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Sample records for astringency wine tasting

  1. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D I

    2008-01-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is cons...

  2. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchi, D; Poulain, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, 4 Place Jussieu, BP 126, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Konarev, P; Svergun, D I [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Tribet, C [Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et Milieux Disperses, CNRS UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: drazen@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2008-12-10

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of {beta}-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  3. How do consumers describe wine astringency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón

    2015-12-01

    Astringency is one of the most important sensory characteristics of red wine. Although a hierarchically structured vocabulary to describe the mouthfeel sensations of red wine has been proposed, research on consumers' astringency vocabulary is lacking. In this context, the aim of this work was to gain an insight on the vocabulary used by wine consumers to describe the astringency of red wine and to evaluate the influence of wine involvement on consumers' vocabulary. One hundred and twenty-five wine consumers completed and on-line survey with five tasks: an open-ended question about the definition of wine astringency, free listing the sensations perceived when drinking an astringent wine, free listing the words they would use to describe the astringency of a red wine, a CATA question with 44 terms used in the literature to describe astringency, and a wine involvement questionnaire. When thinking about wine astringency consumers freely elicited terms included in the Mouth-feel Wheel, such as dryness and harsh. The majority of the specific sub-qualities of the Mouth-feel Wheel were not included in consumer responses. Also, terms not classified as astringency descriptors were elicited (e.g. acid and bitter). Only 17 out of the 31 terms from the Mouth-feel Wheel were used by more than 10% of participants when answering the CATA question. There were no large differences in the responses of consumer segments with different wine involvement. Results from the present work suggest that most of the terms of the Mouth-feel Wheel might not be adequate to communicate the astringency characteristics of red wine to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory characterization of the astringency of commercial Uruguayan Tannat wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Leticia; Antúnez, Lucía; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón

    2017-12-01

    Astringency is one of the most important characteristics that define the quality of red wine, and is of particular relevance for Tannat, Uruguayan emblematic red wine variety. Astringency is a time-dependant and complex sensory characteristic, related to several sensations, or sub-qualities, that can be simultaneously perceived. The aim of the present study was to obtain a sensory characterization of the astringency of commercial Uruguayan Tannat wines. Forty samples with different characteristics in terms of vintage, price segment and aging in oak barrels were assessed by a panel of 9 trained assessors. Total astringency intensity was evaluated using time-intensity (TI), while astringency sub-qualities were described using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question composed of sixteen terms. TI and the CATA question provided different information on the astringency of Tannat wines. Regarding global astringency, samples mainly differed in intensity-related parameters rather than in the development of astringency over time, although the variability was moderate. A wide range of sub-qualities, from silky and velvety to harsh and aggressive were used to describe the astringency of the evaluated wines. Four groups of samples with different astringency characteristics were identified, but this sorting was not related to vintage, price segment or aging in oak barrels. Further research is necessary to better understand how astringency characteristics are influenced by production variables, and to understand their relationship to consumers' and experts' perceived quality of Tannat wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensorial properties of red wine polyphenols: Astringency and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Susana; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-03-24

    Polyphenols have been the subject of numerous research over the past years, being referred as the nutraceuticals of modern life. The healthy properties of these compounds have been associated to a natural chemoprevention of 21st century major diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). This association led to an increased consumption of foodstuffs rich in these compounds such as red wine. Related to the ingestion of polyphenols are the herein revised sensorial properties (astringency and bitterness) which are not still pleasant. This review intends to be an outline both at a sensory as a molecular level of the mechanisms underlying astringency and bitterness of polyphenols. Up-to-date knowledge of this matter is discussed in detail.

  6. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  7. Optimization and validation of a taste dilution analysis to characterize wine taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R; Mateo-Vivaracho, L; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2007-08-01

    A procedure for the general taste dilution analysis (TDA) of wine has been optimized and applied to characterize the tastants of 5 different wines. Samples are concentrated first by vacuum distillation at 20 degrees C to obtain a dearomatized concentrate. Such concentrate is redissolved in water and injected in a semipreparative C18-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. The effluent is separated in fractions that are collected and concentrated by vacuum distillation. Sequential dilutions of the fractions are further evaluated by a sensory panel to assess the intensity of the basic tastes and in-mouth sensations. Fractions were also submitted to HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to screen for known tastants of wines. The Taste Dilution chromatograms showed that taste differences between wines are mainly located in fractions 1, 2, and 6, and are mainly related to bitterness and astringency. Different aspects of the method setup and of its reliability are evaluated and discussed.

  8. A saliva molecular imprinted localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for wine astringency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, J Rafaela L; Teixeira, Natércia; De Freitas, Victor; Sales, M Goreti F; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2017-10-15

    Wine astringency was evaluated based on the interaction of two complex matrices (red wine and saliva) by combining localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) at gold nanodisks as an alternative to sensorial analysis. The main objective of the work was to simulate wine astringency inside the mouth by mimicking this biological system. The LSPR/MIP sensor provided a linear response for astringency expressed in pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) units in concentrations ranging from 1 to 140μmol/L. The sensor was also applied to wine samples correlating well with sensorial analysis obtained by a trained panel. The correlation of astringency and wine composition was also evaluated showing that anthocyanins may have an important role, not only for pigmentation but also in astringency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Kennedy; Jacqui M. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of ...

  10. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Kennedy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  11. Wine and grape tannin interactions with salivary proteins and their impact on astringency: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kennedy, James A

    2011-03-11

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  12. Exogenous acetaldehyde as a tool for modulating wine color and astringency during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Marlena K; Elias, Ryan J

    2015-06-15

    Wine tannins undergo modifications during fermentation and storage that can decrease their perceived astringency and increase color stability. Acetaldehyde acts as a bridging compound to form modified tannins and polymeric pigments that are less likely to form tannin-protein complexes than unmodified tannins. Red wines are often treated with oxygen in order to yield acetaldehyde, however this approach can lead to unintended consequences due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The present study employs exogenous acetaldehyde at relatively low and high treatment concentrations during fermentation to encourage tannin modification without promoting potentially deleterious oxidation reactions. The high acetaldehyde treatment significantly increased polymeric pigments in the wine without increasing concentrations of free and sulfite-bound acetaldehyde. Protein-tannin precipitation was also significantly decreased with the addition of exogenous acetaldehyde. These results indicate a possible treatment of wines early in their production to increase color stability and lower astringency of finished wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed.

  14. The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model wine solution and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Royo, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of yeast strain and some nutritional factors on tannin composition and potential astringency of model wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Aponte, Maria; Moio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, isolated from different sources, were tested for their ability to reduce tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, and potentially responsible for wine astringency. Strains were preliminary genetically characterized and evaluated for physiological features of technological interest. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed in three synthetic media: CT) containing enological grape tannin; CTP) CT supplemented with organic nitrogen sources; CTPV) CTP supplemented with vitamins. Adsorption of total tannins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, yellow pigments, phenolics having antioxidant activity, and total phenols, characterizing the enological tannin, was determined by spectrophotometric methods after fermentation. The presence of vitamins and peptones in musts greatly influenced the adsorption of tannins reactive towards salivary proteins (4.24 g/L gallic acid equivalent), thus promoting the reduction of the potential astringency of model wines. With reference to the different phenolic classes, yeast strains showed different adsorption abilities. From a technological point of view, the yeast choice proved to be crucial in determining changes in gustative and mouthfeel profile of red wines and may assist winemakers to modulate colour and astringency of wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Loureiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed training technique is based on the emotional responses of the taster after smelling two wines of clearly opposite styles. The first wine is characterized by high aromatic intensity but low in-mouth intensity, perceived as disappointing to the taster, here defined as an “easy” wine. The second wine is characterized as a wine with low aromatic intensity but that provides an unexpectedly positive in-mouth experience, here defined as a “difficult” wine. These emotions are explained by the wine sensorial characteristics. The “easy” wine has an intense, simple smell with short persistence while the “difficult” wine has a low intensity, complex aroma, and long persistence. The first style corresponds to the international commercial wines most prized in international wine challenges. The second, frequently rejected by untrained tasters, is consistent with the “so called” classic European wines, and is characterized by light red or yellow straw colors, weak smell intensity, and aggressive mouth-feel. After no more than four training sessions and using the OIV tasting sheet, inexperienced tasters were able to score “difficult” wines equally as “easy” wines and understand their different attributes. In conclusion, this new tasting approach may be used by wine professionals to explain the characteristics of high quality wines that are not easily recognized by untrained consumers.

  17. Consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jessica L; Drake, MaryAnne

    2010-01-01

    Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P Consumer acceptance of beverages containing WPI was lower (P consumers were not wearing nose clips compared to acceptance scores of beverages when consumers were wearing nose clips. These results suggest that flavors contributed by WPI in acidic beverages are more objectionable than the astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Tannin quantification in red grapes and wine: comparison of polysaccharide- and protein-based tannin precipitation techniques and their ability to model wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Smith, Paul A

    2008-07-23

    Quantification of red grape tannin and red wine tannin using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and the Adams-Harbertson (A-H) tannin assay were investigated. The study allowed for direct comparison between the repeatability of the assays and for the assessment of other practical considerations such as time efficiency, ease of practice, and throughput, and assessed the relationships between tannin quantification by both analytical techniques. A strong correlation between the two analytical techniques was observed when quantifying grape tannin (r(2) = 0.96), and a good correlation was observed for wine tannins (r(2) = 0.80). However, significant differences in the reported tannin values for the analytical techniques were observed (approximately 3-fold). To explore potential reasons for the difference, investigations were undertaken to determine how several variables influenced the final tannin quantification for both assays. These variables included differences in the amount of tannin precipitated (monitored by HPLC), assay matrix variables, and the monomers used to report the final values. The relationship between tannin quantification and wine astringency was assessed for the MCP and A-H tannin assays, and both showed strong correlations with perceived wine astringency (r(2) = 0.83 and r(2) = 0.90, respectively). The work described here gives guidance to those wanting to understand how the values between the two assays relate; however, a conclusive explanation for the differences in values between the MCP and A-H tannin assays remains unclear, and further work in this area is required.

  19. The Anthropomorphic Metaphor in Slovene and English Wine Tasting Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Bratož

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The language used to describe the tastes of various wines ranges from specific references to chemical, vegetal and mineral components to a wealth of diverse metaphorical constructions. This paper explores the use and characteristics of the anthropomorphic metaphor in wine reviews from a cross–linguistic perspective. The theoretical framework relies on the cognitive approach to metaphor, most notably on the conceptual theory of metaphor. The case study presented is focused on the conceptual metaphor WINE IS A HUMAN BEING and its linguistic realisations in a corpus of wine reviews collected from selected Slovene and English sources. A number of metaphors will be examined with respect to their level of conventionality, from metaphorically motivated terminology to novel linguistic metaphors. It will be argued that despite some variations in the way metaphors are realised in English and Slovene wine discourses, there is a large overlap in the way the two languages conceptualise the taste of wine through the anthropomorphic metaphor.

  20. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features.

  1. Grape tannin catechin and ethanol fluidify oral membrane mimics containing moderate amounts of cholesterol: Implications on wine tasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Saad, Ahmad; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2016-11-01

    Wine tasting results in interactions of tannin-ethanol solutions with proteins and lipids of the oral cavity. Among the various feelings perceived during tasting, astringency and bitterness most probably result in binding events with saliva proteins, lipids and receptors. In this work, we monitored the conjugated effect of the grape polyphenol catechin and ethanol on lipid membranes mimicking the different degrees of keratinization of oral cavity surfaces by varying the amount of cholesterol present in membranes. Both catechin and ethanol fluidify the membranes as evidenced by solid-state 2H NMR of perdeuterated lipids. The effect is however depending on the cholesterol proportion and may be very important and cumulative in the absence of cholesterol or presence of 18 mol % cholesterol. For 40 mol % cholesterol, mimicking highly keratinized membranes, both ethanol and catechin can no longer affect membrane dynamics. These observations can be accounted for by phase diagrams of lipid-cholesterol mixtures and the role played by membrane defects for insertion of tannins and ethanol when several phases coexist. These findings suggest that the behavior of oral membranes in contact with wine should be different depending of their cholesterol content. Astringency and bitterness could be then affected; the former because of a potential competition between the tannin-lipid and the tannin-saliva protein interaction, and the latter because of a possible fluidity modification of membranes containing taste receptors. The lipids that have been up to now weakly considered in oenology may be become a new actor in the issue of wine tasting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of UDP-glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lilan; Yao, Shengbo; Dai, Xinlong; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wu, Yahui; Qian, Yumei; Pang, Yongzhen; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Galloylated catechins and flavonol 3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis). The mechanism involved in the formation of these metabolites remains unknown in tea plants. In this paper, 178 UGT genes (CsUGTs) were identified inC. sinensis based on an analysis of tea transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 132 of these genes were clustered into 15 previously established phylogenetic groups (A to M, O and P) and a newly identified group R. Three of the 11 recombinant UGT proteins tested were found to be involved in the in vitro biosynthesis of β-glucogallin and glycosylated flavonols. CsUGT84A22 exhibited catalytic activity toward phenolic acids, in particular gallic acid, to produce β-glucogallin, which is the immediate precursor of galloylated catechin biosynthesis in tea plants. CsUGT78A14 and CsUGT78A15 were found to be responsible for the biosynthesis of flavonol 3-O-glucosides and flavonol 3-O-galactosides, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Q373H substitution for CsUGT78A14 indicated that the Q (Gln) residue played a catalytically crucial role for flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase activity. The expression profiles of the CsUGT84A22, CsUGT78A14, and CsUGT78A15 genes were correlated with the accumulation patterns of β-glucogallin and the glycosylated flavonols which indicated that these three CsUGT genes were involved in the biosynthesis of astringent compounds inC. sinensis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Wine and music (II): can you taste the music? Modulating the experience of wine through music and sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles Spence; Qian (Janice) Wang

    2015-01-01

    ...: Just take the following, from Alice Jones, writing in The Independent newspaper, when she expressed doubt that the claim that "wine tastes better with music" would "stand up to scientific scrutiny." ([1], p. 51...

  4. Opponency of astringent and fat sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Mura, Emi; Speziale, Camille; Favreau, Charlotte J; Dubreuil, Guillaume F; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-10-09

    In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations [1], in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures [6] to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Bac(chus experiment: blood alcohol concentrations after wine tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert van de Wiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs were measured in ten volunteers after a wine tasting event with and without the swallowing of 15 mL of each wine. In case ten wines were tasted within one hour without swallowing, buccal mucosa absorption did not result in problematic BAC’s; however in case 15 mL of each wine was swallowed, BAC’s may exceed the legal driving limit of most countries. It is recommended to eat beforehand, but also to wait at least one hour after the session before driving back home.

  6. The effect of background music on the taste of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C

    2012-08-01

    Research concerning cross-modal influences on perception has neglected auditory influences on perceptions of non-auditory objects, although a small number of studies indicate that auditory stimuli can influence perceptions of the freshness of foodstuffs. Consistent with this, the results reported here indicate that independent groups' ratings of the taste of the wine reflected the emotional connotations of the background music played while they drank it. These results indicate that the symbolic function of auditory stimuli (in this case music) may influence perception in other modalities (in this case gustation); and are discussed in terms of possible future research that might investigate those aspects of music that induce such effects in a particular manner, and how such effects might be influenced by participants' pre-existing knowledge and expertise with regard to the target object in question. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Extracting (good) discourse examples from an oral specialised corpus of wine tasting interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; Gautier, Laurent; Maazaoui, Hedi

    This article explains how lexicographic examples have been extracted from a corpus of professional interactions on wine tasting for the purpose of including them i the Oenolex wine dictionary. Particularly, it explains how the SONAL software was used to analyse and process audio data and export...

  8. Wine from the Netherlands: investigating the effect of soil-type on taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Geert-Jan; Maljers, Denise; Beurskens, Stan

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade professional viticulture has seen a strong increase in the Netherlands, reaching 270 ha in 2015. Although on a European scale this is a small area, the number of prize-winning quality wines is steadily growing. This growth can largely be ascribed to new grape varieties from Germany and Switzerland, that are better adapted to the cooler and moister climate at the northern fringe of the viticultural zone, as well as to increasing viticultural expertise. The distribution of vineyards across the Netherlands shows that they occur on a plethora of substrates. Dutch substrate is dominated by typical lowland deposits such as fluvial and marine sands and clays and aeolian sands. Unlike many European countries, bedrock is scarce. Only in the south-eastern extremity and in the east of the country, carbonate bedrock is present at or near the surface. This wide variety of substrate triggered our interest in the effect of the various soil-types on the smell and taste characteristics of wines. An effect which is often mentioned concerning well-known foreign wines. We wondered whether an Auxerrois wine from carbonate rocks tastes significantly different from a wine from the same grape variety from loess. And how about a Johanniter wine from fluvial deposits versus windblown sands? And what happens if you make wine in exactly the same way with the same grape variety and from the same vineyard, but with three different yeast types? To answer our questions, we selected ten Dutch vineyards with varying soil-types and the grape varieties Auxerrois and Johanniter. In October 2014 we harvested the grapes and wine was made under controlled identical conditions (in a double setup). The wines were scientifically tested at the institute of Viticulture and Oenology in Neustadt, Germany. The results show no significant effect of soil-type on the smell and taste of Dutch wines in our experiment. Varying yeast types (Cryarome, 3079, VL2) used on Souvignier Gris grapes from

  9. Typical Vine or International Taste: Wine Consumers' Dilemma Between Beliefs and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Boncinelli, Fabio; Contini, Caterina; Romano, Caterina; Gerini, Francesca; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The wine-growing sector is probably one of the agricultural areas where the ties between product quality and territory are most evident. Geographical indication is a key element in this context, and previous literature has focused on demonstrating how certification of origin influences the wine purchaser's behavior. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding how the value of a given name of origin may or may not be determined by the various elements that characterize the typicality of the wine product on that territory: vines, production techniques, etc. It thus seems interesting, in this framework, to evaluate the impacts of several characteristic attributes on the preferences of consumers. This paper will analyze, in particular, the role of the presence of autochthonous vines in consumers' choices. The connection between name of origin and autochthonous vines appears to be particularly important in achieving product "recognisability", while introducing "international" vines in considerable measure into blends might result in the loss of the peculiarity of certain characteristic and typical local productions. A standardization of taste could thus risk compromising the reputation of traditional production areas. The objective of this study is to estimate, through an experimental auction on the case study of Chianti, the differences in willingness to pay for wines produced with different shares of typical vines. The results show that consumers have a willingness to pay for wine produced with typical blends 34% greater than for wines with international blends. However, this difference is not confirmed by blind tasting, raising the issue of the relationship between exante expectations about vine typicality and real wine sensorial characteristics. Finally, some recent patents related to wine testing and wine packaging are reviewed.

  10. Wine and music (III): so what if music influences the taste of the wine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spence, Charles; Wang, Qian Janice

    2015-01-01

    ... a significant influence over the hedonic, the sensory, and the descriptive attributes of wine. What is also startling, at least to some, is that such crossmodal effects appear to affect both wine experts and social drinkers alike [9, 10]. While some commentators have, naturally enough, been sceptical about such claims (see [10, 11]), we would argue ...

  11. The contribution of wine-derived monoterpene glycosides to retronasal odour during tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mango; Black, Cory A; Barker, Alice; Pearson, Wes; Hayasaka, Yoji; Francis, I Leigh

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the sensory significance of monoterpene glycosides during tasting, by retronasal perception of odorant aglycones released in-mouth. Monoterpene glycosides were isolated from Gewürztraminer and Riesling juices and wines, chemically characterised and studied using sensory time-intensity methodology, together with a synthesised monoterpene glucoside. When assessed in model wine at five times wine-like concentration, Gewürztraminer glycosides and geranyl glucoside gave significant fruity flavour, although at wine-like concentrations, or in the presence of wine volatiles, the effect was not significant. Gewürztraminer glycosides, geranyl glucoside and guaiacyl glucoside were investigated using a sensory panel (n=39), revealing large inter-individual variability, with 77% of panellists responding to at least one glycoside. The study showed for the first time that grape-derived glycosides can contribute perceptible fruity flavour, providing a means of enhancing flavour in wines, and confirms the results of previous studies that the effect is highly variable across individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical and sensory characterization of DOC red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Emanuele; Boulton, Roger B; Thorngate, John H; Frega, Natale G

    2004-06-16

    Monomeric phenols, color and copigmentation parameters, pigments with different chemical structure, tannin, glucose, fructose, glycerol, ethanol, and organic acids were determined in DOC red wines from Marche (Italy), obtained during three different vintages ranging from 1996 to 2000. The intensity of the bitter and astringent tastes of the wines was determined with panel tastings. Lacrima di Morro and Vernaccia di Serrapetrona (obtained from local cultivars) were different from Rosso Piceno, Rosso Piceno Superiore, and Rosso Conero (produced from different percentages of Sangiovese and Montepulciano). Vernaccia, a red, sweet, "spumante" wine, was an outlier. Lacrima showed a low tannin content, a high content of small pigments and phenols, and a high ratio of copigmented color, which persisted after 3 years of aging. The chemical determinations accounted for a high percentage of variability of measured panel astringency, copigmented color, and measured wine absorbance at 520 nm. It was not possible to create a predictive model for bitterness.

  13. Mechanisms underlying astringency: introduction to an oral tribology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rutuja; Brossard, Natalia; Chen, Jianshe

    2016-03-01

    Astringency is one of the predominant factors in the sensory experience of many foods and beverages ranging from wine to nuts. The scientific community is discussing mechanisms that explain this complex phenomenon, since there are no conclusive results which correlate well with sensory astringency. Therefore, the mechanisms and perceptual characteristics of astringency warrant further discussion and investigation. This paper gives a brief introduction of the fundamentals of oral tribology forming a basis of the astringency mechanism. It discusses the current state of the literature on mechanisms underlying astringency describing the existing astringency models. The review discusses the crucial role of saliva and its physiology which contributes significantly in astringency perception in the mouth. It also provides an overview of research concerned with the physiological and psychophysical factors that mediate the perception of this sensation, establishing the ground for future research. Thus, the overall aim of the review is to establish the critical roles of oral friction (thin-film lubrication) in the sensation of astringency and possibly of some other specific sensory features.

  14. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of aging conditions on the quality of red Sangiovese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellari, M; Piermattei, B; Arfelli, G; Amati, A

    2001-08-01

    A red Sangiovese wine was stored in barrels of different woods (oak and chestnut) and types (225-L "barriques" and 1000-L barrels) at 12 and 22 degrees C for 320 days to evaluate the effects of different aging conditions on wine quality. Chestnut barrels led to wines richer in phenolics, and which were more tannic, colored, and fruity. Oak barrels gave wines with more monomeric phenolics, but less astringent, with higher vanilla smell, and more harmonious. The type of barrel could be used as a parameter to regulate the extraction of wood components and the polymerization of monomeric phenolics. Storage at 22 degrees C favored the formation of polymerized phenolics and the increase of color density and color hue. The temperature produced less pronounced effects on aroma and taste, even if wines stored at 12 degrees C showed more harmony.

  16. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due

  17. Association between taste receptor (TAS) genes and the perception of wine characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carrai, M.; Campa, D.; Vodička, Pavel; Flamini, R.; Martelli, I.; Slyšková, Jana; Jirásková, Kateřina; Rejhová, Alexandra; Vodenková, Soňa; Canzian, F.; Bertelli, A.; Dalla Vedova, A.; Bavaresco, L.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Barale, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, aug (2017), s. 9239 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-27580A; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14050 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : single-nucleotide polymorphisms * bitter-taste * alcohol-consumption Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Molecular Progress in Research on Fruit Astringency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Molecular progress in research on fruit astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Tian, Henglu; Luo, Xiaowen; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-15

    Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  20. Use of Multi-Intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) to Evaluate the Influence of Cheese on Wine Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmarini, Mara V; Loiseau, Anne-Laure; Visalli, Michel; Schlich, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Though the gastronomic sector recommends certain wine-cheese associations, there is little sensory evidence on how cheese influences the perception of wine. It was the aim of this study to dynamically characterize 4 wines as they would be perceived when consumed with and without cheese. The tasting protocol was based on multi-intake temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) coupled with hedonic rating. In the 1st session, 31 French wine and cheese consumers evaluated the wines (Pacherenc, Sancerre, Bourgogne, and Madiran) over 3 consecutive sips. In the following sessions, they performed the same task, but eating small portions of cheese (Epoisses, Comté, Roquefort, Crottin de Chavignol) between sips. All cheeses were tasted with all wines over 4 sessions. TDS data were mainly analyzed in terms of each attribute's duration of dominance by analysis of variance, multivariate analysis of variance, and canonical variate analysis. Results showed that cheese consumption had an impact (P < 0.1) on dominance duration of attributes and on preference for most wines. For example, in Madiran, all cheeses reduced dominance duration (P < 0.01) of astringency and sourness and increased duration of red fruit aroma. Although the number of consumers was small to make extended general conclusions on wine's preference, significant changes were observed before and after cheese intake. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer's attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  2. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  3. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  4. Reduction of catechin astringency by the complexation of gallate-type catechins with pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Ujihara, Tomomi; Kohata, Katsunori

    2005-07-01

    The reductive effect of pectin on tea catechin astringency was investigated by using a taste sensor system and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The sensor analysis revealed that the astringency of gallate-type catechins (EGCg and ECg) was reduced by the addition of pectin, whereas that of non-gallate-type catechins (EGC and EC) hardly changed. Changes in the (1)H-NMR chemical shifts of the catechins and pectin in mixed solutions showed that the gallate-type catechins formed complexes with pectin more closely than the non-gallate-type catechins. These results demonstrate that complexation between the gallate-type catechins and pectin is a factor for reducing catechin astringency.

  5. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin, Dominique; Reedman, Phil; Grose, Claire; Green, James A.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day) and unfavourable (Root day) for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day ...

  6. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted taste profile analysis of white ginseng (Panax ginseng) using a taste-sensing system. Taste such as sourness, bitterness, astringent, aftertaste, umami, richness, and saltiness of the four subfractions (n-hexane fr. = Pg1; EtOAc fr. = Pg2; CHCl3 fr. = Pg3; n-BuOH fr. = Pg4) from white ginseng was checked using ...

  7. Factors Contributing to a Memorable Wine Route Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wine tourism, especially wine festivals and routes, is becoming more popular in South Africa, primarily because it gives wine cellars and wine farms greater publicity and exposure leading to increase in wine sales. The wine farmers or cellars are also expanding their product offering to involve more than just wine tasting ...

  8. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane Koteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wine (Latin: vinum is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained from other types of fruit. These wines are referred to as fruit wines, or wear a name by which the fruit is used for obtaining them (for example apple wine. Wine tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting wineries, tasting, consumption and purchase of wine, usually directly from the manufacturer. This type of tourism includes visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants famous for special local wines, as well as organized wine tours, visits to wine festivals and other special events. Many wine regions around the world to promote this tourism because it affects very positively to the local economy. In these regions, viticulture and hospitality organizations have spent significant resources over the years for the promotion of wine tourism. Wine tourism in my country is respected, but strong growth.

  9. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Lindsey M.; McGarry Wolf, Marianne; Mitchell J. Wolf

    2014-01-01

    As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine th...

  10. Isolation of condensed tannins in individual size from grape seeds and their impact on astringency perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. The influence of DP size of condensed tannins on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5 was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed.

  11. Predicting the Composition of Red Wine Blends Using an Array of Multicomponent Peptide-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ghanem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine.

  12. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... in a restaurant; medical professionals and patients in a hospital; and people gathered for a wine tasting event, daily dinner or a meal in a convent. The ethnographic materials are used to engage with what so far social science literatures on tasting tend to take for granted: that tasting is a physiological...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  13. Wine tourism and sustainable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa González San José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a model of development in which the present actions should not compromise the future of future generations, and is linked to economic and social development which must respect the environment. Wine tourism or enotourism is a pleasant mode of tourism that combines the pleasure of wine-tasting, with cultural aspects related to the wine culture developing in wine regions over time until the present day. It can be affirmed that wine culture, and its use through wine tourism experiences, is clearly correlated to social (socially equitable, economic (economically feasible, environmental (environmentally sound and cultural aspects of the sustainability of winegrowing regions and territories.

  14. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  15. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

    2014-09-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    Value – This study is of value to the Dutch government and the wine lobby, because it demonstrates the difference between wine tasting and drinking. It also has value for restaurant owners, the wine industry, and the academic world, because it highlights an important aspect of consumer behaviour with regard to wine purchases.

  17. New techniques for wine aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging of wine requires a long time therefore it can cause loss of time and money. Therefore using of new techniques for wine aging shortens the length of aging time and wines may be placed on the market more quickly. Nowadays, gamma irradiation, ultrasonic waves, AC electric field and micro-oxygenation are the new techniques for wine aging. Gamma irradiation (after fermentation is accelerated physical maturation method. Gamma irradiation, in a suitable dosage (200 Gy, is a suitable method for improving some wine defects and producing a higher taste quality in wine. The 20 kHz ultrasonic waves aged wine much more quickly than standard aging, with similar quality. The wine treated by 20 kHz ultrasonic waves had a taste equivalent to 1 year aged wine. Wine maturing with AC electric field promises novel process accelerating aging process of fresh wine when suitable conditions are applied. As a result of research, an optimum treatment (electric field 600 V/cm and duration time 3 min was identified to accelerate wine aging. Harsh and pungent raw wine become harmonious and dainty. This process is equivalent to 6 month aging in oak barrel. Microoxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen (2 ml L−1 month−1 and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Studies concerning these new techniques demonstrated that maturation of wines become more quickly than standard maturation procedures with keeping and improving the wine quality.

  18. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2015-10-01

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques - check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) - using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references ('poles') before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward's minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered 'rapid,' our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best performed 1

  19. Isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of mouth-drying and astringent nitrogen-containing phytochemicals isolated from red currants (Ribes rubrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Bernd; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-02-21

    Application of chromatographic separation and taste dilution analyses recently revealed, besides a series of flavon-3-ol glycosides and (E)/(Z)-aconitic acid, four nitrogen-containing phytochemicals as the key astringent and mouth-drying compounds in red currants (Ribes rubrum). The isolation and structure determination of the astringent indoles 3-carboxymethyl-indole-1-N-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3-methylcarboxymethyl-indole-1-N-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), as well as the astringent, noncyanogenic nitriles 2-(4-hydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)-4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2(E)-butenenitrile (3) and 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyloxymethyl)-4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2(E)-butenenitrile (4) by means of 1D/2D NMR, LC-MS/MS, and UV-vis spectroscopy are reported. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were confirmed by synthesis. Using the recently developed half-tongue test, human recognition thresholds for the astringent and mouth-drying nitrogen compounds were determined to be between 0.0003 and 5.9 micromol/L (water). In particular, the extraordinarily low threshold of 0.0003 micromol/L evaluated for the indole 1 represents the lowest recognition threshold of any astringent phytochemical reported to date.

  20. Consumer perceptions of organic wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IORDACHESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.

  1. Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-01-23

    Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.

  2. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Parr

    Full Text Available The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day and unfavourable (Root day for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine's perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers' calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation.

