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Sample records for astringency wine tasting

  1. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  2. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchi, D; Poulain, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, 4 Place Jussieu, BP 126, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Konarev, P; Svergun, D I [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Tribet, C [Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et Milieux Disperses, CNRS UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: drazen@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2008-12-10

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of {beta}-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  3. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  4. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  5. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  6. Insights on the chemical basis of the astringency of Spanish red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of the present study is to provide an insight on the role played by non-volatile molecules on the different in-mouth attributes, particularly astringency. For achieving such goal, the main in-mouth sensory attributes of 34 oaked Spanish red wines were measured by a trained panel. The wine content in 30 sensory-active molecules was analysed by different HPLC based methodologies together with classical enological parameters and two proanthocyanidin indexes. Fourteen compounds (aconitic acids, polymeric proanthocyanidins, caftaric, caffeic and coutaric acids and seven quercetins) were found to be at concentrations above reported taste thresholds and to have a reasonably high range of occurrence. Two highly statistically significant models for astringency were built with those compounds. Even if the models could not be fully validated by sensory addition experiments, the research has demonstrated that wine astringency is driven by polymeric proanthocyanidins and by certain phenolic acids, the rate trans/cis-aconitic acid and flavonol profiles. The research has highlighted the existence of extremely complex interactions between non-volatile compounds on the in-mouth sensory perception. Particularly remarkable is the lack of additivity and potential antagonism found between the pairs cis/trans-aconitic acids, between aconitic and caffeic acids and between quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Also remarkable was the sweetness×astringent interaction and the matrix-dependence of the sensory responses elicited by flavonols. These results suggest the need for new paradigms and experimental procedures for fully decoding the real sensory relevance of individual non-volatile compounds in the overall wine flavour.

  7. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  8. Improve Your Wine Sales:Host a Wine Tasting Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wine sales have grown in Ireland, wine distributors have improved their portfolios in response to heightened competition in the marketplace. For publicans the increased interest in wine has created new opportunities for bars to form small wine clubs or host regular wine tasting evenings for customers. This article highlights the points to remember when hosting regular wine tasting events. Remember wine tasting is intelligent drinking for customers it is an exercise in verbalising what they a...

  9. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology. PMID:26776007

  10. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  11. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    James A Kennedy; Jacqui M. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of ...

  12. Sparkling wine tasting in the restaurant Talli

    OpenAIRE

    Glotova, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project was to conduct a sparkling wine tasting for the restaurant Talli and to prove that it can be profitable for them. The event included not just a degustation of sparkling wines but also an education for customers about sparkling wines, methods of production, combinations with food, etc. The theoretical part contains information about sparkling wines, their types, grapes, areas and methods of production, combinations with food, organizing a tasting, descrip...

  13. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  14. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed. PMID:27518822

  15. Effect of flavonols on wine astringency and their interaction with human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Brás, Natércia F; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; de Freitas, Victor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2016-10-15

    The addition of external phenolic compounds to wines in order to improve their sensory quality is an established winemaking practice. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of quercetin 3-O-glucoside on the astringency and bitterness of wines. Sensory results showed that the addition of this flavonol to wines results in an increase in astringency and bitterness. Additionally, flavonol-human salivary protein interactions were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamic simulations (MD). The apparent Stern-Volmer (KsvApp) and the apparent bimolecular quenching constants (kqApp) were calculated from fluorescence spectra. The KsvApp was 12620±390M(-1), and the apparent biomolecular constant was 3.94×10(12)M(-1)s(-1), which suggests that a complex was formed between the human salivary proteins and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. MD simulations showed that the quercetin 3-O-glucoside molecules have the ability to bind to the IB937 model peptide. PMID:27173574

  16. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Loureiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed training technique is based on the emotional responses of the taster after smelling two wines of clearly opposite styles. The first wine is characterized by high aromatic intensity but low in-mouth intensity, perceived as disappointing to the taster, here defined as an “easy” wine. The second wine is characterized as a wine with low aromatic intensity but that provides an unexpectedly positive in-mouth experience, here defined as a “difficult” wine. These emotions are explained by the wine sensorial characteristics. The “easy” wine has an intense, simple smell with short persistence while the “difficult” wine has a low intensity, complex aroma, and long persistence. The first style corresponds to the international commercial wines most prized in international wine challenges. The second, frequently rejected by untrained tasters, is consistent with the “so called” classic European wines, and is characterized by light red or yellow straw colors, weak smell intensity, and aggressive mouth-feel. After no more than four training sessions and using the OIV tasting sheet, inexperienced tasters were able to score “difficult” wines equally as “easy” wines and understand their different attributes. In conclusion, this new tasting approach may be used by wine professionals to explain the characteristics of high quality wines that are not easily recognized by untrained consumers.

  17. Identification of UDP-glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lilan; Yao, Shengbo; Dai, Xinlong; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wu, Yahui; Qian, Yumei; Pang, Yongzhen; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Galloylated catechins and flavonol 3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis). The mechanism involved in the formation of these metabolites remains unknown in tea plants. In this paper, 178 UGT genes (CsUGTs) were identified inC. sinensis based on an analysis of tea transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 132 of these genes were clustered into 15 previously established phylogenetic groups (A to M, O and P) and a newly identified group R. Three of the 11 recombinant UGT proteins tested were found to be involved in the in vitro biosynthesis of β-glucogallin and glycosylated flavonols. CsUGT84A22 exhibited catalytic activity toward phenolic acids, in particular gallic acid, to produce β-glucogallin, which is the immediate precursor of galloylated catechin biosynthesis in tea plants. CsUGT78A14 and CsUGT78A15 were found to be responsible for the biosynthesis of flavonol 3-O-glucosides and flavonol 3-O-galactosides, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Q373H substitution for CsUGT78A14 indicated that the Q (Gln) residue played a catalytically crucial role for flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase activity. The expression profiles of the CsUGT84A22, CsUGT78A14, and CsUGT78A15 genes were correlated with the accumulation patterns of β-glucogallin and the glycosylated flavonols which indicated that these three CsUGT genes were involved in the biosynthesis of astringent compounds inC. sinensis. PMID:26941235

  18. Beyond the Glass: Examining Wine Tasting Room Profitability Using the 4Ps of the Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Meredith Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Recent exponential increases in attendance at wine tasting rooms resulted in growing research in this subject area as producers seek to learn more about wine tasting room customers and identify ways to capitalize on additional revenue-generating opportunities. Direct wine sales are big business with $3.4 billion in sales in the United States in 2010. Research has shown that small and medium-sized wineries have become financially dependent on direct sales linked to wine tasting rooms with an a...

  19. Sella & Mosca Wine, Fashion Taste in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sella & Mosca Winery(Qingdao) Co., Ltd. is a subsidiary owned by Campari Group, one of the leading grape wine producers in Italy, with an investment of US$30 billion in Qingdao city in 1999. On the eve of China's traditional Mid-autumn Festival(October 6),China's Foreign Trade interviewed Carbriele Scapin,General Manager of Sella & Mosca Winery(Qingdao) Co., Ltd., he and his company were busy onthe mar keting job because the festival isa good day for the Chinese family reunite which cannot be lived through without drinking some grape wine.

  20. Extracting (good) discourse examples from an oral specialised corpus of wine tasting interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; Gautier, Laurent; Maazaoui, Hedi

    This article explains how lexicographic examples have been extracted from a corpus of professional interactions on wine tasting for the purpose of including them i the Oenolex wine dictionary. Particularly, it explains how the SONAL software was used to analyse and process audio data and export...

  1. Wine from the Netherlands: investigating the effect of soil-type on taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Geert-Jan; Maljers, Denise; Beurskens, Stan

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade professional viticulture has seen a strong increase in the Netherlands, reaching 270 ha in 2015. Although on a European scale this is a small area, the number of prize-winning quality wines is steadily growing. This growth can largely be ascribed to new grape varieties from Germany and Switzerland, that are better adapted to the cooler and moister climate at the northern fringe of the viticultural zone, as well as to increasing viticultural expertise. The distribution of vineyards across the Netherlands shows that they occur on a plethora of substrates. Dutch substrate is dominated by typical lowland deposits such as fluvial and marine sands and clays and aeolian sands. Unlike many European countries, bedrock is scarce. Only in the south-eastern extremity and in the east of the country, carbonate bedrock is present at or near the surface. This wide variety of substrate triggered our interest in the effect of the various soil-types on the smell and taste characteristics of wines. An effect which is often mentioned concerning well-known foreign wines. We wondered whether an Auxerrois wine from carbonate rocks tastes significantly different from a wine from the same grape variety from loess. And how about a Johanniter wine from fluvial deposits versus windblown sands? And what happens if you make wine in exactly the same way with the same grape variety and from the same vineyard, but with three different yeast types? To answer our questions, we selected ten Dutch vineyards with varying soil-types and the grape varieties Auxerrois and Johanniter. In October 2014 we harvested the grapes and wine was made under controlled identical conditions (in a double setup). The wines were scientifically tested at the institute of Viticulture and Oenology in Neustadt, Germany. The results show no significant effect of soil-type on the smell and taste of Dutch wines in our experiment. Varying yeast types (Cryarome, 3079, VL2) used on Souvignier Gris grapes from

  2. Globalization and taste convergence: The cases of wine and beer

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Brooks, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in cultural consumption patterns for a low-concentration industry: wine and beer. Using data on 38 countries from 1963-2000, there is clear convergence in the consumption of wine relative to beer between 1963 and 2000. Convergence occurs even more quickly within groups of countries that have a higher degree of integration. A key prediction of international trade is confirmed in the data: greater trade integration weakens the association between production and c...

  3. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  4. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine.

  5. 烘青绿茶苦涩味及其滋味贡献物质分析%Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英娜; 陈根生; 刘阳; 许勇泉; 汪芳; 陈建新; 尹军峰

    2015-01-01

    对烘青绿茶苦涩味量化分析及其主要滋味贡献物质进行探讨。以不同嫩度烘青绿茶为原料,采用量化感官分析方法及化学分析手段分析了茶汤滋味分属性(包括苦味、涩味、鲜味和醇味等)和滋味化学成分含量,并建立了两者之间的相关性。研究结果表明,随着烘青绿茶嫩度的下降,其茶汤苦味、涩味和鲜爽味强度呈下降趋势,整体滋味品质也显著下降。通过分析茶叶滋味化学成分含量及其滋味 Dot 值,发现烘青绿茶苦味的主要贡献物质是 EGCG 和咖啡碱;而涩味的主要贡献物是儿茶素和黄酮苷,其中儿茶素以 EGCG 为主,包括 EGC 和 ECG,黄酮苷以槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷(Que-rut)和槲皮素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Que-gala)为主,包括杨梅素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Myr-gala)、槲皮素-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Que-glu)、牡荆素-2"-O-鼠李糖苷(Vit-rha)、山柰酚-3-O-半乳糖苷(Kae-gala)、山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(Kae-rut)、山柰酚-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Kae-glu)等。Dot 值分析表明氨基酸对烘青绿茶鲜爽味没有显著贡献。本研究初步明确了烘青绿茶苦涩味的主要贡献物质,为茶叶品质提升和滋味化学研究提供理论基础。%The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and

  6. Taste preferences for nutritional supplements: comparison of cancer patients and healthy controls using a wine-tasting scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R O; Schlegel, K; Hall, N H; Bernard, S; Heizer, W D

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-nine cancer patients (Ca) and 37 age-and sex-matched healthy controls (Co) evaluated 11 commercially available enteral supplements using a modified wine-tasting scale. The cancer patients were 19 males with lung cancer and 20 females with breast cancer, and their controls consisted of 17 males and 20 females, respectively. Mean evaluation scores for the individual supplements revealed no significant differences (NS) between lung cancer patients and controls. Ensure Plus (strawberry) received the highest score from both groups (Ca 16.0 +/- 3.0 vs Co 17.1 +/- 2.6, N.S.) while Vital received the lowest (Ca 6.3 +/- 4.8 vs Co 4.9 +/- 4.2, NS). Similar results were obtained for breast cancer patients and their controls except that chocolate Sustacal was rated significantly higher by breast cancer patients than by controls (16.6 +/- 2.6 vs 13.3 +/- 4.3, p less than 0.01). Again, Ensure Plus (strawberry) received the highest score from both groups (Ca 17.0 +/- 3.5 vs Co 17.8 +/- 2.3, NS), while Vital was rated lowest by both groups (Ca 5.6 +/- 4.7 vs Co 4.3 +/- 5.0, NS). The modified wine-tasting scale provides a method for quantitating taste preference for various dietary supplements. We report here the numerical rating of 11 supplements by patients with lung cancer and patients with breast cancer as well as their age- and sex-matched controls. PMID:3761524

  7. Mechanisms underlying astringency: introduction to an oral tribology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rutuja; Brossard, Natalia; Chen, Jianshe

    2016-03-01

    Astringency is one of the predominant factors in the sensory experience of many foods and beverages ranging from wine to nuts. The scientific community is discussing mechanisms that explain this complex phenomenon, since there are no conclusive results which correlate well with sensory astringency. Therefore, the mechanisms and perceptual characteristics of astringency warrant further discussion and investigation. This paper gives a brief introduction of the fundamentals of oral tribology forming a basis of the astringency mechanism. It discusses the current state of the literature on mechanisms underlying astringency describing the existing astringency models. The review discusses the crucial role of saliva and its physiology which contributes significantly in astringency perception in the mouth. It also provides an overview of research concerned with the physiological and psychophysical factors that mediate the perception of this sensation, establishing the ground for future research. Thus, the overall aim of the review is to establish the critical roles of oral friction (thin-film lubrication) in the sensation of astringency and possibly of some other specific sensory features.

  8. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. PMID:27451159

  9. Tasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... buds. The taste buds are linked to the brain by nerve fibers. Food particles are detected by the taste buds, which send nerve signals to the brain. Certain areas of the tongue are more sensitive ...

  10. 不同发酵时间米酒滋味品质变化的研究%A Comparative Study on the Taste Profile Characterization of Rice Wine in Different Fermentation Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于博; 郭壮; 汤尚文; 蔡宏宇; 杨成聪; 潘振菲; 刘倩

    2015-01-01

    采用电子舌技术和多变量统计学方法相结合的手段,对不同发酵时间米酒的滋味品质进行了评价。发酵过程中米酒的酸味、苦味、涩味、鲜味和咸味均会发生显著的变化,其中发酵12 h~24 h时其变化最为明显。通过主成分分析、基于马氏距离的聚类和多元方差分析发现,按照滋味整体结构相似性的大小可以将米酒的发酵过程划分为0~12 h,12 h~36 h和36 h~84 h三个阶段,其中发酵12小时后米酒的滋味才开始形成,而发酵12 h~36 h可能是米酒滋味品质形成的关键阶段。%In this paper, the taste profile characterizations of rice wine in different fermentation time were studied by electronic tongue and multivariate statistics. There were significant differences of sourness , bitterness, astringency, umami and saltiness of rice wine in different fermentation time, and especially have the most changes during 12 h-24 h. Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis based on mahalanobis distance analysis and MANOVA analysis all showed that the fermentation process of rice wine could divided into three stages based on the taste profile similarity, namely 0-12 h, 12 h-36 h and 36 h-84 h. We also found the tasta of rice wine has begun to form after fermented 12 h fermentation , and the fermentation from 12 h to 36 h was probably a key state for of tasta profile formation.

  11. Astringency: A More Stringent Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yue; Gong, Naihua N.; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Despite being an everyday sensory experience, the nature of astringency perception is not clear. In this issue of Chemical Senses, Schöbel et al. demonstrate that astringency is a trigeminal sensation in human, and astringents trigger a G protein-coupled pathway in trigeminal ganglion cells in the mouse.

  12. Taste, terroir, and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder RM

    2016-01-01

    Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKWine drinkers have long acknowledged the link between taste and terroir, the often unmistakable connection between the flavor of a wine and the particular patch of ground in which the vines were grown. But the science behind the connection, indeed the whole concept of taste and terroir, has long been disputed. New technological developments in both "neuroenology" – how the brain creates the taste of wine...

  13. Tannins are Astringent

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar Ashok; Kumud Upadhyaya

    2012-01-01

    Tannins are obtained upon the decomposition of vegetation. They will generally be found in surface water supplies or shallow wells. Although these compounds are not a health risk, they are aesthetically displeasing. Tannins are difficult to remove from water. Tannins can cause a yellow to brown cast in water and may also affect a taste and odour.

  14. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due

  15. Alcohol, Tannins, and Mannoprotein and their Interactions Influence the Sensory Properties of Selected Commercial Merlot Wines: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diako, Charles; McMahon, Kenneth; Mattinson, Scott; Evans, Marc; Ross, Carolyn

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the interaction among alcohol, tannins, and mannoproteins on the aroma, flavor, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of selected commercial Merlot wines. Merlot wines (n = 61) were characterized for wine chemistry parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, alcohol, glucose, fructose, tannin profile, total proteins, and mannoprotein content. Agglomerative clustering of these physicochemical characteristics revealed 6 groups of wines. Two wines were selected from each group (n = 12) and profiled by a trained sensory evaluation panel. One wine from each group was evaluated using the electronic tongue (e-tongue). Sensory evaluation results showed complex effects among tannins, alcohol, and mannoproteins on the perception of most aromas, flavors, tastes, and mouthfeel attributes (P 0.930) were reported between the e-tongue and sensory perception of sweet, sour, bitter, burning, astringent, and metallic. This study showed that interactions among wine matrix components influence the resulting sensory perceptions. The strong correlation between the e-tongue and trained panel evaluations indicated the e-tongue can complement sensory evaluations to improve wine quality assessment. PMID:27442722

  16. Molecular Progress in Research on Fruit Astringency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  17. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  18. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  19. SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOME WHITE WINES, FLAVORED WINES AND VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, PREPARED BY USING OWN RECIPES

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Elena CULEA; Radiana Mariana TAMBA - BEREHOIU; Nicolae Ciprian POPA

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize, from sensorial point of view, the basic white wines White Fetească, Italian Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, as well as flavored wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to basic wines, tasting technique was used. It is known that sensory analysis is a method that can provide an overview of a wine. The main features analyzed were: appearance, color, smell and taste. Initial, wines presented specific features of grapes variety f...

  20. Predicting the Composition of Red Wine Blends Using an Array of Multicomponent Peptide-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ghanem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine.

  1. Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak Ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Wollmann, Nadine; Wenker, Kerstin; Lösch, Sofie; Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-05-26

    Aimed at investigating the concentrations and taste contribution of the oak-derived ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin as well as their transformation products acutissimin A/B, epiacutissimin A/B, and beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin in red wine, a highly sensitive and accurate quantification method was developed on the basis of LC-MS/MS-MRM analysis with matrix calibration. Method validation showed good recovery rates ranging from 102.4 +/- 5.9% (vescalagin) to 113.7 +/- 15.2% (epiacutissimin A). In oak-matured wines, castalagin was found as the predominant ellagitannin, followed by beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin, whereas the flavano-C-ellagitannins (epi)acutissimin A/B were present in significantly lower amounts. In contrast to the high threshold concentration levels (600-1000 micromol/L) and the puckering astringent orosensation induced by flavan-3-ols, all of the ellagitannin derivatives were found to induce a smooth and velvety astringent oral sensation at rather low threshold concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 micromol/L. Dose/activity considerations demonstrated that, among all the ellagitannins investigated, castalagin exclusively exceeded its threshold concentration in various oak-matured wine samples. PMID:20441220

  2. Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak Ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Wollmann, Nadine; Wenker, Kerstin; Lösch, Sofie; Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-05-26

    Aimed at investigating the concentrations and taste contribution of the oak-derived ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin as well as their transformation products acutissimin A/B, epiacutissimin A/B, and beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin in red wine, a highly sensitive and accurate quantification method was developed on the basis of LC-MS/MS-MRM analysis with matrix calibration. Method validation showed good recovery rates ranging from 102.4 +/- 5.9% (vescalagin) to 113.7 +/- 15.2% (epiacutissimin A). In oak-matured wines, castalagin was found as the predominant ellagitannin, followed by beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin, whereas the flavano-C-ellagitannins (epi)acutissimin A/B were present in significantly lower amounts. In contrast to the high threshold concentration levels (600-1000 micromol/L) and the puckering astringent orosensation induced by flavan-3-ols, all of the ellagitannin derivatives were found to induce a smooth and velvety astringent oral sensation at rather low threshold concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 micromol/L. Dose/activity considerations demonstrated that, among all the ellagitannins investigated, castalagin exclusively exceeded its threshold concentration in various oak-matured wine samples.

  3. 酒广告语言与审美情趣%ADVERTISING LANGUAGE OF THE WINE AND THE AESTHETIC TASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦丽艳

    2012-01-01

    优秀的酒广告语言具有语言美的一切特征,它们不仅仅满足于用字规范、词语搭配准确、语法使用规范,还继承和发展了古代优良的文化传统,吸收和借鉴了当代流行的文化元素,把古今文化因素和人们的审美情趣融人其中,使得这些酒广告语言变得家喻户晓,成为广告语言中的经典之作。该论文主要从酒广告语言的形式美、风格美、情感美三方面进行论述。%The best wine advertising language has all the features of the beauty of language, they are not satisfied with the standard Chinese characters, word collocation, grammatical accuracy using standard, but also inherited and developed ancient excellent tradi- tional culture, absorb and draw lessons from contemporary popular culture, the ancient and modern culture and aesthetic temperament and interest of people into them, so that these wine advertising language become make known to every family, become the advertising language of the classic. This paper mainly from the wine advertising language in the form of beauty, style beauty, emotional beauty dis- cussed in three aspects.

  4. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 21 CFR 349.10 - Ophthalmic astringent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic astringent. 349.10 Section 349.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.10...

  6. California wine industry evolving to compete in 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhue, Rachael; Green, Richard; Heien, Dale; Martin, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The California wine industry is growing and changing amidst a global revolution in grape growing, wine production, wine marketing and consumer tastes. California accounted for roughly 90% of the value of U.S. wine production in 2006. U.S. per capita wine consumption and the quality of wine consumed continue to rise. The largest California wineries have long accounted for most California wine shipments and continue to expand with respect to volume and number of labels. While small wineries sel...

  7. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... in a restaurant; medical professionals and patients in a hospital; and people gathered for a wine tasting event, daily dinner or a meal in a convent. The ethnographic materials are used to engage with what so far social science literatures on tasting tend to take for granted: that tasting is a physiological...... response to a food object, leading on to a multi-sensory experience of its qualities, that do not just emerge from the food but are co-shaped by the context and that give rise to sensorial knowledge. By investigating specificities, articulating alternatives, showing construction processes, and typecasting...

  8. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  9. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

    2014-09-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid.

  10. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    Value – This study is of value to the Dutch government and the wine lobby, because it demonstrates the difference between wine tasting and drinking. It also has value for restaurant owners, the wine industry, and the academic world, because it highlights an important aspect of consumer behaviour with regard to wine purchases.

  11. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  12. 葡萄酒中单宁含量调查与口感关系的分析%Investigation of the relationship of content of tannins and taste of the grape wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝霞; 刘青; 李荀; 李志勇; 何吉子; 何应愉

    2014-01-01

    Objective The content of the tannins in the import-export wine, five hundred and twenty-four samples, from different origins, different varieties, were measured. The relationship of the tannins in wine and taste quality was analyzed. Methods The samples were diluted with distilled water, and the tannins content were quantitatively analyzed using spectrophotometric method, with gallic acid as a standard substance. Results The method showed a good linearity over the range of 0~5.0 mg/L, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The tannins added recovery rates were between 86.7%~120%, and the average recoveries were 103.8%. In the place of origins, the tannins content in wine from Italy was the highest, with an average content of 2.70 g/L;in the varieties, the tannins content in wine brewed by Pinot Noir was more than those of others, with the average content of 3.15 g/L; in the domestic wine, the tannins content in wine from Yunnan region was relatively higher, with the average content of 2.51 g/L. Conclusion The tannins content in wine is related to grape varieties, origins, the types of the wine. If the supple index is more than five, the taste and quality is good. The method is simple, reliable, less reagent consumption, easy to operate, and fast.%目的:通过测定不同产地、不同品种、不同类型的524支进出口葡萄酒中单宁的含量,进一步分析葡萄酒中的单宁与口感质量的关系。方法将样品用蒸馏水稀释100倍,以没食子酸为标准物质,采用分光光度法对葡萄酒中的单宁进行定量分析。结果在0~5.0 mg/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.9999;单宁添加回收率在86.7%~120%之间,平均回收率达103.8%。产地方面,意大利的红葡萄酒中单宁含量最高,平均为2.70 g/L;品种方面,黑皮诺酿造的红葡萄酒中单宁含量较多,平均含量为3.15 g/L;国产葡萄酒方面,云南产区的葡萄酒中单宁含量相对较高,平均为2

  13. Consumer perceptions of organic wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IORDACHESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.

  14. SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOME WHITE WINES, FLAVORED WINES AND VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, PREPARED BY USING OWN RECIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize, from sensorial point of view, the basic white wines White Fetească, Italian Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, as well as flavored wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to basic wines, tasting technique was used. It is known that sensory analysis is a method that can provide an overview of a wine. The main features analyzed were: appearance, color, smell and taste. Initial, wines presented specific features of grapes variety from which they belong, being characterized by harmony and complex flavor. The hydroalcoholic macerates were obtained by preparing two recipes (labeled I and II of different mixtures of plants. Recipes I A in 45% alcohol and I B in 60% alcohol, had characteristics of appearance, color, taste and smell, very intense, specific, prevailing the taste of anise, fennel and coriander. The macerates prepared with recipes II A in 45% alcohol and II B in 60% alcohol (mixture of a few herbs and peel of citrus fruits showed peculiarities of taste, odor, flavor less intense, prevailing the smell of nutmeg and citrus flavor. Recipes I A and I B of hydroalcoholic plants macerates decisively influenced the color, taste, flavor, smell and appearance of flavored wines. Recipes II A and II B influenced discreetly the sensory properties of flavored wines. Vermouth type wines obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates + other ingredients (citric acid, alcohol, sugar, presented harmonious sensory characteristics, balanced, discreet, subtle, compared with flavored wines obtained only by the addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to the basic wines. The latter had a color, aroma, taste, smell, more intense, more rustic. Herbal recipes I B and II B (prepared in 60% alcohol, have strongly influenced the sensory properties of flavored wines, compared to recipes I A and II A (prepared in 45% alcohol.

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE: A taste sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-01

    A multichannel taste sensor, namely an electronic tongue, with global selectivity is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information about substances producing taste into electrical signals, which are input to a computer. The sensor output exhibits different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness, sourness and bitterness, whereas it exhibits similar patterns for chemical substances with similar tastes. The sensor responds to the taste itself, as can be understood from the fact that taste interactions such as the suppression effect, which appears for mixtures of sweet and bitter substances, can be reproduced well. The suppression of the bitterness of quinine and a drug substance by sucrose can be quantified. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes on the basis of sensor outputs. The tastes of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water, milk, sake, rice, soybean paste and vegetables can be discussed quantitatively using the taste sensor, which provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. The flavour of a wine is also discriminated using the taste-odour sensory fusion conducted by combining the taste sensor and an odour-sensor array using conducting polymer elements. The taste sensor can also be applied to measurements of water pollution. Miniaturization of the taste sensor using FET produces the same characteristics as those of the above taste sensor by measuring the gate-source voltage. Use of the taste sensor will lead to a new era of food and environmental sciences.

