Labordei (Christ) Ching; four species of Polystichum Roth,which were Polystichum makinoi (Tagawa) Tagawa,P. Neolobatum Nakai,P. Piceo-paleaceum Tagawa and P. M tsus - simense (Hook. )J. Sm. According to their efficacy,those fern plants could be divided into several types,including the type of clearing away heat and alleviating pain,the type of relieving dyspnea and facilitating expectoration,the type of detoxification and promoting urination,the type of astringing wound and stop bleeding,the type of expelling parasites,the type of curing bone fracture,antivirus and antitumor type and the type of relieving convulsion,calming liver,reducing blood pressure and soothing the nerves. [Conclusion]The climatic and geographic conditions in Dashiwei Tiankeng were very suitable for the growth of fern plants,the fem resources were very rich and was an important plant resources in West Guangxi Province,and the fem plant species in this area had high content of active

  4. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was performed. Further, in vitro antioxidant, anti-enzyme, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CR HAE were found to be higher than CR CAE. EC50 value of CR HAE and CR CAE for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Superoxide anion, and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were 250.33 ± 40.16 μg/ml and 254.73 ± 15.78 μg/ml, 221.27 ± 11.25 μg/ml and 354.20 ± 23.79 μg/ml, and 59.16 ± 2.17 μg/ml and 59.12 ± 6.21 μg/ml, respectively. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity values for CR HAE and CR CAE were found to be 1243 and 1063 μmoles 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetra methylchromane-2-carboxylic acid equivalent/g of substance, respectively. Anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities were evaluated for both CR HAE and CR CAE. EC50 values of CR HAE and CR CAE for anti-collagenase and anti-elastase were 329.33 ± 6.38 μg/ml, 466.93 ± 8.04 μg/ml and 3.22 ± 0.24 mg/ml, 5.09 ± 0.30 mg/ml, respectively. CR HAE exhibited stronger anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activity than CR CAE. GC-MS analysis of CR HAE was carried out because CR HAE exhibited higher antioxidant and anti-enzyme potential than CR CAE. Conclusion: C. reticulata peel can be utilized in anti-wrinkle skin care formulations. SUMMARY Skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco peel was evaluated throughIn vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays

  5. Analysis of Using Drugs Regularity in Treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome by TCM%中医药治疗肠易激综合征用药规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健; 严季澜; 李柳骥

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Analysis of using drugs regularity in treating irritable bowel syndrome by TCM was based on 1994-2013 the jour-nal of Chinese medicine. Methods:The collected 486 articles about irritable bowel syndrome by TCM enter into Microsoft Access 2010 database,using Microsoft Excel pivot tables for statistical analysis. Irritable bowel syndrome by TCM therapy will be divided into syn-drome differentiation and treatment,special treatment. Each category is divided into comprehensive type,diarrhea type and constipation type. statistical analysis of the prescription medication rule respectively,and comparing with the latest standard of TCM diagnosis and treatment. Results:The main pathogenesis is spleen deficiency in diarrhea type. Fluid deficiency is the main pathogenesis of constipation type. Synthesizing type considerates diarrhea and constipation,but the pertinence is not as good as the first two. The differentiation and treatment of literature type about irritable bowel syndrome is not complete,drugs can supplement the diagnosis deficiency. Eg:The pa-tients of diarrhea type for a long time which can not improved by tonifying spleen and excreting dampness. Using the drugs of inducing astringency and warming Yang have good curative effect. The patients of constipation type should have drugs of seeds and nutlets for re-laxing bowel. Conclusion:The syndrome differentiation,prescription,drug are all exist certain differences by comparison with the treat-ment standards of irritable bowel syndrome by TCM theropy.%目的:分析基于1994—2013年期刊文献的中药治疗肠易激综合征用药规律。方法:将收集到的486篇中医药治疗肠易激综合征文献录入到Microsoft Access 2010数据库中,运用Microsoft Excel数据透视表对其进行统计分析。将肠易激综合征中药治疗分为辨证治疗与专方治疗两大类,每类又分为肠易激综合征综合型、腹泻型与便秘型3个亚型,分别统计分析其

  6. 《张氏医通》辨治血证机理%Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment Mechanism of Blood Syndrome in Comprehensive Medicine According to Master Zhang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁盈戈; 刘明; 朱平生

