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Sample records for astringency wine tasting

  1. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  2. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchi, D; Poulain, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, 4 Place Jussieu, BP 126, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Konarev, P; Svergun, D I [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Tribet, C [Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et Milieux Disperses, CNRS UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: drazen@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2008-12-10

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of {beta}-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  3. Orosensory-directed identification of astringent mouthfeel and bitter-tasting compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Jan Carlos; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-02-27

    Application of sequential solvent extraction, followed by HPLC combined with the taste dilution analysis, enabled the localization of the most intense velvety astringent, drying, and puckering astringent, as well as bitter-tasting, compounds in red wine, respectively. Isolation of the taste components involving gel adsorption chromatography, ultrafiltration, and synthesis revealed the identification of 26 sensory-active nonvolatiles, among which several hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavon-3-ol glycosides, and dihydroflavon-3-ol rhamnosides as well as a structurally undefined polymeric fraction (>5 kDa) were identified as the key astringent components. In contradiction to literature suggestions, flavan-3-ols were found to be not of major importance for astringency and bitter taste, respectively. Surprisingly, a series of hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl esters and hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters were identified as bitter compounds in wine. Taste qualities and taste threshold concentrations of the individual wine components were determined by means of a three-alternative forced-choice test and the half-mouth test, respectively.

  4. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  5. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  6. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  7. Insights on the chemical basis of the astringency of Spanish red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of the present study is to provide an insight on the role played by non-volatile molecules on the different in-mouth attributes, particularly astringency. For achieving such goal, the main in-mouth sensory attributes of 34 oaked Spanish red wines were measured by a trained panel. The wine content in 30 sensory-active molecules was analysed by different HPLC based methodologies together with classical enological parameters and two proanthocyanidin indexes. Fourteen compounds (aconitic acids, polymeric proanthocyanidins, caftaric, caffeic and coutaric acids and seven quercetins) were found to be at concentrations above reported taste thresholds and to have a reasonably high range of occurrence. Two highly statistically significant models for astringency were built with those compounds. Even if the models could not be fully validated by sensory addition experiments, the research has demonstrated that wine astringency is driven by polymeric proanthocyanidins and by certain phenolic acids, the rate trans/cis-aconitic acid and flavonol profiles. The research has highlighted the existence of extremely complex interactions between non-volatile compounds on the in-mouth sensory perception. Particularly remarkable is the lack of additivity and potential antagonism found between the pairs cis/trans-aconitic acids, between aconitic and caffeic acids and between quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Also remarkable was the sweetness×astringent interaction and the matrix-dependence of the sensory responses elicited by flavonols. These results suggest the need for new paradigms and experimental procedures for fully decoding the real sensory relevance of individual non-volatile compounds in the overall wine flavour.

  8. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  9. Optimization and validation of a taste dilution analysis to characterize wine taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R; Mateo-Vivaracho, L; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2007-08-01

    A procedure for the general taste dilution analysis (TDA) of wine has been optimized and applied to characterize the tastants of 5 different wines. Samples are concentrated first by vacuum distillation at 20 degrees C to obtain a dearomatized concentrate. Such concentrate is redissolved in water and injected in a semipreparative C18-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. The effluent is separated in fractions that are collected and concentrated by vacuum distillation. Sequential dilutions of the fractions are further evaluated by a sensory panel to assess the intensity of the basic tastes and in-mouth sensations. Fractions were also submitted to HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to screen for known tastants of wines. The Taste Dilution chromatograms showed that taste differences between wines are mainly located in fractions 1, 2, and 6, and are mainly related to bitterness and astringency. Different aspects of the method setup and of its reliability are evaluated and discussed.

  10. Improve Your Wine Sales:Host a Wine Tasting Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wine sales have grown in Ireland, wine distributors have improved their portfolios in response to heightened competition in the marketplace. For publicans the increased interest in wine has created new opportunities for bars to form small wine clubs or host regular wine tasting evenings for customers. This article highlights the points to remember when hosting regular wine tasting events. Remember wine tasting is intelligent drinking for customers it is an exercise in verbalising what they ar...

  11. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  12. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology.

  13. Application of the SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) to the evaluation of red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the astringency of red wines by means of a SDS-PAGE based-method. The optimization of the in vitro assay, named SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) that measured the reactivity of salivary proteins towards wine polyphenols, has been performed. Improvements included the choice of saliva:wine ratio, saliva typology (resting or stimulated saliva), and temperature of binding. The LOD (0.05 g/L of condensed tannin) and LOQ (0.1g/L of condensed tannin) for the binding reaction between salivary proteins and tannins added in white wine were also determined. Fifty-seven red wines were analysed by the optimised SPI, the Folin-Ciocalteu Index, the gelatine index, the content of total tannins and the sensory quantitative evaluation of astringency. A significant correlation between the SPI and the astringency of red wines was found (R(2)=0.969), thus indicating that this assay may be useful as estimator of astringency.

  14. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  15. Wine Tasting Discourse: Traditional Knowledge, and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    STENGEL, Kilien; Marinescu, Angelica-Helena

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Traditions, brotherhoods, wines of terroir, vintage wines…so many expressions that, beyond the numerical value, compose the wine tasting speech, in France as well as in Romania, among others. The rising of awareness concerning traditions and heritage notions has largely evolved during the XXth century, spanning from the vineyard as a field for the theatricality of the brotherhoods to the considerations given to rites and customs, as well as to wine-tasting, till the la...

  16. Characterization of taste-active fractions in red wine combining HPLC fractionation, sensory analysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2010-07-19

    Five Tempranillo wines exhibiting marked differences in taste and/or astringency were selected for the study. In each wine the non-volatile extract was obtained by freeze-drying and further liquid extraction in order to eliminate remaining volatile compounds. This extract was fractionated by semipreparative C18-reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (C18-RP-HPLC) into nine fractions which were freeze-dried, reconstituted with water and sensory assessed for taste attributes and astringency by a specifically trained sensory panel. Results have shown that wine bitterness and astringency cannot be easily related to the bitter and astringent character of the HPLC fractions, what can be due to the existence of perceptual and physicochemical interactions. While the bitter character of the bitterest fractions may be attributed to some flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and their glycosides) the development of a sensitive UPLC-MS method to quantify astringent compounds present in wines has made it possible to demonstrate that proanthocyanidins monomers, dimers, trimers and tetramers, both galloylated or non-galloylated are not relevant compounds for the perceived astringency of the fractions, while cis-aconitic acid, and secondarily vainillic, and syringic acids and ethyl syringate, are the most important molecules driving astringency in two of the fractions (F5 and F6). The identity of the chemicals responsible for the astringency of the third fraction could be assigned to some proanthocyanidins (higher than the tetramer) capable to precipitate with ovalbumin.

  17. Expectations influence sensory experience in a wine tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2009-06-01

    Information about a product may shape consumers' taste experience. In a wine tasting experiment, participants received (positive or negative) information about the wine prior to or after the tasting. When the information was given prior to the tasting, negative information about the wine resulted in lower ratings compared to the group that received positive information. No such effect was observed when participants received the information after the tasting but before they evaluated the wine. Results suggest that the information about the wine affected the experience itself and not only participants' overall assessment of the wine after the tasting.

  18. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Virgílio Loureiro; Renato Brasil; Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed trainin...

  19. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed.

  20. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Loureiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed training technique is based on the emotional responses of the taster after smelling two wines of clearly opposite styles. The first wine is characterized by high aromatic intensity but low in-mouth intensity, perceived as disappointing to the taster, here defined as an “easy” wine. The second wine is characterized as a wine with low aromatic intensity but that provides an unexpectedly positive in-mouth experience, here defined as a “difficult” wine. These emotions are explained by the wine sensorial characteristics. The “easy” wine has an intense, simple smell with short persistence while the “difficult” wine has a low intensity, complex aroma, and long persistence. The first style corresponds to the international commercial wines most prized in international wine challenges. The second, frequently rejected by untrained tasters, is consistent with the “so called” classic European wines, and is characterized by light red or yellow straw colors, weak smell intensity, and aggressive mouth-feel. After no more than four training sessions and using the OIV tasting sheet, inexperienced tasters were able to score “difficult” wines equally as “easy” wines and understand their different attributes. In conclusion, this new tasting approach may be used by wine professionals to explain the characteristics of high quality wines that are not easily recognized by untrained consumers.

  1. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...

  2. Red wine tannins fluidify and precipitate lipid liposomes and bicelles. A role for lipids in wine tasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Castets, Aurore; Nallet, Frédéric; Pianet, Isabelle; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-05-20

    Sensory properties of red wine tannins are bound to complex interactions between saliva proteins, membranes taste receptors of the oral cavity, and lipids or proteins from the human diet. Whereas astringency has been widely studied in terms of tannin-saliva protein colloidal complexes, little is known about interactions between tannins and lipids and their implications in the taste of wine. This study deals with tannin-lipid interactions, by mimicking both oral cavity membranes by micrometric size liposomes and lipid droplets in food by nanometric isotropic bicelles. Deuterium and phosphorus solid-state NMR demonstrated the membrane hydrophobic core disordering promoted by catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the latter appearing more efficient. C and EGCG destabilize isotropic bicelles and convert them into an inverted hexagonal phase. Tannins are shown to be located at the membrane interface and stabilize the lamellar phases. These newly found properties point out the importance of lipids in the complex interactions that happen in the mouth during organoleptic feeling when ingesting tannins.

  3. The Anthropomorphic Metaphor in Slovene and English Wine Tasting Discourses

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    Silva Bratož

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The language used to describe the tastes of various wines ranges from specific references to chemical, vegetal and mineral components to a wealth of diverse metaphorical constructions. This paper explores the use and characteristics of the anthropomorphic metaphor in wine reviews from a cross–linguistic perspective. The theoretical framework relies on the cognitive approach to metaphor, most notably on the conceptual theory of metaphor. The case study presented is focused on the conceptual metaphor WINE IS A HUMAN BEING and its linguistic realisations in a corpus of wine reviews collected from selected Slovene and English sources. A number of metaphors will be examined with respect to their level of conventionality, from metaphorically motivated terminology to novel linguistic metaphors. It will be argued that despite some variations in the way metaphors are realised in English and Slovene wine discourses, there is a large overlap in the way the two languages conceptualise the taste of wine through the anthropomorphic metaphor.

  4. Grape tannin catechin and ethanol fluidify oral membrane mimics containing moderate amounts of cholesterol: Implications on wine tasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Saad, Ahmad; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2016-11-01

    Wine tasting results in interactions of tannin-ethanol solutions with proteins and lipids of the oral cavity. Among the various feelings perceived during tasting, astringency and bitterness most probably result in binding events with saliva proteins, lipids and receptors. In this work, we monitored the conjugated effect of the grape polyphenol catechin and ethanol on lipid membranes mimicking the different degrees of keratinization of oral cavity surfaces by varying the amount of cholesterol present in membranes. Both catechin and ethanol fluidify the membranes as evidenced by solid-state (2)H NMR of perdeuterated lipids. The effect is however depending on the cholesterol proportion and may be very important and cumulative in the absence of cholesterol or presence of 18 mol % cholesterol. For 40 mol % cholesterol, mimicking highly keratinized membranes, both ethanol and catechin can no longer affect membrane dynamics. These observations can be accounted for by phase diagrams of lipid-cholesterol mixtures and the role played by membrane defects for insertion of tannins and ethanol when several phases coexist. These findings suggest that the behavior of oral membranes in contact with wine should be different depending of their cholesterol content. Astringency and bitterness could be then affected; the former because of a potential competition between the tannin-lipid and the tannin-saliva protein interaction, and the latter because of a possible fluidity modification of membranes containing taste receptors. The lipids that have been up to now weakly considered in oenology may be become a new actor in the issue of wine tasting.

  5. NMR and molecular modeling of wine tannins binding to saliva proteins: revisiting astringency from molecular and colloidal prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Olivier; Pinaud, Noël; Simon, Cécile; Fouquet, Eric; Laguerre, Michel; Dufourc, Erick J; Pianet, Isabelle

    2010-11-01

    In organoleptic science, the association of tannins to saliva proteins leads to the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. To decipher this interaction at molecular and colloidal levels, the binding of 4 procyanidin dimers (B1-4) and 1 trimer (C2) to a human saliva proline-rich peptide, IB7(14), was studied. Interactions have been characterized by measuring dissociation constants, sizes of complexes, number, and nature of binding sites using NMR (chemical shift variations, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, and saturation transfer diffusion). The binding sites were identified using molecular mechanics, and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the interactions was resolved by calculating the molecular lipophilicity potential within the complexes. The following comprehensive scheme can be proposed: 1) below the tannin critical micelle concentration (CMC), interaction is specific, and the procyanidin anchorage always occurs on the same three IB7(14) sites. The tannin 3-dimensional structure plays a key role in the binding force and in the tannin's ability to act as a bidentate ligand: tannins adopting an extended conformation exhibit higher affinity toward protein and initiate the formation of a network. 2) Above the CMC, after the first specific hydrophilic interaction has taken place, a random hydrophobic stacking occurs between tannins and proteins. The whole process is discussed in the general frame of wine tannins eliciting astringency.

  6. Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stephanie; Wollmann, Nadine; Schieberle, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-08-24

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from a Dornfelder red wine, 31 odor-active compounds were identified by means of HRGC-MS and comparison with reference compounds. A total of 27 odorants, judged with high FD factors by means of AEDA, was quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and acetaldehyde was determined enzymatically. In addition, 36 taste-active compounds were analyzed by means of HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS/MS, and ion chromatography. The quantitative data obtained for the identified aroma and taste compounds enabled for the first time the reconstruction of the overall flavor of the red wine. Sensory evaluation of both the aroma and taste profiles of the authentic red wine and the recombinate revealed that Dornfelder red wine was closely mimicked. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the high molecular weight fraction of red wine is essential for its astringent taste impression. By comparison of the overall odor of the aroma recombinate in ethanol with that of the total flavor recombinate containing all tastants, it was shown for the first time that the nonvolatile tastants had a strong influence on the intensity of certain aroma qualities.

  7. Beyond the Glass: Examining Wine Tasting Room Profitability Using the 4Ps of the Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Meredith Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Recent exponential increases in attendance at wine tasting rooms resulted in growing research in this subject area as producers seek to learn more about wine tasting room customers and identify ways to capitalize on additional revenue-generating opportunities. Direct wine sales are big business with $3.4 billion in sales in the United States in 2010. Research has shown that small and medium-sized wineries have become financially dependent on direct sales linked to wine tasting rooms with an a...

  8. Sella & Mosca Wine, Fashion Taste in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sella & Mosca Winery(Qingdao) Co., Ltd. is a subsidiary owned by Campari Group, one of the leading grape wine producers in Italy, with an investment of US$30 billion in Qingdao city in 1999. On the eve of China's traditional Mid-autumn Festival(October 6),China's Foreign Trade interviewed Carbriele Scapin,General Manager of Sella & Mosca Winery(Qingdao) Co., Ltd., he and his company were busy onthe mar keting job because the festival isa good day for the Chinese family reunite which cannot be lived through without drinking some grape wine.

  9. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Janice; Spence, Charles

    2015-06-01

    At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music-one chosen to match each wine-were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine-music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience.

  10. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience.

  11. The Bac(chus experiment: blood alcohol concentrations after wine tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert van de Wiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs were measured in ten volunteers after a wine tasting event with and without the swallowing of 15 mL of each wine. In case ten wines were tasted within one hour without swallowing, buccal mucosa absorption did not result in problematic BAC’s; however in case 15 mL of each wine was swallowed, BAC’s may exceed the legal driving limit of most countries. It is recommended to eat beforehand, but also to wait at least one hour after the session before driving back home.

  12. The effect of background music on the taste of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C

    2012-08-01

    Research concerning cross-modal influences on perception has neglected auditory influences on perceptions of non-auditory objects, although a small number of studies indicate that auditory stimuli can influence perceptions of the freshness of foodstuffs. Consistent with this, the results reported here indicate that independent groups' ratings of the taste of the wine reflected the emotional connotations of the background music played while they drank it. These results indicate that the symbolic function of auditory stimuli (in this case music) may influence perception in other modalities (in this case gustation); and are discussed in terms of possible future research that might investigate those aspects of music that induce such effects in a particular manner, and how such effects might be influenced by participants' pre-existing knowledge and expertise with regard to the target object in question.

  13. Instrumental measurement of bitter taste in red wine using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Muller, Nina; Legin, Andrey; du Toit, Maret; Bauer, Florian F

    2010-08-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors was assessed as a rapid tool for the quantification of bitterness in red wines. A set of 39 single cultivar Pinotage wines comprising 13 samples with medium to high bitterness was obtained from the producers in West Cape, South Africa. Samples were analysed with respect to a set of routine wine parameters and major phenolic compounds using Fourier transform infrared-multiple internal reflection spectroscopy (WineScan) and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A trained sensory panel assessed the bitterness intensity of 15 wines, 13 of which had a bitter taste of medium to high intensity. Thirty-one wine samples including seven bitter-tasting ones were measured by the ET. Influence of the chemical composition of wine on the occurrence of the bitter taste was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. It was found that bitter-tasting wines had higher concentrations of phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, gallic and caffeic acids and quercetin) than non-bitter wines. Sensitivity of the sensors of the array to the phenolic compounds related to the bitterness was studied at different pH levels. Sensors displayed sensitivity to all studied compounds at pH 7, but only to quercetin at pH 3.5. Based on these findings, the pH of wine was adjusted to 7 prior to measurements. Calibration models for classification of wine samples according to the presence of the bitter taste and quantification of the bitterness intensity were calculated by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) regression. Statistical significance of the classification results was confirmed by the permutation test. Both ET and chemical analysis data could discriminate between bitter and control wines with the correct classification rates of 94% and 91%, respectively. Prediction of the bitterness intensity with good accuracy (root mean square error of 2 and mean relative error of 6% in validation) was

  14. Extracting (good) discourse examples from an oral specialised corpus of wine tasting interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; Gautier, Laurent; Maazaoui, Hedi

    This article explains how lexicographic examples have been extracted from a corpus of professional interactions on wine tasting for the purpose of including them i the Oenolex wine dictionary. Particularly, it explains how the SONAL software was used to analyse and process audio data and export...

  15. Extracting (good) discourse examples from an oral specialised corpus of wine tasting interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Leroyer, Patrick; Gautier, Laurent; Maazaoui, Hedi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article outlines the semi-automated extraction of dictionary examples used in the compilation of a professional online dictionary of wine tasting. Named OenoLex Bourgogne, this dictionary was started to respond to the demand for a lexicographic information tool from the French wine industry of Burgundy, the Bureau Interprofessionnel des Vins de Bourgogne.

  16. Wine from the Netherlands: investigating the effect of soil-type on taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Geert-Jan; Maljers, Denise; Beurskens, Stan

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade professional viticulture has seen a strong increase in the Netherlands, reaching 270 ha in 2015. Although on a European scale this is a small area, the number of prize-winning quality wines is steadily growing. This growth can largely be ascribed to new grape varieties from Germany and Switzerland, that are better adapted to the cooler and moister climate at the northern fringe of the viticultural zone, as well as to increasing viticultural expertise. The distribution of vineyards across the Netherlands shows that they occur on a plethora of substrates. Dutch substrate is dominated by typical lowland deposits such as fluvial and marine sands and clays and aeolian sands. Unlike many European countries, bedrock is scarce. Only in the south-eastern extremity and in the east of the country, carbonate bedrock is present at or near the surface. This wide variety of substrate triggered our interest in the effect of the various soil-types on the smell and taste characteristics of wines. An effect which is often mentioned concerning well-known foreign wines. We wondered whether an Auxerrois wine from carbonate rocks tastes significantly different from a wine from the same grape variety from loess. And how about a Johanniter wine from fluvial deposits versus windblown sands? And what happens if you make wine in exactly the same way with the same grape variety and from the same vineyard, but with three different yeast types? To answer our questions, we selected ten Dutch vineyards with varying soil-types and the grape varieties Auxerrois and Johanniter. In October 2014 we harvested the grapes and wine was made under controlled identical conditions (in a double setup). The wines were scientifically tested at the institute of Viticulture and Oenology in Neustadt, Germany. The results show no significant effect of soil-type on the smell and taste of Dutch wines in our experiment. Varying yeast types (Cryarome, 3079, VL2) used on Souvignier Gris grapes from

  17. Sensory perception of and salivary protein response to astringency as a function of the 6-n-propylthioural (PROP) bitter-taste phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Melania; Yousaf, Neeta Y; Mattes, Mitchell Z; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Tepper, Beverly J

    2017-01-24

    Individual differences in astringency perception are poorly understood. Astringency from tannins stimulates the release of specific classes of salivary proteins. These proteins form complexes with tannins, altering their perceived astringency and reducing their bioavailability. We studied the bitter compound, 6-n-propylthioural (PROP), as a phenotypic marker for variation in astringency perception and salivary protein responses. Seventy-nine subjects classified by PROP taster status rated cranberry juice cocktail (CJC; with added sugar) supplemented with 0, 1.5 or 2.0g/L tannic acid (TA). Saliva for protein analyses was collected at rest, or after stimulation with TA or cranberry juice (CJ; without added sugar). CJC with 1.5g/L tannic acid was found to be less astringent, and was liked more by PROP non-taster males than PROP taster males, consistent with the expectation that non-tasters are less sensitive to astringency. Levels of acidic Proline Rich Proteins (aPRPs) and basic Proline Rich Proteins (bPRPs) decreased after TA, while levels of aPRPs, bPRPs and Cystatins unexpectedly rose after CJ. Increases in bPRPs and Cystatins were only observed in PROP tasters. The PROP phenotype plays a gender-specific, but somewhat limited role in the perceived astringency of tannic-acid supplemented, cranberry juice cocktail. The PROP phenotype (regardless of gender) may also be involved in the release of salivary proteins previously implicated in oral health.

  18. How stereochemistry influences the taste of wine: Isolation, characterization and sensory evaluation of lyoniresinol stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretin, Blandine N; Sallembien, Quentin; Sindt, Lauriane; Daugey, Nicolas; Buffeteau, Thierry; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Dubourdieu, Denis; Marchal, Axel

    2015-08-12

    Wine expresses its beauty by sending a sensory message to the taster through molecules coming from grapes, yeast metabolism or oak wood. Among the compounds released during barrel aging, lyoniresinol has been recently reported as a relevant contributor to wine bitterness. As this lignan contains three stereogenic carbons, this work aimed at investigating the influence of stereochemistry on wine taste by combining analytical and sensorial techniques. First, an oak wood extract was screened by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry to target isomers separable in a symmetric environment and a diastereoisomer called epi-lyoniresinol was isolated for the first time. Then, an original racemic resolution based on natural xylose-derivatives was carried out to obtain lyoniresinol enantiomers. Chiroptical spectroscopic measurements associated with theoretical calculations allowed the unambiguous determination of their absolute configuration. The taste properties of all these stereoisomers revealed that only one lyoniresinol enantiomer is strongly bitter whereas the other one is tasteless and the diastereoisomer is slightly sweet. The presence of these three compounds was established in an oaked Bordeaux wine by chiral and non-chiral chromatography, suggesting the significant influence of stereochemistry on wine taste.

  19. Appraisal Theory applied to the wine tasting sheet in English and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Wislocka Breit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is the application of Appraisal Theory (Martin & White, 2005 developed in the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics to wine tasting sheets. Firstly, whether this text type meets the defining requirements specified by Swales (1990 for the discursive genre will be verified. 110 tasting sheets in Spanish and English extracted from the Internet have been grouped into four corpora corresponding to the country of origin of the wine: Spain, Australia, California and New Zealand. An analysis undertaken with WordSmith Tools has demonstrated the positive polarization of all the texts and the existence of cultural differences reflected in the use of fruit-related terms, adjectives oenological terms and “oenological culturemes” (Wislocka Breit, 2012. An unforeseen result of the study was the strong contrast observed between the free and literary manner of the English and the concise style of Spanish tasting sheets.

  20. 烘青绿茶苦涩味及其滋味贡献物质分析%Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英娜; 陈根生; 刘阳; 许勇泉; 汪芳; 陈建新; 尹军峰

    2015-01-01

    对烘青绿茶苦涩味量化分析及其主要滋味贡献物质进行探讨。以不同嫩度烘青绿茶为原料,采用量化感官分析方法及化学分析手段分析了茶汤滋味分属性(包括苦味、涩味、鲜味和醇味等)和滋味化学成分含量,并建立了两者之间的相关性。研究结果表明,随着烘青绿茶嫩度的下降,其茶汤苦味、涩味和鲜爽味强度呈下降趋势,整体滋味品质也显著下降。通过分析茶叶滋味化学成分含量及其滋味 Dot 值,发现烘青绿茶苦味的主要贡献物质是 EGCG 和咖啡碱;而涩味的主要贡献物是儿茶素和黄酮苷,其中儿茶素以 EGCG 为主,包括 EGC 和 ECG,黄酮苷以槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷(Que-rut)和槲皮素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Que-gala)为主,包括杨梅素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Myr-gala)、槲皮素-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Que-glu)、牡荆素-2"-O-鼠李糖苷(Vit-rha)、山柰酚-3-O-半乳糖苷(Kae-gala)、山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(Kae-rut)、山柰酚-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Kae-glu)等。Dot 值分析表明氨基酸对烘青绿茶鲜爽味没有显著贡献。本研究初步明确了烘青绿茶苦涩味的主要贡献物质,为茶叶品质提升和滋味化学研究提供理论基础。%The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and

  1. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  2. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine.

  3. Effects of sulfur dioxide on formation of fishy off-odor and undesirable taste in wine consumed with seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akiko; Isogai, Atsuko; Endo, Michiko; Utsunomiya, Hitoshi; Nakano, Shigeyoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi

    2010-04-14

    In order to evaluate sensory compatibility of alcoholic beverages with food, beverages and dried squid, namely, "surume", a common Japanese accompaniment, were consumed together. White wine and dried squid pairings had a more undesirable taste and more fishy off-odor than sake and dried squid pairings. The undesirable taste and fishy off-odor appeared to be caused by degradation of unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), which are found in fish and squid. Upon addition of DHA to the beverage, bitterness intensity, measured by instrumental taste sensor analysis, and the concentration of certain aldehydes reported to contribute to fishy flavors, increased in white wines, whereas they remained largely the same in sake. Among the major chemical constituents that distinguish wine from sake, only wine-specific sulfite markedly increased bitterness intensity and aldehyde levels upon addition of DHA. These results suggest that sulfur dioxide in wine participated in degradation of unsaturated fatty acids, causing an increase in undesirable taste and fishy off-odor in wine and seafood pairings.

  4. Compositional and sensory characterization of red wine polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Nadine; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-03-06

    After isolation from red wine by means of ultrafiltration and gel adsorption chromatography, the composition of the highly astringent tasting high-molecular weight polymers was analyzed by means of HPLC-MS/MS, HPLC-UV/vis, and ion chromatography after thiolytic, alkaline, and acidic depolymerization and, on the basis of the quantitative data obtained as well as model incubation experiments, key structural features of the red wine polymers were proposed. The structural backbone of the polymers seems to be comprised of a procyanidin chain with (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate units as extension and terminal units as well as (-)-epigallocatechin as extension units. In addition, acetaldehyde was shown to link different procyanidins at the A-ring via an 1,1-ethylene bridge and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins were found to be linked to the procyanidin backbone via a C-C-linkage at position C(6) or C(8), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated the polymeric procyanidins to be esterified with various organic acids and phenolic acids, respectively. In addition, the major part of the polysaccharides present in the red wine polymeric fraction were found not to be covalently linked to procyanidins. Interestingly, sensory evaluation of individual fractions of the red wine polymers did not show any significant difference in the astringent threshold concentrations, nor in the astringency intensity in supra-threshold concentrations and demonstrated the mean degree of polymerization as well as the galloylation degree not to have an significant influence on the astringency perception.

  5. 葡萄酒圆润度研究进展%Progress on research in rounded taste of wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洁; 张军翔

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the rounded taste of wine is a result of more complicated reactions. Firstly, this review describes e the substance that indirect affects the mellow taste of the wine, secondly the chemical index for measuring the rounded taste and the method to determine the specific substance were summarized. And the way to improve rounded taste were summarized. At last, described the prospect and significance in research of rounded taste of wine.%葡萄酒圆润度的形成需要进行多个复杂的反应.文章概述影响葡萄酒圆润度的物质,然后对间接衡量葡萄酒圆润口感的理化指标及物质测定方法进行综述,总结提高葡萄酒圆润度的方法,并展望其研究前景及意义.

  6. Mechanisms underlying astringency: introduction to an oral tribology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rutuja; Brossard, Natalia; Chen, Jianshe

    2016-03-01

    Astringency is one of the predominant factors in the sensory experience of many foods and beverages ranging from wine to nuts. The scientific community is discussing mechanisms that explain this complex phenomenon, since there are no conclusive results which correlate well with sensory astringency. Therefore, the mechanisms and perceptual characteristics of astringency warrant further discussion and investigation. This paper gives a brief introduction of the fundamentals of oral tribology forming a basis of the astringency mechanism. It discusses the current state of the literature on mechanisms underlying astringency describing the existing astringency models. The review discusses the crucial role of saliva and its physiology which contributes significantly in astringency perception in the mouth. It also provides an overview of research concerned with the physiological and psychophysical factors that mediate the perception of this sensation, establishing the ground for future research. Thus, the overall aim of the review is to establish the critical roles of oral friction (thin-film lubrication) in the sensation of astringency and possibly of some other specific sensory features.

  7. Beyond self-reports: drinking motives predict grams of consumed alcohol in wine-tasting sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuendig, Hervé

    2012-08-01

    The link between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes has been investigated extensively, yet almost exclusively using retrospective self-reports that are subject to recall bias. This study overcomes this limitation using an experimental design to test whether the 4 drinking-motive dimensions (social, enhancement, coping and conformity, as measured in the baseline questionnaire) predict the quantity of alcohol actually ingested during 2 wine-tasting sessions conducted approximately 3 and 7 weeks after the baseline motive assessment. Regression modeling was based on an analog measurement of grams of pure alcohol among 123 young adults. Self-reported data at baseline concurred with the data collected during the experimental sessions, that is, alcohol consumption was high for males and enhancement drinkers and low for conformity drinkers. Coping drinkers significantly increased their consumption between the first and second sessions, while social drinkers tended to decrease theirs. Yet when separately considering data recorded during the first session, none of the drinking motives predicted the amounts of alcohol actually consumed. To conclude, this study demonstrates that motives predict actual alcohol consumption, which is consistent with evidence-based self-reports. Particularly, enhancement and coping drinkers seem to take advantage of the drinking situation probably because they usually appreciate the psychoactive properties of alcohol, either to maximize pleasurable sensations or to alleviate negative ones. However, if the setting is unusual (first tasting session), situational characteristics may "overrule" the effect of personal motives.