  16. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine that is produced locally, organically, or sustainably are more likely to employ technology in their wine purchase decision. While disruption appears to have occurred on the supply side (number of wine applications available and the number of wine labels with a QR code, this research suggests that relatively little change is occurring on the demand side (a relatively small segment of the population—those already interested in wine—are employing the technology to aid in their purchase decision.

  17. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Archela; Luiz Henrique Dall’Antonia

    2014-01-01

    One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is impo...

  18. The taste sensory evaluation of medicinal plants and Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Masumi; Tokuyama, Emi; Miyanaga, Yohko; Uchida, Takahiro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the artificial taste sensor in the evaluation of 11 medicinal plants and 10 Chinese medicines with bitter and/or astringent tastes, and to assess the possible application of the sensor in the evaluation of taste and quality control of medicinal products. Aqueous extracts of the six bitter medicinal plants could be classified into three types, and those of the five astringent medicinal plants into two types, on the basis of sensor output pattern profiles. These differences seem to derive from the different structures of the main components. In the principal component analysis of the taste sensor output of 10 Chinese medicines, a new measure developed, the 'Euclidean distance', defined as the distance between a control and the targeted substance on the principal component map. This measure offers a possibility for indicating the different tastes of Chinese medicines. Lastly, we confirmed that berberine adsorption on the surface of the artificial membrane of the taste sensor was of the Langmuir type. The berberine content in extracts of medicinal plants could be evaluated by the taste sensor, and it was shown to be possible to use the taste sensor for the quality control of medicinal plants.

  19. Increase in information by improvement of measuring method in a multichannel taste sensor; Multichannel aji sensor no sokutei hoho no kairyo ni yoru johoryo no zoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with lipid membranes which can detect and quantify the basic taste substances in aqueous solution. The aim of the present study is to increase selectivity to adsorptive taste substances (bitter, umami and astringent taste substances) for quantification of taste by improving measuring methods. High selectivity to adsorptive taste substances is obtained by CPA measurement algorithm (CPA: Change of membrane Potential caused by Adsorption). High repeatability is also obtained by developing a cleaning technique of taste sensor. 18 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation.

  1. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation. PMID:26920325

  2. Borders Uncorked: Exporting Wine to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Barbara E.; Odett, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Last fall, in an effort to raise awareness of Canadian table wines, the Consulate General commissioned a group of International Business MBA students from Walsh College, in suburban Detroit, to create the "Canadian Wine Exporter's Guide." This report, which was officially presented to Canadian wine producers prior to the tasting, provides…

  3. Habitual tastes and embedded taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to position taste within the framework of time. This might seem peculiar given that taste, in its physical sense, often is referred to as an ephemeral experience taking place in the mouth. Taste, however, is more than that. It is the transient experience...... that infiltrates the body in the act of eating and, at the same time, it has associative powers that allow taste to transcend the instantaneous sensory encounter. Taste is a synthesis of multiple sensory impressions involving all five senses, each sense contributing with a particular facet of sensory experience....... But this does not mean that taste is entirely individual. It goes beyond the sphere of the individual in the sense that taste can be handed over and thus lay out a basis for shared remembrance. The focal point of this draft paper will be the interplay between the individual taste-experiences as being made up...

  4. MARKETING RESEARCH ON WINE CONSUMERS PREFERENCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research that aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine consumer preferences in Romania. The research method was survey made through questionnaires administered to a relevant number of respondents. In order to establish the main goals of this research, we considered aspects as: identification of purchase and consume frequency of wine, the preferred consumer’s places for serving or buying wine, the average quantity of wine that is usually bought, the level of price accepted by the consumer, the type of wine preferred by consumer in relation with wine color and taste, the preferred package, time spent for wine shopping, preferred producers, brands, grape variety, quality influence in choosing wine categories, identifying wine consumers profile. The analysis and interpretation of results revealed that decision factors in buying wine are the type of the wine, the price, followed by color, packaging and advertisement.

  5. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  6. GRAPE WINES, PROBLEMS OF THEIR QUALITY AND REGIONAL ORIGIN EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yakuba, Yu. F.; Kaunova, A. A.; Temerdashev, Z. A.; Titarenko, V. O.; Halafjan, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of articles and normative documents for quality control and regional origin of wines was carried out. Chemical composition of the grapes and the wine has been considered, qualitative and quantitative changes during vinification, maturation and aging of wine were shown. The basic group of compounds contents and ratios which determine the qualitative characteristics of wines, as well as have an important role in the formation of aroma and taste of the drink was found. The prerequis...

  7. OLFACTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TAMÂIOASA ROMÂNEASCĂ WINE COME FROM DIFFERENT WINE REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa VIŞAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The work refers to the analysis of aroma compounds identified in Tamaioasa Romanian wines from 2 distinct Romanian wine-growing areas: vineyard Stefanesti-Arges and Pietroasa, watching, and in particular the variation of flavorings depending on the region of origin. Gas chromatographic method coupled with mass Spectrometry were identified 6 esters, 3 higher alcohols, 1 aromatic alcohol, 2 terpenes, 1 lactone, 1 acid and 1 aldehyde. The high concentration of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, isoamyl alcohol were identified; flavor specific Tamaioasa Romanian wine is given by 1-Į-terpineol, terpenic alcohol has been identified in this wine in large quantities. Research has shown that wine-growing region influence the organoleptic characteristics of wine and aromatic content of their wines, so the wines can be very quickly recognized when tasting.

  8. Effects of the Addition of Yeast Polysaccharides on the Quality of Mulberry Wine%酵母多糖的添加对桑葚酒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊蕊; 张将; 刘峻溪; 王霄倩; 李志宇; 孙玉霞

    2015-01-01

    以桑葚(品种为粤葚大10)为原料酿酒,在酿造过程中添加酵母多糖,通过对酒精发酵结束后不同时期桑葚发酵酒的色度、色调、单宁、花色苷、盐酸指数等品质指标的分析以及感官品评,探究酵母多糖的添加对桑葚酒色素稳定性的影响.结果表明,添加酵母多糖可以增加桑葚酒的色度、色调以及单宁含量;可以减弱桑葚酒的涩味,使其口感更加圆润,香气更加优雅、丰富;对花色苷含量及稳定性并无显著影响.酒精发酵结束后添加酵母多糖更加有利于提升桑葚酒的品质.%In this study, mulberry was used as raw materials to produce mulberry wine, yeast polysaccharides was added during the fermenta-tion, and the effects of yeast polysaccharides on the stability of pigments in mulberry wine were explored through wine sensory evaluation and analysis of wine quality indexes (colority, color degree, tannin content, anthocyanins content, and HCl index etc.) in different periods after the fermentation. The results showed that, the addition of yeast polysaccharides could increase wine chromaticity, color degree and tannin content, and reduce the astringency of mulberry wine and make better wine fruity taste and more elegant wine aroma, however, it had no significant ef-fects on the content and the stability of anthocyanins. The experiments proved that the addition of yeast polysaccharides after the fermentation was more beneficial to improving the quality of mulberry wine.

  9. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  10. A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós Asensio, Manuel; González Ramos, Daniel; Tabera Moreno, Laura; González García, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the β-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefor...

  11. Sherry wines

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry win...

  12. Wine fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-01-01

    Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fra...

  13. MALDI-TOF and HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS identification of phenolic compounds in Macedonian wines and grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Márk, László; Kilár, Ferenc; Boros, Borbala; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir

    2008-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the major quality parameters in the grape and thus in the resulting wine. They contribute to sensory characteristics of wines, particularly color and astringency, and possess a wide range of biochemical and pharmaceutical effects, including antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects. These constituents can be divided into two groups: non-flavonoids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and stilbens) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, fa...

  14. Filling the gap – how do sensory and marketing attributes interact in consumers' wine choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Osidacz, P.; Francis, L.;

    2011-01-01

    consumers drink wine in realistic settings and which are the sensory attributes that cut through the marketing clutter? To provide first answers to these questions we report results from a two-stage experiment for Australian Shiraz wines, simulating the process of a consumer choosing a wine from the shelf......, tasting the wine, and making a repurchase decision.......When viticulturists and oenologists produced flavours and aromas that are positively perceived by consumers in blind tastings, the question remains how much they actually influence consumers’ wine liking, choice and repurchase intent in the presence of marketing attributes such as brand, packaging...

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory evaluation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabernet Sauvignon wines received gamma irradiation doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 KGy and were stored at 21°C for up to 18 months. As radiation dose and storage time increased, total anthocyanin concentration decreased, while color density, hue and color age increased. Acetaldehyde concentration increased with increasing radiation dose and decreased as storage time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference in color or astringency, but off-flavors were detected in wines given a 2.4 KGy dose. Use of gamma irradiation to rapid age Cabernet Sauvignon wines did not appear to be feasible

  16. "Oenodynamic": Hydrodynamic of wine swirling

    CERN Document Server

    Reclari, Martino; Tissot, Stephanie; Obreschkow, Danail; Wurm, Florian; Farhat, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    A crucial step in wine tasting is the so called swirling, necessary to release the bouquet of the wine: a gentle circular movement of the glass generates a wave propagating along the glass walls, enhancing oxygenation and mixing. Although being used in a large variety of other applications (e.g. cells cultures in orbital shaken bioreactors) this motion is not yet well understood. In this fluid dynamics video we show the large variety of waves shapes generated by this simple movement, and we identify a group of dimensionless parameters governing the flow.

  17. Analytical Methodology for Characterization of Grape and Wine Phenolic Bioactives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefova, Marina; Ivanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are a large and complex group of compounds responsible for the characteristics, quality and colour of grape and wine, especially for red ones. Polyphenolic composition has been extensively studied and a large family of structures have been identified in grape and wine. These compounds can affect the appearance, taste, mouth-feel, fragrance and antimicrobial properties of wine. In addition, polyphenols were confirmed to be the key compounds responsible for the antioxidant potential...

  18. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Jolliet; Yves Loerincik; Jean-François Ménard; Richard Pfister; Amanda Pike; Elisa Tatti; Sebastien Humbert; Anna Kounina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective c...

  19. Wine fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection

  20. Analysis of the Wine Experience Tourism Based on Experience Economy: A Case for Changyu Wine Tourism in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics embodied in the experience economy are that production and consumption is a twin process and experience is the process “products”. Wine tourism to a way of life we pursue and increasingly becoming a way of forming personal development and lifestyle. It is precisely these factors prompted the inevitable link between tourism and wine. In this context, world wine production capacity is relative to the spending power of the high-speed development, promoting wines Chamber of very great importance to the tourism promotion of the wine-producing areas and carrying flowers making strenuous efforts to tour around the world tour organized by exquisite wine show and tasting sessions. The promotion will let the wine-loving remember winery brand, therefore, tourists and media publicity personnel witnessed and taste product features publicize the beauty of food and wine; domestic wine market outlook was generally optimistic, but imports, domestic size winemakers a hot consumer incremental slow; buyout distribution, counterfeiting and other vicious competition impaired contradiction significant the wine market prospects and survival status quo, wine tourism is based on success on the international wine marketing experience, to seek a broader and more practical form of publicity and sales the channels proposed a new way of life. Combined with the development of the situation on the ground and research, this study describes the content and features of the wine tourism experience on the base of experience economy of wine tourism. Finally this study combines with a detailed analysis of Changyu wine tourism in Yantai and discussed issues related to the wine tourism experience.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE VINHAS RIESLING ITÁLICO NACIONAIS UTILIZANDO PERFIL LIVRE SENSORY EVALUATION OF BRAZILIAN WELCHRIESLING WINES BY FREE-CHOICE PROFILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo BENASSI

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A literatura cita um grande número de trabalhos envolvendo análise sensorial descritiva para vinhos. Perfil Livre, uma nova técnica descritiva, foi utilizado na caracterização em termos de aparência, sabor e aroma para sete amostras de vinhos brancos Riesling Itálico nacionais. Doze provadores, sem experiência anterior com a técnica, foram selecionados utilizando-se teste triangular. Para o levantamento de atributos foi empregado o método rede. O número de atributos levantados por provador variou de sete a treze. Utilizou-se a análise Procrustes Generalizada para tratamento dos dados. Durante quinze dias, foram realizadas quinze sessões, sendo duas para a seleção de provadores, quatro para o levantamento de atributos, duas para checar a ficha e sete para avaliação das amostras (blocos incompletos balanceados. Foi obtida boa discriminação entre as amostras. Os vinhos foram separados com base em atributos de sabor (doce, frutado, ácido, "adstringente" e alcoólico, correlacionados com a dimensão 1 (25% da variância, e um atributo de aparência (cor amarela, correlacionado com a dimensão 2 (9% da variância.There is a large bibliography on descriptive sensory analysis of wines. Free-choice profiling, a new descriptive sensory technique, was applied to develop a profile with respect to appearance, aroma and taste for seven Brazilian Welchriesling wines. Twelve panelists, without experience with the technique, were selected using triangular tests. The Grid method was used to obtain the list of descriptors. The number of attributes developed for each judge vary from seven to thirteen. Generalized Procrustes Analysis were applied to the data. During fifteen days, fifteen sessions were realized: two to select the assessors, four to develop the terminology, two to check the score sheets and seven to evaluate the wines (balanced incomplete block design. It was observed good discrimination between the samples. Wines were

  2. Segmentation and drivers of wine liking and consumption in US wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering GJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gary J Pickering,1–3 Arun K Jain,4 Ram Bezawada4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 2Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 4School of Management, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: This study examined the influence of selected experiential (wine expertise, psychological (alcoholic beverage adventurousness, and biological (age, sex, 6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP] responsiveness factors on self-reported liking and consumption of 14 wine styles in a sample of 1,010 US wine consumers. Cluster analysis of wine liking scores revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments, namely red wine lovers, dry table wine likers and sweet dislikers, and sweet wine likers. These clusters differ in key demographic measures, including sex, age, household income, and education, as well as wine expertise and PROP responsiveness. Wines were collapsed into five categories (dry table, sparkling, fortified, sweet, and wine-based beverages to examine more closely the factors affecting wine liking, total annual intake, and consumption frequency (analysis of variance [ANOVA] followed by Tukey's honest significant difference [HSD] 0.05. Wine expertise was most strongly associated with liking and consumption measures, while PROP responsiveness and alcoholic beverage adventurousness were also important contributors. Neither age nor sex had any large and consistent effects on liking or consumption, although the sex × expertise interaction was significant for some styles. These data provide an example of multifactorial segmentation of a wine market using Northeastern United States as an example, and indicate opportunities for targeted alignment of marketing to cohorts identified here. Keywords: market segmentation, taste genetics, PROP, wine expertise, wine liking

  3. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  4. QUALITY EVALUATION OF DENDALION WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Sugintienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The world tendencies are pronounced to attach significance to production of natural fermentation alcohol drinks. The fanciers of drinks take interest in the production of homemade drinks, and especially healthy drinks.Production of original and even health friendly drinks has been recently a matter of increased interest among amateur producers and drink manufacturers in Europe as well. Dandelion wine is one of the drinks produced by use of different amounts of various ingredients and available equipment in the fermentation laboratory. The following characteristics are determined upon the main fermentation in the matured and clarified wine:- sensory indicators (color, appearance and clearness; aroma and bouquets, taste and texture, and aftertaste,- analytical indicators (alcoholic strength by volume, determination of sugars, total acidity, volatile acidity.Dandelions wine is most distinguished by its flavor characteristics.

  5. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2016-09-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report that this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for

  6. Sherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered.

  7. Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know when food ...

  8. Problems with Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic taste sensations: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami, or savory. Umami is the taste we get from glutamate, a ... in chicken broth, meat stock, and some cheeses. Umami is also the taste associated wtih MSG (monosodium ...

  9. Isolation and expression of NAC genes during persimmon fruit postharvest astringency removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ting; Wang, Miao-Miao; Wang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiaofen; Fang, Fang; Grierson, Donald; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2015-01-01

    NAC genes have been characterized in numerous plants, where they are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress, including low oxygen stress. High concentration of CO2 is one of the most effective treatments to remove astringency of persimmon fruit owing to the action of the accumulated anoxia metabolite acetaldehyde. In model plants, NAC genes have been identified as being responsive to low oxygen. However, the possible relationship between NAC transcription factors and persimmon astringency removal remains unexplored. In the present research, treatment with a high concentration of CO2 (95%) effectively removed astringency of "Mopan" persimmon fruit by causing decreases in soluble tannin. Acetaldehyde content increased in response to CO2 treatment concomitantly with astringency removal. Using RNA-seq and Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), six DkNAC genes were isolated and studied. Transcriptional analysis indicated DkNAC genes responded differentially to CO2 treatment; DkNAC1, DkNAC3, DkNAC5 and DkNAC6 were transiently up-regulated, DkNAC2 was abundantly expressed 3 days after treatment, while the DkNAC4 was suppressed during astringency removal. It is proposed that DkNAC1/3/5/6 could be important candidates as regulators of persimmon astringency removal and the roles of other member are also discussed. PMID:25599529

  10. Perception of basic tastes and threshold sensitivity during testing of selected judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE The sense of taste is one of the most important human senses. Alteration in taste perception can greately interfere to our lives, because it influences our dietary habits and consequently general human health. Many physiological and external factors can cause the loss of taste perception. These factors include for example certain diseases, the side effect of the use of certain medicaments, head trauma, gender, dietary habbits, smoking, role of saliva, age, stress and many more. In this paper we are discussing perception of basic tastes and treshold sensitivity during testing of selected groupe of 500 sensory judges. A resolution taste test and sensitivity treshold test were performed using basic tastes (sour, bitter, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, metallic. We have found that the perception of basic tastes decreese with human age. Smoking leads to significant errors in the determination of basic tastes. Different mistakes occures in different age categories. This study suggests further researches, investigating various factors influencing taste perception.  doi:10.5219/259

  11. Do the Scandinavian consumers pay a "fair" price for German white wines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    to reflect the basic quality of the wines and consequently to represent the 'true' price structure. Comparing these prices with retail prices for identical wines in the consuming countries, the paper addresses questions related to the level of wine prices as well as the logic of the relative prices on German...... in Scandinavia have been declining for a number of years. Diminishing market shares may reflect changes in consumer tastes or simply 'wrong' prices, the latter related to both the level of wine prices (German wines being relatively expensive) and the structure of wine prices. In general, country-specific price...... wines sold in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The paper deals with the question whether the Scandinavian consumers pay the 'true' prices for German white wines, i.e. do the prices in Scandinavia reflect the basic structure of wine prices in Germany, assuming that the latter in some sense reflects the true...

  12. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  13. Effect of protease inhibitors on the sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, S S; Zervakis, J; Heffron, S; Heald, A E

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the taste properties of protease inhibitors which are essential components of drug regimes used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, the taste properties of four protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir) were investigated in unmedicated HIV-infected patients and healthy controls. Three of the four protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) were found to be predominantly bitter (with additional qualities of medicinal, metallic, astringent, sour, and burning). Nelfinavir was found to be relatively tasteless. HIV-infected and uninfected control subjects detected protease inhibitors at similar concentrations, but HIV-infected subjects perceived suprathreshold concentrations as more bitter than controls. Detection thresholds ranged from 0.0061 mM for saquinavir in HIV-infected patients to 0.0702 mM for ritonavir in uninfected control subjects. Suprathreshold studies indicated that protease inhibitors modified the taste perception of a variety of other taste compounds. These results are consistent with clinical findings that protease inhibitors produce taste complaints that can impact patient compliance. PMID:10501290

  14. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... is defined as: 4 ounces (113 grams) of wine 12 ounces (340 grams) of beer 1 ounce ( ...

  15. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  16. Breadth of Tuning and Taste Coding in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomchik, Seth M.; Berg, Stephanie; Kim, Joung Woul; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    A longstanding question in taste research concerns taste coding and, in particular, how broadly are individual taste bud cells tuned to taste qualities (sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour). Taste bud cells express G-protein-coupled receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami tastes but not in combination. However, responses to multiple taste qualities have been recorded in individual taste cells. We and others have shown previously there are two classes of taste bud cells directly involved in gu...

  17. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  18. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jolliet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective consumer taste perception and wine quality expectation (drinking the bottle or disposing of the wine down the drain and replacing it with a new bottle. This study aims to illustrate the importance of accurately defining system boundaries related to wine packaging systems. Methods: The environmental impacts resulting from wine loss rates as related to two types of wine bottle closures—natural cork stoppers and screw caps—have been estimated based on literature review data and compared to the impact of the respective closure system. The system studied relates to the functional unit “a 750 mL bottle of drinkable wine” and includes bottled wine, bottle and closure production, wine production, wine loss and wine poured down the drain. Results: The range of wine alteration rates due to corked wine is estimated to be 2–5% based on interviews with wine experts. Consumer behavior was assessed through a sensitivity study on replacement rates. When the increase in loss rate with the cork stopper is higher than 1.2% (corresponding to 3.5% corked wine multiplied by a consumer replacement rate of 35%, the influence of losses on the impact results is higher than that of the closure material itself. The different closures and associated wine losses represent less than 5% of the total life cycle impact of bottled wine.

  19. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (p<0.05). This is the first study that evaluates the toasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. PMID:27211676

  20. Advertising and Wine Language: Considerations on New Consumption Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia-Mihaela PAVEL

    2013-01-01

    In today’s consumer society, the wine has gone from being the staple diet to become one of the signs that show the status of the subject, as a demonstration of high rank and taste, aspirations, status, lifestyle, in which having fun, the pleasure, is the fruit of knowledge. It’s a hobby, a leisure culture, an environment implying major activities (vineyard tours, wine tastings, contest criticism), but also a passion ″for lovers of good wines″. The paper commences from the results of a survey ...

  1. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. PMID:22044643

  2. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation.

  3. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines.

  4. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substances, amino groups and phenols are present in wine in large quantity, as they are always present in wine. However it doesn't give the clear answer which substances are present in analyzed samples. The answer to this question can be received only by the method of ionic chromatography. The content of total tannins shows short time of storage in wine cellars so wine wasn't stored long enough, i.e. they are commercial wines made for mass market production and consumption. Although they have less content of total tannin materials of given values, wine taste gives the correlation with other polyphenol materials that only give odour, aroma and 'bouquet' to wine. The relative error of mean value is very low which indicates the reproduction of results and reliability of the method of determination of total tannins in red wine.

  5. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management.

  6. Temporal Check-All-That-Apply Characterization of Syrah Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Castura, John C; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochran's Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P ≤ 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management. PMID:27272248

  7. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  8. ARTICLE ON WINE PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. Many tropical fruits such as mango, jackfruit, litchi, banana and cashew apple have been shown to be suitable for fermentation, mainly because of their appropriate taste, flavour, availability, high sugar and water content and overall chemical composition (Muniz et al. 2008). The natural chemical balance of these fruits  lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Ye...

  9. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry.

  10. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry. PMID:27125240

  11. Port-Wine Stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Port-Wine Stain A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a three-month-old infant with a port-wine stain. Overview A port-wine stain is a ...

  12. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  13. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  14. Influence of different withering conditions on phenolic composition of Avanà, Chatus and Nebbiolo grapes for the production of 'Reinforced' wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Urcan, Delia Elena; Lin, Lin; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana; Pop, Nastasia; Lambri, Milena; Rolle, Luca

    2016-03-01

    The impact of postharvest withering rates on the phenolic composition of 'reinforced' wines produced with partially dehydrated grapes was evaluated. The study was performed on winegrape varieties with anthocyanin profiles differently constituted of di- and tri-substituted forms. Dehydration induced limited changes in the anthocyanin profile of berry skins. Nevertheless, the greatest abundance of total anthocyanins and their more stable forms (malvidin-3-glucoside and acylated glucosides) corresponded to the wines made from slow withered Chatus grapes, which were in turn the darkest. In contrast, the wines made from withered Avanà grapes did not meet good chromatic characteristics due to low contents of total anthocyanins and high ratios between di- and tri-substituted forms. Nebbiolo wines showed intermediate values of this ratio, and therefore of clarity and color intensity. The fast process is recommended because higher percentages of galloylated flavanols in the seeds of slow withered Nebbiolo grapes may have a negative influence on wine astringency.

  15. Variations in oxygen and ellagitannins, and organoleptic properties of red wine aged in French oak barrels classified by a near infrared system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Albertin, Warren; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-08-01

    During wine aging in barrels, antioxidant molecules from wood, such as ellagitannins, are solubilized and react with wine molecules and oxygen. However, their concentrations are highly variable. Oxygen is an important factor, as it plays a role in wine parameters and organoleptic perceptions. Five barrel modalities were used; three polyphenol indices (IP), classified using the NIRS procedure, and three grain qualities. Barrels were equipped with windows to measure the oxygen using luminescence technology. The ellagitannin concentrations in the wine and its organoleptic properties were monitored. Oxygen concentrations decreased quickly during the first 8days of aging and this phenomenon was significantly more marked in barrels with a higher IP and medium grain. The ellagitannin concentrations were believed to be correlated with wood classification and oxygen consumption. Furthermore, the organoleptic properties were significantly impacted, as the wine with the lowest ellagitannin level was described as less astringent, bitter, woody, and smoky/toasty. PMID:26988516

  16. INFLUENCE OF VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPES AND THE NATURE OF ALCOHOL AGENT ON LIQUEUR WINE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergunov A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies revealed that the application of spirits as a strength agent of 91.0 - 96.6% in special wines contained more vitamin-like substances than wine, alcoholized with double-distilled water with 75% alcohol concentration. The highest marks for tasting wines were given to the options made with the use of rectified grain origin alcohol as an agent of alcohol. Application of double-distilled water wine leads to accumulation of unnecessarily high undesirable groups of compounds such as methanol and fusel oil, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. Organoleptic parameters were the best for selection of wines from Anapa ZOSViV - Dionysus and Krasnostop EPA, as well as - Cabernet Sauvignon. We can conclude that for the production of high-quality red dessert wines we need, along with the classic varieties, wider use of new autochthonous varieties using alcohol agents of rectified grain origin

  17. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion.

  18. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  19. Quality assessment of oenological tannins utilising global selectivity chemical sensors array ("Electronic tongue")

    OpenAIRE

    Puech, Jean-Louis; Prida, A.; Isz, S.

    2007-01-01

    Oenological tannin is a common name for food additives containing tannins utilised in winemaking practices. The main taste feature of oenological tannin is the taste sensation of astringency and bitterness. In the present paper, samples of various oenological tannins (oak, chestnut, gall, tara, querbacho, grape seed and grape skin tannins) were analysed by means of a tasting panel, measuring the flavour attributes bitterness, astringency, body, duration of flavour and similarity with wine tan...

  20. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  1. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency. PMID:26948617

  2. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾真

    2015-01-01

    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  3. Applications of radiation within the wine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to test the feasibility of taint removal in industrial wines through the use of radiation. The process used the cobalt-60 source in the McMaster University Nuclear Reactor. When wine, composed mainly of water (∼87%), alcohol (∼10%), acid (∼2%), and anthrocyanins/tannins (∼0.1%), is irradiated, water molecules are hydrolyzed generating free radicals in solution. These free radicals are oxidizing agents that will oxidize other molecules in the wine. The focus has been a specific taint introduced into 2000-2001 vintages by the Asian lady-bird beetle (Harmonia Axyridis) whose population has increased dramatically of late. This taint - thought to be a methoxy-pyrazine - is detectable by taste in 1-2 parts per trillion (ppt). Preliminary sensory evaluation has shown that radiation dramatically improves tainted wines by eliminating the lady beetle taint. Chemical tests have indicated that radiation is acting as an oxidizing agent, reducing levels of SO2 (introduced into wines to prevent oxidation) by nearly 40-70%. Research ongoing involves the detection of the taint (the implicated methoxy-pyrazine) by mass spectrometry as a taint assessment tool, and an indicator that radiation has removed the taint

  4. Between wine consumption and wine tourism: Consumer and spatial behavior of Israeli wine tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Shor, Noa; Mansfeld, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    The development of wine tourism worldwide has been accompanied by academic research on wine tourism and wine tourists. Wine tourists and wine enthusiasts have been found to share many socio-demographic similarities. It has been found that people visiting wineries consume wine on a regular basis, have an average to high level of knowledge about wine, and visit wineries and wine-producing regions a few times a year. Their involvement with wine is apparent both from their daily consumption and f...