  3. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Wendy V; Valentin, Dominique; Reedman, Phil; Grose, Claire; Green, James A

    2017-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day) and unfavourable (Root day) for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine's perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers' calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation.

  4. SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOME WHITE WINES, FLAVORED WINES AND VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, PREPARED BY USING OWN RECIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize, from sensorial point of view, the basic white wines White Fetească, Italian Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, as well as flavored wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to basic wines, tasting technique was used. It is known that sensory analysis is a method that can provide an overview of a wine. The main features analyzed were: appearance, color, smell and taste. Initial, wines presented specific features of grapes variety from which they belong, being characterized by harmony and complex flavor. The hydroalcoholic macerates were obtained by preparing two recipes (labeled I and II of different mixtures of plants. Recipes I A in 45% alcohol and I B in 60% alcohol, had characteristics of appearance, color, taste and smell, very intense, specific, prevailing the taste of anise, fennel and coriander. The macerates prepared with recipes II A in 45% alcohol and II B in 60% alcohol (mixture of a few herbs and peel of citrus fruits showed peculiarities of taste, odor, flavor less intense, prevailing the smell of nutmeg and citrus flavor. Recipes I A and I B of hydroalcoholic plants macerates decisively influenced the color, taste, flavor, smell and appearance of flavored wines. Recipes II A and II B influenced discreetly the sensory properties of flavored wines. Vermouth type wines obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates + other ingredients (citric acid, alcohol, sugar, presented harmonious sensory characteristics, balanced, discreet, subtle, compared with flavored wines obtained only by the addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to the basic wines. The latter had a color, aroma, taste, smell, more intense, more rustic. Herbal recipes I B and II B (prepared in 60% alcohol, have strongly influenced the sensory properties of flavored wines, compared to recipes I A and II A (prepared in 45% alcohol.

  5. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine that is produced locally, organically, or sustainably are more likely to employ technology in their wine purchase decision. While disruption appears to have occurred on the supply side (number of wine applications available and the number of wine labels with a QR code, this research suggests that relatively little change is occurring on the demand side (a relatively small segment of the population—those already interested in wine—are employing the technology to aid in their purchase decision.

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE: A taste sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-01

    A multichannel taste sensor, namely an electronic tongue, with global selectivity is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information about substances producing taste into electrical signals, which are input to a computer. The sensor output exhibits different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness, sourness and bitterness, whereas it exhibits similar patterns for chemical substances with similar tastes. The sensor responds to the taste itself, as can be understood from the fact that taste interactions such as the suppression effect, which appears for mixtures of sweet and bitter substances, can be reproduced well. The suppression of the bitterness of quinine and a drug substance by sucrose can be quantified. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes on the basis of sensor outputs. The tastes of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water, milk, sake, rice, soybean paste and vegetables can be discussed quantitatively using the taste sensor, which provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. The flavour of a wine is also discriminated using the taste-odour sensory fusion conducted by combining the taste sensor and an odour-sensor array using conducting polymer elements. The taste sensor can also be applied to measurements of water pollution. Miniaturization of the taste sensor using FET produces the same characteristics as those of the above taste sensor by measuring the gate-source voltage. Use of the taste sensor will lead to a new era of food and environmental sciences.

  7. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Wendy V.; Valentin, Dominique; Reedman, Phil; Grose, Claire; Green, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The study’s aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day) and unfavourable (Root day) for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine’s perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers’ calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation. PMID:28046047

  8. Educated tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores taste in the context of phenomenology and outlines possibilities for situating a phenomenological approach to taste within the framework of educational theory. In such an approach, taste emerges as a complex interaction between all senses and as interplay between recollection...... and anticipation. In this respect, taste-experience is indicative of a privileged but hitherto relatively unexplored access to cognition. It is a sensory encounter that encompasses possibilities for learning, not only about taste but also about other subjects through taste. Key-words: sensory experience, taste...

  9. Increase in information by improvement of measuring method in a multichannel taste sensor; Multichannel aji sensor no sokutei hoho no kairyo ni yoru johoryo no zoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with lipid membranes which can detect and quantify the basic taste substances in aqueous solution. The aim of the present study is to increase selectivity to adsorptive taste substances (bitter, umami and astringent taste substances) for quantification of taste by improving measuring methods. High selectivity to adsorptive taste substances is obtained by CPA measurement algorithm (CPA: Change of membrane Potential caused by Adsorption). High repeatability is also obtained by developing a cleaning technique of taste sensor. 18 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Seed incorporation during vinification and its impact on chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenuGopal, K S; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2017-12-15

    Syzgium cumini (Jamun) is an evergreen tropical tree, its various parts are known for many therapeutic properties. The present work represents the production of wines from jamun fruits using two different native isolates (Saccharomyces cerevisiae - KF551990 and Pichia gummiguttae - MCC 1273) and influence of jamun seeds on the physico-chemical parameters, chromatic properties, phenolic components and sensory attributes of wine. Wine produced was bottle aged for one year. On aging there was a reduction in bitterness and astringency. Aging lead to reduction in monomeric anthocyanin with an increase in co-pigmented and polymeric anthocynins thus affecting the wine color. Anthocyanin analysis in jamun wine indicated petunidin 3,5-diglucoside as the principal anthocyanin. PCA analysis of wine revealed association of young jamun wine with anthocyanin components. PLS analysis exhibited both positive and negative correlation between various attributes indicating sensory perception of jamun wine is affected by overall composition of the wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to position taste within the framework of time. This might seem peculiar given that taste, in its physical sense, is referred to as an ephemeral experience taking place in the mouth. Taste, however, is more than that. It is the transient experience that infiltrates...... the body in the act of eating and, at the same time, it has associative powers that allow taste to transcend the instantaneous sensory encounter. Taste is a synthesis of multiple sensory impressions involving all five senses, each sense contributing with a particular facet of sensory experience....... But this does not mean that taste is entirely individual. It goes beyond the sphere of the individual in the sense that taste can be handed over and thus lay out a basis for shared remembrance. The focal point will be the interplay between the individual taste-experiences of various registers of tastes...

  12. Metals in wine--impact on wine quality and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka

    2011-12-01

    Metals in wine can originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its concentration can be a significant parameter affecting consumption and conservation of wine. Since metallic ions have important role in oxide-reductive reactions resulting in wine browning, turbidity, cloudiness, and astringency, wine quality depends greatly on its metal composition. Moreover, metals in wine may affect human health. Consumption of wine may contribute to the daily dietary intake of essential metals (i.e., copper, iron, and zinc) but can also have potentially toxic effects if metal concentrations are not kept under allowable limits. Therefore, a strict analytical control of metal concentration is required during the whole process of wine production. This article presents a critical review of the existing literature regarding the measured metal concentration in wine, methods applied for their determination, and possible sources, as well as their impact on wine quality and human health. The main focus is set on aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc, as these elements most often affect wine quality and human health.

  13. Generation Y's attitude towards organic wine | Hoekstra | Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, when it comes to repeat purchasing, taste is the most important aspect. For future research the advice is to measure the effect of product exposure and organic wine promotion in the longer term on Generation Y's organic wine appreciation. Keywords: Generation Y, young people, knowledge, values, attitude, wine ...

  14. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  15. MARKETING RESEARCH ON WINE CONSUMERS PREFERENCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research that aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine consumer preferences in Romania. The research method was survey made through questionnaires administered to a relevant number of respondents. In order to establish the main goals of this research, we considered aspects as: identification of purchase and consume frequency of wine, the preferred consumer’s places for serving or buying wine, the average quantity of wine that is usually bought, the level of price accepted by the consumer, the type of wine preferred by consumer in relation with wine color and taste, the preferred package, time spent for wine shopping, preferred producers, brands, grape variety, quality influence in choosing wine categories, identifying wine consumers profile. The analysis and interpretation of results revealed that decision factors in buying wine are the type of the wine, the price, followed by color, packaging and advertisement.

  16. Use of Winemaking Supplements To Modify the Composition and Sensory Properties of Shiraz Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijing; Bindon, Keren; Bastian, Susan E P; Jiranek, Vladimir; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2017-02-22

    Wine quality can be significantly affected by tannin and polysaccharide composition, which can in turn be influenced by grape maturity and winemaking practices. This study explored the impact of three commercial wine additives, a maceration enzyme, an enotannin, and a mannoprotein, on the composition and sensory properties of red wine, in particular, in mimicking the mouthfeel associated with wines made from riper grapes. Shiraz grapes were harvested at 24 and 28 °Brix and the former vinified with commercial additives introduced either individually or in combination. Compositional analyses of finished wines included tannin and polysaccharide concentration, composition and size distribution by high-performance liquid chromatography, whereas the sensory profiles of wines were assessed by descriptive analysis. As expected, wines made from riper grapes were naturally higher in tannin and mannoprotein than wines made from grapes harvested earlier. Enzyme addition resulted in a significantly higher concentration and average molecular mass of wine tannin, which increased wine astringency. Conversely, mannoprotein addition reduced tannin concentration and astringency. Addition of enotannin did not meaningfully influence wine composition or sensory properties.

  17. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  18. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezazki, Hidekazu; Chen, Ronggang; Naito, Yoshinobu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. PMID:22319306

  19. Active taste compounds in juice from oranges symptomatic for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus greening disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB), compromises the quality of citrus fruit and juice, causing increased bitterness, metallic taste, astringency and a burning mouthfeel. The chemical basis responsible for these changes remains largely unknown other than the roles of the bitte...

  20. Chemical, chromatic, and sensory attributes of 6 red wines produced with prefermentative cold soak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Bolcato, Esteban A; Sari, Santiago E

    2015-05-01

    Six red grape cultivars, Barbera D'Asti, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Syrah, were produced with or without prefermentative cold soak (CS). Cold soak had no effect on the basic chemical composition of the wines. At pressing, CS wines were more saturated and with a higher red component than control wines. After 1 year of bottle aging, CS wines retained 22% more anthocyanins than control wines, but tannins and total phenolics remained unaffected. Both saturation and the red component of colour were slightly higher in CS wines. From a sensory standpoint, CS only enhanced colour intensity in Barbera D'Asti and Cabernet Sauvignon wines, whereas it diminished colour intensity in Pinot Noir. Cold soak had no effect on perceived aroma, bitterness, astringency, and body of the wines. Principal Component Analysis suggested that the outcome of CS is contingent upon the specific cultivar to which the CS technique is applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-06

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  2. "I like the sound of that!" Wine descriptions influence consumers' expectations, liking, emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Johnson, Trent E; Ristic, Renata; Meiselman, Herbert L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated how information, typically presented on wine back-labels or wine company websites, influences consumers' expected liking, informed liking, wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines. Regular white wine consumers (n=126) evaluated the same set of three commercially available white wines (mono-varietal Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc) under three information levels. Session 1, blind tasting (no information provided) and Session 2, informed tasting (held at least 1week later) with both basic (sensory description of the wines) and elaborate (sensory plus high wine quality and favourable winery information) descriptions followed by liking, wine-evoked emotions (measured with the Australian Wine Evoked Emotions Lexicon (AWEEL)) and willingness to pay evaluations. Before tasting the wine in session 2, consumers also rated expected liking. Results showed that information level had a significant effect on all investigated variables. The elaborate information level evoked higher expectations before tasting the wines, plus resulted in higher liking ratings, elicitation of more intense positive (e.g. contented, happy and warm-hearted) and less intense negative emotions (e.g. embarrassed and unfulfilled), and a substantial increase in willingness to pay after tasting the wines compared to the blind condition, with the basic condition ranging in-between. These results were consistent across the three wine samples. Furthermore, if the liking rating after tasting the wines matched the expected liking or exceeded the expectations by 1 point on a 9-point hedonic scale, participants felt the most intense positive emotions and the least intense negative emotions. Whereas, if the expectations were not met or the actual liking exceeded the expectations by >2 points, participants felt less intense positive and more intense negative emotions. This highlights not only the importance of well written and accurate wine descriptions

  3. Wine and Cheese: Two Products or One Association? A New Method for Assessing Wine-Cheese Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara V. Galmarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data were associated with the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL. Furthermore, the nine associations that resulted from combining each wine with each cheese were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL; for Comté, mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Époisses, salty was a negative TDL. As for wines, negative TDL were only found in the red wines: bitter, sour and astringent. Positive TDL for wines were: fruity, spicy and woody. Changes in the dynamic perception had a bigger impact on liking of wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for seven out of nine combinations, bitter (six out of nine and astringent (five out of nine. Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing, which should be further exploited.

  4. OLFACTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TAMÂIOASA ROMÂNEASCĂ WINE COME FROM DIFFERENT WINE REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa VIŞAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The work refers to the analysis of aroma compounds identified in Tamaioasa Romanian wines from 2 distinct Romanian wine-growing areas: vineyard Stefanesti-Arges and Pietroasa, watching, and in particular the variation of flavorings depending on the region of origin. Gas chromatographic method coupled with mass Spectrometry were identified 6 esters, 3 higher alcohols, 1 aromatic alcohol, 2 terpenes, 1 lactone, 1 acid and 1 aldehyde. The high concentration of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, isoamyl alcohol were identified; flavor specific Tamaioasa Romanian wine is given by 1-Į-terpineol, terpenic alcohol has been identified in this wine in large quantities. Research has shown that wine-growing region influence the organoleptic characteristics of wine and aromatic content of their wines, so the wines can be very quickly recognized when tasting.

  5. Sensory-guided decomposition of red currant juice (Ribes rubrum) and structure determination of key astringent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Bernd; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-02-21

    Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery and structure determination of 25 key astringent compounds of red currant juice. Besides several flavonol glycosides, in particular, 3-carboxymethyl-indole-1-N-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-methylcarboxymethyl-indole-1-N-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and a family of previously not identified compounds, namely, 2-(4-hydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)-4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2(E)-butenenitrile, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyloxymethyl)-4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2(E)-butenenitrile, (E)-6-[3-hydroxy-4-(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)phenyl]-5-hexen-2-one named dehydrorubrumin, and (3E,5E)-6-[3-hydroxy-4-(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)phenyl]-3,5-hexadien-2-one named rubrumin, have been identified. Determination of the oral astringency thresholds by means of the half-tongue test revealed that the lowest thresholds of 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/L were found for the nitrogen-containing 3-carboxymethyl-indole-1-N-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-methylcarboxymethyl-indole-1-N-beta-D-glucopyranoside, which do not belong to the group of plant polyphenols.

  6. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  7. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  8. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  9. Characteristics of traditional Chinese shanlan wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Luo, Xianqun; Wang, Xinguang

    2014-02-01

    Shanlan rice wine is made by a unique method by removing the saccharified liquid from wine mash constantly since it appeared during saccharification and fermentation. The objective of this study is to find the advantages of this technique of wine making by analyzing data of shanlan wine fermentation. Since the liquid was removed, the mash (rice) bed was fluffier than immersed in the saccharified liquid, under ambient condition constantly and it is favorable for starch degradation. This technique made shanlan rice wine tasted sweet and slightly acidic, lower content of alcohol and higher alcohol than in other non-distilled rice wines. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential of wines from ‘Welschriesling’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ varieties during ageing on fine lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lužar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are key components of wine, since they contribute to wine characteristics such as colour, astringency and bitterness. They also act like antioxidants, with mechanisms involving free-radical scavenging that could prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The aim of the present work was to compare the obtained results of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential (AOP of several white wines (welschriesling and sauvignon blanc during ageing on fine lees. The total polyphenols content decreased in average for 16.1 % in welschriesling wines and for 18.7 % in sauvignon blanc wines in the period of three months of wine ageing on lees. In the same period AOP of wines decreased in average for 16.0 % in welschriesling wines and for 8.0 % in sauvignon blanc wines. Expectedly, the samples with added oak chips in grape must had higher antioxidant potential than others.

  11. Production of ready to drink red and rosé wines from new seedless grapevine crossbreeds

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    Antonacci Donato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins content in grapes is higher in seeds compared to berry skins. Monomeric flavan-3-ols are more astringent, however, they can combine with other monomer, with anthocyanins and with mannoproteins released by yeast and therefore lose their harsh features in wines. Proanthocyanidins extracted during fermentation and maceration processes in red wines, are important for the organoleptic characteristics of the product and for its aging. There is a difference between skins and seeds proanthocyanidins, with the latter being perceived as more harsh and astringent. One of the most important purposes of refinement and aging of red wines very rich in polyphenols is the slow loss of bitterness. Instead, for wines ready to drink seeds tannins can give bitter overtones, therefore reducing their quality since consumers generally prefer a reduced astringency and attenuated bitterness. This paper investigates the possibility of employ some new seedless grapes crossings of Vitis vinifera L., obtained in recent breeding programs carried out at the CREA-VE of Turi, for the production of improved red and rosé wines made with traditionally red winemaking.

  12. Tasting fees and the youth market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Treloar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Many wineries in Australia and New Zealand are seeking strategies to continue to develop in a highly competitive marketplace. One such strategy is via the development of wine tourism. Although there is a significant amount of literature of the relative advantages and disadvantages of wine tourism for small wineries, particularly with respect to its educational and market development function, there is very little research available on how wine tourism is perceived by the next generation of wine drinkers – the youth market. The purpose of this study is therefore to gain a better understanding of how the youth market perceives tasting fees at wineries and influences on purchasing and other wine behaviours. In late 2003, 599 surveys were distributed to ten universities throughout Australia and New Zealand, of which 448 were returned, representing a valid response rate of 74.8 percent. The results of the survey indicated that the majority of respondents who thought of wine tourism as an appealing activity, who had visited wineries previously, who normally consumed and purchased wine and who had some knowledge of wine all thought that a fee at the cellar door would impact on their decision to visit. Wineries need to maximise the return on their wine, however there also needs to be recognition of the potential trade-off between immediate returns from charging for tastings and cellar-door sales versus longer-term returns from direct and indirect sales. In some markets, and particularly the ‘Generation Y’ market, seeking short-term returns through charging may affect longer-term custom and loyalty. However, regardless of the strategy, it is important that it is effectively communicated to the market, particularly if individual wineries are interested in growing the market for the future.

  13. Descriptor Fingerprints and Their Application to Red Wine Clustering and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangov, I. P.; Moskovkina, M.; Stojanov, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The investigation was performed to test the potentials of the fingerprint clustering algorithm for a set of 1599 red wines in relation to some wine properties, comprised in the notion "wine quality". We have obtained a distribution of the wines into different clusters as a result. Each cluster was composed of wine-objects with similar values of laboratory parameters and with a wine quality certificate. A correlation between the. quality of wines (a sensory taste factor) and the phisicochemical descriptors (laboratory analytical test results data) was observed and analyzed.

  14. Wine fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection

  15. Application of infrared portable sensor technology for predicting perceived astringency of acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow-Ying; Mutilangi, William; Plans, Marcal; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Formulating whey protein beverages at acidic pH provides better clarity but the beverages typically develop an unpleasant and astringent flavor. Our aim was to evaluate the application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in predicting astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. Whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) from different manufacturers were used to formulate beverages at pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.9. Trained panelists using the spectrum method of descriptive analysis tested the beverages providing astringency scores. A portable Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflectance spectrometer was used for spectra collection that was analyzed by multivariate regression analysis (partial least squares regression) to build calibration models with the sensory astringency scores. Beverage astringency scores fluctuated from 1.9 to 5.2 units and were explained by pH, protein type (WPC, WPI, or WPH), source (manufacturer), and their interactions, revealing the complexity of astringency development in acidic whey protein beverages. The WPC and WPH beverages showed an increase in astringency as the pH of the solution was lowered, but no relationship was found for WPI beverages. The partial least squares regression analysis showed strong relationship between the reference astringency scores and the infrared predicted values (correlation coefficient >0.94), giving standard error of cross-validation ranging from 0.08 to 0.12 units, depending on whey protein type. Major absorption bands explaining astringency scores were associated with carboxylic groups and amide regions of proteins. The portable infrared technique allowed rapid prediction of astringency of acidic whey protein beverages, providing the industry a novel tool for monitoring sensory characteristics of whey-containing beverages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changing Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil Just; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force the patient to fundamentally change his or her eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting...

  17. Do good things come in small packages? Willingness to pay for pomegranate wine and bottle size effects

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas C. Drichoutis; Klonaris, Stathis; Papoutsi, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the claim that bottle size formats signal quality changes, using a controlled laboratory experiment where we simultaneously auctioned two different sweet wines: a pomegranate wine and a grape wine. We varied on a between subjects basis the size of the bottle, from 500ml to 750ml, but kept the wine content of the bottle constant across bottle size formats. We also explored in a within subjects design the effect of expectations for the wines, blind tasting and information on willing...

  18. Segmentation and drivers of wine liking and consumption in US wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering GJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gary J Pickering,1–3 Arun K Jain,4 Ram Bezawada4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 2Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 4School of Management, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: This study examined the influence of selected experiential (wine expertise, psychological (alcoholic beverage adventurousness, and biological (age, sex, 6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP] responsiveness factors on self-reported liking and consumption of 14 wine styles in a sample of 1,010 US wine consumers. Cluster analysis of wine liking scores revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments, namely red wine lovers, dry table wine likers and sweet dislikers, and sweet wine likers. These clusters differ in key demographic measures, including sex, age, household income, and education, as well as wine expertise and PROP responsiveness. Wines were collapsed into five categories (dry table, sparkling, fortified, sweet, and wine-based beverages to examine more closely the factors affecting wine liking, total annual intake, and consumption frequency (analysis of variance [ANOVA] followed by Tukey's honest significant difference [HSD] 0.05. Wine expertise was most strongly associated with liking and consumption measures, while PROP responsiveness and alcoholic beverage adventurousness were also important contributors. Neither age nor sex had any large and consistent effects on liking or consumption, although the sex × expertise interaction was significant for some styles. These data provide an example of multifactorial segmentation of a wine market using Northeastern United States as an example, and indicate opportunities for targeted alignment of marketing to cohorts identified here. Keywords: market segmentation, taste genetics, PROP, wine expertise, wine liking

  19. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE VINHAS RIESLING ITÁLICO NACIONAIS UTILIZANDO PERFIL LIVRE SENSORY EVALUATION OF BRAZILIAN WELCHRIESLING WINES BY FREE-CHOICE PROFILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo BENASSI

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A literatura cita um grande número de trabalhos envolvendo análise sensorial descritiva para vinhos. Perfil Livre, uma nova técnica descritiva, foi utilizado na caracterização em termos de aparência, sabor e aroma para sete amostras de vinhos brancos Riesling Itálico nacionais. Doze provadores, sem experiência anterior com a técnica, foram selecionados utilizando-se teste triangular. Para o levantamento de atributos foi empregado o método rede. O número de atributos levantados por provador variou de sete a treze. Utilizou-se a análise Procrustes Generalizada para tratamento dos dados. Durante quinze dias, foram realizadas quinze sessões, sendo duas para a seleção de provadores, quatro para o levantamento de atributos, duas para checar a ficha e sete para avaliação das amostras (blocos incompletos balanceados. Foi obtida boa discriminação entre as amostras. Os vinhos foram separados com base em atributos de sabor (doce, frutado, ácido, "adstringente" e alcoólico, correlacionados com a dimensão 1 (25% da variância, e um atributo de aparência (cor amarela, correlacionado com a dimensão 2 (9% da variância.There is a large bibliography on descriptive sensory analysis of wines. Free-choice profiling, a new descriptive sensory technique, was applied to develop a profile with respect to appearance, aroma and taste for seven Brazilian Welchriesling wines. Twelve panelists, without experience with the technique, were selected using triangular tests. The Grid method was used to obtain the list of descriptors. The number of attributes developed for each judge vary from seven to thirteen. Generalized Procrustes Analysis were applied to the data. During fifteen days, fifteen sessions were realized: two to select the assessors, four to develop the terminology, two to check the score sheets and seven to evaluate the wines (balanced incomplete block design. It was observed good discrimination between the samples. Wines were

  20. Understanding the Relationship between Red Wine Matrix, Tannin Activity, and Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrelot, Aude A; Byrnes, Nadia K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Kennedy, James A

    2016-11-30

    One major red wine mouthfeel characteristic, astringency, is derived from grape-extracted tannins and is considered to be a result of interaction with salivary proteins and the oral mucosa. To improve our understanding of the role that the enthalpy of interaction of tannin with a hydrophobic surface (tannin activity) has in astringency perception, a chromatographic method was used to determine the tannin concentration and activity of 34 Cabernet Sauvignon wines, as well as sensory analysis done on 13 of those wines. In addition, astringency-relevant matrix parameters (pH, titratable acidity, ethanol, glucose, and fructose) were measured across all wines. Tannin activity was not significantly correlated with any matrix variables, and the perception of drying and grippy was not correlated with tannin concentration and activity. However, ethanol content was well related to mouthfeel attributes and appeared to drive perceived drying. Although fructose and glucose content were well correlated, they did not drive the perception of sweetness, which is explained by the well-known mixture suppression effect.

  1. Drosophila bitter taste(s

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    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  2. QUALITY EVALUATION OF DENDALION WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Sugintienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The world tendencies are pronounced to attach significance to production of natural fermentation alcohol drinks. The fanciers of drinks take interest in the production of homemade drinks, and especially healthy drinks.Production of original and even health friendly drinks has been recently a matter of increased interest among amateur producers and drink manufacturers in Europe as well. Dandelion wine is one of the drinks produced by use of different amounts of various ingredients and available equipment in the fermentation laboratory. The following characteristics are determined upon the main fermentation in the matured and clarified wine:- sensory indicators (color, appearance and clearness; aroma and bouquets, taste and texture, and aftertaste,- analytical indicators (alcoholic strength by volume, determination of sugars, total acidity, volatile acidity.Dandelions wine is most distinguished by its flavor characteristics.

  3. Do the Scandinavian consumers pay a "fair" price for German white wines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the retail prices of German white wines sold in the Scandinavian countries. German white wines account for approximately 5-6 per cent of the total sale of wines - both red and white wines - in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. However, the market shares of German wines...... in Scandinavia have been declining for a number of years. Diminishing market shares may reflect changes in consumer tastes or simply 'wrong' prices, the latter related to both the level of wine prices (German wines being relatively expensive) and the structure of wine prices. In general, country-specific price...... differences for identical wines are expected to be a sign of differences in taxes, import prices, transportation costs as well as other costs - and also different competitive conditions at the retail level in the respective countries. Differences in wine prices across countries do not always reflect...

  4. Sensory representation of typicality of Cabernet franc wines related to phenolic composition: impact of ripening stage and maceration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadot, Yves; Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Barbeau, Gérard; Cheynier, Véronique

    2012-06-30

    Phenolics are responsible for important sensory properties of red wines, including colour, astringency, and possibly bitterness. From a technical viewpoint, the harvest date and the maceration duration are critical decisions for producing red wine with a distinctive style. But little is known about the evolution of phenolics and of their extractability during ripening to predict the composition of the wine and related sensory properties. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the sensory profile of the wines and (i) the ripening stage of the berries (harvest date) and (ii) the extraction time (maceration duration). Phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of Vitis Vinifera var. Cabernet franc were measured in grapes and in wines from two stages of maturity and with two maceration durations. Phenolic composition was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, after fractionation and thiolysis for proanthocyanidins. The distinctive style of wines was investigated by descriptive analysis (trained panel), Just About Right profiles and typicality assessment (wine expert panel). Relationships between phenolics and sensory attributes were established by multidimensional analysis, and phenolics were classified according to sensory data by ANOVA and PLS regressions. Astringency, bitterness, colour intensity and alcohol significantly increased with ripening and astringency and colour intensity increased with maceration time. Grape anthocyanins increased and thiolysis yield significantly decreased with ripening. In wine, proanthocyanidins increased, and mean degree of polymerisation and thiolysis yield decreased with longer extraction time. The high impact of harvest date on the sensory profiles could be due to changes in anthocyanin and sugar contents, but also to an evolution of proanthocyanidins. Moreover, proanthocyanidin composition was affected by maceration time as suggested by the decrease of thiolysis yield. Our

  5. Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know ...

  6. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

  7. Perception of basic tastes and threshold sensitivity during testing of selected judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE The sense of taste is one of the most important human senses. Alteration in taste perception can greately interfere to our lives, because it influences our dietary habits and consequently general human health. Many physiological and external factors can cause the loss of taste perception. These factors include for example certain diseases, the side effect of the use of certain medicaments, head trauma, gender, dietary habbits, smoking, role of saliva, age, stress and many more. In this paper we are discussing perception of basic tastes and treshold sensitivity during testing of selected groupe of 500 sensory judges. A resolution taste test and sensitivity treshold test were performed using basic tastes (sour, bitter, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, metallic. We have found that the perception of basic tastes decreese with human age. Smoking leads to significant errors in the determination of basic tastes. Different mistakes occures in different age categories. This study suggests further researches, investigating various factors influencing taste perception.  doi:10.5219/259

  8. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth > For Parents > Port-Wine Stains Print ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  9. Scatter-hoarding rodents prefer slightly astringent food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    Full Text Available The mutualistic interaction between scatter-hoarding rodents and their seed plants is highly complex yet poorly understood. Plants may benefit from the seed dispersal behavior of rodents, as long as seed consumption is minimized. In parallel, rodents may maximize foraging efficiency and cache high-quality resources for future consumption. Defensive compounds, such as tannins, are thought to be a major mechanism for plant control over rodent behavior. However, previous studies, using naturally occurring seeds, have not provided conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Here, we test the importance of tannin concentrations on the scatter-hoarding behavior of rodents by using an artificial seed system. We combined feeding trials and field observations to examine the overall impact of seed tannin concentrations on rodent behavior and health. We found that rodents favored seeds with an intermediate amount of tannin (~5% in the field. Meanwhile, in rodents that were fed a diet with different tannin content, only diets with high tannin content (25%, 15%, and 10% caused a significant negative influence on rodent survival and health. Significant differences were not found among treatments with tannin levels of 0-5%. In contrast to many existing studies, our results clearly demonstrate that scatter-hoarding rodents prefer slightly 'astringent' food. In the co-evolutionary arms race between plants and animals, our results suggest that while tannins may play a significant role in reducing general predation levels by the faunal community, they have no precise control over the behavior of their mutualistic partner. Instead, the two partners appear to have reached an evolutionary point where both parties receive adequate benefits, with the year-to-year outcome being dependent on a wide range of factors beyond the control of either partner.

  10. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  11. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What Are Taste Buds? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Are Taste Buds? Print A A A en español ¿Qué ... Did you ever wonder why your favorite foods taste so good? Well, you can thank your taste ...