    2016-01-01

    are not the same and neither are the differentiation and treatment.During treatment,Master Zhang especially values the stomach qi.Since blood syndrome impairs healthy qi,consumptive disease regardless of which kind of blood syndrome is treated from the distinguishing of the deficiency and excess of stomach qi.For patients with flooding hematemesis and feeble and big pulse,the hot tendency hasn't astringed and decoction cannot be given instantly.For urgent cases,hot child urine or lotus root juice can be used to nourish yin and purge fire;after half a day and when the pulse recovers to certain degree,decoctions for regulation and nourishment can be applied.While for patients with hematemesis and once spitting,he would spit a whole bowl of blood or purple-black blood clots which wouldn't coagulate after being spit.This is because the hematemesis originates from the stomach which is the sea of water and grain and full of qi and blood.It fails to coagulate since there is qi of food essence in the blood.It is caused by impairment of the middle energizer qi by overstrain or overdrinking or overeating.The treatment shouldn't be stopped immediately because sudden stop may lead to accumulation of deteriorated blood which is the origin of blood stasis,and the unknown sudden attack of it would cause serious results.But it shouldn't be purged for the reason that it may impair the blood again.It is advisable to regulate stomach qi to tranquilize the blood.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  8. 中药微量元素数据(17)%TCM Trace Element Data (17)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增禧; 潘伟健; 谭永基; 劳志华; 黄丽仪; 肖永兵

    2014-01-01

    Chinese medicine trace element data are published by the type of botanicals , animal drugs , biological carapace drugs , minerals, medicines and Chinese medicines , which is subdivided into relieving drugs , diarrhea prescription , antipyretic , diuretics for eliminating dampness , damp -dispel agent & diuret , cold dispelling agent , aromatic dampness drug , qi regulating agent , blood regulating agent , nourishing medicine , astringents , eliminate sputum drugs , digestants , analgesics , tranquilizing by nourishing the heart tranquilizing by nourishing the heart , external application drug , insect repellents , traditional Chinese medicine decoction . 747 kinds of detection of a total of 6 780 flavor Chinese medicine , each drug including the drug name, scientific name, family and genus, location, origin, element content, analytical methods and literature sources are expressed in form .Each medicine was determined of maximun 38 , at least 4 and average 17 elements.Total 120,000 element data demonstrated . Each data meaning is well profound , such as the serial number for the 113′s yellow baicalensis of total 20 element determination in Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Henan, Jilin, Shaanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and other 50 different origin yellow baicalensis . Another example is the serial number 114 kiwi of total 23 element determination in eight different parts including flowers, fruit, leaves, branches, stems, roots, bark, juice.From the point of view of the elements to study traditional Chinese medicine from different areas , different parts of the medicinal properties of very scientific value and practical significance .Solution form, heat, qi, regulating blood herbal can also use a pattern recognition method to the study of trace elements and traditional Chinese medicine, to guide rational drug use and compatibility -depth study of the relationship between the traditional Chinese medicine and the element data

  9. TCM Trace Element Data (20)%中药微量元素数据(20)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增禧; 潘伟健; 谭永基; 劳志华; 黄丽仪; 肖永兵

    2014-01-01

    Chinese medicine trace element data are published by the type of botanicals , animal drugs , biological carapace drugs , minerals, medicines and Chinese medicines , which is subdivided into relieving drugs , diarrhea prescription , antipyretic , diuretics for eliminating dampness , damp -dispel agent & diuret , cold dispelling agent , aromatic dampness drug , qi regulating agent , blood regulating agent , nourishing medicine , astringents , eliminate sputum drugs , digestants , analgesics , tranquilizing by nourishing the heart tranquilizing by nourishing the heart , external application drug , insect repellents , traditional Chinese medicine decoction . 747 kinds of detection of a total of 6 780 flavor Chinese medicine , each drug including the drug name, scientific name, family and genus, location, origin, element content, analytical methods and literature sources are expressed in form .Each medicine was determined of maximun 38 , at least 4 and average 17 elements.Total 120,000 element data demonstrated . Each data meaning is well profound , such as the serial number for the 113′s yellow baicalensis of total 20 element determination in Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Henan, Jilin, Shaanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and other 50 different origin yellow baicalensis . Another example is the serial number 114 kiwi of total 23 element determination in eight different parts including flowers, fruit, leaves, branches, stems, roots, bark, juice.From the point of view of the elements to study traditional Chinese medicine from different areas , different parts of the medicinal properties of very scientific value and practical significance .Solution form, heat, qi, regulating blood herbal can also use a pattern recognition method to the study of trace elements and traditional Chinese medicine, to guide rational drug use and compatibility -depth study of the relationship between the traditional Chinese medicine and the element data