  5. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. PMID:26631596

  6. Effect of micro-oxygenation and wood type on the phenolic composition and color of an aged red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Iglesias, Montserrat; González-Sanjosé, Ma Luisa; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-12-23

    Many studies have recently been published focused on the effects of micro-oxygenation on the quality of wines, its application modes, and doses, etc. However, there are still few scientific papers on how previously micro-oxygenated wines perform during storage or barrel aging. This study focused on the evolution of the phenolic composition, especially of anthocyanins, and color, together with astringency and tannins, during micro-oxygenation before barrel aging. In addition, to evaluate whether wine evolution during aging depends on barrel type, wines were aged in four different oak barrel types. Tempranillo wines, some micro-oxygenated before malolactic fermentation and others not, were aged for 12 months in American, French, Central European, and Spanish oak, following wine evolution during that period. The study was carried out for two consecutive vintages. Results showed that all wines evolved similarly; therefore, the micro-oxygenation treatment neither accelerated nor delayed the typical changes of aging. Slightly different evolutions were detected according to the barrel wood type, whether or not the wine was micro-oxygenated. The varied evolutions must therefore be associated with the differences from each oak type (structure, grain and density, composition, etc.).

  7. A breakthrough wine concept

    OpenAIRE

    Grave, Ana Rita Sousa de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Double degree The Portuguese wine market model is traditionally based on attributes such as region, grapes and enologist, which makes an educated choice of the wine by younger consumers a difficult and uncomfortable process. The purpose of this work is to develop a hypothesis of a wine based on what young consumers value, such as the bond that drinking wine creates (friendship), instead of the traditional attributes. This new wine will break its connection with tradition, becoming a modern...

  8. Study of the relationship between taste sensor response and the amount of epigallocatechin gallate adsorbed onto a lipid-polymer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yuhei; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A taste sensor using lipid-polymer membranes has been developed to evaluate the taste of foods, beverages and medicines. The response of the taste sensor, measured as a change in the membrane potential caused by adsorption (CPA), corresponds to the aftertaste felt by humans. The relationships between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed taste substances, quinine and iso-α acid (bitterness), and tannic acid (astringency), have been studied so far. However, that of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) has not been clarified, although EGCg is abundantly present in green tea as one of its astringent substances. This study aimed at clarifying the response of the taste sensor to EGCg and its relationship with the amount of EGCg adsorbed onto lipid-polymer membranes. The lipid concentration dependence of the CPA value was similar to that of the amount of adsorbed EGCg, indicating a high correlation between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed EGCg. The CPA value increased with increasing amount of adsorbed EGCg; however, the CPA value showed a tendency of leveling off when the amount of adsorbed EGCg further increased. PMID:25781512

  9. Study of the Relationship between Taste Sensor Response and the Amount of Epigallocatechin Gallate Adsorbed Onto a Lipid-Polymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Harada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A taste sensor using lipid-polymer membranes has been developed to evaluate the taste of foods, beverages and medicines. The response of the taste sensor, measured as a change in the membrane potential caused by adsorption (CPA, corresponds to the aftertaste felt by humans. The relationships between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed taste substances, quinine and iso-α acid (bitterness, and tannic acid (astringency, have been studied so far. However, that of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg has not been clarified, although EGCg is abundantly present in green tea as one of its astringent substances. This study aimed at clarifying the response of the taste sensor to EGCg and its relationship with the amount of EGCg adsorbed onto lipid-polymer membranes. The lipid concentration dependence of the CPA value was similar to that of the amount of adsorbed EGCg, indicating a high correlation between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed EGCg. The CPA value increased with increasing amount of adsorbed EGCg; however, the CPA value showed a tendency of leveling off when the amount of adsorbed EGCg further increased.

  10. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation.

  11. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. METHODS: The ad

  12. Studies on effects of γ-ray irradiation on yellow rice wine mellowness and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation dosage, irradiation temperature, different kinds of packing container, vacuous capacity of the container, technology of making wine and storage time on acceleration of yellow rice wine mellowness were studied by sensory evaluation and chemical composition analysis. The results showed low dosage of γ-ray irradiation had accelerated the mellowness of yellow rice wine. The unique flavour of colour, aroma, taste and style were still remained after the wine was irradiated. The hygiene and safety experiments showed the irradiated wine is safe to human health. The optimal temperature during γ-ray irradiation was 30∼40 degree C. The pottery containers were superior to the glass container for the packing container during yellow wine irradiation. The suitable vacuous capacity for a 500 ml glass bottle was 100 ml. The new technology of brewing wine was better than the traditional technology for the quality of irradiated wine. The proper storage time after irradiation was 5∼6 months. The γ-ray irradiation combined at 60 degree C of temperature had good effects on sterilization of raw yellow wine. The quality of irradiated wine was stable, the chemical composition was not changed, and it was still remained the traditional flavour. It is up to the standard of export wine

  13. Development of a portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Nakashi, Kenichi; Ji, Ke; Ikeda, Akihiro; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor's performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm) with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm). The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (pHEMA) hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor's response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research. PMID:23325168

  14. Development of a Portable Taste Sensor with a Lipid/Polymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor’s performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm. The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor’s response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research.

  15. Drugs and taste aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug.

  16. New spectroscopic techniques for wine analysis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the presented thesis was the development of new, rapid tools for wine analysis based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) - spectroscopy. The results of this thesis are presented in the form of five publications. In publication I a sensor for assessing the main sensory property of red wine polyphenols (tannins), namely astringency, was developed on basis of the underlying chemical reaction between the tannins and the proline-rich proteins in the saliva. The interaction of polyphenols (tannins) with proline rich proteins (gelatin) has been studied using an automated flow injection system with FTIR detection. In Publication II FTIR-spectroscopy of polyphenolic wine extracts combined with multivariate data analysis was applied for the varietal discrimination of Austrian red wines. By hierarchical clustering it could be shown that the mid-infrared spectra of the dry extracts contain information on the varietal origin of wines. The classification of the wines was successfully performed by soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). Publication III describes the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine by Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with FTIR-detection, where a diamond attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-element was employed for the design of a rugged detector. Partly or completely co-eluting peaks were chemometrically resolved by multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Publication IV reports the first application of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) for molecular specific laser detection in liquid chromatography. Using a laser wavelength of 9.3721 μm glucose and fructose could be specifically detected and quantified in red wine in spite of the presence of organic acids. Publication V presents the development of an automated method for measuring the primary amino acid concentration in wines and musts by

  17. Old World Wines Revisited: Consumers' Valuation of Spanish and German Wines in the UK Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Bodo E.

    2009-01-01

    The mid 1990s was a pivotal period for the UK retail wine market, as New World Wines started to expand significantly at the expense of Old World Wines. This paper reviews supply and demand-side characteristics of the UK wine market during this period, and the underlying wine labeling scheme, before assessing how wines from Old World wine producing countries were valued by consumers in the British wine market. Following a more detailed discussion of econometric estimation issues, hedonic price...

  18. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  19. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs, brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant’s sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual.

  20. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  1. Drop In - Experience the Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Wine is a growing industry and there are over 75,000 types of wine. Consumers are intimidated by the selection of wine and are afraid to ask questions of friends, bartenders, and retailers. Uneducated consumers also are reluctant to request samples of wine at liquor establishments. There are very few establishments in the downtown Vancouver area that offer a venue to sample the wine or educate the consumer. Drop In is an establishment that offers a pour or glass of different types of wine fro...

  2. Smell and taste disorders [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landis, Basile N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate.

  3. TASTE in action

    OpenAIRE

    Perrotin, Maxime; Grochowski, Konrad; Verhoef​, Marcel; Galano​, Damien; Mosdorf​, Michał; Kurowski​, Michał; Denis​, François; Graas​, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we present the results of the past years of active development and use of a set of tools named TASTE, which is developed under the supervision of the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2008. TASTE was created to facilitate the development of software using a combination of modern development techniques including formal methods, domain­ specific languages and graphical editors to offer a nice user experience. Being free and favouring accessible APIs, TAS...

  4. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  5. Taste and the taste of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, James C.

    1980-01-01

    At least 12 distinct taste sensations can be elicited from different parts of the oral cavity by distinct chemical compounds. The chemicals eliciting each sensation are often common constituents of foods, thus the umami sensations arise with stimulation by monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. These sensations can often be related to different physical/chemical stimulus parameters (e.g., bitterness and hydrophobicity) and neural activity in distinct chemosensory channels.

  6. Persimmon breeding in Japan for pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) type with marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akihiko; Yamada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) originated in Eastern Asia, and many indigenous cultivars have been developed in China, Japan, and Korea. These cultivars are classified into four groups based on their natural astringency loss on the tree and seed formation: pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA), pollination-variant non-astringent (PVNA), pollination-constant astringent (PCA), and pollination-variant astringent (PVA). PCNA is the most desirable type because the fruit can be eaten without any postharvest treatment; therefore, one of the goals of our persimmon breeding programs is to release superior PCNA cultivars. The PCNA genotype is recessive to the other three non-PCNA genotypes, and PCNA-type F1 offspring are obtained exclusively from crosses among PCNA genotypes. Moreover, the number of superior PCNA cross-parents have been limited. In the late 1980s, inbreeding depression became obvious, especially in terms of fruit size, tree vigor, and productivity. To mitigate the inbreeding, a backcross program using PCNA [(non-PCNA × PCNA) × PCNA] was started in 1990. This process, however, was inefficient because only 15% of the offspring were PCNA, and all offspring had to be grown to the fruiting stage. Therefore, molecular markers linked to the PCNA locus were developed for discriminating PCNA offspring. A molecular marker linked to Chinese PCNA has also been developed. PMID:27069391

  7. Imported Wines Widen Appeal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ "There are many factors contributing to the healthy growth of the wine market in China,"says Don St. Pierre, Jr., managing partner of ASC Fine Wines (Shanghai) Co Ltd, one of China's largest importers and distributors of fine wines. "The reduction in tariffs has helped - it has made wines more affordable. But also driving growth is the rise in Chinese people's incomes and their increasing interest in enjoying what is perceived as a socially and culturally sophisticated lifestyle."

  8. Analysis to Wine Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

    A lot of western cultures have relations to wine especially in some poets or music. The wine poetries have different content express various emotions and they contain a lot of images. There are some both similar and different points between west⁃ern wine poetry to Chinese.

  9. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth > For Parents > Port-Wine Stains Print ... español Manchas de vino de oporto About Port-Wine Stains About 3 out of every 1,000 ...

  10. Involvement of DkTGA1 Transcription Factor in Anaerobic Response Leading to Persimmon Fruit Postharvest De-Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Gang; Wang, Miao-Miao; Gong, Zi-Yuan; Fang, Fang; Sun, Ning-Jing; Li, Xian; Grierson, Donald; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2016-01-01

    Persimmon fruit are unique in accumulating proanthocyanidins (tannins) during development, which cause astringency in mature fruit. In 'Mopanshi' persimmon, astringency can be removed by treatment with 95% CO2, which increases the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde by glycolysis, and precipitates the soluble tannin. A TGA transcription factor, DkTGA1, belonging to the bZIP super family, was isolated from an RNA-seq database and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that DkTGA1 was up-regulated by CO2 treatment, in concert with the removal of astringency from persimmon fruit. Dual-luciferase assay revealed that DkTGA1 had a small (less than 2-fold), but significant effect on the promoters of de-astringency-related genes DkADH1, DkPDC2 and DkPDC3, which encode enzymes catalyzing formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol. A combination of DkTGA1 and a second transcription factor, DkERF9, shown previously to be related to de-astringency, showed additive effects on the activation of the DkPDC2 promoter. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that DkERF9, but not DkTGA1, could bind to the DkPDC2 promoter. Thus, although DkTGA1 expression is positively associated with persimmon fruit de-astringency, trans-activation analyses with DkPDC2 indicates it is likely to act by binding indirectly DkPDC2 promoter, might with helps of DkERF9. PMID:27196670

  11. Umami taste transduction mechanisms1234

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    l-Glutamate elicits the umami taste sensation, now recognized as a fifth distinct taste quality. A characteristic feature of umami taste is its potentiation by 5′-ribonucleotides such as guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine 5′-monophosphate, which also elicit the umami taste on their own. Recent data suggest that multiple G protein–coupled receptors contribute to umami taste. This review will focus on events downstream of the umami taste receptors. Ligand binding leads to Gβγ activation of ...

  12. Taste dysfunction in vestibular schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Rabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gustatory dysfunction associated with vestibular schwannomas (VS is a poorly represented clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-nine cases operated from 1997 to 2005 where at least six-month follow-up was available were included. All patients were tested for taste sensations using four modalities of standard taste solutions. Apart from the taste sensations, any altered or abnormal taste perceptions were recorded both in the preoperative and postoperative period. Results: After applying the exclusion criteria, the taste dysfunction was studied in 142 patients. The evidence of decreased taste sensation was found in 58 (40.8% patients prior to surgery. Preoperatively, taste disturbance was found in 29 (37.2% giant, 28 (45.9% large and one (33.3% medium-sized tumors, respectively. There were no significant age or sex-related differences. The postoperative taste disturbances were found in 65 (45.8% patients. Among patients with anatomically preserved facial nerve, postoperative taste disturbances were found in 55 (42.3% patients whereas nine (6.9% patients reported improvement in taste sensations. Conclusions: Taste dysfunction is common following vestibular schwannoma surgery. Patient counseling prior to surgery is necessary to avoid any distress caused by taste dysfunction. Taste dysfunction should be included in the facial nerve functional grading system while assessing outcome.

  13. Processing Umami and Other Tastes in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen D.; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potentia...

  14. The Taste of Typeface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T; Hyndman, Sarah; Spence, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that typefaces can convey meaning over-and-above the actual semantic content of whatever happens to be written. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that people match basic taste words (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) to typefaces varying in their roundness versus angularity. In Experiment 1, the participants matched rounder typefaces with the word "sweet," while matching more angular typefaces with the taste words "bitter," "salty," and "sour." Experiment 2 demonstrates that rounder typefaces are liked more and are judged easier to read than their more angular counterparts. We conclude that there is a strong relationship between roundness/angularity, ease of processing, and typeface liking, which in turn influences the correspondence between typeface and taste. These results are discussed in terms of the notion of affective crossmodal correspondences. PMID:27433316

  15. The Taste of Typeface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velasco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that typefaces can convey meaning over-and-above the actual semantic content of whatever happens to be written. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that people match basic taste words (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter to typefaces varying in their roundness versus angularity. In Experiment 1, the participants matched rounder typefaces with the word “sweet,” while matching more angular typefaces with the taste words “bitter,” “salty,” and “sour.” Experiment 2 demonstrates that rounder typefaces are liked more and are judged easier to read than their more angular counterparts. We conclude that there is a strong relationship between roundness/angularity, ease of processing, and typeface liking, which in turn influences the correspondence between typeface and taste. These results are discussed in terms of the notion of affective crossmodal correspondences.

  16. Extraversion and taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, Yuriy; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2008-03-01

    The rationale for investigating the gustatory reactivity as influenced by personality dimensions was suggested by some prior findings of an association between extraversion and acuity in other sensory systems. Detection thresholds for sweet, salty, and bitter qualities of taste were measured in 60 young healthy male and female volunteers using a two-alternative forced-choice technique. Personality of the responders was assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance failed to demonstrate a statistically significant interaction between an extraversion-introversion score, neuroticism score, smoking, gender and age. The only reliable negative association was found between the body mass index (BMI) and taste sensitivity (Roy's largest root = 0.05, F(7436.5) = 8.34, P = 0.003). Possible reasons for lack of differences between introverts and extraverts in the values of taste detection thresholds were discussed.

  17. Multivariate Statistical Analysis Applied in Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieling Zou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies multivariate statistical approaches to wine quality evaluation. With 27 red wine samples, four factors were identified out of 12 parameters by principal component analysis, explaining 89.06% of the total variance of data. As iterative weights calculated by the BP neural network revealed little difference from weights determined by information entropy method, the latter was chosen to measure the importance of indicators. Weighted cluster analysis performs well in classifying the sample group further into two sub-clusters. The second cluster of red wine samples, compared with its first, was lighter in color, tasted thinner and had fainter bouquet. Weighted TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the quality of wine in each sub-cluster. With scores obtained, each sub-cluster was divided into three grades. On the whole, the quality of lighter red wine was slightly better than the darker category. This study shows the necessity and usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques in both wine quality evaluation and parameter selection.

  18. What drives customer loyalty towards Greek wine varieties? Using polarization to model consumer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotseridis, Yiorgios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    their processing limits, they tend to simplify their decision-making based on heuristics (Bettman, Luce and Payne 1998). In the case of wine, such heuristics can be said to be extrinsic (e.g. brand, price, region variety, vintage, label) and intrinsic cues (taste, colour, etc). Many studies have explored......Wine is often characterised as a difficult and confusing product for consumers. In addition, the wine market is much diverse and competitive, with an enormous number of niche brands making consumer choice even more complex. When consumers are overloaded with information that exceeds......, marketers have been always eager towards building strong bonds with their customers. Therefore, identifying which cues makes consumers remain loyal and increase their chances of repeat purchase is always of high importance. In the case of wine, delineating the issue of loyalty in a wine brand...

  19. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  20. BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WINE MATERIALS FROM INTRODUCED GRAPE VARIETIES GROWN IN THE TEMRIUK DISTRICT OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guguchkina T. I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduced grape varieties such as Ancelotti, Bachka, Johanniter, Morava and Solaris which were grown in the conditions of Taman provided production of high yields of grapes with standard conditions of sweetness and acidity of grape juice that were useful for the technical processing of not only tableware, but also for special wines, in particular, dessert. Organoleptic properties of all the studied wine materials from grapes of these varieties were of high quality, which was con-firmed by their tasting evaluation. They are recom-mended for the preparation of organic (bio wines. The "Biologik" wine in 2012 received a certificate of the high points at the international exhibition in Italy (Rome, and the wine from red grape variety Ancelotti for several years, winning awards from international wine competitions ("Yalta. Gold Griffon", "Gold au-tumn"

  1. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1. It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlašský. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

  2. Minor Volatile Compounds Profiles of ‘Aligoté’ Wines Fermented with Different Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin VARARU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of wine can be classified accordingly to its origin, in varietal aroma, pre-fermentative aroma, fermentative aroma and post-fermentative aroma. Although a number of flavor components are found in the original grape, the dominant and major compounds contributing to white wines are formed during alcoholic fermentation, in concordance with the yeast strain used. In order to highlight the influence of the yeast strain to the aroma composition of wines, wine samples from ‘Aligoté’ grape variety made with 8 different yeast strains were subjected to stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS analyses. Also, a sensorial analysis of the studied wines was performed by a tasting panel consisting of 15 tasters. 38 minor volatile compounds were quantified by SBSE-GC-MS technique. Different concentration of the same compound and different aroma compounds were identified and quantified in wines obtained with different yeast strains. A wine finger printing was obtained by multivariate data analyses of aroma compounds grouped by chemical families. The analytical and sensorial analysis of the wine samples confirms that there are differences in aroma composition of the wines made with different yeast strains.

  3. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of tas...

  4. Taste versus health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Umberger, W.

    and trans-fatty acids have been related to increased risks of coronary heart diseases and other health issues, accordingly providing disutility to consumers. Results from a choice experiment with more than 1,800 Australian beef consumers provides insights into how consumers make trade-offs between taste...

  5. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at Delf

  6. The development of taste transduction and taste chip technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; LIU Qingjun; XU Ying; CAI Hua; QIN Lifeng; WANG Lijiang; WANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic perception process of taste is obviously far less known than those of vision, audition, touch and olfaction. Despite that taste cells utilize a variety of sensory mechanisms to translate plenty of gustatory sensations such as sour, sweet, bitter, salty and umami into cellular signals, gustatory perception mechanisms are still under exploration due to the lack of effective methods on cellular and molecular level. Recently the development of molecular biological and electrophysiological studies has promoted exploration of olfactory and gustatory transduction and coding mechanisms dramatically. Based on the studies of artificial olfaction, artificial taste and cell-based biosensor in our laboratory, this paper reviews the current research on taste transduction mechanism. We introduce the recent advances in cell chip that combined biology with microelectronics, discuss taste cell chip as well as its potential of prospective application in taste transduction mechanism in detail and propose the research trends of taste chip in future.

  7. Trends in wine microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  8. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  9. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.42 Section 27.42... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  10. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  11. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  12. Evaluation of Differences on the Sensory Characteristics of Wine Produced from Non-Dried and Dried Grapes by Using Discriminative Sensory Test, Two out of Five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANISA PEÇULI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight wines produced from Kallmet and Cabernet Sauvignon, from non-dried and dried grapes and in two years 2011 and 2013 were subjected of discriminative sensory test 2out of 5. The aim of the study was to confirm by human perception, the chemical data that shows differences between wines from non-dried and dried grapes. A group of 15 trained panelist after tasted the wines in a blind test were asked to group the wines in two groups according to their similarity. After a small break a visual evaluation took place. The panelists were asked which of the wines were more intense in color. Data showed that for the first test (2 out of 5 the panelist were able to differ with a high significance level between the wines from non-dried and dried grapes, for both varieties and for both year of production. The visual test also shows that for year 2011 the panelist differ between wines of Kallmet 9 of them evaluate wines from dried grapes as more intense and for wines of 2013, 10 panelist evaluate wines of dried Kallmet as more intense than non-dried. For Cabernet wines of this year 10 panelist evaluate the wines from non-dried grapes as more intense in color.

  13. Tasting edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  14. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  15. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  16. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many treatments have been tried for port-wine stains, including freezing, surgery, radiation, and tattooing. Laser therapy is most successful in eliminating port-wine stains. It is the only method that can destroy the tiny blood vessels in the skin ...

  17. Wine Pricing Inefficiencies among Major Online Wine Sellers

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Christner; Daniel Arango

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare, analyze and evaluate the relative competitiveness of wine pricing across major online wine retailers as it relates to the Law of One Price. The design utilized is to measure and evaluate the reasons for the differences, between the per bottle prices, of recent internet wine offerings by major internet wine retailers against the average United States prices found on winesearcher.com, a very comprehensive and constantly updated shopbot listing of wine pr...

  18. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  19. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-23

    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities. PMID:26915389

  20. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja;

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset....... In fact, this group of therapeutic agents can reduce food taste perception resulting in mild to severe hypogeusia and dysgeusia. In the elderly, anti-hypertensive drugs may lead to a loss of appetite, thus, selecting treatments with low or no impact on taste perception should be advised. Pharmacological...

  1. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  2. Wine markets in central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Š BOJNEC

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases...

  3. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  4. Advertising and Wine Language: Considerations on New Consumption Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Mihaela PAVEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s consumer society, the wine has gone from being the staple diet to become one of the signs that show the status of the subject, as a demonstration of high rank and taste, aspirations, status, lifestyle, in which having fun, the pleasure, is the fruit of knowledge. It’s a hobby, a leisure culture, an environment implying major activities (vineyard tours, wine tastings, contest criticism, but also a passion ″for lovers of good wines″. The paper commences from the results of a survey carried-out in Romania in 2011, focusing on women purchasing power and consumer behaviour related to wine. The questionnaire included many questions on key dimensions of product-oriented knowledge. This major participation of women in the selection and consumption of wine is interrelated with their independence, with the active role they occupy in the society, especially at a professional and family level. The bottle and the label, the brand and the phrase or slogan identifiers are clearly elements that are associated unambiguously, highlighting a feature that is primarily phatic. Certain brand, image or customer loyalty campaigns alter the balance to emphasize certain aspects, in favour of the referent denoted, from the connotation or appeal towards the recipient, with a greater attention to the text. According to the paradigm of knowledge-based economy, it is often stated that information asymmetry between producers and consumers will be reduced thanks to information availability and dissemination through the Internet or other media channels. As a consequent, for the present approach, it turns out to be interesting to analyze advertising to find out the social values and their relation to the adoption of new linguistic strategies in wine mass-media advertising.

  5. Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić-Šarić, M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine is an excellent source of various classes of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and trihydroxystilbene resveratrol (Fig.1. Polyphenols play a major role in wine quality since they contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine, particularly color and astringency. A recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by abundant evidence of their beneficial effects on human health, such as anticarcinogenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, numerous studies have been performed in the attempt to analyze polyphenols in wine. This paper reviews the current advances in the determination of polyphenols in wine by the major chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The great complexity of the polyphenolic content of wine and the difficulty in obtaining some of the standards usually require sample preparation before analysis. Two methods for sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are most commonly applied. Hydrolysis is applied frequently, but not exclusively, to remove the sugar moieties from glycosides.TLC on silica gel plates is useful for the rapid and low-cost separation and identification of the polyphenols present in wine (Fig. 2. Densitometric quantitative analysis of polyphenols in wine extracts is usually performed by scanning the TLC plates with UV light at wavelengths of 350–365 nm or 250–260 nm (Fig. 3. For the evaluation of the most efficient mobile phase and an optimal choice of the combination of two or more mobile phases, two methods may be applied: information theory and numerical taxonomy. HPLC currently represents the most popular technique for the analysis of polyphenols in wine. For this purpose, a reversed-phase HPLC method that uses gradient elution with binary elution system is usually employed. Routine detection is based on measurement of UV-Vis absorption with a diode

  6. Yeasts isolation for bio-reduction of wines volatile acidity: Combined use of differential and selective culture media

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Amaral, Carla; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The main component of the volatile acidity of wines is acetic acid. The maximum acceptable limit for volatile acidity in most wines is 1.2 g/L of acetic acid due to the associated unpleasant vinegar aroma and acrid taste. Acetic acid is a by-product of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under winemaking conditions. However, this acid may also appear in wine due to spoilage agents, such as the acetic acid bacteria and spoilage yeasts. Winemakers have been using a refermentation...

  7. Ethylene-responsive transcription factors interact with promoters of ADH and PDC involved in persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit de-astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ting; Yin, Xue-ren; Shi, Yan-na; Luo, Zheng-rong; Yao, Yun-cong; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-song

    2012-11-01

    The persimmon fruit is a particularly good model for studying fruit response to hypoxia, in particular, the hypoxia-response ERF (HRE) genes. An anaerobic environment reduces fruit astringency by converting soluble condensed tannins (SCTs) into an insoluble form. Although the physiology of de-astringency has been widely studied, its molecular control is poorly understood. Both CO(2) and ethylene treatments efficiently removed the astringency from 'Mopan' persimmon fruit, as indicated by a decrease in SCTs. Acetaldehyde, the putative agent for causing de-astringency, accumulated during these treatments, as did activities of the key enzymes of acetaldehyde synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Eight DkADH and DkPDC genes were isolated, and three candidates for a role in de-astringency, DkADH1, DkPDC1, and DkPDC2, were characterized by transcriptional analysis in different tissues. The significance of these specific isoforms was confirmed by principal component analysis. Transient expression in leaf tissue showed that DkPDC2 decreased SCTs. Interactions of six hypoxia-responsive ERF genes and target promoters were tested in transient assays. The results indicated that two hypoxia-responsive ERF genes, DkERF9 and DkERF10, were involved in separately regulating the DkPDC2 and DkADH1 promoters. It is proposed that a DkERF-DkADH/DkPDC cascade is involved in regulating persimmon de-astringency.