  12. The effect of polysaccharide-degrading wine yeast transformants on the efficiency of wine processing and wine flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, C; La Grange, D; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2006-10-01

    Commercial polysaccharase preparations are applied to winemaking to improve wine processing and quality. Expression of polysaccharase-encoding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows for the recombinant strains to degrade polysaccharides that traditional commercial yeast strains cannot. In this study, we constructed recombinant wine yeast strains that were able to degrade the problem-causing grape polysaccharides, glucan and xylan, by separately integrating the Trichoderma reesei XYN2 xylanase gene construct and the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens END1 glucanase gene cassette into the genome of the commercial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae VIN13. These genes were also combined in S. cerevisiae VIN13 under the control of different promoters. The strains that were constructed were compared under winemaking conditions with each other and with a recombinant wine yeast strain expressing the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene cassette (END1) from B. fibrisolvens and the endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene cassette (XYN4) from Aspergillus niger, a recombinant strain expressing the pectate lyase gene cassette (PEL5) from Erwinia chrysanthemi and the polygalacturonase-encoding gene cassette (PEH1) from Erwinia carotovora. Wine was made with the recombinant strains using different grape cultivars. Fermentations with the recombinant VIN13 strains resulted in significant increases in free-flow wine when Ruby Cabernet must was fermented. After 6 months of bottle ageing significant differences in colour intensity and colour stability could be detected in Pinot Noir and Ruby Cabernet wines fermented with different recombinant strains. After this period the volatile composition of Muscat d'Alexandria, Ruby Cabernet and Pinot Noir wines fermented with different recombinant strains also showed significant differences. The Pinot Noir wines were also sensorial evaluated and the tasting panel preferred the wines fermented with the recombinant strains.

  13. STUDIES REGARDING THE COLOR EVOLUTION DURING MATURATION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND PINOT NOIR WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Vişan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structure was analyzed by their concentration in condensed tannins, astringent tannins and tannin-polysaccharide complex. Analyzes have been carried out in the wine by UV-VIS spectrometry techniques. Total content of polyphenols have been determined by spectrophotometric technique (DO280. Tannins have been determined by the Ribereau-Gayon method (1996, tannin structure after Glories method (1978; anthocyanins were determined by the discoloration technique with SO2. The study on color of red wines analyzed during their evolution referred to the study of chromatic parameters, the content of anthocyanin monomers and polymers (Glories method. Our results showed a decrease of the percent of anthocyanin monomers accompanied by an increase the percent of polymers, in both wines, during their maturation.

  14. Taste sensibility to phenylthiocarbamide and its relationship to food preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Maria Pandolfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foods like cabbage, broccoli, pepper and wine, containing proteins such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, cause a bitter taste in some people. Studies showed the relation between tasting profile and the development of obesity, and consequently leading to cardiovascular disease. Objective: Compare the differences in the taste sensibility to PTC present in some foods in individuals classified according to the nutritional status. Methods: One hundred fifty-three patients classified as eutrophic, overweight or obese received one drop of each PTC solution in the tongue, since the most diluted to the individual perception to bitter taste, in a total of 15 increasing grades. Results: Participants were predominantly middle-aged females, eutrophics and supertasters. It was found a correlation between PTC solution and red wine in the three groups evaluated (eutrophic, obese and overweight. Besides, eutrophic and obese that disliked wine had more sensibility to PTC. Conclusion: Our main finding showed that eutrophic and obese that disliked red wine had more sensibility to PTC. We did not find differences in the sensitivity to PTC for the other foods analyzed (fried foods, fruit and vegetables.

  15. Maceration enzymes and mannoproteins: a possible strategy to increase colloidal stability and color extraction in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Palacios, Antonio; Ayestaran, Belén

    2007-06-13

    Different strategies were adopted to achieve increases in color stability in Tempranillo wines: (i) addition of maceration enzymes directly to the must, (ii) addition of commercial mannoproteins to the must, and (iii) inoculation of must with yeast overexpressed of mannoproteins. The addition of enzymes favored color extraction, and the wines obtained presented higher values of wine color, color intensity, bisulfite-stable color, and visually enhanced color intensity. The enzyme hydrolytic activity produced an increase in the acid polysaccharide content and polyphenol index and yielded to wines with more astringency, tannin, and length. Added mannoproteins had clearer effects on the analyzed parameters than yeast. Contrary to what may be thought, mannoproteins did not maintain the extracted polyphenols in colloidal dispersion and neither ensured color stability. These compounds clearly modified the gustative structure of the wines, enhancing the sweetness and roundness.

  16. Context and wine quality effects on consumers' mood, emotions, liking and willingness to pay for Australian Shiraz wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Ristic, Renata; Johnson, Trent E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Hoek, Annet C; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different contexts on consumers' mood, product-evoked emotions, liking and willingness to pay for wine. Three consumer trials (n=114, 115, and 120) examined 3 different sample sets of 4 Australian commercial Shiraz wines. Each sample set was comprised of a high, medium-high, medium-low and low quality wine as designated by an expert panel. Wine consumers evaluated the same set of wines in the three different contexts, ranging from a highly-controlled laboratory setting to more realistic restaurant and at-home settings. Results showed that high quality wines were liked more and elicited more intense emotions of positive valence compared to wines of lower quality. Context effects were observed on emotions, but not on liking, indicating that although emotions and liking are correlated, the measurement of emotions can deliver additional information over liking. Tasting wine in the restaurant context evoked more intense positive emotions compared to the home and laboratory contexts. Participants' mood before tasting the wines had a strong influence on consecutive product-evoked emotion ratings, but only weak influence on liking ratings. Furthermore, a strong relationship between wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay was observed, showing that if a wine-evoked more intense emotion of positive valence e.g., contented, enthusiastic, happy, optimistic and passionate participants were willing to pay significantly more for a bottle. Additionally, the absence of negative emotions, even if typically evoked to a very weak extent, is a requirement for an increased willingness to pay. This study indicates it is worthwhile to consider context and emotions in wine testing and marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for chocolate

  18. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jolliet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective consumer taste perception and wine quality expectation (drinking the bottle or disposing of the wine down the drain and replacing it with a new bottle. This study aims to illustrate the importance of accurately defining system boundaries related to wine packaging systems. Methods: The environmental impacts resulting from wine loss rates as related to two types of wine bottle closures—natural cork stoppers and screw caps—have been estimated based on literature review data and compared to the impact of the respective closure system. The system studied relates to the functional unit “a 750 mL bottle of drinkable wine” and includes bottled wine, bottle and closure production, wine production, wine loss and wine poured down the drain. Results: The range of wine alteration rates due to corked wine is estimated to be 2–5% based on interviews with wine experts. Consumer behavior was assessed through a sensitivity study on replacement rates. When the increase in loss rate with the cork stopper is higher than 1.2% (corresponding to 3.5% corked wine multiplied by a consumer replacement rate of 35%, the influence of losses on the impact results is higher than that of the closure material itself. The different closures and associated wine losses represent less than 5% of the total life cycle impact of bottled wine.

  19. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (ptoasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral astringent stimuli alter the enamel pellicle's ultrastructure as revealed by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehage, Melanie; Delius, Judith; Hofmann, Thomas; Hannig, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    This electron microscopic study aimed at investigating effects of oral astringent stimuli on the enamel pellicle's morphology. Pellicles were formed in situ within 30min on bovine enamel slabs, fixed to individuals' upper jaw splints. The pellicle-coated specimens were immersed in vitro in seven diverse astringent solutions and subsequently analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four biocompatible astringents, namely the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate, the metal salt iron(III) sulfate, the basic protein lysozyme, and the aminopolysaccharide chitosan, were additionally applied in situ. After rinsing the oral cavity with these compounds, the pellicle's ultrastructure was imaged by SEM and TEM, respectively. Untreated pellicle samples served as controls. Exposure to polyphenols and lysozyme induced particularly thicker and electron-denser pellicles in comparison to the control pellicle with similar characteristics in vitro and in situ. In contrast, acidic chitosan and metal salt solutions, respectively, revealed minor pellicle alterations. The incorporation of Fe and Al into the pellicles treated with the corresponding inorganic salts was verified by EDX analysis. Astringent-induced pellicle modifications were for the first time visualized by TEM. The ultrastructural alterations of the dental pellicle may partly explain the tooth-roughening effect caused by oral astringent stimuli. Astringents might modify the pellicle's protective properties against dental erosion, attrition, as well as bacterial adhesion, and by this means may influence tooth health. The findings may thus be particularly relevant for preventive dentistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Video: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed

    2017-01-01

    The aim of a so-called research day was to give schoolchildren from 6th to 7th grade a day of learning about taste, sustainability and future foods. The children were invited to University College Absalon in Soroe, Denmark to a day with workshops involving taste experiments. Based on sensory...... experiments related to taste and through involvement and dialogue, the aim was to create knowledge, competences and awareness about taste and to challenge food courage among the children. Focus was to explore taste and taste preferences through sensory experiments and to bring awareness to the taste...... of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total...

  2. Abstract: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Hoffmeyer, Agnete

    The aim of a so-called research day was to give schoolchildren from 6th to 7th grade a day of learning about taste, sustainability and future foods. The children were invited to University College Absalon in Soroe, Denmark to a day with workshops involving taste experiments. Based on sensory...... experiments related to taste and through involvement and dialogue, the aim was to create knowledge, competences and awareness about taste and to challenge food courage among the children. Focus was to explore taste and taste preferences through sensory experiments and to bring awareness to the taste...... of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total...

  3. Sensing of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    A taste sensor with global selectivity, i. e., electronic tongue, is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information of taste substances into electric signal. The sensor output shows different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness and sourness. Taste interactions such as suppression effect, which occurs between bitterness and sweetness, can be detected and quantified using the taste sensor. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes from sensor outputs. The taste of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water and milk can be discussed quantitatively. The taste sensor provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. We are now standing at the beginning of a new age of communication using digitized taste.

  4. Use of non-conventional yeast improves the wine aroma profile of Ribolla Gialla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Tinta, Tinkara; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lemut, Melita Sternad; Trost, Kajetan; Gamero, Amparo; Boekhout, Teun; Butinar, Lorena; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piskur, Jure

    Consumer wine preferences are changing rapidly towards exotic flavours and tastes. In this work, we tested five non-conventional yeast strains for their potential to improve Ribolla Gialla wine quality. These strains were previously selected from numerous yeasts interesting as food production

  5. Optical fibre monitoring of Madeira wine estufagem process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, C.; Bilro, L.; Ferreira, R.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the study of a particular step of Madeira's winemaking process called estufagem with a plastic optical fibre sensor is presented. Madeira wine is a type of fortified wine produced in the Madeira island of Portugal. The characteristic aroma and exceptional stability of these wines result from the singular used winemaking method that consists in the estufagem where the wine is heated up to 55 °C for at least 3 months, among other steps. This heating based process can produce significant changes in wine colour, aroma and taste. By measuring the transmitted optical power through the wine in three different cells at three different wavelengths it is possible to monitor wine colour evolution during the estufagem. The plastic optical fibres offer easy non-skilled handling, ruggedness and low cost, overcoming the difficulties of the electronic and conventional systems and improving the time of the laboratory offline methods. Results show that it is possible to distinguish the different Madeira wines (from sweet to dry wines) obtained based on different wine grapes as well as the colour evolution during the diverse months of the estufagem.

  6. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Wine and wine tourism in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cane Koteski; Zlatko Jakovlev; Dragana Soltirovska

    2016-01-01

    Wine (Latin: vinum) is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained ...

  9. A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2010-04-30

    Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the beta-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefore be very useful. Our previous experience on the genetic determinants of the release of these molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed us to propose a new methodology to isolate and characterize wine yeast that overproduce mannoproteins. The described methodology is based on the resistance of the killer 9 toxin produced by Williopsis saturnus, a feature linked to an altered biogenesis of the yeast cell wall. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6- n -propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters ( n =113) and PROP hyper-tasters ( n =112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P (F)wines were grouped according to their dominant sensory properties (dry, sweet, carbonation and heat), liking scores for PROP hyper-tasters were higher than those of PROP hypo-tasters for all classes. Scores also varied with age, expertise and gender for some products. Effect sizes (eta-squared) were generally greatest for age, and those for PROP responsiveness were of similar magnitude as those for gender. As expected, wine consumption frequency was higher for men and experts, and increased with age. Age is the most robust and consistent driver of wine liking and intake of the variables examined. Taste phenotype also contributes significantly to variation in wine liking. Ontario wine consumers fall into one of three wine liking clusters, which differ in experiential, biological, psychological and demographic features that can be targeted through branding and marketing strategies.

  11. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  12. Taste quality decoding parallels taste sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, Sébastien M; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2015-03-30

    In most species, the sense of taste is key in the distinction of potentially nutritious and harmful food constituents and thereby in the acceptance (or rejection) of food. Taste quality is encoded by specialized receptors on the tongue, which detect chemicals corresponding to each of the basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory [1]), before taste quality information is transmitted via segregated neuronal fibers [2], distributed coding across neuronal fibers [3], or dynamic firing patterns [4] to the gustatory cortex in the insula. In rodents, both hardwired coding by labeled lines [2] and flexible, learning-dependent representations [5] and broadly tuned neurons [6] seem to coexist. It is currently unknown how, when, and where taste quality representations are established in the cortex and whether these representations are used for perceptual decisions. Here, we show that neuronal response patterns allow to decode which of four tastants (salty, sweet, sour, and bitter) participants tasted in a given trial by using time-resolved multivariate pattern analyses of large-scale electrophysiological brain responses. The onset of this prediction coincided with the earliest taste-evoked responses originating from the insula and opercular cortices, indicating that quality is among the first attributes of a taste represented in the central gustatory system. These response patterns correlated with perceptual decisions of taste quality: tastes that participants discriminated less accurately also evoked less discriminated brain response patterns. The results therefore provide the first evidence for a link between taste-related decision-making and the predictive value of these brain response patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  14. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  15. Taste disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.

  16. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  17. Effect of different enological practices on skin and seed proanthocyanidins in three varietal wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Fernández-Fernández, Jose I; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2010-11-10

    Proanthocyanidins are important for wine quality since they participate in astringency, bitterness and color. Given the localization of proanthocyanidins in the berry (skin and seeds), different methods have been developed that help to modulate the release of these phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of two low prefermentative temperature techniques (cold soak and must freezing with dry ice) and the use of macerating enzymes has been studied during the vinification of three different varietal wines (Monastrell, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon) to assess their influence on wine proanthocyanidin concentration and composition. Syrah wines showed the lowest proanthocyanidin content, together with the lowest mDP and the highest percentage of galloylation in its proanthocyanidins. Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed similar proanthocyanidin concentration. The application of the low temperature prefermentative maceration (cold soak) was the most effective treatment, increasing the proanthocyanidin concentration in Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines although neither of the treatments had any effect on Syrah wines. As regards the effect of the different treatments on the proanthocyanidin composition, the results seem to indicate that the observed increases were mainly due to an increase in seed proanthocyanidins, even in the case of cold soak treatments, which occur in the absence of ethanol, suggesting that ethanol is not so crucial in the extraction of seed proanthocyanidins.

  18. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  19. Label-free quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy to study low-affinity ligand–protein interactions in solution: A contribution to the mechanism of polyphenol-mediated astringency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delius, Judith; Frank, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is well-established in assessing the binding affinity between low molecular weight ligands and proteins. However, conventional NMR-based binding assays are often limited to small proteins of high purity and may require elaborate isotopic labeling of one of the potential binding partners. As protein–polyphenol complexation is assumed to be a key event in polyphenol-mediated oral astringency, here we introduce a label-free, ligand-focused 1H NMR titration assay to estimate binding affinities and characterize soluble complex formation between proteins and low molecular weight polyphenols. The method makes use of the effects of NMR line broadening due to protein–ligand interactions and quantitation of the non-bound ligand at varying protein concentrations by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy (qHNMR) using electronic reference to access in vivo concentration (ERETIC 2). This technique is applied to assess the interaction kinetics of selected astringent tasting polyphenols and purified mucin, a major lubricating glycoprotein of human saliva, as well as human whole saliva. The protein affinity values (BC50) obtained are subsequently correlated with the intrinsic mouth-puckering, astringent oral sensation imparted by these compounds. The quantitative NMR method is further exploited to study the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose, a candidate “anti-astringent” protein binding antagonist, on the polyphenol–protein interaction. Consequently, the NMR approach presented here proves to be a versatile tool to study the interactions between proteins and low-affinity ligands in solution and may find promising applications in the discovery of bioactives. PMID:28886151

  20. Human biology of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Stephen A; Yep, Gregory L; Khan, Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    Taste or gustation is one of the 5 traditional senses including hearing, sight, touch, and smell. The sense of taste has classically been limited to the 5 basic taste qualities: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami or savory. Advances from the Human Genome Project and others have allowed the identification and determination of many of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in taste biology. The ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the sweet, umami, and bitter receptors. Although less clear in humans, transient receptor potential ion channels are thought to mediate salty and sour taste; however, other targets have been identified. Furthermore, taste receptors have been located throughout the body and appear to be involved in many regulatory processes. An emerging interplay is revealed between chemical sensing in the periphery, cortical processing, performance, and physiology and likely the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes.

  1. Smell training increases cognitive smell skills of wine tasters compared to the general healthy population. The WINECAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Sanchez, F S; Alobid, I; Cantellas, S; Alberca, C; Guilemany, J M; Canals, J M; De Haro, J; Mullol, J

    2010-09-01

    Wine experts show higher accuracy than novices in selecting a wine that matches a sample. Only one study has compared wine experts with non-trained healthy controls on smell. The aim of this study was to compare the smell characteristics, both sensorial and cognitive, of wine tasters with Spanish healthy population using the Barcelona Smell Test-24. Wine tasters were tested for smell and compared with a control group of healthy volunteers, by tasting 20 odours and scoring smell detection, identification, intensity, irritability, freshness, pleasure and forced choice. Wine tasters performed significantly better on identification and forced choice than healthy controls. In addition, wine tasters perceived more odours as intense, but fewer as irritating than controls. Probably linked to smell education, wine tasters show better cognitive but not sensorial smell skills than a non-trained healthy population.

  2. The new wave of wine brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Breno Álvares de Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine branding is a series of complex marketing propositions intended to sell wine as a ‘brand’ – a product marketed much more thanks to its individual name and image rather than to its original quality. Wine brands can be basically divided in two distinct groups: some have called them ‘benign’ (a.k.a ‘historic’ or ‘classical’ - as for Champagne and the Bordeaux châteaux, for ex. and ‘modern’ brands. ‘Modern’ wine brands are usually built upon a base of elastic supply (to maintain consistency and planned promotion, most are owned big multinational companies, are standardized and aimed at the international market taste and a determined price level, lacking in diversity and terroir tipicity. In this study, the author describes how these ‘modern brands’ are structured and what are their marketing tools, run through examples of successful wine brands, and describe about their ads and cons for international consumers.

  3. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2014-07-23

    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  4. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a proposal for a didactics of taste and a reflection theory of taste didactics. Inspired and informed by systems theory, this proposal includes two aspects of taste education. The first section deals with taste as the content of teaching. Here, the intention is to enable...... students to learn about taste. This section presents a systematic division of taste into its four main dimensions: The dimension of good taste, the dimension of healthy taste, the dimension of perceived taste, and the dimension of moral taste. The second section comprises taste as an instrument of teaching....... Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...

  5. A breakthrough wine concept

    OpenAIRE

    Grave, Ana Rita Sousa de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Double degree The Portuguese wine market model is traditionally based on attributes such as region, grapes and enologist, which makes an educated choice of the wine by younger consumers a difficult and uncomfortable process. The purpose of this work is to develop a hypothesis of a wine based on what young consumers value, such as the bond that drinking wine creates (friendship), instead of the traditional attributes. This new wine will break its connection with tradition, becoming a modern...

  6. The Palm Wine Trade: Occupational and Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mbuagbaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  7. New Uses of Hawthorn Fruits in Tonic Wines Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruţa Elena MUREŞAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tonic wines are true natural elixirs, having the property to fortify the organism. To achieve a complex product and to supplement the antioxidant properties of the wine, the hawthorn fruits were added. They completed the product by maceration, so that the tonic wine got major active substances which have great medicinal value being effective in treating cardiovascular diseases. The content of polyphenols of tonic wine is about six times higher than in simple wine, the hawthorn representing a product rich in polyphenols (510.2 mg GAE/100g. Antioxidant capacity increased when hawthorn fruits were added, as they have an important contribution in terms of new product antioxidant properties. Hawthorn, honey and rosemary added extra minerals in the total dry extract. The relative density increased due to the substances present in hawthorn. The concentration of alcohol slightly increased due to the fermentation which triggers during maceration. The acidity of the new tonic wine developed here was higher, as compared to the simple wine. Higher acidity also contributed to the palatability, the new tonic wine showing a pleasant refreshing taste.

  8. The palm wine trade: occupational and health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, L; Noorduyn, S G

    2012-10-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  9. Bond strength of composite to astringent-contaminated dentin using self-etching adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Kathy L; Pinzon, Lilliam M; Rivera, Babette; Powers, John M

    2005-06-01

    To determine the effects of contamination by ferric sulfate and aluminum chloride astringents on the bond strength of composite bonded to superficial dentin using self-etching adhesives. Freshly extracted human teeth were ground to expose superficial dentin and polished to 600 grit. One of three self-etching adhesive systems and restorative composites were bonded to the specimens, with contamination by one of three astringents and five surface conditions (no contamination, moist dentin control; contaminant, air, adhesive; contaminant, water rinse, air, adhesive; contaminant, water rinse, glycolic acid scrub, rinse, adhesive; contaminant, water rinse, chlorhexadine scrub, rinse, adhesive). Composite was bonded to the surfaces in the shape of an inverted, truncated cone (n = 5, 180 specimens total). Specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, then de-bonded in tension with a testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Tensile bond strengths (MPa) were calculated. Means (SD) were compared using analysis of variance. Significant differences (Fisher's PLSD) were found among all variables. SE and ABF had the highest control values, but were affected most by astringent contamination. Ferric sulfate reduced bond strengths the greatest in most cases, and aluminum chloride putty reduced bond strengths the least. Chlorhexadine rinse was most effective in restoring bond strength values.

  10. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Buica, Astrid; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2017-05-24

    Phenolic compounds are of crucial importance for red wine color and mouthfeel attributes. A large number of enzymatic and chemical reactions involving phenolic compounds take place during winemaking and aging. Despite the large number of published analytical methods for phenolic analyses, the values obtained may vary considerably. In addition, the existing scientific knowledge needs to be updated, but also critically evaluated and simplified for newcomers and wine industry partners. The most used and widely cited spectrophotometric methods for grape and wine phenolic analysis were identified through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database accessed through the Web of Science (WOS) platform from Thompson Reuters. The selection of spectrophotometry was based on its ease of use as a routine analytical technique. On the basis of the number of citations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages reported, the modified Somers assay appears as a multistep, simple, and robust procedure that provides a good estimation of the state of the anthocyanins equilibria. Precipitation methods for total tannin levels have also been identified as preferred protocols for these types of compounds. Good reported correlations between methods (methylcellulose precipitable vs bovine serum albumin) and between these and perceived red wine astringency, in combination with the adaptation to high-throughput format, make them suitable for routine analysis. The bovine serum albumin tannin assay also allows for the estimation of the anthocyanins content with the measurement of small and large polymeric pigments. Finally, the measurement of wine color using the CIELab space approach is also suggested as the protocol of choice as it provides good insight into the wine's color properties.

  11. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The taste of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesz, Bruno; Trevisan, Marcos A; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Zarlino, one of the most important music theorists of the XVI century, described the minor consonances as 'sweet' (dolci) and 'soft' (soavi) (Zarlino 1558/1983, in On the Modes New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983). Hector Berlioz, in his Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (London: Novello, 1855), speaks about the 'small acid-sweet voice' of the oboe. In line with this tradition of describing musical concepts in terms of taste words, recent empirical studies have found reliable associations between taste perception and low-level sound and musical parameters, like pitch and phonetic features. Here we investigated whether taste words elicited consistent musical representations by asking trained musicians to improvise on the basis of the four canonical taste words: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Our results showed that, even in free improvisation, taste words elicited very reliable and consistent musical patterns:'bitter' improvisations are low-pitched and legato (without interruption between notes), 'salty' improvisations are staccato (notes sharply detached from each other), 'sour' improvisations are high-pitched and dissonant, and 'sweet' improvisations are consonant, slow, and soft. Interestingly, projections of the improvisations of taste words to musical space (a vector space defined by relevant musical parameters) revealed that, in musical space, improvisations based on different taste words were nearly orthogonal or opposite. Decoding methods could classify binary choices of improvisations (i.e., identify the improvisation word from the melody) at performance of around 80%--well above chance. In a second experiment we investigated the mapping from perception of music to taste words. Fifty-seven non-musical experts listened to a fraction of the improvisations. We found that listeners classified with high performance the taste word which had elicited the improvisation. Our results, furthermore, show that associations of taste and music

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of red wine tannin stickiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelette, Matthew R; Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-07-16

    Red wine astringency is generally considered to be the sensory result of salivary protein precipitation following tannin-salivary protein interaction and/or tannin adhering to the oral mucosa. Astringency in red wine is often described using qualitative terms, such as hard and soft. Differences in qualitative description are thought to be due in part to the tannin structure. Tannin chemistry contributions to qualitative description have been shown to correlate with the enthalpy of interaction between tannin and a hydrophobic surface. On the basis of these findings, a method was developed that enabled the routine determination of the thermodynamics of the tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface (polystyrene divinylbenzene) for tannins in red wine following direct injection. The optimized analytical method monitored elution at four different column temperatures (25-40 °C, in 5 °C increments), had a 20 min run time, and was monitored at 280 nm. The results of this study confirm that the calculated thermodynamics of the interaction are intensive and, therefore, provide specific thermodynamic information. Variation in the enthalpy of interaction between tannin and a hydrophobic surface (tannin stickiness) is a unique, concentration-independent analytical parameter. The method, in addition to providing information on tannin stickiness, provides the tannin concentration.

  14. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Place-based taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Joshua David; Flore, Roberto; Pedersen, Jonas Astrup

    2015-01-01

    taste, generating and adapting practical ideas and methods for those who make food and those who enjoy eating. This paper describes some of our methods, using geography as a starting point for the exploration of deliciousness, exemplified in our lunch menu served at the Science of Taste symposium...

  16. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of taste...

  17. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. METHODS: The

  18. Olfaction, taste, and cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouby, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    .... The book is conveniently divided into sections, including linguistic representations, emotion, memory, neural bases, and individual variation. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and ...

  19. Peripheral coding of taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  20. Influence of the temperature and oxygen exposure in red Port wine: A kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Barros, António S; Silva Ferreira, António César; Silva, Artur M S

    2015-09-01

    Although phenolics are recognized to be related with health benefits by limiting lipid oxidation, in wine, they are the primary substrates for oxidation resulting in the quinone by-products with the participation of transition metal ions. Nevertheless, high quality Port wines require a period of aging in either bottle or barrels. During this time, a modification of sensory properties of wines such as the decrease of astringency or the stabilization of color is recognized to phenolic compounds, mainly attributed to anthocyanins and derived pigments. The present work aims to illustrate the oxidation of red Port wine based on its phenolic composition by the effect of both thermal and oxygen exposures. A kinetic approach toanthocyanins degradation was also achieved. For this purpose a forced red Port wine aging protocol was performed at four different storage temperatures, respectively, 20, 30, 35 and 40°C, and two adjusted oxygen saturation levels, no oxygen addition (treatment I), and oxygen addition (treatment II). Three hydroxycinnamic esters, three hydroxycinnamic acids, three hydroxybenzoic acids, two flavan-3-ols, and six anthocyanins were quantitated weekly during 63days, along with oxygen consumption. The most relevant phenolic oxidation markers were anthocyanins and catechin-type flavonoids, which had the highest decreases during the thermal and oxidative red Port wine process. Both temperature and oxygen treatments affected the rate of phenolic degradation. In addition, temperature seems to influence mostly the phenolics kinetic degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What drives Greek consumer preferences for cask wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Corsi, A. M.; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    of the cask wine consumer is. This study aims at filling this gap. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a web-based survey, the best-worst scaling (BWS) method was applied to measure the importance of attributes that Greek consumers assign when choosing cask wine. Then, a latent class clustering analysis...... based on the importance ratings of the attributes was applied in order to segment the Greek cask wine market. Findings – The most important attributes were found to be price, quality and convenience packaging, whereas brand, grape variety and origin were found to be the least important ones. In relation...... to structure, the Greek cask wine market was found to consist of four distinct segments that were labelled as connoisseurs, convenience seekers, experienced and risk averse. These segments showed differences in relation to their past experience and in the importance given to intrinsic (quality, taste, origin...

  2. Umami taste transduction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C

    2009-09-01

    l-Glutamate elicits the umami taste sensation, now recognized as a fifth distinct taste quality. A characteristic feature of umami taste is its potentiation by 5'-ribonucleotides such as guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine 5'-monophosphate, which also elicit the umami taste on their own. Recent data suggest that multiple G protein-coupled receptors contribute to umami taste. This review will focus on events downstream of the umami taste receptors. Ligand binding leads to Gbetagamma activation of phospholipase C beta2, which produces the second messengers inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Inositol trisphosphate binds to the type III inositol trisphosphate receptor, which causes the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and Ca(2+)-dependent activation of a monovalent-selective cation channel, TRPM5. TRPM5 is believed to depolarize taste cells, which leads to the release of ATP, which activates ionotropic purinergic receptors on gustatory afferent nerve fibers. This model is supported by knockout of the relevant signaling effectors as well as physiologic studies of isolated taste cells. Concomitant with the molecular studies, physiologic studies show that l-glutamate elicits increases in intracellular Ca(2+) in isolated taste cells and that the source of the Ca(2+) is release from intracellular stores. Both Galpha gustducin and Galpha transducin are involved in umami signaling, because the knockout of either subunit compromises responses to umami stimuli. Both alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin activate phosphodiesterases to decrease intracellular cAMP. The target of cAMP in umami transduction is not known, but membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP antagonize electrophysiologic responses to umami stimuli in isolated taste cells, which suggests that cAMP may have a modulatory role in umami signaling.

  3. Human cell-based taste perception - a bittersweet job for industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, K; Sombroek, D; Fiedler, B; Siems, K; Krohn, M

    2017-05-10

    Covering: 2000 to 2016On the molecular level humans sense food by a variety of specialized tissues which express sensory receptors to handle nutritive value. In general, this means the interplay of gustatory, olfactory, trigeminal and haptic sensation is translated into perception and leads, in terms of taste, to descriptions like sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami. Further perceptions include astringent, cool, hot, prickle, lingering, kokumi and fatty to name predominant characterizations. It is still not fully understood how this plethora of impressions can be perceived by quite a limited number of receptors obviously being the initial compilers to judge palatability. However, since the discovery of mammalian taste receptors (TASRs) almost 30 years ago the use of taste receptors in cell-based screening campaigns is advancing in industrial approaches. The article will highlight the impacts and the limits of cell-based guided identification of taste modulators for food applications with an emphasis on sweet, bitter and savory taste as well as implications emerging from natural products.

  4. Development of a Portable Taste Sensor with a Lipid/Polymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor’s performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm. The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor’s response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research.