  8. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers.

  9. Investigation on the Delicious Taste of Danyang Yellow Rice Wine%丹阳黄酒美味初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志坚

    2011-01-01

    Danyang yellow rice wine is famous for its mellow aroma,soft taste,long aftertaste,and special flavor.In this paper,the production of Danyang yellow rice wine including its quality raw materials,special wheat starter,unique water quality,and special wine-making technology was discussed.%丹阳黄酒醇香浓郁,鲜甜醇厚,回味无穷,风味独特。对丹阳黄酒酿造用的优质的原料、特制的麦曲,得天独厚的水质和独特的工艺进行了阐述。

  10. 教学用葡萄酒品尝实验室的建设与管理%Construction and management of grape wine tasting laboratory for teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳英; 魏冬梅; 张莉; 王华

    2013-01-01

    By comparative analysis of the similarities and differences of the general grape wine-tasting room and the grape wine tasting laboratory for teaching ,this paper puts foward the importance of constructing a grape wine-tasting room for teaching .Taking the grape wine-tasting laboratory in College of Enology ,Northwest A&F University as an example ,this paper expatiates on the design specification of the grape wine-tasting laboratory ,and discusses the management key points of the laboratory .%通过对比一般葡萄酒品尝室和教学用葡萄酒品尝实验室的异同,提出了建设教学用葡萄酒品尝实验室的必要性。以西北农林科技大学葡萄酒学院葡萄酒品尝实验室为例,说明教学用葡萄酒品尝实验室的建设要求、基本构成和管理要点。

  11. Unraveling the evolving nature of gaseous and dissolved carbon dioxide in champagne wines: a state-of-the-art review, from the bottle to the tasting glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume; Zéninari, Virginie

    2012-06-30

    In champagne and sparkling wine tasting, the concentration of dissolved CO(2) is indeed an analytical parameter of high importance since it directly impacts the four following sensory properties: (i) the frequency of bubble formation in the glass, (ii) the growth rate of rising bubbles, (iii) the mouth feel, and (iv) the nose of champagne, i.e., its so-called bouquet. In this state-of-the-art review, the evolving nature of the dissolved and gaseous CO(2) found in champagne wines is evidenced, from the bottle to the glass, through various analytical techniques. Results obtained concerning various steps where the CO(2) molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO(2) impact champagne and sparkling wine science.

  12. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines).

  13. Evolution of phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its contribution to wine sensory properties and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoshan; Neves, Ana C; Fernandes, Tiago A; Fernandes, Ana L; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Vítor; Leandro, Conceição; Spranger, Maria I

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this work was to study the evolution of the phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its relationship with some sensory properties (astringency and bitterness) and antioxidant activities. Thus, red wine was made by a classic vinification method with Castelão and Tinta Miúda grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) harvested at maturity (3:2; w/w). Samples were taken at 2 and 7 days of maceration, at second racking, at the time of bottling and at 6 and 14 months after bottling. The total polyphenols extract (TPx) in each sample was isolated by column chromatography. The phenolic composition (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins), in vitro antioxidant activity, and sensory property (astringency, bitterness) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages were evaluated through high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl radical test, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, total phenolic index, MWI (polyphenol molecular weight index), TSA (tannin specific activity), and sensory panel tasting. The results showed that the phenolic composition of red wine varied significantly during winemaking. The intensity of astringency (IA) and the intensity bitterness (IB) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages increased from 2 days of maceration until second racking and then decreased. Furthermore, MWI and TSA are positively correlated with IA and IB. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages maintained unchanged after alcoholic fermentation, which was independent of the variation of phenolic composition and sensory properties.

  14. The distributions of bitter and astringent taste compounds in the bamboo shoot of Dendrocalamus latiflorus under different light intensities%不同光强下麻竹笋不同部位苦涩味物质含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪蕾; 丁兴萃; 张闪闪; 章志远; 蔡函江; 郑友苗

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the change of bitter and astringent taste compound content, such as tannin, flavonoid, oxalic acid and amino acid in the bamboo shoot of Dendrocalamus latiflorus under different light intensities. The results indicated that the content of tannin, flavonoid and amino acid all decreased as the decline of light intensity. The amount of oxalic acid increased initially and deceased later as the reduction of light intensity. Under the same light intensity, the taste was much better in the basal part of bamboo shoot than that of the top one. The shoot concentration of tannin and a⁃mino acid spaciously peaked at the top, i.e. 1.8-3.4 and 1.4-3.4 times higher than those at the bottom respectively. In contrast, the content of flavonoid in the shoot decreased 29�4%-60. 2% less than that in the shoot bottom. The oxalic acid content declined in order from the middle, top to the bottom part. In conclusion, the bamboo shoot of D. latiflorus behaves the most bitter and astringent taste in natural sun light. The bitter and astringent taste compounds are mostly concentrated at the top of the shoot. It is proved that lessening light intensity can improve edible taste of bamboo shoot of D. latiflorus.%以麻竹( Dendrocalamus latiflorus)笋为材料,分析不同光照强度下麻竹笋不同部位单宁、类黄酮、草酸以及氨基酸等苦涩味物质的含量。结果表明:在6种光照强度下,随着光照强度降低,单宁、类黄酮、氨基酸等苦涩味物质的含量减少,而草酸含量呈先上升后下降的趋势;在相同光照强度处理下,麻竹笋单宁、氨基酸含量以笋尖部最高,分别是笋基部的1.8~3.4、1.4~3.4倍;类黄酮含量变化趋势与其相反,笋基部到笋尖部减少了29�4%~60�2%;草酸含量在笋中部最高,其次为笋尖部,笋基部最少。在自然光照条件下,笋尖部苦涩味物质含量最高,苦涩味最重,适量降低

  15. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due

  16. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  17. Sugar and organic acid content of astringent, non-astringent, and pollination variant persimmons (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although persimmons are native (Diospyros virginiana) to the United States, commercial production consists almost exclusively of the Asian persimmon, Diospyros kaki. Cultivars within this species are classified by their astringency type; non-astringent, astringent, and pollination variant. In the U...

  18. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  19. Study on the taste compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon red wine from different regions%不同产区赤霞珠红葡萄酒呈味特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超宇; 贾士儒; 王方; 李宁; 王磊

    2013-01-01

    Flavor compounds, mainly composed of aromatic compounds and taste compounds, were important indexes to measure the wine quality. The taste characteristics of Sauvignon Cabernet red wines from different regions were discussed by the data statistical analysis of the taste components in red wines from different regions. The results showed that the Cabernet Sauvignon red wines from four domestic major grape regions had different characteristics and the flavor characteristics had certain differences.%葡萄酒的风味物质是衡量葡萄酒品质的一个重要指标,它主要由呈香物质和呈味物质组成。本文通过对不同产区的赤霞珠红葡萄酒呈味成分的数据统计分析,探讨不同产区赤霞珠红葡萄酒的呈味特征。结果显示,来自国内四大葡萄产区的赤霞珠红葡萄酒各有特点,其风味特征有一定的差异。

  20. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane Koteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wine (Latin: vinum is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained from other types of fruit. These wines are referred to as fruit wines, or wear a name by which the fruit is used for obtaining them (for example apple wine. Wine tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting wineries, tasting, consumption and purchase of wine, usually directly from the manufacturer. This type of tourism includes visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants famous for special local wines, as well as organized wine tours, visits to wine festivals and other special events. Many wine regions around the world to promote this tourism because it affects very positively to the local economy. In these regions, viticulture and hospitality organizations have spent significant resources over the years for the promotion of wine tourism. Wine tourism in my country is respected, but strong growth.

  1. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    in a restaurant; medical professionals and patients in a hospital; and people gathered for a wine tasting event, daily dinner or a meal in a convent. The ethnographic materials are used to engage with what so far social science literatures on tasting tend to take for granted: that tasting is a physiological......This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  2. Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak Ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Wollmann, Nadine; Wenker, Kerstin; Lösch, Sofie; Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-05-26

    Aimed at investigating the concentrations and taste contribution of the oak-derived ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin as well as their transformation products acutissimin A/B, epiacutissimin A/B, and beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin in red wine, a highly sensitive and accurate quantification method was developed on the basis of LC-MS/MS-MRM analysis with matrix calibration. Method validation showed good recovery rates ranging from 102.4 +/- 5.9% (vescalagin) to 113.7 +/- 15.2% (epiacutissimin A). In oak-matured wines, castalagin was found as the predominant ellagitannin, followed by beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin, whereas the flavano-C-ellagitannins (epi)acutissimin A/B were present in significantly lower amounts. In contrast to the high threshold concentration levels (600-1000 micromol/L) and the puckering astringent orosensation induced by flavan-3-ols, all of the ellagitannin derivatives were found to induce a smooth and velvety astringent oral sensation at rather low threshold concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 micromol/L. Dose/activity considerations demonstrated that, among all the ellagitannins investigated, castalagin exclusively exceeded its threshold concentration in various oak-matured wine samples.

  3. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  4. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    Value – This study is of value to the Dutch government and the wine lobby, because it demonstrates the difference between wine tasting and drinking. It also has value for restaurant owners, the wine industry, and the academic world, because it highlights an important aspect of consumer behaviour with regard to wine purchases.

  5. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, it is forbidden by law to taste and sell wine in the same room, even if the buyer only places an order for delivery and no actual exchange of money and wine takes place, with the exception of licensed liquor stores. Wine traders, tastings and events are disadvantaged by this law. Wine tastings where consumers can buy or order wine are officially forbidden, even in a licensed liquor shop. The law makes no distinction between the act of “tasting” and the act of “drinking” wi...

  6. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

    2014-09-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid.

  7. Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Astringency Removal in Mopanshi Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ping; LI Bao; ZHANG Wen; JIA Ke-gong

    2003-01-01

    Fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Mopanshi) were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas on removing astringency after harvest. Treatment of 95 % concentration of CO2 gas gave the best results; fruits turned non-astringent after 20 h, and kept the fruit firm for 7 d at room temperature. Fruits, treated with 85 and 90 % concentration of CO2 gas, turned non-astringent after 24 - 28 h, and the firmness-keeping stage was 5 - 6 d at room temperature. While the CO2 gas was at 80, 70 and 60%, the de-astringency period was 48, 72 and 96 h, and the corresponding firmness-keeping stage was 3, 2 and 1 d, respectively. Fruits, treated with 50 % concentration of CO2 gas,remained astringent.

  8. (Re)tasting places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    What does geographical origin mean? It is an expression that associates food and wine with a specific place, an association embedded in the concept ‘terroir’ that refers to the complex interaction between a physical environment and local craftsmanship. It is a claim protected through labelling...... particularly attractive Central to the interest of this paper is to approach an understanding of geographical origin as a point of reference for taste. In terms of being sensory experience, taste is subjective. It is difficult to describe verbally and yet at the same time it is a trigger of the memory of past...

  9. 葡萄酒中单宁含量调查与口感关系的分析%Investigation of the relationship of content of tannins and taste of the grape wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝霞; 刘青; 李荀; 李志勇; 何吉子; 何应愉

    2014-01-01

    Objective The content of the tannins in the import-export wine, five hundred and twenty-four samples, from different origins, different varieties, were measured. The relationship of the tannins in wine and taste quality was analyzed. Methods The samples were diluted with distilled water, and the tannins content were quantitatively analyzed using spectrophotometric method, with gallic acid as a standard substance. Results The method showed a good linearity over the range of 0~5.0 mg/L, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The tannins added recovery rates were between 86.7%~120%, and the average recoveries were 103.8%. In the place of origins, the tannins content in wine from Italy was the highest, with an average content of 2.70 g/L;in the varieties, the tannins content in wine brewed by Pinot Noir was more than those of others, with the average content of 3.15 g/L; in the domestic wine, the tannins content in wine from Yunnan region was relatively higher, with the average content of 2.51 g/L. Conclusion The tannins content in wine is related to grape varieties, origins, the types of the wine. If the supple index is more than five, the taste and quality is good. The method is simple, reliable, less reagent consumption, easy to operate, and fast.%目的:通过测定不同产地、不同品种、不同类型的524支进出口葡萄酒中单宁的含量,进一步分析葡萄酒中的单宁与口感质量的关系。方法将样品用蒸馏水稀释100倍,以没食子酸为标准物质,采用分光光度法对葡萄酒中的单宁进行定量分析。结果在0~5.0 mg/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.9999;单宁添加回收率在86.7%~120%之间,平均回收率达103.8%。产地方面,意大利的红葡萄酒中单宁含量最高,平均为2.70 g/L;品种方面,黑皮诺酿造的红葡萄酒中单宁含量较多,平均含量为3.15 g/L;国产葡萄酒方面,云南产区的葡萄酒中单宁含量相对较高,平均为2

  10. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  11. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2015-10-01

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques - check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) - using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references ('poles') before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward's minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered 'rapid,' our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best performed 1

  12. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Wendy V; Valentin, Dominique; Reedman, Phil; Grose, Claire; Green, James A

    2017-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day) and unfavourable (Root day) for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine's perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers' calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation.

  13. Consumer perceptions of organic wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IORDACHESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.

  14. Teaching Research on the Course of Grape Wine Tasting and Cocktail-making%葡萄酒的品评与鸡尾酒调制课程教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊艳; 钟瑞敏

    2011-01-01

    通过在公选课葡萄酒的品评与鸡尾酒调制教学过程中不断进行努力探索,结合课程和生源特点,在教材编写、教学内容设置、教学方法选择等方面进行改革,尝试新方法,取得了较好的教学成效,提高了教学质量。%During the teaching process of the course of grape wine tasting and cocktail-making, we had made reform in compiling textbook, setring up teaching content, and selecting teaching methods based on the combination of the characteristics of the course and students' levels. As a result, satisfactory teaching effects had been achieved and teaching quality got improved.

  15. SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOME WHITE WINES, FLAVORED WINES AND VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, PREPARED BY USING OWN RECIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize, from sensorial point of view, the basic white wines White Fetească, Italian Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, as well as flavored wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to basic wines, tasting technique was used. It is known that sensory analysis is a method that can provide an overview of a wine. The main features analyzed were: appearance, color, smell and taste. Initial, wines presented specific features of grapes variety from which they belong, being characterized by harmony and complex flavor. The hydroalcoholic macerates were obtained by preparing two recipes (labeled I and II of different mixtures of plants. Recipes I A in 45% alcohol and I B in 60% alcohol, had characteristics of appearance, color, taste and smell, very intense, specific, prevailing the taste of anise, fennel and coriander. The macerates prepared with recipes II A in 45% alcohol and II B in 60% alcohol (mixture of a few herbs and peel of citrus fruits showed peculiarities of taste, odor, flavor less intense, prevailing the smell of nutmeg and citrus flavor. Recipes I A and I B of hydroalcoholic plants macerates decisively influenced the color, taste, flavor, smell and appearance of flavored wines. Recipes II A and II B influenced discreetly the sensory properties of flavored wines. Vermouth type wines obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates + other ingredients (citric acid, alcohol, sugar, presented harmonious sensory characteristics, balanced, discreet, subtle, compared with flavored wines obtained only by the addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to the basic wines. The latter had a color, aroma, taste, smell, more intense, more rustic. Herbal recipes I B and II B (prepared in 60% alcohol, have strongly influenced the sensory properties of flavored wines, compared to recipes I A and II A (prepared in 45% alcohol.

  16. Red wine sweetness preference according to consumer segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Maria Madalena Castelbranco da Silveira de Sena

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the acceptance and preference for sweet taste in red wine, according to consumer segmentation in age, gender, personality type, tasting sensitivity and consumer experience in wine. A hundred and fourteen wine tasters were invited to the wine tasting, and the average age was 27 years. An addition of sugar was made with equal concentrations of glucose and fructose to the wine at 2g/L, 4g/L, 8g/L, 16g/L and 32g/L. Five pairs of glasses were presented for the...

  17. The taste sensory evaluation of medicinal plants and Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Masumi; Tokuyama, Emi; Miyanaga, Yohko; Uchida, Takahiro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the artificial taste sensor in the evaluation of 11 medicinal plants and 10 Chinese medicines with bitter and/or astringent tastes, and to assess the possible application of the sensor in the evaluation of taste and quality control of medicinal products. Aqueous extracts of the six bitter medicinal plants could be classified into three types, and those of the five astringent medicinal plants into two types, on the basis of sensor output pattern profiles. These differences seem to derive from the different structures of the main components. In the principal component analysis of the taste sensor output of 10 Chinese medicines, a new measure developed, the 'Euclidean distance', defined as the distance between a control and the targeted substance on the principal component map. This measure offers a possibility for indicating the different tastes of Chinese medicines. Lastly, we confirmed that berberine adsorption on the surface of the artificial membrane of the taste sensor was of the Langmuir type. The berberine content in extracts of medicinal plants could be evaluated by the taste sensor, and it was shown to be possible to use the taste sensor for the quality control of medicinal plants.

  18. Studies of the Removal of Astringency in Japaneses Persimmon Fruits : Reference to Natural Disappearance of Astringency in Nonastringent-Type Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    米森, 敬三; Yonemori, Keizo

    1986-01-01

    Many earlier resarchers have studied the removal of astringency in Japanese persimmon fruits, and have indicated that decrease of tannin content in the fruits is associated with ethanol and acetaldehyde accumulation. These volatiles, especialiy acetaldehyde, allow soluble tannins to coagulate and change into insoluble complexes, thereby leading to the loss of astringency. This mechanism of deastringency has been obtained mainly from studies of astringent-type fruits from which astringency wa...

  19. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine that is produced locally, organically, or sustainably are more likely to employ technology in their wine purchase decision. While disruption appears to have occurred on the supply side (number of wine applications available and the number of wine labels with a QR code, this research suggests that relatively little change is occurring on the demand side (a relatively small segment of the population—those already interested in wine—are employing the technology to aid in their purchase decision.

  20. Characteristics of traditional Chinese shanlan wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Luo, Xianqun; Wang, Xinguang

    2014-02-01

    Shanlan rice wine is made by a unique method by removing the saccharified liquid from wine mash constantly since it appeared during saccharification and fermentation. The objective of this study is to find the advantages of this technique of wine making by analyzing data of shanlan wine fermentation. Since the liquid was removed, the mash (rice) bed was fluffier than immersed in the saccharified liquid, under ambient condition constantly and it is favorable for starch degradation. This technique made shanlan rice wine tasted sweet and slightly acidic, lower content of alcohol and higher alcohol than in other non-distilled rice wines.

  1. Taste Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help scientists develop drugs targeting the gut taste receptors to treat obesity and diabetes. Where can I ... Smell Smell Disorders News Unraveling the enigma of salty taste detection: New findings could help identify successful ...

  2. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines.

  3. Reaching an Underserved Wine Customer: Connecting with the African American Wine Consumer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rhonda; Sydnor, Sandra; Kang, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Marketing strategies addressing underserved African American wine customers’ needs that also positively impact producers’ and retailers’ clientele was the impetus for this exploratory, qualitative paper. African Americans demonstrate a thirst to elevate their education about and be more involved in the wine industry as evidenced by the proliferation of African American wine-tasting groups designed to help educate and expose their membership to a variety of wines. Moreover, compared to the ave...

  4. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation.

  5. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  6. Metals in wine--impact on wine quality and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka

    2011-12-01

    Metals in wine can originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its concentration can be a significant parameter affecting consumption and conservation of wine. Since metallic ions have important role in oxide-reductive reactions resulting in wine browning, turbidity, cloudiness, and astringency, wine quality depends greatly on its metal composition. Moreover, metals in wine may affect human health. Consumption of wine may contribute to the daily dietary intake of essential metals (i.e., copper, iron, and zinc) but can also have potentially toxic effects if metal concentrations are not kept under allowable limits. Therefore, a strict analytical control of metal concentration is required during the whole process of wine production. This article presents a critical review of the existing literature regarding the measured metal concentration in wine, methods applied for their determination, and possible sources, as well as their impact on wine quality and human health. The main focus is set on aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc, as these elements most often affect wine quality and human health.

  7. Borders Uncorked: Exporting Wine to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Barbara E.; Odett, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Last fall, in an effort to raise awareness of Canadian table wines, the Consulate General commissioned a group of International Business MBA students from Walsh College, in suburban Detroit, to create the "Canadian Wine Exporter's Guide." This report, which was officially presented to Canadian wine producers prior to the tasting,…

  8. MARKETING RESEARCH ON WINE CONSUMERS PREFERENCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research that aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine consumer preferences in Romania. The research method was survey made through questionnaires administered to a relevant number of respondents. In order to establish the main goals of this research, we considered aspects as: identification of purchase and consume frequency of wine, the preferred consumer’s places for serving or buying wine, the average quantity of wine that is usually bought, the level of price accepted by the consumer, the type of wine preferred by consumer in relation with wine color and taste, the preferred package, time spent for wine shopping, preferred producers, brands, grape variety, quality influence in choosing wine categories, identifying wine consumers profile. The analysis and interpretation of results revealed that decision factors in buying wine are the type of the wine, the price, followed by color, packaging and advertisement.

  9. Putting words on wine: OENOLEX Burgundy, new directions in wine lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    for its intended users in specific, wine-related user-situations. In the first phase of its development, OENOLEX Burgundy will address the information needs of trainees engaged in wine tasting training courses at the Burgundy Wine School. I will stress on some of the new lexicographic and technological......OENOLEX Burgundy: New Directions in Specialised Lexicography The (meta)lexicography of wine encompasses the study and compiling of entries on the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or on the knowledge of wine in specialised dictionaries and encyclopedias. Also, although more rarely......, it encompasses the study and compiling of single-field dictionaries of the language and/or knowledge of wine. However, this is but a fraction of the lexicographic picture. The lexicography of wine also includes a broad range of lexicographically structured information tools on paper and online, such as wine...

  10. Roles of charge interactions on astringency of whey proteins at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhanabhuti, B; Kelly, M A; Luck, P J; Drake, M A; Foegeding, E A

    2010-05-01

    Whey proteins are a major ingredient in sports drink and functional beverages. At low pH, whey proteins are astringent, which may be undesirable in some applications. Understanding the astringency mechanism of whey proteins at low pH could lead to developing ways to minimize the astringency. This study compared the astringency of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) at low pH with phosphate buffer controls having the same amount of phosphate and at similar pH. Results showed that beta-LG samples were more astringent than phosphate buffers, indicating that astringency was not caused by acid alone and that proteins contribute to astringency. When comparing among various whey protein isolates (WPI) and lactoferrin at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 7.0, lactoferrin was astringent at pH 7.0 where no acid was added. In contrast, astringency of all WPI decreased at pH 7.0. This can be explained by lactoferrin remaining positively charged at pH 7.0 and able to interact with negatively charged saliva proteins, whereas the negatively charged WPI would not interact. Charge interactions were further supported by beta-LG or lactoferrin and salivary proteins precipitating when mixed at conditions where beta-LG, lactoferrin, or saliva themselves did not precipitate. It can be concluded that interactions between positively charged whey proteins and salivary proteins play a role in astringency of proteins at low pH.

  11. OLFACTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TAMÂIOASA ROMÂNEASCĂ WINE COME FROM DIFFERENT WINE REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa VIŞAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The work refers to the analysis of aroma compounds identified in Tamaioasa Romanian wines from 2 distinct Romanian wine-growing areas: vineyard Stefanesti-Arges and Pietroasa, watching, and in particular the variation of flavorings depending on the region of origin. Gas chromatographic method coupled with mass Spectrometry were identified 6 esters, 3 higher alcohols, 1 aromatic alcohol, 2 terpenes, 1 lactone, 1 acid and 1 aldehyde. The high concentration of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, isoamyl alcohol were identified; flavor specific Tamaioasa Romanian wine is given by 1-Į-terpineol, terpenic alcohol has been identified in this wine in large quantities. Research has shown that wine-growing region influence the organoleptic characteristics of wine and aromatic content of their wines, so the wines can be very quickly recognized when tasting.

  12. Novo processo de avaliação da adstringência dos frutos no melhoramento do caquizeiro New analytic process for persimmon astringency determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campo-Dall'orto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos trabalhos de melhoramento do caqui no Instituto Agronômico, é fato comum defrontar-se com grande número de frutos para serem analisados, de diferentes amostras colhidas no estádio de maturação comercial (de vez. Todas as amostras têm que passar por prova gustativa, ao lado de análises dos parâmetros de qualidade, como as do °Brix e do pH, eis que envolvem diferentes tipos de caqui - desde os fortemente adstringentes (taninosos até os praticamente desprovidos de tanino (doces. Nesse particular, pode-se aquilatar a dificuldade para o melhorista realizar tais testes, pois um grupo de caquis taninosos mascara o paladar de duas ou três amostras subseqüentes. Daí a necessidade de desenvolver um processo de análise indireta, a exemplo do presente, que consiste no tratamento da polpa dos frutos com a solução de cloreto férrico. A reação de coloração "achocolatada", em diferentes tonalidades, indica o grau de tanino que encerra, permitindo efetuar a tipificação preliminar dos caquis, sem a necessidade de degustação.In IAC persimmon breeding program there is usually the need of analyzing hundreds of fruit samples coming from different hybrid plants, aiming at the selection of the best genetic materials. Fruits are usually harvested unripe and classified as to the astringency level in tasting tests: constant "shibugaki", variable "shibugaki"/ "amagaki" and absence of astringency "amagaki". As misleading results have been obtained in tasting tests, an indirect procedure has been proposed to evaluate tannin levels in persimmon flesh. It is based on a color scale (dark blue/dark gray - astringent type; brown - variable astringency, and light gray-absence of astringency, detected after the application of 0.1 N iron chloride solution on persimmon flesh. The new method has shown good precision, allowing determination of a great number of samples in a short period of time.

  13. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Roy George; Allison Chell; Belinda Chen; Rebecca Undery; Humza Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rat...

  14. Smell and Taste Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surface. A taste bud contains several types of taste receptors with cilia. Each type detects one of the ... combination of impulses from the different types of taste receptors as a distinct taste. Sensory information about the ...

  15. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  16. Sherry wines

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry win...

  17. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  18. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  19. Descriptor Fingerprints and Their Application to Red Wine Clustering and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangov, I. P.; Moskovkina, M.; Stojanov, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The investigation was performed to test the potentials of the fingerprint clustering algorithm for a set of 1599 red wines in relation to some wine properties, comprised in the notion "wine quality". We have obtained a distribution of the wines into different clusters as a result. Each cluster was composed of wine-objects with similar values of laboratory parameters and with a wine quality certificate. A correlation between the. quality of wines (a sensory taste factor) and the phisicochemical descriptors (laboratory analytical test results data) was observed and analyzed.

  20. ``Oenodynamic'': hydrodynamic of wine swirling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reclari, Martino; Dreyer, Matthieu; Tissot, Stephanie; Obreschkow, Danail; Wurm, Florian; Farhat, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step in wine tasting is the so called ``swirling,'' necessary to release the bouquet of the wine: a gentle circular movement of the glass generates a wave propagating along the glass walls, enhancing oxygenation and mixing. Although being used in a large variety of other applications (e.g. cells cultures in orbital shaken bioreactors) this motion is not yet well understood. Using a simplified model we experimentally investigated the shape of the free surface and the mixing, and we identified a group of dimensionless parameters governing the flow. SNSF Grant CRSII2_125444.

  1. "Oenodynamic": Hydrodynamic of wine swirling

    CERN Document Server

    Reclari, Martino; Tissot, Stephanie; Obreschkow, Danail; Wurm, Florian; Farhat, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    A crucial step in wine tasting is the so called swirling, necessary to release the bouquet of the wine: a gentle circular movement of the glass generates a wave propagating along the glass walls, enhancing oxygenation and mixing. Although being used in a large variety of other applications (e.g. cells cultures in orbital shaken bioreactors) this motion is not yet well understood. In this fluid dynamics video we show the large variety of waves shapes generated by this simple movement, and we identify a group of dimensionless parameters governing the flow.

  2. Changing Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil Just; Holm, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force the patient to fundamentally change his or her eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting......’ and hence a rupture in the person’s sense of self and social relations. We suggest that eating should be conceptualised as a practice that extends beyond the boundaries of our bodies and into diverse realms of relations and practices, and that changing the way we eat also changes the fundamentally embodied...

  3. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  4. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE VINHAS RIESLING ITÁLICO NACIONAIS UTILIZANDO PERFIL LIVRE SENSORY EVALUATION OF BRAZILIAN WELCHRIESLING WINES BY FREE-CHOICE PROFILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo BENASSI

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A literatura cita um grande número de trabalhos envolvendo análise sensorial descritiva para vinhos. Perfil Livre, uma nova técnica descritiva, foi utilizado na caracterização em termos de aparência, sabor e aroma para sete amostras de vinhos brancos Riesling Itálico nacionais. Doze provadores, sem experiência anterior com a técnica, foram selecionados utilizando-se teste triangular. Para o levantamento de atributos foi empregado o método rede. O número de atributos levantados por provador variou de sete a treze. Utilizou-se a análise Procrustes Generalizada para tratamento dos dados. Durante quinze dias, foram realizadas quinze sessões, sendo duas para a seleção de provadores, quatro para o levantamento de atributos, duas para checar a ficha e sete para avaliação das amostras (blocos incompletos balanceados. Foi obtida boa discriminação entre as amostras. Os vinhos foram separados com base em atributos de sabor (doce, frutado, ácido, "adstringente" e alcoólico, correlacionados com a dimensão 1 (25% da variância, e um atributo de aparência (cor amarela, correlacionado com a dimensão 2 (9% da variância.There is a large bibliography on descriptive sensory analysis of wines. Free-choice profiling, a new descriptive sensory technique, was applied to develop a profile with respect to appearance, aroma and taste for seven Brazilian Welchriesling wines. Twelve panelists, without experience with the technique, were selected using triangular tests. The Grid method was used to obtain the list of descriptors. The number of attributes developed for each judge vary from seven to thirteen. Generalized Procrustes Analysis were applied to the data. During fifteen days, fifteen sessions were realized: two to select the assessors, four to develop the terminology, two to check the score sheets and seven to evaluate the wines (balanced incomplete block design. It was observed good discrimination between the samples. Wines were

  5. Analysis of the Wine Experience Tourism Based on Experience Economy: A Case for Changyu Wine Tourism in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics embodied in the experience economy are that production and consumption is a twin process and experience is the process “products”. Wine tourism to a way of life we pursue and increasingly becoming a way of forming personal development and lifestyle. It is precisely these factors prompted the inevitable link between tourism and wine. In this context, world wine production capacity is relative to the spending power of the high-speed development, promoting wines Chamber of very great importance to the tourism promotion of the wine-producing areas and carrying flowers making strenuous efforts to tour around the world tour organized by exquisite wine show and tasting sessions. The promotion will let the wine-loving remember winery brand, therefore, tourists and media publicity personnel witnessed and taste product features publicize the beauty of food and wine; domestic wine market outlook was generally optimistic, but imports, domestic size winemakers a hot consumer incremental slow; buyout distribution, counterfeiting and other vicious competition impaired contradiction significant the wine market prospects and survival status quo, wine tourism is based on success on the international wine marketing experience, to seek a broader and more practical form of publicity and sales the channels proposed a new way of life. Combined with the development of the situation on the ground and research, this study describes the content and features of the wine tourism experience on the base of experience economy of wine tourism. Finally this study combines with a detailed analysis of Changyu wine tourism in Yantai and discussed issues related to the wine tourism experience.

  6. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2016-09-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report that this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for

  7. Wine fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection

  8. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    of the national cuisine indicates continuity over time. There seems, hence, to be a gap between the multiplicity of instances of experience and recollection that belongs to the sphere of the individual and a historical memory embedded in the larger context of a society. From a common-sense perspective, this gap...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...

  9. Segmentation and drivers of wine liking and consumption in US wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering GJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gary J Pickering,1–3 Arun K Jain,4 Ram Bezawada4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 2Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 4School of Management, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: This study examined the influence of selected experiential (wine expertise, psychological (alcoholic beverage adventurousness, and biological (age, sex, 6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP] responsiveness factors on self-reported liking and consumption of 14 wine styles in a sample of 1,010 US wine consumers. Cluster analysis of wine liking scores revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments, namely red wine lovers, dry table wine likers and sweet dislikers, and sweet wine likers. These clusters differ in key demographic measures, including sex, age, household income, and education, as well as wine expertise and PROP responsiveness. Wines were collapsed into five categories (dry table, sparkling, fortified, sweet, and wine-based beverages to examine more closely the factors affecting wine liking, total annual intake, and consumption frequency (analysis of variance [ANOVA] followed by Tukey's honest significant difference [HSD] 0.05. Wine expertise was most strongly associated with liking and consumption measures, while PROP responsiveness and alcoholic beverage adventurousness were also important contributors. Neither age nor sex had any large and consistent effects on liking or consumption, although the sex × expertise interaction was significant for some styles. These data provide an example of multifactorial segmentation of a wine market using Northeastern United States as an example, and indicate opportunities for targeted alignment of marketing to cohorts identified here. Keywords: market segmentation, taste genetics, PROP, wine expertise, wine liking

  10. Economic incentives for vertical product differentiation in the Brazilian wine sector

    OpenAIRE

    Panzone, Luca; Simões, Orlando; Campregher, Gláucia Angélica; Oliveira, Gabriel Nunes de; Freitas, Clailton Ataides

    2011-01-01

    While wine is traditionally viewed as a product typical of European and Mediterranean wine producing countries, in recent decades vineyards have developed in all continents. Consequently, wines have been classified as coming from the Old World (traditional European and Middle Eastern producers), and New World (countries who developed their tradition in wine making more recently). Apart from individual taste, the marketing strategy adopted in these two origins clearly differentiates: based lar...

  11. Do the Scandinavian consumers pay a "fair" price for German white wines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    in Scandinavia have been declining for a number of years. Diminishing market shares may reflect changes in consumer tastes or simply 'wrong' prices, the latter related to both the level of wine prices (German wines being relatively expensive) and the structure of wine prices. In general, country-specific price......The aim of this paper is to analyse the retail prices of German white wines sold in the Scandinavian countries. German white wines account for approximately 5-6 per cent of the total sale of wines - both red and white wines - in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. However, the market shares of German wines...... differences for identical wines are expected to be a sign of differences in taxes, import prices, transportation costs as well as other costs - and also different competitive conditions at the retail level in the respective countries. Differences in wine prices across countries do not always reflect...

  12. Off-flavours in wines through indirect transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumi, M D; Lambri, M; De Faveri, D M

    2009-05-01

    This paper assesses the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the drying of coatings on the sensory characters of corks and wines. According to Italian National Standard Method 11021:2002, a small-scale chamber was used (1) to expose wines to the drying of coatings with both low and high VOCs, and (2) to expose corks to the same coatings. After exposure to the coatings, the corks were then placed in direct contact with wine. Different styles of white, red and rose wines were tested. In both directly exposed wines and in wines after contact with the exposed cork, the taste and smell off-flavour perception and intensity were assessed by a panel of eight experienced wine tasters using a five-point numerical scale according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard methods. The results showed that the sensory characters of wines, especially taste, were influenced by the VOC content of the coatings. The taste off-flavour perception was found to be higher than the smell in wines exposed to coatings with either high or low VOCs contents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan analysis prove that: (1) panellist's answers were significantly different, (2) it was difficult to differentiate the off-flavour perception on the high-level scale, and (3) the panellist off-flavour perceptions versus wine style discriminated the wines into two groups (red and white/rose). For all the wine styles, Pearson's test showed no significant correlation between off-flavour perception levels and the main chemical characters of the wines. For the wines that were in direct contact with the exposed corks, the panellists detect the off-flavours according to the levels of VOCs in the coating and wine styles and they assessed the highest levels of alteration were to the taste.

  13. Sherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered.

  14. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-09

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  15. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  16. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  17. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  18. What drives Greek consumer preferences for cask wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Corsi, A. M.; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    to structure, the Greek cask wine market was found to consist of four distinct segments that were labelled as connoisseurs, convenience seekers, experienced and risk averse. These segments showed differences in relation to their past experience and in the importance given to intrinsic (quality, taste, origin......Purpose – Cask wine (bag-in-box, soft pack) has not received considerable attention in wine marketing research, but interest among winemakers and consumers has been increasing steadily. However, little is known about what drives consumer preferences for cask wine and, furthermore, what the profile...... of the cask wine consumer is. This study aims at filling this gap. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a web-based survey, the best-worst scaling (BWS) method was applied to measure the importance of attributes that Greek consumers assign when choosing cask wine. Then, a latent class clustering analysis...

  19. Are pyranoanthocyanins involved in sensory effect in red wines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglieri Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the wine-making process and ageing, the formation of various groups of pyranoanthocyanins leads to enhance and to stabilize the red wine colour. Although their chemical properties and their formation kinetics have been well-described, data about their sensory impact are scarce. Micro-oxygenation can be used to favor the formation of pyranoanthocyanins and also to improve wine quality. For this study, both analytical and sensory aspects were used. Purification steps applied on an oxidized red wine lead to characterize three new original compounds. Sensory analysis was declined into two aspects. First the purification of an A-type vitisin-rich fraction will be used for evaluating the possible sensory impact of pyranoanthocyanins; then the correlation between the tasting of micro-oxygenated red wines and the concentrations of these wine samples in pyranoanthocyanins will determine if these pigments could enhance aroma characteristics.

  20. Products and Prejudice: Measuring Country-of-Origin Bias in U.S. Wine Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Should exporters worry about country-of-origin bias? Although the pervasiveness of country-level product advertising suggests that they do, lack of data has limited the empirical study of subjective bias toward products from a specific country. Using data from the U.S. wine industry, including numerical blind tasting evaluations, this paper directly computes the impact of country-of-origin bias upon wine import prices. A hedonic pricing framework is used to control for vintage, blind-tasted q...

  1. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  2. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jolliet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective consumer taste perception and wine quality expectation (drinking the bottle or disposing of the wine down the drain and replacing it with a new bottle. This study aims to illustrate the importance of accurately defining system boundaries related to wine packaging systems. Methods: The environmental impacts resulting from wine loss rates as related to two types of wine bottle closures—natural cork stoppers and screw caps—have been estimated based on literature review data and compared to the impact of the respective closure system. The system studied relates to the functional unit “a 750 mL bottle of drinkable wine” and includes bottled wine, bottle and closure production, wine production, wine loss and wine poured down the drain. Results: The range of wine alteration rates due to corked wine is estimated to be 2–5% based on interviews with wine experts. Consumer behavior was assessed through a sensitivity study on replacement rates. When the increase in loss rate with the cork stopper is higher than 1.2% (corresponding to 3.5% corked wine multiplied by a consumer replacement rate of 35%, the influence of losses on the impact results is higher than that of the closure material itself. The different closures and associated wine losses represent less than 5% of the total life cycle impact of bottled wine.

  3. Maceration enzymes and mannoproteins: a possible strategy to increase colloidal stability and color extraction in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Palacios, Antonio; Ayestaran, Belén

    2007-06-13

    Different strategies were adopted to achieve increases in color stability in Tempranillo wines: (i) addition of maceration enzymes directly to the must, (ii) addition of commercial mannoproteins to the must, and (iii) inoculation of must with yeast overexpressed of mannoproteins. The addition of enzymes favored color extraction, and the wines obtained presented higher values of wine color, color intensity, bisulfite-stable color, and visually enhanced color intensity. The enzyme hydrolytic activity produced an increase in the acid polysaccharide content and polyphenol index and yielded to wines with more astringency, tannin, and length. Added mannoproteins had clearer effects on the analyzed parameters than yeast. Contrary to what may be thought, mannoproteins did not maintain the extracted polyphenols in colloidal dispersion and neither ensured color stability. These compounds clearly modified the gustative structure of the wines, enhancing the sweetness and roundness.

  4. Use of non-conventional yeast improves the wine aroma profile of Ribolla Gialla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Tinta, Tinkara; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lemut, Melita Sternad; Trost, Kajetan; Gamero, Amparo; Boekhout, Teun; Butinar, Lorena; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piskur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Consumer wine preferences are changing rapidly towards exotic flavours and tastes. In this work, we tested five non-conventional yeast strains for their potential to improve Ribolla Gialla wine quality. These strains were previously selected from numerous yeasts interesting as food production candid

  5. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation.

  6. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines.

  7. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substances, amino groups and phenols are present in wine in large quantity, as they are always present in wine. However it doesn't give the clear answer which substances are present in analyzed samples. The answer to this question can be received only by the method of ionic chromatography. The content of total tannins shows short time of storage in wine cellars so wine wasn't stored long enough, i.e. they are commercial wines made for mass market production and consumption. Although they have less content of total tannin materials of given values, wine taste gives the correlation with other polyphenol materials that only give odour, aroma and 'bouquet' to wine. The relative error of mean value is very low which indicates the reproduction of results and reliability of the method of determination of total tannins in red wine.

  8. The organicist-animist metaphor in Italian wine media discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tenescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main aspects of the organicistanimist metaphor in Italian wine tasting discourse and to identify its main characteristics in the specialized media discourse. Commencing from an approach whose overall view is guided by conceptual metaphor theory, we will analyze and classify the main elements of the metaphorical schema associated with the organicist-animist metaphor related to wine and wine tasting. We will illustrate this category by examples taken from a corpus of excerpts of Italian media discourse. Tackling the issue of perception and description of wine in Italian media discourse allows us an orientation of the research by multiple approaches of the semantics of winespeak: the recognition of essential aspects of wine imaginary, with a focus on the organicist-animist metaphor in our research corpus; the analysis of sensory impressions and representations in winespeak. Our main aim is to organize conceptualizations of wine tasting notes into a main category – the organicist-animist metaphor – , following the model inspired by the research of Lakoff and Johnson (Metaphors we live by, 1980.

  9. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  10. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion.

  11. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management.

  12. Mesoporous materials as fining agents in variety Cabernet Sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Georgiana-Diana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative oenological products and techniques constantly need to be optimized in order to produce high quality wines that are able to fulfill the demanding consumers, with a pleasant colour, astringency, bitterness and a balanced organoleptic profile. New mesoporous materials with viability and environmental safety characteristics, might be a feasible alternative to the use of bentonite, while nowadays in the winemaking there is a major challenge caused by wastes derivate mainly from wine clarification stages. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of conventional (bentonite and activated coal and alternative (MCM-41, SBA-15, KIT-6 fining agents on enological parameters, colour, as well as on the antioxidant activity of a Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Our results show that mesoporous materials, KIT-6 and SBA-15 (6 g/L present the highest reduction on antioxidant activity with 23.08% and 24.41%, while bentonite and activated coal (1.5 g/L reduced with 20.72%, respectively 33.18%. Cluster analysis performed with the values of antioxidant activity differentiated wines treated with activated carbon from other wines.

  13. Filling the gap – how do sensory and marketing attributes interact in consumers' wine choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Osidacz, P.; Francis, L.

    2011-01-01

    When viticulturists and oenologists produced flavours and aromas that are positively perceived by consumers in blind tastings, the question remains how much they actually influence consumers’ wine liking, choice and repurchase intent in the presence of marketing attributes such as brand, packaging......, tasting the wine, and making a repurchase decision......., region and price. While traditional consumer sensory research mainly focuses on blind sensory evaluation, in reality most consumers drink and evaluate wine in an informed condition, being aware of the price and label information. What is the relative impact of sensory and marketing attributes when...

  14. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency.

  15. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry.

  16. The taste of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesz, Bruno; Trevisan, Marcos A; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Zarlino, one of the most important music theorists of the XVI century, described the minor consonances as 'sweet' (dolci) and 'soft' (soavi) (Zarlino 1558/1983, in On the Modes New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983). Hector Berlioz, in his Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (London: Novello, 1855), speaks about the 'small acid-sweet voice' of the oboe. In line with this tradition of describing musical concepts in terms of taste words, recent empirical studies have found reliable associations between taste perception and low-level sound and musical parameters, like pitch and phonetic features. Here we investigated whether taste words elicited consistent musical representations by asking trained musicians to improvise on the basis of the four canonical taste words: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Our results showed that, even in free improvisation, taste words elicited very reliable and consistent musical patterns:'bitter' improvisations are low-pitched and legato (without interruption between notes), 'salty' improvisations are staccato (notes sharply detached from each other), 'sour' improvisations are high-pitched and dissonant, and 'sweet' improvisations are consonant, slow, and soft. Interestingly, projections of the improvisations of taste words to musical space (a vector space defined by relevant musical parameters) revealed that, in musical space, improvisations based on different taste words were nearly orthogonal or opposite. Decoding methods could classify binary choices of improvisations (i.e., identify the improvisation word from the melody) at performance of around 80%--well above chance. In a second experiment we investigated the mapping from perception of music to taste words. Fifty-seven non-musical experts listened to a fraction of the improvisations. We found that listeners classified with high performance the taste word which had elicited the improvisation. Our results, furthermore, show that associations of taste and music

  17. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. METHODS: The ad

  18. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  19. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  20. Wine competition: from between-juries consistency to sensory perception of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoré-Chedozeau Carole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a complex product offering to consumer a multitude of choices. Considering this diversity, wine competitions provide a way of helping consumers in their choices. However, the dramatic increase of wine contests in the last fifteen years has led to an increase in the number of award-winning wines. Is a medal really a guarantee of quality or having a medal is just a matter of chance? Two studies were therefore conducted during 3 years in a French wine competition. The first study assessed the impact of the order in which the wine was assessed, and the variability between juries’ judgements and therefore the chances of winning an award. For this purpose, the same wine was placed on all jury tables at the first and penultimate positions of the tasting series. Wines were rated, using the OIV-UIOE score sheet. Score differences were analyzed between tasting juries. The second study sought confirmation by a consumer panel of the medals awarded during the competition. A hedonic test of both award-winning and non-awarded wines was organised, in order to verify whether the awarded wines were indeed preferred by consumers.

  1. Influence of different withering conditions on phenolic composition of Avanà, Chatus and Nebbiolo grapes for the production of 'Reinforced' wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Urcan, Delia Elena; Lin, Lin; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana; Pop, Nastasia; Lambri, Milena; Rolle, Luca

    2016-03-01

    The impact of postharvest withering rates on the phenolic composition of 'reinforced' wines produced with partially dehydrated grapes was evaluated. The study was performed on winegrape varieties with anthocyanin profiles differently constituted of di- and tri-substituted forms. Dehydration induced limited changes in the anthocyanin profile of berry skins. Nevertheless, the greatest abundance of total anthocyanins and their more stable forms (malvidin-3-glucoside and acylated glucosides) corresponded to the wines made from slow withered Chatus grapes, which were in turn the darkest. In contrast, the wines made from withered Avanà grapes did not meet good chromatic characteristics due to low contents of total anthocyanins and high ratios between di- and tri-substituted forms. Nebbiolo wines showed intermediate values of this ratio, and therefore of clarity and color intensity. The fast process is recommended because higher percentages of galloylated flavanols in the seeds of slow withered Nebbiolo grapes may have a negative influence on wine astringency.

  2. Variations in oxygen and ellagitannins, and organoleptic properties of red wine aged in French oak barrels classified by a near infrared system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Albertin, Warren; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-08-01

    During wine aging in barrels, antioxidant molecules from wood, such as ellagitannins, are solubilized and react with wine molecules and oxygen. However, their concentrations are highly variable. Oxygen is an important factor, as it plays a role in wine parameters and organoleptic perceptions. Five barrel modalities were used; three polyphenol indices (IP), classified using the NIRS procedure, and three grain qualities. Barrels were equipped with windows to measure the oxygen using luminescence technology. The ellagitannin concentrations in the wine and its organoleptic properties were monitored. Oxygen concentrations decreased quickly during the first 8days of aging and this phenomenon was significantly more marked in barrels with a higher IP and medium grain. The ellagitannin concentrations were believed to be correlated with wood classification and oxygen consumption. Furthermore, the organoleptic properties were significantly impacted, as the wine with the lowest ellagitannin level was described as less astringent, bitter, woody, and smoky/toasty.

  3. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  4. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals.

  5. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2014-07-23

    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  6. Development of a Portable Taste Sensor with a Lipid/Polymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor’s performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm. The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor’s response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research.

  7. New Uses of Hawthorn Fruits in Tonic Wines Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruţa Elena MUREŞAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tonic wines are true natural elixirs, having the property to fortify the organism. To achieve a complex product and to supplement the antioxidant properties of the wine, the hawthorn fruits were added. They completed the product by maceration, so that the tonic wine got major active substances which have great medicinal value being effective in treating cardiovascular diseases. The content of polyphenols of tonic wine is about six times higher than in simple wine, the hawthorn representing a product rich in polyphenols (510.2 mg GAE/100g. Antioxidant capacity increased when hawthorn fruits were added, as they have an important contribution in terms of new product antioxidant properties. Hawthorn, honey and rosemary added extra minerals in the total dry extract. The relative density increased due to the substances present in hawthorn. The concentration of alcohol slightly increased due to the fermentation which triggers during maceration. The acidity of the new tonic wine developed here was higher, as compared to the simple wine. Higher acidity also contributed to the palatability, the new tonic wine showing a pleasant refreshing taste.

  8. The new wave of wine brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Breno Álvares de Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine branding is a series of complex marketing propositions intended to sell wine as a ‘brand’ – a product marketed much more thanks to its individual name and image rather than to its original quality. Wine brands can be basically divided in two distinct groups: some have called them ‘benign’ (a.k.a ‘historic’ or ‘classical’ - as for Champagne and the Bordeaux châteaux, for ex. and ‘modern’ brands. ‘Modern’ wine brands are usually built upon a base of elastic supply (to maintain consistency and planned promotion, most are owned big multinational companies, are standardized and aimed at the international market taste and a determined price level, lacking in diversity and terroir tipicity. In this study, the author describes how these ‘modern brands’ are structured and what are their marketing tools, run through examples of successful wine brands, and describe about their ads and cons for international consumers.

  9. Effect of micro-oxygenation and wood type on the phenolic composition and color of an aged red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Iglesias, Montserrat; González-Sanjosé, Ma Luisa; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-12-23

    Many studies have recently been published focused on the effects of micro-oxygenation on the quality of wines, its application modes, and doses, etc. However, there are still few scientific papers on how previously micro-oxygenated wines perform during storage or barrel aging. This study focused on the evolution of the phenolic composition, especially of anthocyanins, and color, together with astringency and tannins, during micro-oxygenation before barrel aging. In addition, to evaluate whether wine evolution during aging depends on barrel type, wines were aged in four different oak barrel types. Tempranillo wines, some micro-oxygenated before malolactic fermentation and others not, were aged for 12 months in American, French, Central European, and Spanish oak, following wine evolution during that period. The study was carried out for two consecutive vintages. Results showed that all wines evolved similarly; therefore, the micro-oxygenation treatment neither accelerated nor delayed the typical changes of aging. Slightly different evolutions were detected according to the barrel wood type, whether or not the wine was micro-oxygenated. The varied evolutions must therefore be associated with the differences from each oak type (structure, grain and density, composition, etc.).

  10. Smell and taste disorders [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landis, Basile N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate.

  11. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾真

    2015-01-01

    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  12. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation.

  13. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus.

  14. Effect of an excise tax increase on the demand for low alcohol wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    alcohol strength is seen as particularly promising direction to enhance consumer choice for lower alcohol alternatives. Over the past twenty years, average alcohol strength of wine has increased due to a growing viticultural and oenological emphasis on riper fruit and more expressive taste profiles......Purpose: The study examines the demand for low and very low alcohol wine products under the current Australian volumetric alcohol system and under an increase of excise tax for wine under an alcohol tax equalisation. The penetration and market share of normal strength and low alcohol wine....... Background: Contrary to volumetric taxed spirits and beer, wine is currently taxed on a value basis in Australia. This has led to cask wine being the cheapest way to get drunk, resulting in high social and health problems, particularly in Australia’s aboriginal communities in the Northern Territories, where...

  15. Interactions between whey proteins and salivary proteins as related to astringency of whey protein beverages at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, A; Streicher, C; Singh, H

    2011-12-01

    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent at low pH. In the present study, the interactions between model whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin) and human saliva in the pH range from 7 to 2 were investigated using particle size, turbidity, and ζ-potential measurements and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The correlation between the sensory results of astringency and the physicochemical data was discussed. Strong interactions between β-lactoglobulin and salivary proteins led to an increase in the particle size and turbidity of mixtures of both unheated and heated β-lactoglobulin and human saliva at pH ∼3.4. However, the large particle size and high turbidity that occurred at pH 2.0 were the result of aggregation of human salivary proteins. The intense astringency in whey protein beverages may result from these increases in particle size and turbidity at these pH values and from the aggregation and precipitation of human salivary proteins alone at pH proteins in the interaction is a key factor in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages. At any pH, the increases in particle size and turbidity were much smaller in mixtures of lactoferrin and saliva, which suggests that aggregation and precipitation may not be the only mechanism linked to the perception of astringency in whey protein.

  16. Double Taste of Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinvao Restaurant

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 8 shrimp (about 500g), 50 grams of oil, 150 grams of egg white, a little salt, MSG, pepper powder, Shaoxing wine, coriander, sesame, flour and sugar. Directions: 1. De-vein and wash the shrimp. Cut in half, separating the head from the tail. 2. Soak the shrimp tails in the salt, Shaoxing wine, pepper powder and MSG. Baste the tails with flour and coat with egg white and sesame. 3. Mix the starch in with egg white and stir until smooth. Spread the paste on the tails without the sesame, then sprinkle with coriander.

  17. Consumer demand for low-alcohol wine in an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba, Linda A Ovington, Carmen C MoranCharles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The aim of this paper is to inform wine producers and marketers of those in the population who are interested in low-alcohol wine by describing the results of an Australian survey.Method: In the present study, 851 adult wine consumers completed an online questionnaire on their purchasing and consumption of wine, demographics, knowledge, and reasons for consuming wine. Reasons for consumption were defined using Brunner and Siegrist’s validated model. Self-reported interest in low-alcohol wine was used to determine the likely maximum possible market size.Results: The majority of respondents considered “low-alcohol wine” to contain around 3%–8% alcohol. Results indicated that those most likely to purchase low-alcohol wine were female and those who drink wine with food. Those who drank wine more frequently showed interest in wine sold in known-dose quantities, such as one standard drink. Reasons for preferring a low-alcohol wine included driving after drinking, to lessen the adverse effects of alcohol, and to consume more without the effects of a higher-alcohol wine. Finally, results pointed to the importance of taste as a driver of consumption.Conclusion: This is the first study to define the opportunity market for low-alcohol wine in Australia agnostic to intervening variables, thus defines the likely upper limit. Further, we showed what consumers currently define as low alcohol. Both of these findings allow wine companies to make a decision on the profitability of the low-alcohol market in Australia.Keywords: consumer demand, low alcohol, wine, consumer preference

  18. Extraversion and taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, Yuriy; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2008-03-01

    The rationale for investigating the gustatory reactivity as influenced by personality dimensions was suggested by some prior findings of an association between extraversion and acuity in other sensory systems. Detection thresholds for sweet, salty, and bitter qualities of taste were measured in 60 young healthy male and female volunteers using a two-alternative forced-choice technique. Personality of the responders was assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance failed to demonstrate a statistically significant interaction between an extraversion-introversion score, neuroticism score, smoking, gender and age. The only reliable negative association was found between the body mass index (BMI) and taste sensitivity (Roy's largest root = 0.05, F(7436.5) = 8.34, P = 0.003). Possible reasons for lack of differences between introverts and extraverts in the values of taste detection thresholds were discussed.

  19. Old World Wines Revisited: Consumers' Valuation of Spanish and German Wines in the UK Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Bodo E.

    2009-01-01

    The mid 1990s was a pivotal period for the UK retail wine market, as New World Wines started to expand significantly at the expense of Old World Wines. This paper reviews supply and demand-side characteristics of the UK wine market during this period, and the underlying wine labeling scheme, before assessing how wines from Old World wine producing countries were valued by consumers in the British wine market. Following a more detailed discussion of econometric estimation issues, hedonic price...

  20. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  1. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  2. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs, brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant’s sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual.

  3. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tiny patch of tissue high up in the nose, and they connect directly to the brain. Gustatory (taste nerve) cells are clustered in the ... nearby nerve fibers, which send messages to the brain. Our body’s ... of the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat—identify sensations like the sting ...

  4. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at Delf

  5. The development of taste transduction and taste chip technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; LIU Qingjun; XU Ying; CAI Hua; QIN Lifeng; WANG Lijiang; WANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic perception process of taste is obviously far less known than those of vision, audition, touch and olfaction. Despite that taste cells utilize a variety of sensory mechanisms to translate plenty of gustatory sensations such as sour, sweet, bitter, salty and umami into cellular signals, gustatory perception mechanisms are still under exploration due to the lack of effective methods on cellular and molecular level. Recently the development of molecular biological and electrophysiological studies has promoted exploration of olfactory and gustatory transduction and coding mechanisms dramatically. Based on the studies of artificial olfaction, artificial taste and cell-based biosensor in our laboratory, this paper reviews the current research on taste transduction mechanism. We introduce the recent advances in cell chip that combined biology with microelectronics, discuss taste cell chip as well as its potential of prospective application in taste transduction mechanism in detail and propose the research trends of taste chip in future.

  6. The Wine Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Located inside Redmoon,the Wine Club presents a selection of 50 of the finest wines tailored to each theme.Come and enjoy the palate of colors and tantalizing aromas of these fine wines,complemented by a tapasstyle buffet.The Wine Club will be introducing the following themes:Australia,Land Down Under,January 29Italy vS France,March 26

  7. Imported Wines Widen Appeal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ "There are many factors contributing to the healthy growth of the wine market in China,"says Don St. Pierre, Jr., managing partner of ASC Fine Wines (Shanghai) Co Ltd, one of China's largest importers and distributors of fine wines. "The reduction in tariffs has helped - it has made wines more affordable. But also driving growth is the rise in Chinese people's incomes and their increasing interest in enjoying what is perceived as a socially and culturally sophisticated lifestyle."

  8. Analysis to Wine Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

    A lot of western cultures have relations to wine especially in some poets or music. The wine poetries have different content express various emotions and they contain a lot of images. There are some both similar and different points between west⁃ern wine poetry to Chinese.

  9. 磨盘柿脱涩优化条件筛选%Screen the de-astringent optimal condition of Mopan persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 李江阔; 陈绍慧; 张平; 周志江

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the optimal de-astringent condition of Mopan persimmon, the optimal condition of CO2 complete de-astringency, CO2 two segment de-astringency and vacuum packaging de- astringency were studied by orthogonal test. The result showed that C02 complete de-astringent condition was ambient temperature of 25 ℃, CO2 concentration of 90% and de-astringent time of 24 h, CO2 de- astringent of two stage method was ambient temperature from 18 ℃ to 20 %, packaging of plastic net andplacement 24 h after 90% CO2 de-astringent 24 h, and vacuum packaging de-astringent condition was ambient temperature from 18 % to 20 %, vacuum degree of 0.08 MPa and de-astringent time of 10 d.%为了探讨磨盘柿最佳的脱涩条件,通过正交试验对CO2全脱涩、CO2二段法脱涩和真空包装脱涩条件进行优化。结果表明,CO2全脱涩条件:环境温度为25℃、CO2浓度为90%、脱涩时间24h;CO2二段法脱涩条件:环境温度为18-20℃、网套包装、90%CO2脱涩24h后再放置24h;真空包装脱涩条件:环境温度为18~20℃、真空度0.08MPa、脱涩时间10d。

  10. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  11. Tasting of "Riesling" wine%品尝"雷司令"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文含

    2005-01-01

    @@ 夏日炎炎,但还是禁不住葡萄酒的诱惑,于是准备在这个漫长夏季,举行一系列的白葡萄酒和香槟的品尝活动.夏天饮一口冰凉的白酒可是非常爽的哦……第一个主题,选的是香气清新,口感清爽的雷司令.

  12. Performance of language-coordinated collective systems: A study of wine recognition and description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Dębska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    of complex sensory stimuli: that of red wine. Participants were asked to taste, remember and successively recognize samples of wines within a larger set in a two-by-two experimental design: 1) either individually or in pairs, and 2) with or without the support of a sommelier card – a cultural linguistic tool...... designed for wine description. Both effectiveness of recognition and the kinds of errors in the four conditions were analyzed. While our experimental manipulations did not impact recognition accuracy, bias-variance decomposition of error reveals non-trivial differences in how participants solved the task...

  13. VACUUM PACKAGING IS EFFICIENT TO REMOVE ASTRINGENCY AND TO MAINTAIN THE FIRMNESS OF ‘GIOMBO’ PERSIMMON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA FERRAZ MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop a simple technique to remove astringency and maintain the pulp firmness of ‘Giombo’ persimmons. Fruit were packaged in three different plastic packages: low-density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP and polyethylene-polyamide (PE-PA. Packages with dimensions of 30 cm x 50 cm and 20 µm thickness were sealed under vacuum. Fruit uncovered in plastic film were used as control samples. After packaging, fruits were stored at ambient conditions (22°C and 70% RH for five days. After this period, fruits were removed from the package and kept at the same previous conditions for six days and evaluated every two days. All plastic packages showed effectiveness in removing astringency, but only PE-PA maintained pulp firmness during the six days after package removal. LDPE and PP films also caused reduction of astringency while pulp firmness was properly maintained until the fourth day. These two films did not succeed in obtaining vacuum, which was only achieved by PE-PA. PE-PA reduces astringency faster and maintains fruit firmness for a longer time at room temperature.

  14. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    and gastrophysicists), and social sciences (anthropologists) as well as educators (preschool, elementary, secondary and vocational schools, colleges and universities) and chefs. Through interdisciplinary research collaboration and communication we attempt to span the perceived chasm separating food-sensory science...... and the humanities and social sciences. We do so by engaging scholars from different disciplines in a close, collaborative effort hereby generating new knowledge on taste. The center thus includes researchers from several universities and colleges, chefs from innovation kitchens, and teachers from elementary schools......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...

  15. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    in the West there seems now to be a growing openness towards other ­­- pop, sub, non-western etc. - cultures. But what does this mean? Have we finally learned to overcome cultural differences, understand foreign art forms and maybe even approach what is common to all? Has the increasing globalization......Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of taste...... and aestheticization made us appreciate cultural diversity? The aim of this article is to examine the character and possible social implications of the apparent new openness. To do this it presents the main results of the resent research in sociology of art. Combining an aesthetic and a sociological perspective...

  16. Tasting edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  17. Multivariate Statistical Analysis Applied in Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieling Zou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies multivariate statistical approaches to wine quality evaluation. With 27 red wine samples, four factors were identified out of 12 parameters by principal component analysis, explaining 89.06% of the total variance of data. As iterative weights calculated by the BP neural network revealed little difference from weights determined by information entropy method, the latter was chosen to measure the importance of indicators. Weighted cluster analysis performs well in classifying the sample group further into two sub-clusters. The second cluster of red wine samples, compared with its first, was lighter in color, tasted thinner and had fainter bouquet. Weighted TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the quality of wine in each sub-cluster. With scores obtained, each sub-cluster was divided into three grades. On the whole, the quality of lighter red wine was slightly better than the darker category. This study shows the necessity and usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques in both wine quality evaluation and parameter selection.

  18. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P

    2007-12-26

    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.

  19. BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WINE MATERIALS FROM INTRODUCED GRAPE VARIETIES GROWN IN THE TEMRIUK DISTRICT OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guguchkina T. I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduced grape varieties such as Ancelotti, Bachka, Johanniter, Morava and Solaris which were grown in the conditions of Taman provided production of high yields of grapes with standard conditions of sweetness and acidity of grape juice that were useful for the technical processing of not only tableware, but also for special wines, in particular, dessert. Organoleptic properties of all the studied wine materials from grapes of these varieties were of high quality, which was con-firmed by their tasting evaluation. They are recom-mended for the preparation of organic (bio wines. The "Biologik" wine in 2012 received a certificate of the high points at the international exhibition in Italy (Rome, and the wine from red grape variety Ancelotti for several years, winning awards from international wine competitions ("Yalta. Gold Griffon", "Gold au-tumn"

  20. Minor Volatile Compounds Profiles of ‘Aligoté’ Wines Fermented with Different Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin VARARU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of wine can be classified accordingly to its origin, in varietal aroma, pre-fermentative aroma, fermentative aroma and post-fermentative aroma. Although a number of flavor components are found in the original grape, the dominant and major compounds contributing to white wines are formed during alcoholic fermentation, in concordance with the yeast strain used. In order to highlight the influence of the yeast strain to the aroma composition of wines, wine samples from ‘Aligoté’ grape variety made with 8 different yeast strains were subjected to stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS analyses. Also, a sensorial analysis of the studied wines was performed by a tasting panel consisting of 15 tasters. 38 minor volatile compounds were quantified by SBSE-GC-MS technique. Different concentration of the same compound and different aroma compounds were identified and quantified in wines obtained with different yeast strains. A wine finger printing was obtained by multivariate data analyses of aroma compounds grouped by chemical families. The analytical and sensorial analysis of the wine samples confirms that there are differences in aroma composition of the wines made with different yeast strains.

  1. TRPs in taste and chemesthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa.

  2. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  3. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2017-03-10

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB712 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  4. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-23

    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities.

  5. Evaluation on Grape Wine%葡萄酒的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏克强

    2015-01-01

    本文建立了葡萄酒评价的符号秩检验和灰色聚类分析模型.为了得到每组评酒员对各个酒样品的客观评价分数,对每组评酒员对酒样品的评价分数做平均值,得到该酒样品总体评分,然后将两组评酒员的评价结果作差,得到的差值作成对数据的符号秩检验,最后采用SAS软件计算出符号秩检验中 =0.0085,小于显著性水平 =0.05,故不接受原假设,即两组评酒员的评价结果有显著性差异;对于置信度的问题,我们对各个评酒员对酒样品的评分作方差分析,分别计算出第一、二组评分结果的方差和分别为1409.3、821.1,易知第一组的方差和远大于第二组,所以第二组的评价结果更稳定,也更可信.将第二组评酒员对红葡萄酒的评价结果进行等级分类,再采用灰色聚类分析的方法对红葡萄的样品进行分级,结合其酿造出的葡萄酒的品质,即该葡萄样本所酿造的葡萄酒的级别,来确定该葡萄酒的级别.%This paper established a signed rank test and gray clustering model wine evaluation. In order to get each group wine-tasting each wine sample an objective evaluation score for each group of wine-tasting wine samples for the evaluation scores do mean to give the wine sample overall score, and then the evaluation results of the two groups for wine-tasting poor, made the difference to get the data signed rank test, and finally the use of SAS software to calculate the signed-rank test =0.0085, and less than the significance level =0.05, it does not accept the original hypothesis that the evaluation results of two wine-tasting are significant differences;For the question of confidence, and we each wine-tasting wine samples ratings for vari-ance analysis, were calculated first and second set of score results of variance and were 1409.3,821.1, easy to know and much larger than the first group variance The second group, so the evaluation results of the second group is more stable

  6. Trends in wine microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  7. The influence of ultrasound on wine and wine materials acidity during clarification process in tubular membrane filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ponedelchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on the experimental ultrasonic installation were carried out, using industrial equipment for bottling liquids and ultrasonic apparatus "Volna-M" UZTA-1/22-OM, for clarification and filtering of table wines by tangential microfiltration using membrane ceramic filtering elements with a pore size of 0.2 micron at a pressure of 0.5-2.0 bar. Membrane ultrafiltration upon application of ultrasound of 30-40 microns amplitude and a frequency of 20 kHz ± 1.65 Hz at high filter performance and work stability changes the quantitative content of the valuable wine components slightly. But much attention to the increase of titratable acidity and pH medium due to possible degradation and esterification intensification of higher acids and alcohols was paid. At the same time more intense and rich aroma and distinct flavor with berry notes appears in wine that along with the physical- and chemical indicators helped to improve organoleptic characteristics and to increase the tasting evaluation of wines. At the same time, the content of phenolic and nitrogen compounds is reduced resulting in wines stability to protein and colloidal opacification. It became possible to refuse multiple regeneration of ceramic filter elements for the  ecovery of their performance, as well as the use of preservatives and antiseptics at a high wines bottling stability. It is shown that the filtration with the dosing of ultrasound in the wine industry allows not only reducing the cost of consumables, equipment and removing some of the traditional processes, but also providing the cold sterilization of wine materials with an increase in their quality.

  8. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  9. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...

  10. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.42 Section 27.42... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  11. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    approaches to mitigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) could well take a different spin in the future following the discovery of taste receptors (TAS1R and TAS2R) in the cardiovascular system. Finally, long-term dietary strategies to minimize the risk of development of hypertension and CVD are discussed......The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...

  12. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja;

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  13. Evaluation of bitterness in white wine applying descriptive analysis, time-intensity analysis, and temporal dominance of sensations analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowsky, Martina; Fischer, Ulrich

    2012-06-30

    Bitterness in wine, especially in white wine, is a complex and sensitive topic as it is a persistent sensation with negative connotation by consumers. However, the molecular base for bitter taste in white wines is still widely unknown yet. At the same time studies dealing with bitterness have to cope with the temporal dynamics of bitter perception. The most common method to describe bitter taste is the static measurement amongst other attributes during a descriptive analysis. A less frequently applied method, the time-intensity analysis, evaluates the temporal gustatory changes focusing on bitterness alone. The most recently developed multidimensional approach of the temporal dominance of sensations method reveals the temporal dominance of bitter taste in relation to other attributes. In order to compare the results comprised with these different sensory methodologies, 13 commercial white wines were evaluated by the same panel. To facilitate a statistical comparison, parameters were extracted from bitterness curves obtained from time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations analysis and were compared to bitter intensity as well as bitter persistency based on descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance differentiated significantly the wines regarding all measured bitterness parameters obtained from the three sensory techniques. Comparing the information of all sensory parameters by multiple factor analysis and correlation, each technique provided additional valuable information regarding the complex bitter perception in white wine.

  14. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  15. Ethylene-responsive transcription factors interact with promoters of ADH and PDC involved in persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit de-astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ting; Yin, Xue-ren; Shi, Yan-na; Luo, Zheng-rong; Yao, Yun-cong; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-song

    2012-11-01

    The persimmon fruit is a particularly good model for studying fruit response to hypoxia, in particular, the hypoxia-response ERF (HRE) genes. An anaerobic environment reduces fruit astringency by converting soluble condensed tannins (SCTs) into an insoluble form. Although the physiology of de-astringency has been widely studied, its molecular control is poorly understood. Both CO(2) and ethylene treatments efficiently removed the astringency from 'Mopan' persimmon fruit, as indicated by a decrease in SCTs. Acetaldehyde, the putative agent for causing de-astringency, accumulated during these treatments, as did activities of the key enzymes of acetaldehyde synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Eight DkADH and DkPDC genes were isolated, and three candidates for a role in de-astringency, DkADH1, DkPDC1, and DkPDC2, were characterized by transcriptional analysis in different tissues. The significance of these specific isoforms was confirmed by principal component analysis. Transient expression in leaf tissue showed that DkPDC2 decreased SCTs. Interactions of six hypoxia-responsive ERF genes and target promoters were tested in transient assays. The results indicated that two hypoxia-responsive ERF genes, DkERF9 and DkERF10, were involved in separately regulating the DkPDC2 and DkADH1 promoters. It is proposed that a DkERF-DkADH/DkPDC cascade is involved in regulating persimmon de-astringency.

  16. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  17. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L

    2013-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  18. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  19. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many treatments have been tried for port-wine stains, including freezing, surgery, radiation, and tattooing. Laser therapy is most successful in eliminating port-wine stains. It is the only method that can destroy the tiny blood vessels in the skin ...

  20. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  1. Wine Pricing Inefficiencies among Major Online Wine Sellers

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Christner; Daniel Arango

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare, analyze and evaluate the relative competitiveness of wine pricing across major online wine retailers as it relates to the Law of One Price. The design utilized is to measure and evaluate the reasons for the differences, between the per bottle prices, of recent internet wine offerings by major internet wine retailers against the average United States prices found on winesearcher.com, a very comprehensive and constantly updated shopbot listing of wine pr...

  2. Genetic basis of variations in nitrogen source utilization in four wine commercial yeast strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The capacity of wine yeast to utilize the nitrogen available in grape must directly correlates with the fermentation and growth rates of all wine yeast fermentation stages and is, thus, of critical importance for wine production. Here we precisely quantified the ability of low complexity nitrogen compounds to support fast, efficient and rapidly initiated growth of four commercially important wine strains. Nitrogen substrate abundance in grape must failed to correlate with the rate or the efficiency of nitrogen source utilization, but well predicted lag phase length. Thus, human domestication of yeast for grape must growth has had, at the most, a marginal impact on wine yeast growth rates and efficiencies, but may have left a surprising imprint on the time required to adjust metabolism from non growth to growth. Wine yeast nitrogen source utilization deviated from that of the lab strain experimentation, but also varied between wine strains. Each wine yeast lineage harbored nitrogen source utilization defects that were private to that strain. By a massive hemizygote analysis, we traced the genetic basis of the most glaring of these defects, near inability of the PDM wine strain to utilize methionine, as consequence of mutations in its ARO8, ADE5,7 and VBA3 alleles. We also identified candidate causative mutations in these genes. The methionine defect of PDM is potentially very interesting as the strain can, in some circumstances, overproduce foul tasting H2S, a trait which likely stems from insufficient methionine catabolization. The poor adaptation of wine yeast to the grape must nitrogen environment, and the presence of defects in each lineage, open up wine strain optimization through biotechnological endeavors.

  3. Advertising and Wine Language: Considerations on New Consumption Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Mihaela PAVEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s consumer society, the wine has gone from being the staple diet to become one of the signs that show the status of the subject, as a demonstration of high rank and taste, aspirations, status, lifestyle, in which having fun, the pleasure, is the fruit of knowledge. It’s a hobby, a leisure culture, an environment implying major activities (vineyard tours, wine tastings, contest criticism, but also a passion ″for lovers of good wines″. The paper commences from the results of a survey carried-out in Romania in 2011, focusing on women purchasing power and consumer behaviour related to wine. The questionnaire included many questions on key dimensions of product-oriented knowledge. This major participation of women in the selection and consumption of wine is interrelated with their independence, with the active role they occupy in the society, especially at a professional and family level. The bottle and the label, the brand and the phrase or slogan identifiers are clearly elements that are associated unambiguously, highlighting a feature that is primarily phatic. Certain brand, image or customer loyalty campaigns alter the balance to emphasize certain aspects, in favour of the referent denoted, from the connotation or appeal towards the recipient, with a greater attention to the text. According to the paradigm of knowledge-based economy, it is often stated that information asymmetry between producers and consumers will be reduced thanks to information availability and dissemination through the Internet or other media channels. As a consequent, for the present approach, it turns out to be interesting to analyze advertising to find out the social values and their relation to the adoption of new linguistic strategies in wine mass-media advertising.

  4. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  5. Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić-Šarić, M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine is an excellent source of various classes of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and trihydroxystilbene resveratrol (Fig.1. Polyphenols play a major role in wine quality since they contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine, particularly color and astringency. A recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by abundant evidence of their beneficial effects on human health, such as anticarcinogenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, numerous studies have been performed in the attempt to analyze polyphenols in wine. This paper reviews the current advances in the determination of polyphenols in wine by the major chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The great complexity of the polyphenolic content of wine and the difficulty in obtaining some of the standards usually require sample preparation before analysis. Two methods for sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are most commonly applied. Hydrolysis is applied frequently, but not exclusively, to remove the sugar moieties from glycosides.TLC on silica gel plates is useful for the rapid and low-cost separation and identification of the polyphenols present in wine (Fig. 2. Densitometric quantitative analysis of polyphenols in wine extracts is usually performed by scanning the TLC plates with UV light at wavelengths of 350–365 nm or 250–260 nm (Fig. 3. For the evaluation of the most efficient mobile phase and an optimal choice of the combination of two or more mobile phases, two methods may be applied: information theory and numerical taxonomy. HPLC currently represents the most popular technique for the analysis of polyphenols in wine. For this purpose, a reversed-phase HPLC method that uses gradient elution with binary elution system is usually employed. Routine detection is based on measurement of UV-Vis absorption with a diode

  6. What drives customer loyalty towards Greek wine varieties? Using polarization to model consumer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotseridis, Yiorgios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    their processing limits, they tend to simplify their decision-making based on heuristics (Bettman, Luce and Payne 1998). In the case of wine, such heuristics can be said to be extrinsic (e.g. brand, price, region variety, vintage, label) and intrinsic cues (taste, colour, etc). Many studies have explored......Wine is often characterised as a difficult and confusing product for consumers. In addition, the wine market is much diverse and competitive, with an enormous number of niche brands making consumer choice even more complex. When consumers are overloaded with information that exceeds...... the importance of such cues on consumers' wine choice (e.g. Fotopoulos, Krystallis and Ness, 2003; Jarvis, Lockshin, Rungie, 2007a). However, less is known on whether consumers remain loyal within a specific product subcategory and moreover what influences loyalty behaviour mostly. Taken from this perspective...

  7. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  8. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation.

  9. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  10. Taste as a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  11. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  12. The physics behind the fizz in champagne and sparkling wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2012-02-01

    Bubbles in a glass of champagne may seem like the acme of frivolity to most of people, but in fact they may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any physicist. Actually, the so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the fine interplay between CO2 dissolved gas molecules, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some both glass and liquid properties. Results obtained concerning the various steps where the CO2 molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass as bubbles collapse) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO2 impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, rise, and burst of gaseous CO2 bubbles found in glasses poured with champagne and sparkling wines are depicted. Those phenomena observed in close-up through high-speed photography are often visually appealing. I hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this fully illustrated review dedicated to the science hidden right under your nose each time you enjoy a glass of champagne.

  13. A preliminary study about the influence of high hydrostatic pressure processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Sun, Da-Wen; Górecki, Adrian; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Fornal, Józef; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine was investigated preliminarily. Wines were treated by HHP at 250, 450 and 650MPa for up to 45min and French oak chips (5g/L) were added. HHP enhanced the extraction of phenolics from oak chips. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the wine increased after HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Meanwhile, the anthocyanin content and wine color intensity decreased in the first 5min of pressure treatment and then increased gradually. The multivariate analysis revealed that "pressure holding time" was the key factor affecting wine physicochemical characteristics during HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Furthermore, oak chip maceration with and without HHP processing weakened the intensities of several sensory attributes and provided the wine with an artificial taste.

  14. Wine tourism in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-01-01

    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  15. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Croijmans

    Full Text Available People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more "codable", then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice. However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too.

  16. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more “codable”, then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too. PMID:27322035

  17. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  18. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  19. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  20. Turning the corpus into a functional component of the dictionary: the case of the Oenolex wine dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    , a dictionary of wine tasting. In Oenolex, the corpus is not simply the empirical base of the dictionary: it is lexicographically structured so that it can be accessed by the user. Oenolex also shows how oral corpora can be an asset for specialised dictionary projects, particularly in domains in which...

  1. Wine Sector Maturinig Fast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Within a few months, ‘Made In China' wine will make its cautious debut on the shelves of duty-free stores at some of the world's major airports. In the first such case for China's wine industry, the French liquor retailer Camus in February this year signed a 10-year agreement with Dragon Seal, a Chinese wine producer based in Beijing. As the first part of the deal, Camus plans to sell the Chinese wine in 50of its 4,000 duty-free outlets worldwide. The shops are in airports including Singapore, Rome, Hong Kong and Paris, according to Jin Lijun, brand manager of Dragon Seal. "The duty-free store channel is very good for stepping up our brand value," says Jin.

  2. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  3. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  4. Study on the Aromatic Components of Green Plum Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying MA; Hechuan WU; Qingbin LIU; Lingyun WANG; Xiao DOU; Lin YANG; Jiangang YANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to better blend green plum wine and study aromatic components of green plum wine,a qualitative analysis on aromatic components of soaked base liquor,green plum soaked wine,green plum juice,and fermented wine of green plum juice by Head Space Solid-phase Microextraction( HS-SPME) and Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer( GC-MS) was studied in this paper. Experiment results indicated that14,32,17,and 46 kinds of aromatic components were identified respectively from four samples. Different aromatic components determined the special flavor and taste of green plum wine. Unique aromatic components generated in soaking process include benzaldehyde,1-butanol,2-methyl-,S-(-),benzoic acid ethyl ester,and 5-( hydroxymethyl). Special aromatic components in green plum juice were furfural,phenylethyl alcohol,and benzyl alcohol. The aromatic components in fermented wine of green plum juice mainly included phenylethyl alcohol( 6. 941%,relative content of peak area,same below),1-butanol,3-methyl-( 6. 940%),octanoic acid,ethyl ester( 3. 734%),decanoic acid,ethyl ester( 2. 590%),hexanoic acid,ethyl ester( 2. 479%),ethyl 9-decenoate( 2. 080%),and 5-hydroxymethyl( 1. 756%). This study was expected to provide scientific basis and data reference for quality improvement of green plum wine.

  5. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-08-01

    Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel.

  6. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  7. Simultaneous determination of 20 components in red wine by LC-MS: application to variations of red wine components in decanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Geng, Lulu; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-11-01

    The decanting of red wines has a long tradition in red wine service from the perspective of modifying the aroma or taste of a wine. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 organic acids and polyphenols in decanting red wine. The separation was performed on a Diamonsil C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1% acetic acid under gradient elution. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization interface. All the linear regressions showed good linear relationships (r(2) > 0.9973) between the peak area and concentration of each marker. The assay was reproducible with overall intra and interday variation of less than 5.0%. The recoveries for the quantified compounds were observed over the range of 92.1-108.3% with RSD values less than 5.7%. The method developed was successfully applied to determine the variations of the 20 components in red wine after decanting in different conditions. Concentrations of most organic acids and polyphenols investigated in the red wine were decreased in decanting. In addition, increment of duration, temperature, and light intensity would intensify the changes.

  8. Biometrics Analysis and Evaluation on Korean Makgeolli Using Brainwaves and Taste Biological Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods available in measuring food taste. The sensory evaluation, for instance, is a typical method for panels to test of taste and recognize smell with their nose by measuring the degree of taste characteristic, intensity, and pleasure. There are many issues entailed in the traditional sensory evaluation method such as forming a panel and evaluation cost; moreover, it is only localized in particular areas. Accordingly, this paper aimed to select food in one particular area, and compare and review the content between sensory evaluations using a taste biological sensor, as well as presenting an analysis of brainwaves using EEG and finally a proposal of a new method for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the researchers have conducted a sensory evaluation whereas a maximum of nine points were accumulated by purchasing eight types of rice wine. These eight types of Makgeolli were generalized by generating multidimensional data with the use of TS-5000z, thus learning mapping points and scaling them. The contribution of this paper, therefore, is to overcome the disadvantages of the sensory evaluation with the usage of the suggested taste biological sensor system.

  9. Biometrics Analysis and Evaluation on Korean Makgeolli Using Brainwaves and Taste Biological Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sung; Kim, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    There are several methods available in measuring food taste. The sensory evaluation, for instance, is a typical method for panels to test of taste and recognize smell with their nose by measuring the degree of taste characteristic, intensity, and pleasure. There are many issues entailed in the traditional sensory evaluation method such as forming a panel and evaluation cost; moreover, it is only localized in particular areas. Accordingly, this paper aimed to select food in one particular area, and compare and review the content between sensory evaluations using a taste biological sensor, as well as presenting an analysis of brainwaves using EEG and finally a proposal of a new method for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the researchers have conducted a sensory evaluation whereas a maximum of nine points were accumulated by purchasing eight types of rice wine. These eight types of Makgeolli were generalized by generating multidimensional data with the use of TS-5000z, thus learning mapping points and scaling them. The contribution of this paper, therefore, is to overcome the disadvantages of the sensory evaluation with the usage of the suggested taste biological sensor system.

  10. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jixuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design method was used to composite dandelion root powder with glutinous rice and schisandra fruit and optimize the fermenting parameters. Four factors with dandelion content, schisandra content, acidity and sugar content were discussed. The acidity factor was firstly confirmed as 7.0 g/L. The other three factors were confirmed by a series experiments as dandelion 0.55%, schisandra 0.5%, sugar 22%. With nine step processing of mixing substrate, stirring with water, cooking rice, amylase saccharification, pectinase hydrolysis, adjusting juice, fermenting with yeast, fitering, aging, sterilization, a light yellow wine with the special taste with flavour of dandelion, schisandra and rice and less bitter, few index were determined as 14.7% alcohol, 6.85 g/L acidity. A dandelion fermented compound wine with suitable flavour and sanitarian function was developed for enriching the dandelion food.

  11. Influence of wood barrels classified by NIRS on the ellagitannin content/composition and on the organoleptic properties of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-20

    Ellagitannins are extracted from oak wood during wine aging in oak barrels. This research is based on the NIRS (Oakscan) oak wood classification according to their index polyphenolic (IP) (between 21.07 and 70.15). Their level in wood is very variable (between 5.95 and 32.91 mg/g dry wood) and influenced their concentration in red wine (between 2.30 and 32.56 mg/L after 24 months of aging) and thus their impact on wine organoleptic properties. The results show a good correlation between the NIRS classification and the chemical analysis (HPLC-UV-MS and acidic hydrolysis procedure) and with the wood ellagitannin level, the ellagitannin extraction kinetic, and the ellagitannins evolution in red wine (Cabernet Sauvignon). Moreover, a correlation between the NIRS classification and the increasing intensity of some wood aromas (woody, spicy, vanilla, and smoked/toasted), flavors (bitterness and astringency), and a decreasing intensity of fruitiness was also observed.

  12. Land of Wine and Poets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    SCIENTISTS believe that the Celestial Kingdom has thelongest history of strong beverages in the world. Wine producing started in China at the time of Shennong, more than 7,000 years ago. The term "wine" loses something in translation because the majority of Chinese wine is actually strong spirit that would be better described as vodka.

  13. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  14. A National Test of Taste and Smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the only national U.S. health survey that combines both in-person interviews with physical examinations. In ... Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A National Test of Taste and ...

  15. [Wine, fibrinolysis and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, Consuelo; Grenett, Hernán

    2006-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in both men and women in the world. Epidemiological and experimental studies have associated moderate wine consumption (1 to 2 glasses/day) with a decrease in cardiovascular diseases. This decrease is probably due to the effect of ethanol and polyphenols present in the wine. The cardioprotective benefit of wine may be due, in part, to a modulation of the expression of proteins involved in fibrinolysis. Endothelial cells (ECs) play a major role in maintaining normal hemostasis, regulating the balance between the synthesis and interaction of proteins that promote clot formation (thrombosis) and fibrinolytic proteins that facilitate clot lysis. These cells are a major site of synthesis of fibrinolytic proteins, such as tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and the major inhibitor/regulator of fibrinolysis, PAI-1. EC-mediated fibrinolysis is regulated and localized to the EC surface through specific receptors for u-PA, t-PA and plasminogen. Evidence indicates that ethanol and polyphenols present in wine increase EC localized fibrinolisis. Upregulation of t-PA and u-PA activity and downregulation of PAI-1 may account, at least in part, for this net increase in fibrinolytic activity. The purpose of this review is to cover the main molecular and physiological aspects of moderate wine consumption mediated increase in fibrinolysis and reduction in cardiovascular risk.

  16. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  17. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62).

  18. Production of Wine from Ginger and Indian Gooseberry and A Comparative Study of Them over Commercial Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Nandagopal.M.S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is one of the functional fermented foods that have many health benefits. Commercially, wine is produced by the fermentation of yeast which involves the conversion of sugar to alcohol. Wine can act as a nutrient supplement for seasonal fruits and vegetables throughout the year. Using fruits and vegetables having medicinal and nutritional value as a substrate for wine production, the health benefits of them can be improved widely. Ginger and Indian gooseberry, which are known for its high medicinal and nutritional value are used as the substrate here. Fermentation is carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae commonly known as bakers yeast. Daily monitoring was done to study the composition and characteristics of the wine. The wine produced resembled the commercial wine in terms of its composition, taste and aroma. During the fermentation period the wines were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity, biomass content, alcohol and reducing sugar on a daily basis. pH show a decreased trend then attains minima and then increased. As the fermentation days proceed, the specific gravity increased and the alcohol percentage increased gradually. Batch 1 Amla (A1 showed a pH range of 3.79-3.56, specific gravity ranges from 1.09 -1.17 and alcohol content was 10.5%. Batch 2 Amla (A2 showed a pH range of 3.81-3.30, specific gravity ranges from 1.09 -1.167 and alcohol content was 10.35%. Batch 3 Amla (A3 showed a pH range of 3.83-3.34, specific gravity ranges from 1.032 -1.0967and alcohol content was 8.64%. Batch 1 ginger (G1 showed a pH range of 3.77 -3.59, specific gravity ranges from 1.11 -1.178 and alcohol content was 7.94%. Batch 2 ginger (G2 showed a pH range of 3.89 -3.94, specific gravity ranges from 1.116 -1.162 and alcohol content was 6.81 %. Batch 3 ginger (G3 showed a pH range of 4.42 -4.01, specific gravity ranges from 1.144 -1.188 and alcohol content was 5.81%.After the fermentation period parameters such as Tannin content

  19. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  20. Effect of terroir on the phenolic compounds of Muscat of Bornova Wines from 3 different sub-regions of Aegean, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoğlan Selin N. Yabaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the phenolic compounds of wines from Muscat of Bornova, a native aromatic white grape variety (Vitis vinifera grown in the Aegean region of Turkey and the influence of terroir (Menderes, Halilbeyli and Kemaliye sub- regions on these compounds were investigated. From Muscat of Bornova growing sub regions, Menderes/İzmir has a typical Mediterranean climate at around 90 m altitude which is located Eagean cost area with a fertile sandy-loamy soil; Halilbeyli/İzmir sub-region is located in inner İzmir, close to Manisa with 115 m altitude with same soil structure of Menderes. Kemaliye/Manisa has a transition climate between Mediterranean and continental climate at about 245 m altitude. Its soil is pale with a distinct amount of lime (∼30% and sandy-loamy, as well. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array dedector (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry (MS were used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Four flavanols, eight phenolic acids and a flavonol were identified and quantified. It was observed that the total phenolic content in the Halilbeyli sub-region was the highest, fol- lowed by the Menderes and Kemaliye sub-regions. Procyanidin B4 was the most abundant flavanol and quercetin-3-O-glucoside was the only flavonol identified in all regions’ wines. Sensory analysis was also used to investigate the influences of terroir. Statistically significant (0.05 regional differences were observed. Based upon sensory analysis, the wine obtained from Halilbeyli was darker in color, and had more astringency and bitterness than the others, and was the least popular wine. Kemaliye and Menderes were both preferred due to their better coloring, flavour, less astringency and bitterness attributes.

  1. Botrytized wines – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyar I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ildikó Magyar, János Soós Department of Oenology, Institute of Viticulture and Oenology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Botrytized wines are wine specialties made of overripe grapes infected by Botrytis cinerea with the form “noble rot”. Due to the particular characteristics of the noble rotted grape, these wines (eg, Tokaji Aszú, Sauternes, Trockenbeerenauslese types, etc have many characteristic features, including higher or lower residual sugar content and unique aroma composition. The technology, biochemistry, and special characteristics of botrytized wines have been researched for a long time. This review outlines the main directions of the current studies, giving a brief overview on the recent findings. Beside the traditional wine types, noble rot is increasingly utilized in making newer sweet wine styles and straw (passito wines, which generates a series of new interesting experimental results. The fungus–grape interactions during the noble rot, the induced botrytization, the microbial communities of botrytized wines, and the volatile compounds having key roles in the distinct aroma of these wine styles are being focused on in the current studies in this field. Keywords: Botrytis, noble rot, sweet wines, passito wine, aroma

  2. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  3. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  4. Extraction, evolution, and sensory impact of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Harbertson, James F

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraction into wine and evolution of major phenolic classes of sensory relevance. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of phenolic extraction and retention into red wine are still subjects of much research. We argue that management of the maceration length is one of the most determining factors in defining the proportion and chemical fate of phenolic compounds in wine. The extraction of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) is discussed in the context of their individual extraction patterns but also with regard to their interaction with other wine components. The same approach is followed to present the sensory implications of phenolic and phenolic-derived compounds in wine. Overall, we conclude that the chemical diversity of phenolic compounds in grapes is further enhanced as soon as vacuolar and pulp components are released upon crushing, adding a variety of new sensory dimensions to the already present chemical diversity. Polymeric pigments formed by the covalent reaction of anthocyanin and PAs are good candidates to explain some of the observed sensory changes in the color, taste, and mouthfeel attributes of red wines during maceration and aging.

  5. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From bubble bursting to droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séon, T.; Liger-Belair, G.

    2017-01-01

    When a bubble reaches an air-liquid interface, it ruptures, projecting a multitude of tiny droplets in the air. Across the oceans, an estimated 1018 to 1020 bubbles burst every second, and form the so called sea spray, a major player in earth's climate system. At a smaller scale, in a glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall, rise towards the surface and burst, giving birth to a particular aerosol that holds a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in simple liquids, we depict each step of this effervescence, from bubble bursting to drop evaporation. In particular, we propose simple scaling laws for the jet velocity and the top drop size. We unravel experimentally the intricate roles of bubble shape, capillary waves, gravity, and liquid properties in the jet dynamics and the drop detachment. We demonstrate how damping action of viscosity produces faster and smaller droplets and more generally how liquid properties enable to control the bubble bursting aerosol characteristics. In this context, the particular case of Champagne wine aerosol is studied in details and the key features of this aerosol are identified. We demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. Conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of aerosol characteristics and flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue of the sparkling wine industry.

  6. Application of a high-throughput process analytical technology metabolomics pipeline to Port wine forced ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cristiana C; Martins, R C; Teixeira, José A; Silva Ferreira, António C

    2014-01-15

    Metabolomics aims at gathering the maximum amount of metabolic information for a total interpretation of biological systems. A process analytical technology pipeline, combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data preprocessing with multivariate analysis, was applied to a Port wine "forced ageing" process under different oxygen saturation regimes at 60°C. It was found that extreme "forced ageing" conditions promote the occurrence of undesirable chemical reactions by production of dioxane and dioxolane isomers, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which affect the quality of the final product through the degradation of the wine aromatic profile, colour and taste. Also, were found high kinetical correlations between these key metabolites with benzaldehyde, sotolon, and many other metabolites that contribute for the final aromatic profile of the Port wine. The use of the kinetical correlations in time-dependent processes as wine ageing can further contribute to biological or chemical systems monitoring, new biomarkers discovery and metabolic network investigations.

  7. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  8. Potential role of the binding of whey proteins to human buccal cells on the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Zheng, Tao; Ye, Jack Z; Singh, Harjinder

    2012-07-16

    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent, which means that they are not appealing to consumers. The exact mechanism of astringency in whey protein beverages is yet to be fully elucidated. In this preliminary study, the binding between β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin (LF) and human oral epithelial cells (HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells) at pH 3.5 and pH 7.4 was assayed as a function of protein concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The binding of β-LG and LF to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was dependent on protein type, protein concentration, pH and time. The intensity of the binding to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was much greater for LF than for β-LG and was protein concentration dependent, which was consistent with the in vivo astringency perception of LF and β-LG. The findings demonstrated that the binding interaction between whey proteins and human oral epithelial cells may play an important role in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages.

  9. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  10. Ultrafast Polyphenol Metabolomics of Red Wines Using MicroLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Tanaka, Nobuo; Vaniya, Arpana; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-01-20

    The taste and quality of red wine are determined by its highly complex mixture of polyphenols and many other metabolites. No single method can fully cover the full metabolome, but even for polyphenols and related compounds, current methods proved inadequate. We optimized liquid chromatography resolution and sensitivity using 1 mm i.d. columns with microLC pumps and compared data-dependent to data-independent (SWATH) MS/MS acquisitions. A high-throughput microLC-MS method was developed with a 4 min gradient at 0.05 mL/min flow rate on a Kinetex C18 column and Sciex TripleTOF mass spectrometry. Using the novel software MS-DIAL, we structurally annotated 264 compounds including 165 polyphenols in six commercial red wines by accurate mass MS/MS matching. As proof of concept, multivariate statistics revealed the difference in the metabolite profiles of the six red wines, and regression analysis linked the polyphenol contents to the taste of the red wines.

  11. Expected taste intensity affects response to sweet drinks in primary taste cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew T; Lloyd, Donna M; Kuenzel, Johanna; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B; Thomas, Anna

    2011-06-11

    Expectations about a food can impact on its taste, but this may represent a perceptual change or a bias in response at the decision-making stage. We hypothesised that expectation of taste intensity should be underpinned by modulation of activity in primary taste cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that expecting a very sweet drink, but receiving a less sweet drink, enhanced the reported sweetness and bolstered activity in taste cortex, relative to a less sweet drink without this expectation. The activation overlapped with primary taste cortex activation found in 11 recent taste studies. Our findings provide evidence that taste expectation modulates activity in an area consistently reported as primary taste cortex, implying that expectation effects do indeed impact on taste perception.

  12. 家庭葡萄酒的酿制工艺及其酒质检验%Home Wine Brewing Process and Wine Quality Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓萍; 韦寿莲

    2015-01-01

    The wine was brewed using different brewing process, and the alcohol content, total sugar, total acid, tannic acid, formaldehyde content, and wine taste flavor were measured. The results showed that the quality of the wine was good, and wine brewing process was that washing grape was under 15℃-28℃and the after-fermentation with sugar was after primary fermentation , under which the wine quality was best.%采用不同酿造工艺酿制葡萄酒,并检测其酒精度,总糖,总酸,单宁酸含量,甲醛含量,酒的口感风味.结果表明,所酿制的葡萄酒质量较好,葡萄酒酿造工艺为15℃~28℃条件下清洗葡萄,前发酵后加糖进行后发酵,酿出的葡萄酒酒质最好.

  13. Comparison of Chinese and American wine culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迁

    2015-01-01

    Wine which has a long history in human life and culture is not only a kind of objectively existing material but also a cultural symbol.In this thesis, it will focus on the comparison between Chinese and American wine culture.Four aspects will be included:the origin of wine;the various types of wine;the etiquette of wine drinking;the connection between wine culture and arts and humanities.

  14. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  15. Tasting Beijing ,Approaching Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by Beijing Tour Administration, co-organized by Singapore Conference and Exhibition Administration Service Co., Ltd. and Beijing Relation Exhibition Co., Ltd., "2007 Beijing International Tour Expo" was held in Beijing in June. Commissioner Du Jiang gave a presentation with the opening ceremmony, and pointed out that with the theme of "Tasting Beijing, Approaching Olympic Games", the expo was a platform of promoting the communication and cooperation between the Chinese and foreign tourism industries.

  16. Chemical and microbiological analysis of red wines during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall, chemical and microbiological analyses are very important for the quality of wine during and after winemaking process. One of the most important factors during wine storage is the temperature of storage. During storage of red wines in tanks, barrique barrels or glass bottles underway many physical, chemical and biochemical changes, which have significant influence for the stabilize of taste, scent, colour and general character of wine. The aim of our study we used two different wines, specifically Cabernet Sauvignon and Blaufränkisch and chemically and microbiologically analysed these wines during storage at different temperatures. These wines were bottled in 2011 and 2013. We stored these samples at different temperatures. The first four samples were stored at 6-8°C in refrigerator, and the next four were stored at 20-25°C in room temperature. We had together eight wine samples. We had determined in all wine samples sequentially the free and total sulphur dioxide content, ethyl-alcohol content, extract, sugars, total and volatile acids. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 6-8°C had content 12,14% ethyl-alcohol, 2.3% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,444 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.6 g.L-1 extract, 8 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 20-25°C had content 12,05% ethyl-alcohol, 2.4% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,456 g.L-1 volatile acids, 27.4 g.L-1extract, 6 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2.The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 6-8°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 20-25°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1 extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2.These results were collected from one measuring, but we had results from three measuring

  17. Qualitative Assessment of the Red Wine Varieties Grown in Dealu Bujorului Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumitru Bora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine is considered to be a hydro alcoholic solution with more than 1000 components associated in an extremely complex manner, some of them can pass from grapes in an unchanged state, and some are formed during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, while others appear due to the reactions between substances in their natural state, or based on the existing ones. The presence of phenolic substances in wine is essential, representing a major contribution in the forming of specific characteristics such as: colour, aroma and taste, thus allowing the distinction between different types of wine. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the physicochemical composition of the three acknowledged varieties of young wine from the Dealu Bujorului vineyard (‘Merlot’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘‘Fetească Neagră’’, obtained under the culture conditions of 2012 - 2013 - 2014 years. The oenological parameters were determined after the national STAS regulations and effectively OIV methods. Statistical methods were employed in order to assess the organic and inorganic potential of wine. The ecoclimatic conditions studied in the Dealu Bujorului, Bujoru Wine Centre, highlighted the exceptional viticultural character of Romania as well as the authenticity character encountered in the large variety of wines produced in this area. Results also show that the vine varieties of cultivated in the Vineyard of Dealu Bujorului have a high content of macroelements (‘Merlot’ (890.01 ± 6.35 mg/L (2013, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (111.36 ± 3.53 mg/L (2013 and Feteasca neagră (97.30 ± 0.46 mg/L (2014 that are very important for human’s health. Wine quality parameters analyzed shows that are influenced by the area of culture of vine but also they are influenced by the technology of winemaking.

  18. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  19. Wine and Society - Welcome Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Trevisan

    2011-01-01

    Wine, its production and consumption, has accompanied western civilization for thousands of years. Since the early sign of its production in the Fertile crescent area, approximately 6000-8000 years ago, the culture of wine has spread out through the middle east, the Nile valley and the Mediterranean basin. Wine became part of the recorded history in ancient Egypt were it was used as part of religious ceremonies and by the Pharaos and the elite.

  20. Wine and Society - Welcome Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Trevisan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine, its production and consumption, has accompanied western civilization for thousands of years. Since the early sign of its production in the Fertile crescent area, approximately 6000-8000 years ago, the culture of wine has spread out through the middle east, the Nile valley and the Mediterranean basin. Wine became part of the recorded history in ancient Egypt were it was used as part of religious ceremonies and by the Pharaos and the elite.

  1. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent

  2. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers

  3. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia ePinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine musts harbour a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Must (IM, and Start and End of alcoholic fermentation (SF and EF, respectively.The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p<0.05 were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF and EF, and in the bacterial population between MI and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the initial musts, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida and Schizosaccharomyces. Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of

  4. Organic Acid Composition in Croatian Predicate Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mihaljević Žulj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Continental Croatia wine region and especially Kutjevo vineyards are famous for their predicate wines production and quality. The most common grape varieties used there for different types of predicate wine are Welsch Riesling and Traminer. Ice wines, selected harvest wines and dry berry selection wines from different harvest years were examined by HPLC method to determine organic acids composition. The oldest sample was Traminer selected harvest from vintage year 1990, while the youngest wine was Traminer ice wine from harvest 2011. The dominant organic acids in all analyzed wines were tartaric, malic, citric and galactaric, ranged from 0.09 to 2.98 g/L. In most wines the difference in concentration of glucuronic, galacturonic and gluconic acids was established. The highest content of glucuronic acid was 58.4 mg/L in Traminer dry berry selection 2011. Galacturonic acid dominated in the same wine (924 mg/L, just like gluconic acid (141 mg/L.

  5. 热力学中混合体积变量与酒文化的关系——混合体积缩小、酒度与口感关系的初步探讨%Relationship between Mixing Volume Change and Wine Culture——Relationships among Mixing Volume Change,the Percentage of Alcohol and Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祯; 冯新

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamics course tells the mixing volume change.This paper studies the relationship among mixing volume change,the percentage of alcohol and taste.After fitting the experimental data to the equation,we have obtained the maximal decreased volume while the percentage of alcohol is 57°.This is the reason why the major brands of the Chinese liquor's percentage of alcohol are between 53° and 60°.%热力学课程讲授了混合体积变化这个热力学量。本文利用热力学知识探讨了混合体积缩小量与酒度、口感之间的关系。研究发现,在酒度为57°时,混合体积缩小量达到最大,口感最佳,这也是中国知名高度白酒酒度集中在53°~60°范围内的原因。

  6. Tasty Business, Wine & Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone attracts many companies to settle down,and China International Exhibition and Trading Center of Wine & Beverage is one of them.It is said that when the first bunch of grapes fell down on the soil,it was the beginning of the art of winemaking.The win is not only the symbol of culture,history,trade,religion,art,etc.,but also one part or one style of our real life.When the technology has shortened the distance of the world,then wine,an important part of the trade in the past,today,or the future,becomes more and more international.

  7. Frequently consumed vegetables have almost no taste : Posterpresentatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkom, Vera van; Kooten, Olaf van; Teo, P.S; Mars, M; Stieger, M; Graaf, C de

    2015-01-01

    Taste is a main driver in preferences and food choices. Humans are predispositioned to prefer sweet and salty tastes and reject bitter and sour tastes, therefore bitter taste is often thought to cause the rejection of vegetables by children. In our study we investigated the taste and fattiness inten

  8. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R. van; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it ser

  9. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process...

  10. TASTE MASKING IN PHARMACEUTICAL: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. Taste is an important parameter governing compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals and bulking agents have unpleasant, bitter-tasting components. In numerous cases, the bitter taste modality is an undesirable trait of the product or formulations and can considerably affect its acceptability by consumers. Bitter characteristics found in such systems have been eliminated or minimized by various known processes, but no universally applicable technology for bitterness inhibition has ever been recognized. The desire of improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of coating polymers for inhibiting bitterness, microencapsulation, prodrug formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system, addition of effervescent agents and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  11. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  12. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...

  13. [Cultural history of wine, the theoretical background of wine therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella; Lugasi, Andrea

    2005-12-25

    The knowledge of wine and grapes as old as the cultural history of human population. The small consumption of wine could be advantageous. Also it has been well established for several thousands of years, that it could cause acute and chronic injuries after higher consumption. Its antiinfectious effect in dermatological drugs had been known in the archeological ages. The unguents containing wine polyphenols are advantageous in some dermatological injuries and also in the treatment of muscular and articular alterations. Moderate consumption of wine may decrease the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. In healthy individuals consumption of one-two dl of wine can decrease the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. This quantity, however, may be injurious in pregnancy, in children, and in various organic diseases, especially in liver disease, as well as if combined with common drugs.

  14. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  15. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec....

  16. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  17. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  18. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  19. A Wine-Water Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This exquisite bronze object is a combination wine container and water container. It was excavated from the tomb of Zeng Houyi, a prince of the State of Zeng. The upper part is a wine container, measuring 30. 1 cm tall and the lower part is a water or ice container, measuring 58 cm in diameter. The two parts resemble a

  20. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  1. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  2. Carbon dioxide and ethanol release from champagne glasses, under standard tasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Beaumont, Fabien; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    A simple glass of champagne or sparkling wine may seem like the acme of frivolity to most people, but in fact, it may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any fluid physicist or physicochemist. In this chapter, results obtained concerning various steps where the CO₂ molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO₂ impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Some recent investigations, conducted through laser tomography techniques, on ascending bubbles and ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns found in champagne glasses are reported, which illustrate the fine interplay between ascending bubbles and the fluid around under standard tasting conditions. The simultaneous monitoring of gaseous CO₂ and ethanol in the headspace of both a flute and a coupe filled with champagne was reported, depending on whether or not the glass shows effervescence. Both gaseous CO₂ and ethanol were found to be enhanced by the presence of ascending bubbles, thus confirming the close link between ascending bubbles, ascending-bubble-driven flow patterns, and the release of gaseous CO₂ and volatile organic compounds.

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  4. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring......’ general level of food knowledge had a significant influence on their expectations about naturalness....

  5. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their ind

  6. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ke Li; Juan-mei Yang; Yi-bo Huang; Dong-dong Ren; Fang-lu Chi

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well under-stood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of re-covery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantiifed and compared among groups. No signiifcant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, vol-umes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased signiifcantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  7. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  8. The effect of phenol composition on the sensory profile of smoke affected wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew

    2015-05-26

    Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1) the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2) associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetovanillone), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetosyringone) concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  9. The Effect of Phenol Composition on the Sensory Profile of Smoke Affected Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kelly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1 the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2 associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanone (acetovanillone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenylethanone (acetosyringone concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  10. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...... findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average WTP for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 20 euro cents. The effect from taste on bread demand seems smaller, but may...... be sizeable for subgroups of consumers. Our evidence suggests that a better nutritional content, as indicated by a healthy label, may also positively affect food demand, but the effect is small and not statistically significant. Finally, we find that consumers’ experienced taste of a food is unaffected...

  11. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lukyanchuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex avtomatization sites grape processing with bulk transportation of the latter; improving the quality and durability of wines by the processing of a wide applying wine cold and heat, as well as technical and microbiological control most powerful automation equipment; the introduction of automated production processes of continuous technical champagne, sherry wine and cognac alcohol madery; the use of complex automation auxiliary production sites (boilers, air conditioners, refrigeration unitsand other.; complex avtomatization creation of enterprises, and sites manufactory bottling wines. In the wine industry developed more sophisticated schemes of automation and devices that enable the transition to integrated production automation, will create, are indicative automated enterprise serving for laboratories to study of the main problems of automation of production processes of winemaking.

  12. 樱桃酒感官评价与电子舌感官分析的相关性研究%Study on correlation between sensory evaluation and sensors analysis of electronic tongue of cherry wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛云蔚; 张晓鸣; 肖作兵; 宋诗清; 朱建才; 顾永波

    2012-01-01

    Five different cherry wines ,which were described by sour, sweet, bitter and astringent attributes ,were analyzed by electronic tongue. The ability of discrimination cherry wines of electronic tongue was evaluated by PCA and DFA. The sensory evaluation results were correlated to response of seven sensors(ZZ,BA,BB,CA, GA,HA,JB) by PCA and PLSR. The results showed that there were better correlation between JB and sour, HA, CA and sweet,ZZ and astringent, bitter, respectively.%对五种不同樱桃酒的感官属性(酸、甜、苦、涩)进行了感官评价和电子舌指纹分析,利用主成分(PCA)与判别因子(DFA)分析对电子舌区分樱桃酒的能力进行了评价,并通过PCA、偏最小二乘法(PLSR)将感官评价结果与电子舌7根传感器(ZZ、BA、BB、CA、GA、HA、JB)响应相关联。结果表明,电子舌指纹分析系统对樱桃酒具有较好的区分辨别能力,传感器JB与酸味,传感器HA、CA与甜味,传感器ZZ与涩、苦味具有较高的相关性。

  13. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  14. Selective adsorption of molybdenum(VI) from Mo-Re bearing effluent by chemically modified astringent persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Wang, Haitao; Lou, Zhenning; Shan, Weijun; Xing, Zhiqiang; Deng, Guichun; Wu, Dongbei; Fang, Dawei; Biswas, Biplob Kumar

    2011-02-28

    Astringent persimmon was chemically cross-linked by formaldehyde to obtain a novel kind of adsorption gel, which was named as APF gel. The adsorption behaviors of Mo(VI) and Re(VII) along with other coexisting metals onto the APF gel were studied in the present paper. The APF gel was found to be effective for the adsorption of Mo(VI) while the gel is almost completely inert toward rhenium and calcium over the whole hydrochloric acid concentration region. The APF gel has a low affinity for iron, copper, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc ions when the concentration of HCl is higher than 1 mol/L. The gel exhibited selectivity only for Mo(VI) with a remarkably high adsorption capacity 1.05 mol/kg, and the adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir model. According to the thermodynamic and kinetic studies, the endothermic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Also, its excellent adsorption characteristics for Mo(VI) were confirmed by the adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the APF gel. The result provides a new approach for the recovery of Mo(VI) from a industrial waste effluent.

  15. 青稞酒的老熟机理探索%Investigation on Aging Mechanism of Highland Barley Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锦文; 李善文

    2012-01-01

    “酒是陈的香”,青稞酒的香气口感同样随着贮存期的延长而自然达到陈化、老熟的目的,从而赋予青稞酒清雅纯正、绵甜爽净、醇厚丰满、回味怡畅、诸味协调的风味特色。同时,科学合理的储酒设备和方法也能起到一定的催陈老熟作用。探索在充分利用现有设备、设施的基础上,通过变换条件和方法就能达到陈化、老熟效果的机理。%Everyone knows that liquor of older age is better. Highland barley wine is of no exception. With the extension of the storage, natural aging of highland barley wine could be realized which could make the wine with pure and elegant taste, full wine body, and enjoyable aftertaste. Moreover, scientific and reasonable wine storage equipment and methods play an important role in the aging. In this paper, some experience about scientific wine storage was introduced.

  16. The impact of some wine-making practices on the quality of Vranec red wines from Macedonia produced by the newly-selected local strain "F-78".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Veličkovska, Sanja Kostadinović; Dimovska, Violeta; Spasov, Hristo

    2016-03-01

    The impact of enological practices (temperature, flipping and the inoculation amount of newly selected yeast F-78 from third-stage selection) on the level of monomeric anthocyanins, total phenolic compounds and the overall taste of fifteen red wines from Macedonian Vranec grape variety were studied. The most important factor which affects the level of monomeric anthocyanins was temperature. The inoculation amount had a positive influence on the phenolic extraction. More inoculation amount leads to faster ethanol formation and acceleration of the anthocyanins extraction. The flipping of the must during fermentation was controversial. The best wine-making procedure for production of the typical for the region high-extractive aged wines included a fermentation temperature of 20-24°C, intensive flipping (5-6 times/24h), and inoculation quantity 3-4% and a fermentation on 20°C, medium flipping (3-4 times/24h) and inoculation quantity 3-4% for production of commercial, young and easy to drink "Beaujoulais" wines.

  17. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds.

  18. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation.

  19. Exploring Ethnic Differences in Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Johnny A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Fillingim, Roger B; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that nutritional intake can vary substantially as a function of demographic variables such as ethnicity and/or sex. Although a variety of factors are known to underlie the relationship between these demographic variables and nutritional intake, it is interesting to speculate that variation in food intake associated with ethnicity or sex may result, in part, from differences in the perceived taste of foods in these different populations. Thus, we initiated a study to evaluate taste responsiveness in different ethnic groups. Moreover, because of the known differences in taste responsiveness between males and females, analyses were stratified by sex. The ethnic groups tested differed significantly from one another in reported perceived taste intensity. Our results showed that Hispanics and African Americans rated taste sensations higher than non-Hispanic Whites and that these differences were more pronounced in males. Understanding the nature of these differences in taste perception is important, because taste perception may contribute to dietary health risk. When attempting to modify diet, individuals of different ethnicities may require personalized interventions that take into account the different sensory experience that these individuals may have when consuming foods.

  20. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  1. Arsenic content in some Spanish wines. Influence of the wine-making technique on arsenic content in musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M V; Martinez, M C; Masoud, T A

    1987-09-01

    All of the essential technological means of treating grapes, must and wine were examined systematically. The main reasons for the differences in the arsenic (As) content of rosé and red wines are explained. In this study a relationship has been found between the As level and the wine-making technique. Rosé wines contain more As than red wines because they require a shorter period of contact with the skins. In order to prove this, the average values for the rosé and red wine samples from the same winery were compared.

  2. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises...

  3. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  4. Grand Hyatt Beijing Opens Wine Shop in the Patisserie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Over the years,Grand Hyatt Beijing has become a crowd favorite for wine events thanks to events such as its many exquisite wine dinners at the hotel’s superb Italian restaurant Da Giorgio,the Wine Club at Redmoon and the Grand Wine Sale at the Patisserie."The wine shop will cater to Beijing’s growing community of wine

  5. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  6. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free...

  7. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  8. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized...

  9. City, architecture and wine: Wine tourism in the contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Douglimar Meireles de

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the growth of activities related to wine tourism is a potent driver of transformations in territories and societies. Wine landscapes of ancestral regions such as La Rioja in Spain, Bordeaux in France or also in the so-called “New World”, such as the Napa Valley in the United States, Mendoza in Argentina and many others around the world, demonstrate a new age where the wine tourism is essential for affecting their economies and leaving a mark in the contemporary society, in which architecture plays a major role to achieve these goals. In Brazil, an emerging country in wine production, the Valley of the Vineyards is one of the most traditional areas of production and it has been through major changes over the past decades. The countless vineyards, wine cellars, tourist establishments and the growing urbanization are redefining the landscape of the region. Using bibliographic revision to explore different perspectives on the theme, this article aims at highlighting the social, cultural and technical implications related to this kind of tourism. Moreover, both positive and negative effects reflect the identity and the characteristics of each area, along with cultural and architectural elements that are disposed in each wine cellar, time and place.

  10. Taste as didactic element in food education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    to their own expected learning, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation and innovation in school. The method is a survey based on questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have participated a cooking competition that forms part of the subject Food Knowledge...... students to achieve new competencies of cooking and food knowledge.......This paper focus on how taste is used in contemporary food education. Furthermore the focus is how taste is used in a specific food education program in Danish schools. By critically discussing a sample of academic studies that design and evaluate taste education programs for children, the paper...

  11. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  12. Metabolic characterization of Palatinate German white wines according to sensory attributes, varieties, and vintages using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif; Maltese, Federica [Leiden University, Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology (Netherlands); Toepfer, Reinhard [Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof, Julius Kuehn Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (Germany); Choi, Young Hae, E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Verpoorte, Robert [Leiden University, Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) has been used for metabolomic analysis of 'Riesling' and 'Mueller-Thurgau' white wines from the German Palatinate region. Diverse two-dimensional NMR techniques have been applied for the identification of metabolites, including phenolics. It is shown that sensory analysis correlates with NMR-based metabolic profiles of wine. {sup 1}H NMR data in combination with multivariate data analysis methods, like principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS), and bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS) analysis, were employed in an attempt to identify the metabolites responsible for the taste of wine, using a non-targeted approach. The high quality wines were characterized by elevated levels of compounds like proline, 2,3-butanediol, malate, quercetin, and catechin. Characterization of wine based on type and vintage was also done using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) analysis. 'Riesling' wines were characterized by higher levels of catechin, caftarate, valine, proline, malate, and citrate whereas compounds like quercetin, resveratrol, gallate, leucine, threonine, succinate, and lactate, were found discriminating for 'Mueller-Thurgau'. The wines from 2006 vintage were dominated by leucine, phenylalanine, citrate, malate, and phenolics, while valine, proline, alanine, and succinate were predominantly present in the 2007 vintage. Based on these results, it can be postulated the NMR-based metabolomics offers an easy and comprehensive analysis of wine and in combination with multivariate data analyses can be used to investigate the source of the wines and to predict certain sensory aspects of wine.

  13. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from “local epithelium”, in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, ...

  14. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M.

    2014-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three ...

  15. Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics.

  16. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W

    2013-10-01

    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste.

  17. Phenylthiocarbamide produces conditioned taste aversions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; Pour, Lindsay; Boughter, John D

    2005-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that SWR/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by attempting to condition a taste aversion to sucrose by injections of PTC. In experiment 1, PTC was nearly as effective as a strong dose of LiCl in reducing sucrose drinking. In experiment 2, the sucrose aversions were parametrically modified by both sucrose concentration and PTC dose, a hallmark of conditioned taste aversion. We conclude that PTC can cause a conditioned taste aversion and discuss the importance of considering toxic effects of aversive tastants when analyzing behavioral strain differences.

  18. Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Xu, Hong; Pronin, Alexey; Liu, Haitian; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2008-12-30

    Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5' ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric T1R receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling. We propose a cooperative ligand-binding model involving the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1, where L-glutamate binds close to the hinge region, and 5' ribonucleotides bind to an adjacent site close to the opening of the flytrap to further stabilize the closed conformation. This unique mechanism may apply to other class C G-protein-coupled receptors.

  19. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancer molecules. Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor.

  20. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  1. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine §...

  2. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  3. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  4. Development of New Craft Rice Wine%新工艺米酒的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新益; 何松贵; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    采用精糯米作原料和九江酒曲3号为曲,利用现代机械化生产低杂醇油、微量成分较多的米酒。利用该新工艺生产的米酒具有清香和蜜香复合的清雅香气、入口绵甜柔软、落口爽净甘滑、回味清爽怡畅的感官特点。%New craft rice wine with low fusel oil content and high trace elements content was produced with fine glutinous rice as raw materials and Jiujiang No.3 starter as yeast through modern automated manufacturing.Such wine had sensory characteristics including elegant aroma combining honey aroma and Fen-flavor,soft and clean taste,and enjoyable aftertaste.

  5. The appreciation of wine by sommeliers: a functional magnetic resonance study of sensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castriota-Scanderbeg, Alessandro; Hagberg, Gisela E; Cerasa, Antonio; Committeri, Giorgia; Galati, Gaspare; Patria, Fabiana; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Frackowiak, Richard

    2005-04-01

    We set out to investigate how the expertise of a sommelier is embodied in neural circuitry by comparing brain activity elicited by wine tasting with that found in naive drinkers of wine. We used fMRI to study 7 sommeliers and 7 age- and sex-matched control subjects to test the hypothesis that any difference in brain activity would reflect a learned ability to integrate information from gustatory and olfactory senses with past experience. A group analysis showed activation of a cerebral network involving the left insula and adjoining orbito-frontal cortex in sommeliers. Both these areas have been implicated in gustatory/olfactory integration in primates. In addition, activation was found bilaterally in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in high-level cognitive processes such as working memory and selection of behavioral strategies. Naive individuals activated the primary gustatory cortex and brain areas, including the amygdala, implicated in emotional processing.

  6. Chemical Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins in Vitro and Their Reactions in Aging Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Hong Pan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins are present in many fruits and plant products like grapes and wine, and contribute to their taste and health benefits. In the past decades of years, substantial progresses has been achieved in the identification of composition and structure of proanthocyanidins, but the debate concerning the existence of an enzymatic or nonenzymatic mechanism for proanthocyanidin condensation still goes on. Substantial attention has been paid to elucidating the potential mechanism of formation by means of biomimetic and chemical synthesis in vitro. The present paper aims at summarizing the research status on chemical synthesis of proanthocyanidins, including non-enzymatic synthesis of proanthocyanidin precursors, chemical synthesis of proanthocyanidins with direct condensation of flavanols and stereoselective synthesis of proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidin-involved reactions in aging wines are also reviewed such as direct and indirect reactions among proanthocyanidins, flavanols and anthocyanins. Topics for future research in this field are also put forward in this paper.

  7. Yellow Wine and Red Wine: the Primary Prevention in Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-fang YANG; Hang-yuan GUO; Ju-fang CHI; Yong SUN; Chao XU

    2009-01-01

    To review the cardiac protective effects of wine intake and recommend moderate wine consumption as a primary prevention strategy for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Systematically review former studies on the wine con-sumption (red wine and yellow wine) by searching the Medline database and other related citations, and investigate possible protective pathways. Regular moderate wine intake can benefit heart from acute coronary symptom (ACS) at-tacking; reduce the relative risk of morbidity and mortality from CAD. It might not be imperative to ask people to stop drinking; inversely, we suggest moderate wine consumption as a preventive strategy in CAD for its guarding contribu-tion.

  8. Acidic electrolyzed water efficiently improves the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanqi; Zhu, Baoqing; Li, Yao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-04-15

    The ability of acidic (AcW) and alkaline electrolyzed waters (AlW) to improve the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) wine was evaluated. Wines made with AcW (WAcW) were significantly better than wines made with AlW or pure water (PW) in aroma, taste, and colour. Volatile analysis showed that WAcW has high alcohol and ester contents, including 2-phenylethanol, isopentanol, isobutanol, ethyl dodecanoate, phenethyl acetate, and butanedioic acid diethyl ester. The total amino acid content of persimmon slurry soaked with AcW reached 531.2 mg/l, which was much higher than those of the slurries soaked in AlW (381.3 mg/l) and PW (182.7 mg/l). The composition of major amino acids in the AcW-soaked slurry may contribute to the strong ester flavour of WAcW. This is the first report to suggest that electrolyzed functional water (EFW) can be used to improve wine flavour, leading to the possible use of EFW in food processing.

  9. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  10. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  11. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine.

  12. Organic grapes - More than Wine and Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Geier, Bernward

    2006-01-01

    The chapter presents inforamtion on the status of organic viticulture world wide and also includes a global organic wine statistics (hectares per country; not all wine producing countries covered though).

  13. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  14. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin.

  15. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Belda; Javier Ruiz; Adelaida Esteban-Fernández; Eva Navascués; Domingo Marquina; Antonio Santos; M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production ...

  16. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  17. MOLDOVA Where the Fine Wine Comes from

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Moldova is an ancient wine making region. The wine-making sector is one of the most important in Moldova, a traditional wine producer for many years, 25% of the country's exports and 9% of its gross output pertain to winemaking. This sector includes 25% of industrial working resources. Moldova vineyards occupy 2.3% of the world's territory planted with vineyards. The Republic of Moldova features in the list of the top ten wine and grape producing countries in the world.

  18. On Chinese and Western Wine Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-han

    2015-01-01

    Wine plays a big role in people’s social life both in China and in the West. Based on the perspective of cross culture, the paper gives a detailed analysis of the disparities of Chinese and western wine culture, and points out the factors for the forming of Chinese and western wine culture. It can be concluded that culture is the key to the understanding of wine phenomenon.

  19. Comparison of Complex Starter and Wheat Starter in Mechanized Production of Yellow Rice Wine%黄酒曲和麦曲在机械化黄酒酿造中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 陈国飞; 李峰齐; 傅勤峰; 蒋启海

    2016-01-01

    从清酒口感、出酒率、成本等方面对比采用黄酒曲和麦曲作为糖化剂机械化酿造黄酒。同等条件下,采用黄酒曲出酒率高9%,清酒口感较醇和。黄酒曲具有安全卫生、质量稳定、工艺简单、劳动强度低、设备利用率高等优点。生产同样产量的基酒,采用黄酒曲的总成本比麦曲低至少6%。黄酒曲基酒氨基酸态氮和非糖固形物含量偏低,更符合清爽型黄酒基酒和料酒基酒的要求。%Complex starter and wheat starter were used respectively as saccharifying agent in mechanized production of yellow rice wine. The products were compared in wine taste, wine yield and production cost. Under the same conditions, wine yield by complex starter was 9%high-er with pure taste. Besides, the use of complex starter had the advantages including safety and hygiene, stable wine quality, simple operation, low labor intensity and high utilization rate of facilities etc. The total production cost with the use of complex starter was at least 6%lower than that with wheat starter for producing the same amount of base wine. The content of amino acids and non-sugar solids in base wine by the use of complex starter was lower and complex starter was more suitable for light-type base wine and seasoning base wine.

  20. Changes in Wine Ethanol Content Due to Evaporation from Wine Glasses and Implications for Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, David; Pham, Duc-Truc; Wilkinson, Kerry Leigh

    2016-10-12

    The relative proportion of water and ethanol present in alcoholic beverages can significantly influence the perception of wine sensory attributes. This study therefore investigated changes in wine ethanol concentration due to evaporation from wine glasses. The ethanol content of commercial wines exposed to ambient conditions while in wine glasses was monitored over time. No change in wine ethanol content was observed where glasses were covered with plastic lids, but where glasses were not covered, evaporation had a significant impact on wine ethanol content, with losses from 0.9 to 1.9% alcohol by volume observed for wines that received direct exposure to airflow for 2 h. Evaporation also resulted in decreases in the concentration of some fermentation volatiles (determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and a perceptible change in wine aroma. The rate of ethanol loss was strongly influenced by exposure to airflow (i.e., from the laboratory air-conditioning unit), together with certain glass shape and wine parameters; glass headspace in particular. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant potential for ethanol evaporation from wine in wine glasses. Research findings have important implications for the technical evaluation of wine sensory properties; in particular, informal sensory trials and wine show judging, where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice.

  1. Stability properties of wines by absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larena, A.; Vega, J.

    1986-03-01

    The temporal evolution of absorption spectra (370-700 nm) of different spanish wines has been studied by us under the influence of air presence, and the light exposition. In particular, we have exposed the wines to a magenta light. Nevertheless, the color coordinates of wine show a little relative variation (0.1-1 %)

  2. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  3. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  4. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  5. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  6. Effect of concentration on taste-taste interactions with foods for elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    An increase in concentration of one of the tastants in a 'real food' might affect not only the perception of the taste quality of that manipulated tastant but also the other perceivable taste qualities. The influence of concentration increase of sodium or potassium chloride in tomato soup, sucrose o

  7. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  8. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  9. Change of quality of dry rice wine during storage%干型黄酒贮存过程中品质变化的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽尧; 冷云伟; 叶辉

    2011-01-01

    The quality of new rice wine can be changed after storage. Colorimetry, gas chromatography and organoleptic evaluation were used to test color, main flavor components and taste of Huzhou dry rice wine with different storage time ranged from new rice wine to 1~5 years. The results showed that the amino and carbonyl group reacted slowly during storage, which made the wine color become deep. During the storage of rice wine,the main aromatic components in the rice wine transformed mutually, which resulted in the increment of ester content and the decrement of alcohol content. A balance and a fine rice wine with good aroma and mellow taste were obtained finally. The reason and factors of influencing the change of rice wine quality, include color, flavor and taste were analyzed. Based on these results, aging factor- micro-oxygen content was proposed and some advice on the storage of rice wine was also presented.%新酒经贮存一段时间品质明显改变,通过比色法、气相色谱及感官品尝对湖州干型黄酒当年新酒和贮存1~5年陈酒的颜色、主要芳香性成分及口感等品质因素进行测试比较.结果表明,黄酒在贮存老熟过程中氨基、羰基缓慢反应,酒体颜色逐渐加深,随着贮存期延长,黄酒中主要芳香性成分互相转化,酯含量增加,醇含量减少,最后达到一种平衡,得到香气浓郁、醇和爽适的黄酒.通过对黄酒贮存老熟过程中色、香、味等品质因素变化规律及对产生变化的原因进行初步分析和探讨,提出一个陈化因子--微氧含量,同时为黄酒贮存提出一些科学的建议.

  10. Use of multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction and pervaporation for the determination of off-flavours in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; García-Barrera, T; Lorenzo, F; Beltrán, R

    2006-04-21

    The occurrence of off-flavours in wines and especially the so-called "cork taint defect" represents one of the most serious problem in wine industry in which 2,4,6-trichloroanisole has been blamed as the main responsible. The development of analytical methods for haloanisoles determination in wine/cork represent a challenge, mainly due to food matrix complexity and low taste and odour (T&O) threshold levels which are generally beyond the sensitivity of the analytical systems. In this work, a method based on the combined use of the recently developed multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) and gas chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry has been optimised for the determination of haloanisoles in wines. This powerful analytical methodology is compared with several analytical approaches based on pervaporation, an innovative membrane-based technique similar to dynamic headspace. Analytical features of the methods assayed reveal their suitability for the appraisal of haloanisoles in this matrix in which threshold odor concentrations are in the range 4-40 ng l(-1). The analytical approaches have been applied to the analysis of haloanisoles in different Spanish white and red wines, in which spiking experiments showed good recoveries for the methodologies assayed.

  11. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations. PMID:26388813

  12. 山楂枣酒抗氧化能力分析评价%Evaluation on the Antioxidant Capacity of Hawthorn-jujube Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕玉鸥; 曲昕; 宋彬彬; 郭茜楠; 陆斌; 李胜元; 郁彭

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant capacities of hawthorn wine, jujube wine and hawthorn-jujube wine were studied in this paper. In the experiments, blueberry wine was used as the positive control. The total flavonoids, total phenolic content, total reducing power and their inhibitory effects on DPPH+and ABTS+were determined. The results showed that, the total reducing capacities of three kinds of wine and their inhibitory effects on DPPH+and ABTS+radicals were concentration-dependent, which were proportional to total flavonoids and total phenolics content in fruit wine. The total flavonoids and total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hawthorn-jujube wine was not the highest one, while its taste was greatly improved compared to hawthorn wine and jujube wine.%研究山楂酒、枣酒、山楂和枣混合酒的抗氧化能力。选用抗氧化能力较强的蓝莓酒作为阳性对照,用体外化学方法测定各果酒的总黄酮和总酚含量、总还原能力以及对DPPH+自由基和ABTS+自由基的抑制作用。结果表明,3种果酒的总还原能力及对DPPH+自由基和ABTS+自由基的抑制作用均呈现浓度依赖性,并与果酒中总黄酮和总酚含量成正比。虽然山楂和枣混合酒的总黄酮和总酚含量及抗氧化能力不是最高的,但其口感较山楂酒和枣酒有较大提高。

  13. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

     Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  14. Wine polyphenols: potential agents in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  15. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  16. Stevia Glycosides: Chemical and Enzymatic Modifications of Their Carbohydrate Moieties to Improve the Sweet-Tasting Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwig, Gerrit J; Te Poele, Evelien M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2016-01-01

    Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeteners, especially in food, is their slight bitter aftertaste and astringency. These undesirable properties may be reduced or eliminated by modifying the carbohydrate moieties of the steviol glycosides. A promising procedure is to subject steviol glycosides to enzymatic glycosylation, thereby introducing additional monosaccharide residues into the molecules. Depending on the number and positions of the monosaccharide units, the taste quality and sweetness potency of the compounds will vary. Many studies have been performed already, and this review summarizes the structures of native steviol glycosides and the recent data of modifications of the carbohydrate moieties that have been published to provide an overview of the current progress.

  17. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Bokulich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir.

  18. Red wine asthma: a controlled challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, R; Henriksen, J M; Harving, H

    1986-12-01

    Drinking red wine may provoke bronchospasm in subjects with asthma. In order to reveal some of the possible agents involved in this reaction, 18 patients with a history of red wine-induced asthma were studied. They received, in a double-blind fashion, red wine with low sulfur dioxide (SO2) and high amine, high SO2 and high amine and low SO2 and low amine content. In each challenge, the wine was administered in stepwise increasing quantities until a total of 385 ml or a fall in peak expiratory flow of greater than 15% was reached. Nine subjects demonstrated a significant fall in peak flow in one or more challenges. In all cases the most severe reaction was observed after the wine with high SO2 content. The study suggests that SO2 is the most important factor in red wine-induced asthma. It is recommended that wine labels provide information on the SO2 content.

  19. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  20. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US ...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  1. Analysis of temperature-mediated changes in the wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var uvarum. An oenological study of how the protein content influences wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Bernal, Eugenia; Deery, Michael J; Rodríguez, María Esther; Cantoral, Jesús M; Howard, Julie; Feret, Renata; Natera, Ramón; Lilley, Kathryn S; Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum plays an important role in the fermentation of red wine from the D.O. Ribera del Duero. This is due to the special organoleptic taste that this yeast gives the wines and their ability to ferment at low temperature. To determine the molecular factors involved in the fermentation process at low temperature, a differential proteomic approach was performed by using 2D-DIGE, comparing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the profiles obtained at 13 and 25°C. A total of 152 protein spots were identified. We detected proteins upregulated at 13°C that were shown to be related to temperature stress, the production of aromatic compounds involved in the metabolism of amino acids, and the production of fusel alcohols and their derivatives, each of which is directly related to the quality of the wines. To check the temperature effects, an aromatic analysis by GC-MS was performed. The proteomic and "aromatomic" results are discussed in relation to the oenological properties of S. bayanus var. uvarum.

  2. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  3. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  4. Effects of haemodialysis on taste and thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R; Farleigh, C A; Atkinson, C; Pryor, J S

    1987-10-01

    Fifteen patients undergoing haemodialysis tasted soup varying in salt concentration and apple puree varying in sucrose concentration, immediately before and after dialysis. Matched controls tasted the same foods with a similar interval between tastings. The samples were rated for intensity, and on a relative-to-ideal scale. For the salt, the slopes of the functions plotted against log (concentration) were higher after dialysis than before, whilst the most preferred concentration was lower. There were no effects found for the sweetness ratings or for the controls. Likewise there were no overall differences in the ratings between the patients and controls. Thirst was found to increase on dialysis, and there was a trend of this being higher for the patients than for the controls. The reduction in preferences for salt by dialysis would make compliance with a reduced salt diet easier, but the increase in thirst would make compliance with reduced fluid intake more difficult.

  5. Taste-immunosuppression engram: reinforcement and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maj-Britt; Härting, Margarete; Kou, Wei; Del Rey, Adriana; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Schedlowski, Manfred; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2007-08-01

    Several Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have documented the brain's abilities to sense immune-derived signals or immune status, associate them with concurrently relevant extereoceptive stimuli, and reinstate such immune responses on demand. Specifically, the naturalistic relation of food ingestion with its possible immune consequences facilitates taste-immune associations. Here we demonstrate that the saccharin taste can be associated with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A, and that such taste-immune associative learning is subject to reinforcement. Furthermore, once consolidated, this saccharin-immunosuppression engram is resistant to extinction when avoidance behavior is assessed. More importantly, the more this engram is activated, either at association or extinction phases, the more pronounced is the conditioned immunosuppression.

  6. Sensing via intestinal sweet taste pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Young

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycaemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterised in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterising nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of gastrointestinal motility.

  7. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded wine warehouse on bonded wine premises for storing wine or allied products for credit purposes shall file...

  8. 27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.257 Labeling wine containers. (a) The proprietor must label each bottle or...

  9. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of...

  10. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  11. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain...

  12. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  13. 定量描述分析在茶汤滋味评定中的应用%Application of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method in sensory evaluation of tea infusion taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨悦; 华再欣; 张海伟; 王璟; 王淑娟; 夏涛; 戴前颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究用量化数据来判断茶叶的滋味品质,并确定茶叶感官品质特征与化学成分间的相关性。方法采用定量描述分析方法,对同一鲜叶原料加工的炒青、云尖和龙井的8种感官滋味特征分别进行定量描述,并绘制出反映滋味特征的雷达图,应用 Excel 和 SPSS18.0软件进行相关的数据分析。结果云尖在苦度、浓度、强度和涩度这4个感官特性上要弱于炒青和龙井,在鲜度这一感官特性上要强于炒青和龙井;8种茶汤滋味特征中的浓度、鲜度、苦度、涩度与茶叶化学成分具有相关性。结论定量描述分析方法可以有效地判别茶叶滋味特征,更直观地表现茶叶的滋味差异,阐明了浓度、鲜度、苦度、涩度与不同茶叶化学物质间的相关性。%Objective To determine the taste quality of tea by quantitative data, and to study the relevance of tea sensory quality characteristics and chemical composition.Methods The quantitative descriptive analysis method was used. The 8 sensory taste characteristics of Chaoqing tea, Yunjian tea and Longjing tea, made from the same fresh tea leaves were described by QDA. The radarchartsrelated to the sensory taste characteristics of 3 tea samples were made by means of mathematical statistical analysis. Excel and SPSS18.0 software were applied to related data analysis.ResultsExperimental results showed that Yunjian tea is weaker than Chaoqing tea and Longjing tea in bitterness, concentration, strength and astringent degree, while it was stronger in freshness.Eight kinds of tea taste characteristics of concentration, freshness, bitterness, and astringency showed a relevance with tea chemical composition.Conclusion QDA method could effectively distinguish the characteristics of tea taste and intuitively present differences of tea taste. Clarification of the correlations between concentration, freshness, bitterness, astringency and different chemical

  14. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use cues to assist them in making buying decisions. Consumers are also sceptical about the honesty of producers in marketing their awards. The question arises, whether, in the minds of South Africa's wine consumers, awards play a strong enough role in influencing their choice when buying wine. Research design: A convenience sample was drawn among South African wine consumers by using an online survey questionnaire. A sample of 285 was realised and the data analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings and implications: Wine awards are indeed recognised by the consumer as a cue that shapes their choices / selection criteria, but their importance is relatively low compared to other cues such as variety, vintage, producer, production method, packaging, place of origin and price. Yet, having established that decision-making is a complex set of interactions, wine awards do nevertheless play a role in supporting a decision in certain circumstances and for certain customer segments. Generally speaking, it was found that the more sophisticated a consumer (connoisseur is the less regard exists for wine awards. Not only do wine awards have lesser power in shaping decisions, but also attitudes towards the concept of wine awards are more negative. Lesser informed consumers tend to take more guidance from, and are less opinionated about the concept of wine awards. An independent monitoring authority is seen as a solution to raise the profile of wine

  15. Controlling or trusting children’s taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    problems is often used to legitimate extremely normative food education for children and control mechanism such as nudging, shaming and self-policing. In this paper, we want to focus on how taste is used in contemporary food education. We will do this by critically discussing a series of academic studies...... and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure, or a central way of sensually understanding and approaching the world. In other words, taste literacy becomes a tool to push children towards ‘hegemonic nutrition’. Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the reworking of Foucault’s governmentality concept in recent...

  16. 南瓜酒的研制%Research on the Preparation of Pumpkin Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨以南瓜为原料的发酵酒酿造工艺.[方法]通过单因素试验考察不同的酵母接种量、初始糖度、初始pH、主发酵温度对发酵南瓜酒乙醇含量的影响,再以乙醇含量、总糖度、澄清度、色泽、滋气味等因素的综合评分为依据,通过正交试验对酿造工艺进行优化.[结果]南瓜酒发酵的影响因素从主要到次要依次为酵母接种量、主发酵温度、初始pH、初始糖度;发酵的最佳条件是初始糖度20%、初始pH 3.5、主发酵温度21℃、酵母接种量6%,主发酵时间7d.主发酵液离心取上清液经10 d后发酵处理,得到成品南瓜酒.南瓜酒的相关理化指标为:乙醇含量11.0%-12.0%(V/V),糖度4~5g/L;得到的南瓜酒色泽呈浅橙黄色,酒中带有南瓜清香,甜酸协调适口,酒体透明、无沉淀.[结论]南瓜酒口感柔和,气味独具南瓜果味芬芳,是一种极具市场潜力的保健型果酒.%[Objective] The fermentation technology of pumpkin wine was experimented. [Method] The effect of the different inoculation quantities of yeast, initial concentration of sugar, initial pH value and fermentation temperature on the content of alcohol fermented pumpkin and the fermentation technology of pumpkin wine optimized by means of orthogonal design based on the comprehensive evaluation of alcohol degree, content of total sugar, clarifying degree, colour, taste and others. [Result] The factor affecting the pumpkin wine fermentation was inoculation quantities of yeast > fermentation temperature > initial pH value > initial concentration of sugar and the best technical condition was the content of initial sugar was 22% ; the initial pH value, 3. 5; the fermentation temperature, 21 ℃; the amount of yeast-inoculating, 6% and the fermentation time, 7 days. The supernatant centrifuged from the fermented liquid was fermented again after 10 days and the pumpkin wine would be made. The relevant physiochemical index

  17. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  18. Contribution of different taste cells and signaling pathways to the discrimination of "bitter" taste stimuli by an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Davis, Adrienne; Ramaswamy, Sudha

    2002-08-15

    Animals can discriminate among many different types of foods. This discrimination process involves multiple sensory systems, but the sense of taste is known to play a central role. We asked how the taste system contributes to the discrimination of different "bitter" taste stimuli in Manduca sexta caterpillars. This insect has approximately eight bilateral pairs of taste cells that respond selectively to bitter taste stimuli. Each bilateral pair of bitter-sensitive taste cells has a different molecular receptive range (MRR); some of these taste cells also contain two signaling pathways with distinctive MRRs and temporal patterns of spiking. To test for discrimination, we habituated the caterpillar's taste-mediated aversive response to one bitter taste stimulus (salicin) and then asked whether this habituation phenomenon generalized to four other bitter taste stimuli (caffeine, aristolochic acid, Grindelia extract, and Canna extract). We inferred that the two compounds were discriminable if the habituation phenomenon failed to generalize (e.g., from salicin to aristolochic acid). We found that M. sexta could discriminate between salicin and those bitter taste stimuli that activate (1) different populations of bitter-sensitive taste cells (Grindelia extract and Canna extract) or (2) different signaling pathways within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (aristolochic acid). M. sexta could not discriminate between salicin and a bitter taste stimulus that activates the same signaling pathway within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (caffeine). We propose that the heterogeneous population of bitter-sensitive taste cells and signaling pathways within this insect facilitates the discrimination of bitter taste stimuli.

  19. The Brewing Process of Wheat-poured Wine%“麦淋酒”的酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王都留; 叶文斌; 杨建东; 何九军

    2012-01-01

    "麦淋酒"是礼县大潭人酿造的一种低度酒,属白酒中的一种小曲酒.该酒以小麦为主要原料以青稞、荞及高粱为次要原料酿造.其酒色透明,酒味独特,性地平和.麦淋酒在酿制过程中采用纯粮食酿造,不添加任何其它物质,特别是以"百草尖"自制独特的酒曲,使该酒口味独特,具有一定的保健作用.其酿造过程一般经过制曲、发酵、烤酒三个阶段.%"wheat-poured wine" is a low alcohol liquors distilled by local people of the datan in Lixian, and this spirits is belong to a yeast liquor. The main raw materials of the wine are wheat, buckwheat and sorghum as for secondary raw materials. Wheat-poured wine are transparent, unique flavor and moderate taste. Which is made of pure grain, not adding other substances, in brewing process, Yeast-making, fermenting and roasting are three major stages. Specially, if "Baieao tip" is as distiller's yeast, this spirits has a u- nique taste and a certain role in health care.

  20. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Belda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production of high quality wines are astounding. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the impact of microorganisms in wine aroma and flavour, and the biochemical reactions and pathways in which they participate, therefore contributing to both the quality and acceptability of wine. In this context, an overview of genetic and transcriptional studies to explain and interpret these effects is included, and new directions are proposed. It also considers the contribution of human oral microbiota to wine aroma conversion and perception during wine consumption. The potential use of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as biological tools to enhance wine quality and the advent of promising advice allowed by pioneering -omics technologies on wine research are also discussed.

  1. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2017-01-24

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer's preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production of high quality wines are astounding. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the impact of microorganisms in wine aroma and flavour, and the biochemical reactions and pathways in which they participate, therefore contributing to both the quality and acceptability of wine. In this context, an overview of genetic and transcriptional studies to explain and interpret these effects is included, and new directions are proposed. It also considers the contribution of human oral microbiota to wine aroma conversion and perception during wine consumption. The potential use of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as biological tools to enhance wine quality and the advent of promising advice allowed by pioneering -omics technologies on wine research are also discussed.

  2. Development of an analytical methodology using Fourier transform mass spectrometry to discover new structural analogs of wine natural sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Axel; Génin, Eric; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bibès, Alice; Da Costa, Grégory; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Volatile and non-volatile molecules are directly responsible for the thrill and excitement provided by wine-tasting. Their elucidation requires powerful analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. In a recent work, two novel sweet compounds called quercotriterpenosides (QTT) were identified in oak wood used for wine-ageing. The aim of the present study is to discover structural analogs of such natural sweeteners in oak wood. For this purpose, an analytical approach was developed as an alternative to chemical synthesis. Orbitrap mass spectrometry proved to be a crucial technique both to demonstrate the presence of QTT analogs in oak wood by targeted screening and to guide the purification pathway of these molecules using complementary chromatographic tools. Four compounds were isolated and identified for the first time: two isomers, one glucosyl derivative and one galloyl derivative of QTT. Their tasting showed that only the two new isomers were sweet, thus demonstrating both the pertinence of the strategy and the influence of functional groups on gustatory properties. Finally, this paper presents some developments involving multistage Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) to provide solid structural information on these functional groups prior to any purification of compounds. Such analytical developments could be particularly useful for research on taste-active or bio-active products.

  3. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...

  4. 品味德国葡萄酒%Tasting of German wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭松泉

    2001-01-01

    @@ 德国葡萄酒素以清新幽雅、细致绵润而著称,在13个葡萄酒产区中,各区又根据不同的气候、品种和酿酒技术,造就了五彩缤纷、花式繁多、不同品味的酒种. 在风景秀丽、气候宜人的夏末秋初,我和的中国新闻代表团一起,到美丽浪漫的葡萄酒产区采风,品尝到不少美酒佳酿.

  5. TASTE COLOR ,FRAGRANCE OF RED WINE%色香味品红酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2006-01-01

    在中国人们的心目中,好味道的东西总是色香味俱全的,观色、闻香、品味.让我们的感官享受了圆满。代表了健康与优雅的red wine如何来诠释这种圆满,请擦亮你们的高脚杯拭目以待吧!

  6. 西凤玛咖酒的生产工艺简介%Introduction to the Production of Xifeng Maca Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科岐

    2016-01-01

    Xifeng Maca Wine, a compound wine product developed based on the practical development of Xifeng liquor and market require-ments, is produced through steaming, soaking, filtration, and blending with Fengxiang Baijiu as base liquor and maca as raw material. The wine is transparent and golden yellow in color and it has soft taste and harmonious aroma with Fengxiang features.%西凤玛咖酒是基于西凤酒发展实际和消费市场需求而研制的配制酒,其以凤香型白酒作为基酒,玛咖为原料,经清蒸、浸泡、过滤、勾调等工序加工而成.西凤玛咖酒色泽金黄透明、口感绵柔,酒体药香味协调,是一种具有凤型特色的玛咖酒.

  7. 糯米酒最佳发酵工艺条件研究%Study on Optimum Fermentation Conditions for Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗世芹; 姚万欣

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, rice wine fermentation process were studied and found that compared to the rice wine sensory have the effect of temperature, koji amount, fermentation time, feed water, when the fermentation temperature reached 30 ℃ , koji amount of 0.5%, fermentation time 4d material to water ratio of 1:08, the resulting rice wine taste the best.%对糯米酒发酵工艺进行了研究,发现温度、酒曲量、发酵时间、料水比对糯米酒的感官都有影响,当发酵温度达到30℃,酒曲量为0.5%,发酵时间为4d,料水比为1∶08时,产生的糯米酒口感最佳。

  8. The application of chitosan and benzothiadiazole in vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv Groppello Gentile) changes the aromatic profile and sensory attributes of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalini, Sara; Ruggiero, Antonietta; Rapparini, Francesca; Neri, Luisa; Tonni, Marco; Iriti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the effects of resistance inducers on wine aroma compounds and sensory attributes. Resistance inducers are a class of products able to elicit the plant defence mechanisms against pathogens, incurring lower toxicological risks than conventional agrochemicals. Among them, chitosan (CHT) and benzothiadiazole (BTH) are particularly effective in stimulating the biosynthesis of bioactive phytochemicals. They were used in a two-year survey conducted to assess experimental wines obtained from elicitor-treated grapes. Compared with conventional fungicides (penconazole and methyldinocap), in 2009, BTH increased total acetals and esters, while CHT raised the levels of total acetals and alcohols. Sensory analysis revealed that overall acceptance was higher in CHT than in BTH. In 2010, differences were not significant. Therefore, plant activators deserve attention beyond their efficacy in crop protection. In particular, in our experimental conditions, CHT improved the volatile profile, flavour and taste of Groppello wine.

  9. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  10. Flow analysis from PIV in engraved champagne tasting glasses: flute versus coupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Fabien; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Glass shape, and especially its open aperture, is suspected to play an important role as concerns the kinetics of CO2 and flavor release during champagne tasting. In recent years, much interest has been devoted to depict each and every parameter involved in the release of gaseous CO2 from glasses poured with champagne. One cannot understand the bubbling and aromatic exhalation events in champagne tasting, however, without studying the flow-mixing mechanisms inside the glass. Indeed, a key assumption is that a causal link may exist between flow structures created in the wine due to bubble motion and the process of CO2 release and flavor exhalation. In the present work, two quite emblematic types of champagne drinking vessels are studied. The particle image velocimetry technique has been used in order to reveal the velocity field of the liquid due to the ascending bubble-driven flow for both glasses poured with champagne. The contribution of glass shape on the flow patterns and CO2 release in both glasses are discussed by the use of experimental results. The results show that the continuous flow of ascending bubbles strongly modifies the mixing and convection conditions of the surrounding liquid medium whose behavior is strongly glass shape dependent.

  11. Evaluation of nitrates in albanian wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariola Morina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates are important compounds in nature but not desirable if they are present in wine at increased amount. The high level of nitrate is attributed to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in the vineyards. Method of the reactive Gries I and Gries II was used for the determination of nitrates in wine. There were analyzed 45 white wines and 55 red wines produced in 2008 – 2010, as well as wines produced from Albanian grape varieties Shesh i Bardhë and Shesh i Zi in 2009 and 2010, as an authentic wines evidence with denominated origin. From the results of analyses was observed that, in 51 % of white wines was found that the content of nitrates were less than 5 mg/l, in 46% of them the nitrates level goes up to 10 mg/l and only in 3 % of them the amount of nitrates is up to 12 mg/l. None of white wine samples have the content of nitrates over 20 mg/l. In this case there is no doubt for water addition during wine preparation. In regards of red wines, in 34% of them the amount of nitrates is up to 5 mg/l, in 30% of them up to 10 mg/l, while in 26% of them the amount of nitrates is 20 mg/l. Only 10 % of red wines have nitrates content over 20 mg/l which raise dubiety for falsified wines where water and sugar is added in the red marc. The level of nitrates in wines with denominated origin was under 20 mg/L.

  12. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller

  13. Gustology As A Science About The Aesthetical Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NataliaG.Kalashnik

    2003-01-01

    The new problem to be solved together; Last decade's changes of the world; The aesthetical taste as a part of day-by-day life; Gustology - the new science; Definitions and the double nature of the aesthetical taste; History of the aesthetical taste studying.

  14. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  15. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  16. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  17. Music taste groups and problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-

  18. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  19. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  20. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  1. Somatosensory factors in taste perception: Effects of active tasting and solution temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Touch and temperature are recognized as important factors in food perception, but much remains to be learned about how they contribute to the perception of flavor. The present paper describes human psychophysical studies that investigated two recently discovered effects of mechanical and thermal stimulation on taste: (1) enhancement of the savory taste of MSG by active tongue and mouth movements, and (2) modulation of the rate of adaptation to sucrose sweetness by temperature. The first study...

  2. Deacidification of Chinese bayberry-wine based on electrodialysis%电渗析法用于杨梅果酒降酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周增群; 钟烈洲; 黄海智; 叶兴乾

    2012-01-01

    杨梅清汁深层发酵生产的杨梅果酒有机酸含量高,以致酒体口感粗糙,口味不协调。利用一种改进的普通膜两隔室电渗析设备,对杨梅果酒进行了降酸。实验结果显示杨梅果酒可滴定酸的含量能够在短时间内.bkl2-14g/LN-低到6-8g/L;同时,pH升高,挥发酸降低;降酸速度快,连续,大大提高了杨梅果酒的口感和品质。实验结果表明.本技术也有可能作为其它高酸度果酒、果汁的降酸手段。%The bayberry-wine with high acidity which submerged fermented from clarified bayberry juice led to the wine taste rough,uncoordinated. The reduction of acidity of bayberry-wine by electrodialysis (ED) with ordinary membrane and two compartments was investigated at the laboratory. Results showed that the titratable acid (TA) content of bayberry-wine had decreased from 12-14g/L to 6-8g/L, fast and effectively. Moreover, the deacidification process increased the pH up to 3.5,decreased the volatile acid. This continuous process improved the taste and quality of the wine greatly. The results indicated that the technology had the potential application of deacidification for other fruit wine which has high acidity.

  3. KADAR DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA POLIFENOL PADA WINE TERBUAT DARI CAMPURAN BUAH EKSTRAK DELIMA DAN PISANG (THE IDENTIFICATION OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS AND ITS CONTENT OF WINE DERIVED FROM MIXED FRUITS OF POMEGRANATE AND BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Titin Nge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research aimed at describing quality and identifies polyphenols of wine made from a mixture of banana and pomegranate fruits. The wines with four different ratios of pomegranate-banana fruits were made (pomegranate: banana: 75:25; 62,5:37,5; 50:50; and 0:100 (control. Ethanol concentrations and taste were used as quality criteria. The ethanol was measured using gas chromatography and the tastes were determined with organoleptic test. HPLC methods were used to measure the total polyphenols and identify their chemical identity. The results of this research was that the ethanol concentration (% varied between treatments (pomegranate: banana extract, %: 10,33 (75:25; 8,62 (62,5:37,5; 4,88 (50:50; and 9,44 (100: 0 and the organoleptic test by 30 panelist resulted in that the mixture of pomegranate:banana of 50:50 (% was prefered most. The result also showed that the total polyphenol varied from 3,902 to 4,897 mg/ml, in which the more the pomegranate extract added the more the total polyphenol present in the wine. Further, HPLC analysis of polyphenol for wine with different combined fruit extracts (75:25; 62,5:37,5; 50:50; and 0:100 resulted in the identification of 41, 42, and 42, and 22 peak respectively. Predominant types of polyphenols in pomegranate extract added wine are galloyl-hexoxide, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, punicalagin α, β punicalagin, and elagic acid. On the otherhand few polyphenols were present dominantly or exclusively in banana extract added wine: naringenin, quercetin-deoxyhexose, and rutin.ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan kualitas dan mengidentifikasi polifenol yang terkandung di dalam wine yang dibuat dari campuran buah pisang dan delima. Wine dimaksudkan dibuat dalam 4 perlakuan berbeda berdasarkan % ekstrak buah delima: pisang, yakni berturut-turut dalam rasio: 75:25; 62,5:37,5; 50:50; dan 0:100 (kontrol. Konsentrasi etanol dan citarasa

  4. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR BY OPTICAL RED WINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana STOIAN

    2014-01-01

    Study exhaustive wine area is a frequently researched topic since the beginning of 2000 when it comes to legislative bases for wine and wine products. Among the considerations that led to its choice of study include: Romania considerable resources in terms of agricultural area, and especially the wine (mention here the existence of eight wine regions, vineyards and a hundred thirty seven) support and attention given to the legislative branch of Romanian wine (by law 244/2002-Legea vineyard an...

  5. Sales Growth Following the Quality Improvement of the Wine and Wine Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Antohi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition in any area of activity makes the level of quality as one of the effective tools that determine the worldwide competitiveness of products. Motivation of the activity of any enterprise, the quality of products is necessary to build and maintain a good reputation, becoming an important factor in gaining of new markets. The wine industry of Moldova Republic is at a crossroads. The interdiction of Moldavian wines import in Russia since 2013 was balanced by opening the European Union market for Moldavian wines, plus the steps taken by Moldova to join the EU. To withstand the challenges, the wine industry of Moldova has to pursue long-term recovery and development. For that, all area producers have to change their thinking and action manner, developing and implementing plans that rely on their own forces. Complex analysis underlying such plans has to consider bot the cultivation of the vine and the wine production. Thus, they have to pursue the use of all agricultural lands that are suitable for the cultivation of vines to produce wines with denomination of origin and wines with designation of origin (PSR wineswines produced in specified regions, increasing the share of these wines in total wine production. Also, the existing techniques of grape processing and winemaking, the efficient use of equipment and the insurance of proper hygiene of equipment have to be analysed to improve the quality of wine. It is imperative to implement appropriate quality systems in wine making enterprises. The application of these measures will ensure the enhancement of wine and other wine products quality, the improvement of inland wine production image and the export promotions.

  6. Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project - the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project - is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future

  7. Research Progress in Yeast Biodiversity in Grape Wine-producing Areas in China%中国葡萄酒产区酵母生物多样性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凯凯; 秦伟帅; 田冬; 苗丽平; 赵新节

    2015-01-01

    The fermenting properties of yeast strains have important influence on wine aroma, wine taste and wine typicality. The exploration of yeast biodiversity in each grape wine-producing area is of great importance in providing characteristic yeast strains for wine-making and yeast research. In this paper, the research progress in yeast biodiversity in grape wine-producing areas in China was introduced, which could provide useful reference for the construction of Chinese wine yeast strains resource bank.%菌种的发酵性能对葡萄酒的香气、口感及典型性有重要影响,探明每个葡萄酒产区酵母的生物多样性,为以后产区特色酵母菌种资源选育提供必要的研究基础,具有重要意义.对中国主要葡萄酒产区酵母生物多样性研究进行了综合阐述,为中国葡萄酒酵母菌种资源库的构建提供一定的参考.

  8. Utilization of pineapple waste for wine making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alian, A.

    1976-01-01

    Wines were produced from pineapple canning waste, viz. pulp, boiled waste and unboiled waste. The constituents for preparing the liquor and results of physical, chemical and organoleptic analyses of clarified wines are shown in tables. The balance of alcohol, sugar and acid for the 3 batches was within the normal range for wines (alcohol 11.4 to 13.5% Brix readings 8 to 11, total acids 0.505 to 0.519 g/100 ml); volatile acids and aldehydes were higher in wines made from waste, esters higher in wines made from pulp. The amounts of volatile acids, esters and aldehydes indicated the absence of bacterial interferene in the fermentation. Organoleptic evaluation on a 10 point scale after 2 months' ageing gave weighted averages of 6.41 (good), 8.55 (very good) and 6.77 (good) for wines from pulp, boiled waste and unboiled waste respectively.

  9. TASTE MASKING METHODS AND AGENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion exchange resin, Coating, Granulation, Microencapsulation, Flavors, and Sweeteners, Pro-drug etc.The review also highlights factors affecting the selection of technology for taste masking and methods for evaluation of taste.

  10. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  11. Genetic and functional diversity of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiano, Arturo; Kuramae, Eiko; de Hollander, Matias; Kowalchuck, George; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Pastorelli, Roberta; Fornasier, Flavio; Priori, Simone; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Despite the economic importance of vineyards in Italy, the wine sector is facing severe challenges from increased global competition and climate changes. The quality of the grape at harvest has a strong direct impact on final wine quality and the strong relationship between wine composition, aroma, taste and soil properties has been outlined in the "Terroir concept". However, information on the impact of soil microbial communities on soil functions, grapevine plants and wine quality is still lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the composition and the potential functions of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants grown in two soils which showed similar physical, chemical and hydrological properties but which provided a different wine quality. Materials and Methods Soils from two sites of the Chianti region in Tuscany (BRO11 and BRO12) cultivated with the grapevine cultivar Sangiovese with contrasting wine quality were examined by means of a structural and functional approach: specifically, GeoChip microarrays, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, enzyme assays and measurements of some soil biological properties, such as microbial biomass C and soil respiration, were carried out. Results Enzyme assays and soil biological analyses revealed a higher biological activity in BRO11 as compared to BRO12. The structure of soil microbial communities, assessed using 16S and 18S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing, revealed a higher presence of Actinobacteria in the BRO12 than in the BRO11 soil where, in contrast, the alfa-Proteobacteria are more abundant. GeoChip microarray analyses revealed a consistent difference in genes involved in S cycling, with a significant overrepresentation of sulfur-oxidation genes in BRO11 and increased levels of sulfate reduction genes BRO12. These results are consistent with the high content of sulfates and the abundance of Firmicutes such as Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans in the BRO

  12. Uric acid and antioxidant effects of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Mladen; Modun, Darko

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this article is to review the role of uric acid in the context of antioxidant effects of wine and its potential implication to human health. We described and discussed the mechanisms of increase in plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of moderate amounts of wine. Because this effect is largely contributed by acute elevation in plasma uric acid, we paid special attention to wine constituents and metabolic processes that are likely to be involved in uric acid elevation.

  13. Uric Acid and Antioxidant Effects of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Boban, Mladen; Modun, Darko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the role of uric acid in the context of antioxidant effects of wine and its potential implication to human health. We described and discussed the mechanisms of increase in plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of moderate amounts of wine. Because this effect is largely contributed by acute elevation in plasma uric acid, we paid special attention to wine constituents and metabolic processes that are likely to be involved in uric acid elevation.

  14. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  15. 复方烧伤膏收敛止痛的疗效观察%Analgesic effect and astringency of Compound burn ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Background:Burns are injuries caused by attaching factors such as high-temperature,strong acids,and bases etc.Areola and blister or vesticles appear at site in mild cases.Charring,serious toxic heat,consumption of yin fluid,fever,dizzy,thirst,constipation,and oliguria appear in severe cases.Compound burn ointment was developed according to modern traditional Chineses medicine principles and pathological changes of burned skin,which consisted of Sanguisorba root 120 g,Earth worm 120 g,Fibraurea stem 120 g,Dandelion herb 150 g,Dried rehmannia root 150 g,Huanglian 120 g,Yuanhu 150 g,Beeswax 120 g,Borneol 30 g,Oliva 2000 g. Objective:To investigate the analgesic and astringency of compound burn ointment. Unit: Affiliated Central Hospital of Shengyang Medical College.

  16. 雪菊米酒的研制%Development of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓菊; 金英姿

    2016-01-01

    With the Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, glutinous rice as the main raw materials,develop a new rice wine-Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt rice wine. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal test to determine the optimum process conditions were:Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt extract addition 20%,the swet song addition 1.0%, yeast addition 0.08%,fermentation time 5 days. Under the conditions , the Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt rice wine had a delicate taste and unique flavor , and had the functions of nutrintion value and health effects.%以雪菊、糯米为主要原料,研制新型米酒———雪菊米酒。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳工艺条件是:雪菊提取液添加量20%、甜酒曲添加量1.0%、酿酒酵母添加量0.08%、发酵时间5 d。在此条件下制备的雪菊米酒口感细腻、风味独特,兼有雪菊和米酒的营养价值和保健作用。

  17. Exploring Retro-Nasal Aroma’s Influence on Mouthfeel Perception of Chardonnay Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sereni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many interactions that occur between taste and aroma that may impact perception. The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether the aroma fraction of wine should be considered when investigating relationships between chemical composition and sensory perception of mouthfeel. Chardonnay wines with different mouthfeels were produced by altering the fermentation temperature (15 °C and 21 °C of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations (MLF as well as the timing of MLF and the presence of a non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Napping® and Ultra-flash-profiling were conducted using a panel of white winemakers. Each procedure was conducted twice: once with retro-nasal aroma (+R and once without retronasal aroma (−R. Napping® results showed that retronasal aroma impacted mouthfeel perception. Ultra-flash profiling of +R and −R displayed similar descriptive terms used. Several terms appear to be related to retronasal aroma as they were used in +R and not in −R. It is unclear if these terms are due to interactions or due to associated learning. These results suggest that for some mouthfeel terms the volatile fraction plays a role and, to establish relationships between chemical composition and mouthfeel perception, it is important to consider both the volatile and nonvolatile wine fractions.

  18. Performance of Language-Coordinated Collective Systems: A Study of Wine Recognition and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Dębska, Agnieszka; Radkowska, Alicja; Komorowska-Mach, Joanna; Litwin, Piotr; Stępień, Magdalena; Kucińska, Adrianna; Sitarska, Ewa; Komorowska, Krystyna; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Most of our perceptions of and engagements with the world are shaped by our immersion in social interactions, cultural traditions, tools and linguistic categories. In this study we experimentally investigate the impact of two types of language-based coordination on the recognition and description of complex sensory stimuli: that of red wine. Participants were asked to taste, remember and successively recognize samples of wines within a larger set in a two-by-two experimental design: (1) either individually or in pairs, and (2) with or without the support of a sommelier card—a cultural linguistic tool designed for wine description. Both effectiveness of recognition and the kinds of errors in the four conditions were analyzed. While our experimental manipulations did not impact recognition accuracy, bias-variance decomposition of error revealed non-trivial differences in how participants solved the task. Pairs generally displayed reduced bias and increased variance compared to individuals, however the variance dropped significantly when they used the sommelier card. The effect of sommelier card reducing the variance was observed only in pairs, individuals did not seem to benefit from the cultural linguistic tool. Analysis of descriptions generated with the aid of sommelier cards shows that pairs were more coherent and discriminative than individuals. The findings are discussed in terms of global properties and dynamics of collective systems when constrained by different types of cultural practices. PMID:27729875

  19. Mathematical model of wine evaluation%葡萄酒评价的数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王葳; 陆诗荣

    2014-01-01

    2012年全国大学生数学建模竞赛A题附件1给出了某一年份一些葡萄酒的评价结果。应用概率论与数理统计中的假设检验分析2组评酒员的评价结果有无显著性差异和哪一组结果更可靠,最终得出第2组评酒员的结果更为可信。%In 2012,the national college students′mathematical contest in modeling A problem′s attachment 1 shows evaluation results of some wine in a year. Analyzed of the evaluation results of the two wine-tasting,researched whether there were significant differences and which group′s results more reliable with application of probability and mathematical statistical hypothesis testing,finally it is concluded that the second group′s results more credible evaluation of wine.

  20. Performance of language-coordinated collective systems: A study of wine recognition and description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Zubek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of our perceptions of and engagements with the world are shaped by our immersion in socialinteractions, cultural traditions, tools and linguistic categories. In this study we experimentallyinvestigate the impact of two types of language-based coordination on the recognition anddescription of complex sensory stimuli: that of red wine. Participants were asked to taste,remember and successively recognize samples of wines within a larger set in a two-by-twoexperimental design: 1 either individually or in pairs, and 2 with or without the support of asommelier card – a cultural linguistic tool designed for wine description. Both effectiveness ofrecognition and the kinds of errors in the four conditions were analyzed. While our experimentalmanipulations did not impact recognition accuracy, bias-variance decomposition of error revealsnon-trivial differences in how participants solved the task. Pairs generally displayed reduced biasand increased variance compared to individuals, however the variance dropped significantly whenthey used the sommelier card. The effect of card reducing the variance was observed only inpairs, individuals did not seem to benefit from the cultural linguistic tool. Subsequent analysis ofdescriptions generated with the aid of card by individuals and pairs showed that they were moreconsistent and discriminative in the case of pairs. The findings are discussed in terms of globalproperties and dynamics of collective systems when constrained by different types of culturalpractices.

  1. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  2. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  3. HISTORICAL FRAGMENTS OF ESTABLISHMENT OF "MAGARACH" SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTE OF GRAPES AND WINE AND THE ELEMENTS OF ITS SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova-Donchouk L. B.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents historical information about the stages of gradual transformation of the first non-large wine-making institution of Crimea, organized in 1828 under the initiative of Prince M.S. Vorontsov in the natural boundary called Magarach near the Imperial Nikitsky botanical garden in the world famous Institute of Grape and Wine "Magarach" - once the chief coordinator of the research work in the field of viticulture and winemaking republics of the USSR and the main forge of scientific staff in this direction. Among the directors of the institute of the last century, there were such talented organizers as A.G. Globa, T.G. Kataryan, P.Y. Golodriga. The Institute operated a network of regional branches, created enotec with a settled in 1836 wine Muscat pink Magarach (World rarity is reflected in the Guinness book of records, the world ampelographic collection (fourth in number of samples, scientists developed area-standard assortment for production, issued 11 Volumes of "Ampelography of USSR" (awarded by OIV, designed a lot of outstanding for yield and stability varieties (Pervenets Magaracha, Ranniy Magaracha, Citron Magaracha et al. and clones (Muscat white of Red Stone, Pinot Noir yields and others. grapes. There was a significant contribution in the sphere of research and development of viticulture and winemaking of world, the institute was given an international prestige and this led to establishing the base of the General Assembly of the OIV - International Organization of Grape and Wine, the International Symposium on the selection of wine-town, several international wine tasting competitions and International finest examples of table grapes

  4. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  5. The discovery and mechanism of sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    Excess sugar intake posts several health problems. Artificial sweeteners have been used for years to reduce dietary sugar content, but they are not ideal substitutes for sugar owing to their off-taste. A new strategy focused on allosteric modulation of the sweet taste receptor led to identification of sweet taste 'enhancers' for the first time. The enhancer molecules do not taste sweet, but greatly potentiate the sweet taste of sucrose and sucralose selectively. Following a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancers, the sweet enhancer molecules cooperatively bind with the sweeteners to the Venus flytrap domain of the human sweet taste receptor and stabilize the active conformation. Now that the approach has proven successful, enhancers for other sweeteners and details of the molecular mechanism for the enhancement are being actively pursued.

  6. Investigation of Phenolic Components of Hungarian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Márk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-two wines from the southernmost wine-producing region in Hungary(Villány were analyzed for their polyphenolic content by high performance liquidchromatography (HPLC. Our results show that wine variety or vintage year could not bedistinguished based on polyphenol content, but winery origin could be. Resveratrolconcentration is mainly dependent on variety and vintage year. The “human factor” (i.e.,winemaking style and technology seems to be more decisive for the polyphenoliccomposition of red wines than other factors, such as variety and vintage year.

  7. MOLDOVA Where the Fine Wine Comes from

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Moldova is an ancient wine making region. The wine-making sector is one of the most important in Moldova, a traditional wine producer for many years, 25% of the country's exports and 9% of its gross output pertain to winemaking. This sector includes 25% of industrial working resources. Moldova vineyards occupy 2.3% of the world's territory planted with vineyards. The Republic of Moldova features in the list of the top ten wine and grape producing countries in the world.……

  8. Selected Stories from the History of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estreicher, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    The archaeological and chemical evidence of wine making shows that vines were cultivated and wine produced well over 7,000 years ago. Wine has been a part of the history of Western Civilization ever since. This talk will start with a brief overview of the key events in the history of wine, and then I will select a few topics which will be discussed in more detail. One of the topics includes a rather tenuous connection to Isaac Newton himself, a futile attempt on my part to justify the very existence of this talk at a Texas Section APS meeting.

  9. Wine Tourism: A Serious Leisure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll A. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today wine tourism is emerging as an important component of rural diversification in North Carolina. Using Stebbins’ (1992 model of serious leisure as a guideline, the purpose of this study is to explore how wine tourism may be viewed as a type of serious leisure and to suggest a conceptual approach to the study of wine consumers in order to develop effective wine marketing strategies for local wineries in North Carolina. In addition, this study suggests an approach that small North Carolina wineries might use to identify various types of winery visitors and better position their products.   

  10. French Wine Grape Investigation Report%法国葡萄酒生产考察报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉文; 李惠军; 虎玉宝; 贺西平

    2015-01-01

    通过对法国酿酒葡萄栽培品种、种植管理技术、酿造工艺、苗木繁育、葡萄酒等级分类、侍酒技术及法国葡萄酒化验检测分析、生产销售模式、酿造设备配供考察,提出了宁夏葡萄酒生产在搞好产业规划、培养人才的同时,挖掘培育宁夏贺兰山东麓葡萄酒文化,加强政府对葡萄酒生产的投入和监管力度,逐步完善建立人才培养、质量追朔体系、检测化验技术中心、专业合作社生产销售等措施,以推动宁夏贺兰山东麓葡萄酒产业向优质、高效的目标健康、持续发展。%Based on a learning of the French wine tasting and method, wine grape cultivar, planting management technology, brewing process, seedling breeding, wine classification, sommelier technology as well as the laboratory analysis and detection of the French wine, production and sales mode and brewing equipment allocation, some measures are put forward for wine production in Ningxia, such as doing a good job of industrial planning and talents cultivation, excavating and cultivating the wine culture of the eastern foot of Helan Mountain in Ningxia, enhancing government investment and supervision in wine production, establishment and gradual improvement of talents cultivation and quality traceability system, center of laboratory analysis and detection of wine and production and sales with professional cooperatives, to push the wine industry of the eastern foot of Helan Mountain in Ningxia to develop towards the objective of high quality and high efficiency healthily and sustainably.

  11. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  12. Wine and Coca Cola: Serendipity and Entrepreneurial success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Philip

    2007-03-01

    Starting a new company from scratch depends critically on identifying a product for which there will be enough demand to generate a profit after a reasonable time period. Many start-ups nowadays obtain early Government grants or contracts (e. g. the so-called SBIR programs), but until such contracts begin (if ever!) to provide positive cash flow, a source of other funds become essential. Despite contracts, venture capital, and some friends willing to ``gamble,'' our first entrepreneurial venture ended not with a bang, but a whimper! We had chosen the wrong market. On the day before the company closed its doors, an unanticipated event occurred. We had opened a few bottles of wine for our final farewell but, as we began drinking, we decided to study their laser-scattering properties with our unappreciated and failed instrumentation. The resulting press coverage of a paper reporting that ``tasting'' was phenomenal, though it was published too late to save the company. Starting a second entrepreneurial venture was far more difficult as the first ``angels'' were nowhere to be found. A forgotten proposal by that failed first venture was suddenly funded providing, thereby, the means to start the second. As the second venture began, the success of the wine paper suggested that trying the same method with cola drinks might prove interesting. A new paper reporting on those results was immediately picked up by Applied Optics for an issue cover. At first, a particular cola manufacturer was not amused. However, it soon recognized the significance of laser scattering and began to contribute to the Company's support. Complemented by their largesse and the newly funded contract, the Company's instrumentation commercialization programs became sharply focused: refine the development and sale of a new type of absolute light scattering photometer incorporating a laser. We never looked back.

  13. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed.

  14. Sweet Rice Wine Brewed with Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯酿制甜米酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤瑾; 李金生

    2009-01-01

    紫心甘薯含有大量的花青素,有一定的保健作用.以紫心甘薯为原料与糯米混合糖化发酵酿制的紫薯甜米酒,色泽深红透亮,口味鲜甜,酒香浓郁,该种深红色米酒为米酒类产品增添了新品种,同时为紫心甘薯的综合利用提供了新途径.%Purple-fleshed sweet potato contains plenty of anthocyanin,which promotes health in a certain way.The purple sweet potato rice wine is brewed from the fermented mixture of saccharified purple-fleshed sweet potato and glutinous rice.As the wine has a crystal carmine color,a fresh taste and fragrant odor,the burgundy-colored rice wine has added a new variety to the rice wine family,which provides a new way for the comprehensive use of purple-fleshed sweet potato.

  15. Instant wine recognition on mobile devices: Delectable, the social wine app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Paes-Leme, Cassio; Wild, Jevon; Farrell, Kevin; Kang, Derick

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a wine social app Delectable. Delectable provides a social platform for users to capture, rate, comment, and research wine using their mobile devices. We implement a system to automatically recognize wine when users take a picture of the wine label. We address some of the difficulties of label recognition, such as the light condition, viewing angles and similarities among the same wine producers. As a recognition system that demands high accuracy, our system is integrated with both machine recognition and human crowd sourced recognition. We give an overview of the recognition system and illustrate the user experience.

  16. Wine and Words: A Trilingual Wine Dictionary for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. van der Merwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The South African wine industry identified the need for a special-field on-line dictionary on viticulture and oenology in Afrikaans, English and isi-Xhosa. The dictionary provides information on wine terminology as well as linguistic information on the use of such terminology. The purpose of this article is to give a description of the project. The process of compiling the dictionary is described, from the co-operation between the wine industry and lexicographers to the intended target users and the choice of languages of the dictionary. Functions of the dictionary are discussed, with reference to specific user situations, namely text production, text reception and translation. A system of labels has been designed for the dictionary and its benefit for the user is explained. In assisting the user to make an informed choice of a term, the notion of proscriptiveness has been followed in the presentation of information in the wine dictionary.

    Keywords: TRILINGUAL WINE DICTIONARY, SPECIALISED LEXICOGRAPHY, VITICULTUREAND OENOLOGY TERMS, ON-LINE DICTIONARY, TARGET USERS, USER SITUATIONS,FUNCTIONS, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, LABELS, ENCYCLOPEDICKNOWLEDGE, LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE, PROSCRIPTION

    Opsomming: Wyn en woorde: 'n Drietalige Wynwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf het die behoefte aan 'n aanlynvakwoordeboek oor wynenwingerdkunde in Afrikaans, Engels en isiXhosa geïdentifiseer. Die woordeboek verskaf inligtingoor wynterminologie, sowel as taalkundige inligting oor die gebruik van sulke terminologie. Diedoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n beskrywing van die projek te gee. Die samestellingsproses van diewoordeboek word beskryf, vanaf die samewerking tussen die wynbedryf en die leksikograwe, totdie voorgestelde teikengebruikers en die keuse van die tale van die woordeboek. Funksies van diewoordeboek word bespreek, met verwysing na spesifieke gebruikersituasies, naamlik teksproduksie

  17. Electronic tongue-based discrimination of Korean rice wines (makgeolli) including prediction of sensory evaluation and instrumental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo-Sik; Lee, Jang-Eun; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2014-05-15

    A commercial electronic tongue was used to discriminate Korean rice wines (makgeolli) brewed from nine cultivars of rice with different amino acid and fatty acid compositions. The E-tongue was applied to establish prediction models with sensory evaluation or LC-MS/MS by partial least squares regression (PLSR). All makgeollis were classified into three groups by principal components analysis, and the separation pattern was affected by rice qualities and yeast fermentation. Makgeolli taste changed from the complicated comprising sweetness, saltiness, and umami to the uncomplicated, such as bitterness and then, sourness, with a decrease of amino acids and fatty acids in the rice. The quantitative correlation between E-tongue and sensory scores or LC-MS/MS by PLSR demonstrated that E-tongue could well predict most of the sensory attributes with relatively acceptable r(2), except for bitterness, but could not predict most of the chemical compounds responsible for taste attributes, except for ribose, lactate, succinate, and tryptophan.

  18. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  19. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  20. Linking wine lactic acid bacteria diversity with wine aroma and flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Maria Stella; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Logrieco, Antonio; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2017-02-21

    In the last two decades knowledge on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with wine has increased considerably. Investigations on genetic and biochemistry of species involved in malolactic fermentation, such as Oenococcus oeni and of Lactobacillus have enabled a better understand of their role in aroma modification and microbial stability of wine. In particular, the use of molecular techniques has provided evidence on the high diversity at species and strain level, thus improving the knowledge on wine LAB taxonomy and ecology. These tools demonstrated to also be useful to detect strains with potential desirable or undesirable traits for winemaking purposes. At the same time, advances on the enzymatic properties of wine LAB responsible for the development of wine aroma molecules have been undertaken. Interestingly, it has highlighted the high intraspecific variability of enzymatic activities such as glucosidase, esterase, proteases and those related to citrate metabolism within the wine LAB species. This genetic and biochemistry diversity that characterizes wine LAB populations can generate a wide spectrum of wine sensory outcomes. This review examines some of these interesting aspects as a way to elucidate the link between LAB diversity with wine aroma and flavour. In particular, the correlation between inter- and intra-species diversity and bacterial metabolic traits that affect the organoleptic properties of wines is highlighted with emphasis on the importance of enzymatic potential of bacteria for the selection of starter cultures to control MLF and to enhance wine aroma.

  1. Organic Acid Composition in Croatian Predicate Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mihaljević Žulj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Continental Croatia wine region and especially Kutjevo vineyards are famous for their predicate wines production and quality. The most common grape varieties used there for different types of predicate wine are Welsch Riesling and Traminer. Ice wines, selected harvest wines and dry berry selection wines from different harvest years were examined by HPLC method to determine organic acids composition. The oldest sample was Traminer selected harvest from vintage year 1990, while the youngest wine was Traminer ice wine from harvest 2011. The dominant organic acids in all analyzed wines were tartaric, malic, citric and galactaric, ranged from 0.09 to 2.98 g/L. In most wines the difference in concentration of glucuronic, galacturonic and gluconic acids was established. The highest content of glucuronic acid was 58.4 mg/L in Traminer dry berry selection 2011. Galacturonic acid dominated in the same wine (924 mg/L, just like gluconic acid (141 mg/L. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  2. THE FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR ON WINE CONSUMPTION IN THE MOLDOVAN WINE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With an area of over 148000 ha allotted to vine culture, the Republic of Moldova has a well-developed traditional wine industry, recognized on international markets. Although the largest part of wine-making products is designed for export, we must not neglect the domestic market, which assures the stability and constancy of consumption. The district Cahul, the region in which the research was carried out, represents one of the most important areas of production of red wines, sweet and semi-sweet wines. The study tried to highlight the main features of Moldavian consumer of table wines, factors of influence in the consumption and acquisition of wines, the degree of satisfaction regarding the products that exist on the market. The results of research can be useful to both producers and traders of local and import wines.

  3. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  5. Bitter taste receptor polymorphisms and human aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Campa

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001 with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics.

  6. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  7. [Changes in taste ability in patients with vestibular schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessert, P; Grüttner, C; van Ewijk, R; Haxel, B

    2014-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are rare tumors that can cause different symptoms due to their anatomical relationship to the cranial nerves in the inner auditory canal. So far little data is known to the effect of VS on the somatosensory function of the intermediate nerve. This study aimed to investigate the taste function of patients suffering from single sided VS. Therefore the well validated psychophysical test "Taste Strips" has been used. 26 patients who consulted our outpatient clinic at a university hospital could be included in the study. All patients were asked carefully for their medical history. A full ENT examination was done. Each side of the anterior two thirds of the tongue was tested separately using the Taste Strips. The average age was 52 years with both gender equally represented. Throughout all age groups the taste score was lower on the tumor vs. the non affected side. Testing for significance just failed the level of 0.05. No correlation between tumor size and location of the tumor with the taste score could be detected. Only 2 patients complained of taste dysfunction. They had a taste score below the 10. percentile of their age group on tumor while normal scores on the non affected side. To sum up a decreased taste score on the tumor side vs. the non affected side could be confirmed. Only 8% of the patients complained of taste disturbance as a symptom. That supports the observation that taste is a whole mouth experience and dysfunction can be compensated.

  8. Research on Disinfection Techniques for Whey Wine%乳清发酵酒消毒技术研究及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许聪; 郭林光

    2012-01-01

    乳清发酵酒产品是近年来发展起来的新产品。在生产实践中,公司试验研究了乳清发酵酒生产工艺中的消毒技术,按工艺流程的先后顺序,研究了原料消毒、生产环境消毒、生产设备消毒等内容。生产实践证明,这些方法或技术措施的运用,保证了乳清发酵酒的品质,且口味纯正、质量稳定。主要阐述了乳清发酵酒生产过程的消毒技术和措施。%Whey wine is a newly-developed wine product in recent years.In this study,we studied the disinfection techniques for whey wine including the disinfection of raw materials,the disinfection of production environment,and the disinfection of production equipment.Proper use of disinfection techniques in whey wine production could ensure the quality and the pure taste of whey wine.In this paper,the main disinfection techniques were introduced in details.

  9. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  10. Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous and sequential co-fermentation: a strategy to enhance acidity and improve the overall quality of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Mirko; Comitini, Francesca; Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    In the last few years there is an increasing interest on the use of mixed fermentation of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for inoculation of wine fermentations to enhance the quality and improve complexity of wines. In the present work Lachancea (Kluyveromyces) thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated in simultaneous and sequential fermentation with the aim to enhance acidity and improve the quality of wine. In this specific pairing of yeast strains in mixed fermentations (S. cerevisiae EC1118 and L. thermotolerans 101), this non-Saccharomyces yeast showed a high level of competitiveness. Nevertheless the S. cerevisiae strain dominated the fermentation over the spontaneous S. cerevisiae strains also under the industrial fermentation conditions. The different condition tested (modalities of inoculum, temperature of fermentation, different grape juice) influenced the specific interactions and the fermentation behaviour of the co-culture of S. cerevisiae and L. thermotolerans. However, some metabolic behaviours such as pH reduction and enhancement of 2-phenylethanol and glycerol, were shown here under all of the conditions tested. The specific chemical profiles of these wines were confirmed by the sensory analysis test, which expressed these results at the tasting level as significant increases in the spicy notes and in terms of total acidity increases.

  11. Technology and Attention Problems of Home-brewing Grape Wine%家酿葡萄酒工艺及应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杜娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the home-brewing grape wine quality, the operating technologies and attention problems at the operating processesof brewing grape wine from selecting materials to storing were outlined. In order to ensure the normal fermentation, sulphurous acid and yeastshould be added after grape had been crushed. In order to improve wine quality,the management of ambient temperature at pre-fermentation,postfermentation and wine storage stage should be strengthened. In order to make crystal clear,aroma,and mellow taste wine,artificial clarifying andblending should be carried out.%为了提高家酿葡萄酒的质量,简述了家酿葡萄酒从选料到贮存各部分的操作工艺及应注意的问题,提出葡萄破碎后应添加亚硫酸及酵母,以保证发酵的正常进行;应加强前期发酵、后期发酵和葡萄酒贮存期间的环境温度管理,以提高葡萄酒质量;开展人工澄清及勾兑,可使酒液清澈透明、香气浓郁、口味醇厚.

  12. Wine, resveratrol and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; García-Parrilla, Maria C; Puertas, Belén; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have cited the Mediterranean diet as an example of healthy eating. In fact, the Mediterranean diet has become the reference diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Red wine seems to be an essential component of the diet, since moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower risk and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is also accumulating that wine helps prevent the development of certain cancers. Of all the many components of wine, resveratrol, which is a natural component specifically present in wine, has been identified as being mainly responsible for these health-promoting properties. Many valuable properties such as cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic activity have been attributed to resveratrol; however, its bioavailability is quite low. The bioactivity of metabolites derived from resveratrol, and the accumulation of resveratrol in vital organs are still under study, but there are high expectations of positive results. Other stilbene compounds are also considered in this review, despite being present in undetectable or very small quantities in wine. The present paper reviews all aspects of the health properties of wine, bioactive compounds found in wine, and their concentrations, bioavailability and possible synergistic effects.

  13. Another Look at the Wine Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeerd, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent article, Iain MacInnes analyzed the static equilibrium of a system consisting of a wine bottle and a wine butler. After discussing that composite system, students can be asked to consider only the bottle (and its contents) as the system. An interesting challenge for them is to describe the forces on the bottle in static equilibrium.

  14. Secondary taste neurons that convey sweet taste and starvation in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Pinky; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-02-18

    The gustatory system provides vital sensory information to determine feeding and appetitive learning behaviors. Very little is known, however, about higher-order gustatory circuits in the highly tractable model for neurobiology, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report second-order sweet gustatory projection neurons (sGPNs) in the Drosophila brain using a powerful behavioral screen. Silencing neuronal activity reduces appetitive behaviors, whereas inducible activation results in food acceptance via proboscis extensions. sGPNs show functional connectivity with Gr5a(+) sweet taste neurons and are activated upon sucrose application to the labellum. By tracing sGPN axons, we identify the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) as an immediate higher-order processing center for sweet taste. Interestingly, starvation increases sucrose sensitivity of the sGPNs in the AMMC, suggesting that hunger modulates the responsiveness of the secondary sweet taste relay. Together, our results provide a foundation for studying gustatory processing and its modulation by the internal nutrient state.

  15. Teaching the Language and Culture of France through Its Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    The study of wine offers possibilities for teaching a variety of topics in the high school or college French class: geography, history, grape varieties, food-wine combinations, the art of appreciating and distinguishing wines, the wine industry, and French daily life. The development of a slide-tape presentation is described in detail. Resource…

  16. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  17. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  18. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  19. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  20. 78 FR 34565 - Modification of Mandatory Label Information for Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Information for Wine AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; Treasury... the mandatory labeling requirements for wine. The regulatory change permits alcohol content to appear... regulatory change provides greater flexibility in wine labeling, and will conform the TTB wine...

  1. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The tax on wine withdrawn without payment of tax under this part and which is lost during...

  2. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  3. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  4. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses...

  5. 27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall maintain records showing by transaction date the details of...

  6. Crowdsourcing taste research: genetic and phenotypic predictors of bitter taste perception as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Garneau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of taste perception on food choice has captured the interest of academics, industry, and the general public. The latter as evidenced by the extent of popular media coverage and use of the term supertaster. Supertasters are highly sensitive to the bitter tastant propylthiouracil (PROP and its chemical relative phenylthiocarbamide. The well-researched differences in taste sensitivity to these bitter chemicals are partially controlled by variation in the TAS2R38 gene; however this variation alone does not explain the supertaster phenomenon. It has been suggested that density of papillae, which house taste buds, may explain supertasting. To address the unresolved role of papillae, we used crowdsourcing in the museum-based Genetics of Taste Lab. This community lab is uniquely situated to attract both a large population of human subjects and host a team of citizen scientists to research population-based questions about human genetics, taste, and health. Using this model, we find that PROP bitterness is not in any way predicted by papillae density. This result holds within the whole sample, when divided into major diplotypes, and when correcting for age, sex, and genotype. Furthermore, it holds when dividing participants into oft-used taster status groups. These data argue against the use of papillae density in predicting taste sensitivity and caution against imprecise use of the term supertaster. Furthermore, it supports a growing volume of evidence that sets the stage for hyperguesia, a reconceptualization of heightened oral sensitivity that is not based solely on PROP or papillae density. Finally, our model demonstrates how community-based research can serve as a unique venue for both study participation and citizen science that makes scientific research accessible and relevant to people’s everyday lives.

  7. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  8. Red wine, arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Papamichael, Christos; Lekakis, John; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Zampelas, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    Red wine is considered to reduce cardiovascular risk and decrease peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Central aortic pressures are often more sensitive clinical and prognostic factors than peripheral pressures, while arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular events. Great efforts are being made to find natural sources of improving health. In order to clarify the mechanisms under which a widely used drink, like red wine, is affecting heart and vessels, we aimed to review the available data regarding the effects of red wine on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central blood pressures. The effect of red wine on central hemodynamics has been poorly explored with divergent results. Possible consequences of acute and long-term intake on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central pressures are not clear. This might make someone skeptical when suggesting the consumption of a glass of red wine, although its cardioprotective actions (when moderately consumed) are already shown from epidemiological studies.

  9. Wine and bone health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutleša, Zvonimir; Budimir Mršić, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    A light-to-moderate wine consumption has been shown to provide several beneficial effects on the skeletal system, including reduced risk of bone mass loss and fractures. Wine is rich in phenolic compounds, strong phytoestrogens and natural antioxidants, to which bone protection is mainly attributed. The objective of this review was to give an overview of the exact mechanisms by which wine consumption is involved in bone protection. We found a great variety of in vitro research on the beneficial effects of isolated wine phenolics on the skeletal system, with a significant lack of evidence of their in vivo effects. In addition, we found almost no studies investigating how wine, a mixture of these phenolics dissolved in ethanol, affects the skeletal system. Our results warrant further research on this interesting topic.

  10. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  11. Advance of chinese wine-brewing craft with colored rice%我国有色米酿酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志栋; 林波; 陈国; 陈惠云; 俞静芬; 黄康盛

    2012-01-01

    Special colored beer, yellow wine and health wine is a new alcoholic liquid which is made by brewing colored rice as raw material with natural color, flavor, taste and nutrition, health care and curative effect. This review detailed the colored brewing wine definition, classify and developing history, and beer, yellow wine, health wine and their brewing process recently in China. And the market prospect of colored brewing wine is analyzed and forecast so as to provide technical support and new method for the development of the colored wine and further exploitation and utilization of colored rice.%应用有色米为基本原辅料酿造特有的有色米啤酒、黄酒或保健酒,是一类集有色米天然的色、香、味及营养疗效于一体的新颖饮料酒.该文就以有色米酿造酒的定义、分类及发展简史,以及我国近年来以有色米为主副料开发的啤酒、黄酒、保健酒及其加工工艺等做了综述,并对其市场前景作了分析,旨在为有色米酿造酒的拓展以及有色米深层次开发利用提供技术依据和新的思路.

  12. WINE ROAD - AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE VALORISATION OF WINE TOURISM POTENTIAL CASE STUDY: ALBA COUNTY VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNGUREANU Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to highlight the wine-growing and wine-making potential of Alba County and the way it can be valorised. Alba county has a rich winegrowing and wine-making heritage, a fact which is due to the long-standing tradition of winegrowing on these area, as well as to the characteristics of the natural factors (relief, geology, climate, soil, favourable for obtaining high-quality wines, the reputation of which has been acquired at national and international competitions. In order to render useful the wine tourism resources, the development of a specific infrastructure is needed, as well as the creation of complex tourist products, able to satisfy a wide range of tourist motivations. An efficient instrument to make productive the wine potential of a region is the „Wine Road" – a tourist trail which includes the tourist attractions of a delimited area, usually with a controlled designation of origin, and also a diverse range of tourist services (transportation, accommodation, catering leisure etc.. In Alba County, the „Wine Road" can be considered as a tourist attraction in itself, but also a means of harnessing the rich cultural-historical and natural heritage and, implicitly, the wine-growing and wine-making heritage.

  13. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  14. A Unique Laboratory to Explore Soil-Wine Relationships, North Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R.; Tomasino, E.; Tonkin, P.; Webb, T.; Burns, S. F.; Weersing, M.

    2012-12-01

    Zealand are distinguishable from one another by smell and taste. In these environments, cultural (management) decisions are adapted to maximize so-called physiological ripeness that tend to work against simple relationships between say latitude and mean temperature. Even within the conceptual framework provided by climate as a determinant of berry composition at harvest (and hence, presumably, wine composition), there is a recognition that landscapes and soils are important modifiers, particular of heat and water balance but also of nutrients and uptake of other components through root systems. The contrasting array of soils in North Canterbury provides an opportunity to validate the soil contribution to terroir.

  15. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Gareth; Dong Dong; Zhang Shuyi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R), which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better unders...

  16. Food and Wine Tourism as a Pull Factor for Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Lemmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of the experience based tourism with reference to food and wine tourism in Tuscany. Starting from a literature review that has been focusing on a wide range of topics for long time, we explain first the different forms of tourism of taste; secondly the wide diffusion of this kind of tourism in Tuscany thanks to its important assets, as key factors to the tourist success; finally how the lack of upgraded tourist products and a standard communication are restraining its further improvement. The experience based tourism with its peculiar customization of the supply and the communication especially built for the new technological devices could upgrade the Tuscan tourist features. Just to give some examples, the more current tools include gamification and geocatching as new and amusing outputs that can involve the active tourist in search of new experiences, as well as the Sentiment Analysis as a process able to transform the customer opinions into useful data for a market segmentation and implementation of branding reputation.

  17. Innovative Forms of Wine Distribution and Sales in Istrian Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlo Ruzic

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many tourists with a pronounced culture of wine drinking have visited Istria. With continuous advancement in the wine culture and increasingly demanding guests, wine offers and sales have been in constantly creative improvement. Istria has good pedological and climatic conditions for grape and wine production. Equally, in Istria, outstanding wine production has been achieved, both in terms of quantity and quality. The purpose and goal of this paper is therefore to research th...

  18. Ports of Luxury : strategic management behind Luxury Port Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Joana Tabita Alves

    2015-01-01

    Douro Valley is the first demarcated wine region of the world. It undoubtedly provides a powerful foundation to build a luxury brand, through the legacy and tradition of Port wine. Given the recent market entrance of luxury Port wines and luxury strategy latest developments, the present dissertation will propose a Port wine luxury strategy – how to increase brand equity, to develop and to communicate a luxury Port wine. Based upon theory and quantitative investigation, this research attemp...

  19. Research on Sensory Evaluation Indexes of Yellow Rice Wine and Quality Determination by Electronic Tongue%黄酒口味感官品评指标与智舌定量预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周牡艳; 胡晓晖; 许瑾; 张珊珊; 寿谦; 陈扉然; 邓少平

    2012-01-01

    智舌能够以类似人的味觉感受方式检测味觉物质。本试验使用智舌对不同厂家生产的黄酒的口感进行评价,研究了智舌检测数据和感官分析数据的相关性,并对5种感官指标建立了相对应的模型,用未知样的预测结果评判了所建立模型的准确度。研究表明,智舌在甜度、酸度和醇和度的感官指标上和人的品评结果类似,实验数据可为电子舌在黄酒的感官分析评价中的进一步应用提供参考依据。%Electronic tongue could be used to detect substance taste as human beings. Electronic tongue was applied to evaluate on the taste of yel- low rice wine manufactured by different wineries, and the correlations between the detection data by electronic tongue and sensory evaluation re- suits by wine tasters were studied, and 5 models corresponding to sensory evaluation indexes had been established. Finally, the accuracy of the models was judged by the prediction of unknown wine samples. The experimental results revealed that electronic tongue had similar evaluation results as human beings in sweetness, sour taste and mellow taste. The experimental data could provide reference for further application of elec- tronic tongue in sensory evaluation on rice wine.

  20. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  1. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  2. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  3. Drunken modernity: wine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Kjellgren

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tandis que le vin essaie de s’infiltrer dans le répertoire culinaire de la Chine, il s’agit plus qu’un simple processus de flux culinaires globaux du centre vers la périphérie. Le vin chinois est devenu un nouvel outil d’identification ainsi qu’un signe de la position renégociée de cette nation dans le monde. Pour ce qu’elle vaut, l’industrie vinicole sert également l’intérêt de l’État-parti en renforçant sa légitimité et en établissant son agenda politique. Dans cet article, qui rend compte de l’histoire du vin chinois ainsi que sa situation actuelle, la boisson est prise comme exemple des changements culinaires contemporains, mais surtout comme moyen d’explorer les significations et les limites sociales d’une modernité émergente distinctement chinoise. Une modernité qui dans sa volonté apparente d’absorber le nouveau et l’étranger remplace la dichotomie sino-occidentale jusque là prédominante, tout en adhérant toujours aux vieilles rengaines ‘que l’ancien serve le présent’ et ‘que l’étranger serve le chinois.’As grape wine tries to sell its way into the standard culinary repertoire of China, it is more than simply a process of a global culinary flow from the centre to the periphery. Chinese wine has become a new tool for identification as well as a sign of the nation’s renegotiated position in the world. For what it is worth, the wine industry also serves the interest of the party-state by strengthening its legitimacy and substantiating its political agenda. In this article, which reviews China’s wine history as well as the present situation, the drink is taken as an example of contemporary culinary change, but foremost as a means to explore the meanings and social limits of an emergent distinctly Chinese modernity. A modernity that in its apparent willingness to embrace the new and foreign supersedes the hitherto predominant Sino-Western dichotomy, while still adhering to the

  4. Effects of Different Kinds of Clarifying Substances on Heat Stability and the Quality of Rose Grape Wine%几种下胶材料对桃红葡萄酒热稳定性及质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洋; 徐志勇; 丁娟; 杨晓民; 连俊; 陈青昌

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin, egg white, PVPP, bentonite and tannin were used as clarifying substances for grape wine and their effects on heat stability and the quality of rose wine including aroma, taste and color were compared. The results suggested that bentonite NC was the best due to its satisfacto- ry wine stability performance, tight wine lees, and fewest wine loss. Besides, the quality of rose wine treated by bentonite almost kept the same as before.%选用明胶、蛋清粉、PVPP、皂土和单宁作为下胶材料,比较它们对桃红葡萄酒热稳定性及质量的影响,包括香气、口感和颜色。结果表明,皂土NC对提高桃红葡萄酒稳定性的效果最佳,且酒脚紧实、酒损少,处理后的桃红葡萄酒的质量(香气、口感、颜色)降低程度相对较小,是桃红葡萄酒下胶的最佳材料。

  5. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn J. Chang; MW Liz Thach; Janeen Olsen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect...

  6. Exploring the Musical Taste of Expert Listeners: Musicology Students reveal Tendency towards Omnivorous Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eElvers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n=1003 completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: The first cluster (51% musicology students / 27% controls showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency towards »sophisticated« musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students / 46% controls exhibited an interest in »conventional« music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students / 27% controls showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge towards musical omnivorousness.

  7. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  8. THE DIFFERENCE IN COLOR AND SENSORY OF ORGANIC QUALITY WINE AND WINE FROM CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Šottníková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the colour and sensory evaluation of wines and organic wines from conventional cultivation. 6 organic wines and 6 wines from conventional cultivation were evaluated. The methodology describes colour measurements using spectrophotometry and sensory 20-point-scale system of scoring. The colour evaluation of different varieties did not clearly demonstrate impact of growing on lightness or hue and saturation of wine. Conclusive differences in colour (P <0.05 were established, especially for Pinot Blanc and Malverina from white varieties and Medina from red grapes. The greatest colour stability was demonstrated by Moravian Muscat. Sensory evaluation did not show any noticeable differences between the wines of conventional and organic production, there were, however, differences among varieties.

  9. La comunicazione dei wine bloggers: autoctono vs globale / The communication of wine bloggers: native vs global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cavallo

    2016-06-01

    The work steps provided by methodology are: 1 identifi cation of the top 100 international wine blogs; 2 text mining on the blog articles in the homepage of each wine blog, in order to identify the most widely-mentioned “global” wine; 3 selection of the articles related to the two types of wines in exam, in order to deepen investigate them through the text mining analysis; 4 evaluation of the gap in the web communication of wine bloggers, through a model designed and tested in earlier work for such purpose. The analysis enables the search for information, which aims to identify similarities/differences or peculiarities in the web communication of the two different wines.

  10. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine's beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  11. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  12. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  13. Taste quality and intensity of 100 stimuli as reported by rats: the taste-location association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari eGautam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of neural activity related to sensory stimulation requires an understanding of the subject's perception of the stimulation. Previous methods used to evaluate the perception of chemosensory stimuli by rodents have distinct limitations. We developed a novel behavioral paradigm, the taste-location association task, to complement these methods. First we tested if rats are able to learn associations between five basic taste stimuli and their spatial locations. This spatial task was based on 4 prototypical tastants and water. All four rats trained to perform the task reached levels of performance well above chance. Control trials demonstrated that the rats used only taste cues. Further, the learned stimulus set was resistant to interference, allowing for generalization experiments performed subsequently. We tested the rats' gustatory generalizations of 100 tastants to the five trained stimuli, both regarding their taste qualities as well as intensity ratings. The taste profiles generated by these experiments contribute to the understanding of how perception of the specific taste stimuli relate to the perception of the five basic taste qualities in intact behaving rats. In this large taste space we found that intensity plays a major role. Furthermore, umami stimuli were not reported as being similar to other basic tastants. Our new paradigm enables neurophysiological studies of taste-based learning and memory in awake, freely moving animals.

  14. Processing technology of Blechnum orientale L.healthy wine%乌毛蕨保健酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍国明; 伍芳华; 李梅

    2011-01-01

    Blechnum orientate L. healthy wine was developed by fermentation using the whole wild plant of Blechnum orientate L. and glutinous rice as its main materials. The dosage of Blechnum orientate L. used in fermentation was studied, as well as the technology of main fermentation. The highest sensory quality of wine was obtained when 7.0% Blechnum orientate L. was used for saccharification. The optimum conditions of main fermentation were determined as follows: yellow wine brewing yeast (YWBY) 0.12%, the ratio of material to water 1:1.4, fermentation temperature 25^ and fermentation time 6d. Then the Blechnum orientate L. healthy wine was further brewed by post fermentation, and treated by compression, clarifying and sterilization. It is rich in flavonoids for some medical effects. Besides, it is excellent in color, flavor and tastes with distinctive fern wine style.%以野生药用植物乌毛蕨全草和糯米为主要原料、采用发酵方法酿造乌毛蕨保健酒.研究了乌毛蕨草粉的用量和主发酵工艺条件.结果表明,添加7.0%乌毛蕨全草粉糖化发酵的成品酒感官质量最好.优化的主发酵工艺条件为0.12%YWBY接种量、料水比1∶1.4,于25℃下发酵6d.再经后发酵、压榨、澄清、灭菌等步骤,研制出富含黄酮类化合物而具有特殊药用功效,且色、香、味俱佳与具有独特蕨酒风格的乌毛蕨保健酒.

  15. Study on the Brewing of the Mechanical and Shanniang Rice Wine%机械化善酿酒酿制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪夏红; 夏杭锋; 施亚芳

    2016-01-01

    为了进一步开展机械化善酿酒酿制的研究,在机械化大罐中进行加酒母和不同量的加饭醪液酿制善酿酒试验研究。试验结果表明:机械化酿制的善酿酒理化检测和口味品尝非常接近原工艺,而且不需要增加设备投资,在保证质量的前提下,能打破产能和季节的制约降低生产成本。%In order to study the further development of mechanization of shanniang rice wine brewing, in the machinery of the tank with yeast and different amounts of rice mash brewing shanniang rice wine test research. The test results show that the brewed mechanization of shanniang rice wine, physical and chemical detection and taste taste very close to the original process, and do not need to increase investment in equipment, under the premise of quality assurance, breaking capacity and seasonal constraints reduce the production cost.

  16. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  17. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  18. A healthy indulgence? Wine consumers and the health benefits of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the US. Moderate red wine consumption has been linked to a reduction in the risk of death by heart disease and heart attack by 30–50%. With about 600,000 people dying from heart disease in the US each year, red wine has become increasingly popular among health conscious consumers. Wine is often touted for its potential health benefits, but to what extent is “health” a factor when consumers make their consumption decisions for alcoholic beverages? This study aims to further understand how consumers make their beverage choices and to understand the role wine health benefit knowledge plays in the willingness of consumers to purchase wine. The results suggest that consumers value the relationship between food/beverage intake and their health status. Consumers with few health issues were the ones more likely to indicate that they consume wine for health reasons, suggesting a potential market among consumers with known health issues. In addition, consumers who attributed the most health benefits to wine were the ones most likely to drink more wine and pay more for wine if it were health enhanced.

  19. Wine as a digestive aid: comparative antimicrobial effects of bismuth salicylate and red and white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, M. E.; Eberly, B.; Person, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test whether red and white wines are as potent as bismuth salicylate against the bacteria responsible for traveller's diarrhoea to try to explain wine's legendary reputation as a digestive aid. DESIGN--Red and white wine, bismuth salicylate, two solutions containing ethanol (diluted absolute ethanol and tequila), and sterilised water were tested against suspensions of salmonella, shigella, and Escherichia coli to determine relative antibacterial activity. Suspensions of 10(7) colony forming units of shigella, salmonella, and E coli were added to the test solutions and plated on standard nutrient agar at 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, and 120 minutes and 24 hours. Dilutions of wine and bismuth salicylate were then tested with E coli as the test bacterium, and the experiment repeated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Exposure times necessary for eradication of organisms for the different solutions; decreases in colony counts at the different exposure times for dilutions of wine and bismuth salicylates. RESULTS--Undiluted wine and bismuth salicylate were both effective in reducing the number of viable organisms (by 10(5)-10(6) colony forming units) after 20-30 minutes. Dilutions of wine were much more effective in decreasing colony counts than were similar dilutions of bismuth salicylate. CONCLUSION--The antibacterial property of wine is largely responsible for wine's reputation as a digestive aid. Images p1659-a PMID:8541747

  20. The complex network of musical tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldú, Javier M.; Cano, P.; Koppenberger, M.; Almendral, Juan A.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-06-01

    We present an empirical study of the evolution of a social network constructed under the influence of musical tastes. The network is obtained thanks to the selfless effort of a broad community of users who share playlists of their favourite songs with other users. When two songs co-occur in a playlist a link is created between them, leading to a complex network where songs are the fundamental nodes. In this representation, songs in the same playlist could belong to different musical genres, but they are prone to be linked by a certain musical taste (e.g. if songs A and B co-occur in several playlists, an user who likes A will probably like also B). Indeed, playlist collections such as the one under study are the basic material that feeds some commercial music recommendation engines. Since playlists have an input date, we are able to evaluate the topology of this particular complex network from scratch, observing how its characteristic parameters evolve in time. We compare our results with those obtained from an artificial network defined by means of a null model. This comparison yields some insight on the evolution and structure of such a network, which could be used as ground data for the development of proper models. Finally, we gather information that can be useful for the development of music recommendation engines and give some hints about how top-hits appear.