  8. Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

  9. Wine tourism in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-01-01

    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  10. Functional diversification of taste cells in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Abe, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Tastes are senses resulting from the activation of taste cells distributed in oral epithelia. Sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty tastes are called the five “basic” tastes, but why five, and why these five? In this review, we dissect the peripheral gustatory system in vertebrates from molecular and cellular perspectives. Recent behavioral and molecular genetic studies have revealed the nature of functional taste receptors and cells and show that different taste qualities are accounted for b...

  11. The physics behind the fizz in champagne and sparkling wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2012-02-01

    Bubbles in a glass of champagne may seem like the acme of frivolity to most of people, but in fact they may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any physicist. Actually, the so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the fine interplay between CO2 dissolved gas molecules, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some both glass and liquid properties. Results obtained concerning the various steps where the CO2 molecule plays a role (from its ingestion in the liquid phase during the fermentation process to its progressive release in the headspace above the tasting glass as bubbles collapse) are gathered and synthesized to propose a self-consistent and global overview of how gaseous and dissolved CO2 impact champagne and sparkling wine science. Physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, rise, and burst of gaseous CO2 bubbles found in glasses poured with champagne and sparkling wines are depicted. Those phenomena observed in close-up through high-speed photography are often visually appealing. I hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this fully illustrated review dedicated to the science hidden right under your nose each time you enjoy a glass of champagne.

  12. A preliminary study about the influence of high hydrostatic pressure processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Sun, Da-Wen; Górecki, Adrian; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Fornal, Józef; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine was investigated preliminarily. Wines were treated by HHP at 250, 450 and 650MPa for up to 45min and French oak chips (5g/L) were added. HHP enhanced the extraction of phenolics from oak chips. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the wine increased after HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Meanwhile, the anthocyanin content and wine color intensity decreased in the first 5min of pressure treatment and then increased gradually. The multivariate analysis revealed that "pressure holding time" was the key factor affecting wine physicochemical characteristics during HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Furthermore, oak chip maceration with and without HHP processing weakened the intensities of several sensory attributes and provided the wine with an artificial taste.

  13. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more “codable”, then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too. PMID:27322035

  14. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Croijmans

    Full Text Available People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more "codable", then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice. However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too.

  15. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croijmans, Ilja; Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more "codable", then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too. PMID:27322035

  16. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  17. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  18. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  19. Wine Sector Maturinig Fast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Within a few months, ‘Made In China' wine will make its cautious debut on the shelves of duty-free stores at some of the world's major airports. In the first such case for China's wine industry, the French liquor retailer Camus in February this year signed a 10-year agreement with Dragon Seal, a Chinese wine producer based in Beijing. As the first part of the deal, Camus plans to sell the Chinese wine in 50of its 4,000 duty-free outlets worldwide. The shops are in airports including Singapore, Rome, Hong Kong and Paris, according to Jin Lijun, brand manager of Dragon Seal. "The duty-free store channel is very good for stepping up our brand value," says Jin.

  20. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  1. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  2. Determination of tritium in wine and wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive method for evaluating the tritium content in wine and wine yeast was applied to estimate tritium impact on the environment in the surrounding area of nuclear power plant Cernavoda, where the vineyards are part of representative agricultural ecosystem. Analytical procedures were developed to determine HTO in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractionating distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation followed by fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples obtained after fractional distillation were normally distilled with KMO4. The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine yeast samples from Mulfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  3. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L

    2013-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  4. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya;

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek wo...... available for articulation. But is it okay? Will we be allowed to mess with textbook biology in this way and interfere, not just with anthropological theory, but with the English language itself?...... hard to name. Pleasure and embarrassment, food-­like vitality, erotic titillation, the satisfaction or discomfort that follow a meal-we suggest that these may all be included in "tasting." Thus teasing the language alters what speakers and eaters may sense and say. It complements the repertoires...

  5. What Does Diabetes "Taste" Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiers, Fabrice; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Briand, Loïc

    2016-06-01

    The T1R2 (taste type 1 receptor, member 2)/T1R3 (taste type 1 receptor, member 3) sweet taste receptor is expressed in taste buds on the tongue, where it allows the detection of energy-rich carbohydrates of food. This single receptor responds to all compounds perceived as sweet by humans, including natural sugars and natural and artificial sweeteners. Importantly, the T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor is also expressed in extra-oral tissues, including the stomach, pancreas, gut, liver, and brain. Although its physiological role remains to be established in numerous organs, T1R2/T1R3 is suspected to be involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, such as sugar sensing, glucose homeostasis, and satiety hormone release. In this review, the physiological role of the sweet taste receptor in taste perception and metabolic regulation is discussed by focusing on dysfunctions leading to diabetes. Current knowledge of T1R2/T1R3 inhibitors making this receptor a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is also summarized and discussed. PMID:27085864

  6. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  7. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jixuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design method was used to composite dandelion root powder with glutinous rice and schisandra fruit and optimize the fermenting parameters. Four factors with dandelion content, schisandra content, acidity and sugar content were discussed. The acidity factor was firstly confirmed as 7.0 g/L. The other three factors were confirmed by a series experiments as dandelion 0.55%, schisandra 0.5%, sugar 22%. With nine step processing of mixing substrate, stirring with water, cooking rice, amylase saccharification, pectinase hydrolysis, adjusting juice, fermenting with yeast, fitering, aging, sterilization, a light yellow wine with the special taste with flavour of dandelion, schisandra and rice and less bitter, few index were determined as 14.7% alcohol, 6.85 g/L acidity. A dandelion fermented compound wine with suitable flavour and sanitarian function was developed for enriching the dandelion food.

  8. ACROPOLIS - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest aromatic wine white berry grape variety Acropolis was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi and L.Troshinym in 2006 by crossing the Greek variety Kidonitsa with European Riesling. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length, except for the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. High yield 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster is 360 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, spherical, greenish-yellow color with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal type taste of Riesling. Sugar content is very high: up to 24% more. Bunches of variety Acropolis continuously stored in the bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines, suitable for production of high quality aromatic juices

  9. Simultaneous determination of 20 components in red wine by LC-MS: application to variations of red wine components in decanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Geng, Lulu; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-11-01

    The decanting of red wines has a long tradition in red wine service from the perspective of modifying the aroma or taste of a wine. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 organic acids and polyphenols in decanting red wine. The separation was performed on a Diamonsil C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1% acetic acid under gradient elution. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization interface. All the linear regressions showed good linear relationships (r(2) > 0.9973) between the peak area and concentration of each marker. The assay was reproducible with overall intra and interday variation of less than 5.0%. The recoveries for the quantified compounds were observed over the range of 92.1-108.3% with RSD values less than 5.7%. The method developed was successfully applied to determine the variations of the 20 components in red wine after decanting in different conditions. Concentrations of most organic acids and polyphenols investigated in the red wine were decreased in decanting. In addition, increment of duration, temperature, and light intensity would intensify the changes.

  10. Land of Wine and Poets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    SCIENTISTS believe that the Celestial Kingdom has thelongest history of strong beverages in the world. Wine producing started in China at the time of Shennong, more than 7,000 years ago. The term "wine" loses something in translation because the majority of Chinese wine is actually strong spirit that would be better described as vodka.

  11. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  12. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  13. The neural processing of taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Donald B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there have been many recent advances in the field of gustatory neurobiology, our knowledge of how the nervous system is organized to process information about taste is still far from complete. Many studies on this topic have focused on understanding how gustatory neural circuits are spatially organized to represent information about taste quality (e.g., "sweet", "salty", "bitter", etc.. Arguments pertaining to this issue have largely centered on whether taste is carried by dedicated neural channels or a pattern of activity across a neural population. But there is now mounting evidence that the timing of neural events may also importantly contribute to the representation of taste. In this review, we attempt to summarize recent findings in the field that pertain to these issues. Both space and time are variables likely related to the mechanism of the gustatory neural code: information about taste appears to reside in spatial and temporal patterns of activation in gustatory neurons. What is more, the organization of the taste network in the brain would suggest that the parameters of space and time extend to the neural processing of gustatory information on a much grander scale.

  14. Sensorial abnormalities: Smell and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taste and smell abnormalities have proven to be an extremely more complex subject than previously regarded. Wide-ranging nosologic entities arise along with smell and taste alterations, and they can be congenital or acquired. Objective: Analyze the main features of smell and taste dysfunctions. Method: Automated databases were used to collect data, by searching keywords like 'alteration', 'smell', and 'taste'. A non-systematic search was also made in scientific printings and medical books. Literature Review: Smell and taste dysfunctions have a vast etiology, the most significant of which are obstructive nasal and sinusal disease, infections of the upper respiratory tract, cranioencephalic trauma, aging, exposure to toxics and some drugs, nasal or intracranial neoplasias, psychiatric and neurological pathologies, iatrogenic disease, idiopathic and congenital causes. A detailed anamnesis, a careful physical examination and supplementary evaluations are important for the diagnosis of these alterations. Conclusion: As a rule, smell and taste dysfunctions occur in a combined way. The early discovery of such dysfunctions can lead to a more efficient treatment, making the progress of diseases causing them retard and the symptoms less severe. In many cases, treating these alterations is not easy and there needs to be a multidisciplinary cooperation among the otorhinolaryngologist, endocrinologist, neurologist, psychiatrist, among others.

  15. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  16. Production of Wine from Ginger and Indian Gooseberry and A Comparative Study of Them over Commercial Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Nandagopal.M.S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is one of the functional fermented foods that have many health benefits. Commercially, wine is produced by the fermentation of yeast which involves the conversion of sugar to alcohol. Wine can act as a nutrient supplement for seasonal fruits and vegetables throughout the year. Using fruits and vegetables having medicinal and nutritional value as a substrate for wine production, the health benefits of them can be improved widely. Ginger and Indian gooseberry, which are known for its high medicinal and nutritional value are used as the substrate here. Fermentation is carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae commonly known as bakers yeast. Daily monitoring was done to study the composition and characteristics of the wine. The wine produced resembled the commercial wine in terms of its composition, taste and aroma. During the fermentation period the wines were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity, biomass content, alcohol and reducing sugar on a daily basis. pH show a decreased trend then attains minima and then increased. As the fermentation days proceed, the specific gravity increased and the alcohol percentage increased gradually. Batch 1 Amla (A1 showed a pH range of 3.79-3.56, specific gravity ranges from 1.09 -1.17 and alcohol content was 10.5%. Batch 2 Amla (A2 showed a pH range of 3.81-3.30, specific gravity ranges from 1.09 -1.167 and alcohol content was 10.35%. Batch 3 Amla (A3 showed a pH range of 3.83-3.34, specific gravity ranges from 1.032 -1.0967and alcohol content was 8.64%. Batch 1 ginger (G1 showed a pH range of 3.77 -3.59, specific gravity ranges from 1.11 -1.178 and alcohol content was 7.94%. Batch 2 ginger (G2 showed a pH range of 3.89 -3.94, specific gravity ranges from 1.116 -1.162 and alcohol content was 6.81 %. Batch 3 ginger (G3 showed a pH range of 4.42 -4.01, specific gravity ranges from 1.144 -1.188 and alcohol content was 5.81%.After the fermentation period parameters such as Tannin content

  17. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  18. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  19. Effect of terroir on the phenolic compounds of Muscat of Bornova Wines from 3 different sub-regions of Aegean, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoğlan Selin N. Yabaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the phenolic compounds of wines from Muscat of Bornova, a native aromatic white grape variety (Vitis vinifera grown in the Aegean region of Turkey and the influence of terroir (Menderes, Halilbeyli and Kemaliye sub- regions on these compounds were investigated. From Muscat of Bornova growing sub regions, Menderes/İzmir has a typical Mediterranean climate at around 90 m altitude which is located Eagean cost area with a fertile sandy-loamy soil; Halilbeyli/İzmir sub-region is located in inner İzmir, close to Manisa with 115 m altitude with same soil structure of Menderes. Kemaliye/Manisa has a transition climate between Mediterranean and continental climate at about 245 m altitude. Its soil is pale with a distinct amount of lime (∼30% and sandy-loamy, as well. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array dedector (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry (MS were used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Four flavanols, eight phenolic acids and a flavonol were identified and quantified. It was observed that the total phenolic content in the Halilbeyli sub-region was the highest, fol- lowed by the Menderes and Kemaliye sub-regions. Procyanidin B4 was the most abundant flavanol and quercetin-3-O-glucoside was the only flavonol identified in all regions’ wines. Sensory analysis was also used to investigate the influences of terroir. Statistically significant (0.05 regional differences were observed. Based upon sensory analysis, the wine obtained from Halilbeyli was darker in color, and had more astringency and bitterness than the others, and was the least popular wine. Kemaliye and Menderes were both preferred due to their better coloring, flavour, less astringency and bitterness attributes.

  20. Impact of Leaf Removal, Applied Before and After Flowering, on Anthocyanin, Tannin, and Methoxypyrazine Concentrations in 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Lisjak, Klemen; Baša Česnik, Helena; Sabbatini, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2016-06-01

    The development and accumulation of secondary metabolites in grapes determine wine color, taste, and aroma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of leaf removal before flowering, a practice recently introduced to reduce cluster compactness and Botrytis rot, on anthocyanin, tannin, and methoxypyrazine concentrations in 'Merlot' grapes and wines. Leaf removal before flowering was compared with leaf removal after flowering and an untreated control. No effects on tannin and anthocyanin concentrations in grapes were observed. Both treatments reduced levels of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in the grapes and the derived wines, although the after-flowering treatment did so to a greater degree in the fruit specifically. Leaf removal before flowering can be used to reduce cluster compactness, Botrytis rot, and grape and wine IBMP concentration and to improve wine color intensity but at the expense of cluster weight and vine yield. Leaf removal after flowering accomplishes essentially the same results without loss of yield. PMID:27180819

  1. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  2. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste......Teaching does not necessarily condition learning, and specific didactic elements do not necessarily condition the best learning outcome; this also applies to ‘food and meal’ lessons in schools. Teachers’ didactic reflections usually reflect the content and form of the teaching, as well as a number...

  3. Ultrafast Polyphenol Metabolomics of Red Wines Using MicroLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Tanaka, Nobuo; Vaniya, Arpana; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-01-20

    The taste and quality of red wine are determined by its highly complex mixture of polyphenols and many other metabolites. No single method can fully cover the full metabolome, but even for polyphenols and related compounds, current methods proved inadequate. We optimized liquid chromatography resolution and sensitivity using 1 mm i.d. columns with microLC pumps and compared data-dependent to data-independent (SWATH) MS/MS acquisitions. A high-throughput microLC-MS method was developed with a 4 min gradient at 0.05 mL/min flow rate on a Kinetex C18 column and Sciex TripleTOF mass spectrometry. Using the novel software MS-DIAL, we structurally annotated 264 compounds including 165 polyphenols in six commercial red wines by accurate mass MS/MS matching. As proof of concept, multivariate statistics revealed the difference in the metabolite profiles of the six red wines, and regression analysis linked the polyphenol contents to the taste of the red wines.

  4. Wine - kompatibilita a výkon

    OpenAIRE

    Vyštejn, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    This thesis contains compatibility and power of applications under Wine. In the first chapter, there is history of Wine project and also projects created by authors of Wine or some other supporting projects, for example: commercial projects based on Wine with free support. Together with other GUIs, frontends and configuration tools makes Wine easier to use. In the final part of first chapter, there are listed projects with different goals than Wine, but they are using part of source code from...

  5. Determination of tritium in wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical procedures were developed to determine tritium in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractioning distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation/fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples were normally distilled with K MO4. The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine samples from Murfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  6. Comparison of Chinese and American wine culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迁

    2015-01-01

    Wine which has a long history in human life and culture is not only a kind of objectively existing material but also a cultural symbol.In this thesis,it will focus on the comparison between Chinese and American wine culture.Four aspects will be included:the origin of wine;the various types of wine;the etiquette of wine drinking;the connection between wine culture and arts and humanities

  7. Estimating Hedonic Prices for Stellenbosch wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Lutzeyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a hedonic price function for Stellenbosch wines to determine the association between market value and different characteristics of these wines. In such a hedonic price function, the price of a bottle of wine is ascribed to the implicit value of its attributes. Besides contributing to both South African and international wine pricing literature, the benefits of developing a hedonic wine pricing model extend to numerous players in the wine industry. Consumers are provided w...

  8. Comparison of Chinese and American wine culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迁

    2015-01-01

    Wine which has a long history in human life and culture is not only a kind of objectively existing material but also a cultural symbol.In this thesis, it will focus on the comparison between Chinese and American wine culture.Four aspects will be included:the origin of wine;the various types of wine;the etiquette of wine drinking;the connection between wine culture and arts and humanities.

  9. Taste dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L; Tourbier, Isabelle A; Pham, Dzung L; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Udupa, Jayaram K; Karacali, Bilge; Beals, Evan; Fabius, Laura; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Moonis, Gul; Kim, Taehoon; Mihama, Toru; Geckle, Rena J; Yousem, David M

    2016-04-01

    Empirical studies of taste function in multiple sclerosis (MS) are rare. Moreover, a detailed assessment of whether quantitative measures of taste function correlate with the punctate and patchy myelin-related lesions found throughout the CNS of MS patients has not been made. We administered a 96-trial test of sweet (sucrose), sour (citric acid), bitter (caffeine) and salty (NaCl) taste perception to the left and right anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions of 73 MS patients and 73 matched controls. The number and volume of lesions were assessed using quantitative MRI in 52 brain regions of 63 of the MS patients. Taste identification scores were significantly lower in the MS patients for sucrose (p = 0.0002), citric acid (p = 0.0001), caffeine (p = 0.0372) and NaCl (p = 0.0004) and were present in both anterior and posterior tongue regions. The percent of MS patients with identification scores falling below the 5th percentile of controls was 15.07 % for caffeine, 21.9 % for citric acid, 24.66 % for sucrose, and 31.50 % for NaCl. Such scores were inversely correlated with lesion volumes in the temporal, medial frontal, and superior frontal lobes, and with the number of lesions in the left and right superior frontal lobes, right anterior cingulate gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Regardless of the subject group, women outperformed men on the taste measures. These findings indicate that a sizable number of MS patients exhibit taste deficits that are associated with MS-related lesions throughout the brain. PMID:26810729

  10. Tourists Perceptions of Istrian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milohanović

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Istrian County, the Croatian most developed tourist region, has a long tradition in viticulture and wine production. In the last decade wines from Istrian County became more and more recognized in Croatia, and abroad. The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of tourist familiarity with Istrian wines and then to examine their perceptions and opinions about the quality, price, promotion and availability on Istrian wine market. Results are based on research which was conducted from June to August 2005 in major resorts on Istrian coast. A total of 802 questionnaires were collected. For analysing the survey data, appropriate statistical procedures were used (descriptive statistic, analysis of variance (ANOVA and correlation analysis. The survey revealed tourist satisfaction with Istrian wines. Based on research findings, it can be concluded that Istrian wine is well known typical Istrian product. Relatively high consumers’ satisfaction is associated with the quality, promotional activities and availability of the product.

  11. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  12. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  13. Chemical and microbiological analysis of red wines during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall, chemical and microbiological analyses are very important for the quality of wine during and after winemaking process. One of the most important factors during wine storage is the temperature of storage. During storage of red wines in tanks, barrique barrels or glass bottles underway many physical, chemical and biochemical changes, which have significant influence for the stabilize of taste, scent, colour and general character of wine. The aim of our study we used two different wines, specifically Cabernet Sauvignon and Blaufränkisch and chemically and microbiologically analysed these wines during storage at different temperatures. These wines were bottled in 2011 and 2013. We stored these samples at different temperatures. The first four samples were stored at 6-8°C in refrigerator, and the next four were stored at 20-25°C in room temperature. We had together eight wine samples. We had determined in all wine samples sequentially the free and total sulphur dioxide content, ethyl-alcohol content, extract, sugars, total and volatile acids. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 6-8°C had content 12,14% ethyl-alcohol, 2.3% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,444 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.6 g.L-1 extract, 8 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 20-25°C had content 12,05% ethyl-alcohol, 2.4% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,456 g.L-1 volatile acids, 27.4 g.L-1extract, 6 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2.The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 6-8°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 20-25°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1 extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2.These results were collected from one measuring, but we had results from three measuring

  14. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62). PMID:26628651

  15. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Herbst; Christiane Von Arnim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use ...

  16. Wine and Society - Welcome Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Trevisan

    2011-01-01

    Wine, its production and consumption, has accompanied western civilization for thousands of years. Since the early sign of its production in the Fertile crescent area, approximately 6000-8000 years ago, the culture of wine has spread out through the middle east, the Nile valley and the Mediterranean basin. Wine became part of the recorded history in ancient Egypt were it was used as part of religious ceremonies and by the Pharaos and the elite.

  17. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  18. Strange taste and mild lithium intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Terao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shosuke; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Hoaki, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    So far, it has not been emphasised that lithium can lose or change taste in some patients. This report addresses such side effect of lithium. A 61-year-old bipolar patient experienced taste changes while increasing lithium levels up to 1.28 mEq/l and the taste changes returned to normal after lithium discontinuation. The present findings suggest that changes in tastes may be a symptom of mild lithium intoxication.

  19. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers

  20. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia ePinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine musts harbour a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Must (IM, and Start and End of alcoholic fermentation (SF and EF, respectively.The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p<0.05 were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF and EF, and in the bacterial population between MI and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the initial musts, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida and Schizosaccharomyces. Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of

  1. Organic Acid Composition in Croatian Predicate Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mihaljević Žulj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Continental Croatia wine region and especially Kutjevo vineyards are famous for their predicate wines production and quality. The most common grape varieties used there for different types of predicate wine are Welsch Riesling and Traminer. Ice wines, selected harvest wines and dry berry selection wines from different harvest years were examined by HPLC method to determine organic acids composition. The oldest sample was Traminer selected harvest from vintage year 1990, while the youngest wine was Traminer ice wine from harvest 2011. The dominant organic acids in all analyzed wines were tartaric, malic, citric and galactaric, ranged from 0.09 to 2.98 g/L. In most wines the difference in concentration of glucuronic, galacturonic and gluconic acids was established. The highest content of glucuronic acid was 58.4 mg/L in Traminer dry berry selection 2011. Galacturonic acid dominated in the same wine (924 mg/L, just like gluconic acid (141 mg/L.

  2. Tasty Business, Wine & Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone attracts many companies to settle down,and China International Exhibition and Trading Center of Wine & Beverage is one of them.It is said that when the first bunch of grapes fell down on the soil,it was the beginning of the art of winemaking.The win is not only the symbol of culture,history,trade,religion,art,etc.,but also one part or one style of our real life.When the technology has shortened the distance of the world,then wine,an important part of the trade in the past,today,or the future,becomes more and more international.

  3. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. PMID:26912569

  4. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, V.; Knapek, S.; Arai, S; Hartl, M.; H Kohsaka; Sirigrivatanawong, P.; Abe, A; Hashimoto, K; Tanimoto, H

    2016-01-01

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor ...

  5. Economics, Happiness and Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Cassone

    2011-01-01

    Since a few decades there is a booming literature about the economics of happiness: a quick Google search (all searches have been run on April 2, 2011) with the two terms "economics happiness" returns over 366000 results. Even using google scholar the outcome is signi cant: 148 records. Entering "happiness economics", one gets 72.100 results. The same is true for the literature about wine and economics. Read the full text below

  6. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-01

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction. PMID:26766301

  7. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process...

  8. [Cultural history of wine, the theoretical background of wine therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella; Lugasi, Andrea

    2005-12-25

    The knowledge of wine and grapes as old as the cultural history of human population. The small consumption of wine could be advantageous. Also it has been well established for several thousands of years, that it could cause acute and chronic injuries after higher consumption. Its antiinfectious effect in dermatological drugs had been known in the archeological ages. The unguents containing wine polyphenols are advantageous in some dermatological injuries and also in the treatment of muscular and articular alterations. Moderate consumption of wine may decrease the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. In healthy individuals consumption of one-two dl of wine can decrease the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. This quantity, however, may be injurious in pregnancy, in children, and in various organic diseases, especially in liver disease, as well as if combined with common drugs.

  9. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue, Jesusa; Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; LI, Weihua; Brand, Joseph G.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Reed, Danielle R.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian sweet taste is primarily mediated by the type 1 taste receptor Tas1r2/Tas1r3, whereas Tas1r1/Tas1r3 act as the principal umami taste receptor. Bitter taste is mediated by a different group of G protein-coupled receptors, the Tas2rs, numbering 3 to ∼66, depending on the species. We showed previously that the behavioral indifference of cats toward sweet-tasting compounds can be explained by the pseudogenization of the Tas1r2 gene, which encodes the Tas1r2 receptor. To examine the gene...

  10. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec....

  11. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy. PMID:26142421

  12. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  13. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  14. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  15. Wine tourism among Generations X and Y

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Donald; Carlsen, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the wine tourism experience from the perspective of young adults, specifically Generation X and Y consumers. Both the wine industry and wine tourism destinations have a particular interest in learning more about these age cohorts, as wine consumption and wine-related travel have been dominated by older adults. Little research has focused on Gen X and Y and how they might become more involved. Accordingly, in this paper their motivation for taking a winery tour, level of eg...

  16. Consumer attitudes and expectations of organic wine

    OpenAIRE

    Stolz, Hanna; Schmid, Otto

    2008-01-01

    Within the European Union-funded research project ORWINE (Organic viticulture and wine-making) a qualitative consumer study was carried out in 2006 in the four case study countries Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland. The aim of the study was to identify consumers’ attitudes and expectations of organic wine. In all case study countries, organic wine has a positive image regarding grape production and wine processing. Furthermore, organic wine is perceived as being healthier compared to con...

  17. Evoked response to taste stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masashi

    2005-01-01

    For the recording of gustatory evoked responses, the tip of a stimulator is pressed vertically on one side of the tongue until the trigger pulses are generated by a switch attached to the bottom of the stimulator. According to our results, no detectable response was observed in the absence of taste. The positive waves were distinguishable by using the technique of superimposition before averaging, and the positive wave was made clearer by averaging.

  18. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  19. Tasting Beijing ,Approaching Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by Beijing Tour Administration, co-organized by Singapore Conference and Exhibition Administration Service Co., Ltd. and Beijing Relation Exhibition Co., Ltd., "2007 Beijing International Tour Expo" was held in Beijing in June. Commissioner Du Jiang gave a presentation with the opening ceremmony, and pointed out that with the theme of "Tasting Beijing, Approaching Olympic Games", the expo was a platform of promoting the communication and cooperation between the Chinese and foreign tourism industries.