  5. Consumer demand for low-alcohol wine in an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba, Linda A Ovington, Carmen C MoranCharles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The aim of this paper is to inform wine producers and marketers of those in the population who are interested in low-alcohol wine by describing the results of an Australian survey.Method: In the present study, 851 adult wine consumers completed an online questionnaire on their purchasing and consumption of wine, demographics, knowledge, and reasons for consuming wine. Reasons for consumption were defined using Brunner and Siegrist’s validated model. Self-reported interest in low-alcohol wine was used to determine the likely maximum possible market size.Results: The majority of respondents considered “low-alcohol wine” to contain around 3%–8% alcohol. Results indicated that those most likely to purchase low-alcohol wine were female and those who drink wine with food. Those who drank wine more frequently showed interest in wine sold in known-dose quantities, such as one standard drink. Reasons for preferring a low-alcohol wine included driving after drinking, to lessen the adverse effects of alcohol, and to consume more without the effects of a higher-alcohol wine. Finally, results pointed to the importance of taste as a driver of consumption.Conclusion: This is the first study to define the opportunity market for low-alcohol wine in Australia agnostic to intervening variables, thus defines the likely upper limit. Further, we showed what consumers currently define as low alcohol. Both of these findings allow wine companies to make a decision on the profitability of the low-alcohol market in Australia.Keywords: consumer demand, low alcohol, wine, consumer preference

  6. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    hard to name. Pleasure and embarrassment, food-­like vitality, erotic titillation, the satisfaction or discomfort that follow a meal-we suggest that these may all be included in "tasting." Thus teasing the language alters what speakers and eaters may sense and say. It complements the repertoires...... words to do so, we are compelled to stretch the verb "to taste." Tasting, or so our ethnographic experiment suggests, need not be understood as an activity confined to the tongue. Instead, if given a chance, it may viscously spread out to the fingers and come to include appreciative reactions otherwise...

  7. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  8. The cell biology of taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Taste buds are aggregates of 50–100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud. This review discusses the functional classes of taste cells, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain. PMID:20696704

  9. Use of non-conventional yeast improves the wine aroma profile of Ribolla Gialla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Tinta, Tinkara; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lemut, Melita Sternad; Trost, Kajetan; Gamero, Amparo; Boekhout, Teun; Butinar, Lorena; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piskur, Jure

    2015-07-01

    Consumer wine preferences are changing rapidly towards exotic flavours and tastes. In this work, we tested five non-conventional yeast strains for their potential to improve Ribolla Gialla wine quality. These strains were previously selected from numerous yeasts interesting as food production candidates. Sequential fermentation of Ribolla Gialla grape juice with the addition of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 Lalvin industrial strain was performed. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis CBS8849 and Kazachstania gamospora CBS10400 demonstrated positive organoleptic properties and suitable fermentation dynamics, rapid sugar consumption and industrial strain compatibility. At the same time, Torulaspora microellipsoides CBS6641, Dekkera bruxellensis CBS2796 and Dekkera anomala CBS77 were unsuitable for wine production because of poor fermentation dynamics, inefficient sugar consumption and ethanol production levels and major organoleptic defects. Thus, we selected strains of K. gamospora and Z. kombuchaensis that significantly improved the usually plain taste of Ribolla wine by providing additional aromatic complexity in a controlled and reproducible manner.

  10. Almendralejo Wine Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Ferrera, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The project of the Museum of the Wine in Almendralejo (Badajoz) poses and assumes the duality that exists in the process of elaboration of the wine. Science and art, system and chance, technical and inspiration are the opposites that build, in a mysterious, magic, almost miraculous way, a fine wine.

  11. Push and pull factors determing wine tourism development in the 'Tri Morave' sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Tončev Melita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper are the factors affecting the decision of wine tourists to take a trip to a particular destination. These factors can be divided into internal (push and external (pull factors. The purpose of this study is to determine the development potential as well as the factors that influence participation in wine tourism in Tri Morave sub-region. In order to do that, two researches were conducted: one on the offer side and another on the demand side. Based on the results of the survey on the offer side, one can conclude that Tri Morave sub-region abounds in natural and anthropological resources that should be turned into an integrated wine product. On the other hand, research concerning tourist demand was conducted by polling winery visitors. The obtained data confirms assumptions about the appearance of modern tourists seeking authentic experience, satisfaction of hedonistic needs, and enjoyment of high-quality wine and food. Based on the results of the survey, the purchase of wine and wine tasting are the highest ranked benefits that tourists expect from visits to wineries. The application of Spearman's correlation coefficient points to statistically significant correlation between respondents, who referred to tasting, wine purchase, and authentic tourist experience as the basic motives of their visit, and future behavior of tourists in terms of revisiting and recommendations of the given wine destination to friends.

  12. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    Taste for Life” (“Smag for Livet” in Danish) is a unique interdisciplinary research and communication center with focus on taste, food and the senses. The center involves researchers from the humanities (pedagogical and didactical scientists), natural sciences (sensory scientists...... and the humanities and social sciences. We do so by engaging scholars from different disciplines in a close, collaborative effort hereby generating new knowledge on taste. The center thus includes researchers from several universities and colleges, chefs from innovation kitchens, and teachers from elementary schools......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...

  13. Double maturation raisonnée: the impact of on-vine berry dehydration on the berry and wine composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusjan, Denis; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-11-01

    Double maturation raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR-treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L(-1) ) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, whereas the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines. Changes in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR-treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of Merlot, as one of the most promising red varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Rewiring the taste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojoon; Macpherson, Lindsey J; Parada, Camilo A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2017-08-17

    In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission. Here we show that bitter and sweet TRCs provide instructive signals to bitter and sweet target neurons via different guidance molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A). We demonstrate that targeted expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A in different classes of TRCs produces peripheral taste systems with miswired sweet or bitter cells. Indeed, we engineered mice with bitter neurons that now responded to sweet tastants, sweet neurons that responded to bitter or sweet neurons responding to sour stimuli. Together, these results uncover the basic logic of the wiring of the taste system at the periphery, and illustrate how a labelled-line sensory circuit preserves signalling integrity despite rapid and stochastic turnover of receptor cells.

  15. [The sense of taste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinerson, David; Horovitz, Eran; Beloosesky, Yeshayahoo

    2006-08-01

    The taste sense is one of the five human senses. It is essential to our survival because it enables the individual the choice of correct food, which, in turn, is crucial for one's existence, maintenance and function. This is a complicated chemical sense, which operates in conjunction with other senses such as vision, smell and touch, and is also associated with the operation of temperature and consistency receptors. There are five basic tastes: bitter, sweet, sour, salty and "fleshy" (umami), each of which has a role in food selection, being responsible for the recognition of certain chemicals, which may be either necessary or dangerous to our body. The taste cell is located in the taste buds, which, in turn, are situated in the tongue, oral cavity and the proximal third of the esophagus. This translates the chemical signal of tastants in food to electrical stimulation that transfers the signal to higher processing centers in the brain, in a process called transduction, which is explained in this review. Disturbances in the taste sense, as well as effects of industrial exposure on this sense are also described. The accumulated knowledge about the taste sense might enable future breakthroughs in the processed food industry.

  16. Taste and the taste of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, James C.

    1980-01-01

    At least 12 distinct taste sensations can be elicited from different parts of the oral cavity by distinct chemical compounds. The chemicals eliciting each sensation are often common constituents of foods, thus the umami sensations arise with stimulation by monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. These sensations can often be related to different physical/chemical stimulus parameters (e.g., bitterness and hydrophobicity) and neural activity in distinct chemosensory channels.

  17. A potential sex dimorphism in the relationship between bitter taste and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Emma Louise; Duesing, Konsta; Boyd, Lyndell; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Lucock, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Bitterness is an innate aversive taste important in detecting potentially toxic substances, including alcohol. However, bitter compounds exist in many foods and beverages, and can be desirable, such as in beer. TAS2R38 is a well-studied bitter taste receptor with common polymorphisms. Some have reported relationships between TAS2R38 genotypes, bitter taste phenotype and alcohol intake, however results have been mixed. These mixed results may be explained by the varying taste properties of different alcoholic beverages or a sex dimorphism in responses. Bitter taste phenotype was assessed using PROP taste test and TAS2R38-P49A genotype was assessed by RFLP-PCR. Alcohol intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and classified by beverage type (beer, wine, spirits or mixed drinks). The relationships between bitter taste phenotype and carriage of the P allele of the TAS2R38-A49P gene and alcohol intake were assessed adjusted for and stratified by sex, and the interaction between taste and sex was evaluated. The relationship between alcohol intake and bitter taste phenotype varied by beverage type, with significant results for beer, spirits and mixed drinks, but not wine. When stratified, results varied by sex, and were only significant in males. Significant interactions were found for taster phenotype and sex (total alcohol intake and intake of beer and spirits). Results were similar for carriage of the TAS2R38-P49A P allele. Sex-specific interactions between bitter taste phenotype, TAS2R38 genotype and alcohol intake may explain variance in previous studies and may have implications for sex-specific disease risk and public health interventions.

  18. Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology on Wine Chemical and Sensorial Characteristics: Potentialities and Drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Santos, Mickael C; Saraiva, Jorge A; Rocha, Sílvia M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    During last years, scientific research on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a nonthermal processing technology for preservation or aging of wine has increased substantially. HHP between 200 and 500MPa is able to inactivate bacteria and yeasts in red and white wines, suggesting that it may be used for wine preservation. However, these treatments have been shown to promote changes on sensorial and physicochemical characteristics in both red and white wines, not immediately in the first month, but along storage. The changes are observed in wine color, aroma, and taste due mainly to reactions of phenolic compounds, sugars, and proteins. These reactions have been associated with those observed during wine aging, leading to aged-like wine characteristics perceived by sensorial analysis. This chapter will present the influence of HHP technology on wine chemical and sensorial characteristics, criticaly discussing its potentialities and drawbacks. The appropriate use of HHP, based on the scientific knowledge of the reactions occuring in wine promoted by HHP, will allow to exploit this technology for wine production achieving distinct characteristics to address particular market and consumer demands. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of DkTGA1 Transcription Factor in Anaerobic Response Leading to Persimmon Fruit Postharvest De-Astringency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Gang Zhu

    Full Text Available Persimmon fruit are unique in accumulating proanthocyanidins (tannins during development, which cause astringency in mature fruit. In 'Mopanshi' persimmon, astringency can be removed by treatment with 95% CO2, which increases the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde by glycolysis, and precipitates the soluble tannin. A TGA transcription factor, DkTGA1, belonging to the bZIP super family, was isolated from an RNA-seq database and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that DkTGA1 was up-regulated by CO2 treatment, in concert with the removal of astringency from persimmon fruit. Dual-luciferase assay revealed that DkTGA1 had a small (less than 2-fold, but significant effect on the promoters of de-astringency-related genes DkADH1, DkPDC2 and DkPDC3, which encode enzymes catalyzing formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol. A combination of DkTGA1 and a second transcription factor, DkERF9, shown previously to be related to de-astringency, showed additive effects on the activation of the DkPDC2 promoter. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that DkERF9, but not DkTGA1, could bind to the DkPDC2 promoter. Thus, although DkTGA1 expression is positively associated with persimmon fruit de-astringency, trans-activation analyses with DkPDC2 indicates it is likely to act by binding indirectly DkPDC2 promoter, might with helps of DkERF9.

  20. Preliminary Reconnaissance of West Astringent Creek Thermal Area, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Villegas, G.; Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Sorensen, A.; Larson, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    The West Astringent Creek Thermal Area (WACTA) is one of the newest thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Thermal activity in the headwaters region of Astringent Creek, on the southeast edge of Sour Creek Dome, was rst noted in 1985; subsequent developments included the appearance of a high-temperature (104C) hydrothermal fumarole (which later metamorphosed into a mud volcano) and an area of tree-kill due to rising ground temperatures [Hutchinson, 1996]. We conducted a preliminary exploration of the hydrothermal area through visual evaluation of the spatial extent, location of the features, and nature of the hydrothermal area. 16 features were chosen based upon the following criteria: 1) initial appearance, 2) location in the thermal area, 3) location with respect to each other, and 4) accessibility. From these features we collected in-situ temperature and pH, as well as aqueous samples for geochemical analysis of cations, and deuterium and oxygen isotopes. With the information collected we will make a brief description of the thermal area and present a basis to conduct future research to obtain an amplified characterization of the WACTA.

  1. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  2. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  3. How context alters value: The brain's valuation and affective regulation system link price cues to experienced taste pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Skvortsova, Vasilisa; Kullen, Claus; Weber, Bernd; Plassmann, Hilke

    2017-08-14

    Informational cues such as the price of a wine can trigger expectations about its taste quality and thereby modulate the sensory experience on a reported and neural level. Yet it is unclear how the brain translates such expectations into sensory pleasantness. We used a whole-brain multilevel mediation approach with healthy participants who tasted identical wines cued with different prices while their brains were scanned using fMRI. We found that the brain's valuation system (BVS) in concert with the anterior prefrontal cortex played a key role in implementing the effect of price cues on taste pleasantness ratings. The sensitivity of the BVS to monetary rewards outside the taste domain moderated the strength of these effects. These findings provide novel evidence for the fundamental role that neural pathways linked to motivation and affective regulation play for the effect of informational cues on sensory experiences.

  4. Sensorial evaluation genuineness of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Tomášek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative indicators of wine are also sensoric properties besides analytic properties. The specimens were evaluated immediately after their stabilization. Of course, by the time the sensoric properties are changing and can influence later evaluation, even customers in their desicion for repeating purchase. Specialists evaluated specimen of white wines such as: rhine Riesling, Sauvignon blanc and gruner Veltliner from three locations of Znojmo winery region. All specimen weren´t fermented to dry and they weren´t procesed the same technology, in spite of this, the speciments were evaluated objectively as possilble. The common parameters of vineyards were: exhibition, evaluation above sea-level and average annual temperatrature. The climatic factors had minimum differences in both monitoring vintages of growing season. A different parametr had soils, their geological origin, type of soil, structure and po­wer of topsoil. The acquired results were evaluated and graphically displayed.Gruner Veltliner – specimen No. 1 – this variety was covered in smell and taste by used technology. An outstanding location was a vineyard Weinperky with paleozoic sediments of neogene and higher pH and deeper arable level provides this location incommutable feature in contrast to from other recognizing vineyards of future wine. More likely geological-soil features have even specimens No. 3 and 4, which showed balance characteristic features in recognizing vintage. The specimens No. 2 and 1 had quantity untypical variety shades and they showed balance large differences both in evaluating committees and in recognizing vintages.Sauvignon blanc – the most suitable location was a vineyard Knížecí vrch – a specimen No. 6, which lies on lighter limy soils of Dyje massif together with higher pH created nice feature of variety. A spe­cimen No. 8 had more likely characteristics of location than a specimen No. 6. That express in evaluation. A specimen No. 7

  5. Development of a quantitation method to assay both lyoniresinol enantiomers in wines, spirits, and oak wood by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretin, Blandine N; Dubourdieu, Denis; Marchal, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Wine taste balance evolves during oak aging by the release of volatile and non-volatile compounds from wood. Among them, an enantiomer of lyoniresinol, (+)-lyoniresinol, has been shown to exhibit bitterness. To evaluate the impact of (+)-lyoniresinol on wine taste, a two-step quantitation method was developed and validated. First, (±)-lyoniresinol was assayed in wines, spirits, and oak wood macerates by C-18 liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Then, the lyoniresinol enantiomeric ratio was determined by chiral LC-HRMS in order to calculate the (+)-lyoniresinol content. In red and white wines, the average concentrations of (+)-lyoniresinol were 1.9 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The enantiomer proportions were not affected by bottle aging, and lyoniresinol appeared to remain stable over time. The sensory study of (+)-lyoniresinol established its perception threshold at 0.46 mg/L in wine. All the commercial wines quantitated were above this perception threshold, demonstrating its impact on wine taste by an increase in bitterness. In spirits, (+)-lyoniresinol ranged from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/L and was found to be released continuously during oak aging. Finally, neither botanical origin nor toasting was found to significantly affect the (+)-lyoniresinol content of oak wood. Graphical abstract From oak wood to wine: evaluation of the influence of (+)-lyoniresinol on the bitterness of wines and spirits.

  6. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from wine...

  7. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE BESTSELLING SLOVAK RED WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Čéryová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are specific substances that oxidize themselves and in this way they protect other sensitive bioactive food components against destruction. At the same time they restrict the activity of free radicals and change them to less active forms. Large group of antioxidants are polyphenols, which affect sensory properties of fruit, vegetable and some drinks, like colour (anthocyans, taste (flavonoids or odour (phenols. The significant source of polyphenolic compounds are wines. Polyphenols (in optimal amount and combination, found mainly in red wines, have very complex (positive effects on organism. The aim of this work was to determine chosen antioxidant properties of the best-selling quality red wines - Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent, originating from different Slovak vineyard areas. Total polyphenols content was determined with phenol Folin-Ciocalteau´s reagent and antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH stable free radical. Both parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines were within the interval 1579 – 2734 mg.L-1 (Blaufränkisch, respectively 1409 – 3276 mg.L-1 (St. Laurent. Antioxidant activity in wines was within the interval 80.2 – 86.4 % (Blaufränkisch, respectively 71.0 – 84.8 % (St. Laurent. The differences between results of measured antioxidant properties (total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the wines originating from some vineyard Slovak areas were statistically significant.

  8. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  9. Drivers of high-involvement consumers' intention to buy PDO wines: Valpolicella PDO case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitello, Roberta; Agnoli, Lara; Begalli, Diego

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates whether different sensory profiles of wines belonging to the same Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are perceived as different products by consumers. It identifies the drivers of consumers' intention to buy preferred wines. Descriptive sensory analysis, consumer tests and consumer interviews were conducted to reach research aims. To perform the consumer tests and interviews, 443 consumers participated in the survey. The tasted wines comprised five samples representative of Valpolicella PDO wine. Analysis of variance tests, principal component analysis and linear and logit regressions were employed to verify the research hypotheses. The results demonstrated: (1) different sensory profiles exist within the Valpolicella PDO wine; (2) these sensory profiles result in consumers having the perception of diversified products; (3) the perception of differences was less marked for consumers than for trained assessors due to the different weight attributed to visual, aroma and the taste/mouthfeel hedonic dimensions; and (4) consumers' liking, as well as general perceptions, attitudes, preferences, wine knowledge and experience, contribute to consumers' intentions to buy more than the socio-demographic characteristics of consumers. The analysis of the drivers of consumers' intention to buy certain PDO wines provides new marketing insights into the roles of intrinsic quality, preferences and consumers' subjective characteristics in market segmentation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Trained and consumer panel evaluation of sparkling wines sweetened to brut or demi sec residual sugar levels with three different sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kenneth M; Diako, Charles; Aplin, Jesse; Mattinson, D Scott; Culver, Caleb; Ross, Carolyn F

    2017-09-01

    The dosage liquid, added at the final stage of sparkling wine production, imparts residual sweetness to the wine. No study has yet analyzed the influence of dosage composition on the final wine's sensory profile or consumer acceptance. In this study, dosage composition was altered through the addition of different sugar types (ST; fructose, glucose, or sucrose) to produce seven sparkling wines of varying residual sugar levels (RSL), including no sugar added, brut (5.3-8.4gST/L) or demi sec (34.9-37.8gST/L). As evaluated by a trained panel (n=9), the interaction between ST and RSL influenced the perception of caramelized/vanilla/honey (CVH) flavor, sweet taste, and sour taste attributes (psugar added wine (p<0.05). Consumers (n=126) also evaluated the sparkling wines and ST, RSL, and their interaction influenced consumer acceptance of different attributes, as well as the perception of the "refreshing" aspect of the wine (p<0.05). Overall consumer acceptance of sparkling wines was highly correlated (r2≤0.88) to CVH, floral, and fruity flavors, as well as sweet taste and creamy mouthfeel. External preference mapping revealed two clusters of consumers. Both consumer clusters liked wines sweetened with fructose, but Cluster 1 liked the demi sec sparkling wine sweetened with fructose (32.8g/L fructose) while Cluster 2 preferred the brut wine sweetened with fructose (8.4g/L fructose). These results suggest that consumer preference for sparkling wine was segmented based on sweetness preference. The results of this study offer winemakers knowledge about the influence of dosage composition on the sensory profile of sparkling wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What drives customer loyalty towards Greek wine varieties? Using polarization to model consumer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotseridis, Yiorgios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    Wine is often characterised as a difficult and confusing product for consumers. In addition, the wine market is much diverse and competitive, with an enormous number of niche brands making consumer choice even more complex. When consumers are overloaded with information that exceeds......, marketers have been always eager towards building strong bonds with their customers. Therefore, identifying which cues makes consumers remain loyal and increase their chances of repeat purchase is always of high importance. In the case of wine, delineating the issue of loyalty in a wine brand...... their processing limits, they tend to simplify their decision-making based on heuristics (Bettman, Luce and Payne 1998). In the case of wine, such heuristics can be said to be extrinsic (e.g. brand, price, region variety, vintage, label) and intrinsic cues (taste, colour, etc). Many studies have explored...

  12. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B.; INOUE, MASASHI; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O.; Reed, Danielle R.; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  13. Minor Volatile Compounds Profiles of ‘Aligoté’ Wines Fermented with Different Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin VARARU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of wine can be classified accordingly to its origin, in varietal aroma, pre-fermentative aroma, fermentative aroma and post-fermentative aroma. Although a number of flavor components are found in the original grape, the dominant and major compounds contributing to white wines are formed during alcoholic fermentation, in concordance with the yeast strain used. In order to highlight the influence of the yeast strain to the aroma composition of wines, wine samples from ‘Aligoté’ grape variety made with 8 different yeast strains were subjected to stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS analyses. Also, a sensorial analysis of the studied wines was performed by a tasting panel consisting of 15 tasters. 38 minor volatile compounds were quantified by SBSE-GC-MS technique. Different concentration of the same compound and different aroma compounds were identified and quantified in wines obtained with different yeast strains. A wine finger printing was obtained by multivariate data analyses of aroma compounds grouped by chemical families. The analytical and sensorial analysis of the wine samples confirms that there are differences in aroma composition of the wines made with different yeast strains.

  14. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1. It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlašský. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

  15. Role of protein concentration and protein-saliva interactions in the astringency of whey proteins at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M; Vardhanabhuti, B; Luck, P; Drake, M A; Osborne, J; Foegeding, E A

    2010-05-01

    Whey protein beverages are adjusted to pH protein concentration on astringency and interactions between whey and salivary proteins. Whey protein beverages containing 0.25 to 13% (wt/wt) beta-lactoglobulin and 0.017% (wt/wt) sucralose at pH 2.6 to 4.2 were examined using descriptive sensory analysis. Controls were similar pH phosphate buffers at phosphate concentrations equivalent to the amount of phosphoric acid required to adjust the pH of the protein solution. Changes in astringency with protein concentration depended on pH. At pH 3.5, astringency significantly increased with protein concentration from 0.25 to 4% (wt/wt) and then remained constant from 4 to 13% (wt/wt). Conversely, at pH 2.6, astringency decreased with an increase in protein concentration [0.5-10% (wt/wt)]. This suggests a complex relationship that includes pH and buffering capacity of the beverages. Furthermore, saliva flow rates increased with increasing protein concentrations, showing that the physiological conditions in the mouth change with protein concentration. Maximum turbidity of whey protein-saliva mixtures was observed between pH 4.6 and 5.2. Both sensory evaluation and in vitro study of interactions between beta-LG and saliva indicate that astringency of whey proteins is a complex process determined by the extent of aggregation occurring in the mouth, which depends on the whey protein beverage pH and buffering capacity in addition to saliva flow rate. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Young, T.; Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at

  17. LIFE CYCLE OF A WINE BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Paziuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the life cycle of the wine brand, the development of ways to improve its effectiveness at different stages of the life cycle. Being scientifically informed of the existence of the life cycle of the brand allows modern enterprises to enhance their competitive position in the market and take advantage of the acquired differences in order to attract more attention from consumers. Methods. The study is based on scientific methods of research of economic phenomena: the dialectic, abstract logical (in the exercise of theoretical generalizations to the definition of the concept of «life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand, a scientific abstraction, comparison and ordering (the study of factors influencing the life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand and the factors influencing a choice of products for consumers, statistical and problem-chronological (the study of the requirements of the brand in a changing consumer preferences, logical generalization (in determining the social and ethical functions guilty brand. Results. The stages of the life cycle of the wine brand, which take into account its characteristics and form its social and ethical functions. Describing the requirements for the wine brand in the changing tastes and preferences of consumers. Specification of wine promotion of the brand in an increasingly competitive environment. Preconditions have been set for a new wine brand. The practical significance. The brand always increases the value of the product and its entry into new markets, as well as reduces the time to attract consumers. Possibility to ensure the growth of the brand in a declining market; building market share in a highly competitive environment; marketing innovative products in order to create a new sales strategy. After all, to gain and maintain the popularity of a certain product, one must personalize it with giving associations and a way to provide it with distinctive features. Only

  18. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2017-08-09

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB712 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  19. Characteristics of some traditional Vietnamese starch-based rice wine fermentation starters (men)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta region of South-Vietnam, wine from purple glutinous rice is particularly interesting because of its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. It is manufactured at home or by small cottage industries, using traditional solid-state starters (Men). With the

  20. The influence of ultrasound on wine and wine materials acidity during clarification process in tubular membrane filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ponedelchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on the experimental ultrasonic installation were carried out, using industrial equipment for bottling liquids and ultrasonic apparatus "Volna-M" UZTA-1/22-OM, for clarification and filtering of table wines by tangential microfiltration using membrane ceramic filtering elements with a pore size of 0.2 micron at a pressure of 0.5-2.0 bar. Membrane ultrafiltration upon application of ultrasound of 30-40 microns amplitude and a frequency of 20 kHz ± 1.65 Hz at high filter performance and work stability changes the quantitative content of the valuable wine components slightly. But much attention to the increase of titratable acidity and pH medium due to possible degradation and esterification intensification of higher acids and alcohols was paid. At the same time more intense and rich aroma and distinct flavor with berry notes appears in wine that along with the physical- and chemical indicators helped to improve organoleptic characteristics and to increase the tasting evaluation of wines. At the same time, the content of phenolic and nitrogen compounds is reduced resulting in wines stability to protein and colloidal opacification. It became possible to refuse multiple regeneration of ceramic filter elements for the  ecovery of their performance, as well as the use of preservatives and antiseptics at a high wines bottling stability. It is shown that the filtration with the dosing of ultrasound in the wine industry allows not only reducing the cost of consumables, equipment and removing some of the traditional processes, but also providing the cold sterilization of wine materials with an increase in their quality.

  1. Evaluative comparison of palm wine analogue and oil palm wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various analyses and sensory evaluation of palm wine analogue and oil palm wine have been carried out. Important parameters such as physicochemical properties, nutritive values, phytochemical screening and microbiological analysis of the two brands of wines were assessed. The results show that the wines have ...

  2. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  3. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  4. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...

  5. WINES BREWED IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period reveals that levels of monoamines-histamine and tryptamine increased, while diamines- putrescine and cadaverine decreased. No significant differences were observed between wine types and amine concentration. Analysis of covariance at or = 0.05 showed that formation of biogenic amines in wines is depended ...

  6. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  7. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  8. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  9. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  10. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  11. Effect of extraction methods on the chemical components and taste quality of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2018-05-15

    The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro assay to estimate tea astringency via observing flotation of artificial oil bodies sheltered by caleosin fused with histatin 3

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-En Shih; Yu-Chih Lin; Tse-yu Chung; Mei-Chun Liu; Guan-Heng Chen; Chia-Chang Wu; Tzen, Jason T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Astringency, a sensory characteristic of food and beverages rich in polyphenols, mainly results from the formation of complexes between polyphenols and salivary proteins, causing a reduction of the lubricating properties of saliva. To develop an in vitro assay to estimate the astringency of oolong tea infusion, artificial oil bodies were constituted with sesame oil sheltered by a modified caleosin fused with histatin 3, one of the human salivary small peptides. Aggregation of artificial oil b...

  13. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-23

    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities.

  14. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  15. Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić-Šarić, M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine is an excellent source of various classes of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and trihydroxystilbene resveratrol (Fig.1. Polyphenols play a major role in wine quality since they contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine, particularly color and astringency. A recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by abundant evidence of their beneficial effects on human health, such as anticarcinogenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, numerous studies have been performed in the attempt to analyze polyphenols in wine. This paper reviews the current advances in the determination of polyphenols in wine by the major chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The great complexity of the polyphenolic content of wine and the difficulty in obtaining some of the standards usually require sample preparation before analysis. Two methods for sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are most commonly applied. Hydrolysis is applied frequently, but not exclusively, to remove the sugar moieties from glycosides.TLC on silica gel plates is useful for the rapid and low-cost separation and identification of the polyphenols present in wine (Fig. 2. Densitometric quantitative analysis of polyphenols in wine extracts is usually performed by scanning the TLC plates with UV light at wavelengths of 350–365 nm or 250–260 nm (Fig. 3. For the evaluation of the most efficient mobile phase and an optimal choice of the combination of two or more mobile phases, two methods may be applied: information theory and numerical taxonomy. HPLC currently represents the most popular technique for the analysis of polyphenols in wine. For this purpose, a reversed-phase HPLC method that uses gradient elution with binary elution system is usually employed. Routine detection is based on measurement of UV-Vis absorption with a diode

  16. Advertising and Wine Language: Considerations on New Consumption Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Mihaela PAVEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s consumer society, the wine has gone from being the staple diet to become one of the signs that show the status of the subject, as a demonstration of high rank and taste, aspirations, status, lifestyle, in which having fun, the pleasure, is the fruit of knowledge. It’s a hobby, a leisure culture, an environment implying major activities (vineyard tours, wine tastings, contest criticism, but also a passion ″for lovers of good wines″. The paper commences from the results of a survey carried-out in Romania in 2011, focusing on women purchasing power and consumer behaviour related to wine. The questionnaire included many questions on key dimensions of product-oriented knowledge. This major participation of women in the selection and consumption of wine is interrelated with their independence, with the active role they occupy in the society, especially at a professional and family level. The bottle and the label, the brand and the phrase or slogan identifiers are clearly elements that are associated unambiguously, highlighting a feature that is primarily phatic. Certain brand, image or customer loyalty campaigns alter the balance to emphasize certain aspects, in favour of the referent denoted, from the connotation or appeal towards the recipient, with a greater attention to the text. According to the paradigm of knowledge-based economy, it is often stated that information asymmetry between producers and consumers will be reduced thanks to information availability and dissemination through the Internet or other media channels. As a consequent, for the present approach, it turns out to be interesting to analyze advertising to find out the social values and their relation to the adoption of new linguistic strategies in wine mass-media advertising.

  17. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  18. Genetic basis of variations in nitrogen source utilization in four wine commercial yeast strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The capacity of wine yeast to utilize the nitrogen available in grape must directly correlates with the fermentation and growth rates of all wine yeast fermentation stages and is, thus, of critical importance for wine production. Here we precisely quantified the ability of low complexity nitrogen compounds to support fast, efficient and rapidly initiated growth of four commercially important wine strains. Nitrogen substrate abundance in grape must failed to correlate with the rate or the efficiency of nitrogen source utilization, but well predicted lag phase length. Thus, human domestication of yeast for grape must growth has had, at the most, a marginal impact on wine yeast growth rates and efficiencies, but may have left a surprising imprint on the time required to adjust metabolism from non growth to growth. Wine yeast nitrogen source utilization deviated from that of the lab strain experimentation, but also varied between wine strains. Each wine yeast lineage harbored nitrogen source utilization defects that were private to that strain. By a massive hemizygote analysis, we traced the genetic basis of the most glaring of these defects, near inability of the PDM wine strain to utilize methionine, as consequence of mutations in its ARO8, ADE5,7 and VBA3 alleles. We also identified candidate causative mutations in these genes. The methionine defect of PDM is potentially very interesting as the strain can, in some circumstances, overproduce foul tasting H2S, a trait which likely stems from insufficient methionine catabolization. The poor adaptation of wine yeast to the grape must nitrogen environment, and the presence of defects in each lineage, open up wine strain optimization through biotechnological endeavors.

  19. Genetic Basis of Variations in Nitrogen Source Utilization in Four Wine Commercial Yeast Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alicia; Beltran, Gemma; Warringer, Jonas; Guillamón, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of wine yeast to utilize the nitrogen available in grape must directly correlates with the fermentation and growth rates of all wine yeast fermentation stages and is, thus, of critical importance for wine production. Here we precisely quantified the ability of low complexity nitrogen compounds to support fast, efficient and rapidly initiated growth of four commercially important wine strains. Nitrogen substrate abundance in grape must failed to correlate with the rate or the efficiency of nitrogen source utilization, but well predicted lag phase length. Thus, human domestication of yeast for grape must growth has had, at the most, a marginal impact on wine yeast growth rates and efficiencies, but may have left a surprising imprint on the time required to adjust metabolism from non growth to growth. Wine yeast nitrogen source utilization deviated from that of the lab strain experimentation, but also varied between wine strains. Each wine yeast lineage harbored nitrogen source utilization defects that were private to that strain. By a massive hemizygote analysis, we traced the genetic basis of the most glaring of these defects, near inability of the PDM wine strain to utilize methionine, as consequence of mutations in its ARO8, ADE5,7 and VBA3 alleles. We also identified candidate causative mutations in these genes. The methionine defect of PDM is potentially very interesting as the strain can, in some circumstances, overproduce foul tasting H2S, a trait which likely stems from insufficient methionine catabolization. The poor adaptation of wine yeast to the grape must nitrogen environment, and the presence of defects in each lineage, open up wine strain optimization through biotechnological endeavors. PMID:23826223

  20. (Re)tasting places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    What does geographical origin mean? It is an expression that associates food and wine with a specific place, an association embedded in the concept ‘terroir’ that refers to the complex interaction between a physical environment and local craftsmanship. It is a claim protected through labelling......-schemes and a claim that adds value to the place-related foods. However, viewing the connection between food and place as a question of proving a relationship or as a matter of protecting commercial claims does not seem to provide a satisfactory account for the status of geographically designated foods as being...

  1. Angiotensin II and taste sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura, DDS, PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste plays a major role in evaluating the quality of food components in the oral cavity. Sweet, salty, umami, sour and bitter taste are generally accepted as five basic taste qualities. Among them, salty taste is attractive to animals and influences sodium intake. Angiotensin II (ANG II and aldosterone (ALDO, which is stimulated by ANG II are key hormones that regulate sodium homeostasis and water balance. At the peripheral gustatory organs, it has been reported that ALDO increases the amiloride-sensitivity of the rat gustatory neural responses to NaCl in a time course of several hours. A recent study demonstrated that ANG II suppresses amiloride-sensitivity of the mouse gustatory and behavioral responses to NaCl via its receptor AT1 within an hour. Moreover, ANG II enhances sweet taste sensitivity without affecting umami, sour and bitter tastes. These results suggest that the reciprocal and sequential regulatory mechanisms by ANG II (as an acute suppressor together with ALDO (as a slow enhancer on the salt taste sensitivity may exist in peripheral taste organs, contribute to salt intake, and play an important role in sodium homeostasis. Furthermore, the linkage between salty and sweet taste modulations via the ANG II signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes.

  2. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavor profile change of pomegranate wine during fermentation and aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yongli; Wu, Jin; Wang, Xuejiao; Sun, Xuchun; Hackman, Robert M; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant properties and flavor characteristic profile of pomegranate wine during winemaking were investigated. The total phenol content and radical scavenging activity exhibited a slightly decrease in the end edge. Punicalagins and gallic acid were revealed to be the most abundant phenolic compounds, followed by ellagic acid and vanillic acid. These constituents were mainly responsible for the effective antioxidant capacity of pomegranate wine. The major changes of flavor qualities occurred in the initial stage, particularly 0-4day of fermentation. Fermentation significantly reduced the relative content of aldehydes, ketones, heterocyclic and aromatic compounds, but promoted the generation of esters and alcohols. This is the first time of using E-nose and E-tongue to monitor odour and taste changes in the brewing process of pomegranate wine. The study may provide a promising instruction for improving functional features and quality control of the pomegranate wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The physics behind the fizz in champagne and sparkling wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2012-02-01

    Bubbles in a glass of champagne may seem like the acme of frivolity to most of people, but in fact they may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any physicist. Actually, the so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the fine interplay between CO2 dissolved gas molecules, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some both glass and liquid properties. Results obtained concerning the various steps where the CO2 molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass as bubbles collapse) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO2 impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, rise, and burst of gaseous CO2 bubbles found in glasses poured with champagne and sparkling wines are depicted. Those phenomena observed in close-up through high-speed photography are often visually appealing. I hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this fully illustrated review dedicated to the science hidden right under your nose each time you enjoy a glass of champagne.

  6. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made in...

  7. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  8. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...... wines in Britain in 1994. Results from a parametric hedonic approach indicate that both the lack of a consistently positive valuation of varietal wines and the low valuation of wines with geographical appellation help to explain the overall decline of France's role in the British wine market...

  9. A preliminary study about the influence of high hydrostatic pressure processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Sun, Da-Wen; Górecki, Adrian; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Fornal, Józef; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine was investigated preliminarily. Wines were treated by HHP at 250, 450 and 650MPa for up to 45min and French oak chips (5g/L) were added. HHP enhanced the extraction of phenolics from oak chips. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the wine increased after HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Meanwhile, the anthocyanin content and wine color intensity decreased in the first 5min of pressure treatment and then increased gradually. The multivariate analysis revealed that "pressure holding time" was the key factor affecting wine physicochemical characteristics during HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Furthermore, oak chip maceration with and without HHP processing weakened the intensities of several sensory attributes and provided the wine with an artificial taste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new wine superpower? An analysis of the Chinese wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    China is one of the most attractive wine markets and a hopeful wine producer in the twenty-first century. Current studies of wine in China tend to focus on the wine market but seldom analyze the domestic wine industry, which contributes approximately 70% of the total wine consumed in the country. This paper reviews the wine history and the development of wine in China and analyses the current situation and perspectives of the Chinese wine industry, considering both traditional con...

  11. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF TASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are found in a distributed array on the tongue surface, and are innervated by cranial nerves that convey taste information to the brain. For nearly a century, taste buds were thought to be induced by nerves late in embryonic development. However, this view has shifted dramatically. A host of studies now indicate that taste bud development is initiated and proceeds via processes that are nerve-independent, occur long before birth, and governed by cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the developing tongue. Here we review the state of our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation of taste bud development, incorporating important new data obtained through the use of two powerful genetic systems, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:23182899

  12. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  13. Sensory science research on taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Recent ethnographies from the anthropology of food and the senses have shown how moments in which people taste foods are shaped by scientific knowledge, methods and rationales. Building on approaches developed in science and technology studies, this paper offers an ethnography of the field to which...... this shaping power has been assigned: the scientific study of taste. Detailed tracing and analysis of two laboratory experiments on taste performed in laboratories in Western Europe brings out how both turn moments in which people taste into a bodily response. At the same time, since their technical set......-ups address different societal problems and varying interest groups, they stage diverging versions: a perception versus a reaction to an exposure. The paper, thus, sheds light on how cultural and social norms, ideals, and practices shape the knowledge production about taste and its resulting effects....

  14. Umami taste transduction mechanisms1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    l-Glutamate elicits the umami taste sensation, now recognized as a fifth distinct taste quality. A characteristic feature of umami taste is its potentiation by 5′-ribonucleotides such as guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine 5′-monophosphate, which also elicit the umami taste on their own. Recent data suggest that multiple G protein–coupled receptors contribute to umami taste. This review will focus on events downstream of the umami taste receptors. Ligand binding leads to Gβγ activation of phospholipase C β2, which produces the second messengers inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Inositol trisphosphate binds to the type III inositol trisphosphate receptor, which causes the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and Ca2+-dependent activation of a monovalent-selective cation channel, TRPM5. TRPM5 is believed to depolarize taste cells, which leads to the release of ATP, which activates ionotropic purinergic receptors on gustatory afferent nerve fibers. This model is supported by knockout of the relevant signaling effectors as well as physiologic studies of isolated taste cells. Concomitant with the molecular studies, physiologic studies show that l-glutamate elicits increases in intracellular Ca2+ in isolated taste cells and that the source of the Ca2+ is release from intracellular stores. Both Gα gustducin and Gα transducin are involved in umami signaling, because the knockout of either subunit compromises responses to umami stimuli. Both α-gustducin and α-transducin activate phosphodiesterases to decrease intracellular cAMP. The target of cAMP in umami transduction is not known, but membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP antagonize electrophysiologic responses to umami stimuli in isolated taste cells, which suggests that cAMP may have a modulatory role in umami signaling. PMID:19571214

  15. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  16. Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc: Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilbett Briones-Labarca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has shown to have an effect of enhancing some properties without detrimental effects on important quality characteristics, such as colour, pH, and turbidity. This suggests that this technique can be used as an alternative to the existing methods used in wine industry processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HHP on aroma compounds and also sensory and quality properties of young white wine. HHP treatment did not influence physicochemical parameters, total phenols, and flavonoid contents of white wine; however, the results from analysis of wine indicate that there was a great variation in the concentration of free and total sulphur dioxide (SO2 values and antioxidant capacity of white wine after HHP application. The sensory attributes, such as taste, odour, and overall quality, were not affected by HHP processing at 300 MPa. The chromatic characteristics changed slightly after applying HHP, but these changes could not be visually perceived because they were less than 5%. The use of this technique has the potential to decrease the amount of SO2 added to raw grapes thus maintaining the same properties found in untreated wine. This study provided valuable insights into the biochemical and sensory composition of commercial white wine and how this might change during HHP processing.

  17. New techniques for wine aging

    OpenAIRE

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı; Dündar Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    The aging of wine requires a long time therefore it can cause loss of time and money. Therefore using of new techniques for wine aging shortens the length of aging time and wines may be placed on the market more quickly. Nowadays, gamma irradiation, ultrasonic waves, AC electric field and micro-oxygenation are the new techniques for wine aging. Gamma irradiation (after fermentation) is accelerated physical maturation method. Gamma irradiation, in a suitable dosage (200 Gy), is a suitable meth...

  18. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L.

    2013-06-27

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  19. Tears of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Prerana; Sharma, Vivek

    `Tears of wine' refer to the rows of wine-drops that spontaneously emerge within a glass of strong wine. Evaporation-driven Marangoni flows near the meniscus of water-alcohol mixtures drive liquid upward forming a thin liquid film, and a rim or ridge forms near the moving contact line. Eventually the rim undergoes an instability forming drops, that roll back into bulk reservoir forming so called tears or legs of wine. Most studies in literature argue the evaporation of more volatile, lower surface tension component (alcohol) results in a concentration-dependent surface tension gradient that drives the climbing flow within the thin film. Though it is well-known that evaporative cooling can create temperature gradients that could provide additional contribution to the climbing flows, the role of thermocapillary flows is less well-understood. Furthermore, the patterns, flows and instabilities that occur near the rim, and determine the size and periodicity of tears, are not well-studied. Using experiments and theory, we visualize and analyze the formation and growth of tears of wine. The sliding drops, released from the rim towards the bulk reservoir, show oscillations and a cascade of fascinating flows that are analyzed for the first time.

  20. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jixuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design method was used to composite dandelion root powder with glutinous rice and schisandra fruit and optimize the fermenting parameters. Four factors with dandelion content, schisandra content, acidity and sugar content were discussed. The acidity factor was firstly confirmed as 7.0 g/L. The other three factors were confirmed by a series experiments as dandelion 0.55%, schisandra 0.5%, sugar 22%. With nine step processing of mixing substrate, stirring with water, cooking rice, amylase saccharification, pectinase hydrolysis, adjusting juice, fermenting with yeast, fitering, aging, sterilization, a light yellow wine with the special taste with flavour of dandelion, schisandra and rice and less bitter, few index were determined as 14.7% alcohol, 6.85 g/L acidity. A dandelion fermented compound wine with suitable flavour and sanitarian function was developed for enriching the dandelion food.

  1. Influence of wood barrels classified by NIRS on the ellagitannin content/composition and on the organoleptic properties of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-20

    Ellagitannins are extracted from oak wood during wine aging in oak barrels. This research is based on the NIRS (Oakscan) oak wood classification according to their index polyphenolic (IP) (between 21.07 and 70.15). Their level in wood is very variable (between 5.95 and 32.91 mg/g dry wood) and influenced their concentration in red wine (between 2.30 and 32.56 mg/L after 24 months of aging) and thus their impact on wine organoleptic properties. The results show a good correlation between the NIRS classification and the chemical analysis (HPLC-UV-MS and acidic hydrolysis procedure) and with the wood ellagitannin level, the ellagitannin extraction kinetic, and the ellagitannins evolution in red wine (Cabernet Sauvignon). Moreover, a correlation between the NIRS classification and the increasing intensity of some wood aromas (woody, spicy, vanilla, and smoked/toasted), flavors (bitterness and astringency), and a decreasing intensity of fruitiness was also observed.

  2. Filling the gap – how do sensory and marketing attributes interact in consumers' wine choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Osidacz, P.; Francis, L.

    2011-01-01

    When viticulturists and oenologists produced flavours and aromas that are positively perceived by consumers in blind tastings, the question remains how much they actually influence consumers’ wine liking, choice and repurchase intent in the presence of marketing attributes such as brand, packaging......, region and price. While traditional consumer sensory research mainly focuses on blind sensory evaluation, in reality most consumers drink and evaluate wine in an informed condition, being aware of the price and label information. What is the relative impact of sensory and marketing attributes when...

  3. In vitro assay to estimate tea astringency via observing flotation of artificial oil bodies sheltered by caleosin fused with histatin 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-En; Lin, Yu-Chih; Chung, Tse-Yu; Liu, Mei-Chun; Chen, Guan-Heng; Wu, Chia-Chang; Tzen, Jason T C

    2017-10-01

    Astringency, a sensory characteristic of food and beverages rich in polyphenols, mainly results from the formation of complexes between polyphenols and salivary proteins, causing a reduction of the lubricating properties of saliva. To develop an in vitro assay to estimate the astringency of oolong tea infusion, artificial oil bodies were constituted with sesame oil sheltered by a modified caleosin fused with histatin 3, one of the human salivary small peptides. Aggregation of artificial oil bodies was induced when they were mixed with oolong tea infusion or its major polyphenolic compound, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of 100μM as observed in light microscopy. The aggregated artificial oil bodies gradually floated on top of the solution and formed a visible milky layer whose thickness was in proportion to the concentrations of tea infusion. This assay system was applied to test four different oolong tea infusions with sensory astringency corresponding to their EGCG contents. The result showed that relative astringency of the four tea infusions was correlated to the thickness of floated artificial oil bodies, and could be estimated according to the standard curve generated by simultaneously observing a serial dilution of the tea infusion with the highest astringency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. In vitro assay to estimate tea astringency via observing flotation of artificial oil bodies sheltered by caleosin fused with histatin 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-En Shih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Astringency, a sensory characteristic of food and beverages rich in polyphenols, mainly results from the formation of complexes between polyphenols and salivary proteins, causing a reduction of the lubricating properties of saliva. To develop an in vitro assay to estimate the astringency of oolong tea infusion, artificial oil bodies were constituted with sesame oil sheltered by a modified caleosin fused with histatin 3, one of the human salivary small peptides. Aggregation of artificial oil bodies was induced when they were mixed with oolong tea infusion or its major polyphenolic compound, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG of 100μM as observed in light microscopy. The aggregated artificial oil bodies gradually floated on top of the solution and formed a visible milky layer whose thickness was in proportion to the concentrations of tea infusion. This assay system was applied to test four different oolong tea infusions with sensory astringency corresponding to their EGCG contents. The result showed that relative astringency of the four tea infusions was correlated to the thickness of floated artificial oil bodies, and could be estimated according to the standard curve generated by simultaneously observing a serial dilution of the tea infusion with the highest astringency.

  5. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Cardoso, Remy; Custódio, Valéria; Fernandes, Joana; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines. PMID:26388852

  6. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.

  7. THE ROLE OF BELGADE WINE FAIR BEOWINE ON DEVELOPMENT OF WINE TOURISM IN SERBIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goran Jevic; Jelena Jevic; Stevan Barovic

    2016-01-01

      Wine events have a significant role in promoting and developing wine tourism. There are even thirty events related to wine and wine tourism in Serbia, however they are not well-researched and well-known...

  8. Botrytized wines – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyar I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ildikó Magyar, János Soós Department of Oenology, Institute of Viticulture and Oenology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Botrytized wines are wine specialties made of overripe grapes infected by Botrytis cinerea with the form “noble rot”. Due to the particular characteristics of the noble rotted grape, these wines (eg, Tokaji Aszú, Sauternes, Trockenbeerenauslese types, etc have many characteristic features, including higher or lower residual sugar content and unique aroma composition. The technology, biochemistry, and special characteristics of botrytized wines have been researched for a long time. This review outlines the main directions of the current studies, giving a brief overview on the recent findings. Beside the traditional wine types, noble rot is increasingly utilized in making newer sweet wine styles and straw (passito wines, which generates a series of new interesting experimental results. The fungus–grape interactions during the noble rot, the induced botrytization, the microbial communities of botrytized wines, and the volatile compounds having key roles in the distinct aroma of these wine styles are being focused on in the current studies in this field. Keywords: Botrytis, noble rot, sweet wines, passito wine, aroma

  9. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  10. Taste as a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  11. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Taste of Clindamycin and Acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Kimberlee A; Wo, Shane R; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the taste palatability of liquid clindamycin and acetaminophen products on the market. Subjects rated the palatability of 3 clindamycin suspensions, 1 amoxicillin suspension (tasted twice), an acetaminophen elixir, and an acetaminophen suspension in a randomized blinded fashion on a 0 to 5 scale. Forty-six adults aged 20 to 82 years volunteered for this study. Means (and 95% confidence intervals) were as follows: amoxicillin-first taste 3.6 (3.3-3.9), amoxicillin-second taste 3.5 (3.2-3.7). Clindamycin Rising, Perrigo, Greenstone; 2.0 (1.6-2.5), 3.0 (2.7-3.3), and 2.2 (1.8-2.6), respectively. Acetaminophen elixir 0.6 (0.4-0.8) and acetaminophen suspension 3.4 (3.1-3.6). One clindamycin tasted significantly better than the others. Additionally, although 2 acetaminophen formulations are currently available over-the-counter, the suspension is more palatable and less costly. Medicaid drug programs that perpetuate the use of elixir should change their coverage to save money and provide patients access to better tasting acetaminophen.

  13. Key Phytochemicals Contributing to the Bitter Off-Taste of Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther-Jordanland, Kirsten; Dawid, Corinna; Dietz, Maximilian; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-12-28

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from oat flour (Avena sativa L.) followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed avenanthramides and saponins as the key phytochemicals contributing to the typical astringent and bitter off-taste of oat. Besides avenacosides A and B, two previously unreported bitter-tasting bidesmosidic saponins were identified, namely, 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol, and 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol. Depending on the chemical structure of the saponins and avenanthramides, sensory studies revealed human orosensory recognition thresholds of these phytochemicals to range between 3 and 170 μmol/L.

  14. Wasted wines | Koldenhof | Research in Hospitality Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, it is recommended to look critically at the assortment and to reduce the amount of wine that is served per glass. Finally, different wine systems are noted which can be worth investigation. Wine systems can decrease the amount of wine waste and lead to a more sustainable restaurant. Keywords: wine wastage ...

  15. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kinds of fruit. (3) Wine made with sugar other than pure dry sugar, liquid pure sugar, and invert sugar... wines considered to be other wine include: (1) Wine made with sugar, water, or sugar and water beyond.... Other wine will have a basic character derived from the primary winemaking material. If sugar is used to...

  16. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  17. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  18. Advances in wine aging technologies for enhancing wine quality and accelerating wine aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; García, Juan Francisco; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed.

  19. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  20. Interventions for managing taste disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbargere Nagraj, Sumanth; George, Renjith P; Shetty, Naresh; Levenson, David; Ferraiolo, Debra M; Shrestha, Ashish

    2017-12-20

    The sense of taste is very much essential to the overall health of an individual. It is a necessary component to enjoy one's food, which in turn provides nutrition to an individual. Any disturbance in taste perception can hamper quality of life in such patients by influencing their appetite, body weight and psychological well-being. Taste disorders have been treated using different modalities of treatment and there is no consensus for the best intervention. Hence this Cochrane Review was undertaken. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in November 2014. To assess the effects of interventions for the management of patients with taste disturbances. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 4 July 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017 Issue 6) in the Cochrane Library (searched 4 July 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 4 July 2017); Embase Ovid (1980 to 4 July 2017); CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 4 July 2017); and AMED Ovid (1985 to 4 July 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for trials. Abstracts from scientific meetings and conferences were searched on 25 September 2017. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any pharmacological agent with a control intervention or any non-pharmacological agent with a control intervention. We also included cross-over trials in the review. Two pairs of review authors independently, and in duplicate, assessed the quality of trials and extracted data. Wherever possible, we contacted trial authors for additional information. We collected adverse events information from the trials. We included 10 trials (581 participants

  1. Effect of terroir on the phenolic compounds of Muscat of Bornova Wines from 3 different sub-regions of Aegean, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoğlan Selin N. Yabaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the phenolic compounds of wines from Muscat of Bornova, a native aromatic white grape variety (Vitis vinifera grown in the Aegean region of Turkey and the influence of terroir (Menderes, Halilbeyli and Kemaliye sub- regions on these compounds were investigated. From Muscat of Bornova growing sub regions, Menderes/İzmir has a typical Mediterranean climate at around 90 m altitude which is located Eagean cost area with a fertile sandy-loamy soil; Halilbeyli/İzmir sub-region is located in inner İzmir, close to Manisa with 115 m altitude with same soil structure of Menderes. Kemaliye/Manisa has a transition climate between Mediterranean and continental climate at about 245 m altitude. Its soil is pale with a distinct amount of lime (∼30% and sandy-loamy, as well. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array dedector (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry (MS were used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Four flavanols, eight phenolic acids and a flavonol were identified and quantified. It was observed that the total phenolic content in the Halilbeyli sub-region was the highest, fol- lowed by the Menderes and Kemaliye sub-regions. Procyanidin B4 was the most abundant flavanol and quercetin-3-O-glucoside was the only flavonol identified in all regions’ wines. Sensory analysis was also used to investigate the influences of terroir. Statistically significant (0.05 regional differences were observed. Based upon sensory analysis, the wine obtained from Halilbeyli was darker in color, and had more astringency and bitterness than the others, and was the least popular wine. Kemaliye and Menderes were both preferred due to their better coloring, flavour, less astringency and bitterness attributes.

  2. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  3. Structural Equation Modeling of Associations among Taste-Related Risk Factors, Taste Functioning and Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Rawal, Shristi; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Hoffman, Howard J.; Swede, Helen; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Variation in taste perception and exposure to risk factors of taste alterations have been independently linked with elevated adiposity. Using a laboratory database, we modeled taste-adiposity associations and examined whether taste functioning mediates the association between taste-related risk factors and adiposity. Methods Healthy women (n=407, 35.5?16.9 years) self-reported histories of risk factors of altered taste functioning (tonsillectomy, multiple ear infections, head trauma...

  4. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azenha, Manuel; Vasconcelos, Maria Teresa

    2002-04-24

    Butyltin compounds are widespread contaminants that have also been found in some wines. The purpose of the present work was to make a survey of butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines. Forty-three table wines and 14 Port wines were analyzed for butyltin contents by using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In 14% of the analyzed wine samples, measurable dibutyltin (DBT) was found at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 0.15 microg/L as Sn. Monobutyltin (MBT) was also observed (0.05 microg/L as Sn) in just a single wine. A search for the possible sources of DBT residues found in the wines was carried out. Therefore, some plastics and oak wood used in the process of wine-making, which have been directly in contact with the musts or the wines, were studied to check their possible release of butyltins. The eventual presence of DBT was also tested directly along the vinification process, from the must to the finished product. The results suggest that high-density polyethylene containers used in the transfer of wine in an early stage of the vinification process may be the main sources of these contaminants. Therefore, it is recommendable that plastic materials to be used in wineries be previously tested for the release of butyltin compounds.

  6. Structural equation modeling of associations among taste-related risk factors, taste functioning, and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Hoffman, Howard J; Swede, Helen; Duffy, Valerie B

    2017-04-01

    Variation in taste perception and exposure to risk factors of taste alterations have been independently linked with elevated adiposity. Using a laboratory database, taste-adiposity associations were modeled and examined for whether taste functioning mediates the association between taste-related risk factors and adiposity. Healthy women (n = 407, 35.5 ± 16.9 y) self-reported histories of risk factors of altered taste functioning (tonsillectomy, multiple ear infections, head trauma) and were assessed for taste functioning (tongue-tip and whole-mouth intensities of quinine and salt) and density of taste papillae. Twenty-four percent had elevated waist circumferences; thirty-nine percent had overweight or obesity. Using structural equation modeling, direct and indirect associations between taste-related risk factors, taste functioning, and adiposity were tested. In models with good fit, elevated central adiposity was explained directly by history of risk factors (tonsillectomy, multiple ear infections) and directly by lower taste functioning (lower tongue-tip taste function, lower papillae density). Risk factors of taste alterations were significantly associated with lower taste functioning, with taste mediating the association between head trauma and reduced adiposity. This large laboratory-based study supports associations between taste-related risk factors, taste functioning, and adiposity. These findings need to be confirmed with other population-based studies, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 taste data. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  8. The Insula and Taste Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Yiannakas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC, among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate with the induction of signaling cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. Taste learning has been shown to require the differential involvement of dopaminergic GABAergic, glutamatergic, muscarinic neurotransmission across an extended taste learning circuit. The subsequent activation of downstream protein kinases (ERK, CaMKII, transcription factors (CREB, Elk-1 and immediate early genes (c-fos, Arc, has been implicated in the regulation of the different phases of taste learning. This review discusses the relevant neurotransmission, molecular signaling pathways and genetic markers involved in novel and aversive taste learning, with a particular focus on the IC. Imaging and other studies in humans have implicated the IC in the pathophysiology of a number of cognitive disorders. We conclude that the IC participates in circuit-wide computations that modulate the interception and encoding of sensory information, as well as the formation of subjective internal representations that control the expression of motivated behaviors.

  9. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From bubble bursting to droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séon, T.; Liger-Belair, G.

    2017-01-01

    When a bubble reaches an air-liquid interface, it ruptures, projecting a multitude of tiny droplets in the air. Across the oceans, an estimated 1018 to 1020 bubbles burst every second, and form the so called sea spray, a major player in earth's climate system. At a smaller scale, in a glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall, rise towards the surface and burst, giving birth to a particular aerosol that holds a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in simple liquids, we depict each step of this effervescence, from bubble bursting to drop evaporation. In particular, we propose simple scaling laws for the jet velocity and the top drop size. We unravel experimentally the intricate roles of bubble shape, capillary waves, gravity, and liquid properties in the jet dynamics and the drop detachment. We demonstrate how damping action of viscosity produces faster and smaller droplets and more generally how liquid properties enable to control the bubble bursting aerosol characteristics. In this context, the particular case of Champagne wine aerosol is studied in details and the key features of this aerosol are identified. We demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. Conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of aerosol characteristics and flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue of the sparkling wine industry.

  10. The consumer trail: Applying best-worst scaling to classical wine attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of the buying behavior of wine consumers in Portugal. More specifically, the study identifies extrinsic attributes that influence wine purchase choices in a retail store, crossing-tabulating the results with six classification variables. The authors use the best-worst scaling method with eighteen reference attributes for designing, implementing, and analyzing responses to a survey of 250 wine buyers. Results reveal that the most significant reference attribute is whether consumers had tasted the wine previously. These findings for Portugal are in accordance with what has been observed in other Western countries. The second most important attribute, region of origin, is also commonly identified in the literature as a significant attribute. The classification variables of age and gender help to explain the behavior of the majority attributes. Using a latent class analysis, the authors obtained a set of three segments that are representative of Portuguese wine consumers. The findings presented here have important implications for wineries and wine distributors in their efforts to know their consumers better in an off-premise context and thereby to maximize profit.

  11. Extraction, evolution, and sensory impact of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Harbertson, James F

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraction into wine and evolution of major phenolic classes of sensory relevance. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of phenolic extraction and retention into red wine are still subjects of much research. We argue that management of the maceration length is one of the most determining factors in defining the proportion and chemical fate of phenolic compounds in wine. The extraction of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) is discussed in the context of their individual extraction patterns but also with regard to their interaction with other wine components. The same approach is followed to present the sensory implications of phenolic and phenolic-derived compounds in wine. Overall, we conclude that the chemical diversity of phenolic compounds in grapes is further enhanced as soon as vacuolar and pulp components are released upon crushing, adding a variety of new sensory dimensions to the already present chemical diversity. Polymeric pigments formed by the covalent reaction of anthocyanin and PAs are good candidates to explain some of the observed sensory changes in the color, taste, and mouthfeel attributes of red wines during maceration and aging.

  12. The Ultraviolet radiation (UV-C for the microbiological stabilization of red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Fábio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional procedure for the control of the microbiological stability of wine consists of the addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2, which acts as an antimicrobial agent and also as an antioxidant. The search for alternative methods of microbiological control is important and necessary, since SO2 is a potential allergen and consumers are increasingly looking for healthier and preservative free products. Ultraviolet radiation was tested as an innovative technology that can help reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide used in winemaking. The object of this study was to optimize the process conditions compared to the results obtained previously, and to evaluate the efficiency of microbiological stabilization and its influence on the physico-chemical characteristics, the phenolic composition and sensory profile. Thus, red wine with very low content of sulphur dioxide was subjected to UV-C radiation in two different doses 424J/l e 778J/l, and the preparation of a control wine was carried out to which 30 mg/l sulfur dioxide was added. The wines (control=UV0, UV1 and UV2 were analyzed over time (from 0 to 4 months. The results show that treatment with a lower dosage is effective in the microbiological control of the product. The wines subjected to treatment with UV-C showed an increase in intensity of colour, and the treatment does not affect the flavour and taste of the wine.