  20. 樱桃酒感官评价与电子舌感官分析的相关性研究%Study on correlation between sensory evaluation and sensors analysis of electronic tongue of cherry wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛云蔚; 张晓鸣; 肖作兵; 宋诗清; 朱建才; 顾永波

    2012-01-01

    Five different cherry wines ,which were described by sour, sweet, bitter and astringent attributes ,were analyzed by electronic tongue. The ability of discrimination cherry wines of electronic tongue was evaluated by PCA and DFA. The sensory evaluation results were correlated to response of seven sensors(ZZ,BA,BB,CA, GA,HA,JB) by PCA and PLSR. The results showed that there were better correlation between JB and sour, HA, CA and sweet,ZZ and astringent, bitter, respectively.%对五种不同樱桃酒的感官属性(酸、甜、苦、涩)进行了感官评价和电子舌指纹分析,利用主成分(PCA)与判别因子(DFA)分析对电子舌区分樱桃酒的能力进行了评价,并通过PCA、偏最小二乘法(PLSR)将感官评价结果与电子舌7根传感器(ZZ、BA、BB、CA、GA、HA、JB)响应相关联。结果表明,电子舌指纹分析系统对樱桃酒具有较好的区分辨别能力,传感器JB与酸味,传感器HA、CA与甜味,传感器ZZ与涩、苦味具有较高的相关性。

  1. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent

  2. Rasa Nirdhāraṇa (assessment of taste of Leonotis nepetifolia (L. R. Br.: A preliminary study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Pushpan

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: On analyzing the data it was found that Leonotis nepetifolia possess predominantly tikta rasa (bitter taste followed by Kasāya rasa (astringent taste. Recent researches and ethnomedicinal claims on Leonotis nepetifolia stand comparable with the pharmacological activities attributed to tikta and kasāya rasa in Ayurvedic classics Rasa nirdhāraṇa can be one of the preliminary steps to initiate the process of screening of an unknown drug along the lines of Ayurvedic pharmacology specially because rasa is the only perceivable parameter. According to Ayurveda, rasa of a dravya has a bearing on its karma (pharmacological action and the identification of rasa could be one of the subjective means for inferring pāρcabhautika constitution of a substance which in turn could help in tentatively inferring guṇa, vîrya and vipāka of the dravya. This paper demonstrates how a simple method can be used without any instruments to do a preliminary assessment of the rasa or taste of a plant.

  3. New taste sensor system combined with chaotic recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wang, Ping; Li, Rong

    2001-09-01

    Taste sensor as a new kind of chemical sensor has been studied by many researchers. We have developed several types of taste sensor system and some new recognition methods for taste substance. Kiyoshi Toko et al proposed a new kind of chaos taste sensor that is based on sensor chaos dynamics. In this paper, we improve the taste sensor based on chaos dynamics and proposed a new method for the pattern recognition of tastes. We use three kinds of tastes, i.e., sweetness, salty taste, and sourness. They cause the membrane oscillate in different form, and the complexity is not the same. We can detect taste based on the new method.

  4. The impact of some wine-making practices on the quality of Vranec red wines from Macedonia produced by the newly-selected local strain "F-78".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Veličkovska, Sanja Kostadinović; Dimovska, Violeta; Spasov, Hristo

    2016-03-01

    The impact of enological practices (temperature, flipping and the inoculation amount of newly selected yeast F-78 from third-stage selection) on the level of monomeric anthocyanins, total phenolic compounds and the overall taste of fifteen red wines from Macedonian Vranec grape variety were studied. The most important factor which affects the level of monomeric anthocyanins was temperature. The inoculation amount had a positive influence on the phenolic extraction. More inoculation amount leads to faster ethanol formation and acceleration of the anthocyanins extraction. The flipping of the must during fermentation was controversial. The best wine-making procedure for production of the typical for the region high-extractive aged wines included a fermentation temperature of 20-24°C, intensive flipping (5-6 times/24h), and inoculation quantity 3-4% and a fermentation on 20°C, medium flipping (3-4 times/24h) and inoculation quantity 3-4% for production of commercial, young and easy to drink "Beaujoulais" wines.

  5. The impact of some wine-making practices on the quality of Vranec red wines from Macedonia produced by the newly-selected local strain "F-78".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Veličkovska, Sanja Kostadinović; Dimovska, Violeta; Spasov, Hristo

    2016-03-01

    The impact of enological practices (temperature, flipping and the inoculation amount of newly selected yeast F-78 from third-stage selection) on the level of monomeric anthocyanins, total phenolic compounds and the overall taste of fifteen red wines from Macedonian Vranec grape variety were studied. The most important factor which affects the level of monomeric anthocyanins was temperature. The inoculation amount had a positive influence on the phenolic extraction. More inoculation amount leads to faster ethanol formation and acceleration of the anthocyanins extraction. The flipping of the must during fermentation was controversial. The best wine-making procedure for production of the typical for the region high-extractive aged wines included a fermentation temperature of 20-24°C, intensive flipping (5-6 times/24h), and inoculation quantity 3-4% and a fermentation on 20°C, medium flipping (3-4 times/24h) and inoculation quantity 3-4% for production of commercial, young and easy to drink "Beaujoulais" wines. PMID:26471662

  6. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R. van; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it ser

  7. Improvement of Meat Taste by Dietary Components

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2006-01-01

    Dietary nutrients play a significant part in determining growth rate and meat yield. It is known that the compositions of protein and total amino acids of meat are invariable by feeding treatments, hence the meat taste is considered to be invariable. However, the relationship of taste components of meat with nutrients is not fully elucidated, and there have been few reports on the effect of feeding treatments on taste-active components of chicken meat. Previously, restricted feeding and dieta...

  8. The loss of taste genes in cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Kangli; Zhou, Xuming; Xu, Shixia; Sun, Di; Ren, Wenhua; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Five basic taste modalities, sour, sweet, bitter, salt and umami, can be distinguished by humans and are fundamental for physical and ecological adaptations in mammals. Molecular genetic studies of the receptor genes for these tastes have been conducted in terrestrial mammals; however, little is known about the evolution and adaptation of these genes in marine mammals. Results: Here, all five basic taste modalities, sour, sweet, bitter, salt and umami, were investigated in cetacea...

  9. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data......-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli....

  10. Genetics of Amino Acid Taste and Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Glendinning, John I; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Manita, Satoshi; McCaughey, Stuart A; Murata, Yuko; Reed, Danielle R; Tordoff, Michael G; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of amino acids by animals is controlled by both oral and postoral mechanisms. We used a genetic approach to investigate these mechanisms. Our studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in voluntary amino acid consumption, and these differences depend on sensory and nutritive properties of amino acids. Like humans, mice perceive some amino acids as having a sweet (sucrose-like) taste and others as having an umami (glutamate-like) taste. Mouse strain differences in the consumption of some sweet-tasting amino acids (d-phenylalanine, d-tryptophan, and l-proline) are associated with polymorphisms of a taste receptor, type 1, member 3 gene (Tas1r3), and involve differential peripheral taste responsiveness. Strain differences in the consumption of some other sweet-tasting amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, and l-threonine) do not depend on Tas1r3 polymorphisms and so must be due to allelic variation in other, as yet unknown, genes involved in sweet taste. Strain differences in the consumption of l-glutamate may depend on postingestive rather than taste mechanisms. Thus, genes and physiologic mechanisms responsible for strain differences in the consumption of each amino acid depend on the nature of its taste and postingestive properties. Overall, mouse strain differences in amino acid taste and appetite have a complex genetic architecture. In addition to the Tas1r3 gene, these differences depend on other genes likely involved in determining the taste and postingestive effects of amino acids. The identification of these genes may lead to the discovery of novel mechanisms that regulate amino acid taste and appetite. PMID:27422518

  11. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    Feng ZHANG; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M.; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a...

  12. TRAMINER BLACK - NEWEST WINE AROMATHIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Newest breeding aromatic grape variety with colored pulp and juice is Traminer black bred in Athens Viticulture Institute (Greece P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and L.Maltabar in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian (Odessian black varieties (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with the European Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the group of Western European varieties. Length of production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. Productivity is high. The average weight of bunch 200 grams. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is hermaphrodite. Clusters are short or medium, conical, sometimes with wing, average density. Berry is small, round, blue-black coloring, with a thick waxy coating. Peel thick, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored, with a taste of Gewurztraminer. Content of sugar is very high: in the bushes on the stale grapes reaches more than 40%. Prolonged preservation of crop on bushes. Sort intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet wines and liqueurs, and is suitable for high-quality juices. When used in blends with other varieties, enhances coloration, completeness of taste and improves the bouquet of wine

  13. Arsenic content in some Spanish wines. Influence of the wine-making technique on arsenic content in musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M V; Martinez, M C; Masoud, T A

    1987-09-01

    All of the essential technological means of treating grapes, must and wine were examined systematically. The main reasons for the differences in the arsenic (As) content of rosé and red wines are explained. In this study a relationship has been found between the As level and the wine-making technique. Rosé wines contain more As than red wines because they require a shorter period of contact with the skins. In order to prove this, the average values for the rosé and red wine samples from the same winery were compared.

  14. Effects of Three Emulsion Compositions on Taste Thresholds and Intensity Ratings of Five Taste Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Thurgood, J. E.; Martini, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of three emulsified systems on taste thresholds and the near-threshold taste intensities of the five tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami). Emulsions were formulated with different lipid chemical compositions. Lipid addition in an emulsified form significantly increased thresholds for sour and bitter tastes produced by citric acid and quinine hydrochloride, respectively. No significant differences were found in the threshold levels in emulsions formulat...

  15. HOW SOY LABELING INFLUENCES PREFERENCE AND TASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Wansink, Brian; Park, Sea Bum; Sonka, Steven T.; Morganosky, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    Using a “Phantom Ingredient” taste test, this article demonstrates how the use of soy labels and health claims on a package negatively biased taste perceptions and attitudes toward a food erroneously thought to contain soy. Consumers who ate products which mentioned soy on the package described the taste more grainy, less flavorful, and as having a strong aftertaste compared to those who ate the product but saw no soy label. Yet, while putting “soy” on a package negatively influenced tast...

  16. Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism

    OpenAIRE

    Feng ZHANG; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M.; Xu, Hong; Pronin, Alexey; Liu, Haitian; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5′ ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric T1R receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling. We propose a cooperative ligand-binding model involving the Venus flytrap...

  17. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; Staszewski, Lena; Xu, Hong; Durick, Kyle; Zoller, Mark; Adler, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5′-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste. The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of t...

  18. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...

  19. Duplex Bioelectronic Tongue for Sensing Umami and Sweet Tastes Based on Human Taste Receptor Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sae Ryun; An, Ji Hyun; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-08-23

    For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required. Herein, we developed a duplex bioelectronic tongue (DBT) based on graphene field-effect transistors that were functionalized with heterodimeric human umami taste and sweet taste receptor nanovesicles. Two types of nanovesicles, which have human T1R1/T1R3 for the umami taste and human T1R2/T1R3 for the sweet taste on their membranes, immobilized on micropatterned graphene surfaces were used for the simultaneous detection of the umami and sweet tastants. The DBT platform led to highly sensitive and selective recognition of target tastants at low concentrations (ca. 100 nM). Moreover, our DBT was able to detect the enhancing effect of taste enhancers as in a human taste sensory system. This technique can be a useful tool for the detection of tastes instead of sensory evaluation and development of new artificial tastants in the food and beverage industry. PMID:27327579

  20. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  1. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  2. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises...

  3. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  4. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  5. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  6. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  7. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  8. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  9. Nontargeted Analysis Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Uncovers the Effects of Harvest Season on the Metabolites and Taste Quality of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weidong; Qi, Dandan; Yang, Ting; Lv, Haipeng; Guo, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Yin; Peng, Qunhua; Xie, Dongchao; Tan, Junfeng; Lin, Zhi

    2015-11-11

    The chemical composition and taste quality of tea fluctuate seasonally. However, the compounds responsible for the seasonal variation of metabolic pattern and taste quality are far from clear. This study compared the metabolite profiles of green teas of nine varieties that were plucked in spring, summer, and autumn by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) on a reversed phase column. A multivariate analysis indicated distinct differences among the metabolite phenotypes of teas harvested in different seasons. Heat-map analysis and metabolic pathway analysis demonstrated that flavan-3-ols, theasinensins, procyanidins, quercetin-O-glycosides, apigenin-C-glycosides, and amino acids exhibited sharp seasonal fluctuations. An equivalent quantification of tea tastes showed that in summer and autumn teas, the bitterness and astringency were significantly elevated, whereas umami declined. Metabolite content comparisons and partial least-squares analysis suggested that several flavonoids and amino acids are mainly responsible for the seasonal variations in taste quality. PMID:26494158

  10. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  11. Selective adsorption of molybdenum(VI) from Mo-Re bearing effluent by chemically modified astringent persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Wang, Haitao; Lou, Zhenning; Shan, Weijun; Xing, Zhiqiang; Deng, Guichun; Wu, Dongbei; Fang, Dawei; Biswas, Biplob Kumar

    2011-02-28

    Astringent persimmon was chemically cross-linked by formaldehyde to obtain a novel kind of adsorption gel, which was named as APF gel. The adsorption behaviors of Mo(VI) and Re(VII) along with other coexisting metals onto the APF gel were studied in the present paper. The APF gel was found to be effective for the adsorption of Mo(VI) while the gel is almost completely inert toward rhenium and calcium over the whole hydrochloric acid concentration region. The APF gel has a low affinity for iron, copper, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc ions when the concentration of HCl is higher than 1 mol/L. The gel exhibited selectivity only for Mo(VI) with a remarkably high adsorption capacity 1.05 mol/kg, and the adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir model. According to the thermodynamic and kinetic studies, the endothermic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Also, its excellent adsorption characteristics for Mo(VI) were confirmed by the adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the APF gel. The result provides a new approach for the recovery of Mo(VI) from a industrial waste effluent.

  12. Metabolic characterization of Palatinate German white wines according to sensory attributes, varieties, and vintages using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif; Maltese, Federica [Leiden University, Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology (Netherlands); Toepfer, Reinhard [Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof, Julius Kuehn Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (Germany); Choi, Young Hae, E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Verpoorte, Robert [Leiden University, Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) has been used for metabolomic analysis of 'Riesling' and 'Mueller-Thurgau' white wines from the German Palatinate region. Diverse two-dimensional NMR techniques have been applied for the identification of metabolites, including phenolics. It is shown that sensory analysis correlates with NMR-based metabolic profiles of wine. {sup 1}H NMR data in combination with multivariate data analysis methods, like principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS), and bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS) analysis, were employed in an attempt to identify the metabolites responsible for the taste of wine, using a non-targeted approach. The high quality wines were characterized by elevated levels of compounds like proline, 2,3-butanediol, malate, quercetin, and catechin. Characterization of wine based on type and vintage was also done using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) analysis. 'Riesling' wines were characterized by higher levels of catechin, caftarate, valine, proline, malate, and citrate whereas compounds like quercetin, resveratrol, gallate, leucine, threonine, succinate, and lactate, were found discriminating for 'Mueller-Thurgau'. The wines from 2006 vintage were dominated by leucine, phenylalanine, citrate, malate, and phenolics, while valine, proline, alanine, and succinate were predominantly present in the 2007 vintage. Based on these results, it can be postulated the NMR-based metabolomics offers an easy and comprehensive analysis of wine and in combination with multivariate data analyses can be used to investigate the source of the wines and to predict certain sensory aspects of wine.

  13. Metabolic characterization of Palatinate German white wines according to sensory attributes, varieties, and vintages using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) has been used for metabolomic analysis of ‘Riesling’ and ‘Mueller-Thurgau’ white wines from the German Palatinate region. Diverse two-dimensional NMR techniques have been applied for the identification of metabolites, including phenolics. It is shown that sensory analysis correlates with NMR-based metabolic profiles of wine. 1H NMR data in combination with multivariate data analysis methods, like principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS), and bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS) analysis, were employed in an attempt to identify the metabolites responsible for the taste of wine, using a non-targeted approach. The high quality wines were characterized by elevated levels of compounds like proline, 2,3-butanediol, malate, quercetin, and catechin. Characterization of wine based on type and vintage was also done using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) analysis. ‘Riesling’ wines were characterized by higher levels of catechin, caftarate, valine, proline, malate, and citrate whereas compounds like quercetin, resveratrol, gallate, leucine, threonine, succinate, and lactate, were found discriminating for ‘Mueller-Thurgau’. The wines from 2006 vintage were dominated by leucine, phenylalanine, citrate, malate, and phenolics, while valine, proline, alanine, and succinate were predominantly present in the 2007 vintage. Based on these results, it can be postulated the NMR-based metabolomics offers an easy and comprehensive analysis of wine and in combination with multivariate data analyses can be used to investigate the source of the wines and to predict certain sensory aspects of wine.

  14. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  15. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine §...

  16. Science for wine: A bibliometric assessment of wine and grape research for wine-producing and consuming countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Glänzel, Wolfgang; Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2006-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis of wine publications and citations by country and over time related a country's scientific performance in wine research to its position in the global wine market as a producer, a consumer, or both. Results highlight the extent to which scientific positions can help to explain the emergence of some countries as new participants in the wine industry and established countries as old participants defending their positions. We also examined the extent to which the scientifi...

  17. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ke Li; Juan-mei Yang; Yi-bo Huang; Dong-dong Ren; Fang-lu Chi

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well under-stood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of re-covery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantiifed and compared among groups. No signiifcant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, vol-umes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased signiifcantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  18. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  19. TASTE PREFERENCES: BIOBEHAVIORAL AND NUTRIENT CORRELATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about determinants of taste preferences. We examined correlates of taste ratings for 112 foods (32 fruits/vegetables, F/V; 65 mixed dishes/snacks, M/S; and 15 desserts, D) in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, educated, middle-income adults aged 18-49 y (BMI 26.5 +/- 4.3 kg/m2). Hedonic ratin...

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  1. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their ind

  2. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  3. Yellow Wine and Red Wine: the Primary Prevention in Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-fang YANG; Hang-yuan GUO; Ju-fang CHI; Yong SUN; Chao XU

    2009-01-01

    To review the cardiac protective effects of wine intake and recommend moderate wine consumption as a primary prevention strategy for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Systematically review former studies on the wine con-sumption (red wine and yellow wine) by searching the Medline database and other related citations, and investigate possible protective pathways. Regular moderate wine intake can benefit heart from acute coronary symptom (ACS) at-tacking; reduce the relative risk of morbidity and mortality from CAD. It might not be imperative to ask people to stop drinking; inversely, we suggest moderate wine consumption as a preventive strategy in CAD for its guarding contribu-tion.

  4. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine.

  5. The Effect of Temperature on Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Alvarado, Cynthia; Andrew, Kendra; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on umami taste has not been previously studied in humans. Reported here are 3 experiments in which umami taste was measured for monopotassium glutamate (MPG) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) at solution temperatures between 10 and 37 °C. Experiment 1 showed that for subjects sensitive to MPG on the tongue tip, 1) cooling reduced umami intensity whether sampled with the tongue tip or in the whole mouth, but 2) had no effect on the rate of umami adaptation on the tongue tip. Experiment 2 showed that temperature had similar effects on the umami taste of MSG and MPG on the tongue tip but not in the whole mouth, and that contrary to umami taste, cooling to 10 °C increased rather than decreased the salty taste of both stimuli. Experiment 3 was designed to investigate the contribution of the hT1R1-hT1R3 glutamate receptor to the cooling effect on umami taste by using the T1R3 inhibitor lactisole. However, lactisole failed to block the umami taste of MPG at any temperature, which supports prior evidence that lactisole does not block umami taste for all ligands of the hT1R1-hT1R3 receptor. We conclude that temperature can affect sensitivity to the umami and salty tastes of glutamates, but in opposite directions, and that the magnitude of these effects can vary across stimuli and modes of tasting (i.e., whole mouth vs. tongue tip exposures). PMID:27102813

  6. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  7. Chemical Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins in Vitro and Their Reactions in Aging Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Hong Pan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins are present in many fruits and plant products like grapes and wine, and contribute to their taste and health benefits. In the past decades of years, substantial progresses has been achieved in the identification of composition and structure of proanthocyanidins, but the debate concerning the existence of an enzymatic or nonenzymatic mechanism for proanthocyanidin condensation still goes on. Substantial attention has been paid to elucidating the potential mechanism of formation by means of biomimetic and chemical synthesis in vitro. The present paper aims at summarizing the research status on chemical synthesis of proanthocyanidins, including non-enzymatic synthesis of proanthocyanidin precursors, chemical synthesis of proanthocyanidins with direct condensation of flavanols and stereoselective synthesis of proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidin-involved reactions in aging wines are also reviewed such as direct and indirect reactions among proanthocyanidins, flavanols and anthocyanins. Topics for future research in this field are also put forward in this paper.

  8. The appreciation of wine by sommeliers: a functional magnetic resonance study of sensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castriota-Scanderbeg, Alessandro; Hagberg, Gisela E; Cerasa, Antonio; Committeri, Giorgia; Galati, Gaspare; Patria, Fabiana; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Frackowiak, Richard

    2005-04-01

    We set out to investigate how the expertise of a sommelier is embodied in neural circuitry by comparing brain activity elicited by wine tasting with that found in naive drinkers of wine. We used fMRI to study 7 sommeliers and 7 age- and sex-matched control subjects to test the hypothesis that any difference in brain activity would reflect a learned ability to integrate information from gustatory and olfactory senses with past experience. A group analysis showed activation of a cerebral network involving the left insula and adjoining orbito-frontal cortex in sommeliers. Both these areas have been implicated in gustatory/olfactory integration in primates. In addition, activation was found bilaterally in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in high-level cognitive processes such as working memory and selection of behavioral strategies. Naive individuals activated the primary gustatory cortex and brain areas, including the amygdala, implicated in emotional processing.

  9. Acidic electrolyzed water efficiently improves the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanqi; Zhu, Baoqing; Li, Yao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-04-15

    The ability of acidic (AcW) and alkaline electrolyzed waters (AlW) to improve the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) wine was evaluated. Wines made with AcW (WAcW) were significantly better than wines made with AlW or pure water (PW) in aroma, taste, and colour. Volatile analysis showed that WAcW has high alcohol and ester contents, including 2-phenylethanol, isopentanol, isobutanol, ethyl dodecanoate, phenethyl acetate, and butanedioic acid diethyl ester. The total amino acid content of persimmon slurry soaked with AcW reached 531.2 mg/l, which was much higher than those of the slurries soaked in AlW (381.3 mg/l) and PW (182.7 mg/l). The composition of major amino acids in the AcW-soaked slurry may contribute to the strong ester flavour of WAcW. This is the first report to suggest that electrolyzed functional water (EFW) can be used to improve wine flavour, leading to the possible use of EFW in food processing.

  10. On Chinese and Western Wine Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-han

    2015-01-01

    Wine plays a big role in people’s social life both in China and in the West. Based on the perspective of cross culture, the paper gives a detailed analysis of the disparities of Chinese and western wine culture, and points out the factors for the forming of Chinese and western wine culture. It can be concluded that culture is the key to the understanding of wine phenomenon.

  11. MOLDOVA Where the Fine Wine Comes from

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Moldova is an ancient wine making region. The wine-making sector is one of the most important in Moldova, a traditional wine producer for many years, 25% of the country's exports and 9% of its gross output pertain to winemaking. This sector includes 25% of industrial working resources. Moldova vineyards occupy 2.3% of the world's territory planted with vineyards. The Republic of Moldova features in the list of the top ten wine and grape producing countries in the world.

  12. Longevity nutrients resveratrol, wines and grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekli, Istvan; Ray, Diptarka; Das, Dipak K

    2009-01-01

    A mild-to-moderate wine drinking has been linked with reduced cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular risk as well as reduced risk due to cancer. The reduced risk of cardiovascular disease associated with wine drinking is popularly known as French Paradox. A large number of reports exist in the literature indicating that resveratrol present in wine is primarily responsible for the cardioprotection associated with wine. Recently, resveratrol was shown to extend life span in ye...

  13. Stability properties of wines by absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larena, A.; Vega, J.

    1986-03-01

    The temporal evolution of absorption spectra (370-700 nm) of different spanish wines has been studied by us under the influence of air presence, and the light exposition. In particular, we have exposed the wines to a magenta light. Nevertheless, the color coordinates of wine show a little relative variation (0.1-1 %)

  14. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each...

  15. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Selected Herzegovinian Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, M.; Talić, S.

    2013-01-01

    Many wines, particularly red, contain different compounds that possess strong antioxidant activity. The subject of this paper was the determination of phenol compounds with strong antioxidant activity, contained in nine commercially available Herzegovinian red wines. Total phenols, flavonoids, nonflavonoids content and antioxidant activity of selected wines were determined. Total phenols content was determined spectrophotometrically by the Folin...

  17. SERRA - NEWEST HIGH QUALITY WINE MUSCAT GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine Muscat grape variety with colored pulp and juice Serra was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by P.Zamanidi and L.Troshin in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian Odessa black variety (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with the new Greek Muscat black berry Krimbas variety. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period is 146-155 days. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots is over 90. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight is 350 g. Grapes characterized with high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, with the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Cluster is medium, conical, sometimes with wing, medium density. Berry is small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are intensely colored, flavored with Muscat taste. Sugar content is very high, in the bushes at sun-dried bunches up to more than 40%. Prolonged preservation of crop on bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines, and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality intensively colored juice with Muscat taste. When used in blends with other varieties increases color, full flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  18. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  19. PREPARATION OF RED WINE BY BAKER’S YEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine such as red wine ,white wine, sparkling wine, rose wine etc. Study was conducted to produce red wine without using any sugar and making...

  20. Use of multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction and pervaporation for the determination of off-flavours in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; García-Barrera, T; Lorenzo, F; Beltrán, R

    2006-04-21

    The occurrence of off-flavours in wines and especially the so-called "cork taint defect" represents one of the most serious problem in wine industry in which 2,4,6-trichloroanisole has been blamed as the main responsible. The development of analytical methods for haloanisoles determination in wine/cork represent a challenge, mainly due to food matrix complexity and low taste and odour (T&O) threshold levels which are generally beyond the sensitivity of the analytical systems. In this work, a method based on the combined use of the recently developed multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) and gas chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry has been optimised for the determination of haloanisoles in wines. This powerful analytical methodology is compared with several analytical approaches based on pervaporation, an innovative membrane-based technique similar to dynamic headspace. Analytical features of the methods assayed reveal their suitability for the appraisal of haloanisoles in this matrix in which threshold odor concentrations are in the range 4-40 ng l(-1). The analytical approaches have been applied to the analysis of haloanisoles in different Spanish white and red wines, in which spiking experiments showed good recoveries for the methodologies assayed.

  1. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...... measuring the level of importance given by participants to a list of most common attributes used in choice of wine. Independent sample t-tests were applied to compare the best-worst scores between Generation Y and older cohorts. Findings – Differences were found in the level of importance that Generation Y...... gives to wine attributes in comparison to older cohorts. Generation Y was found to attach more importance to attributes such as “Someone recommended it”, “Attractive front label” and “Promotional display in-store”, whereas older cohorts gave more importance to attributes such as “I read about it...

  2. Neutrino, radioactivity and dating wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wine is a witness of the radioactivity of the atmosphere at the moment of grapes were collected. The possibility of measuring very low radioactivity levels (that was developed for studying neutrinos) has permitted the design of a new non-destructive method of dating bottled wines. This method is based on the detection of the 661 keV photon released whenever an atom of cesium 137 decays. This photon has enough energy to cross the thickness of glass and be detected. The presence of cesium 137 in the atmosphere is mainly due to the military atomic tests performed from 1950 to 1963 and to the Chernobyl accident that took place in 1986, as a consequence this method is valid to date wines that were produced only after 1950. (A.C.)

  3. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Bokulich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir.

  4. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  5. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food. PMID:26893070

  6. 山楂枣酒抗氧化能力分析评价%Evaluation on the Antioxidant Capacity of Hawthorn-jujube Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕玉鸥; 曲昕; 宋彬彬; 郭茜楠; 陆斌; 李胜元; 郁彭

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant capacities of hawthorn wine, jujube wine and hawthorn-jujube wine were studied in this paper. In the experiments, blueberry wine was used as the positive control. The total flavonoids, total phenolic content, total reducing power and their inhibitory effects on DPPH+and ABTS+were determined. The results showed that, the total reducing capacities of three kinds of wine and their inhibitory effects on DPPH+and ABTS+radicals were concentration-dependent, which were proportional to total flavonoids and total phenolics content in fruit wine. The total flavonoids and total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hawthorn-jujube wine was not the highest one, while its taste was greatly improved compared to hawthorn wine and jujube wine.%研究山楂酒、枣酒、山楂和枣混合酒的抗氧化能力。选用抗氧化能力较强的蓝莓酒作为阳性对照,用体外化学方法测定各果酒的总黄酮和总酚含量、总还原能力以及对DPPH+自由基和ABTS+自由基的抑制作用。结果表明,3种果酒的总还原能力及对DPPH+自由基和ABTS+自由基的抑制作用均呈现浓度依赖性,并与果酒中总黄酮和总酚含量成正比。虽然山楂和枣混合酒的总黄酮和总酚含量及抗氧化能力不是最高的,但其口感较山楂酒和枣酒有较大提高。

  7. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US ...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  8. Flavour-active wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cordente, Antonio G.; Curtin, Christopher D.; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2012-01-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can infl...

  9. Red wine asthma: a controlled challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, R; Henriksen, J M; Harving, H

    1986-12-01

    Drinking red wine may provoke bronchospasm in subjects with asthma. In order to reveal some of the possible agents involved in this reaction, 18 patients with a history of red wine-induced asthma were studied. They received, in a double-blind fashion, red wine with low sulfur dioxide (SO2) and high amine, high SO2 and high amine and low SO2 and low amine content. In each challenge, the wine was administered in stepwise increasing quantities until a total of 385 ml or a fall in peak expiratory flow of greater than 15% was reached. Nine subjects demonstrated a significant fall in peak flow in one or more challenges. In all cases the most severe reaction was observed after the wine with high SO2 content. The study suggests that SO2 is the most important factor in red wine-induced asthma. It is recommended that wine labels provide information on the SO2 content.

  10. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used to reduce salt and sugar content in foods such as replacement of sugar by sweeteners, replacement of sodium salts by blends of other salts, taste enhancement by aromas and taste boosters or gradua...

  11. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling in taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Bronwen; Dotson, Cedrick D; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Ji, Sunggoan; Drucker, Daniel J.; Maudsley, Stuart; Munger, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of sensory function can help animals adjust to a changing external and internal environment. Even so, mechanisms for modulating taste sensitivity are poorly understood. Using immunohistochemical, biochemical and behavioral approaches, we found that the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R) are expressed in mammalian taste buds. Furthermore, we found that GLP-1 signaling plays an important role in the modulation of taste sensitivity: GLP-1R knocko...

  12. A PROFILE OF THE GENERATION X WINE CONSUMER IN CALIFORNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; McVey, Colin M.

    2001-01-01

    This research shows that the wine market in California is segmented by age. Wine consumption behavior differs between the generation X consumer and those that are not generation X. They purchase different types of wine at different locations. There are different attitudes toward wine between the two groups. Generation X consumers are more concerned with the quality and image attributes of wine.

  13. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of...

  14. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  15. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  16. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain...

  17. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded wine warehouse on bonded wine premises for storing wine or allied products for credit purposes shall file...

  18. Putting words on wine: OENOLEX Burgundy, new directions in wine lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    OENOLEX Burgundy: New Directions in Specialised Lexicography The (meta)lexicography of wine encompasses the study and compiling of entries on the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or on the knowledge of wine in specialised dictionaries and encyclopedias. Also, although more rarely......, it encompasses the study and compiling of single-field dictionaries of the language and/or knowledge of wine. However, this is but a fraction of the lexicographic picture. The lexicography of wine also includes a broad range of lexicographically structured information tools on paper and online, such as wine...

  19. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use cues to assist them in making buying decisions. Consumers are also sceptical about the honesty of producers in marketing their awards. The question arises, whether, in the minds of South Africa's wine consumers, awards play a strong enough role in influencing their choice when buying wine. Research design: A convenience sample was drawn among South African wine consumers by using an online survey questionnaire. A sample of 285 was realised and the data analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings and implications: Wine awards are indeed recognised by the consumer as a cue that shapes their choices / selection criteria, but their importance is relatively low compared to other cues such as variety, vintage, producer, production method, packaging, place of origin and price. Yet, having established that decision-making is a complex set of interactions, wine awards do nevertheless play a role in supporting a decision in certain circumstances and for certain customer segments. Generally speaking, it was found that the more sophisticated a consumer (connoisseur is the less regard exists for wine awards. Not only do wine awards have lesser power in shaping decisions, but also attitudes towards the concept of wine awards are more negative. Lesser informed consumers tend to take more guidance from, and are less opinionated about the concept of wine awards. An independent monitoring authority is seen as a solution to raise the profile of wine

  20. Traditional phytochemistry: identification of drug by 'taste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Hankey, Alex; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2007-06-01

    Ayurveda, the system of traditional medicine from India, holds that 'Rasa', a concept roughly corresponding to taste, is a basis for identifying pharmacological properties of plants and other materia medica used in Dravyaguna-its system of phytomedicine. This idea has recently found support in studies of ibuprofen, the pharmacological properties of which are similar to those of oleocanthal, because the two substances have very similar tastes. This paper discusses a possible scientific approach to understanding the Ayurvedic (hypo)thesis in terms of the stereochemical basis of both pharamaco-activity and taste, and the numbers of possible pharmaco-active compounds that 'Rasa' may be able to distinguish. We conclude that molecules binding to a specific enzyme active site should have their own 'Rasa', and that the number of different subjectively experienced 'tastes' is more than enough to distinguish between molecular shapes binding to all enzyme active sites in the body. PMID:17549231

  1. Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Xu, Hong; Pronin, Alexey; Liu, Haitian; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2008-12-30

    Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5' ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric T1R receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling. We propose a cooperative ligand-binding model involving the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1, where L-glutamate binds close to the hinge region, and 5' ribonucleotides bind to an adjacent site close to the opening of the flytrap to further stabilize the closed conformation. This unique mechanism may apply to other class C G-protein-coupled receptors.

  2. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancer molecules. Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor.

  3. Gustatory processing and taste memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2016-06-01

    Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference. These studies have revealed a role for dopamine-mediated plasticity of the mushroom bodies that modulate the threshold of response to appetitive tastants. The identification of neural circuitry regulating taste memory provides a system to study the genetic and physiological processes that govern plasticity within a defined memory circuit. PMID:27328844

  4. Electrophysiological Recording From Drosophila Labellar Taste Sensilla

    OpenAIRE

    Delventhal, Rebecca; Kiely, Aidan; Carlson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral taste response of insects can be powerfully investigated with electrophysiological techniques. The method described here allows the researcher to measure gustatory responses directly and quantitatively, reflecting the sensory input that the insect nervous system receives from taste stimuli in its environment. This protocol outlines all key steps in performing this technique. The critical steps in assembling an electrophysiology rig, such as selection of necessary equipment and ...

  5. Metallic Taste from Electrical and Chemical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, Harry T.; Stevens, David A.; Chapman, Kathryn W.; Kurtz, Anne

    2005-01-01

    A series of three experiments investigated the nature of metallic taste reports after stimulation with solutions of metal salts and after stimulation with metals and electric currents. To stimulate with electricity, a device was fabricated consisting of a small battery affixed to a plastic handle with the anode side exposed for placement on the tongue or oral tissues. Intensity of taste from metals and batteries was dependent upon the voltage and was more robust in areas dense in fungiform pa...

  6. Inflammatory stimuli acutely modulate peripheral taste function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarhia, Devaki; He, Lianying; McCluskey, Lynnette Phillips

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation-mediated changes in taste perception can affect health outcomes in patients, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In the present work, we hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines directly modulate Na(+) transport in taste buds. To test this, we measured acute changes in Na(+) flux in polarized fungiform taste buds loaded with a Na(+) indicator dye. IL-1β elicited an amiloride-sensitive increase in Na(+) transport in taste buds. In contrast, TNF-α dramatically and reversibly decreased Na(+) flux in polarized taste buds via amiloride-sensitive and amiloride-insensitive Na(+) transport systems. The speed and partial amiloride sensitivity of these changes in Na(+) flux indicate that IL-1β and TNF-α modulate epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) function. A portion of the TNF-mediated decrease in Na(+) flux is also blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, although TNF-α further reduced Na(+) transport independently of both amiloride and capsazepine. We also assessed taste function in vivo in a model of infection and inflammation that elevates these and additional cytokines. In rats administered systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT responses to Na(+) were significantly elevated between 1 and 2 h after LPS treatment. Low, normally preferred concentrations of NaCl and sodium acetate elicited high response magnitudes. Consistent with this outcome, codelivery of IL-1β and TNF-α enhanced Na(+) flux in polarized taste buds. These results demonstrate that inflammation elicits swift changes in Na(+) taste function, which may limit salt consumption during illness. PMID:27009163

  7. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  8. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  9. Cholesterol modulates bitter taste receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydi, Sai Prasad; Jafurulla, Md; Wai, Lisa; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-09-01

    Bitter taste perception in humans is believed to act as a defense mechanism against ingestion of potential toxic substances. Bitter taste is perceived by 25 distinct bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) which belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the overall context of the role of membrane lipids in GPCR function, we show here that T2R4, a representative member of the bitter taste receptor family, displays cholesterol sensitivity in its signaling function. In order to gain further insight into cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4, we mutated two residues Tyr114(3.59) and Lys117(3.62) present in the cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif in T2R4 with alanines. We carried out functional characterization of the mutants by calcium mobilization, followed by cholesterol depletion and replenishment. CRAC motifs in GPCRs have previously been implicated in preferential cholesterol association. Our analysis shows that the CRAC motif represents an intrinsic feature of bitter taste receptors and is conserved in 22 out of 25 human T2Rs. We further demonstrate that Lys117, an important CRAC residue, is crucial in the reported cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4. Interestingly, cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4 was observed at quinine concentrations in the lower mM range. To the best of our knowledge, our results represent the first report addressing the molecular basis of cholesterol sensitivity in the function of taste receptors. PMID:27288892

  10. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  11. 南瓜酒的研制%Research on the Preparation of Pumpkin Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨以南瓜为原料的发酵酒酿造工艺.[方法]通过单因素试验考察不同的酵母接种量、初始糖度、初始pH、主发酵温度对发酵南瓜酒乙醇含量的影响,再以乙醇含量、总糖度、澄清度、色泽、滋气味等因素的综合评分为依据,通过正交试验对酿造工艺进行优化.[结果]南瓜酒发酵的影响因素从主要到次要依次为酵母接种量、主发酵温度、初始pH、初始糖度;发酵的最佳条件是初始糖度20%、初始pH 3.5、主发酵温度21℃、酵母接种量6%,主发酵时间7d.主发酵液离心取上清液经10 d后发酵处理,得到成品南瓜酒.南瓜酒的相关理化指标为:乙醇含量11.0%-12.0%(V/V),糖度4~5g/L;得到的南瓜酒色泽呈浅橙黄色,酒中带有南瓜清香,甜酸协调适口,酒体透明、无沉淀.[结论]南瓜酒口感柔和,气味独具南瓜果味芬芳,是一种极具市场潜力的保健型果酒.%[Objective] The fermentation technology of pumpkin wine was experimented. [Method] The effect of the different inoculation quantities of yeast, initial concentration of sugar, initial pH value and fermentation temperature on the content of alcohol fermented pumpkin and the fermentation technology of pumpkin wine optimized by means of orthogonal design based on the comprehensive evaluation of alcohol degree, content of total sugar, clarifying degree, colour, taste and others. [Result] The factor affecting the pumpkin wine fermentation was inoculation quantities of yeast > fermentation temperature > initial pH value > initial concentration of sugar and the best technical condition was the content of initial sugar was 22% ; the initial pH value, 3. 5; the fermentation temperature, 21 ℃; the amount of yeast-inoculating, 6% and the fermentation time, 7 days. The supernatant centrifuged from the fermented liquid was fermented again after 10 days and the pumpkin wine would be made. The relevant physiochemical index

  12. WINE PRODUCTION FROM CHEESE WHEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate commercial feasibility of producing an alcoholic beverage by wine yeast fermentation of supplemented cheese and cottage cheese wheys. Results indicated that the preferred processing route was (1) fractionation of the whey into prot...

  13. Modulation of Sweet Taste by Umami Compounds via Sweet Taste Receptor Subunit hT1R2

    OpenAIRE

    Jaewon Shim; Hee Jin Son; Yiseul Kim; Ki Hwa Kim; Jung Tae Kim; Hana Moon; Min Jung Kim; Takumi Misaka; Mee-Ra Rhyu

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using...

  14. Combined In Silico and In Vivo Analyses Reveal Role of Hes1 in Taste Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Masato S.; Yoshiyuki Kaneko; Kaori Kondo; Soichi Ogishima; Hiroshi Tanaka; Kazuhiro Eto; Takashi Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Author Summary The sensation of taste is composed of five basic modalities: sweet, bitter, umami, sour, and salty. Specialized taste cells perceive the various chemical cues within food. About 100 taste cells assemble into onion-shaped clusters called taste buds, which are located on taste papillae in the tongue epithelium and on oral mucosa. Of the five taste modalities, the taste stimulants responsible for sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are recognized by a group of G protein–coupled taste ...

  15. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  16. The Brewing Process of Wheat-poured Wine%“麦淋酒”的酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王都留; 叶文斌; 杨建东; 何九军

    2012-01-01

    "麦淋酒"是礼县大潭人酿造的一种低度酒,属白酒中的一种小曲酒.该酒以小麦为主要原料以青稞、荞及高粱为次要原料酿造.其酒色透明,酒味独特,性地平和.麦淋酒在酿制过程中采用纯粮食酿造,不添加任何其它物质,特别是以"百草尖"自制独特的酒曲,使该酒口味独特,具有一定的保健作用.其酿造过程一般经过制曲、发酵、烤酒三个阶段.%"wheat-poured wine" is a low alcohol liquors distilled by local people of the datan in Lixian, and this spirits is belong to a yeast liquor. The main raw materials of the wine are wheat, buckwheat and sorghum as for secondary raw materials. Wheat-poured wine are transparent, unique flavor and moderate taste. Which is made of pure grain, not adding other substances, in brewing process, Yeast-making, fermenting and roasting are three major stages. Specially, if "Baieao tip" is as distiller's yeast, this spirits has a u- nique taste and a certain role in health care.

  17. Evaluation of nitrates in albanian wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariola Morina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates are important compounds in nature but not desirable if they are present in wine at increased amount. The high level of nitrate is attributed to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in the vineyards. Method of the reactive Gries I and Gries II was used for the determination of nitrates in wine. There were analyzed 45 white wines and 55 red wines produced in 2008 – 2010, as well as wines produced from Albanian grape varieties Shesh i Bardhë and Shesh i Zi in 2009 and 2010, as an authentic wines evidence with denominated origin. From the results of analyses was observed that, in 51 % of white wines was found that the content of nitrates were less than 5 mg/l, in 46% of them the nitrates level goes up to 10 mg/l and only in 3 % of them the amount of nitrates is up to 12 mg/l. None of white wine samples have the content of nitrates over 20 mg/l. In this case there is no doubt for water addition during wine preparation. In regards of red wines, in 34% of them the amount of nitrates is up to 5 mg/l, in 30% of them up to 10 mg/l, while in 26% of them the amount of nitrates is 20 mg/l. Only 10 % of red wines have nitrates content over 20 mg/l which raise dubiety for falsified wines where water and sugar is added in the red marc. The level of nitrates in wines with denominated origin was under 20 mg/L.

  18. Antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of blackberry and grape wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Boban, Mladen

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  19. Research Methods of Acid-reducing Techniques for Fruit Wines%果酒降酸方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪浩; 颜雪辉; 张家庆; 徐国俊; 陈茂彬

    2013-01-01

    Flavor compounds of organic acids in fruit wine are very important for the taste and stability. Physical, chemical and biological methods for reducing acid in wine brewing would be systematically elaborated in this paper, and the new development trends in acid-reducing process of fruit wine were also prospected.%有机酸是果酒中重要的风味物质,对果酒的口味、稳定性等都有很大影响。对现阶段果酒酿造过程中常用的物理、化学及生物降酸法进行系统的阐述,并对果酒降酸方法新的发展趋势进行展望。

  20. The application of chitosan and benzothiadiazole in vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv Groppello Gentile) changes the aromatic profile and sensory attributes of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalini, Sara; Ruggiero, Antonietta; Rapparini, Francesca; Neri, Luisa; Tonni, Marco; Iriti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the effects of resistance inducers on wine aroma compounds and sensory attributes. Resistance inducers are a class of products able to elicit the plant defence mechanisms against pathogens, incurring lower toxicological risks than conventional agrochemicals. Among them, chitosan (CHT) and benzothiadiazole (BTH) are particularly effective in stimulating the biosynthesis of bioactive phytochemicals. They were used in a two-year survey conducted to assess experimental wines obtained from elicitor-treated grapes. Compared with conventional fungicides (penconazole and methyldinocap), in 2009, BTH increased total acetals and esters, while CHT raised the levels of total acetals and alcohols. Sensory analysis revealed that overall acceptance was higher in CHT than in BTH. In 2010, differences were not significant. Therefore, plant activators deserve attention beyond their efficacy in crop protection. In particular, in our experimental conditions, CHT improved the volatile profile, flavour and taste of Groppello wine.

  1. Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Maruyama

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca(2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami.

  2. Effect of concentration on taste-taste interactions with foods for elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    An increase in concentration of one of the tastants in a 'real food' might affect not only the perception of the taste quality of that manipulated tastant but also the other perceivable taste qualities. The influence of concentration increase of sodium or potassium chloride in tomato soup, sucrose o

  3. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states. PMID:27160511

  4. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  5. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  6. A PROFILE OF THE WINE CONSUMER IN CALIFORNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry

    2000-01-01

    This research shows that the wine market in the United States is segmented. The demographics and wine consumption behavior of the California wine consumer differs from the national consumer. The data examined here show that the California wine consumer can be further segmented into heavy spender and lighter spender groups based on demographics and wine consumption behavior. The existence of multiple segments in the wine market indicates that separately targeted marketing campaigns may be more...

  7. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Alonso, Abel; Sheridan, Lynnaire; Scherrer, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-dep...

  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR BY OPTICAL RED WINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana STOIAN

    2014-01-01

    Study exhaustive wine area is a frequently researched topic since the beginning of 2000 when it comes to legislative bases for wine and wine products. Among the considerations that led to its choice of study include: Romania considerable resources in terms of agricultural area, and especially the wine (mention here the existence of eight wine regions, vineyards and a hundred thirty seven) support and attention given to the legislative branch of Romanian wine (by law 244/2002-Legea vineyard an...

  9. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  10. Radon in the air of wine cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon level differences between cellar types, variation of the radon concentration, the dose to the workers was studied. 222Rn activity concentration in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary have been measured. 222Rn activity concentration in the air of wine cellars spreads over a wild range starting from ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bqm-3 up to 6 kBqm-3 characteristic for natural caves. (N.T.)

  11. A Gustotopic Map of Taste Qualities in the Mammalian Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoke; Gabito, Mariano; Peng, Yueqing; Ryba, Nicholas J. P.; Zuker, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    The taste system is one of our fundamental senses, responsible for detecting and responding to sweet, bitter, umami, salty and sour stimuli. In the tongue, the five basic tastes are mediated by separate classes of taste receptor cells each finely tuned to a single taste quality. Here, we explored the logic of taste coding in the brain by examining how sweet, bitter, umami and saltiness are represented in the primary taste cortex. Using in vivo two-photon calcium-imaging we demonstrated striki...

  12. Research Progress in Yeast Biodiversity in Grape Wine-producing Areas in China%中国葡萄酒产区酵母生物多样性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凯凯; 秦伟帅; 田冬; 苗丽平; 赵新节

    2015-01-01

    The fermenting properties of yeast strains have important influence on wine aroma, wine taste and wine typicality. The exploration of yeast biodiversity in each grape wine-producing area is of great importance in providing characteristic yeast strains for wine-making and yeast research. In this paper, the research progress in yeast biodiversity in grape wine-producing areas in China was introduced, which could provide useful reference for the construction of Chinese wine yeast strains resource bank.%菌种的发酵性能对葡萄酒的香气、口感及典型性有重要影响,探明每个葡萄酒产区酵母的生物多样性,为以后产区特色酵母菌种资源选育提供必要的研究基础,具有重要意义.对中国主要葡萄酒产区酵母生物多样性研究进行了综合阐述,为中国葡萄酒酵母菌种资源库的构建提供一定的参考.

  13. Genetic and functional diversity of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiano, Arturo; Kuramae, Eiko; de Hollander, Matias; Kowalchuck, George; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Pastorelli, Roberta; Fornasier, Flavio; Priori, Simone; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Despite the economic importance of vineyards in Italy, the wine sector is facing severe challenges from increased global competition and climate changes. The quality of the grape at harvest has a strong direct impact on final wine quality and the strong relationship between wine composition, aroma, taste and soil properties has been outlined in the "Terroir concept". However, information on the impact of soil microbial communities on soil functions, grapevine plants and wine quality is still lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the composition and the potential functions of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants grown in two soils which showed similar physical, chemical and hydrological properties but which provided a different wine quality. Materials and Methods Soils from two sites of the Chianti region in Tuscany (BRO11 and BRO12) cultivated with the grapevine cultivar Sangiovese with contrasting wine quality were examined by means of a structural and functional approach: specifically, GeoChip microarrays, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, enzyme assays and measurements of some soil biological properties, such as microbial biomass C and soil respiration, were carried out. Results Enzyme assays and soil biological analyses revealed a higher biological activity in BRO11 as compared to BRO12. The structure of soil microbial communities, assessed using 16S and 18S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing, revealed a higher presence of Actinobacteria in the BRO12 than in the BRO11 soil where, in contrast, the alfa-Proteobacteria are more abundant. GeoChip microarray analyses revealed a consistent difference in genes involved in S cycling, with a significant overrepresentation of sulfur-oxidation genes in BRO11 and increased levels of sulfate reduction genes BRO12. These results are consistent with the high content of sulfates and the abundance of Firmicutes such as Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans in the BRO

  14. Investigation of Phenolic Components of Hungarian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Márk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-two wines from the southernmost wine-producing region in Hungary(Villány were analyzed for their polyphenolic content by high performance liquidchromatography (HPLC. Our results show that wine variety or vintage year could not bedistinguished based on polyphenol content, but winery origin could be. Resveratrolconcentration is mainly dependent on variety and vintage year. The “human factor” (i.e.,winemaking style and technology seems to be more decisive for the polyphenoliccomposition of red wines than other factors, such as variety and vintage year.

  15. MOLDOVA Where the Fine Wine Comes from

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Moldova is an ancient wine making region. The wine-making sector is one of the most important in Moldova, a traditional wine producer for many years, 25% of the country's exports and 9% of its gross output pertain to winemaking. This sector includes 25% of industrial working resources. Moldova vineyards occupy 2.3% of the world's territory planted with vineyards. The Republic of Moldova features in the list of the top ten wine and grape producing countries in the world.……

  16. Flor yeast: new perspectives beyond wine ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-luc eLegras; Jaime eMoreno García; Severino eZara; Giacomo eZara; Teresa eGarcia Martinez; Ilaria Maria Mannazzu; Juan Carlos Mauricio; Anna Lisa Coi; Marc eBou Zeidan; Sylvie eDequin; Juan eMoreno; Marilena eBudroni

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the ageing of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as the velum...

  17. Flor yeast: new perspectives beyond wine aging

    OpenAIRE

    Legras, Jean Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Pas de clé UT The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen andfermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also kno...

  18. Wine Tourism: A Serious Leisure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll A. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today wine tourism is emerging as an important component of rural diversification in North Carolina. Using Stebbins’ (1992 model of serious leisure as a guideline, the purpose of this study is to explore how wine tourism may be viewed as a type of serious leisure and to suggest a conceptual approach to the study of wine consumers in order to develop effective wine marketing strategies for local wineries in North Carolina. In addition, this study suggests an approach that small North Carolina wineries might use to identify various types of winery visitors and better position their products.   

  19. Selected Stories from the History of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estreicher, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    The archaeological and chemical evidence of wine making shows that vines were cultivated and wine produced well over 7,000 years ago. Wine has been a part of the history of Western Civilization ever since. This talk will start with a brief overview of the key events in the history of wine, and then I will select a few topics which will be discussed in more detail. One of the topics includes a rather tenuous connection to Isaac Newton himself, a futile attempt on my part to justify the very existence of this talk at a Texas Section APS meeting.

  20. Intensity of regionally applied tastes in relation to administration method: an investigation based on the "taste strips" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Brian; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To compare various methods to apply regional taste stimuli to the tongue. "Taste strips" are a clinical tool to determine gustatory function. How a patient perceives the chemical environment in the mouth is a result of many factors such as taste bud distribution and interactions between the cranial nerves. To date, there have been few studies describing the different approaches to administer taste strips to maximize taste identification accuracy and intensity. This is a normative value acquisition pilot and single-center study. The investigation involved 30 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (18 women, 12 men, mean age 33 years). The taste test was based on spoon-shaped filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at concentrations shown to be easily detectable by young healthy subjects. The strips were administered in three methods (held stationary on the tip of the tongue, applied across the tongue, held in the mouth), resulting in a total of 12 trials per participant. Subjects identified the taste from a list of four descriptors, (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and ranked the intensity on a scale from 0 to 10. Statistical analyses were performed on the accuracy of taste identification and rated intensities. The participants perceived in order of most to least intense: salt, sour, bitter, sweet. Of the four tastes, sour consistently was least accurately identified. Presenting the taste strip inside the closed mouth of the participants produced the least accurate taste identification, whereas moving the taste strip across the tongue led to a significant increase in intensity for the sweet taste. In this study of 30 subjects at the second concentration, optimized accuracy and intensity of taste identification was observed through administration of taste strips laterally across the anterior third of the extended tongue. Further studies are required on more subjects and the additional concentrations

  1. Exploring Retro-Nasal Aroma’s Influence on Mouthfeel Perception of Chardonnay Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sereni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many interactions that occur between taste and aroma that may impact perception. The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether the aroma fraction of wine should be considered when investigating relationships between chemical composition and sensory perception of mouthfeel. Chardonnay wines with different mouthfeels were produced by altering the fermentation temperature (15 °C and 21 °C of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations (MLF as well as the timing of MLF and the presence of a non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Napping® and Ultra-flash-profiling were conducted using a panel of white winemakers. Each procedure was conducted twice: once with retro-nasal aroma (+R and once without retronasal aroma (−R. Napping® results showed that retronasal aroma impacted mouthfeel perception. Ultra-flash profiling of +R and −R displayed similar descriptive terms used. Several terms appear to be related to retronasal aroma as they were used in +R and not in −R. It is unclear if these terms are due to interactions or due to associated learning. These results suggest that for some mouthfeel terms the volatile fraction plays a role and, to establish relationships between chemical composition and mouthfeel perception, it is important to consider both the volatile and nonvolatile wine fractions.

  2. Performance of Language-Coordinated Collective Systems: A Study of Wine Recognition and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Dębska, Agnieszka; Radkowska, Alicja; Komorowska-Mach, Joanna; Litwin, Piotr; Stępień, Magdalena; Kucińska, Adrianna; Sitarska, Ewa; Komorowska, Krystyna; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Most of our perceptions of and engagements with the world are shaped by our immersion in social interactions, cultural traditions, tools and linguistic categories. In this study we experimentally investigate the impact of two types of language-based coordination on the recognition and description of complex sensory stimuli: that of red wine. Participants were asked to taste, remember and successively recognize samples of wines within a larger set in a two-by-two experimental design: (1) either individually or in pairs, and (2) with or without the support of a sommelier card—a cultural linguistic tool designed for wine description. Both effectiveness of recognition and the kinds of errors in the four conditions were analyzed. While our experimental manipulations did not impact recognition accuracy, bias-variance decomposition of error revealed non-trivial differences in how participants solved the task. Pairs generally displayed reduced bias and increased variance compared to individuals, however the variance dropped significantly when they used the sommelier card. The effect of sommelier card reducing the variance was observed only in pairs, individuals did not seem to benefit from the cultural linguistic tool. Analysis of descriptions generated with the aid of sommelier cards shows that pairs were more coherent and discriminative than individuals. The findings are discussed in terms of global properties and dynamics of collective systems when constrained by different types of cultural practices. PMID:27729875

  3. Application of microbiological fertilizers in viticulture: Grape yield and quality of wine cv. Riesling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Branislava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recommended cultivars for top quality wines Riesling in the vineyards of Grocka is in full crop. It was grafted on Kober 5 BB stock and planted on the soil type cambysoil. The content of total nitrogen is 0.1-0.15%. Supply of easily available potassium varies between 12.3-15 mg/100g a.d.s.2, i.e. phosphorus 0.4-3.6 mg/100g a.d.s. in layer up to 40 cm. Microbiological fertilizer was used in the study - biological preparation prepared with mixed natural populations Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus circulons. The space in row is idle land and the space between rows was sown each year (March-April with a mixture of field pea and barley and ploughed in the inflorescence phase of legumes. Grape yield varied between 8772-6804 kg/ha. Microbiological fertilizer with Azotobacter had the highest yield and the control treatment had the lowest yield, where only grass mixture was sown. Extremely dry climatic conditions in the trial period caused the grape yield in cv. Riesling to be extremely low. In combination of fertilizers Bacillus megaterium + Bacillus circulons wine with the most ethanol, extracts and polyphenols was obtained. The wine obtained from the control treatment had a typical taste.

  4. How taste works: cells, receptors and gustatory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikut-Ligaj, Dariusz; Trzcielińska-Lorych, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of taste in mammals varies due to quantitative and qualitative differences in the structure of the taste perception organs. Gustatory perception is made possible by the peripheral chemosensory organs, i.e., the taste buds, which are distributed in the epithelium of the taste papillae of the palate, tongue, epiglottis, throat and larynx. Each taste bud consists of a community of ~100 cells that process and integrate taste information with metabolic needs. Mammalian taste buds are contained in circumvallate, fungiform and foliate papillae and react to sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami stimuli. The sensitivity of the taste buds for individual taste stimuli varies extensively and depends on the type of papillae and the part of the oral cavity in which they are located. There are at least three different cell types found in mammalian taste buds: type I cells, receptor (type II) cells and presynaptic (type III) cells. This review focuses on the biophysiological mechanisms of action of the various taste stimuli in humans. Currently, the best-characterized proteins are the receptors (GPCR). In addition, the activation of bitter, sweet and umami tastes are relatively well known, but the activation of salty and sour tastes has yet to be clearly explained. PMID:26447485

  5. HISTORICAL FRAGMENTS OF ESTABLISHMENT OF "MAGARACH" SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTE OF GRAPES AND WINE AND THE ELEMENTS OF ITS SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova-Donchouk L. B.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents historical information about the stages of gradual transformation of the first non-large wine-making institution of Crimea, organized in 1828 under the initiative of Prince M.S. Vorontsov in the natural boundary called Magarach near the Imperial Nikitsky botanical garden in the world famous Institute of Grape and Wine "Magarach" - once the chief coordinator of the research work in the field of viticulture and winemaking republics of the USSR and the main forge of scientific staff in this direction. Among the directors of the institute of the last century, there were such talented organizers as A.G. Globa, T.G. Kataryan, P.Y. Golodriga. The Institute operated a network of regional branches, created enotec with a settled in 1836 wine Muscat pink Magarach (World rarity is reflected in the Guinness book of records, the world ampelographic collection (fourth in number of samples, scientists developed area-standard assortment for production, issued 11 Volumes of "Ampelography of USSR" (awarded by OIV, designed a lot of outstanding for yield and stability varieties (Pervenets Magaracha, Ranniy Magaracha, Citron Magaracha et al. and clones (Muscat white of Red Stone, Pinot Noir yields and others. grapes. There was a significant contribution in the sphere of research and development of viticulture and winemaking of world, the institute was given an international prestige and this led to establishing the base of the General Assembly of the OIV - International Organization of Grape and Wine, the International Symposium on the selection of wine-town, several international wine tasting competitions and International finest examples of table grapes

  6. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed.

  7. Wine and Words: A Trilingual Wine Dictionary for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. van der Merwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The South African wine industry identified the need for a special-field on-line dictionary on viticulture and oenology in Afrikaans, English and isi-Xhosa. The dictionary provides information on wine terminology as well as linguistic information on the use of such terminology. The purpose of this article is to give a description of the project. The process of compiling the dictionary is described, from the co-operation between the wine industry and lexicographers to the intended target users and the choice of languages of the dictionary. Functions of the dictionary are discussed, with reference to specific user situations, namely text production, text reception and translation. A system of labels has been designed for the dictionary and its benefit for the user is explained. In assisting the user to make an informed choice of a term, the notion of proscriptiveness has been followed in the presentation of information in the wine dictionary.

    Keywords: TRILINGUAL WINE DICTIONARY, SPECIALISED LEXICOGRAPHY, VITICULTUREAND OENOLOGY TERMS, ON-LINE DICTIONARY, TARGET USERS, USER SITUATIONS,FUNCTIONS, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, LABELS, ENCYCLOPEDICKNOWLEDGE, LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE, PROSCRIPTION

    Opsomming: Wyn en woorde: 'n Drietalige Wynwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf het die behoefte aan 'n aanlynvakwoordeboek oor wynenwingerdkunde in Afrikaans, Engels en isiXhosa geïdentifiseer. Die woordeboek verskaf inligtingoor wynterminologie, sowel as taalkundige inligting oor die gebruik van sulke terminologie. Diedoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n beskrywing van die projek te gee. Die samestellingsproses van diewoordeboek word beskryf, vanaf die samewerking tussen die wynbedryf en die leksikograwe, totdie voorgestelde teikengebruikers en die keuse van die tale van die woordeboek. Funksies van diewoordeboek word bespreek, met verwysing na spesifieke gebruikersituasies, naamlik teksproduksie

  8. Taste-immunosuppression engram: reinforcement and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maj-Britt; Härting, Margarete; Kou, Wei; Del Rey, Adriana; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Schedlowski, Manfred; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2007-08-01

    Several Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have documented the brain's abilities to sense immune-derived signals or immune status, associate them with concurrently relevant extereoceptive stimuli, and reinstate such immune responses on demand. Specifically, the naturalistic relation of food ingestion with its possible immune consequences facilitates taste-immune associations. Here we demonstrate that the saccharin taste can be associated with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A, and that such taste-immune associative learning is subject to reinforcement. Furthermore, once consolidated, this saccharin-immunosuppression engram is resistant to extinction when avoidance behavior is assessed. More importantly, the more this engram is activated, either at association or extinction phases, the more pronounced is the conditioned immunosuppression.

  9. Taste as didactic element in food education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    to their own expected learning, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation and innovation in school. The method is a survey based on questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have participated a cooking competition that forms part of the subject Food Knowledge...... in the national Danish school. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis indicates that student’s experience of working with taste have an impact on students’ learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student...... participation and innovation. The paper conclude that food education building on ‘hegemonic nutrition’ and traditional didactic elements do not necessarily condition the best learning outcome; food education that balance between traditional didactic elements and incorporate taste as a didactic approach enable...

  10. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  11. WINE TOURISM – AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF WINE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA OLARU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania is a major European wine producing country with its great historical past and rich cultural traditions, many of them directly related to this beverage rightly considered a divine liqueur. It has favorable climatic conditions, natural landscapes and beautiful vineyards.The wine tourism is a collateral activity to wine industry which lead to regional development. This paper highlights the success factors to attract and to motivate the wine tourist. Romania has a considerable potential regarding the wine tourism development. But the lack of the promotion, of a defining brand and of the infrastructure hinder the capitalization of these factors.

  12. French Wine Grape Investigation Report%法国葡萄酒生产考察报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉文; 李惠军; 虎玉宝; 贺西平

    2015-01-01

    通过对法国酿酒葡萄栽培品种、种植管理技术、酿造工艺、苗木繁育、葡萄酒等级分类、侍酒技术及法国葡萄酒化验检测分析、生产销售模式、酿造设备配供考察,提出了宁夏葡萄酒生产在搞好产业规划、培养人才的同时,挖掘培育宁夏贺兰山东麓葡萄酒文化,加强政府对葡萄酒生产的投入和监管力度,逐步完善建立人才培养、质量追朔体系、检测化验技术中心、专业合作社生产销售等措施,以推动宁夏贺兰山东麓葡萄酒产业向优质、高效的目标健康、持续发展。%Based on a learning of the French wine tasting and method, wine grape cultivar, planting management technology, brewing process, seedling breeding, wine classification, sommelier technology as well as the laboratory analysis and detection of the French wine, production and sales mode and brewing equipment allocation, some measures are put forward for wine production in Ningxia, such as doing a good job of industrial planning and talents cultivation, excavating and cultivating the wine culture of the eastern foot of Helan Mountain in Ningxia, enhancing government investment and supervision in wine production, establishment and gradual improvement of talents cultivation and quality traceability system, center of laboratory analysis and detection of wine and production and sales with professional cooperatives, to push the wine industry of the eastern foot of Helan Mountain in Ningxia to develop towards the objective of high quality and high efficiency healthily and sustainably.

  13. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, L.; Roehrdanz, PR; Ikegami, M; Shepard, AV; Shaw; Tabor, G; Zhi, L; Marquet, PA; Hijmans, RJ

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticul...

  14. Wine and Coca Cola: Serendipity and Entrepreneurial success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Philip

    2007-03-01

    Starting a new company from scratch depends critically on identifying a product for which there will be enough demand to generate a profit after a reasonable time period. Many start-ups nowadays obtain early Government grants or contracts (e. g. the so-called SBIR programs), but until such contracts begin (if ever!) to provide positive cash flow, a source of other funds become essential. Despite contracts, venture capital, and some friends willing to ``gamble,'' our first entrepreneurial venture ended not with a bang, but a whimper! We had chosen the wrong market. On the day before the company closed its doors, an unanticipated event occurred. We had opened a few bottles of wine for our final farewell but, as we began drinking, we decided to study their laser-scattering properties with our unappreciated and failed instrumentation. The resulting press coverage of a paper reporting that ``tasting'' was phenomenal, though it was published too late to save the company. Starting a second entrepreneurial venture was far more difficult as the first ``angels'' were nowhere to be found. A forgotten proposal by that failed first venture was suddenly funded providing, thereby, the means to start the second. As the second venture began, the success of the wine paper suggested that trying the same method with cola drinks might prove interesting. A new paper reporting on those results was immediately picked up by Applied Optics for an issue cover. At first, a particular cola manufacturer was not amused. However, it soon recognized the significance of laser scattering and began to contribute to the Company's support. Complemented by their largesse and the newly funded contract, the Company's instrumentation commercialization programs became sharply focused: refine the development and sale of a new type of absolute light scattering photometer incorporating a laser. We never looked back.

  15. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue, Jesusa; Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2012-03-27

    Mammalian sweet taste is primarily mediated by the type 1 taste receptor Tas1r2/Tas1r3, whereas Tas1r1/Tas1r3 act as the principal umami taste receptor. Bitter taste is mediated by a different group of G protein-coupled receptors, the Tas2rs, numbering 3 to ∼66, depending on the species. We showed previously that the behavioral indifference of cats toward sweet-tasting compounds can be explained by the pseudogenization of the Tas1r2 gene, which encodes the Tas1r2 receptor. To examine the generality of this finding, we sequenced the entire coding region of Tas1r2 from 12 species in the order Carnivora. Seven of these nonfeline species, all of which are exclusive meat eaters, also have independently pseudogenized Tas1r2 caused by ORF-disrupting mutations. Fittingly, the purifying selection pressure is markedly relaxed in these species with a pseudogenized Tas1r2. In behavioral tests, the Asian otter (defective Tas1r2) showed no preference for sweet compounds, but the spectacled bear (intact Tas1r2) did. In addition to the inactivation of Tas1r2, we found that sea lion Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 are also pseudogenized, consistent with their unique feeding behavior, which entails swallowing food whole without chewing. The extensive loss of Tas1r receptor function is not restricted to the sea lion: the bottlenose dolphin, which evolved independently from the sea lion but displays similar feeding behavior, also has all three Tas1rs inactivated, and may also lack functional bitter receptors. These data provide strong support for the view that loss of taste receptor function in mammals is widespread and directly related to feeding specializations. PMID:22411809

  16. New polymer for removal of wine phenolics: Poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ricardo I; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Guzmán, Luis; Laurie, V Felipe; Valdés, Oscar; Ávila-Salas, Fabián; López-Cortés, Xaviera; Santos, Leonardo S

    2016-12-15

    The phenolic compounds of wine contribute to color and astringency, also are responsible for the oxidation state and bitterness. Due the importance of these molecules, different techniques have been used to modulate their concentration such as natural or synthetic polymeric agents. Among the polymeric agents, PVPP is one of the most used, but lacks of selectivity and has a limited pH range. Therefore, the aim of this study was the synthesis of a new polymer, poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA), for removal of phenolic compounds, as a potential agent for the fining of wine. The new polymer affinity was studied using HPLC-DAD for different polyphenols using PVPP as a control. The results showed that the new polymer has a similar removal as PVPP, but with lower affinity to resveratrol. The interactions established between polymers and polyphenols were studied using computational chemistry methods demonstrating a direct correlation with the experimental affinity data. PMID:27451217

  17. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  18. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  19. Taste loss in hospitalized multimorbid elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toffanello ED

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ED Toffanello,1 EM Inelmen,1 A Imoscopi,1 E Perissinotto,2 A Coin,1 F Miotto,1 LM Donini,3 D Cucinotta,4 M Barbagallo,5 E Manzato,1 G Sergi11Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Geriatrics Division and University of Padova, Padova, 2Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 3Department of Medical Physiopathology (Food Science Section, University of Roma, La Sapienza, Roma, 4S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, 5Geriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Emerging Diseases, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: Loss of the sense of taste is common among older people. Morbidities and polypharmacy may contribute to the age-related decline in gustatory function. The aims of the present study were to investigate taste perception in elderly hospitalized patients by comparing their taste recognition thresholds with those of healthy, free-living elderly individuals and to identify potential determinants of taste loss.Methods: The participants in this observational study were 55 elderly patients hospitalized in the acute geriatric section of the Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences at Padova University and 41 free-living individuals aged older than 65 years, randomly recruited from elderly people attending mild fitness programs at public gymnasiums in Padova. Data were collected on nutrition, health, cognitive, and functional status for all participants. Gustatory capabilities were assessed using aqueous solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride (representing sweet, salty, sour, and bitter stimuli, respectively, and taste recognition thresholds were measured in both groups.Results: In comparison with the free-living elderly subjects, those in hospital were significantly less able to recognize the taste of citric acid (P < 0.05. Low citric acid sensitivity was independently associated with advanced age (≥75 years; odds ratio [OR] 3

  20. Is the taste of fat regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Chevrot, Michael; Bernard, Arnaud; Ancel, Déborah; Martin, Céline; Besnard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, converging data have been accumulated both in rodents and humans, supporting the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of dietary lipids. It is well known that the sense of taste is determinant for the food choice and that the overconsumption of highly palatable energy-dense foods contributes to the current obesity epidemic. Thus, an important issue in terms of Public Health is to understand the mechanisms by which the oro-sensory perception of fat is regulated. An overview of our current knowledge in this field of investigations is proposed in this mini-review. PMID:23933093

  1. Incentives through Consumer Learning about Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    We consider a long-lived firm that faces an infinite sequence of finitely-lived consumers. In each period, the firm can exert either high or low effort, which is the firm's private information. When consumers learn about the firm's talent from the outcomes of previous transactions, there exists...... no equilibrium in which the firm always exerts high effort. However, when consumers learn about their own tastes, such an equilibrium can exist. Consumer learning about tastes therefore is an alternative to reputational concerns that produces stable incentives. We discuss the implications of this mechanism...

  2. Organic Acid Composition in Croatian Predicate Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mihaljević Žulj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Continental Croatia wine region and especially Kutjevo vineyards are famous for their predicate wines production and quality. The most common grape varieties used there for different types of predicate wine are Welsch Riesling and Traminer. Ice wines, selected harvest wines and dry berry selection wines from different harvest years were examined by HPLC method to determine organic acids composition. The oldest sample was Traminer selected harvest from vintage year 1990, while the youngest wine was Traminer ice wine from harvest 2011. The dominant organic acids in all analyzed wines were tartaric, malic, citric and galactaric, ranged from 0.09 to 2.98 g/L. In most wines the difference in concentration of glucuronic, galacturonic and gluconic acids was established. The highest content of glucuronic acid was 58.4 mg/L in Traminer dry berry selection 2011. Galacturonic acid dominated in the same wine (924 mg/L, just like gluconic acid (141 mg/L. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  3. THE FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR ON WINE CONSUMPTION IN THE MOLDOVAN WINE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With an area of over 148000 ha allotted to vine culture, the Republic of Moldova has a well-developed traditional wine industry, recognized on international markets. Although the largest part of wine-making products is designed for export, we must not neglect the domestic market, which assures the stability and constancy of consumption. The district Cahul, the region in which the research was carried out, represents one of the most important areas of production of red wines, sweet and semi-sweet wines. The study tried to highlight the main features of Moldavian consumer of table wines, factors of influence in the consumption and acquisition of wines, the degree of satisfaction regarding the products that exist on the market. The results of research can be useful to both producers and traders of local and import wines.

  4. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  5. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    OpenAIRE

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick; Steinle, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemos...

  6. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature...

  7. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated b...

  8. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller

  9. Gustology As A Science About The Aesthetical Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NataliaG.Kalashnik

    2003-01-01

    The new problem to be solved together; Last decade's changes of the world; The aesthetical taste as a part of day-by-day life; Gustology - the new science; Definitions and the double nature of the aesthetical taste; History of the aesthetical taste studying.

  10. Taste adaptation during the eating of sweetened yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.J.M.; Polet, I.A.; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    2000-01-01

    Taste adaptation, a gradual decline of taste intensity with prolonged stimulation, is frequently observed in laboratory experiments. However, during normal eating the taste of food does not seem to decrease or disappear. During eating, the presence of saliva, the interactions between tastants and od

  11. Another Look at the Wine Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeerd, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent article, Iain MacInnes analyzed the static equilibrium of a system consisting of a wine bottle and a wine butler. After discussing that composite system, students can be asked to consider only the bottle (and its contents) as the system. An interesting challenge for them is to describe the forces on the bottle in static equilibrium.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  13. Teaching the Language and Culture of France through Its Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    The study of wine offers possibilities for teaching a variety of topics in the high school or college French class: geography, history, grape varieties, food-wine combinations, the art of appreciating and distinguishing wines, the wine industry, and French daily life. The development of a slide-tape presentation is described in detail. Resource…

  14. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses...

  15. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  16. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  17. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  18. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  19. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  20. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be...

  1. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  2. 27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall maintain records showing by transaction date the details of...

  3. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  4. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  5. 复方烧伤膏收敛止痛的疗效观察%Analgesic effect and astringency of Compound burn ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Background:Burns are injuries caused by attaching factors such as high-temperature,strong acids,and bases etc.Areola and blister or vesticles appear at site in mild cases.Charring,serious toxic heat,consumption of yin fluid,fever,dizzy,thirst,constipation,and oliguria appear in severe cases.Compound burn ointment was developed according to modern traditional Chineses medicine principles and pathological changes of burned skin,which consisted of Sanguisorba root 120 g,Earth worm 120 g,Fibraurea stem 120 g,Dandelion herb 150 g,Dried rehmannia root 150 g,Huanglian 120 g,Yuanhu 150 g,Beeswax 120 g,Borneol 30 g,Oliva 2000 g. Objective:To investigate the analgesic and astringency of compound burn ointment. Unit: Affiliated Central Hospital of Shengyang Medical College.

  6. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  7. Wine and bone health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutleša, Zvonimir; Budimir Mršić, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    A light-to-moderate wine consumption has been shown to provide several beneficial effects on the skeletal system, including reduced risk of bone mass loss and fractures. Wine is rich in phenolic compounds, strong phytoestrogens and natural antioxidants, to which bone protection is mainly attributed. The objective of this review was to give an overview of the exact mechanisms by which wine consumption is involved in bone protection. We found a great variety of in vitro research on the beneficial effects of isolated wine phenolics on the skeletal system, with a significant lack of evidence of their in vivo effects. In addition, we found almost no studies investigating how wine, a mixture of these phenolics dissolved in ethanol, affects the skeletal system. Our results warrant further research on this interesting topic.

  8. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  9. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  10. Water palatability, a matter of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Manon; van Nes, A.; Tobias, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to test whether the temperature or additives of the drinking water affected water uptake by nursery pigs. We designed a repeated 4 × 4 Latin Square to control for confounding factors such as; carry-over effects, learning of a preferential taste, daily variation w

  11. Music taste groups and problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-

  12. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  13. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  14. Influence of bitter taste on mastication pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyraud, E.; Peyron, M.A.; Vieira, C.; Dransfield, E.

    2005-01-01

    Mastication is a rhythmic activity that can be modified by peripheral information generated in the mouth. To study whether taste cognition could influence the way in which a food is broken down in the mouth, subjects masticated firm, sugar-based gelatine gels with differing concentrations of quinine

  15. The Musical Taste of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a…

  16. Technology and Attention Problems of Home-brewing Grape Wine%家酿葡萄酒工艺及应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杜娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the home-brewing grape wine quality, the operating technologies and attention problems at the operating processesof brewing grape wine from selecting materials to storing were outlined. In order to ensure the normal fermentation, sulphurous acid and yeastshould be added after grape had been crushed. In order to improve wine quality,the management of ambient temperature at pre-fermentation,postfermentation and wine storage stage should be strengthened. In order to make crystal clear,aroma,and mellow taste wine,artificial clarifying andblending should be carried out.%为了提高家酿葡萄酒的质量,简述了家酿葡萄酒从选料到贮存各部分的操作工艺及应注意的问题,提出葡萄破碎后应添加亚硫酸及酵母,以保证发酵的正常进行;应加强前期发酵、后期发酵和葡萄酒贮存期间的环境温度管理,以提高葡萄酒质量;开展人工澄清及勾兑,可使酒液清澈透明、香气浓郁、口味醇厚.

  17. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  18. Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous and sequential co-fermentation: a strategy to enhance acidity and improve the overall quality of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Mirko; Comitini, Francesca; Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    In the last few years there is an increasing interest on the use of mixed fermentation of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for inoculation of wine fermentations to enhance the quality and improve complexity of wines. In the present work Lachancea (Kluyveromyces) thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated in simultaneous and sequential fermentation with the aim to enhance acidity and improve the quality of wine. In this specific pairing of yeast strains in mixed fermentations (S. cerevisiae EC1118 and L. thermotolerans 101), this non-Saccharomyces yeast showed a high level of competitiveness. Nevertheless the S. cerevisiae strain dominated the fermentation over the spontaneous S. cerevisiae strains also under the industrial fermentation conditions. The different condition tested (modalities of inoculum, temperature of fermentation, different grape juice) influenced the specific interactions and the fermentation behaviour of the co-culture of S. cerevisiae and L. thermotolerans. However, some metabolic behaviours such as pH reduction and enhancement of 2-phenylethanol and glycerol, were shown here under all of the conditions tested. The specific chemical profiles of these wines were confirmed by the sensory analysis test, which expressed these results at the tasting level as significant increases in the spicy notes and in terms of total acidity increases. PMID:23200661

  19. Somatosensory factors in taste perception: Effects of active tasting and solution temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Touch and temperature are recognized as important factors in food perception, but much remains to be learned about how they contribute to the perception of flavor. The present paper describes human psychophysical studies that investigated two recently discovered effects of mechanical and thermal stimulation on taste: (1) enhancement of the savory taste of MSG by active tongue and mouth movements, and (2) modulation of the rate of adaptation to sucrose sweetness by temperature. The first study...

  20. Making Sense of Taste : Psychophysical, molecular biological and neurophysiological studies of umami taste processing in humans

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate elicits a specific umami taste and increases palatability of food. In order to comprehensively study the mechanisms of the taste perception of glutamate, this work compiles results from several research fields namely, psychophysics, molecular biology and neurophysiology. At the perception level, the aim of the study was to explore individual variation in the perception of glutamate in the healthy population. At the cellular level, the question referred to the role of s...

  1. Kokumi Substances, Enhancers of Basic Tastes, Induce Responses in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Expressing Taste Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Maruyama; Reiko Yasuda; Motonaka Kuroda; Yuzuru Eto

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi su...

  2. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  3. WINE ROAD - AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE VALORISATION OF WINE TOURISM POTENTIAL CASE STUDY: ALBA COUNTY VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNGUREANU Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to highlight the wine-growing and wine-making potential of Alba County and the way it can be valorised. Alba county has a rich winegrowing and wine-making heritage, a fact which is due to the long-standing tradition of winegrowing on these area, as well as to the characteristics of the natural factors (relief, geology, climate, soil, favourable for obtaining high-quality wines, the reputation of which has been acquired at national and international competitions. In order to render useful the wine tourism resources, the development of a specific infrastructure is needed, as well as the creation of complex tourist products, able to satisfy a wide range of tourist motivations. An efficient instrument to make productive the wine potential of a region is the „Wine Road" – a tourist trail which includes the tourist attractions of a delimited area, usually with a controlled designation of origin, and also a diverse range of tourist services (transportation, accommodation, catering leisure etc.. In Alba County, the „Wine Road" can be considered as a tourist attraction in itself, but also a means of harnessing the rich cultural-historical and natural heritage and, implicitly, the wine-growing and wine-making heritage.

  4. TASTE MASKING METHODS AND AGENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion exchange resin, Coating, Granulation, Microencapsulation, Flavors, and Sweeteners, Pro-drug etc.The review also highlights factors affecting the selection of technology for taste masking and methods for evaluation of taste.

  5. Self-Consumption, Gifting, and Chinese Wine Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Ping; Hu, Wuyang

    2015-01-01

    Chins is the world largest red grape wine consuming country. Using data from a recent survey conducted in three diverse cities in China, this study examines Chinese consumers’ expenditure and preferences for wine for both self-consumption and gifting. Results indicate that in addition to price, Chinese consumers looked for other wine attributes such as brand and color but there are significant regional differences in wine preference and expenditure. On average, Chinese spend more on gift wine...

  6. Rethinking Wine Investment in the UK and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, James Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three arguments as to why the value of wine as an investment good has typically been understated and argues that wine investment in the UK and Australia represents a value proposition. It is argued that general all vintage wine indexes understate the return the typical investor receives; that comparisons using pre-tax returns overstate the value of standard financial assets relative to wine; and that wine investment provides value in terms of allowing portfolio risk to b...