  13. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  14. Biometrics Analysis and Evaluation on Korean Makgeolli Using Brainwaves and Taste Biological Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sung; Kim, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    There are several methods available in measuring food taste. The sensory evaluation, for instance, is a typical method for panels to test of taste and recognize smell with their nose by measuring the degree of taste characteristic, intensity, and pleasure. There are many issues entailed in the traditional sensory evaluation method such as forming a panel and evaluation cost; moreover, it is only localized in particular areas. Accordingly, this paper aimed to select food in one particular area, and compare and review the content between sensory evaluations using a taste biological sensor, as well as presenting an analysis of brainwaves using EEG and finally a proposal of a new method for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the researchers have conducted a sensory evaluation whereas a maximum of nine points were accumulated by purchasing eight types of rice wine. These eight types of Makgeolli were generalized by generating multidimensional data with the use of TS-5000z, thus learning mapping points and scaling them. The contribution of this paper, therefore, is to overcome the disadvantages of the sensory evaluation with the usage of the suggested taste biological sensor system.

  15. Effect of pre-bloom leaf removal on grape aroma composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Battista, Fabrizio; Panighel, Annarita; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-08-26

    Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids. Metabolites of linalool were the most responsive to leaf removal. Wine produced from defoliated vines was preferred in tasting trials for its more intense fruity notes and mouthfeel attributes. Pre-bloom leaf removal is a powerful technique for modifying canopy microclimate, vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The increase of glycoside aroma compounds in treated grapes has potential positive effect in improving the sensory profile of the resulting wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Application of a high-throughput process analytical technology metabolomics pipeline to Port wine forced ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cristiana C; Martins, R C; Teixeira, José A; Silva Ferreira, António C

    2014-01-15

    Metabolomics aims at gathering the maximum amount of metabolic information for a total interpretation of biological systems. A process analytical technology pipeline, combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data preprocessing with multivariate analysis, was applied to a Port wine "forced ageing" process under different oxygen saturation regimes at 60°C. It was found that extreme "forced ageing" conditions promote the occurrence of undesirable chemical reactions by production of dioxane and dioxolane isomers, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which affect the quality of the final product through the degradation of the wine aromatic profile, colour and taste. Also, were found high kinetical correlations between these key metabolites with benzaldehyde, sotolon, and many other metabolites that contribute for the final aromatic profile of the Port wine. The use of the kinetical correlations in time-dependent processes as wine ageing can further contribute to biological or chemical systems monitoring, new biomarkers discovery and metabolic network investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Roussis, Ioannis G.; Lambropoulos, Ioannis; Soulti, Kalliopi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH.) and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phe...

  18. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. V. Lukyanchuk; V. A. Khobin

    2016-01-01

    The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work...

  19. Estimating Hedonic Prices for Stellenbosch wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Lutzeyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a hedonic price function for Stellenbosch wines to determine the association between market value and different characteristics of these wines. In such a hedonic price function, the price of a bottle of wine is ascribed to the implicit value of its attributes. Besides contributing to both South African and international wine pricing literature, the benefits of developing a hedonic wine pricing model extend to numerous players in the wine industry. Consumers are provided w...

  20. Port wine characterisation and positioning in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Norberto; Fernandes, Paula O.

    2011-01-01

    Port wine is a fortified wine produced in the demarcated region of Douro. This region is situated in the northeast of Portugal, in the Douro hydrographical basin, surrounded by mountains that give it exclusive mesologic, climacteric and agrologic characteristics that enable the production of quality wines. Port wine is the most successful of all Portuguese wines throughout the years, home and abroad. This article aims at characterizing and analysing the positioning of the Port Wine brand i...

  1. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  2. The endocrinology of taste receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Egan, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of obesity have reached epidemic proportions on a global scale, which has led to considerable increases in health problems and increased risk of several diseases, including cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer and diabetes mellitus. People with obesity consume more food than is needed to maintain an ideal body weight, despite the discrimination that accompanies being overweight and the wealth of available information that overconsumption is detrimental to health. The relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake throughout an individual’s lifetime is far more complicated than previously thought. An improved comprehension of the relationships between taste, palatability, taste receptors and hedonic responses to food might lead to increased understanding of the biological underpinnings of energy acquisition, as well as why humans sometimes eat more than is needed and more than we know is healthy. This Review discusses the role of taste receptors in the tongue, gut, pancreas and brain and their hormonal involvement in taste perception, as well as the relationship between taste perception, overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:25707779

  3. Immediate recognition memory for wine

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Volp, A.; Miles, C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary investigation concerning the short-term recognition memory function for gustatory stimuli (wines). In Experiment 1a, 24 non-expert wine drinkers completed a yes/no recognition task for 3-wine sequences. For the raw recognition scores, the serial position function comprised both primacy and recency. Recency did not, however, achieve significance for the d′ scores. In Experiment 1b, 24 participants completed the same yes/no recognition task for 3-visual matrix sequence...

  4. The Impact of Pregnancy on Taste Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ezen; Dando, Robin

    2017-05-01

    It is common for women to report a change in taste (for instance an increased bitter or decreased sweet response) during pregnancy, however specifics of any variation in taste with pregnancy remain elusive. Here we review studies of taste in pregnancy, and discuss how physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may influence taste signaling. We aim to consolidate studies of human pregnancy and "taste function" (studies of taste thresholds, discrimination, and intensity perception, rather than hedonic response or self-report), discussing differences in methodology and findings. Generally, the majority of studies report either no change, or an increase in threshold/decrease in perceived taste intensity, particularly in the early stages of pregnancy, suggesting a possible decrease in taste acuity when pregnant. We further discuss several non-human studies of taste and pregnancy that may extend our understanding. Findings demonstrate that taste buds express receptors for many of the same hormones and circulating factors that vary with pregnancy. Circulating gonadal hormones or other contributions from the endocrine system, as well as physiological changes in weight and immune response could all bear some responsibility for such a modulation of taste during pregnancy. Given our growing understanding of taste, we propose that a change in taste function during pregnancy may not be solely driven by hormonal fluctuations of progesterone and estrogen, as many have suggested. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers

  6. Selective adsorption of molybdenum(VI) from Mo-Re bearing effluent by chemically modified astringent persimmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Ying, E-mail: xiongying_1977@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Rare-scattered Elements of Liaoning Province, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang Haitao; Lou Zhenning; Shan Weijun; Xing Zhiqiang; Deng Guichun [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Rare-scattered Elements of Liaoning Province, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wu Dongbei [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, 200092 (China); Fang Dawei [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Rare-scattered Elements of Liaoning Province, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Biswas, Biplob Kumar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jessore Science and Technology University, Jessore (Bangladesh)

    2011-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The use of persimmon for the recovery of Mo(VI) from aqueous chloride medium was investigated. The excellent adsorption characteristics for Mo(VI) were confirmed by adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the APF gel. Research highlights: {yields} Astringent persimmon was chemically cross-linked by formaldehyde to obtain a novel kind of adsorption gel. By comparing with the adsorption of some other metal ions, especially for Re(VII), this new gel exhibited selectivity only for molybdenum with a remarkably high capacity for Mo(VI) (1.05 mol/kg dry gel). {yields} The adsorption mechanisms of molybdenum on the astringent persimmon gel have been determined for deferent molybdenum species. And, the endothermic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics, and the adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir mode. {yields} The excellent adsorption characteristics for Mo(VI) were confirmed by adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the APF gel, especially from an actual industrial waste effluent. - Abstract: Astringent persimmon was chemically cross-linked by formaldehyde to obtain a novel kind of adsorption gel, which was named as APF gel. The adsorption behaviors of Mo(VI) and Re(VII) along with other coexisting metals onto the APF gel were studied in the present paper. The APF gel was found to be effective for the adsorption of Mo(VI) while the gel is almost completely inert toward rhenium and calcium over the whole hydrochloric acid concentration region. The APF gel has a low affinity for iron, copper, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc ions when the concentration of HCl is higher than 1 mol/L. The gel exhibited selectivity only for Mo(VI) with a remarkably high adsorption capacity 1.05 mol/kg, and the adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir model. According to the thermodynamic and kinetic studies, the endothermic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Also, its excellent adsorption

  7. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia ePinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine musts harbour a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Must (IM, and Start and End of alcoholic fermentation (SF and EF, respectively.The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p<0.05 were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF and EF, and in the bacterial population between MI and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the initial musts, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida and Schizosaccharomyces. Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of

  8. Chemical and microbiological analysis of red wines during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall, chemical and microbiological analyses are very important for the quality of wine during and after winemaking process. One of the most important factors during wine storage is the temperature of storage. During storage of red wines in tanks, barrique barrels or glass bottles underway many physical, chemical and biochemical changes, which have significant influence for the stabilize of taste, scent, colour and general character of wine. The aim of our study we used two different wines, specifically Cabernet Sauvignon and Blaufränkisch and chemically and microbiologically analysed these wines during storage at different temperatures. These wines were bottled in 2011 and 2013. We stored these samples at different temperatures. The first four samples were stored at 6-8°C in refrigerator, and the next four were stored at 20-25°C in room temperature. We had together eight wine samples. We had determined in all wine samples sequentially the free and total sulphur dioxide content, ethyl-alcohol content, extract, sugars, total and volatile acids. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 6-8°C had content 12,14% ethyl-alcohol, 2.3% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,444 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.6 g.L-1 extract, 8 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 20-25°C had content 12,05% ethyl-alcohol, 2.4% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,456 g.L-1 volatile acids, 27.4 g.L-1extract, 6 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2.The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 6-8°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 20-25°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1 extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2.These results were collected from one measuring, but we had results from three measuring

  9. Qualitative Assessment of the Red Wine Varieties Grown in Dealu Bujorului Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumitru Bora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine is considered to be a hydro alcoholic solution with more than 1000 components associated in an extremely complex manner, some of them can pass from grapes in an unchanged state, and some are formed during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, while others appear due to the reactions between substances in their natural state, or based on the existing ones. The presence of phenolic substances in wine is essential, representing a major contribution in the forming of specific characteristics such as: colour, aroma and taste, thus allowing the distinction between different types of wine. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the physicochemical composition of the three acknowledged varieties of young wine from the Dealu Bujorului vineyard (‘Merlot’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘‘Fetească Neagră’’, obtained under the culture conditions of 2012 - 2013 - 2014 years. The oenological parameters were determined after the national STAS regulations and effectively OIV methods. Statistical methods were employed in order to assess the organic and inorganic potential of wine. The ecoclimatic conditions studied in the Dealu Bujorului, Bujoru Wine Centre, highlighted the exceptional viticultural character of Romania as well as the authenticity character encountered in the large variety of wines produced in this area. Results also show that the vine varieties of cultivated in the Vineyard of Dealu Bujorului have a high content of macroelements (‘Merlot’ (890.01 ± 6.35 mg/L (2013, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (111.36 ± 3.53 mg/L (2013 and Feteasca neagră (97.30 ± 0.46 mg/L (2014 that are very important for human’s health. Wine quality parameters analyzed shows that are influenced by the area of culture of vine but also they are influenced by the technology of winemaking.

  10. Evolution: a study in bad taste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Stephen

    2005-10-11

    Bitter tastes are among the most salient of life's experiences--who can forget one's first encounter with dandelion milk or a stout beer? Studies of the genes underlying these tastes are providing new perspectives on human origins and health.

  11. Taste bud regeneration and the search for taste progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While the taste periphery has been studied for over a century, we are only beginning to understand how this important sensory system is maintained throughout adult life. With the advent of molecular genetics in rodent models, and the upswing in translational approaches that impact human patients, we expect the field will make significant advances in the near future. PMID:20830973

  12. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  13. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62). Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  14. The properties and tastes of soaking onion

    OpenAIRE

    玉木, 雅子; 鵜飼, 光子; Masako, TAMAKI; Mitsuko, UKAI

    2000-01-01

    Soak process of food was used commonly for vegetables to take away odor, harshness and color. In this study, the effect of soak on the properties and tastes of onion were investigated. In soaking onion with water, the bitter and hot taste in the slice decreased, and stimulus taste softened. In addition, the odor specific to the raw onion slice decreased after soaking with water. For texture characteristics, the onion soaked water was softer and less fibrous. The properties and tastes of water...

  15. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Linda A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the mol...

  16. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomquist, R.F.; Parnell, N; Phillips, K A; Fowler, T E; Yu, Tian; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J T

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized...

  17. Receptors and transduction of umami taste stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie

    2009-07-01

    L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides, such as GMP and IMP, elicit the "umami" taste, also known as the fifth taste. This review will highlight recent advancements in our understanding of umami taste receptors and their downstream signaling effectors in taste receptor cells. Several G protein-coupled receptors that bind umami stimuli have been identified in taste buds, including the heterodimer T1R1/T1R3, truncated and brain forms of mGluR4 and mGluR1, brain mGluR2, and brain mGluR3. Further, ionotropic glutamate receptors are expressed in taste cells and may play a role in glutamate transduction or signaling between taste cells and/or nerve fibers. Knockout of T1R1 or T1R3 reduces, but does not eliminate, responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that multiple receptors contribute to umami taste. The signaling effectors downstream of umami G protein-coupled receptors involve Gbetagamma activation of PLCbeta2 to elicit Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activation of a cation channel, TRPM5. In fungiform and palatal taste buds, T1R1/T1R3 is co-expressed with Galpha gustducin and transducin, but the Galpha proteins involved in circumvallate taste buds have not been identified. In most taste fields, however, cAMP antagonizes responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that the Galpha subunit serves to modulate umami taste sensitivity.

  18. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depends on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. PMID:25662267

  19. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound has been described as a bimodal autosomal trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. This study is based on the ability of a person to taste PTC. The present study reports the threshold distribution of PTC taste sensitivity among some Muslim ...

  20. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-03

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction.

  2. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process will...

  3. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  4. A Taste of Functional Programming–

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. A Taste of Functional Programming – I. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 27-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/08/0027-0048 ...

  5. “Everything tastes different”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Yfke Carlijn

    2017-01-01

    Taste and smell changes are common side effects during chemotherapy in cancer patient and may have an impact on food preferences, food intake and quality of life. However, these relations have hardly been studied systematically in specific cancer populations. The overall aim of this thesis was to

  6. Modifying Students' Tastes in Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John Edward

    To test whether student tastes in poetry could be modified by a particular method of teaching it, the poetic preferences of 751 eighth grade students were pretested and compared with the poetic choices made by a panel of English educators, 35 student teachers in English, and the students' own English teachers. Consistently, poems selected by any…

  7. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Signaling and Modifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste conveys crucial information about the quality and nutritional value of foods before it is ingested. Taste signaling begins with taste cells via taste receptors in oral cavity. Activation of these receptors drives the transduction systems in taste receptor cells. Then particular transmitters are released from the taste cells and activate corresponding afferent gustatory nerve fibers. Recent studies have revealed that taste sensitivities are defined by distinct taste receptors and modulated by endogenous humoral factors in a specific group of taste cells. Such peripheral taste generations and modifications would directly influence intake of nutritive substances. This review will highlight current understanding of molecular mechanisms for taste reception, signal transduction in taste bud cells, transmission between taste cells and nerves, regeneration from taste stem cells, and modification by humoral factors at peripheral taste organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory, chemical, and electronic tongue assessment of micro-oxygenated wines and oak chip maceration: assessing the commonality of analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Saliba, Anthony J; Blackman, John W; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Clark, Andrew C; Rutledge, Douglas N; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Legin, Andrey

    2010-04-28

    Micro-oxygenation (MOX) was conducted in the presence and absence of oak chips at rates to mimic oxygen ingress during barrel maturation of red wine. Following MOX, wines were analyzed for chemical attributes pertaining to phenolic composition and assessed by a trained sensory panel. An electronic tongue (ET) was also used to assess the wines. Variations in chemical attributes were found to be mostly influenced by vintage, followed by oak chip maceration accounting for 48% and 16% of variation within the data set, respectively. MOX treatment accounted for 11% of variability within the physiochemical data set, with attributes pertaining to anthocyanin polymerization and levels of sulfur dioxide in the finished wine being most significantly influenced. A generalized Procrustes rotation and alignment of the chemical, electronic tongue, and sensory data sets followed by PLS1 regressions showed good prediction of the sensory characters oak, pencil shavings, stewed plum, vegetal, and spice over the range of sensory scores from the ET data; bitterness and astringency could also be predicted from the physicochemical data with good precision.

  9. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

  10. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  11. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec. 455...

  12. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  13. Taste as didactic element in food education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    This paper focus on how taste is used in contemporary food education. Furthermore the focus is how taste is used in a specific food education program in Danish schools. By critically discussing a sample of academic studies that design and evaluate taste education programs for children, the paper...... or a central way of sensually understanding and approaching the world. In other words, taste literacy in general becomes a tool to push children towards ‘hegemonic nutrition’. In addition the paper presents results of a new quantitative study that investigates school students’ work with taste in relation...

  14. Wine and Globalisation: foreword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Crenn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few months, the debate surrounding the films Mondovino and Sideways has helped to illustrate the tensions related to the globalisation of the wine industry and the so-called rivalry between the New World and Old Europe, between brand names and terroir, modernity and tradition, as many concepts masking the complexity of the process. The term “globalization”, widely used in the media, needs to be treated cautiously. In common parlance, the term designates various phenomena such as...

  15. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Taste Receptors: Regulators of Sinonasal Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Lee, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors in the oral cavity guide our preferences for foods, preventing toxic ingestions and encouraging proper nutrient consumption. More recently, expression of taste receptors has been demonstrated in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. The extent and specific roles of extraoral taste receptors are largely unknown, but a growing body of evidence suggests that taste receptors in the airway serve a critical role in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity. This review will focus on the function of bitter and sweet taste receptors in the human airway, with particular emphasis on T2R38, a bitter taste receptor found in sinonasal ciliated cells, and the bitter and sweet receptors found on specialized sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells. The importance of these novel taste receptor‐immune circuits in the human airway and their clinical relevance in airway disease will also be reviewed. PMID:27819057

  17. Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanzone, Martín; Zamora, Fernando; Jofré, Viviana; Assof, Mariela; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of wine and its association with the grape variety/cultivar is of paramount importance in oenology and a necessary tool for marketing. Phenolic compounds are very important quality parameters of wines because of their impact on colour, taste and health properties. The aim of the present work was to study and describe the non-flavonoid and flavonoid composition of wines from the principal red grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza (Argentina). Sixty phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids/derivatives, stilbenes, anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and dihydroflavonols, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). Marked quantitative differences could be seen in the phenolic profile among varieties, especially in stilbenes, acylated anthocyanins and other flavonoids. The polyphenolic content of Malbec wines was higher compared with the other red varieties. Dihydroflavonols represent a significant finding from the chemotaxonomic point of view, especially for Malbec variety. This is the first report on the individual phenolic composition of red wines from Mendoza (Argentina) and suggests that anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids exert a great influence on cultivar-based differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Yeast strain affects phenolic concentration in Pinot noir wines made by microwave maceration with early pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, A L; Close, D C; Dambergs, R G

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of yeast strains in a novel winemaking process that had been designed to optimize phenolic extraction and improve production efficiency for Pinot noir winemaking. Microwave maceration with early pressing and co-inoculation of yeast and malolactic bacteria for simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation was investigated. Yeast treatments (Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 and EC1118, and Saccharomyces bayanus AWRI1176) were co-inoculated with Oenococcus oeni PN4 immediately after must microwave maceration. Alcoholic and malolactic fermentation were complete 17 days postinoculation for all three yeast treatments. At 16-month bottle age, the AWRI1176-treated wines had approximately twice the nonbleachable pigment and colour density of wines fermented by EC1118 and RC212. The novel winemaking process produced Pinot noir wine that was stable 37 days after fruit had been harvested and yeast strain choice significantly impacted the stability and phenolic character of wine. Successful simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation in 17 days, and a demonstrated lack of inhibition between the yeast strains and malolactic strain applied in this study, provide proof of concept for very rapid red winemaking using the novel winemaking approach described herein. Further investigation would be required to assess strain effects on wine aroma, mouth feel and taste, however, this novel winemaking approach may offer significant industry efficiencies. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Price estimation and economic evaluation of the production cost of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiris Tsakiris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Argiris Tsakiris1, Kiriaki Sotirakoglou2, Panagiotis Kandylis3, Panagiotis Kaldis1, Constantina Tzia4, Yiannis Kourkoutas31Department of Oenology and Beverage Technology, Faculty of Food Technology and Nutrition, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 3Applied Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology Research Group, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: The aim of the study was initially to estimate the price of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries and subsequently to investigate whether the estimated price was sufficient to counterbalance the increased investment and operational costs required for industrial application of the novel biotechnological process. Price estimation of the experimental wines was based on the correlation of sensory quality, determined by a group of trained tasters, and the price of commercial wines available in a certain market. Application of principal component analysis (PCA provided improved results over simple and exponential regression analysis, as only a part of the relationship between the two variables was represented (68.4% and 75.3%, respectively. However, with PCA the total variance explained by the two components was 100%. Taste was more important than aroma in determining sensory quality, and wine price was mainly affected by sensory quality rather than wine age in the Greek market. The total increase of production cost was estimated to be €0.032/bottle, which is significantly lower than the increase of €2.08/bottle price estimated by PCA for the red wines produced by immobilized cells, due to the improved aromatic potential compared with wines produced by

  20. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  1. [Wine and heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayo Llerena, I; Marín Huerta, E

    1998-06-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown that moderate alcohol intake, from 10 to 30 g of ethanol a day, decreases cardiovascular mortality from atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke as compared to non-drinkers. This beneficial effect outweighs the risks of alcohol consumption in subgroups of people with a higher risk of atherosclerosis: the elderly, people with coronary risk factors and patients with previous coronary events. It has not been demonstrated that alcohol intake, even in moderate amounts, is beneficial for the general population, in particular, men under the age of 40 and women under 50, because it raises mortality due to other causes, especially injury, cirrhosis of the liver and some types of cancer, thereby outweighing the benefits for coronary artery disease. Thus, alcohol consumption should not be recommended as a prophylaxis for the general population. Guidelines on alcohol drinking habits--whether to continue, to start, to modify or to stop--must be given on an individual basis, taking into account the relative risks and benefits for each patient. The benefits of moderate alcohol consumption on the cardiovascular system seem to be exerted fundamentally through its effects on plasma lipoproteins, principally by raising high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to a lesser degree, by decreasing low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. It appears to exert additional beneficial effects on the heart by decreasing platelet aggregability and by bringing about changes in the clotting-fibrinolysis system. Although there has been some debate about the relative superiority of different types of alcoholic beverages (wine, beer or hard liquor), and to a greater extent, about different types of wine, there is no current evidence of any kind of beneficial effect from other components of the beverage besides ethanol. Thus, it does not seem appropriate to recommend any particular type of alcoholic drink, except for sociocultural

  2. Rasa Nirdhāraṇa (assessment of taste of Leonotis nepetifolia (L. R. Br.: A preliminary study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Pushpan

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: On analyzing the data it was found that Leonotis nepetifolia possess predominantly tikta rasa (bitter taste followed by Kasāya rasa (astringent taste. Recent researches and ethnomedicinal claims on Leonotis nepetifolia stand comparable with the pharmacological activities attributed to tikta and kasāya rasa in Ayurvedic classics Rasa nirdhāraṇa can be one of the preliminary steps to initiate the process of screening of an unknown drug along the lines of Ayurvedic pharmacology specially because rasa is the only perceivable parameter. According to Ayurveda, rasa of a dravya has a bearing on its karma (pharmacological action and the identification of rasa could be one of the subjective means for inferring pāρcabhautika constitution of a substance which in turn could help in tentatively inferring guṇa, vîrya and vipāka of the dravya. This paper demonstrates how a simple method can be used without any instruments to do a preliminary assessment of the rasa or taste of a plant.

  3. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  4. Evaluation of the formation of volatiles and sensory characteristics of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) fruit wines using different commercial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Cai; Niu, Yun Wei; Feng, Tao; Liu, Sheng Jiang; Cheng, He Xing; Xu, Na; Yu, Hai Yan; Xiao, Zuo Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of five strains (IFFI 1346, IFFI 1363, CICC 31482, D254 and CGMCC2.346) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic profiles of fermented persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) musts. A total of 50 and 60 compounds were identified in persimmon wine by stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. According to odour activity values (OAVs), 26 detected compounds showed an OAV above 1. Principal component analysis explained the distribution of these persimmon wines on the basis of volatile compounds with OAV>1. The volatile compounds with high OAV included ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, linalool and geraniol. Quantitative descriptive analysis was employed. The result showed that persimmon wines fermented with strains IFFI 1363 and D254 were strongly correlated with persimmon, aroma harmony, fruity, fusel and taste balanced, fullness, hedonic scale. Therefore, the two yeast strains could be used as starter culture for persimmon wine production.

  5. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Barber, Nelson; Taylor,Chris; Deale,Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism desti...

  6. Frequently consumed vegetables have almost no taste : Posterpresentatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S Teo; Prof. dr Olaf van Kooten; M Mars; Vera van Stokkom; M Stieger; C de Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Taste is a main driver in preferences and food choices. Humans are predispositioned to prefer sweet and salty tastes and reject bitter and sour tastes, therefore bitter taste is often thought to cause the rejection of vegetables by children. In our study we investigated the taste and fattiness

  7. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; R. van Weissenbruch; A. Vissink; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; F.K.L. Spijkervet; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it

  8. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  9. [Sensors for Measuring Taste and Smell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    2017-05-01

    Gustatory and olfactory senses receive chemical substances at the biological membranes of taste and olfactory cells, respectively. The present review article describes electronic tongue (taste sensor) and electronic nose (odor sensor) developed based on biomimetic technology. A taste sensor is now commercially sold and utilized in pharmaceutical and food companies across the world. An electronic nose with high sensitivity was also commercialized in Japan. These sensors provide novel methods for analyzing chemical substances instead of using conventional tools.

  10. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  11. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling house...

  12. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit without...

  13. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  14. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  15. Different preferences for wine communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sillani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audience’s preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic “garden viticulture” increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.

  16. Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics.

  17. Depressed taste and smell in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S; Garg, A K; Mekayarajjananonth, T; Bakaeen, L G; Khan, E

    1999-12-01

    Geriatric patients have a number of dental care problems that younger patients do not encounter. The oral changes associated with aging can have a significant effect on the efficacy of dental treatment. The authors reviewed studies dealing with the causes of depressed sense of taste and smell; the causes included aging, disease, medications and dental problems. Based on their findings, the authors described the location and anatomy of taste buds and receptor cells for smell and explored appetite, saliva, food seasonings, nutrition and dietary recommendations. They also discussed the relationship of smoking and tongue cleaning to taste sensations. The authors found that considerable differences exist between elderly people and young people in regards to sensory perception and pleasantness of food flavors. Salt and bitter taste acuity declines with age, but sweet and sour perceptivity does not. Olfactory acuity also declines with age. The authors found that most of the studies reviewed suggested that the sense of smell is more impaired by aging compared with the sense of taste. Smoking diminishes the taste of food and makes flavorful foods taste flat, while tongue brushing can increase taste sensation for geriatric patients. Food can become tasteless and unappetizing for geriatric patients as the result of declining taste and smell perception. Geriatric patients should be encouraged to add seasonings to their food instead of relying on excessive consumption of salt and sugar to give their food flavor. Adequate nutrition, tongue cleaning and smoking cessation are recommended for geriatric dental patients.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of taste transduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    Among the five senses, taste and olfaction play crucial roles in the detection of chemical substances in the environment and are referred to as chemical senses. In the past decade, much progress has been made in studies on molecular mechanisms of the gustatory system by methods such as those based on molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics. This review covers recent studies on taste receptors, intracellular signaling transduction in taste receptor cells, and taste coding at the periphery in vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  19. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; Staszewski, Lena; Xu, Hong; Durick, Kyle; Zoller, Mark; Adler, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5′-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste. The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of t...

  20. Duplex Bioelectronic Tongue for Sensing Umami and Sweet Tastes Based on Human Taste Receptor Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sae Ryun; An, Ji Hyun; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-08-23

    For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required. Herein, we developed a duplex bioelectronic tongue (DBT) based on graphene field-effect transistors that were functionalized with heterodimeric human umami taste and sweet taste receptor nanovesicles. Two types of nanovesicles, which have human T1R1/T1R3 for the umami taste and human T1R2/T1R3 for the sweet taste on their membranes, immobilized on micropatterned graphene surfaces were used for the simultaneous detection of the umami and sweet tastants. The DBT platform led to highly sensitive and selective recognition of target tastants at low concentrations (ca. 100 nM). Moreover, our DBT was able to detect the enhancing effect of taste enhancers as in a human taste sensory system. This technique can be a useful tool for the detection of tastes instead of sensory evaluation and development of new artificial tastants in the food and beverage industry.

  1. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...

  2. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  3. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  4. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  5. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.210...

  6. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  7. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  8. An overview of the biodynamic wine sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellini, Alessandra; Mauracher, Christine; Troiano, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    ...: The wine industry is currently shifting toward more sustainable production practices. Due to the growing globalized wine market and the increasing environmental impacts, producers have begun to pay more attention to organic and biodynamic products...

  9. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  10. Metabolic characterization of Palatinate German white wines according to sensory attributes, varieties, and vintages using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif; Maltese, Federica [Leiden University, Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology (Netherlands); Toepfer, Reinhard [Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof, Julius Kuehn Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (Germany); Choi, Young Hae, E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Verpoorte, Robert [Leiden University, Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) has been used for metabolomic analysis of 'Riesling' and 'Mueller-Thurgau' white wines from the German Palatinate region. Diverse two-dimensional NMR techniques have been applied for the identification of metabolites, including phenolics. It is shown that sensory analysis correlates with NMR-based metabolic profiles of wine. {sup 1}H NMR data in combination with multivariate data analysis methods, like principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS), and bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS) analysis, were employed in an attempt to identify the metabolites responsible for the taste of wine, using a non-targeted approach. The high quality wines were characterized by elevated levels of compounds like proline, 2,3-butanediol, malate, quercetin, and catechin. Characterization of wine based on type and vintage was also done using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) analysis. 'Riesling' wines were characterized by higher levels of catechin, caftarate, valine, proline, malate, and citrate whereas compounds like quercetin, resveratrol, gallate, leucine, threonine, succinate, and lactate, were found discriminating for 'Mueller-Thurgau'. The wines from 2006 vintage were dominated by leucine, phenylalanine, citrate, malate, and phenolics, while valine, proline, alanine, and succinate were predominantly present in the 2007 vintage. Based on these results, it can be postulated the NMR-based metabolomics offers an easy and comprehensive analysis of wine and in combination with multivariate data analyses can be used to investigate the source of the wines and to predict certain sensory aspects of wine.