  7. Innovative Forms of Wine Distribution and Sales in Istrian Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlo Ruzic

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many tourists with a pronounced culture of wine drinking have visited Istria. With continuous advancement in the wine culture and increasingly demanding guests, wine offers and sales have been in constantly creative improvement. Istria has good pedological and climatic conditions for grape and wine production. Equally, in Istria, outstanding wine production has been achieved, both in terms of quantity and quality. The purpose and goal of this paper is therefore to research th...

  8. Relation between Grape Wine Quality and Related Physicochemical Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Yue Chen; Yuan-Biao Zhang; Qiu-Ye Qian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate grape wine quality more objectively by reducing the error of traditional grape-wine-quality evaluation. On combining grape wine quality and physicochemical index of grapevine, we provided a grape-wine-quality evaluation model by grapevine’s physicochemical index in this study. Firstly, evaluations of the tasters are analyzed, for eliminating the disturbance caused by their individual difference. Then, relationship between grape wine and grapevines are anal...

  9. QUALITY SIGNALS IN WINE MARKETING: THE ROLE OF EXHIBITION AWARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, U.R.; Krska, P.

    2001-01-01

    Wine producers have their products evaluated at various wine exhibitions for the purpose of receiving awards that can be displayed on the bottles. This contribution introduces an approach to estimate optimal prices for wine exhibition awards. A case study has been employed in cooperation with a major Czech wine company to investigate the practical usefulness of the method. Estimating the relative importance of selected wine exhibitions as award origins and determining the partial utilities of...

  10. Advance of chinese wine-brewing craft with colored rice%我国有色米酿酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志栋; 林波; 陈国; 陈惠云; 俞静芬; 黄康盛

    2012-01-01

    Special colored beer, yellow wine and health wine is a new alcoholic liquid which is made by brewing colored rice as raw material with natural color, flavor, taste and nutrition, health care and curative effect. This review detailed the colored brewing wine definition, classify and developing history, and beer, yellow wine, health wine and their brewing process recently in China. And the market prospect of colored brewing wine is analyzed and forecast so as to provide technical support and new method for the development of the colored wine and further exploitation and utilization of colored rice.%应用有色米为基本原辅料酿造特有的有色米啤酒、黄酒或保健酒,是一类集有色米天然的色、香、味及营养疗效于一体的新颖饮料酒.该文就以有色米酿造酒的定义、分类及发展简史,以及我国近年来以有色米为主副料开发的啤酒、黄酒、保健酒及其加工工艺等做了综述,并对其市场前景作了分析,旨在为有色米酿造酒的拓展以及有色米深层次开发利用提供技术依据和新的思路.

  11. A Unique Laboratory to Explore Soil-Wine Relationships, North Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R.; Tomasino, E.; Tonkin, P.; Webb, T.; Burns, S. F.; Weersing, M.

    2012-12-01

    Zealand are distinguishable from one another by smell and taste. In these environments, cultural (management) decisions are adapted to maximize so-called physiological ripeness that tend to work against simple relationships between say latitude and mean temperature. Even within the conceptual framework provided by climate as a determinant of berry composition at harvest (and hence, presumably, wine composition), there is a recognition that landscapes and soils are important modifiers, particular of heat and water balance but also of nutrients and uptake of other components through root systems. The contrasting array of soils in North Canterbury provides an opportunity to validate the soil contribution to terroir.

  12. Food and Wine Tourism as a Pull Factor for Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Lemmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of the experience based tourism with reference to food and wine tourism in Tuscany. Starting from a literature review that has been focusing on a wide range of topics for long time, we explain first the different forms of tourism of taste; secondly the wide diffusion of this kind of tourism in Tuscany thanks to its important assets, as key factors to the tourist success; finally how the lack of upgraded tourist products and a standard communication are restraining its further improvement. The experience based tourism with its peculiar customization of the supply and the communication especially built for the new technological devices could upgrade the Tuscan tourist features. Just to give some examples, the more current tools include gamification and geocatching as new and amusing outputs that can involve the active tourist in search of new experiences, as well as the Sentiment Analysis as a process able to transform the customer opinions into useful data for a market segmentation and implementation of branding reputation.

  13. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  14. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  15. Drunken modernity: wine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Kjellgren

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tandis que le vin essaie de s’infiltrer dans le répertoire culinaire de la Chine, il s’agit plus qu’un simple processus de flux culinaires globaux du centre vers la périphérie. Le vin chinois est devenu un nouvel outil d’identification ainsi qu’un signe de la position renégociée de cette nation dans le monde. Pour ce qu’elle vaut, l’industrie vinicole sert également l’intérêt de l’État-parti en renforçant sa légitimité et en établissant son agenda politique. Dans cet article, qui rend compte de l’histoire du vin chinois ainsi que sa situation actuelle, la boisson est prise comme exemple des changements culinaires contemporains, mais surtout comme moyen d’explorer les significations et les limites sociales d’une modernité émergente distinctement chinoise. Une modernité qui dans sa volonté apparente d’absorber le nouveau et l’étranger remplace la dichotomie sino-occidentale jusque là prédominante, tout en adhérant toujours aux vieilles rengaines ‘que l’ancien serve le présent’ et ‘que l’étranger serve le chinois.’As grape wine tries to sell its way into the standard culinary repertoire of China, it is more than simply a process of a global culinary flow from the centre to the periphery. Chinese wine has become a new tool for identification as well as a sign of the nation’s renegotiated position in the world. For what it is worth, the wine industry also serves the interest of the party-state by strengthening its legitimacy and substantiating its political agenda. In this article, which reviews China’s wine history as well as the present situation, the drink is taken as an example of contemporary culinary change, but foremost as a means to explore the meanings and social limits of an emergent distinctly Chinese modernity. A modernity that in its apparent willingness to embrace the new and foreign supersedes the hitherto predominant Sino-Western dichotomy, while still adhering to the

  16. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  17. The discovery and mechanism of sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    Excess sugar intake posts several health problems. Artificial sweeteners have been used for years to reduce dietary sugar content, but they are not ideal substitutes for sugar owing to their off-taste. A new strategy focused on allosteric modulation of the sweet taste receptor led to identification of sweet taste 'enhancers' for the first time. The enhancer molecules do not taste sweet, but greatly potentiate the sweet taste of sucrose and sucralose selectively. Following a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancers, the sweet enhancer molecules cooperatively bind with the sweeteners to the Venus flytrap domain of the human sweet taste receptor and stabilize the active conformation. Now that the approach has proven successful, enhancers for other sweeteners and details of the molecular mechanism for the enhancement are being actively pursued.

  18. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the taste of crude drug and Kampo formula by a taste-sensing system (4): taste of Processed Aconite Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjiki, Naoko; Hosoe, Junko; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Sekita, Setsuko; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Mikage, Masayuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Goda, Yukihiro

    2011-04-01

    It is difficult to describe the taste of Processed Aconite Root (PAR) because it contains toxic compounds, and tasting poses some risk to the examiner. Therefore, there is no description of the taste of PAR in the latest Japanese Pharmacopoeia, although the taste of crude drugs has been regulated as a criterion for judgment. In this study, we revealed the objective taste of PAR by using a taste-sensing system. The PAR samples examined were classified into four types by how the samples were processed: PAR1 processed by autoclaving; PAR2-a processed by autoclaving after rinsing in salt (sodium chloride) solution; PAR2-h processed by heating after rinsing in calcium chloride solution; PAR3 processed by treating with hydrated lime after rinsing in salt solution. The most characteristic taste factor of PAR is an aftertaste of cationic bitterness, which was detected in all PAR sample solutions, even at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, anionic bitterness and saltiness were detected in all sample solutions at 1 mg/ml. Furthermore, umami was detected in the PAR1, PAR2-a, and PAR3 sample solutions at 1 mg/ml. Detailing the analyses of the four taste factors on the four sample types, we found each type has its own characteristic taste pattern. On the basis of these results, we proposed a method for discriminating one PAR type from another by using the system. PMID:21153604

  20. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  1. Hedonic taste in Drosophila revealed by olfactory receptors expressed in taste neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hiroi

    Full Text Available Taste and olfaction are each tuned to a unique set of chemicals in the outside world, and their corresponding sensory spaces are mapped in different areas in the brain. This dichotomy matches categories of receptors detecting molecules either in the gaseous or in the liquid phase in terrestrial animals. However, in Drosophila olfactory and gustatory neurons express receptors which belong to the same family of 7-transmembrane domain proteins. Striking overlaps exist in their sequence structure and in their expression pattern, suggesting that there might be some functional commonalities between them. In this work, we tested the assumption that Drosophila olfactory receptor proteins are compatible with taste neurons by ectopically expressing an olfactory receptor (OR22a and OR83b for which ligands are known. Using electrophysiological recordings, we show that the transformed taste neurons are excited by odor ligands as by their cognate tastants. The wiring of these neurons to the brain seems unchanged and no additional connections to the antennal lobe were detected. The odor ligands detected by the olfactory receptor acquire a new hedonic value, inducing appetitive or aversive behaviors depending on the categories of taste neurons in which they are expressed i.e. sugar- or bitter-sensing cells expressing either Gr5a or Gr66a receptors. Taste neurons expressing ectopic olfactory receptors can sense odors at close range either in the aerial phase or by contact, in a lipophilic phase. The responses of the transformed taste neurons to the odorant are similar to those obtained with tastants. The hedonic value attributed to tastants is directly linked to the taste neurons in which their receptors are expressed.

  2. Clinical Significance of Umami Taste and Umami-Related Gene Expression Analysis for the Objective Assessment of Umami Taste Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Noriaki; Satoh-Ku Riwada, Shizuko; Sasano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of umami taste sensation affects quality of life and causes weight loss and health problems, particularly in the elderly. We recently expanded the use of the filter paper disc method to include assessment of umami taste sensitivity, using monosodium glutamate as the test solution. This test showed high diagnostic performance for discriminating between normal taste function and disorders in sensation of the umami taste, according to established cut-off values. The test also revealed: (1) some elderly patients suffered from specific loss of umami taste sensation with preservation of the other four taste sensations (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter); (2) umami taste disorder caused a loss of appetite and decline in weight, resulting in poor health; (3) appetite, weight and overall health improved after appropriate treatment for umami taste disorder. Because of the subjective nature of the test, however, it may not be useful for patients who cannot express which taste sensation is induced by a tastant, such as those with dementia. Most recently, using tissue samples collected from the tongue by scraping the foliate papillae, we showed that evaluation of umami taste receptor gene expression may be clinically useful for the objective genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders. PMID:26881442

  3. Activation of wine bentonite with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of gamma rays on wine bentonite as well as influence of its adsorption and technologic qualities on the composition and stability of wines against protein darkening and precipitation has been studied. The experiments were carried out with wine bentonite produced in the firm Bentonite and irradiated with doses of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 MR. White and red wines have been treated with irradiated bentonite under laboratory conditions at 1.0 g/dm3. All samples are treated at the same conditions. The flocculation rate of the sediment was determined visually. Samples have been taken 24 h later from the cleared wine layers. The following parameters have been determined: clarification, filtration rate, phenolic compounds, calcium, colour intensity, total extracted substances, etc. The volume of the sediment has been determined also. The control samples have been taken from the same unirradiated wines. The results showed better and faster clarification in on the third, the 20th and the 24th hours with using of gamma-irradiated at doses 0.8 and 1.0 MR. The sediment was the most compact and its volume - the smallest compared to the samples treated with bentonite irradiated with doses of 0.6 and 0.4 MR. This ensures a faster clarification and better filtration of treated wines. The bentonite activated with doses of 0.8 and 1.0 MR adsorbs the phenolic compounds and the complex protein-phenolic molecules better. In the same time it adsorbs less extracted substances compared to untreated bentonite and so preserves all organoleptic properties of wine. The irradiated bentonite adsorbs less the monomers of anthocyan compounds which ensures brighter natural colour of wine. The gamma-rays activation consolidates calcium in the crystal lattice of bentonite particles and in this way eliminates the formation of crystal precipitates

  4. THE WINE MARKET IN JAPAN: MARKET COMPETITION AMONG EXPORTING COUNTRIES AND THE STRATEGY OF US WINE

    OpenAIRE

    ARAHATA, Katsumi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of wine consumption in the Japanese market, focusing on the consumption in households. Considering various tendencies of Japanese eating and drinking habits nowadays related to wine consumption, the model was built and empirically estimated. The data to be investigated was household's data from the past twenty-seven years of official statistics. It was found that Japanese households show high income elasticity for wine demand. The strategy...

  5. Multi-element analysis of wines

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of the element composition in wine is very important from toxicological point of view, since it could contains harmful elements, such as Pb, As and Cd, and from nutritional point of view, since wine contains essential elements for the human organism, such as Ca, Cr, Co, K, Se and Zn [1]. The presence of metals (i.e. Al, Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb) in wine is important for efficient alcoholic fermentation and for its sensorial characteristics (flavor, aroma, freshness). The element compositi...

  6. Membrane Technologies in Wine Industry: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rayess, Youssef; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-09-01

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in wine industry such as microfiltration, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis, but also emerging processes as bipolar electrodialysis and membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing a critical role in the field of separation/purification, clarification, stabilization, concentration, and de-alcoholization of wine products. They begin to be an integral part of the winemaking process. This review will provide an overview of recent developments, applications, and published literature in membrane technologies applied in wine industry. PMID:25751507

  7. Construction of Killer Wine Yeast Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Tetsuji; Choi, Eon-Ho; Ryu, Dewey

    1985-01-01

    A double-stranded RNA plasmid which confers the superkiller phenotype was transferred into a wine yeast (Montrachet strain 522) and its leucine-requiring derivative (strain 694) by cytoduction, using the protoplast fusion technique. The killer wine yeast constructed completely suppressed the growth of killer-sensitive strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in yeast extract-peptone-glucose medium at pH 4.5, whereas the killer effect was somewhat decreased at pH 3.5. The wine yeast harboring the k...

  8. The Demand for Wine and Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris; Riethmuller, Paul C.; Watts, Geof

    1983-01-01

    In this paper annual data series covering 1955-56 to 1978-79 are used to estimate the elasticity of demand for both wine and beer. These are first estimated using a flexible functional form. The habit formation hypothesis and the role of social and demographic factors are also examined. The demand for wine in aggregate is estimated to be relatively price inelastic in the short run, while in the long run it is relatively price elastic. With respect to income, the demand for wine is shown to be...

  9. WINE ROAD - AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE VALORISATION OF WINE TOURISM POTENTIAL CASE STUDY: ALBA COUNTY VINEYARDS

    OpenAIRE

    UNGUREANU Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to highlight the wine-growing and wine-making potential of Alba County and the way it can be valorised. Alba county has a rich winegrowing and wine-making heritage, a fact which is due to the long-standing tradition of winegrowing on these area, as well as to the characteristics of the natural factors (relief, geology, climate, soil), favourable for obtaining high-quality wines, the reputation of which has been acquired at national and international competitions....

  10. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring....... However, this is not expected to be the case if the packaging carries only a verbal indication of the potential ingredient (say, the word strawberry). We put these assumptions to experimental test. Our goal was to contribute firmer evidence to the legal decision-making in the present field while...... at the same time providing new perspectives and data to the general theoretical debate on the communicative potential of pictures versus words. Our findings showed that pictures did have an effect on assessments of naturalness that was however marginal compared to that of product type. Moreover, participants...

  11. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  12. Italian consumers׳ preferences regarding dealcoholized wine, information and price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Stasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers׳ preferences regarding dealcoholized wines are measured in terms of alcoholic content and the dealcoholization intensity information on the label. The analysis assumes dealcoholized wine is an imperfect substitute for traditional wines. Dealcoholization level, price, and other wine attributes are simultaneously evaluated by drawing on choice-modeling techniques. The results suggest that alcohol content of wine positively influences consumers׳ preferences and that dealcoholization generates aversion. Consumers tend to buy dealcoholized wine only for a discount proportional to the reduction in alcohol content. The target group for dealcoholized wine is younger, infrequent consumers, label readers, and people with alcohol dependency problems. Policy implications concern the fact that dealcoholized wine should not be labeled or marketed as a wine and that actions aimed at increasing consumer confidence toward this new product should be implemented.

  13. Postoperative Alterations in Taste and Smell

    OpenAIRE

    Elterman, Kelly Galina; Mallampati, Seshagiri Rao; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alterations in taste and smell, including but not limited to anosmia, ageusia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia, have been described in association with various medications, including anesthetic agents. Frequently, these symptoms occur 1-2 weeks after medication administration and last several months. While such a phenomenon is a rare occurrence, it nonetheless can significantly impact patients’ satisfaction and quality of life. Evidence Acquisition: The methodology consisted of a thorough ...

  14. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of −40 to −80 µA were applied to human subjects’ tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium su...

  15. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  16. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  17. Study of Odours and taste for Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Space Agriculture Task Force; Nakata, Seiichi; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2012-07-01

    The sense of taste and smell come under some kind of influences in the space environment. In the space, the astronaut was changed their food habits from light taste and smell food to like strong taste and smells food. When an astronaut live in the space comes to have weak bone like osteoporosis. It may become the physiologic condition like the old man on the earth. Therefore this study performed fact-finding of the smell and the taste in the old man on the earth as test bed of astronaut in space. Based on this finding, it was intended to predict the taste and the olfactory change of the astronaut in the space. The study included 179 males and 251 females aged 30-90 years in Yakumo Town, Hokkaido, Japan. Odours were tested using a ``standard odours by odour stick identification''method of organoleptic testing. Taste were tested using a ``standard taste by taste disc identification'' method of chemical testing. Correct answers for identification odours consisted of average 6.0±3.0 in male subjects and average 6.9±2.8 in female subjects. Correct answers for identification of sweet taste consisted of 81% males and 87% females, salty taste consisted of 86% males and 91%, sour taste consisted of 75% males and 78% females, bitter taste consisted of 76% males and 88% females. It became clear that overall approximately 20% were in some kind of abnormality in sense of smell and taste. I want to perform the investigation that continued more in future.

  18. Bitter taste receptors: Extraoral roles in pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Feroz Ahmed; Singh, Nisha; Arakawa, Makoto; Duan, Kangmin; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functional role of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) and bitter taste perception. This review will cover the recent advances made in identifying the role of T2Rs in pathophysiological states. T2Rs are widely expressed in various parts of human anatomy and have been shown to be involved in physiology of respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system. Empirical evidence has shown T2Rs to be an integral component of antimicrobial immune responses in upper respiratory tract infections. The studies on human airway smooth muscle cells have shown that a potent bitter tastant induced bronchodilatory effects mediated by bitter taste receptors. Clinical data suggests a role for T2R38 polymorphism in predisposition of individuals to chronic rhinosinusitis. The role of genetic variation in T2Rs and its impact on disease susceptibility have been investigated in various other disease risk factors such as alcohol dependence, head and neck cancers. Preliminary reports have demonstrated differential expression of functional T2Rs in breast cancer cell lines. Studies on the role of T2Rs in pathophysiology of diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and cancer have been promising. However, research in this field is in its nascent stages, and more confirmatory studies on animal models and in clinical settings are required. PMID:27032752

  19. Study on Sensory Comprehensive Assessment of Seasoning Wine by Fuzzy Mathematics%模糊数学综合感(评价调味料酒的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 郭明月; 尹军杰; 王富刚

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,fuzzy mathematics method is adopted for the sensory evaluation of four kinds of seasoning wine.The evaluation indexes include color,aroma,taste,posture.The results show that the sensory evaluation of four kinds of seasoning wine is ranked as 752>346,568>647.The method can differentiate exactly the quality of seasoning wine.%以色泽、香气、滋味、体态为评价因素,对四种调味料酒产品进行了模糊数学综合感官评价,结果表明:四种调味料酒感官评定从高到低为752>346,568>647,该法能客观地区分出调味料酒的优劣。

  20. ARE Update Volume 13, Number 6; The World of Wine: Economic Issues and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Sumner, Dan; Anderson, Kym; Montaigne, Etienne; Lapsley, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Is the World Overflowing with Wine? The Global Context for California Wine Supply and Demand The Southern Hemisphere and Global Wine Markets to 2030: Case Study of Australia European Wine Market Issues and Prospects in the Context of the Changes to the Common Market Organization for Wine Looking Forward: Imagining the Market For California Wine in 2030

  1. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the...

  2. Assessing wine quality using isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The analytical methods used to determine the isotope ratios of deuterium, carbon-13 and oxygen-18 in wines have gained official recognition from the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) and National Organisation of Vine and Wine. The amount of stable isotopes in water and carbon dioxide from plant organic materials and their distribution in sugar and ethanol molecules are influenced by geo-climatic conditions of the region, grape varieties and the year of harvest. For wine characterization, to prove the botanical and geographical origin of the raw material, the isotopic analysis by continuous flow mass spectrometry CF-IRMS has made a significant contribution. This paper emphasize the results of a study concerning the assessing of water adulterated wines and non-grape alcohol and sugar additions at different concentration levels, using CF-IRMS analytical technique. (authors)

  3. Volatile profile of wine Teran PTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teran PTP is a protected wine with a recognized traditional denomination produced from a grapevine variety ‘Refošk’ in winegrowing district Kras in Slovenia (European Union, 2009; Pravilnik, 2008. The aromatic profile of 82 Teran PTP wines produced in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 was monitored. Intotal the content of 16 volatile compounds was determined. The volatile compounds from wine were extracted following the liquid-liquid extraction and determined with a GC-MS method. The odour activity values and relative odour contributions were calculated for each volatile compound identified. Among sensorial important volatiles the highest odour activity values were determined for ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate. Other research papers also showed, that all red wines investigated except one contained ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate above sensory thresholds.

  4. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  5. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  6. Projecting the world wine market from 2003 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Wittwer, Glyn; Rothfield, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    Rapid New World supply increases are imposing downward pressures on prices for grape and wine producers. A per capita decrease in wine consumption in the world’s largest wine producers is being offset by consumption increases elsewhere, and growing consumer preferences for higher quality wines. We use a global wine model to project the world’s wine markets from 2003 to 2010. Our decomposition of results allows us to examine the contribution of different market forces to changes in prices ...

  7. California’s wine industry enters new era

    OpenAIRE

    Heien, Dale; Martin, Philip

    2003-01-01

    The wine industry in California and the world is entering a new era, marked by consolidation and globalization. People are drinking less but better wine. Will producers of lower-priced grapes raise quality to attract more upscale wine drinkers, putting downward pressure on all grape and wine prices, or will the wine-grape industry fragment into distinct quality and price segments? In 2001 and 2002, an increased grape supply and the recession led to declining prices for wine grapes in all area...

  8. Estimating the Demand for Wine Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cuellar, Steven; Huffman, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The demand for wine is generally estimated on an aggregate level as a single commodity. However, as recent history shows us, the demand for wine not only varies considerably by varietal, but also by price point within each varietal. As a result, although estimates of the demand for wine may be beneficial to the wine industry as a whole, they provide little benefit to individual wine producers. This paper seeks to overcome the limitations of prior research on the demand for wine by providing e...

  9. Yeast Interactions in Inoculated Wine Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ciani, Maurizio; Capece, Angela; Comitini, Francesca; Canonico, Laura; Siesto, Gabriella; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the diffe...

  10. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kántor; Miroslava Kačániová; Vendula Pachlová

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD), ...

  11. STUDY ON PROMOTING WINE BRANDS ONLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE; Adrian MICU; Irina SUSANU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to emphasize the role and importance of social media as a powerful wine promotion instrument. The necessity of approaching this issue is justified by the fact that we live in a Google-centric world and that companies’ marketing strategy as well as their content must constantly adapt to the online searching and information gathering behaviour. To this purpose, our research efforts concentrated on examining the top ten wine producers in Romania, pointing out that...

  12. Repertoire and frequency of consumption in wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    Frequency of consumption has always been an important criterion for characterising and segmenting buyers. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the repertoire and loyalty structures between heavy and light wine buyers. Based on a study conducted with stated preference data...... buyers are more loyalty prone than light buyers, both as regards the brand name and the wine attributes examined in this study....

  13. Crowdsourcing taste research: genetic and phenotypic predictors of bitter taste perception as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Garneau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of taste perception on food choice has captured the interest of academics, industry, and the general public. The latter as evidenced by the extent of popular media coverage and use of the term supertaster. Supertasters are highly sensitive to the bitter tastant propylthiouracil (PROP and its chemical relative phenylthiocarbamide. The well-researched differences in taste sensitivity to these bitter chemicals are partially controlled by variation in the TAS2R38 gene; however this variation alone does not explain the supertaster phenomenon. It has been suggested that density of papillae, which house taste buds, may explain supertasting. To address the unresolved role of papillae, we used crowdsourcing in the museum-based Genetics of Taste Lab. This community lab is uniquely situated to attract both a large population of human subjects and host a team of citizen scientists to research population-based questions about human genetics, taste, and health. Using this model, we find that PROP bitterness is not in any way predicted by papillae density. This result holds within the whole sample, when divided into major diplotypes, and when correcting for age, sex, and genotype. Furthermore, it holds when dividing participants into oft-used taster status groups. These data argue against the use of papillae density in predicting taste sensitivity and caution against imprecise use of the term supertaster. Furthermore, it supports a growing volume of evidence that sets the stage for hyperguesia, a reconceptualization of heightened oral sensitivity that is not based solely on PROP or papillae density. Finally, our model demonstrates how community-based research can serve as a unique venue for both study participation and citizen science that makes scientific research accessible and relevant to people’s everyday lives.

  14. A Taste Sensor Based on a Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Keisuke; Hirata, Takamichi; Akiya, Masahiro

    A taste sensor consisting of a back-gate type field effect transistor(FET) chip based on carbon nanotube compound materials[poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-grafted single-walled carbon nanotubes(PEG-SWNTs)] was developed. The results of impedance measurements for five tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and umami), are shown much difference for specific tastes which are difficult to identify by using Langmuir-Blodgett(LB)film. Moreover, the sensor is able to distinguish most of the experimental taste materials with a short response time. Characteristics of the sensor involve in taste material concentration , initial impedance and frequency characteristics. A clear difference is observed over five basic taste materials.

  15. Study of red wine neuroprotection on astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Martín, Sara; Ortega, Teresa; Palomino, Olga M; Prodanov, Marín; Vacas, Visitación; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Carretero, M Emilia

    2009-12-01

    Phenolic composition of wine depends not only on the grape variety from which it is made, but on some external factors such as winemaking technology. Red wine possesses the most antioxidant effect because of its high polyphenolic content. The aim of this work is to study for the first time, the neuroprotective activity of four monovarietal Spanish red wines (Merlot (ME), Tempranillo (T), Garnacha (G) and Cabernet-Sauvignon (CS)) through its antioxidant ability, and to relate this neuroprotection to its polyphenolic composition, if possible. The wine effect on neuroprotection was studied through its effect as free radical scavenger against FeSO4, H2O2 and FeSO4 + H2O2. Effect on cell survival was determined by 3(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-il)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium reduction assay (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay on astrocytes cultures. Results showed that most of the studied wine varieties induced neuroprotection through their antioxidant ability in astrocytes, Merlot being the most active; this variety is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly catechins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Our results show that red wine exerts a protection against oxidative stress generated by different toxic agents and that the observed neuroprotective activity is related to their polyphenolic content.

  16. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  17. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  18. TASTE MASKING METHODS AND AGENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh; Devkar Mangesh Shivaji; Kokare Dipali Rameshrao

    2012-01-01

    Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion e...

  19. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors,...

  20. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.