  11. A combined meta-barcoding and shotgun metagenomic analysis of spontaneous wine fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternes, Peter R.; Lee, Danna; Kutyna, Dariusz R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Wine is a complex beverage, comprising hundreds of metabolites produced through the action of yeasts and bacteria in fermenting grape must. Commercially, there is now a growing trend away from using wine yeast (Saccharomyces) starter cultures, toward the historic practice of uninoculated or “wild” fermentation, where the yeasts and bacteria associated with the grapes and/or winery perform the fermentation. It is the varied metabolic contributions of these numerous non-Saccharomyces species that are thought to impart complexity and desirable taste and aroma attributes to wild ferments in comparison to their inoculated counterparts. To map the microflora of spontaneous fermentation, metagenomic techniques were employed to characterize and monitor the progression of fungal species in 5 different wild fermentations. Both amplicon-based ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylotyping and shotgun metagenomics were used to assess community structure across different stages of fermentation. While providing a sensitive and highly accurate means of characterizing the wine microbiome, the shotgun metagenomic data also uncovered a significant overabundance bias in the ITS phylotyping abundance estimations for the common non-Saccharomyces wine yeast genus Metschnikowia. By identifying biases such as that observed for Metschnikowia, abundance measurements from future ITS phylotyping datasets can be corrected to provide more accurate species representation. Ultimately, as more shotgun metagenomic and single-strain de novo assemblies for key wine species become available, the accuracy of both ITS-amplicon and shotgun studies will greatly increase, providing a powerful methodology for deciphering the influence of the microbial community on the wine flavor and aroma. PMID:28595314

  12. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  13. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Collins, Thomas S; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Mills, David A

    2016-06-14

    Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional

  14. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract III. Salty and sour taste: sensing of sodium and protons by the tongue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    .... The sodium-specific salt taste receptor is the epithelial sodium channel whereas a nonspecific salt taste receptor is a taste variant of the vanilloid receptor-1 nonselective cation channel, TRPV1...

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  16. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Taste and smell changes in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cancer often experience changes in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate taste and smell changes and short- and long-term effects of chemotherapy in a homogeneous population of testicular cancer patients treated with

  18. Modulation of taste processing by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Christian H

    2017-10-01

    Taste stimuli have a temperature that can stimulate thermosensitive neural machinery in the mouth during gustatory experience. Although taste and oral temperature are sometimes discussed as different oral sensory modalities, there is a body of literature that demonstrates temperature is an important component and modulator of the intensity of gustatory neural and perceptual responses. Available data indicate that the influence of temperature on taste, herein referred to as "thermogustation," can vary across taste qualities, can also vary among stimuli presumed to share a common taste quality, and is conditioned on taste stimulus concentration, with neuronal and psychophysical data revealing larger modulatory effects of temperature on gustatory responding to weakened taste solutions compared with concentrated. What is more, thermogustation is evidenced to involve interplay between mouth and stimulus temperature. Given these and other dependencies, identifying principles by which thermal input affects gustatory information flow in the nervous system may be important for ultimately unravelling the organization of neural circuits for taste and defining their involvement with multisensory processing related to flavor. Yet thermal effects are relatively understudied in gustatory neuroscience. Major gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of thermogustation include delineating supporting receptors, the potential involvement of oral thermal and somatosensory trigeminal neurons in thermogustatory interactions, and the broader operational roles of temperature in gustatory processing. This review will discuss these and other issues in the context of the literature relevant to understanding thermogustation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  20. Incentives through Consumer Learning about Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    no equilibrium in which the firm always exerts high effort. However, when consumers learn about their own tastes, such an equilibrium can exist. Consumer learning about tastes therefore is an alternative to reputational concerns that produces stable incentives. We discuss the implications of this mechanism...

  1. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, K.Q.; Tong, E.M.; Tan, D.H.; Koh, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the

  2. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  3. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  4. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Taste sense in patients with hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Dong-Ha; Cho, Joong-Yang; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik

    2010-07-01

    In the cerebellopontine angle cistern, the nervus intermedius (NI) runs close to the motor division of the facial nerve (FN). A vascular loop compressing the FN in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) can thus also affect the NI. However, to our knowledge, taste has not been investigated in patients with HFS. In this pilot study, we assessed the sense of taste quantitatively in 10 female patients with HFS using filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at four concentrations. The taste score did not differ between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The taste score for salty on the ipsilateral side increased with disease duration. Our findings suggest that a vascular loop compressing the FN does not affect the function of the NI. Further studies with greater numbers of patients are needed to confirm our results.

  6. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen A.; Owyang, Chung

    2017-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:28672790

  7. Effects of GPD1 Overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Commercial Wine Yeast Strains Lacking ALD6 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Brigitte; Monteil, Virginie; Remize, Fabienne; Camarasa, Carole; Dequin, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overproducing glycerol and with a reduced ethanol yield is a potentially valuable strategy for producing wine with decreased ethanol content. However, glycerol overproduction is accompanied by acetate accumulation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the overexpression of GPD1, coding for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, in three commercial wine yeast strains in which the two copies of ALD6 encoding the NADP+-dependent Mg2+-activated cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase have been deleted. Under wine fermentation conditions, the engineered industrial strains exhibit fermentation performance and growth properties similar to those of the wild type. Acetate was produced at concentrations similar to that of the wild-type strains, whereas sugar was efficiently diverted to glycerol. The ethanol yield of the GPD1 ald6 industrial strains was 15 to 20% lower than that in the controls. However, these strains accumulated acetoin at considerable levels due to inefficient reduction to 2,3-butanediol. Due to the low taste and odor thresholds of acetoin and its negative sensorial impact on wine, novel engineering strategies will be required for a proper adjustment of the metabolites at the acetaldehyde branch point. PMID:16820460

  8. The Effect of Temperature on Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Alvarado, Cynthia; Andrew, Kendra; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on umami taste has not been previously studied in humans. Reported here are 3 experiments in which umami taste was measured for monopotassium glutamate (MPG) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) at solution temperatures between 10 and 37 °C. Experiment 1 showed that for subjects sensitive to MPG on the tongue tip, 1) cooling reduced umami intensity whether sampled with the tongue tip or in the whole mouth, but 2) had no effect on the rate of umami adaptation on the tongue tip. Experiment 2 showed that temperature had similar effects on the umami taste of MSG and MPG on the tongue tip but not in the whole mouth, and that contrary to umami taste, cooling to 10 °C increased rather than decreased the salty taste of both stimuli. Experiment 3 was designed to investigate the contribution of the hT1R1-hT1R3 glutamate receptor to the cooling effect on umami taste by using the T1R3 inhibitor lactisole. However, lactisole failed to block the umami taste of MPG at any temperature, which supports prior evidence that lactisole does not block umami taste for all ligands of the hT1R1-hT1R3 receptor. We conclude that temperature can affect sensitivity to the umami and salty tastes of glutamates, but in opposite directions, and that the magnitude of these effects can vary across stimuli and modes of tasting (i.e., whole mouth vs. tongue tip exposures). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  10. Taste-related sensations in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Annear, M J; Ikebe, K; Maeda, Y

    2017-08-01

    The sense of taste is important as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, safety and quality of foods as well as for food enjoyment and quality of life. Several factors are suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity, and higher prevalence of taste disorder has been reported among older adults. This review focused on the reported causes and correlates of taste decline in older adults, with the aim to consolidating existing evidence and identifying gaps and limitations. Using a scoping review methodology, we sought relevant literature from the last 20 years. Search terms included taste, gustatory sense, older adults and geriatric. Considered research was limited to reports that involved research participants over 60 years old, papers written in English, and manuscripts published after 1995. We have consolidated available evidences on the influences on taste-related sensations among international cohorts of older adults. Influences can be reflected under the topics of physiological changes in the sensory organs, physiological and behavioural variables related to taste sensation. This review identified three areas of historic and current research endeavour related to studies of taste sensation in older subjects: physiological changes in the sensory organs, factors related to the ageing of the individual and behavioural variables affecting taste-related sensation. Key limitations and gaps in the current literature include notable lack of consideration of potential confounding, mediating and moderating effects, while future research is indicated in the areas of measuring the quality of health and life. As global population ageing accelerates in the coming decades, maintaining taste sensations and sensitivity in older adults will be a key measure to ensuring quality of health and life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  12. Reasons for drinking wine and other beverages – comparison across motives in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran CC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Carmen C Moran, Anthony J SalibaSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaObjectives: Health as a positive reason for drinking wine (eg, antioxidant content has scant empirical data to inform policy. This study attempted to examine that motive by including health as one of six motives for drinking, along with measures of problem drinking (the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener [CAGE] questionnaire in an older adult population.Design: Four drinking motives (enhancement, coping, social, and conformity, plus taste and health were included within a larger national telephone survey on drinking behaviors. We also recorded beverage preference.Results: In this analysis, 705 participants drank a preferred beverage. Taste was the most highly endorsed motive. Just under one quarter of the sample endorsed health as a positive reason for drinking. After controlling for age, sex, and preferred alcoholic beverage, the internal psychological motives of enhancement and coping predicted CAGE scores, but external motives did not. Believing that alcohol is healthy was a negative predictor of CAGE scores. Our results showed a different pattern to those with younger drinkers reported in previous research. Our older group was less likely to drink for social reasons and internal motives were predictive of CAGE scores.Conclusion: A motives-based approach to managing problem drinking will need to take account of a wider range of age-related motives. Based on the current data, there is little reason to suspect drinking wine for health reasons is associated with potential problem drinking.Keywords: drinking behavior, wine and drinking motives, healthy drinking, wine and health

  13. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  14. Individual differences in musical taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between (usually a narrow set of) personality dimensions and liking for a small number of individual musical styles. To date there has been no attempt to investigate, within a single methodology, the extent to which personality factors correlate with liking for a very wide range of musical styles. To address this, 36,518 participants rated their liking for 104 musical styles, completed a short form of the Big 5 personality inventory, and provided other data about their favorite musical styles. Personality factors were related to both liking for the musical styles and participants' reasons for listening to this music. However, on the whole these latter variables were related more closely to participants' age, sex, and income than to Big 5 scores. Thus, personality is related to musical taste, but other individual differences are arguably related more closely.

  15. Flavour-active wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cordente, Antonio G.; Curtin, Christopher D.; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2012-01-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can infl...

  16. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Bokulich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir.

  18. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  19. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  20. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-01-30

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  1. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use cues to assist them in making buying decisions. Consumers are also sceptical about the honesty of producers in marketing their awards. The question arises, whether, in the minds of South Africa's wine consumers, awards play a strong enough role in influencing their choice when buying wine. Research design: A convenience sample was drawn among South African wine consumers by using an online survey questionnaire. A sample of 285 was realised and the data analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings and implications: Wine awards are indeed recognised by the consumer as a cue that shapes their choices / selection criteria, but their importance is relatively low compared to other cues such as variety, vintage, producer, production method, packaging, place of origin and price. Yet, having established that decision-making is a complex set of interactions, wine awards do nevertheless play a role in supporting a decision in certain circumstances and for certain customer segments. Generally speaking, it was found that the more sophisticated a consumer (connoisseur is the less regard exists for wine awards. Not only do wine awards have lesser power in shaping decisions, but also attitudes towards the concept of wine awards are more negative. Lesser informed consumers tend to take more guidance from, and are less opinionated about the concept of wine awards. An independent monitoring authority is seen as a solution to raise the profile of wine

  2. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet the...

  3. Country-wine making from Eembe fruit (Berchemia discolor) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Country-wine was made from dried Eembe fruit purchased from Katima Mulilo open market using commercial wine yeast. The fruit produced a wine with 8.6% alcohol content when no sugar was added. Fermentation to produce the wine was carried out at 22ºC. The clarity, aroma, colour and acceptability of the wine was ...

  4. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  5. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain records...

  6. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of such...

  7. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar...

  8. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-02-19

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food.

  9. Taste Identification in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, T.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory issues are widely reported in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Since taste perception is one of the least studied senses in ASC we explored taste identification in adults with ASC (12 males, 11 females) compared to control participants (14 males, 12 females). "Taste strips" were used to measure taste identification overall, as well as…

  10. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applie...

  11. Analysis of temperature-mediated changes in the wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var uvarum. An oenological study of how the protein content influences wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Bernal, Eugenia; Deery, Michael J; Rodríguez, María Esther; Cantoral, Jesús M; Howard, Julie; Feret, Renata; Natera, Ramón; Lilley, Kathryn S; Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum plays an important role in the fermentation of red wine from the D.O. Ribera del Duero. This is due to the special organoleptic taste that this yeast gives the wines and their ability to ferment at low temperature. To determine the molecular factors involved in the fermentation process at low temperature, a differential proteomic approach was performed by using 2D-DIGE, comparing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the profiles obtained at 13 and 25°C. A total of 152 protein spots were identified. We detected proteins upregulated at 13°C that were shown to be related to temperature stress, the production of aromatic compounds involved in the metabolism of amino acids, and the production of fusel alcohols and their derivatives, each of which is directly related to the quality of the wines. To check the temperature effects, an aromatic analysis by GC-MS was performed. The proteomic and "aromatomic" results are discussed in relation to the oenological properties of S. bayanus var. uvarum. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Intact Hedonic Responses to Sweet Tastes in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Cara R; Aloi, Joseph; Burrus, Caley; Garbutt, James C; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2014-03-01

    The Sweet Taste Test (STT) is a standardized measure designed to index the ability to detect differences in sweet tastes (sweet taste sensitivity) and hedonic responses to sweet tastes (sweet taste liking). Profiles of response on the STT suggest enhanced hedonic responses to sweet tastes in psychiatric disorders characterized by dysfunctional reward processing systems, including binge-eating disorders and substance use disorders, and a putative mechanism governing STT responses is the brain opioid system. The present study examined STT responses in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 38 healthy control adults. There were no differences in sweet taste sensitivity or hedonic response to sweet tastes between the ASD and control groups. Within the ASD sample, ASD symptom severity was associated with sweet taste sensitivity, but not hedonic response to sweet taste. Results may ultimately shed light on brain opioid system functioning in ASD.

  13. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2017-01-24

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer's preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production of high quality wines are astounding. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the impact of microorganisms in wine aroma and flavour, and the biochemical reactions and pathways in which they participate, therefore contributing to both the quality and acceptability of wine. In this context, an overview of genetic and transcriptional studies to explain and interpret these effects is included, and new directions are proposed. It also considers the contribution of human oral microbiota to wine aroma conversion and perception during wine consumption. The potential use of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as biological tools to enhance wine quality and the advent of promising advice allowed by pioneering -omics technologies on wine research are also discussed.

  14. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  15. Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M.; Xu, Hong; Pronin, Alexey; Liu, Haitian; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5′ ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric T1R receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling. We propose a cooperative ligand-binding model involving the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1, where L-glutamate binds close to the hinge region, and 5′ ribonucleotides bind to an adjacent site close to the opening of the flytrap to further stabilize the closed conformation. This unique mechanism may apply to other class C G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:19104071

  16. Sense of taste in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the investigation of the molecular mechanism by which chemicals such as odors and tastants are perceived by specific chemosensory organs. For example, G protein-coupled receptors expressed within the nasal epithelium and taste receptors in the oral cavity have been identified as odorant and taste receptors, respectively. However, there is much evidence to indicate that these chemosensory receptors are not restricted to primary chemosensory cells; they are also expressed and have function in other cells such as those in the airways and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This short review describes the possible mechanisms by which taste signal transduction occurs in the oral cavity and tastants/nutrients are sensed in the GI tract by taste-like cells, mainly enteroendocrine and brush cells. Furthermore, it discusses the future perspectives of chemosensory studies.

  17. Gustatory processing and taste memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2016-06-01

    Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference. These studies have revealed a role for dopamine-mediated plasticity of the mushroom bodies that modulate the threshold of response to appetitive tastants. The identification of neural circuitry regulating taste memory provides a system to study the genetic and physiological processes that govern plasticity within a defined memory circuit.

  18. Traditional phytochemistry: identification of drug by 'taste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Hankey, Alex; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2007-06-01

    Ayurveda, the system of traditional medicine from India, holds that 'Rasa', a concept roughly corresponding to taste, is a basis for identifying pharmacological properties of plants and other materia medica used in Dravyaguna-its system of phytomedicine. This idea has recently found support in studies of ibuprofen, the pharmacological properties of which are similar to those of oleocanthal, because the two substances have very similar tastes. This paper discusses a possible scientific approach to understanding the Ayurvedic (hypo)thesis in terms of the stereochemical basis of both pharamaco-activity and taste, and the numbers of possible pharmaco-active compounds that 'Rasa' may be able to distinguish. We conclude that molecules binding to a specific enzyme active site should have their own 'Rasa', and that the number of different subjectively experienced 'tastes' is more than enough to distinguish between molecular shapes binding to all enzyme active sites in the body.

  19. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  20. LINKING PERIPHERAL TASTE PROCESSES TO BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Spector, Alan C.; Glendinning, John I

    2009-01-01

    The act of eating and drinking brings food-related chemicals into contact with taste cells. Activation of these taste cells, in turn, engages neural circuits in the central nervous system that help animals identify foods and fluids, determine what and how much to eat, and prepare the body for digestion and assimilation. Analytically speaking, these neural processes can be divided into at least three categories: stimulus identification, ingestive motivation, and digestive preparation. This rev...

  1. Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include Gβγ activation of PLCβ2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The Gα subunit, α-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

  2. Traditional Phytochemistry: Identification of Drug by ?Taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Kalpana; Hankey, Alex; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Ayurveda, the system of traditional medicine from India, holds that ‘Rasa’, a concept roughly corresponding to taste, is a basis for identifying pharmacological properties of plants and other materia medica used in Dravyaguna—its system of phytomedicine. This idea has recently found support in studies of ibuprofen, the pharmacological properties of which are similar to those of oleocanthal, because the two substances have very similar tastes. This paper discusses a possible scientific approac...

  3. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli.

  4. Smell and taste in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Silke; Reindl, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Schuster, Anna; Wolf, Petra; Hundt, Walter; Huber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by smell/taste tests, and to determine if disease activity or medication might influence the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients. In total, 59 IBD patients (37 Crohn's disease (CD) and 22 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients) were studied using "Sniffin' sticks" and "taste strips" for olfactory and gustatory tests, respectively, and compared to healthy controls and published normative data. Among IBD (CD and UC) patients, the values for odor threshold, but not for odor identification or discrimination, were significantly lower than that of the normative data. Further, these patients showed lower values than the normative taste values and the control group for all tastes, except sour; 57.6% of the IBD patients were hyposmic, while 30.5% were hypogeusic. Subjective self-assessments showed that the patients were not aware of their reduced olfactory/gustatory functions. There were no relevant differences in taste and smell abilities between the CD and UC patients. Disease activity and treatment did not influence the olfactory/gustatory functions. IBD (CD and UC) patients exhibited significant reductions in the olfactory and gustatory functions. Therefore, patients should be tested by smell/taste tests, in order to be adequately informed of their olfactory/gustatory functions and provided an understanding of how to overcome their limitations, and thus improve their quality of life.

  5. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“other”) intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste–odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of “cherry” and “vanilla” flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. PMID:21798851

  6. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  7. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  8. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  9. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTIVITY OF WINES FROM THE SOBRANCE WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Špakovská

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant properties of wines from the Sobrance wine region. White wines generally showed lower content of polyphenols and also posses lower scavenging capacity against DPPH radical than red wines. However, when we compared antioxidant properties of wines to protect polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidation using to TBA method, no differences were detected. The antioxidative capacity of white wines was comparable to red wines and was higher than antioxidant capacity of ascorbic acid solution (0.2 %. The best antioxidant properties were recorded in Cabernet sauvignon (2010 and Frankovka modra (2009 wines.doi:10.5219/204

  11. Wine and music (I): on the crossmodal matching of wine and music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles Spence; Qian (Janice) Wang

    2015-01-01

      Read the wine press and before too long you will likely stumble across a writer trying to describe a wine by drawing a link with a specific musician, or piece, or type, of music (see [1], for a review...

  12. Putting words on wine: OENOLEX Burgundy, new directions in wine lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    OENOLEX Burgundy: New Directions in Specialised Lexicography The (meta)lexicography of wine encompasses the study and compiling of entries on the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or on the knowledge of wine in specialised dictionaries and encyclopedias. Also, although more rarely......, it encompasses the study and compiling of single-field dictionaries of the language and/or knowledge of wine. However, this is but a fraction of the lexicographic picture. The lexicography of wine also includes a broad range of lexicographically structured information tools on paper and online, such as wine...... Burgundy is an ongoing interdisplinary, international research project between specialised (meta)lexicographers, linguists, and wine experts. The project is co-financed by the Burgundy Wine Board and by the French region Burgundy. It is aimed at the development of new functions and multimodal usage modes...

  13. Sales Growth Following the Quality Improvement of the Wine and Wine Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Antohi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition in any area of activity makes the level of quality as one of the effective tools that determine the worldwide competitiveness of products. Motivation of the activity of any enterprise, the quality of products is necessary to build and maintain a good reputation, becoming an important factor in gaining of new markets. The wine industry of Moldova Republic is at a crossroads. The interdiction of Moldavian wines import in Russia since 2013 was balanced by opening the European Union market for Moldavian wines, plus the steps taken by Moldova to join the EU. To withstand the challenges, the wine industry of Moldova has to pursue long-term recovery and development. For that, all area producers have to change their thinking and action manner, developing and implementing plans that rely on their own forces. Complex analysis underlying such plans has to consider bot the cultivation of the vine and the wine production. Thus, they have to pursue the use of all agricultural lands that are suitable for the cultivation of vines to produce wines with denomination of origin and wines with designation of origin (PSR wineswines produced in specified regions, increasing the share of these wines in total wine production. Also, the existing techniques of grape processing and winemaking, the efficient use of equipment and the insurance of proper hygiene of equipment have to be analysed to improve the quality of wine. It is imperative to implement appropriate quality systems in wine making enterprises. The application of these measures will ensure the enhancement of wine and other wine products quality, the improvement of inland wine production image and the export promotions.

  14. A PROFILE OF THE WINE CONSUMER IN CALIFORNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry

    2000-01-01

    This research shows that the wine market in the United States is segmented. The demographics and wine consumption behavior of the California wine consumer differs from the national consumer. The data examined here show that the California wine consumer can be further segmented into heavy spender and lighter spender groups based on demographics and wine consumption behavior. The existence of multiple segments in the wine market indicates that separately targeted marketing campaigns may be more...

  15. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  16. How intrinsic values influence wines prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gál Péter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hedonic price indices is quite common in the wine economics literature, yet they mainly include scores of organoleptic tests and some dummy variables representing varieties and quality signs as geographical indications. This study focuses on the relation between the composition and the price of wines on the example of Hungarian wines. In Hungary, the wine law renders chemical analysis compulsory for all wines released to the market. The study includes five main compounds: actual alcoholic strength, total sugars, total acidity, sugar free extract and pH value and is based on hedonic price indices calculated on a sample of 2,453 wines. Results of several regressions – using different model specifications – consistently show that actual alcoholic strength, sugar content, sugar free extract and pH value are related with the price. Some characteristics have an optimal level, while in other cases the relation is linear.

  17. Discrimination of wine attributes by metabolome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Giavalisco, Patrick; Hummel, Jan; Eckardt, Aenne; Willmitzer, Lothar; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    The chemical composition of any wine sample contains numerous small molecules largely derived from three different sources: the grape berry, the yeast strain used for fermentation, and the containers used for wine making and storage. The combined sum of these small molecules present in the wine, therefore, might account for all wine specific features such as cultivar, vintage, origin, and quality. Still, most wine authentication procedures rely either on subjective human measures or if they are based on measurable features, they include a limited number of compounds. In this study, which is based on an untargeted UPLC-FT-ICR-MS-based approach, we provide data, demonstrating that unbiased and objective analytical chemistry in combination with multivariate statistical methods allows to reproducible classify/distinguish wine attributes like variety, origin, vintage, and quality.

  18. Genetic variations in taste perception modify alcohol drinking behavior in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Yang, Sarah; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-06-01

    The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14-2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017

  19. Development of an analytical methodology using Fourier transform mass spectrometry to discover new structural analogs of wine natural sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Axel; Génin, Eric; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bibès, Alice; Da Costa, Grégory; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Volatile and non-volatile molecules are directly responsible for the thrill and excitement provided by wine-tasting. Their elucidation requires powerful analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. In a recent work, two novel sweet compounds called quercotriterpenosides (QTT) were identified in oak wood used for wine-ageing. The aim of the present study is to discover structural analogs of such natural sweeteners in oak wood. For this purpose, an analytical approach was developed as an alternative to chemical synthesis. Orbitrap mass spectrometry proved to be a crucial technique both to demonstrate the presence of QTT analogs in oak wood by targeted screening and to guide the purification pathway of these molecules using complementary chromatographic tools. Four compounds were isolated and identified for the first time: two isomers, one glucosyl derivative and one galloyl derivative of QTT. Their tasting showed that only the two new isomers were sweet, thus demonstrating both the pertinence of the strategy and the influence of functional groups on gustatory properties. Finally, this paper presents some developments involving multistage Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) to provide solid structural information on these functional groups prior to any purification of compounds. Such analytical developments could be particularly useful for research on taste-active or bio-active products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Properties of palm wine yeasts and its performance in wine making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh palm wine samples were obtained from oil palm and raffia palm into sterile flasks. The samples were examined for yeasts properties and performance in wine making using grapes. The yeasts in the palm wine were characterized, identified, and screened for their sedimentation rate, ethanol tolerance, alcohol content, ...

  1. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  2. Development of wine tourism in South Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Prokeš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism development and the resulting formation of regional strategic alliances in the form of clusters may lead to increasing the competitiveness of wineries in South Moravia in the southeastern part of the Czech Republic.The main research objective of this paper was to find potential for wine tourism development and creating a plan for newly formed strategic alliance coordinating services offer all wineries in the region. This study describes the potential to offer services and products of wine growing areas in South Moravia region, suitable for promotion offers wine tourism destinations and services. In principle, it is used the calculation for the establishment of the wine cluster according to Porter’s formula, and was designed by concentration coefficient of vineyards for wine cluster formation, which is based on the unique and specific conditions of the wine region of South Moravia.To achieve the objective of the study was conducted marketing research data collection and mapping current events and activities taking place in the wine-growing region of Moravia, promoting or offering specific local products and services associated with gastronomy and wine. The dynamic development of the wine category, major changes in market and consumer demand are the main causes for the formation of associations of small and medium-sized wineries. The application of the results of research was a plan for the establishment of new alliance – wine cluster, where is potential co-operation between associations VOC appellation and other entities involving suppliers, customers, research institutions and universities. The plan to create a wine tourism cluster was proposed to establish cooperation between the newly emerging associations of VOC at three sub-regions of South Moravia, in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  3. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  4. Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project - the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project - is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future

  5. Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Maruyama

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca(2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami.

  6. Effect of concentration on taste-taste interactions with foods for elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    An increase in concentration of one of the tastants in a 'real food' might affect not only the perception of the taste quality of that manipulated tastant but also the other perceivable taste qualities. The influence of concentration increase of sodium or potassium chloride in tomato soup, sucrose

  7. A Moving Feast: Effects of Color, Shape and Animation on Taste Associations and Taste Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Bruijnes, Merijn; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Research into multimodal flavor perceptions has demonstrated associations between basic tastes and visual cues. Moreover, such associations have been found to influence taste perception. Here we are interested in how mixed reality technology in the form of projection mapping can be used to introduce

  8. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  9. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  10. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  11. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  12. Taste Disturbance After Palatopharyngeal Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ren Hsiao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste disorder is a rare complication of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, and may have a significant impact on quality of life. Herein, we report a case of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a 51- year-old man who experienced taste disturbance after palatopharyngeal surgery using electrocautery for developing a uvulopalatal flap. Gustatory function test using three-drop-method with solutions of highest concentration was implemented to assess the deficiency of four basic tastes. The results showed deficit of sweet taste associated with phantom of bitter taste. The patient reported constant spontaneous bitter taste and dysgeusia in sweet taste with poor quality of life at the 2-year follow-up. We suggest that patients are informed of the potential for taste impairment from palatopharyngeal surgery, as well as reducing the use of electrocautery in developing uvulopalatal flap to reduce damage to taste function.

  13. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Selected Herzegovinian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many wines, particularly red, contain different compounds that possess strong antioxidant activity. The subject of this paper was the determination of phenol compounds with strong antioxidant activity, contained in nine commercially available Herzegovinian red wines. Total phenols, flavonoids, nonflavonoids content and antioxidant activity of selected wines were determined. Total phenols content was determined spectrophotometrically by the Folin-Cioca@lteu method using gallic acid as standard, while flavonoids and nonflavonoids content was determined by using formaldehyde. Two distinct methods were used to assess the antioxidant capacity of the tested wines; Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction method, and the reduction of DPPH radicals. Total phenols content in nine studied wines, expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE, range from 346.836 mg L-1 to 2169.7 mg L-1, which is consistent with data from previous studies of red wines from other regions. All studied wines showed significantly higher flavonoids content compared to nonflavonoids, an average of 85 : 15. The results indicate significant differences in antioxidant activity of the analyzed wines. According to both applied methods, similar data were measured. A positive and strong correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant activity (by DPPH method, r = 0.93, according to the method of BR oscillating reaction r = 0.90 confirms the fact that wines with higher total phenols content have stronger antioxidant activity.

  15. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Introvigne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series co-move in the long run and which one of the variables contributes proactively to such an equilibrium by reacting to disequilibria from the long-run path. The estimates highlight that i the two wine indexes have a higher Sharpe ratio compared to the general stock market index, revealing wine stocks as a profitable investment per se, and ii the absence of cointegration among the three series and the existence of possible diversification benefits. In fact, in the long-run price do not move together and, therefore, investors may be better off by including wine stocks into investment portfolios and take advantage of diversification

  16. Sensing free sulfur dioxide in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Tanya M; Moore, Rachel L; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K; Elsey, Gordon M; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO(2) over time, resulting in wines with little SO(2) protection. Furthermore, SO(2) and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO(2) in wine require the SO(2) to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring.

  17. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  18. Investigation of Phenolic Components of Hungarian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Márk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-two wines from the southernmost wine-producing region in Hungary(Villány were analyzed for their polyphenolic content by high performance liquidchromatography (HPLC. Our results show that wine variety or vintage year could not bedistinguished based on polyphenol content, but winery origin could be. Resveratrolconcentration is mainly dependent on variety and vintage year. The “human factor” (i.e.,winemaking style and technology seems to be more decisive for the polyphenoliccomposition of red wines than other factors, such as variety and vintage year.

  19. KADAR DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA POLIFENOL PADA WINE TERBUAT DARI CAMPURAN BUAH EKSTRAK DELIMA DAN PISANG (THE IDENTIFICATION OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS AND ITS CONTENT OF WINE DERIVED FROM MIXED FRUITS OF POMEGRANATE AND BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Titin Nge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research aimed at describing quality and identifies polyphenols of wine made from a mixture of banana and pomegranate fruits. The wines with four different ratios of pomegranate-banana fruits were made (pomegranate: banana: 75:25; 62,5:37,5; 50:50; and 0:100 (control. Ethanol concentrations and taste were used as quality criteria. The ethanol was measured using gas chromatography and the tastes were determined with organoleptic test. HPLC methods were used to measure the total polyphenols and identify their chemical identity. The results of this research was that the ethanol concentration (% varied between treatments (pomegranate: banana extract, %: 10,33 (75:25; 8,62 (62,5:37,5; 4,88 (50:50; and 9,44 (100: 0 and the organoleptic test by 30 panelist resulted in that the mixture of pomegranate:banana of 50:50 (% was prefered most. The result also showed that the total polyphenol varied from 3,902 to 4,897 mg/ml, in which the more the pomegranate extract added the more the total polyphenol present in the wine. Further, HPLC analysis of polyphenol for wine with different combined fruit extracts (75:25; 62,5:37,5; 50:50; and 0:100 resulted in the identification of 41, 42, and 42, and 22 peak respectively. Predominant types of polyphenols in pomegranate extract added wine are galloyl-hexoxide, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, punicalagin α, β punicalagin, and elagic acid. On the otherhand few polyphenols were present dominantly or exclusively in banana extract added wine: naringenin, quercetin-deoxyhexose, and rutin.ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan kualitas dan mengidentifikasi polifenol yang terkandung di dalam wine yang dibuat dari campuran buah pisang dan delima. Wine dimaksudkan dibuat dalam 4 perlakuan berbeda berdasarkan % ekstrak buah delima: pisang, yakni berturut-turut dalam rasio: 75:25; 62,5:37,5; 50:50; dan 0:100 (kontrol. Konsentrasi etanol dan citarasa

  20. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate's taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop's own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food's identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  2. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US ...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies.......Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...

  3. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies.......Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...

  4. Marketing messages accompanying online selling of low/er and regular strength wine and beer products in the UK: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Coulter, Lucia; Petticrew, Mark; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-02-08

    Increased availability of low/er strength alcohol products has the potential to reduce alcohol consumption if they are marketed as substitutes for higher strength products rather than as additional products. The current study compares the main marketing messages conveyed by retailers and producers for low/er and regular strength wine and beer products. A content analysis of the marketing messages stated (in text) or depicted (in image) for low/er and regular strength wines and beers sold online on the websites of the four main UK retailers (Tesco, ASDA, Sainsbury's, and Morrisons), and the producers of these products between February-March 2016. Four themes were identified: (a) suggested occasions for consumption, (b) health-related associations, (c) alcohol content, and (d) taste. Compared with regular strength products, low/er strength equivalents were more often marketed in association with occasions deemed to be suitable for their consumption including lunchtimes [wine: X 2 (1, n = 172) = 11.75, p = .001], outdoor events/barbeques [beer: X 2 (1, n = 96) = 11.16, p = .001] and on sport/fitness occasions [beer: X 2 (1, n = 96) = 7.55, p = .006]. Compared with regular strength wines and beers, low/er strength equivalents were more frequently marketed with images or text associated with health. These included images of fruit [wine: X 2 (1, n = 172) = 7.78, p = .005; beer: X 2 (1, n = 96) = 22.00, p marketed with information about their alcohol content. There were few differences in the marketing messages regarding taste. Low/er strength wines and beers appear to be marketed not as substitutes for higher strength products but as ones that can be consumed on additional occasions with an added implication of healthiness.

  5. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects.

  6. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic and functional diversity of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiano, Arturo; Kuramae, Eiko; de Hollander, Matias; Kowalchuck, George; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Pastorelli, Roberta; Fornasier, Flavio; Priori, Simone; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Despite the economic importance of vineyards in Italy, the wine sector is facing severe challenges from increased global competition and climate changes. The quality of the grape at harvest has a strong direct impact on final wine quality and the strong relationship between wine composition, aroma, taste and soil properties has been outlined in the "Terroir concept". However, information on the impact of soil microbial communities on soil functions, grapevine plants and wine quality is still lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the composition and the potential functions of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants grown in two soils which showed similar physical, chemical and hydrological properties but which provided a different wine quality. Materials and Methods Soils from two sites of the Chianti region in Tuscany (BRO11 and BRO12) cultivated with the grapevine cultivar Sangiovese with contrasting wine quality were examined by means of a structural and functional approach: specifically, GeoChip microarrays, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, enzyme assays and measurements of some soil biological properties, such as microbial biomass C and soil respiration, were carried out. Results Enzyme assays and soil biological analyses revealed a higher biological activity in BRO11 as compared to BRO12. The structure of soil microbial communities, assessed using 16S and 18S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing, revealed a higher presence of Actinobacteria in the BRO12 than in the BRO11 soil where, in contrast, the alfa-Proteobacteria are more abundant. GeoChip microarray analyses revealed a consistent difference in genes involved in S cycling, with a significant overrepresentation of sulfur-oxidation genes in BRO11 and increased levels of sulfate reduction genes BRO12. These results are consistent with the high content of sulfates and the abundance of Firmicutes such as Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans in the BRO

  8. Evidence that humans can taste glucose polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Lim, Juyun

    2014-11-01

    The sense of taste is essential for identifying potential nutrients and poisons. Accordingly, specialized taste receptor cells are activated by food-derived chemicals. Because of its importance in the human diet, oral detection of starch, or its degradation products, would presumably be highly beneficial. Yet, it has long been assumed that simple sugars are the only class of carbohydrates that humans can taste. There is, however, considerable evidence that rodents can taste starch degradation products (i.e., glucose polymers composed of maltooligosaccharides with 3-10 glucose units and maltopolysaccharides with >10 glucose units) and that their detection is independent of the sweet taste receptor, T1R2/T1R3. The present study was designed 1) to measure individual differences in human taste perception of glucose polymers, 2) to understand individual differences in the activity of salivary α-amylase, and 3) to investigate the role that salivary α-amylase may play in the taste perception of glucose polymers. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste intensity of glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and glucose polymers of various chain lengths, while their noses were clamped. Saliva samples from the subjects were also collected and their salivary α-amylase activity was assayed. Results showed that the perceived intensities of glucose, sucrose, and NaCl were significantly correlated (r = 0.75-0.85, P glucose polymers, whereas intensity ratings of all glucose polymers were highly correlated with one another (r = 0.69-0.82, P glucose polymers did not significantly differ between individuals with high and low α-amylase activity. A follow up experiment was conducted to quantify the concentrations of glucose and maltose that were inherently present in the glucose polymer stimuli and to determine whether the amounts were within a perceptually detectable range. Results revealed that the amounts of simple sugars present in the test stimuli were trivial and were mostly at an

  9. Altered taste perception in oral submucous fibrosis: A research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Deeplaxmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is among the regulatory mechanism for acceptance or rejection of foods. In oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients, impairment of taste sensation has not received much attention, owing to limited research work in the field. This study was conducted to analyze the taste impairment in OSMF patients by using four basic tastes: Sweet, sour, salty and bitter, among a group of 30 subjects by using physiological taste stimuli tastants. In OSMF, significant taste alteration was found with sweet followed by salt, bitter and sour.

  10. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Sayaka; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat-stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate-related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine-5'-monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose-dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  12. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat‐stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate‐related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine‐5′‐monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose‐dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. PMID:27169902

  13. Taste masking of diclofenac sodium using microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omran, M F; Al-Suwayeh, S A; El-Helw, A M; Saleh, S I

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses how to mask the undesirable taste of diclofenac sodium (DS) without interfering with an adequate rate of drug release. DS microcapsules were successfully prepared using a system of ethylcellulose (EC)-toluene-petroleum ether. The system was optimized by the construction of the phase diagram and determination of the amount of EC precipitated under different solvent:non-solvent ratios to determine the most appropriate conditions for preparing good microcapsules. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and lactose were mixed with DS powder and converted into spherical cores by the wet agglomeration technique which facilitated coacervation and formation of thin and uniform microcapsule walls. Diethylphthalate (DEP) and Polyethyleneglycol 600 (PEG) in different concentrations (20 or 40% w/w) were used as plasticizers to impart better elasticity to the microcapsules. The microcapsules were evaluated for DS released against crushed commercial DS enteric coated tablet (Voltaren). The prepared microcapsules were taste evaluated by a taste panel of 10 volunteers. The results revealed that the optimum solvent:non-solvent ratio required for microcapsule formation was 1:2. Microcapsules containing PEG 20% or DEP 40% showed a faster rate of DS release compared to that obtained from other microcapsules and crushed commercial enteric coated tablets (Voltaren). The palatability and the taste of DS were significantly improved by microencapsulation. The extent of taste masking was influenced by the microcapsule core:wall ratio, the presence of additives within the core, the type and concentration of plasticizer and initial core size.

  14. Exploring Retro-Nasal Aroma’s Influence on Mouthfeel Perception of Chardonnay Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sereni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many interactions that occur between taste and aroma that may impact perception. The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether the aroma fraction of wine should be considered when investigating relationships between chemical composition and sensory perception of mouthfeel. Chardonnay wines with different mouthfeels were produced by altering the fermentation temperature (15 °C and 21 °C of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations (MLF as well as the timing of MLF and the presence of a non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Napping® and Ultra-flash-profiling were conducted using a panel of white winemakers. Each procedure was conducted twice: once with retro-nasal aroma (+R and once without retronasal aroma (−R. Napping® results showed that retronasal aroma impacted mouthfeel perception. Ultra-flash profiling of +R and −R displayed similar descriptive terms used. Several terms appear to be related to retronasal aroma as they were used in +R and not in −R. It is unclear if these terms are due to interactions or due to associated learning. These results suggest that for some mouthfeel terms the volatile fraction plays a role and, to establish relationships between chemical composition and mouthfeel perception, it is important to consider both the volatile and nonvolatile wine fractions.

  15. Performance of language-coordinated collective systems: A study of wine recognition and description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Zubek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of our perceptions of and engagements with the world are shaped by our immersion in socialinteractions, cultural traditions, tools and linguistic categories. In this study we experimentallyinvestigate the impact of two types of language-based coordination on the recognition anddescription of complex sensory stimuli: that of red wine. Participants were asked to taste,remember and successively recognize samples of wines within a larger set in a two-by-twoexperimental design: 1 either individually or in pairs, and 2 with or without the support of asommelier card – a cultural linguistic tool designed for wine description. Both effectiveness ofrecognition and the kinds of errors in the four conditions were analyzed. While our experimentalmanipulations did not impact recognition accuracy, bias-variance decomposition of error revealsnon-trivial differences in how participants solved the task. Pairs generally displayed reduced biasand increased variance compared to individuals, however the variance dropped significantly whenthey used the sommelier card. The effect of card reducing the variance was observed only inpairs, individuals did not seem to benefit from the cultural linguistic tool. Subsequent analysis ofdescriptions generated with the aid of card by individuals and pairs showed that they were moreconsistent and discriminative in the case of pairs. The findings are discussed in terms of globalproperties and dynamics of collective systems when constrained by different types of culturalpractices.

  16. Wine and Coca Cola: Serendipity and Entrepreneurial success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Philip

    2007-03-01

    Starting a new company from scratch depends critically on identifying a product for which there will be enough demand to generate a profit after a reasonable time period. Many start-ups nowadays obtain early Government grants or contracts (e. g. the so-called SBIR programs), but until such contracts begin (if ever!) to provide positive cash flow, a source of other funds become essential. Despite contracts, venture capital, and some friends willing to ``gamble,'' our first entrepreneurial venture ended not with a bang, but a whimper! We had chosen the wrong market. On the day before the company closed its doors, an unanticipated event occurred. We had opened a few bottles of wine for our final farewell but, as we began drinking, we decided to study their laser-scattering properties with our unappreciated and failed instrumentation. The resulting press coverage of a paper reporting that ``tasting'' was phenomenal, though it was published too late to save the company. Starting a second entrepreneurial venture was far more difficult as the first ``angels'' were nowhere to be found. A forgotten proposal by that failed first venture was suddenly funded providing, thereby, the means to start the second. As the second venture began, the success of the wine paper suggested that trying the same method with cola drinks might prove interesting. A new paper reporting on those results was immediately picked up by Applied Optics for an issue cover. At first, a particular cola manufacturer was not amused. However, it soon recognized the significance of laser scattering and began to contribute to the Company's support. Complemented by their largesse and the newly funded contract, the Company's instrumentation commercialization programs became sharply focused: refine the development and sale of a new type of absolute light scattering photometer incorporating a laser. We never looked back.

  17. Linking wine lactic acid bacteria diversity with wine aroma and flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Maria Stella; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Logrieco, Antonio; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2017-02-21

    In the last two decades knowledge on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with wine has increased considerably. Investigations on genetic and biochemistry of species involved in malolactic fermentation, such as Oenococcus oeni and of Lactobacillus have enabled a better understand of their role in aroma modification and microbial stability of wine. In particular, the use of molecular techniques has provided evidence on the high diversity at species and strain level, thus improving the knowledge on wine LAB taxonomy and ecology. These tools demonstrated to also be useful to detect strains with potential desirable or undesirable traits for winemaking purposes. At the same time, advances on the enzymatic properties of wine LAB responsible for the development of wine aroma molecules have been undertaken. Interestingly, it has highlighted the high intraspecific variability of enzymatic activities such as glucosidase, esterase, proteases and those related to citrate metabolism within the wine LAB species. This genetic and biochemistry diversity that characterizes wine LAB populations can generate a wide spectrum of wine sensory outcomes. This review examines some of these interesting aspects as a way to elucidate the link between LAB diversity with wine aroma and flavour. In particular, the correlation between inter- and intra-species diversity and bacterial metabolic traits that affect the organoleptic properties of wines is highlighted with emphasis on the importance of enzymatic potential of bacteria for the selection of starter cultures to control MLF and to enhance wine aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. THE FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR ON WINE CONSUMPTION IN THE MOLDOVAN WINE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With an area of over 148000 ha allotted to vine culture, the Republic of Moldova has a well-developed traditional wine industry, recognized on international markets. Although the largest part of wine-making products is designed for export, we must not neglect the domestic market, which assures the stability and constancy of consumption. The district Cahul, the region in which the research was carried out, represents one of the most important areas of production of red wines, sweet and semi-sweet wines. The study tried to highlight the main features of Moldavian consumer of table wines, factors of influence in the consumption and acquisition of wines, the degree of satisfaction regarding the products that exist on the market. The results of research can be useful to both producers and traders of local and import wines.

  19. A Matter of Taste: Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Taste Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antinucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates can perceive at least five different taste qualities, each of which is thought to have a specific role in the evolution of different species. The avoidance of potentially poisonous foods, which are generally bitter or sour tasting, and the search for more nutritious ones, those with high-fat and high-sugar content, are two of the most well-known examples. The study of taste genes encoding receptors that recognize ligands triggering taste sensations has helped to reconstruct several evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes. In addition, an increasing number of studies have focused on pseudogenes, genomic DNA sequences that have traditionally been considered defunct relatives of functional genes mostly because of the presence of deleterious mutations interrupting their open reading frames. The study of taste receptor pseudogenes has helped to shed light on how the evolutionary history of taste in vertebrates has been the result of a succession of gene gain and loss processes. This dynamic role in evolution has been explained by the “less-is-more” hypothesis, suggesting gene loss as a mechanism of evolutionary change in response to a dietary shift. This mini-review aims at depicting the major lineage-specific loss of function of taste receptor genes in vertebrates, stressing their evolutionary importance and recapitulating signatures of natural selection and their correlations with food habits.

  20. A Matter of Taste: Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Taste Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Marco; Risso, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrates can perceive at least five different taste qualities, each of which is thought to have a specific role in the evolution of different species. The avoidance of potentially poisonous foods, which are generally bitter or sour tasting, and the search for more nutritious ones, those with high-fat and high-sugar content, are two of the most well-known examples. The study of taste genes encoding receptors that recognize ligands triggering taste sensations has helped to reconstruct several evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes. In addition, an increasing number of studies have focused on pseudogenes, genomic DNA sequences that have traditionally been considered defunct relatives of functional genes mostly because of the presence of deleterious mutations interrupting their open reading frames. The study of taste receptor pseudogenes has helped to shed light on how the evolutionary history of taste in vertebrates has been the result of a succession of gene gain and loss processes. This dynamic role in evolution has been explained by the “less-is-more” hypothesis, suggesting gene loss as a mechanism of evolutionary change in response to a dietary shift. This mini-review aims at depicting the major lineage-specific loss of function of taste receptor genes in vertebrates, stressing their evolutionary importance and recapitulating signatures of natural selection and their correlations with food habits. PMID:29234667

  1. Terroir, the Relationship of Geology, Soils, and Climate to Wine: An Example from the Northern Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    Wines differ from each other based on seven different factors: the type of grape; the bedrock geology and resulting soils; the climate; the soil hydrology; the physiography of the site; the winemaker; and the vineyard management techniques. The first five of these factors make up what the French call terroir, "the taste of the place". Bedrocks weather into soils which then liberate chemical nutrients to the grape vines. Twelve of the sixteen essential elements for wine grapes come from the soil. All around the world the geology and soils make up an important component of the terroir of the wine. Using examples from the Willamette Valley of Oregon, terroir of the region will be discussed because it is strongly influenced by the bedrock geology and soils. The four dominant groups are the volcanic soils, the Jory Soil Series, which developed on the Columbia River Basalts, the Willakenzie Soil Series, developed on uplifted marine sedimentary rocks in the foothills of the Oregon Coast Range, the Laurelwood Soil Series, developed from loess soils developed on basalt bedrock, and Woodburn Soil Series developed in Missoula Flood deposits on the valley bottoms. The wines made from the grapes of these four soils are very different.

  2. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From grape harvest to bubble rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    Bubbles in a glass of champagne may seem like the acme of frivolity to most of people, but in fact they may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any fluid physicist. Under standard tasting conditions, about a million bubbles will nucleate and rise if you resist drinking from your flute. The so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the complex interplay between carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolved in the liquid phase, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some both glass and liquid properties. In this tutorial review, the journey of yeast-fermented CO2 is reviewed (from its progressive dissolution in the liquid phase during the fermentation process, to its progressive release in the headspace above glasses). The most recent advances about the physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, and rise of gaseous CO2 bubbles, under standard tasting conditions, have been gathered hereafter. Let's hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this tutorial review dedicated to the unsuspected physics hidden right under your nose each time you enjoy a glass of bubbly.

  3. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue, Jesusa; Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2012-03-27

    Mammalian sweet taste is primarily mediated by the type 1 taste receptor Tas1r2/Tas1r3, whereas Tas1r1/Tas1r3 act as the principal umami taste receptor. Bitter taste is mediated by a different group of G protein-coupled receptors, the Tas2rs, numbering 3 to ∼66, depending on the species. We showed previously that the behavioral indifference of cats toward sweet-tasting compounds can be explained by the pseudogenization of the Tas1r2 gene, which encodes the Tas1r2 receptor. To examine the generality of this finding, we sequenced the entire coding region of Tas1r2 from 12 species in the order Carnivora. Seven of these nonfeline species, all of which are exclusive meat eaters, also have independently pseudogenized Tas1r2 caused by ORF-disrupting mutations. Fittingly, the purifying selection pressure is markedly relaxed in these species with a pseudogenized Tas1r2. In behavioral tests, the Asian otter (defective Tas1r2) showed no preference for sweet compounds, but the spectacled bear (intact Tas1r2) did. In addition to the inactivation of Tas1r2, we found that sea lion Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 are also pseudogenized, consistent with their unique feeding behavior, which entails swallowing food whole without chewing. The extensive loss of Tas1r receptor function is not restricted to the sea lion: the bottlenose dolphin, which evolved independently from the sea lion but displays similar feeding behavior, also has all three Tas1rs inactivated, and may also lack functional bitter receptors. These data provide strong support for the view that loss of taste receptor function in mammals is widespread and directly related to feeding specializations.

  4. Stellenbosch Wine Route wineries: Management's perspective on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    conditions in late 2009 and early 2010, which caused some farmers' production per hectare to be halved. In addition, the perpetual global oversupply of wine, a fluctuating exchange rate and a strong Rand have created a very unfavourable market environment for the wine industry (Business World 2008; Evans 2011; Ponte ...

  5. Production technologies for reduced alcoholic wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Blackman, John W; Agboola, Samson O

    2012-01-01

    The production and sale of alcohol-reduced wines, and the lowering of ethanol concentration in wines with alcohol levels greater than acceptable for a specific wine style, poses a number of technical and marketing challenges. Several engineering solutions and wine production strategies that focus upon pre- or postfermentation technologies have been described and patented for production of wines with lower ethanol concentrations than would naturally arise through normal fermentation and wine production techniques. However, consumer perception and acceptance of the sensory quality of wines manufactured by techniques that utilize thermal distillation for alcohol removal is generally unfavorable. This negative perception from consumers has focused attention on nonthermal production processes and the development or selection of specific yeast strains with downregulated or modified gene expression for alcohol production. The information presented in this review will allow winemakers to assess the relative technical merits of each of the technologies described and make decisions regarding implementation of novel winemaking techniques for reducing ethanol concentration in wine. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Another Look at the Wine Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeerd, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent article, Iain MacInnes analyzed the static equilibrium of a system consisting of a wine bottle and a wine butler. After discussing that composite system, students can be asked to consider only the bottle (and its contents) as the system. An interesting challenge for them is to describe the forces on the bottle in static equilibrium.

  7. Stellenbosch Wine Route wineries: Management's perspective on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings confirmed international research results that demonstrate that some aspects of wine tourism are perceived to be advantageous to the winery, such as the ability to create brand awareness and opportunities to spend time with consumers, which were deemed the principal advantages of wine tourism. Certain ...

  8. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  9. Controlling or trusting children’s taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    problems is often used to legitimate extremely normative food education for children and control mechanism such as nudging, shaming and self-policing. In this paper, we want to focus on how taste is used in contemporary food education. We will do this by critically discussing a series of academic studies...... and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure, or a central way of sensually understanding and approaching the world. In other words, taste literacy becomes a tool to push children towards ‘hegemonic nutrition’. Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the reworking of Foucault’s governmentality concept in recent...

  10. Taste loss in hospitalized multimorbid elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toffanello ED

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ED Toffanello,1 EM Inelmen,1 A Imoscopi,1 E Perissinotto,2 A Coin,1 F Miotto,1 LM Donini,3 D Cucinotta,4 M Barbagallo,5 E Manzato,1 G Sergi11Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Geriatrics Division and University of Padova, Padova, 2Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 3Department of Medical Physiopathology (Food Science Section, University of Roma, La Sapienza, Roma, 4S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, 5Geriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Emerging Diseases, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: Loss of the sense of taste is common among older people. Morbidities and polypharmacy may contribute to the age-related decline in gustatory function. The aims of the present study were to investigate taste perception in elderly hospitalized patients by comparing their taste recognition thresholds with those of healthy, free-living elderly individuals and to identify potential determinants of taste loss.Methods: The participants in this observational study were 55 elderly patients hospitalized in the acute geriatric section of the Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences at Padova University and 41 free-living individuals aged older than 65 years, randomly recruited from elderly people attending mild fitness programs at public gymnasiums in Padova. Data were collected on nutrition, health, cognitive, and functional status for all participants. Gustatory capabilities were assessed using aqueous solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride (representing sweet, salty, sour, and bitter stimuli, respectively, and taste recognition thresholds were measured in both groups.Results: In comparison with the free-living elderly subjects, those in hospital were significantly less able to recognize the taste of citric acid (P < 0.05. Low citric acid sensitivity was independently associated with advanced age (≥75 years; odds ratio [OR] 3

  11. Is the taste of fat regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Chevrot, Michael; Bernard, Arnaud; Ancel, Déborah; Martin, Céline; Besnard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, converging data have been accumulated both in rodents and humans, supporting the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of dietary lipids. It is well known that the sense of taste is determinant for the food choice and that the overconsumption of highly palatable energy-dense foods contributes to the current obesity epidemic. Thus, an important issue in terms of Public Health is to understand the mechanisms by which the oro-sensory perception of fat is regulated. An overview of our current knowledge in this field of investigations is proposed in this mini-review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  13. Taste perception: from the tongue to the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng

    2013-06-01

    In mammals, the sense of taste helps in the evaluation and consumption of nutrients, and in avoiding toxic substances and indigestible materials. Distinct cell types expressing unique receptors detect each of the five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami. The latter three tastes are detected by two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptors: T2Rs and T1Rs. Interestingly, these taste receptors have been found in tissues other than the tongue, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, brain, testis and spermatozoa. The functional implications of taste receptors distributed throughout the body are unknown. We therefore reviewed the remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of taste perception in 'taste' and 'non-taste' tissues. We also present our speculations on the direction of further research in the field of male reproduction.

  14. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  15. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  16. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.108 Bonded wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded wine...

  17. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be permanently... operations of the bonded wine warehouse will be discontinued. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1379, as... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24...

  18. Evaluation Of Soursop Wine Produced With Baker's Yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Soursop Wine Produced With Baker's Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisae ) ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Soursop pulp was fermented for wine production using baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) and the wine produced was evaluated using some wine quality parameters (pH, Titrable acidity (TA), ...

  19. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should think that compiling a wine dictionary should start with an analysis of the social situations in which information needs about wine can lead to the consultation of specific kinds of wine dictionaries or other wine-related lexico- graphic information tools. This calls for an approach based on user needs and user situations ...

  20. Teaching the Language and Culture of France through Its Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    The study of wine offers possibilities for teaching a variety of topics in the high school or college French class: geography, history, grape varieties, food-wine combinations, the art of appreciating and distinguishing wines, the wine industry, and French daily life. The development of a slide-tape presentation is described in detail. Resource…

  1. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses of...

  2. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section 5041...

  3. 27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall maintain records showing by transaction date the details of production...

  4. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  5. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or other...

  6. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  7. Flow analysis from PIV in engraved champagne tasting glasses: flute versus coupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Fabien; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Glass shape, and especially its open aperture, is suspected to play an important role as concerns the kinetics of CO2 and flavor release during champagne tasting. In recent years, much interest has been devoted to depict each and every parameter involved in the release of gaseous CO2 from glasses poured with champagne. One cannot understand the bubbling and aromatic exhalation events in champagne tasting, however, without studying the flow-mixing mechanisms inside the glass. Indeed, a key assumption is that a causal link may exist between flow structures created in the wine due to bubble motion and the process of CO2 release and flavor exhalation. In the present work, two quite emblematic types of champagne drinking vessels are studied. The particle image velocimetry technique has been used in order to reveal the velocity field of the liquid due to the ascending bubble-driven flow for both glasses poured with champagne. The contribution of glass shape on the flow patterns and CO2 release in both glasses are discussed by the use of experimental results. The results show that the continuous flow of ascending bubbles strongly modifies the mixing and convection conditions of the surrounding liquid medium whose behavior is strongly glass shape dependent.

  8. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature...

  9. Common sense about taste: from mammals to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, David A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2009-10-16

    The sense of taste is a specialized chemosensory system dedicated to the evaluation of food and drink. Despite the fact that vertebrates and insects have independently evolved distinct anatomic and molecular pathways for taste sensation, there are clear parallels in the organization and coding logic between the two systems. There is now persuasive evidence that tastant quality is mediated by labeled lines, whereby distinct and strictly segregated populations of taste receptor cells encode each of the taste qualities.

  10. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  11. A preference test for sweet taste that uses edible strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y; Stull, Judith C; Abarintos, Ray A; Khan, Neiladri K; Park, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined b...

  13. Reproducibility of the measurement of sweet taste preferences☆

    OpenAIRE

    Asao, Keiko; Luo, Wendy; Herman, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Developing interventions to prevent and treat obesity are medical and public health imperatives. Taste is a major determinant of food intake and reliable methods to measure taste preferences need to be established. This study aimed to establish the short-term reproducibility of sweet taste preference measurements using 5-level sucrose concentrations in healthy adult volunteers. We defined sweet taste preference as the geometric mean of the preferred sucrose concentration determined from two s...

  14. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  15. WINE ROAD - AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE VALORISATION OF WINE TOURISM POTENTIAL CASE STUDY: ALBA COUNTY VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNGUREANU Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to highlight the wine-growing and wine-making potential of Alba County and the way it can be valorised. Alba county has a rich winegrowing and wine-making heritage, a fact which is due to the long-standing tradition of winegrowing on these area, as well as to the characteristics of the natural factors (relief, geology, climate, soil, favourable for obtaining high-quality wines, the reputation of which has been acquired at national and international competitions. In order to render useful the wine tourism resources, the development of a specific infrastructure is needed, as well as the creation of complex tourist products, able to satisfy a wide range of tourist motivations. An efficient instrument to make productive the wine potential of a region is the „Wine Road" – a tourist trail which includes the tourist attractions of a delimited area, usually with a controlled designation of origin, and also a diverse range of tourist services (transportation, accommodation, catering leisure etc.. In Alba County, the „Wine Road" can be considered as a tourist attraction in itself, but also a means of harnessing the rich cultural-historical and natural heritage and, implicitly, the wine-growing and wine-making heritage.

  16. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  17. Yeast interactions and wine flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Graham H

    2003-09-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions that occur between the different microbial groups, species and strains. These interactions encompass yeast-yeast, yeast-filamentous fungi and yeast-bacteria responses. The surface of healthy grapes has a predominance of Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera), Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species depending on stage of maturity. This microflora moderates the growth of spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi on grapes, the species and strains of yeasts that contribute to alcoholic fermentation, and the bacteria that contribute to malolactic fermentation. Damaged grapes have increased populations of lactic and acetic acid bacteria that impact on yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is characterised by the successional growth of various yeast species and strains, where yeast-yeast interactions determine the ecology. Through yeast-bacterial interactions, this ecology can determine progression of the malolactic fermentation, and potential growth of spoilage bacteria in the final product. The mechanisms by which one species/strain impacts on another in grape-wine ecosystems include: production of lytic enzymes, ethanol, sulphur dioxide and killer toxin/bacteriocin like peptides; nutrient depletion including removal of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide; and release of cell autolytic components. Cell-cell communication through quorum sensing molecules needs investigation.

  18. Designing sour taste signal micro-controller simulator | Haghighi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, empirical studies on taste cells and the results of potential changes related to sour taste are used, and by studying the messages transmitted by the nervous system and equivalent sample signal of this taste, mathematical equations related to these changes are obtained, and by designing a microcontroller ...

  19. A comparative analysis of neural taste processing in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Gabriela; Giurfa, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding taste processing in the nervous system is a fundamental challenge of modern neuroscience. Recent research on the neural bases of taste coding in invertebrates and vertebrates allows discussion of whether labelled-line or across-fibre pattern encoding applies to taste perception. While the former posits that each gustatory receptor responds to one stimulus or a very limited range of stimuli and sends a direct ‘line’ to the central nervous system to communicate taste information, the latter postulates that each gustatory receptor responds to a wider range of stimuli so that the entire population of taste-responsive neurons participates in the taste code. Tastes are represented in the brain of the fruitfly and of the rat by spatial patterns of neural activity containing both distinct and overlapping regions, which are in accord with both labelled-line and across-fibre pattern processing of taste, respectively. In both animal models, taste representations seem to relate to the hedonic value of the tastant (e.g. palatable versus non-palatable). Thus, although the labelled-line hypothesis can account for peripheral taste processing, central processing remains either unknown or differs from a pure labelled-line coding. The essential task for a neuroscience of taste is, therefore, to determine the connectivity of taste-processing circuits in central nervous systems. Such connectivity may determine coding strategies that differ significantly from both the labelled-line and the across-fibre pattern models. PMID:21690133

  20. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller