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Sample records for astigmatismo corneal inducido

  1. Tratamiento del astigmatismo moderado en pacientes con cataratas

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Gabás, Javier; Ascaso Puyuelo, Francisco Javier; Cristóbal Bescós, José Ángel

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta tesis doctoral es la comparación de los resultados obtenidos mediante dos técnicas quirúrgicas en el tratamiento del astigmatismo corneal moderado en pacientes con cataratas. La primera técnica quirúrgica es la facoemulsificación con incisiones corneales perforantes enfrentadas en el meridiano más curvo de la córnea, con implante de una lente intraocular con corrección esférica en saco capsular. La segunda técnica consiste en la facoemulsificación con implante de...

  2. Influência do astigmatismo corneano na acuidade visual final após implante de AcrySof® ReSTOR®: relato de caso Influence of corneal astigmatism in final visual acuity after implantation of AcrySofTM ReSTOR TM: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Carvalho Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente tem-se desenvolvido novos tipos de lentes intra-oculares (LIO que objetivam eliminar a presbiopia e o seu uso vem se popularizando. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com catarata bilateral e irregularidades corneanas e astigmatismo maior que 2 D à topografia, no qual implantou-se a LIO AcrySof® ReSTOR® no olho esquerdo associado à realização de incisões limbares relaxantes para tentar diminuir o astigmatismo corneano observado. A acuidade visual pós-operatória, tanto para perto quanto para longe, ficou abaixo das expectativas, sem melhora à refração e sem uma outra alteração que a justificasse, além das citadas. Após 45 dias, sem melhora da acuidade visual, efetuou-se o explante desta LIO, seguindo-se de implante de uma monofocal, sendo observada melhora da acuidade visual corrigida final. Assim, o presente caso clínico reforça a necessidade de uma correta seleção pré-operatória dos pacientes candidatos ao implante deste tipo de LIO multifocal, atentando inclusive para os dados topográficos.Currently, new types of intraocular lenses have been developed aiming to eliminate presbyopia and the use has become more popular. The authors report the case of a patient with bilateral cataract and corneal irregularities and astigmatism higher than 2D in the corneal topography, in which AcrySofTM ReSTOR TM intraocular lens was implanted in the left eye associated to relaxing limbal incisions trying to reduce corneal astigmatism. The near and distance postoperative visual acuity were worse than expected, with no improvement with refraction. Apparently, no other reason apart from irregular astigmatism/multifocal lens justified the low vision. After 45 days, with no visual acuity improvement, the intraocular lens was explanted and a monofocal one was implanted. The final corrected visual acuity improved. Thus, the present case emphasizes the need of a correct preoperative selection of patients to implant this type of

  3. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is Corneal Laceration? Corneal Laceration Symptoms What Causes Corneal Laceration? Corneal Laceration Diagnosis Corneal Laceration Treatment ... it will cut completely through the cornea and cause a ruptured globe, a tear in the outer ...

  4. El Astigmatismo en la cirugía de la catarata con incisión pequeña análisis de la evolución queratométrica y refractiva en la sonofacoaspiración /

    OpenAIRE

    Picó García, Andrés

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de la tesis es estudiar los posibles cambios en la curvatura corneal, y por ende en el poder refractivo de la córnea, provocados por incisiones corneales de 3 a 4 milímetros empleadas en la cirugía de la catarata con la finalidad de averiguar su eventual inducción astigmática. Se plantea la hipótesis de que las incisiones estudiadas no inducen un astigmatismo clínicamente significativo. Al mismo tiempo, y como consecuencia del objetivo principal, se propone constatar la eficacia d...

  5. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes Corneal Laceration? Corneal Laceration Diagnosis Corneal Laceration Treatment What Is Corneal Laceration? Written by: Kierstan Boyd ... you get medical attention. DO NOT rinse with water. DO NOT remove the object stuck in eye. ...

  6. Lasik para correção de miopia, astigmatismos e hipermetropia Lasik for myopia, astigmatism and hyperopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Kwitko; Diane Marinho; Roseli Raskin; Sérgio Sprinz; Moacir Rabin; Samuel Rymer; Antonio Mendez Noble

    2000-01-01

    Objetivo: Relata a experiência em nossos primeiros 329 olhos operados com a técnica de Lasik para miopia, astigmatismo e hipermetropia, com um mínimo de 6 meses de seguimento pós-operatório. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os resultados de Lasik em 110 olhos com baixa miopia (grupo I), 113 com miopia moderada (grupo II), 47 com alta miopia (grupo III), 139 com astigmatismo baixo (grupo IV), 31 com astigmatismo moderado (grupo V), 27 com baixa hipermetropia (grupo VI) e 25 com hip...

  7. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye or something striking the eye with significant force, like a metallic hand tool. A corneal laceration is deeper than a corneal abrasion , cutting ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  8. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration Sections What Is Corneal Laceration? Corneal ...

  9. Correção do astigmatismo na cirurgia da catarata Surgical correction of astigmatism during cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Ferreira e Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia das incisões periféricas relaxantes limbares (IPRL na redução do astigmatismo pré-operatório durante a cirurgia de catarata. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 103 olhos de 103 pacientes submetidos as IPRL, utilizando o nomograna de Nichamin durante a cirurgia de catarata pela facoemulsificação. Após o 1º e 6º mês foram avaliadas as mudanças no astigmatismo topográfico, na indução do astigmatismo e no índice de sucesso. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos segundo o tipo de astigmatismo no pré-operatório (a favor da regra e contra a regra e estudados separadamente. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os valores dos astigmatismos topográficos no pré e pós-operatório nos dois grupos. Verificou-se indução de 1,10 ± 0,9 dioptrias e 37% de índice de sucesso no grupo de astigmatismo a favor da regra e 1,70 ± 0,80 dioptrias e 51% de índice de sucesso no grupo de astigmatismo contra a regra após o 6º mês de seguimento. CONCLUSÃO: A incisão periférica relaxante limbar é efetiva na redução do astigmatismo pré-existente durante a cirurgia da catarata. O procedimento mostrou ser seguro e de fácil realização. O nomograma de Nichamim na nossa experiência hipocorrige o astigmatismo planejado em ambos os grupos estudados.PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of peripheral limbar relaxing incisions (PLRI in the reduction of the astigmatism during cataract surgery. METHODS: We studied prospectively 103 eyes of 103 patients submitted to PLRI, using the Nichamim nomogram during cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. After the first and sixth month we analized the changes in astigmatism topography, induction of astigmatism and sucess rate. The patients were divided into two groups according to the astigmatism (with-the-rule and against-the-rule, and studied separately. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant change in the mean astigmatism

  10. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Corneal Collagen Cross-linking Approved to Treat ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  11. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... itself. A corneal laceration is a very serious injury and requires immediate medical attention to avoid severe ... 27, 2015 Dark Spot in Vision After Blunt Trauma Dec 21, 2014 Pain a Year After Eyelid ...

  12. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drugs. These drugs thin the blood and may increase bleeding. After you have finished protecting the eye, ... that I’m older, will a corneal transplant help me? May 15, 2015 Why Do My Eyes ...

  13. Corneal transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clear outer lens on the front of the eye. A corneal transplant is surgery to replace the cornea with tissue ... years. Rejection can sometimes be controlled with steroid eye drops. Other ... are: Bleeding Cataracts Infection of the eye Glaucoma ( ...

  14. Astigmatismo post-cirugí­a de la catarata y lente intraocular de cámara posterior

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreruela Serrano, Rafael

    1993-01-01

    Con la implantología y las técnicas médico-quirúrgicas (microscopios,material quirúrgico, suturas biómetros, etc.) la emetropí­a es posible tras laextracción de cataratas con un implante de lente intraocular. Sólo queda unacomplicación que hay que minimizar al máximo el astigmatismo postquirúrgico;mas cuando es una complicación yatrogénica al sobrepasar cifras tolerables;cifras que día a dí­a van disminuyendo.La evolución del astigmatismo postquirúrgico es importante en cuanto asus posibles c...

  15. Corneal Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard

    . Economic considerations on cost and benefi t of medical treatment and surgical procedures are today an integrated part of the health system in many countries, and a chapter covers these aspects of corneal transplantation. This textbook is aimed at presenting an updated review of the new techniques...... with less risk of rejection episodes. Besides covering updated chapters on penetrating keratoplasty, and anterior and posterior lamellar procedures, this textbook also gives a thorough overview of the history of corneal transplantation and a detailed presentation of the microstructural components...

  16. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration ... without Eye Protection Jun 19, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es una Laceración de la Córnea? Find ...

  17. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration ... without Eye Protection Jun 19, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es una Laceración de la Córnea? Find ...

  18. ¿CÓMO CAMBIA EL CEREBRO UN ABORTO INDUCIDO?

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia López Moratalla

    2012-01-01

    Estudios epidemiológicos cuantitativos muestran un riesgo entre moderado y muy alto de trastornos psiquiátricos tras el aborto inducido, especialmente de conductas adictivas e ideación de suicidio. Las mujeres que se habían sometido a un aborto experimentaron tienen un 81% más de riesgo de problemas de salud mental. Y cerca del 10% de la incidencia de problemas de salud mental se demostró que es atribuible al aborto. Siempre son más altos y sobre todo más duraderos que los que pudieran ...

  19. ¿CÓMO CAMBIA EL CEREBRO UN ABORTO INDUCIDO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López Moratalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos cuantitativos muestran un riesgo entre moderado y muy alto de trastornos psiquiátricos tras el aborto inducido, especialmente de conductas adictivas e ideación de suicidio. Las mujeres que se habían sometido a un aborto experimentaron tienen un 81% más de riesgo de problemas de salud mental. Y cerca del 10% de la incidencia de problemas de salud mental se demostró que es atribuible al aborto. Siempre son más altos y sobre todo más duraderos que los que pudieran producirse por un aborto espontáneo. El embarazo no deseado no provoca trastornos y no se ha encontrado que el aborto inducido se asocie a mejor evolución de la salud mental, por lo que no puedan invocarse, sobre bases empíricas, razones de salud mental de la embarazada para inducir un aborto. Estudios de neuroimagen han mostrado que el trastorno de estrés postraumático, que sufren algunas mujeres tras el aborto voluntario, alterara las áreas cerebrales que regulan las emociones negativas, y de la memoria emocional. Los médicos deben transmitir el estado actual de ausencia de datos relacionados con los beneficios del aborto, además de informar detenidamente sobre los riesgos para la salud mental estadísticamente validados.

  20. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.;

    2013-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal...... thickness lamellar keratectomy to remove the fungal hyphae and diseased stroma, followed by transplantation of healthy corneal allografts has a high rate of success in speeding healing and preserving sight. This paradigm shift in the ability to diagnose and institute therapy for corneal SAs in horses has...

  1. Lasik para correção de miopia, astigmatismos e hipermetropia Lasik for myopia, astigmatism and hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Kwitko

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Relata a experiência em nossos primeiros 329 olhos operados com a técnica de Lasik para miopia, astigmatismo e hipermetropia, com um mínimo de 6 meses de seguimento pós-operatório. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os resultados de Lasik em 110 olhos com baixa miopia (grupo I, 113 com miopia moderada (grupo II, 47 com alta miopia (grupo III, 139 com astigmatismo baixo (grupo IV, 31 com astigmatismo moderado (grupo V, 27 com baixa hipermetropia (grupo VI e 25 com hipermetropia moderada (grupo VII. Resultados: A refração pré-operatória média de cada grupo acima foi, respectivamente: -3,56 ± 1,25 D, -8,31 ± 1,68 D, -14,95 ± 2,85 D, -1,57 ± 0,49 D, -3,98 ± 0,85 D, +2,32 ± 0,65 D, +5,05 ± 1,02 D. Aos 12 meses de pós-operatório, a refração média residual em cada grupo acima apresentava-se, respectivamente, com -0,11 ± 0,69 D, -0,42 ± 0,85 D, -0,69 ± 1,48 D, -0,42 ± 0,73 D, -0,73 ± 1,16 D, +0,35 ± 0,50 D, e +1,32 ± 1,03 D. A regressão do efeito da cirurgia neste período foi clinicamente insignificante em todos os grupos, exceto no dos hipermétropes moderados (0,76 D. Foram necessárias re-intervenções em 4,9% dos olhos operados (3,4% para hipocorreção, 0,6% hipercorreção, e 0,9% para limpeza da interface. Perda de uma ou duas linhas na tabela de Snellen ocorreu em 3,7% dos míopes baixos, 12,4% dos míopes moderados, 0% dos míopes altos, 18,5% dos baixos hipermétropes, e 20% dos hipermétropes moderados. Outras complicações, raras, foram as seguintes: corte completo do disco, entretanto sem perda do disco (0,3%, corte incompleto (0,3%, corte irregular por perda de sucção do anel (0,3%, astigmatismo regular induzido (7,4%, descentração da foto-ablação induzindo astigmatismo irregular (0,3%, opacidades e fragmentos na interface (0,6%, estrias importantes do disco (0,3%. Conclusões: A cirurgia de Lasik demonstra ser segura, eficaz, e previsível para uma grande parte das ametropias

  2. Astigmatismo induzido na cirurgia extracapsular da catarata: acompanhamento a longo prazo Induced astigmatism in extracapsular cataract extraction: long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Ghiaroni

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o comportamento do astigmatismo induzido a longo prazo em uma série de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia extracapsular da catarata, nos quais foi utilizada incisão límbica posterior superior suturada com pontos separados de mononylon 10-0. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 38 olhos, de 35 pacientes, sendo 21 do sexo feminino e 14 do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 47 e 85 anos (média = 70,17 anos. Todos os casos foram operados pelo mesmo cirurgião. O período de acompanhamento pós-operatório variou de 15 a 33 meses (média = 22,07 meses. Nenhum dos casos teve qualquer dos pontos seccionado ou removido. Todos os pacientes atingiram acuidade visual corrigida igual ou superior a 0,5. Para o cálculo do astigmatismo induzido foram consideradas as medidas ceratométricas pré e pós-operatórias e foi utilizado um programa desenvolvido por Jaffe. RESULTADOS: O astigmatismo induzido variou de 0,13 dioptria (D a 2,74 D (média = 1,19 D. Em relação aos eixos, na maioria dos casos houve indução de astigmatismo a favor da regra (60,52%. Foi observada mudança significativa no valor dióptrico do astigmatismo quando foram comparadas as leituras ceratométricas registradas pré-operatoriamente até a segunda semana pós-operatória, entre o primeiro e o terceiro meses pós-operatórios, entre o terceiro e o sexto meses pós-operatórios e após o décimo-segundo mês pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: Quando o mononylon 10-0 é utilizado como material de sutura na cirurgia extracapsular da catarata, os valores de astigmatismo a favor da regra inicialmente observados tendem a diminuir com o tempo.PURPOSE: To study the long-term behavior of induced astigmatism in a series of patients who underwent extracapsular extraction in which a superoposterior limbal incision sutured with interrupted 10-0 mononylon sutures was performed. METHODS: 38 eyes of 35 patients were studied, 21 females and 17 males, with ages varying from 47 to 85 year

  3. Significance of corneal arcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mohan Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corneal arcus consists of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. As serum triglyceride is one of the accurate of lipid metabolic state, greater importance was given, and it was found to be elevated in 72% of patients and a positive correlation with increasing age. This suggests a strong correlation between impairment of lipid metabolism and incidence of corneal arcus.

  4. Astigmatismo induzido na cirurgia extracapsular da catarata: acompanhamento a longo prazo Induced astigmatism in extracapsular cataract extraction: long-term follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Almir Ghiaroni; José Belmiro de Castro Moreira

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar o comportamento do astigmatismo induzido a longo prazo em uma série de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia extracapsular da catarata, nos quais foi utilizada incisão límbica posterior superior suturada com pontos separados de mononylon 10-0. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 38 olhos, de 35 pacientes, sendo 21 do sexo feminino e 14 do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 47 e 85 anos (média = 70,17 anos). Todos os casos foram operados pelo mesmo cirurgião. O período de acompanhament...

  5. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future. PMID:25268248

  6. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  7. An Association between Corneal Inflammation and Corneal Lymphangiogenesis after Keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Li; Wencong Wang; Shiqi Ling

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To examine the relationship between corneal in-flammation and corneal lymphangiogenesis after keratoplasty. Methods:.Rat corneal lymphangiogenesis was examined by lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor (LYVE-1) immunohis-tochemistry and whole mount immunofluorescence at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after corneal transplantation. Corneal inflam-mation was evaluated by inflammation index (IF) grading and NF-κB immunohistochemistry at the same time points. The association between lymphatic vessel counting (LVC) and the IF scores was then examined. Results:.LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels occurred in the corneal stroma on day 3,.developed throughout days 7 and 10,.and peaked in number at day 14 after keratoplasty. Corneal inflammation was strong on day 3, and then resolved gradually,.but increased again from days 7 to 14 after the transplantation..LVC was strongly and positively correlated with IF after keratoplasty(r=0.41;P<0.05). However, changes in IF scores and LVC were not parallel. Conclusion:.A close,.but not parallel,.relationship was found between corneal lymphangiogenesis and corneal inflammation after corneal transplantation.

  8. Genetics of corneal endothelial dystrophies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chitra Kannabiran

    2009-12-01

    The corneal endothelium maintains the level of hydration in the cornea. Dysfunction of the endothelium results in excess accumulation of water in the corneal stroma, leading to swelling of the stroma and loss of transparency. There are four different corneal endothelial dystrophies that are hereditary, progressive, non-inflammatory disorders involving dysfunction of the corneal endothelium. Each of the endothelial dystrophies is genetically heterogeneous with different modes of transmission and/or different genes involved in each subtype. Genes responsible for disease have been identified for only a subset of corneal endothelial dystrophies. Knowledge of genes involved and their function in the corneal endothelium can aid understanding the pathogenesis of the disorder as well as reveal pathways that are important for normal functioning of the endothelium.

  9. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; P Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  10. Efecto del 2-metoxiestradiol en el remodelado vascular inducido por la hipertensión

    OpenAIRE

    Bonacasa Fernández, Bárbara

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudiar el efecto del tratamiento con 2-metoxiestradiol en el remodelado vascular miocárdico inducido por la hipertensión y tras una lesión vascular por denudación endotelial en arteria femoral.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: modelo de hipertensión: se han utilizado 5 grupos experimentales de ratas SHR de 10 semanas de vida: rata hembra intacta, rata hembra ovarioectomizada, rata hembra ovarioectomizada y tratada con 2-metoxiestradiol, rata macho y rata macho tratada con 2-metoxiestradiol. Se ...

  11. El aborto inducido de las mexicanas en el contexto transfronterizo México-Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Ojeda; María del Carmen Gavilanes; Eduardo González

    2003-01-01

    Este es un estudio sociodemográfico comparativo del aborto inducido de las mujeres que viven en los dos lados de la frontera México-Estados Unidos. Se analiza el caso especifico de Tijuana y San Diego mediante la utilización de fuentes complementarias de datos: una encuesta posparto realizada en el IMSS de Tijuana en 1993 con información para un total de 2 709 mujeres y los expedientes de la clínica Womancare de Planned Parenthood, con información para 1 109 muje...

  12. Corneal thickness in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cevallos, E; Dohlman, C H; Reinhart, W J

    1976-02-01

    The central corneal stromal thickness of patients with open angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma (the majority aphakic), or a history of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma were measured and compared with the stromal thickness of a group of normal patients. In open angle glaucoma, there was a small but significant increase in the average stromal thickness. This thickness increase was, in all likelihood, due to an abnormal function of the endothelium in this disease since the level of the intraocular pressure did not seem to be a factor. There was no correlation between stromal thickness and duration of the glaucoma or type of anti-glaucomatous medication. Most cases of secondary glaucome, controlled medically or not, had markedly increased corneal thickness, again, most likely, due to endothelial damage rather than to level of intraocular pressure. After an angle closure attack, permanent damage to the cornea was found to be rare. PMID:1247273

  13. Creencias en torno al aborto inducido en un hospital público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz García Lirios

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Establecer las propiedades psicométricas de un instrumento que pondera las creencias en torno al aborto inducido. Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio correlacional y transversal con una muestra no probabilística de 120 derechohabientes de un hospital público ubicado en una entidad del centro de país. Materiales: Se construyó una Escala de Creencias en torno al Aborto Inducido la cual incluyó 17 reactivos con dos opciones de respuesta: falso o verdadero. Resultados: Para establecer la confiabilidad se estimó una curtosis multivariable de -2,578unaalfade0,73 y esfericidad de 0,832 con adecuación significativa. Se estableció un modelo estructural reflectivo (X² = 16,25; 11gl; p = 0,055; GFI = 0,975; RMR = 0,008 que se ajustó al modelo de medición (GFI = 0,90; RMR = 0,01. Discusión: Se recomienda la inclusión de otras variables tales como religión, usos y costumbres locales para explicar posibles modelos regionales de prácticas abortivas inducidas legalmente.

  14. Transient corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the association between pre-operative and intra-operative factors leading to transient corneal edema after phacoemulsification. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Shifa Foundation Community Health Centre, Islamabad, from October 2011 to September 2012. Methodology: Patients undergoing phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens (IOL) implantation were enrolled in the study using consecutive non-probability sampling. Pre-operative risk factors including peripheral corneal degenerations, the type and density of cataract were documented. Surgical risk factors included the incision site, the type of intraocular lens, the phacotechnique and the phacopower time. Postoperatively the patients were assessed for corneal clarity and the degree of striate keratopathy. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results: There were 43% male and 57% female patients (n = 182). Mean age was 58.92 ± 13.00 years (median and mode-60 years). Factors which increased the risk of transient corneal edema after phacoemulsification included hypertension (p = 0.022), dense nuclear cataracts (p=0.006), divide and conquer technique (p = 0.008), duration of phacopower use (p < 0.001) and peripheral corneal degenerations (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with peripheral corneal degenerations and dense nuclear cataracts had significantly higher rates of postoperative corneal edema. Use of phaco-chop technique and less phaco-power time helps in decreasing corneal edema. (author)

  15. Corneal amyloidosis associated with keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, G A; Knapp, A; Hood, C I

    1988-01-01

    Nodular, gray-white, central corneal opacities which extended from the subepithelial zone through the anterior four fifths of the stroma developed in a 50-year-old man with a longstanding history of hard contact lens wear for keratoconus. Results of histopathologic analysis of the corneal button obtained at the time of penetrating keratoplasty disclosed that the opacities were composed of amyloid. Corneal amyloidosis is rarely found in association with keratoconus. Although there were some similarities in the pattern of amyloid deposition to that seen in primary familial amyloidosis of the cornea, the authors believe that their patient is more likely to have had a secondary amyloidosis. Corneal amyloidosis should be considered in keratoconus patients with development of unusual forms of central corneal opacification. PMID:3278260

  16. Advances in corneal cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuest, Matthias; Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Peh, Gary Swee-Lim; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2016-09-01

    Corneal integrity is essential for visual function. Transplantation remains the most common treatment option for advanced corneal diseases. A global donor material shortage requires a search for alternative treatments. Different stem cell populations have been induced to express corneal cell characteristics in vitro and in animal models. Yet before their application to humans, scientific and ethical issues need to be solved. The in vitro propagation and implantation of primary corneal cells has been rapidly evolving with clinical practices of limbal epithelium transplantation and a clinical trial for endothelial cells in progress, implying cultivated ocular cells as a promising option for the future. This review reports on the latest developments in primary ocular cell and stem cell research for corneal therapy. PMID:27498943

  17. [Transplantation of corneal endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Shiro

    2002-12-01

    Though conventional corneal transplantation has achieved great success, it still has several drawbacks including limited availability of donor corneas, recurrent allograft rejection, and subsequent graft failure in certain cases. Reconstructing clinically usable corneas by applying the technology of regenerative medicine can offer a solution to these problems, as well as making corneal transplantation a non-emergency surgery and enabling the usage of banked corneal cells. In the present study, we focused on corneal endothelium that is critical for corneal transparency and investigated the reconstruction of cornea utilizing cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). We succeeded in steadily culturing HCECs by using culture dishes pre-coated with extracellular matrix produced by calf corneal endothelial cells and culture media that contained basic fibroblast growth factor and fetal bovine serum. We performed the following analysis utilizing these cultured HCECs. The older the donor was, the more frequently large senescent cells appeared in the passaged HCECs. The telomeres of HCECs were measured as terminal restriction fragments (TRF) by Southern blotting. HCECs, in vivo from donors in their seventies had a long TRFs of over 12 kilobases. Passaging shortened the TRFs but there was no difference in TRFs among donors of various ages. These results indicated that shortening of telomere length is not related to senescence of HCECs. We investigated the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the senescence of in vivo HCECs. The results indicated that AGE-protein in the aqueous humor is endocytosed into HCECs via AGE receptors expressed on the surface of HCECs and damages HCECs by producing reactive oxygen species and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that AGEs, at least partly, cause the senescence of HECEs. HCECs were cultured using adult human serum instead of bovine serum to get rid of bovine material that can be infected with prions. Primary and passage

  18. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    . Since the first successful treatment of LSCD by transplantation of ex vivo expanded LESCs in 1997, many attempts have been carried out to optimize culture conditions to improve the outcome of surgery. To date, progress in this field of bioengineering is substantially hindered by both the lack of...... specific biomarkers of LESCs and the lack of a precise molecular characterization of in situ epithelial subpopulations. The aim of this dissertation was to optimize culture systems with regard to the environmental oxygen concentration for selective ex vivo expansion of LESCs and to analyse in situ...... subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum...

  19. Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Ivarsen, Anders; Kristensen, Simon; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    with normal corneas who received cataract surgery (control group). Subjects were recruited between March 2013 and July 2014. Observational procedures included the following: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), Catquest-9SF questionnaire, Scheimpflug tomography and anterior......PURPOSE: To investigate the determining factors of vision and subjective outcome after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) for Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FECD). METHODS: In a prospective study, 41 FECD patients who received DSAEK were compared to 40 cataract patients...... OCT. Examinations were carried out before surgery and at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Main outcome measures were associations between corneal optics and visual parameters, as well as subjective improvement (Catquest-9SF effect size) RESULTS: Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) negatively correlated...

  20. Sunitinib inhibits inflammatory corneal lymphangiogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Detry, Benoît; Blacher, Silvia; Erpicum, Charlotte; Paupert, Jenny; Maertens, Ludovic; Maillard, Catherine; Munaut, Carine; Sounni, Nor Eddine; Lambert, Vincent; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Cataldo, Didier; Noël, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the antilymphangiogenic potential of multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in corneal neovascularization (NV). METHODS: Inflammatory corneal NV was induced by thermal cauterization applied in the central cornea of mice, to which sunitinib malate was daily administered by gavage or not. At days 6, 11, or 17 post cauterization, lymphatic and blood vessels, as well as inflammatory cells were immunostained and quantified in whole-mounted corneas. RT-PCRs were perfo...

  1. Reconstruction of Rabbit Corneal Layer Composed of Corneal Fibroblasts and Corneal Epithelium on the Lyophilized Amniotic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have employed the cryopreserved amniotic membrane(CAM) and corneal epithelial cells in the treatment of a severely damaged burned cornea, with corneal epithelial cells cultured on an amniotic membrane (AM). The lyophilized amniotic membrane (LAM) has a higher graft take and a longer shelf life; it is easier to store and safer because of gamma irradiation. Two Teflon rings(Ahn's supporter) were made for culturing the cells on the LAM, and were then used to support the LAM. To reconstruct a corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and epithelium, the corneal fibroblasts were first cultivated on the stromal side of LAM for five days, followed by epithelial cells culture on the epithelial side, by using the air-liquid interface culture. The reconstructed corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells has a much healthier basal layer of corneal epithelium than the reconstructed corneal epithelium, which was got by using only corneal epithelial cells, and resembles the epithelium of normal corneas, without the horny layer. Thus, the reconstruction of the corneal layer by using a LAM is considered to be a good in vitro model, not only for its application in toxicological test kits, but also for transplantation in patients with a severely damaged cornea.

  2. Traumatic corneal endothelial rings from homemade explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Rudkin, Adam K; Galanopoulos, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic corneal endothelial rings are remarkably rare ocular findings that may result from blast injury. We present a unique case of bilateral traumatic corneal endothelial rings secondary to blast injury from homemade explosives. PMID:23474743

  3. Facts about the Cornea and Corneal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a donor. This procedure is used for: Fuchs’ dystrophy Post-cataract edema Corneal failure after surgery for cataract, glaucoma or retinal detachment Corneal transplants are generally done under local ...

  4. Change in corneal curvature induced by surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rij, Gabriel

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe first section deals with the mechanisms by which sutures, incisions and intracorneal contact lenses produce a change in corneal curvature. To clarify the mechanisms by which incisions and sutures produce astigmatism, we made incisions and placed sutures in the corneoscleral limbus of human eye bank eyes (chapter 2). The changes in corneal curvature were studied by central keratometry and by shadowgraph photography of the corneal contour. A radial corneal suture induces astigma...

  5. Posterior Corneal Surface Stability after Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cagini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate posterior corneal surface variation after femtosecond laser-assisted keratomileusis in patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism. Patients were evaluated by corneal tomography preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months. We analyzed changes in the posterior corneal curvature, posterior corneal elevation, and anterior chamber depth. Moreover, we explored correlation between corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, percentage of ablated corneal tissue, and preoperative corneal thickness. During follow-up, the posterior corneal surface did not have a significant forward corneal shift: no significant linear relationships emerged between the anterior displacement of the posterior corneal surface and corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, or percentage of ablated corneal tissue.

  6. Acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prafulla K Maharana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute corneal hydrops is a condition characterized by stromal edema due to leakage of aqueous through a tear in descemet membrane. The patient presents with sudden onset decrease in vision, photophobia, and pain. Corneal thinning and ectasias combined with trivial trauma to the eye mostly by eye rubbing is considered as the underlying cause. With conservative approach self-resolution takes around 2 to 3 months. Surgical intervention is required in cases of non-resolution of corneal edema to avoid complications and for early visual rehabilitation. Intracameral injection of air or gas such as perflouropropane is the most common surgical procedure done. Recent investigative modality such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography is an extremely useful tool for diagnosis, surgical planning, and postoperative follow up. Resolution of hydrops may improve the contact lens tolerance and visual acuity but most cases require keratoplasty for visual rehabilitation.

  7. Progress in corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-11-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  8. Síndrome de neurotoxicidad inducido por opioides (NIO Opioid induced-neurotoxicity syndrome (OIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Cid

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de neurotoxicidad inducido por opioides (NIO es uno de los efectos adversos del uso de estos fármacos descrito en los últimos años. Su aparición de debe a la acumulación de metabolitos tóxicos, principalmente el M3 Glucurónido de la morfina; los cuáles pueden provocar hiperexcitabilidad neuronal, con desarrollo de alteraciones cognitivas, delirium, alucinaciones, mioclonias, convulsiones e hiperalgesia. Especialmente vulnerables a estos efectos son los pacientes mayores o con factores de riesgo como insuficiencia renal o deshidratación. Su manejo incluye principalmente la prevención de su aparición, con el manejo de factores precipitantes; disminución o rotación de opioides y manejo sintomático, intentando mantener siempre un buen control del dolor.The opioid induced neurotoxicity (OIN is an adverse effect for opioids use, described in the last years. Because the accumulation of toxic metabolites, especially M3 Glucuronide of morphine, cause neuronal hiperexcitability, patients can develop cognitive failure, delirium, hallucinations, myoclonus, seizures and hyperalgesia. The most vulnerable patients are old people, patients with dehydration and renal failure. Its treatment include prevention, with the management of trigger factors, decrease or change opioids and symptomatic management, trying to keep the good control of pain.

  9. Fate Mapping Mammalian Corneal Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alexander; Wakefield, Denis; Di Girolamo, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The anterior aspect of the cornea consists of a stratified squamous epithelium, thought to be maintained by a rare population of stem cells (SCs) that reside in the limbal transition zone. Although migration of cells that replenish the corneal epithelium has been studied for over a century, the process is still poorly understood and not well characterized. Numerous techniques have been employed to examine corneal epithelial dynamics, including visualization by light microscopy, the incorporation of vital dyes and DNA labels, and transplantation of genetically marked cells that have acted as cell and lineage beacons. Modern-day lineage tracing utilizes molecular methods to determine the fate of a specific cell and its progeny over time. Classically employed in developmental biology, lineage tracing has been used more recently to track the progeny of adult SCs in a number of organs to pin-point their location and understand their movement and influence on tissue regeneration. This review highlights key discoveries that have led researchers to develop cutting-edge genetic tools to effectively and more accurately monitor turnover and displacement of cells within the mammalian corneal epithelium. Collating information on the basic biology of SCs will have clinical ramifications in furthering our knowledge of the processes that govern their role in homeostasis, wound-healing, transplantation, and how we can improve current unsatisfactory SC-based therapies for patients suffering blinding corneal disease. PMID:26774909

  10. [Current treatments for corneal neovascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benayoun, Y; Petellat, F; Leclerc, O; Dost, L; Dallaudière, B; Reddy, C; Robert, P-Y; Salomon, J-L

    2015-12-01

    The extension of blood vessels into the normally avascular stroma defines corneal neovascularization. Though this phenomenon, pathophysiological and clinical features are well characterized, therapeutic modalities have been hindered by a lack of safe, efficacious and non-controversial treatments. In this literature review, we focus on available therapeutic options in light of recent evidence provided by animal and clinical studies. First, this review will focus on pharmacological treatments that target angiogenesis. The low cost and market availability of bevacizumab make it the first anti-angiogenic therapy choice, and it has demonstrable efficacy in reducing corneal neovascularization when administered topically or subconjunctivally. However, novel anti-angiogenic molecules targeting the intracellular pathways of angiogenesis (siRNA, antisense oligonucleotides) provide a promising alternative. Laser therapy (direct photocoagulation or photo-dynamic therapy) and fine needle diathermy also find a place in the treatment of stabilized corneal neovascularization alone or in association with anti-angiogenic therapy. Additionally, ocular surface reconstruction using amniotic membrane graft or limbal stem cell transplantation is essential when corneal neovascularization is secondary to primary or acquired limbal deficiency. PMID:26522890

  11. Corneal stroma microfibrils

    KAUST Repository

    Hanlon, Samuel D.

    2015-03-01

    Elastic tissue was first described well over a hundred years ago and has since been identified in nearly every part of the body. In this review, we examine elastic tissue in the corneal stroma with some mention of other ocular structures which have been more thoroughly described in the past. True elastic fibers consist of an elastin core surrounded by fibrillin microfibrils. However, the presence of elastin fibers is not a requirement and some elastic tissue is comprised of non-elastin-containing bundles of microfibrils. Fibers containing a higher relative amount of elastin are associated with greater elasticity and those without elastin, with structural support. Recently it has been shown that the microfibrils, not only serve mechanical roles, but are also involved in cell signaling through force transduction and the release of TGF-β. A well characterized example of elastin-free microfibril bundles (EFMBs) is found in the ciliary zonules which suspend the crystalline lens in the eye. Through contraction of the ciliary muscle they exert enough force to reshape the lens and thereby change its focal point. It is believed that the molecules comprising these fibers do not turn-over and yet retain their tensile strength for the life of the animal. The mechanical properties of the cornea (strength, elasticity, resiliency) would suggest that EFMBs are present there as well. However, many authors have reported that, although present during embryonic and early postnatal development, EFMBs are generally not present in adults. Serial-block-face imaging with a scanning electron microscope enabled 3D reconstruction of elements in murine corneas. Among these elements were found fibers that formed an extensive network throughout the cornea. In single sections these fibers appeared as electron dense patches. Transmission electron microscopy provided additional detail of these patches and showed them to be composed of fibrils (~10nm diameter). Immunogold evidence clearly

  12. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  13. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  14. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind. PMID:22944753

  15. Estudio y cálculo de torres de refrigeración de tiro inducido y flujo cruzado

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco García, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    En la realización de este proyecto se ha querido desarrollar un método de cálculo para el comportamiento de torres húmedas de tiro inducido y flujo cruzado, el cual, tras demostrar que llega a resultados correctos, se implementará en lenguaje de programación Matlab, lo que permitirá disponer de una aplicación informática gráfica de apoyo al diseño de este tipo de torres. Se pretende que este proyecto sea parte de un conjunto de aplicaciones informáticas, con las que estudiar...

  16. PAIRED OPPOSITE CLEAR CORNEAL INCISIONS TO REDUCE PREEXISTING CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM IN PHACOEMULSIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant; Narayan; Srinivasulu; Prabhu; Inchara; Sushma; Padmini

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the effect of paired opposite clear corneal incisions on the steep axis on preexisting corneal astigmatism in phacoemulsification. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study was performed on 30 eyes of 30 patients who had keratometric astigmatism of more than 1 diopter. All patients underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification with a 3.2mm clear corneal incision on the stee p axis. An additional similar incision was placed on the steep axis opposit...

  17. Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z.; HUANG, A; Pflugfelder, S.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To map the thickness, elevation (anterior and posterior corneal surface), and axial curvature of the cornea in normal eyes with the Orbscan corneal topography system.
METHODS—94 eyes of 51 normal subjects were investigated using the Orbscan corneal topography system. The anterior and posterior corneal elevation maps were classified into regular ridge, irregular ridge, incomplete ridge, island, and unclassified patterns, and the axial power maps were grouped into round, oval, symmetric bo...

  18. Pterygium-induced corneal refractive changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Sejal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of pterygium on corneal topography, a retrospective analysis of 151 eyes with primary pterygia was done. All cases underwent videokeratography preoperatively and one month postoperatively. Statistical analysis of average corneal power (ACP, corneal astigmatism, surface regularity index (SRI and surface asymmetry index (SAI was done before and one month after surgery. Topographic indices were compared statistically for various grades of pterygia. Increase in the grade of pterygia had a significant effect on topographic indices. Corneal astigmatism reduced from 4.40±3.64 diopter (D to 1.55±1.63D ( P value < 0.001 following surgery. The regularity of corneal surface improved and asymmetry of the cornea reduced one month after surgery. Pterygium leads to significant changes in corneal refractive status, which increase with the increase in the grade of pterygia and improve following pterygium excision.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CORNEAL ULCERS AT KIMS, AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcers are the common cause of corneal blindness. Of the corneal ulcers, majority of the cases are because of the fungal etiology. The present study is aimed to identify the pathogenic organisms responsible for corneal infections. Majority of the cases are secondary to trauma. Of the fungal cases, Aspergillus is found to be the predominant fungus affecting corneal ulcers, followed by bacteria affecting the corneal ulcers.

  20. Pterygium-induced corneal refractive changes

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari Sejal

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of pterygium on corneal topography, a retrospective analysis of 151 eyes with primary pterygia was done. All cases underwent videokeratography preoperatively and one month postoperatively. Statistical analysis of average corneal power (ACP), corneal astigmatism, surface regularity index (SRI) and surface asymmetry index (SAI) was done before and one month after surgery. Topographic indices were compared statistically for various grades of pterygia. Increase in the grade of...

  1. Glaucoma and Corneal Transplant Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar M. Al-Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma after corneal transplantation is a leading cause of ocular morbidity after penetrating keratoplasty. The incidence reported is highly variable and a number of etiologic factors have been identified. A number of treatment options are available; surgical intervention for IOP control is associated with a high incidence of graft failure. IOP elevation is less frequently seen following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Descemet's striping-automated endothelial keratoplasty is also associated with postprocedure intraocular pressure elevation and secondary glaucoma and presents unique surgical challenges in patients with preexisting glaucoma surgeries. Glaucoma exists in up to three-quarters of patients who undergo keratoprosthesis surgery and the management if often challenging. The aim of this paper is to highlight the incidence, etiology, and management of glaucoma following different corneal transplant procedures. It also focuses on the challenges in the diagnosis of glaucoma and intraocular pressure monitoring in this group of patients.

  2. Cambios morfológicos inducidos por terapia génica con factor de crecimiento insulino-símil tipo I (IGF-I) prolactinomas experimentales

    OpenAIRE

    Camihort, Gisela; Luna, Georgina; Hereñu, Claudia Beatriz; Bracamonte, María; Rodolfo G Goya; Cónsole, Gloria Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Analizar los cambios morfológicos y funcionales que produce la terapia génica, implementada mediante inyección intrapituitaria de un vector adenoviral RAd-IGFI, sobre las diferentes poblaciones pituitarias en prolactinomas E-inducidos

  3. Long-term results of photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism Resultados a longo prazo de ceratectomia fotorefrativa para miopia e astigmatismo miópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sakae Yamazaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the long-term refractive outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy in myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: A retrospective study of 120 photorefractive keratectomy operated eyes with at least four-year follow-up (maximum of 96 months, mean follow-up 55 months. We divided patients into group 1 (G1 spherical equivalent (SE up to -4.00 diopters (D and group 2 (G2 SE >-4.00 D. The Summit Apex Plus® excimer laser was used for ablation. All eyes were analyzed in terms of uncorrected and best spectacle corrected visual acuity (UCVA/BSCVA and cycloplegic refraction. Data were analyzed using the Refractive Surgery Consultant Elite database software. RESULTS: G1 with 85 eyes (49 patients presented mean SE -2.42 D and G2 with 35 eyes (22 patients and mean SE of -4.45 D. Ninety-four percent of eyes in G1 and 82.9% of G2 were within ±1.00 D of emmetropia at 4 years. The UCVA was 20/30 or better in 82.0% of G1 eyes and 77.0% of G2 in the last postoperative follow-up. No patient lost more than one line in G2 compared to 13.0% in G1. Eyes that gained one or more lines after 4-year follow-up were 11.9% G1 and 2.9% in G2, respectively. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between achieved versus attempted refractive correction in both groups (r=0.925, pOBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados a longo prazo da cirurgia de ceratectomia fotorefrativa em miopia e astigmatismo miópico. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de120 olhos operados de ceratectomia fotorefrativa com um mínimo intervalo de 4 anos de seguimento pós-operatório (máximo de 96 meses e seguimento médio de 55 meses. Dividimos em grupo 1 (G1 com equivalente esférico (SE até -4.00 dioptrias (D e grupo 2(G2 SE > -4.00 D. O excimer laser Summit Apex Plus® foi usado na ablação. Foram obtidas acuidade visual não corrigida (UCVA e melhor acuidade visual corrigida (BSCVA e refração sob cicloplegia. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa Refractive Surgery

  4. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Julia Rovira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar en muchos casos que se presente un exagerado aumento de volumen gingival. Se presenta un caso de agrandamiento gingival en paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, bajo tratamiento antiepiléptico con fenitoína. Al examen clínico se observó aumento del volumen gingival de forma generalizada, en maxilar superior e inferior, predominante en sector anterior, produciendo ardor y sangrado durante el cepillado y la ingestión de alimentos. Al sondaje presenta múltiples pseudobolsas en los diferentes cuadrantes. La radiografía panorámica reveló pérdida ósea moderada horizontal, predominante en el sector posterosuperior, posteroinferior y anteroinferior. El plan de tratamiento consistió en fase higiénica, instrucción y motivación en higiene oral a la madre, gingivectomía y gingivoplastía en ambos maxilares. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 226 - 231Abstract The importance of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete filling and sealing of the root canal to prevent the transport of contaminants to and from root canal, with materials compatible with the surrounding tissues. Occasionally a situation may arise in which the purpose of the maintenance of working length is compromised such as overenlargement. This situation allows the extrusion of filling materials, mainly sealer cements, causing post treatment complications such as inflammatory reactions, injury to adjacent structures (orbital pain, inferior alveolar nerve injury, headache, etc., and infections

  5. Características in vivo del epitelio corneal versus magnitud del defecto refractivo, posterior a tratamiento con láser de excímeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas Álvarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las características in vivo del epitelio corneal y su relación con la magnitud del defecto refractivo tratado posterior al tratamiento quirúrgico de LASIK. Método: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo-longitudinal con 24 pacientes (48 ojos con astigmatismo miópico intervenidos con el ESIRIS (Schwind-Alemania por la técnica quirúrgica LASIK con microquerátomo pendular. Se analizaron los resultados a partir de técnicas de estadística descriptiva. Se utilizó el microscopio confocal ConfoScan 4 de NIDEK para la obtención y estudio de las imágenes in vivo de tejido corneal. Resultados: el grosor epitelial central medio en el preoperatorio fue 34,7 mm, a los 7 días del posoperatorio hubo un incremento del 36 % en pacientes con defectos refractivos inferiores a 4D y un incremento del 44 % en pacientes con defectos refractivos de 4 D o más. El promedio de densidad de células del epitelio basal a los 7 días fue de 5 098,3±1 654 células/mm², tuvo variaciones mínimas inferiores a la unidad porcentual durante la etapa de estudio. Conclusiones: existió incremento del grosor epitelial posterior a LASIK que fue superior en defectos refractivos mayores de 4 dioptrías. La densidad celular del epitelio basal no tuvo variaciones significativas y fue independiente a la magnitud del defecto refractivo tratado.

  6. [Corneal tatoo--art or science?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiu, Andreea-Madalina

    2009-01-01

    The permanent colouring of disfigured corneal scars is known for almost 200 years. Because of improvement in surgical reconstructive techniques, corneal tattoing is used today only with a restricted group on carefully chosen patients, and merely for esthetique reasons. PMID:19697848

  7. Corneal laceration caused by river crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuthinee N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Naidu Vinuthinee,1,2 Anuar Azreen-Redzal,1 Jaafar Juanarita,1 Embong Zunaina2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia Abstract: A 5-year-old boy presented with right eye pain associated with tearing and photophobia of 1-day duration. He gave a history of playing with a river crab when suddenly the crab clamped his fingers. He attempted to fling the crab off, but the crab flew and hit his right eye. Ocular examination revealed a right eye corneal ulcer with clumps of fibrin located beneath the corneal ulcer and 1.6 mm level of hypopyon. At presentation, the Seidel test was negative, with a deep anterior chamber. Culture from the corneal scrapping specimen grew Citrobacter diversus and Proteus vulgaris, and the boy was treated with topical gentamicin and ceftazidime eyedrops. Fibrin clumps beneath the corneal ulcer subsequently dislodged, and revealed a full-thickness corneal laceration wound with a positive Seidel test and shallow anterior chamber. The patient underwent emergency corneal toileting and suturing. Postoperatively, he was treated with oral ciprofloxacin 250 mg 12-hourly for 1 week, topical gentamicin, ceftazidime, and dexamethasone eyedrops for 4 weeks. Right eye vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole at the 2-week follow-up following corneal suture removal. Keywords: corneal ulcer, pediatric trauma, ocular injury

  8. Corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L; Takeuchi, D; Challoner, K

    2000-05-01

    Pepper spray containing oleoresin capsicum is used by law enforcement and the public as a form of nonlethal deterrent. Stimulated by the identification of a case of a corneal abrasion associated with pepper spray exposure, a descriptive retrospective review of a physician-maintained log of patients presenting to a jail ward emergency area over a 3-year period was performed. The objective was to give some quantification to the frequency with which an emergency physician could expect to see corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure. Of 100 cases of pepper spray exposure identified, seven patients had sustained corneal abrasions. We conclude that corneal abrasions are not rare events when patients are exposed to pepper spray and that fluorescein staining and slit lamp or Wood's lamp examination should be performed on all exposed patients in whom corneal abrasions cannot be excluded on clinical grounds. PMID:10830682

  9. Riboflavin for corneal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brart, D P S

    2016-06-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation is the first therapeutic modality that appears to arrest the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectasias. Riboflavin is central to the process, acting as a photosensitizer for the production of oxygen singlets and riboflavin triplets. These free radicals drive the CXL process within the proteins of the corneal stroma, altering its biomechanical properties. Riboflavin also absorbs the majority of the UVA radiation, which is potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic, within the anterior stroma, preventing damage to internal ocular structures, such as the corneal endothelium, lens and retina. Clinical studies report cessation of ectatic progression in over 90% of cases and the majority document significant improvements in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters. Clinical follow-up is limited to 5-10 years, but suggests sustained stability and enhancement in corneal shape. Sight-threatening complications are rare. The optimal stromal riboflavin dosage for CXL is as yet undetermined. PMID:27458610

  10. Localisation of corneal foreign bodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kay-Wilson, L. G.

    1992-01-01

    Of 50 patients attending the eye casualty department with a corneal foreign body (FB), 41 were able to say where they felt the FB and 78% of these were localised correctly for side or level of cornea. Patient handedness did not influence FB location. Indicating the upper lid was a particularly poor guide to localisation, whereas FB sensations within the palpebral fissure, in the lower lid or medially or laterally were good guides to actual FB location. A simple method of recording FB location...

  11. Corneal Regeneration by Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK Using Decellularized Corneal Matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihide Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of DALK using a decellularized corneal matrix obtained by HHP methodology. Porcine corneas were hydrostatically pressurized at 980 MPa at 10°C for 10 minutes to destroy the cells, followed by washing with EGM-2 medium to remove the cell debris. The HHP-treated corneas were stained with H-E to assess the efficacy of decellularization. The decellularized corneal matrix of 300 μm thickness and 6.0 mm diameter was transplanted onto a 6.0 mm diameter keratectomy wound. The time course of regeneration on the decellularized corneal matrix was evaluated by haze grading score, fluorescein staining, and immunohistochemistry. H-E staining revealed that no cell nuclei were observed in the decellularized corneal matrix. The decellularized corneal matrices were opaque immediately after transplantation, but became completely transparent after 4 months. Fluorescein staining revealed that initial migration of epithelial cells over the grafts was slow, taking 3 months to completely cover the implant. Histological sections revealed that the implanted decellularized corneal matrix was completely integrated with the receptive rabbit cornea, and keratocytes infiltrated into the decellularized corneal matrix 6 months after transplantation. No inflammatory cells such as macrophages, or neovascularization, were observed during the implantation period. The decellularized corneal matrix improved corneal transparency, and remodelled the graft after being transplanted, demonstrating that the matrix obtained by HHP was a useful graft for corneal tissue regeneration.

  12. Therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelium transplants on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-jun FAN; Jun ZHAO; Xiu-zhong HU; Xi-ya MA; Wen-bo ZHANG; Chao-zhong YANG

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelia (TE-HCEs) on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy (PCEP), TE-HCEs reconstructed with monoclonal human corneal endothelial cells (mcHCECs) and modified denuded amniotic membranes (mdAMs) were transplanted into PCEP models of New Zealand white rabbits using penetrating keratoplasty. The TE-HCEs were examined using diverse techniques including slit-lamp biomicroscopy observation and pachymeter and tonometer measurements in vivo, and fluorescent microscopy, alizarin red staining, paraffin sectioning, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations in vitro. The corneas of transplanted eyes maintained transparency for as long as 200 d without obvious edema or immune rejection. The corneal thickness of transplanted eyes decreased gradually after transplanting, reaching almost the thickness of normal eyes after 156 d, while the TE-HCE non-transplanted eyes were turbid and showed obvious corneal edema. The polygonal corneal endothelial cells in the transplanted area originated from the TE-HCE transplant. An intact monolayer corneal endothelium had been reconstructed with the morphology, cell density and structure similar to those of normal rabbit corneal endothelium. In conclusion, the transplanted TE-HCE can reconstruct the integrality of corneal endothelium and restore corneal transparency and thickness in PCEP rabbits. The TE-HCE functions normally as an endothelial barrier and pump and promises to be an equivalent of HCE for clinical therapy of human PCEP.

  13. [Influence of corneal transparency on the quality of topographies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko Zeitz, P; Kohlhaas, M

    2012-12-01

    Corneal topographs that measure the anterior and posterior corneal surface with optical methods need a clear cornea for precise measurements. Opacities cause artifacts in the corneal thickness (with measurements usually being too thin) and corneal curvatures. This is important to know as certain pathologies may repeatedly cause similar artifacts. This is highly relevant after a corneal cross-linking, Lasek or PRK, as these procedures cause typical artifacts that can easily be misinterpreted. PMID:23258670

  14. Corneal thickness and endothelial density before and after cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, A.; Walti, R; Bohnke, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Deturgescence of the corneal stroma is controlled by the pumping action of the endothelial layer and can be monitored by measurement of central corneal thickness (pachymetry). Loss or damage of endothelial cells leads to an increase in corneal thickness, which may ultimately induce corneal decompensation and loss of vision. Little is known about the effect of moderate reductions in endothelial cell number on the thickness of the corneal stroma. This study aimed to investigate ...

  15. Factors Affecting Corneal Hysteresis in Taiwanese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Kang Wang; Tzu-Lun Huang; Pei-Yuan Su; Pei-Yao Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of various corneal hysteresis (CH) factors in Chinese adults. Methods: From January 2009 to November 2011, the healthy right eyes of a total of 292 adults were recruited into the study. Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPG) and CH were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness was measured using the ORA’s in-tegrated handheld ultrasonic pachymeter. The IOLMaster was used to obtain the ocular biometric measurements including axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric values. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test correla-tions between CH and quantitative factors. The chi-square test was used to detect differences in categorical values. Results: Longer axial length (P=0.0001), lower IOPG (P=0.03), older age(P=0.003),and thinner central corneal thick-ness (P=0.0001) were significantly associated with lower CH. The anterior chamber depth (P=0.34), gender (P=0.23), and corneal curvature (P=0.18) had no relationship to CH. Conclusion:Various factors including axial length, intraocular pressure, age, and central corneal thickness can affect measure-ment of corneal biomechanical properties in Chinese adults. But the anterior chamber depth, gender, and corneal curvature were irrelevant to CH.

  16. Reasons not to select patients for corneal refractive surgery Razões para recusar candidatos à cirurgia refrativa corneana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Parolin Ribeiro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present how the section of Refractive Surgery of the Federal University of São Paulo assesses the candidates and the reasons to indicate for corneal refractive surgery. Methods: We examined 1626 patients. Anamnesis, complete ophthalmologic examination and corneal topography were performed in all patients. The patients spontaneously seeked evaluation at the Refractive Surgery Section by telephone without a previous screening. Reasons to refuse patients for refractive surgery were previously established by the Refractive Surgery Section. Results: Based on current technology and clinical experience, 265 patients (16.29% were refused for excimer laser corneal refractive surgery. Myopia of patients who had insufficient preoperative corneal pachymetry for the laser treatment was the main cause for refusal (51 patients. Cataract (45 patients, keratoconus (31 patients, amblyopia (21 patients, hyperopia > 5 diopters and mixed astigmatism (19 patients, presbyopia (unaware ness of the need for optical correction after the procedure; 16 patients, pupillary diameter > 5mm (9 patients, single eye (9 patients, progressive myopia (8 patients, postradial keratotomy (7 patients and low ametropia (7 patients were among the reasons for the refusal. Conclusion: Candidates for excimer laser corneal refractive surgery may present risk factors that should be known in order to avoid complications.Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo é mostrar como o setor de Cirurgia Refrativa da Escola Paulista de Medicina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo avalia seus candidatos e quais as razões para não selecioná-los para cirurgia refrativa. Métodos: Foram examinados 1626 pacientes. Anamnese, avaliação oftalmológica completa e topografia corneana foram realizadas em todos os pacientes. Os pacientes procuraram avaliação no setor de Cirurgia Refrativa espontaneamente sem triagem prévia. Resultados: Não foram selecionados 265 pacientes (16,29% para cirurgia

  17. Distribution of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism According to Axis Orientation of Anterior Corneal Astigmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake,Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Kimiya; Kamiya, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism in eyes with with-the-rule (WTR) and against-the-rule (ATR) anterior corneal astigmatism. Methods We retrospectively examined six hundred eight eyes of 608 healthy subjects (275 men and 333 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 55.3 ± 20.2 years). The magnitude and axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism were determined with a rotating Scheimpflug system (Pentacam HR, Oculus) when we divided the su...

  18. Analysis of Postoperative Corneal Astigmatism after Phacoemulsification Through a Clear Corneal Incision

    OpenAIRE

    Sušić, Nikola; Brajković, Jasenka; Kalauz-Surać, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze postoperative corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation through a clear corneal incision. This prospective study included 22 eyes (10 right and 12 left eyes) having had phacoemulsification with implantation of a foldable intraocular lens through a clear corneal incision. A superotemporal incision was used in all right eyes, and superonasal incision in all left eyes. Astigmatism was measured by autorefractometer-keratom...

  19. Technology needs for corneal transplant surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddavalli, Pravin K.; Yoo, Sonia H.

    2011-03-01

    Corneal transplant surgery has undergone numerous modifications over the years with improvements in technique, instrumentation and eye banking. The main goals of corneal transplantation are achieving excellent optical clarity with long-term graft survival. Penetrating, anterior and posterior lamellar surgery along with femtosecond laser technology have partially met these goals, but outcomes are often unpredictable and surgeon dependent. Technology to predictably separate stroma from Descemet's membrane, techniques to minimize endothelial cell loss, improvements in imaging technology and emerging techniques like laser welding that might replace suturing, eventually making corneal transplantation a refractively predictable procedure are on the wish list of the cornea surgeon.

  20. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for corneal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Al-Torbak

    2012-01-01

    Results: At the last follow-up visit, 22 (66.7% eyes showed a decrease in corneal neovascularization and evidence of vascular thrombosis. Complete vascular occlusion was achieved in 14 (42.4% eyes, partial occlusion was achieved in 8 (24.2% eyes, and the vessels were patent in 11 (33.3% eyes. The corneal neovascularization score and depth of the vessels were found to be significant risk factors for failure (P = 0.0001 and 0.046, respectively. However, the diagnoses or causes of corneal neovascularisation were not statistically significant. No significant systemic or ocular complications associated with photodynamic therapy were observed. Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin was effective for the treatment of corneal neovascularization in the majority of the cases in this study.

  1. Surgical compensation of presbyopia with corneal inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Aris; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-05-01

    Presbyopia, the physiological change in near vision that develops with ageing, gradually affects individuals older than 40 years and is a growing cause of visual disability due to ageing demographics of the global population. The routine use of computers and 'smartphones', combined with the affluence of the 'baby boomers' generation has set high standards for near vision correction. Corneal inlays are a relatively new treatment modality that is effective at compensating for presbyopia. The dimensions of these devices vary from 2 to 3.8 mm in diameter and 5 to 32 μm in thickness. They are implanted in the anterior corneal stroma of the non-dominant eye, most commonly, in a femtosecond laser created corneal pocket. They improve near vision by increasing the depth of focus, creating a hyper-prolate region of increased central cornea power or providing a refractive add power. This article reviews the literature on the efficacy and safety of corneal inlays. PMID:25652889

  2. Clear corneal incision in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar M Al Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of sutureless clear corneal cataract incisions, the procedure has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured scleral tunnels and limbal incisions. Some of these benefits include lack of conjunctival trauma, less discomfort and bleeding, absence of suture-induced astigmatism, and faster visual rehabilitation. However, an increasing incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery has been reported. Different authors have shown a significant increase up to 15-fold in the incidence of endophthalmitis following clear corneal incision compared to scleral tunnels. The aim of this report is to review the advantages and disadvantages of clear corneal incisions in cataract surgery, emphasizing on wound construction recommendations based on published literature.

  3. Corneal wound healing after laser vision correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadea, Leopoldo; Giammaria, Daniele; Trabucco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Any trauma can trigger a cascade of responses in tissues, with the purpose of safeguarding the integrity of the organ affected by the trauma and of preventing possible damage to nearby organs. Subsequently, the body tries to restore the function of the organ affected. The introduction of the excimer laser for keratorefractive surgery has changed the treatment landscape for correcting refractive errors, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. In recent years, with the increased understanding of the basic science of refractive errors, higher-order aberrations, biomechanics, and the biology of corneal wound healing, a reduction in the surgical complications of keratorefractive surgery has been achieved. The understanding of the cascade of events involved in the corneal wound healing process and the examination of how corneal wound healing influences corneal biomechanics and optics are crucial to improving the efficacy and safety of laser vision correction. PMID:26405102

  4. Corneal damage following focal laser intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corneal endothelial damage caused by two levels of laser energy was studied in albino rats. Observations indicate that focal, non-invasive destruction of the endothelium can be consistently generated by laser treatment following anterior chamber localization of fluorescein. The dose related effects of this described protocol will make it possible to study different aspects of posterior corneal function without generating invasive, inflammatory side effects. (author)

  5. Phacoemulsification in Cases with Corneal Opacity

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Erdem; Kemal Yar; Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu; Meltem Yağmur

    2011-01-01

    Pur po se: To assess the results of phacoemulsification in patients with corneal opacity and cataract. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifteen eyes of 13 patients who were diagnosed as senile cataract and corneal opacity were included in the present study. All surgeries were performed under topical anesthesia. Trypan blue (0.1%) was used during the capsulorrhexis step of phacoemulsification. Following hydrodissection, phacoemulsification was performed using “quick chop” technique. Postopera...

  6. Temporal corneal phacoemulsification in filtered glaucoma patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Caprioli, J.; Park, H.J.; Kwon, Y. H.; Weitzman, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of temporal clear corneal phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes that had prior trabeculectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. PATIENTS: Forty consecutive patients (cases; TRAB-PHACO group) who underwent temporal corneal phacoemulsification subsequent to trabeculectomy were identified. Forty patients (controls; TRAB group) who had trabeculectomy alone were matched to the cases for length of follow-up, age, IOP, number of anti-glauc...

  7. Effect of detergents on corneal permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of corneal permeability for 22Na caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the Czechoslovak detergent Jar were tested in vitro as well as in vivo. Experiments in vitro were performed on corneas of bovine eyes incubated at 37 degC. During a 10 min span the corneal surface was wetted with nine drops of aqueous solutions of BAC (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% and 10.0%, resp.) and Jar (0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0%, 10.0% and 100.0%, i.e., commercialy available compound, resp.). Changes of corneal permeability caused by detergents were demonstrated by an increaseJ uptake of 22Na transferred from the paper strips stretched over the corneal surface. For the controls, saline was used instead of detergents. The corneal permeability for 22Na increased with increasing detergent concentration. Significant changes of corneal permeability were caused by Jar diluted to 0.01%. Experiments in vivo were carried out on rabbits. Both detergents were tested in above mentioned concetrations using always two drops during a 1 min exposure. The eyes were observed for 6 days. Heavy keratitis with corneal edema, purulent conjunctival discharge and blepharitis was caused by 10% BAC and to a lesser degree also by 1% BAC or undiluted Jar. On the seventh day the permeability of the rabbit corneas was tested applying the paper strips soaked with 22Na. After 30 min the rabbits were dissected and the radioactivity of the isolated tissues and aqueous has been evaluated. After the six days delay the functional changes of the epithelial barrier were still observable manifesting itself by changed permeability and ocular distribution of 22Na. (author)

  8. Posição viciosa de cabeça por astigmatismo mal corrigido: relato de caso Abnormal head position caused by incorrect prescription for astigmatism: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Augusta Attié de Castro

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A posição viciosa de cabeça é uma condição compensatória que visa proporcionar aos pacientes melhor rendimento visual. Pode ser causada por problemas oftalmológicos, como distúrbios oculomotores (nistagmos, estrabismos e altos astigmatismos. No entanto, compromete a estética e, a longo prazo, pode causar transtornos ortopédicos (coluna cervical e assimetrias faciais. Relatamos o caso de uma garota, JL, 8 anos, com cabeça inclinada para esquerda havia vários anos. Fazia uso de óculos prescritos em outro serviço para correção de astigmatismo misto: OD= +2,00 DE Ç -5,50 DC a 180º e OE= +2,25 DE Ç -5,75 DC a 180º. No exame oftálmico, a paciente apresentava cabeça inclinada para a esquerda e acuidade visual com correção de 0,5 no OD e 0,7 OE. Os testes de cobertura simples e alternado não evidenciaram desvio ocular. Rotações oculares, biomicroscopia e fundoscopia também não mostraram alterações. Na refratometria sob cicloplegia e teste de lentes foram encontrados: OD= +3,50 DE Ç -6,00 DC a 10º e OE= +3,50 DE Ç -6,00 DC a 170º, com acuidade visual igual a 1,0 nos olhos direito e esquerdo. Foram prescritas as lentes encontradas no exame e a paciente retornou com a correção nova sem a inclinação de cabeça. Erros refracionais mal corrigidos também podem gerar torcicolo e, muitas vezes, passam despercebidos. Refratometria sob cicloplegia e teste de lentes são fundamentais para um diagnóstico preciso.Abnormal head position is a compensatory condition which improves patients' vision. It can be caused by ophthalmological problems such as oculomotor imbalances (strabismus, nystagmus and high astigmatisms. However, it results in esthetic impairment, orthopedic trouble and facial asymmetries. We describe a case of a girl, JL, 8 years, with abnormal head position tilted to the left since the last glasses were prescribed. The correction used by the patient was: right eye = +2.00 sph à -5.5 cyl 180° and left eye = +2

  9. Genetics Home Reference: lattice corneal dystrophy type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of lattice corneal dystrophy type I: American Foundation for the Blind: Living with Vision Loss Genetic Testing Registry: Lattice corneal dystrophy Type ...

  10. Corneal Stromal Bioequivalents Secreted on Patterned Silk Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Du, Yiqin; Funderburgh, Martha L.; Kaplan, David L.; Funderburgh, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Emulating corneal stromal tissue is believed to be the most challenging step in bioengineering an artificial human cornea because of the difficulty in reproducing its highly ordered microstructure, the key to the robust biomechanical properties and optical transparency of this tissue. We conducted a comparative study to assess the feasibility of human corneal stromal stem cells (hCSSCs) and human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs) in the generation of human corneal stromal tissue on groove-patterned ...

  11. Evaluation of corneal higher order aberrations in normal topographic patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzajani, Ali; Aghataheri, Sattar; Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Mohammadinia, Mohadese

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study reports the characteristics of corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with normal topographic pattern using the Pentacam scheimpflug system. Methods In this prospective, observational, comparative study, 165 eyes of 97 patients separated into five groups based on corneal topographic patterns were enrolled. All eyes received a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including corneal tomographic analysis with the Pentacam system. Keratometry, corneal cylinder, and ...

  12. Bilateral coexistence of keratoconus and macular corneal dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Al-Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    The authors hereby report a 21-year-old female who presented with the typical signs and topographic evidence of keratoconus in association with macular corneal dystrophy. Histopathologic evaluation from the excised corneal button after corneal transplant confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, there is only one previous report in the literature linking the association of keratoconus and macular corneal dystrophy in the same eye bilaterally.

  13. Lente de contato de material híbrido em pacientes com ceratocone e astigmatismo miópico composto Hybrid material contact lens in keratoconus and myopic astigmatism patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Leal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o desempenho visual e o conforto de lentes de contato de material híbrido, quanto ao apresentado por pacientes portadores de ceratocone e astigmatismo miópico composto, e comparar com a lente de contato rígida-gás-permeável nos dois grupos de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à adaptação com lentes de contato 22 pacientes, sendo 8 portadores de astigmatismo miópico composto e 14 com diagnóstico de ceratocone. Entre os pacientes, 7 eram do sexo masculino e 15 do feminino, com idade média de 32,13 anos ± 8,12. Cada paciente recebeu uma lente de contato de material híbrido e, no contralateral, uma lente rígida-gás-permeável. A escolha da lente a ser adaptada no olho direito ou esquerdo foi feita aleatoriamente, sendo o trabalho duplo-mascarado. Os pacientes foram submetidos aos seguintes exames: medida do conforto por meio da escala visual analógica, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, acuidade visual pela escala de Bailey-Lovie adaptada para quatro metros, sensibilidade ao contraste pelo "functional acuity contrast test" e análise das aberrações oculares pela análise de frentes de onda. RESULTADOS: Com relação ao conforto não houve associação com o tipo de lente (p=0,350. Houve variação no conforto referido ao longo do tempo até 7 dias (p=0,001, estabilizando-se após este período. A medida da acuidade visual sofreu aumento entre a adaptação e a medida obtida aos 7 dias, bem como desta para a medida de 15 dias, estabilizando-se então. A acuidade visual não apresentou diferenças com relação ao tipo de lente estudada. Verificou-se que não houve diferença no tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal (p=0,989 com relação aos tipos de lentes, porém houve diminuição deste (p=0,001 quando comparadas as medidas antes do início do uso das lentes e com dois meses de uso. Os tipos de lentes não revelaram associação com a sensibilidade ao contraste e não diferiram das medidas feitas com o uso de

  14. Acute Corneal Hydrops 3 Years after Intra-corneal Ring Segments and Corneal Collagen Cross-linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonios, Rafic; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Hamadeh, Adib; Jarade, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 15-year-old male with allergic conjunctivitis and keratoconus, who underwent uneventful intra-corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the right eye. During the follow-up periods, the patient was noted to have several episodes of allergic conjunctivitis that were treated accordingly. At the 2 years postoperatively, he presented with another episode of allergic conjunctivitis and progression of keratoconus was suspected on topography. However, the patient was lost to follow-up, until he presented with acute hydrops at 3 years postoperatively. There are no reported cases of acute corneal hydrops in cross-linked corneas. We suspect the young age, allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing may be a risk factors associated with possible progression of keratoconus after CXL. Prolonged follow-up and aggressive control of the allergy might be necessary in similar cases. PMID:26957859

  15. Corneal reconstruction by stem cells and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjamaa O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olli ArjamaaDepartment of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Almost 300 million people are visually impaired worldwide due to various eye diseases such as cataracts, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal diseases. Notably, ten million people are blind because of severe ocular surface diseases and the majority of cases occur in developing countries. Blinding ocular surface diseases have, however, become treatable by grafting of surface layers, or by full-thickness transplantation of the cornea. As the demand for human corneal tissue for surface reconstruction and transplantation far exceeds the supply, methods are being developed to supplement tissue donation. Xenotransplantation of the cornea or cells from genetically modified pigs may become one of the solutions. Transplantation of limbal stem cells within tissue biopsies, to restore the transparency of the cornea is another remarkable method, which has shown its potential in several clinical studies. The combination of stem cell technology and engineering of biocompatible tissue equivalent, still at preclinical stage, has shown us how synthetic corneal tissue is able to guide cultured corneal stromal stem cells of human origin, to become native-like stroma, the most important layer of the cornea. These findings give hope for a large-quantity production of biomaterial for corneal reconstruction. As such, clinical ophthalmologists should become more familiar with the methods of laboratory science.Keywords: eye, grafting, keratoplasty, xenotransplantation, cell reservoir, biocompatible tissue equivalent

  16. Efficacy of Tectonic Corneal Patch Graft for Progressive Peripheral Corneal Thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Tanrıverdio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the results of tectonic corneal patch graft (TCPG in patients with progressive peripheral corneal thinning (PCT. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 8 patients who underwent TCPG for PCT or perforated corneal ulceration at Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Results: We performed TCPG in 7 patients for PCT and in 1 patient for perforated corneal ulceration. Mean age was 57.2±16.7 (38- 82 years. Postoperative follow-up time ranged from 6 to 24 months (mean 13.9±6.7. Possible etiologies leading to progressive PCT were trachoma, infectious corneal ulcer, and rheumatoid arthritis-severe dry eye in 2 patients each. Other 2 patients had a progressive PCT following ocular surgery. One of the patients with infectious corneal ulcer also had a trauma caused by a scissor. Amnion membrane transplantation was performed in 3 patients prior to TCPG. While the anatomic success was achieved in all 8 patients, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.1 or better in 4 patients (50%. Postoperative BCVA was better than preoperative BCVA in 6 patients (75%. Local peripheral anterior synechiae developed in two eyes. Conclusion: TCPG is a useful therapeutic option in selected cases of corneal thinning and perforations because it effectively restores the integrity of the globe and allows acceptable visual results. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 440-4

  17. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  18. Clinical significance of central corneal thickness and comparison of central corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çakıcı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Significance of central corneal thickness has been increasing in ophthalmology practice. It is an important clinical evaluation tool especially prior to refractive surgery and in diagnosis of glaucoma and keratoconus. Refractive surgery is planned according to preoperative central corneal thickness measurements. Besides, in order to determine actual intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness is measured and corrected eye pressure is obtained. Today, devices used in measurement of central corneal thickness do the measurement according to two principles. First and relatively older method is ultrasonic method. Optic method is the second and more recent method. In daily practice, the most commonly used clinical method in measurement of central corneal thickness is ultrasound pachymeter. However, this measurement technique requires contact between cornea and probe and gives thinner measurement results compared to the methods that use optic principle. Recently, several technologic methods based on optics have been put in use; they provide advantages of non-contact technique and objective determination of central corneal thickness. Of these methods, most commonly used include Specular Microscopy, Optical coherence tomography, Laser Doppler Interferometry, Optical low coherence reflectometry pachymetry, Optic based topographic mapping (also called screening section pachymetry and Pentacam. In this article, it was aimed to evaluate importance of central corneal thickness in clinical use and compare measurement methods. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 153-158

  19. Astigmatism in relation to length and site of corneal lacerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srihari Atti

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The corneal astigmatism depends upon the length and site of corneal laceration. Severity of astigmatism was directly proportion to the length of corneal laceration. The wound was nearer to the centre of the cornea, the greater was the astigmatism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 165-168

  20. Corneal endothelial changes in superficial epithelial keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A M; Grant, G; Gillies, W E

    1986-05-01

    A series of five cases is described in which superficial punctate keratopathy was associated with endothelial cell changes. The most striking change was the presence of dark areas or blebs, usually two to four cell diameters in extent. There was also distortion and crumpling of the corneal endothelium, mild pleomorphism and polymegathism of the endothelial cells, with a reduced cell count in some cases. These blebs have previously been reported in hard and soft contact lens wearers and are due to intercellular oedema with separation of endothelial cells from Descemet's membrane. Anoxia and interference with osmosis have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the production of these blebs, but our cases demonstrate that fine disruption of the corneal epithelium can affect the integrity of the corneal endothelium and may lead to significant damage over a long period of time. PMID:3801208

  1. Diurnal variations in human corneal thickness.

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, C L; Boulton, M. E.; Bennett, D.; Marcyniuk, B; Jarvis-Evans, J H; Tullo, A. B.; Ridgway, A E

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the diurnal variation in human corneal thickness over a 48 hour period. METHOD: Changes in central corneal thickness were monitored in eight healthy subjects (four male, four female) aged between 10 and 63 years using an ultrasonic pachymeter. Measurements were made over a 48 hour period-immediately before sleep, immediately upon waking and at 15, 30, 45 minutes, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 hours, and at 2 hour intervals thereafter throughout the remainder of each day. RESULTS: The me...

  2. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical crosslinking is widely applied in ophthalmology. Its biochemical effect is due to the release of singlet oxygen that promotes anaerobic photochemical reaction. Keratoconus is one of the most common corneal ectasia affecting 1 in 250 to 250 000 persons. Currently, the rate of iatrogenic ectasia following eximer laser refractive surgery increases due to biomechanical weakening of the cornea. Morphologically and biochemically, ectasia is characterized by corneal layers thinning, contact between the stroma and epithelium resulting from Bowman’s membrane rupture, chromatin fragmentation in keratocyte nuclei, phagocytosis, abnormal staining and arrangement of collagen fibers, enzyme system disorders, and keratocyte apoptosis. In corneal ectasia, altered enzymatic processes result in the synthesis of abnormal collagen. Collagen packing is determined by the activity of various extracellular matrix enzymes which bind amines and aldehydes of collagen fiber amino acids. In the late stage, morphological changes of Descemet’s membrane (i.e., rupture and detachment develop. Abnormal hexagonal-shaped keratocytes and their apoptosis are the signs of endothelial dystrophy. The lack of analogs in domestic ophthalmology encouraged the scientists of Ufa Eye Research Institute to develop a device for corneal collagen crosslinking. The parameters of ultraviolet (i.e., wavelength, exposure time, power to achieve the desired effect were identified. The specifics of some photosensitizers in the course of the procedure were studied. UFalink, a device for UV irradiation of cornea, and photosensitizer Dextralink were developed and adopted. Due to the high risk of endothelial damage, this treatment is contraindicated in severe keratoconus (CCT less than 400 microns. Major effects of corneal collagen crosslinking are the following: Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity increase by 328.9 % (on average, temperature tolerance increase by 5

  3. [Aesthesiometry of the cornea after refractive corneal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, M; Draeger, J; Böhm, A; Lombardi, M; Abbondanza, M; Zuppardo, M; Görne, M

    1992-10-01

    The corneal sensibility was examined with the aesthesiometer of Draeger in 41 patients after refractive corneal surgery, 31 patients after radial keratotomy, 5 after epikeratophakia, 5 after excimer laser ablation. It could be shown that after radial corneal incisions the sensibility remains normal. After epikeratophakia the corneal sensibility is asensible even 3 years after operation. The lenticle periphery shows an increase of sensibility after 6 months. Excimer patients with "haze" showed a significant hyposensibility in the centre. The central sensibility showed normal values after a normal corneal wound healing. PMID:1453657

  4. Intrastromal injection of bevacizumab in patients with corneal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (NV not only reduces visual acuity, but it also causes loss of the cornea's immune privilege, strongly contributing to a worse prognosis in penetrating keratoplasty. Several mediators participate in corneal angiogenesis, and the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been extensively proven. Anti-VEGF agents have been shown to be effective in slowing the growth of corneal neovessels. Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF agent, has been successfully used in the treatment of corneal neovascularization. In this paper, we report a series of patients who underwent intracorneal bevacizumab injections to treat corneal vascularization.

  5. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra X Crawford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD. Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17 th and 18 th centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19 th century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis of mice corneal tissues reveals angiogenesis-related proteins involved in corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Minqian; Tao, Yimin; Feng, Yifan; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Fei; Zhou, Hu

    2016-07-01

    Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was induced in Balb/c mice by alkali burns in the central area of the cornea with a diameter of 2.5mm. After fourteen days, the cornea from one eye was collected for histological staining for CNV examination, while the cornea from the other eye of the same mouse was harvested for proteomic analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic approach was applied to analyze five normal corneal tissues (normal group mice n=5) and five corresponding neovascularized corneal tissues (model group mice n=5). A total of 2124 proteins were identified, and 1682 proteins were quantified from these corneal tissues. Among these quantified proteins, 290 proteins were significantly changed between normal and alkali burned corneal tissues. Of these significantly changed proteins, 35 were reported or predicted as angiogenesis-related proteins. Then, these 35 proteins were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software, resulting in 26 proteins enriched and connected to each other in the protein-protein interaction network, such as Lcn-2, αB-crystallin and Serpinf1 (PEDF). These three significantly changed proteins were selected for further Western blotting validation. Consistent with the quantitative proteomic results, Western blotting showed that Lcn-2 and αB-crystallin were significantly up-regulated in CNV model, while PEDF was down-regulated. This study provided increased understanding of angiogenesis-related proteins involved in corneal vascular development, which will be useful in the ophthalmic clinic of specifically target angiogenesis. PMID:27049463

  7. The relationship between central corneal thickness and corneal curvature in adult Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Iyamu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide average values for central corneal thickness (CCT and corneal curvature (CC and also to determine a regression model for the relationship between CCT and CC in adult Nigerians without glaucoma.Methods: A total of 95 subjects consisting of 56 males and 39 females aged between 20 and 69 years with mean age of 47.1 ± 14.1 years were recruited for the study. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry (SW-1000P ultrasound pachymeter, Tianjin Suowei Electronic Technology, China and corneal curvature was measured by keratometry (Bausch & Lomb keratometer H-135A, USA.Results: The average values of 550.1 ± 33.1µm and 43.0 ± 1.1 D were obtained for CCT and CC respectively. CCT significantly correlated with age (p=0.01, and the regression model predicts a decrease of 6.0 µm in CCT per decade. No significant association was found between CC and age (p=0.56. Also, no significant association was found between CCT and CC (p=0.07. Female subjects had significantly steeper corneas than their male counterparts.Conclusion: Central corneal thickness decreases with increasing age. Neither CCT nor age appear to be significantly correlated with corneal curvature. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 44-50

  8. Lípidos transmisores y condicionamientos inducidos por cocaína: papel de las aciletanolamidas y el ácido lisofosfático

    OpenAIRE

    Luque Rojas, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    La presente Tesis Doctoral tiene como objetivo la evaluación del papel de tres lípidos transmisores (endocannabinoides, oleiletanolamida y ácido lisofosfatídico), que están estructuralmente relacionados en la adquisición y expresión de los condicionamientos inducidos por cocaína. El primer conjunto de estudios se centró en el rol de los endocannabinoides que juegan un importante papel modulador de la neurotransmisión dopaminérgica. Es decir, el sustrato de actuación de la cocaína y por ello s...

  9. Estudio morfohistológico y efecto quimioprotector de las hojas de Bidens pilosa L. sobre el cáncer de colon inducido en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arroyo; Pablo Bonilla; Raquel Oré; Ernesto Ráez; Manuel Marin; José Valencia; Hugo Justil; Jaime Martínez; Christian Palomino

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la histología vegetal y la influencia del extracto etanólico de la planta entera de Bidens pilosa L. sobre el cáncer de colón inducido en ratas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Facultades de Medicina, de Farmacia y Bioquímica y de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratas Holzmann. Intervenciones: Se agrupó 48 ratas Holtzmann, de 2 meses de edad, con pesos 100 g a 130 g, en seis grupos de ocho cada uno, y se...

  10. Peptide Amphiphiles in Corneal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miotto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in effort towards creating alternative therapies have led to exciting breakthroughs in the attempt to bio-fabricate and engineer live tissues. This has been particularly evident in the development of new approaches applied to reconstruct corneal tissue. The need for tissue-engineered corneas is largely a response to the shortage of donor tissue and the lack of suitable alternative biological scaffolds preventing the treatment of millions of blind people worldwide. This review is focused on recent developments in corneal tissue engineering, specifically on the use of self-assembling peptide amphiphiles for this purpose. Recently, peptide amphiphiles have generated great interest as therapeutic molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we introduce this rapidly developing field, and examine innovative applications of peptide amphiphiles to create natural bio-prosthetic corneal tissue in vitro. The advantages of peptide amphiphiles over other biomaterials, namely their wide range of functions and applications, versatility, and transferability are also discussed to better understand how these fascinating molecules can help solve current challenges in corneal regeneration.

  11. Corneal proteoglycan changes under vitamin A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vitamin A-deficient keratinized cornea is very susceptible to ulceration possibly due to altered stromal components. In this study the proteoglycans present in the corneal stroma of vitamin A-deficient, pair-fed and normal rabbits were compared. Rabbits after weaning were placed on a vitamin A deficient diet, the same diet with retinyl palmitate added (pair-fed) or normal rabbit chow. After 5 months, the corneas of the vitamin A-deficient animals became keratinized. The corneal components were then labeled by injection of 3H-leucine and Na35SO4 into the anterior chamber of the eyes on 3 successive days. On the 4th day the animals were sacrificed the corneas removed and dissected. The labeled corneal stromas were extracted with 4 M GuHCl and the components separated on a DEAE-Sepharose column. The proteoglycans were eluted with 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl. The 1.0 M NaCl fraction (mainly keratin sulfate proteoglycans) was increased 25% in the vitamin A-deficient corneas over that for the pair-fed and normal corneas. These proteoglycans from the deficient corneas gave a different elution pattern on Octyl-Sepharose eluted with a Triton X-100 gradient than those from the pair-fed corneas. The total labeled proteoglycans were similar in the stromas from the 3 types of rabbits. These results indicate the various corneal proteoglycan ratios differ under vitamin A deficiency conditions

  12. Past and present of corneal refractive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders Højslet

    Surgical correction of refractive errors is becoming increasingly popular. In the 1990s, the excimer laser revolutionized the field of corneal refractive surgery with PRK and LASIK, and lately refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx) of intracorneal tissue, using only a femtosecond laser, has become...

  13. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm-2 to 10.000 Jm-2 and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm-2 and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm-2. The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared. (orig.)

  14. [Future Innovative Medicine for Corneal Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kohji

    2016-03-01

    Japan faces an aging population and a declining birth rate, so medical professionals and the public are seeking next-generation ophthalmological treatments to preserve and restore visual function. Two fields lie at the heart of this future concept of ophthalmological treatments. The first is predictive medicine and early intervention and treatment. This field is based on precision medicine to treat chronic conditions such as keratoconus, glaucoma, and macular degeneration while the condition is latent or soon after it has developed. The second field is regenerative therapy. This field includes cell therapy, regenerative medicine, artificial corneas and retinal implants. Precision medicine is the concept of examining the effects of genomic information and environmental factors on the onset or progression of a condition. Precision medicine involves dividing patients with a given condition into subgroups and then developing an appropriate method of preventing or treating that condition for each group. This may prove useful in treating corneal conditions such as keratoconus and dry eye. To accomplish that goal, however, overarching genomic, imaging, and biomarker studies must be conducted. Markers related to the onset or progression of a condition must also be identified. This paper describes results of preliminary study of 2 types of markers: biomarkers, and genetic markers. These markers have been used in efforts to predict the onset or progression of keratoconus. The development of regenerative medicine requires basic studies of stem cells and microenvironments (niches) in which to sustain those cells. N-cadherin is a cell adhesion molecule, and the current authors are the first to contend that this molecule plays an important role in the corneal epithelial stem cell niche. In addition, the current authors are the first to report that corneal endothelial cells expressing p75 may potentially be corneal endothelial precursor cells. Capitalizing on the results of that

  15. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, B K; Bonanno, J A; Radke, C J

    2011-11-01

    Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem-Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. PMID:21820076

  16. Cellular and extracellular matrix modulation of corneal stromal opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Andre A M; Wilson, Steven E

    2014-12-01

    Stromal transparency is a critical factor contributing to normal function of the visual system. Corneal injury, surgery, disease and infection elicit complex wound healing responses that serve to protect against insults and maintain the integrity of the cornea, and subsequently to restore corneal structure and transparency. However, in some cases these processes result in prolonged loss of corneal transparency and resulting diminished vision. Corneal opacity is mediated by the complex actions of many cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines produced by the epithelial cells, stromal cells, bone marrow-derived cells, lacrimal tissues, and nerves. Myofibroblasts, and the disorganized extracellular matrix produced by these cells, are critical determinants of the level and persistence of stromal opacity after corneal injury. Decreases in corneal crystallins in myofibroblasts and corneal fibroblasts contribute to cellular opacity in the stroma. Regeneration of a fully functional epithelial basement membrane (BM) appears to have a critical role in the maintenance of corneal stromal transparency after mild injuries and recovery of transparency when opacity is generated after severe injuries. The epithelial BM likely has a regulatory function whereby it modulates epithelium-derived growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF) β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) that drive the development and persistence of myofibroblasts from precursor cells. The purpose of this article is to review the factors involved in the maintenance of corneal transparency and to highlight the mechanisms involved in the appearance, persistency and regression of corneal opacity after stromal injury. PMID:25281830

  17. Emodin ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced corneal inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  18. A novel proteotoxic stress associated mechanism for macular corneal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarniranta, Kai; Szalai, Eszter; Smedowski, Adrian; Hegyi, Zoltán; Kivinen, Niko; Viiri, Johanna; Wowra, Bogumil; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Módis, László; Berta, András; Wylegala, Edward; Felszeghy, Szabolcs

    2015-08-01

    Macular corneal dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive eye disease affecting primarily the corneal stroma. Abnormal accumulation of proteoglycan aggregates has been observed intra- and extracellularly in the stromal layer. In addition to the stromal keratocytes and corneal lamellae, deposits are also present in the basal epithelial cells, endothelial cells and Descemet's membrane. Misfolding of proteins has a tendency to gather into aggregating deposits. We studied interaction of molecular chaperones and proteasomal clearance in macular dystrophy human samples and in human corneal HCE-2 epithelial cells. Seven cases of macular corneal dystrophy and four normal corneal buttons collected during corneal transplantation were examined for their expression patterns of heat shock protein 70, ubiquitin protein conjugates and SQSTM1/p62. In response to proteasome inhibition the same proteins were analyzed by western blotting. Slit-lamp examination, in vivo confocal cornea microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for morphological analyses. Heat shock protein 70, ubiquitin protein conjugates and SQSTM1/p62 were upregulated in both the basal corneal epithelial cells and the stromal keratocytes in macular corneal dystrophy samples that coincided with an increased expression of the same molecules under proteasome inhibition in the HCE-2 cells in vitro. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism that connects the molecular chaperone and proteasomal clearance system in the pathogenesis of macular corneal dystrophy. PMID:25597745

  19. Electrospun Scaffolds for Corneal Tissue Engineering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Kong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases constitute the second leading cause of vision loss and affect more than 10 million people globally. As there is a severe shortage of fresh donated corneas and an unknown risk of immune rejection with traditional heterografts, it is very important and urgent to construct a corneal equivalent to replace pathologic corneal tissue. Corneal tissue engineering has emerged as a practical strategy to develop corneal tissue substitutes, and the design of a scaffold with mechanical properties and transparency similar to that of natural cornea is paramount for the regeneration of corneal tissues. Nanofibrous scaffolds produced by electrospinning have high surface area–to-volume ratios and porosity that simulate the structure of protein fibers in native extra cellular matrix (ECM. The versatilities of electrospinning of polymer components, fiber structures, and functionalization have made the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds with suitable mechanical strength, transparency and biological properties for corneal tissue engineering feasible. In this paper, we review the recent developments of electrospun scaffolds for engineering corneal tissues, mainly including electrospun materials (single and blended polymers, fiber structures (isotropic or anisotropic, functionalization (improved mechanical properties and transparency, applications (corneal cell survival, maintenance of phenotype and formation of corneal tissue and future development perspectives.

  20. Ocular histopathological changes after eyeball enucleation induced by corneal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ocular histopathological changes aftereyeball enucleation induced by corneal trauma.Methods: Light microscopic examination was done on 117 eyeball specimens enucleated after corneal trauma (18 with corneal fissure and 99 with corneal perforating trauma).Results: Acute, subacute or chronic inflammatory changes, and fibrous membrane formation were observed in well-closed corneal wounds, whereas inflammation, atrophy and scar were observed in the focal tissues. But at the late period, secondary glaucoma, retinal detachment, endophthalmitis and eyeball atrophy resulted in blindness. Corneal fistula was observed in those with inadequate cure of wounds caused by ingrowth of corneal epithelium, embedment of iris and vitreous body, and large area of centrally located tissue deficiency of the corneal. A high incidence of endophthalmitis was noted due to the presence of corneal fistula. Severe inflammation was observed in the anterior segmental tissues with fibrous infiltration in the anterior chamber, which might result in rapid destruction of the eyeballs.Conclusions: Ocular pathology varies with the difference of the position, form, size and closing conditions of the corneal laceration after trauma.

  1. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Saenz-Frances; Martha; Cecilia; Bermúdez-Vallecilla; Lara; Borrego-Sanz; Luis; Jaez; J; osé; Marìa; Martinez-de-la-Casa; Laura; Morales-Fernandez; Enrique; Santos-Bueso; Julián; Garcia-Sanchez; Julián; Garcia-Feijoo

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness(pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex.·METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex(AT),minimum corneal thickness(MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center(PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT(MD)and PT(PD) were calculated and their quadrant position(taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined:point of minimum thickness(MC) and point of central thickness(PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume(determined using the Pentacam)and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.·RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex(79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume(B =-0.024; 95% CI:-0.043 to-0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logisticregressions for MC and PC.·CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferiortemporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  2. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Di, Guohu; Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Yao; Qi, Xia; Duan, Haoyun; Xie, Lixin

    2015-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a well-known neuroprotective cytokine, has been found to play an important role in neurogenesis and functional regulations of neural stem cells. As one of the most innervated tissue, however, the role of CNTF in cornea epithelium remains unclear. This study was to explore the roles and mechanisms of CNTF in the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and wound healing of both normal and diabetic mouse corneal epithelium. In mice subjecting to mechanical removal of corneal epithelium, the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing were promoted by exogenous CNTF application, while delayed by CNTF neutralizing antibody. In cultured corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, CNTF enhanced the colony-forming efficiency, stimulated the mitogenic proliferation, and upregulated the expression levels of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell-associated transcription factors. Furthermore, the promotion of CNTF on the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing was mediated by the activation of STAT3. Moreover, in diabetic mice, the content of CNTF in corneal epithelium decreased significantly when compared with that of normal mice, and the supplement of CNTF promoted the diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing, accompanied with the advanced activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and the regeneration of corneal nerve fibers. Thus, the capability of expanding corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and promoting corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration indicates the potential application of CNTF in ameliorating limbal stem cell deficiency and treating diabetic keratopathy. PMID:25546438

  3. Unilateral corneal leukoplakia without limbal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Koji Hirano,1 Mihoko Koide,2 Yoshikazu Mizoguchi,3 Yasuhiro Osakabe,4 Kaoru-Araki Sasaki5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ban Buntane Hotokukai Hospital, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Koide Internal Medicine and Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Pathology, Ban Buntane Hotokukai Hospital, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Health Care Organization, Hoshigaoka Medical Center, Hirakata, Japan Purpose: Leukoplakia is the term given to a white patch or plaque that is found mainly on the oral mucus membrane. It can occasionally be seen on the corneal surface. We report our clinical and histopathological findings in a case of unilateral corneal leukoplakia. Methods: A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a white patch on her right cornea that continued to expand. She first noticed the white patch when she was 20 years old, and the white patch had expanded to cover the pupillary area affecting her vision. After plastic surgery on both eyelids for bilateral entropion to alleviate the pain caused by the eyelashes rubbing the cornea, the white corneal patch decreased in size. Because of this reduction, we performed surgery to remove the patch with microforceps under topical anesthesia. The plaque was removed easily and completely, and submitted for histopathological examination. Results: Histopathological examination showed that the specimen had characteristics of epidermis with a basal cell layer, spinous cell layer, granular cell layer, and horny layer with hyperkeratosis. She was diagnosed with leukoplakia of the corneal surface. The basic structure of the squamous cell layer was preserved, and there were no signs of metaplasia. Six months after the removal of the leukoplakia, no recurrence was seen and her corrected decimal visual acuity recovered to 1

  4. Dextran Preserves Native Corneal Structure During Decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Amy P; Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Corneal decellularization has become an increasingly popular technique for generating scaffolds for corneal regeneration. Most decellularization procedures result in tissue swelling, thus limiting their application. Here, the use of a polysaccharide, dextran, to reduce swelling and conserve the native corneal structure during decellularization was investigated. Corneas were treated with 1% Triton X-100, 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate, and nucleases under constant rotation followed by extensive washing. To reduce swelling, decellularization solutions were supplemented with 5% dextran either throughout the whole decellularization process or during the washing cycles only. Quantitative analysis of DNA content showed a 96% reduction after decellularization regardless of the addition of dextran. Dextran resulted in a significant reduction in swelling from 3.85 ± 0.43 nm without to 1.94 ± 0.29-2.01 ± 0.37 nm (p native tissue (1.73 ± 0.23 nm). Tissue transparency was restored to all decellularized corneas following submersion in glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis found that dextran must be present throughout the decellularization protocol to preserve the native corneal architecture, anisotropy analysis demonstrated comparable results (0.22 ± 0.03) to the native cornea (0.24 ± 0.02), p > 0.05. Dextran can counteract the detrimental effects of decellularizing agents on the biomechanical properties of the tissue resulting in similar compressive moduli (mean before decellularization: 5.40 ± 1.18 kPa; mean after decellularization with dextran: 5.64 ± 1.34 kPa, p > 0.05). Cells remained viable in the presence of decellularized scaffolds. The findings of this study indicate that dextran not only prevents significant corneal swelling during decellularization but also enhances the maintenance of the native corneal ultrastructure. PMID:27068608

  5. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  6. Effects of aberrant Pax6 gene dosage on mouse corneal pathophysiology and corneal epithelial homeostasis.

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    Richard L Mort

    Full Text Available Altered dosage of the transcription factor PAX6 causes multiple human eye pathophysiologies. PAX6⁺/⁻ heterozygotes suffer from aniridia and aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK, a corneal deterioration that probably involves a limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC deficiency. Heterozygous Pax6(+/Sey-Neu (Pax6⁺/⁻ mice recapitulate the human disease and are a good model of ARK. Corneal pathologies also occur in other mouse Pax6 mutants and in PAX77(Tg/- transgenics, which over-express Pax6 and model human PAX6 duplication.We used electron microscopy to investigate ocular defects in Pax6⁺/⁻ heterozygotes (low Pax6 levels and PAX77(Tg/- transgenics (high Pax6 levels. As well as the well-documented epithelial defects, aberrant Pax6 dosage had profound effects on the corneal stroma and endothelium in both genotypes, including cellular vacuolation, similar to that reported for human macular corneal dystrophy. We used mosaic expression of an X-linked LacZ transgene in X-inactivation mosaic female (XLacZ(Tg/- mice to investigate corneal epithelial maintenance by LESC clones in Pax6⁺/⁻ and PAX77(Tg/- mosaic mice. PAX77(Tg/- mosaics, over-expressing Pax6, produced normal corneal epithelial radial striped patterns (despite other corneal defects, suggesting that centripetal cell movement was unaffected. Moderately disrupted patterns in Pax6⁺/⁻ mosaics were corrected by introducing the PAX77 transgene (in Pax6⁺/⁻, PAX77(Tg/- mosaics. Pax6(Leca4/+, XLacZ(Tg/- mosaic mice (heterozygous for the Pax6(Leca4 missense mutation showed more severely disrupted mosaic patterns. Corrected corneal epithelial stripe numbers (an indirect estimate of active LESC clone numbers declined with age (between 15 and 30 weeks in wild-type XLacZ(Tg/- mosaics. In contrast, corrected stripe numbers were already low at 15 weeks in Pax6⁺/⁻ and PAX77(Tg/- mosaic corneas, suggesting Pax6 under- and over-expression both affect LESC clones.Pax6⁺/⁻ and PAX77(Tg

  7. Customized pachymetric guided epithelial debridement for corneal collagen cross linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov Mirco

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround We describe a modified method for deepitheliazation prior to corneal cross linking (CXL. The technique may overcome the current corneal pachymetric limitation parameter (over 400 microns that is necessary for the safety of the procedure without affecting the overall benefits. Methods In a series of two patients, with inferior topographic steepening and regional thinning (less than 400 microns corresponding to the area of corneal steepening, CXL after customized epithelial removal was performed. Results There were no intra- or postoperative adverse events seen by the nine month follow up examination. Stabilization of the corneal ectasia was observed up to nine months post-costumized pachymetric-guided epithelial removal. Conclusion The technique of customized pachymetric-guided epithelial removal is easy to perform and may overcome the limitations of the preoperative corneal pachymetry expanding the application of the procedure in patients with regional corneal thinning.

  8. Induction of corneal collagen cross-linking in experimental corneal alkali burns in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Colombo-Barboza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of riboflavin-ultraviolet-A-induced cross-linking (CXL following corneal alkali burns in rabbits. Methods: The right corneas and limbi of ten rabbits were burned using a 1N solution of NaOH and the animals were then divided into two groups: a control group submitted to clinical treatment alone and an experimental group that was treated 1 h after injury with CXL, followed by the same clinical treatment as administered to the controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated post-injury at 1, 7, 15, and 30 days by two independent observers. Following this evaluation, the corneas were excised and examined histologically. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical parameters, such as hyperemia, corneal edema, ciliary injection, limbal ischemia, secretion, corneal neovascularization, symblepharon, or blepharospasm, at any of the time-points evaluated. However, the size of the epithelial defect was significantly smaller in the CXL group (p<0.05 (day 15: p=0.008 and day 30: p=0.008 and the extent of the corneal injury (opacity lesion was also smaller (day 30: p=0.021. Histopathology showed the presence of collagen bridges linking the collagen fibers in only the CXL group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the use of CXL may improve the prognosis of acute corneal alkali burns.

  9. Recovery of Corneal Endothelial Cells from Periphery after Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Choi

    Full Text Available Wound healing of the endothelium occurs through cell enlargement and migration. However, the peripheral corneal endothelium may act as a cell resource for the recovery of corneal endothelium in endothelial injury.To investigate the recovery process of corneal endothelial cells (CECs from corneal endothelial injury.Three patients with unilateral chemical eye injuries, and 15 rabbit eyes with corneal endothelial chemical injuries were studied. Slit lamp examination, specular microscopy, and ultrasound pachymetry were performed immediately after chemical injury and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months later. The anterior chambers of eyes from New Zealand white rabbits were injected with 0.1 mL of 0.05 N NaOH for 10 min (NaOH group. Corneal edema was evaluated at day 1, 7, and 14. Vital staining was performed using alizarin red and trypan blue.Specular microscopy did not reveal any corneal endothelial cells immediately after injury. Corneal edema subsided from the periphery to the center, CEC density increased, and central corneal thickness decreased over time. In the animal study, corneal edema was greater in the NaOH group compared to the control at both day 1 and day 7. At day 1, no CECs were detected at the center and periphery of the corneas in the NaOH group. Two weeks after injury, small, hexagonal CECs were detected in peripheral cornea, while CECs in mid-periphery were large and non-hexagonal.CECs migrated from the periphery to the center of the cornea after endothelial injury. The peripheral corneal endothelium may act as a cell resource for the recovery of corneal endothelium.

  10. PRE OPERATIVE CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM IN PATIENTS WITH CATARACT

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara Rao; Hanumantha Rao; Sivacharan; Anitha Devi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine corneal astigmatism in patients with cataract posted for surgery. To achieve good visual outcome, significant corneal astigmatism has to be taken care of at the time of surgery either by corneal or limba l relaxing incisions or by implantation of toric intraocular lens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational case series conducted on 200 patients with cataract who attended the out - patient department of ophthalmology and c...

  11. Corneal Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ghezzi, Chiara E.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    To address the growing need for corneal transplants two main approaches are being pursued: allogenic and synthetic materials. Allogenic tissue from human donors is currently the preferred choice; however, there is a worldwide shortage in donated corneal tissue. In addition, tissue rejection often limits the long-term success of this approach. Alternatively, synthetic homologs to donor corneal grafts are primarily considered temporary replacements until suitable donor tissue becomes available,...

  12. Experimental study on cryotherapy for fungal corneal ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yingxin; Yang, Weijia; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. Treatment of fungal corneal ulcer mainly depends on anti-fungal agents. In the current study, we developed an integrated combination therapy of cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents to facilitate effective treatment of fungal corneal ulcer. Methods Rabbit models of cornea infection were established using a combined method of intrastromal injection and keratoplasty. After treatment with cryotherapy and anti...

  13. Sands of Sahara after LASIK in Avellino Corneal Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Mantelli; Alessandro Lambiase; Antonio Di Zazzo; Stefano Bonini

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a patient diagnosed with Avellino corneal dystrophy (ACD) who developed diffuse interstitial keratitis following excimer laser insitu keratomileusis (LASIK). ACD is an autosomal dominant corneal dystrophy characterized by multiple asymmetric stromal opacities that impair vision. Accepted treatments for this condition include corneal transplantation and phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). Our patient underwent LASIK at another institution to correct myopia. LASIK and phot...

  14. Corneal irregular astigmatism after laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, T. M.; K. H. Lee; Tomidokoro, A; Oshika, T

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To quantitatively evaluate the changes in corneal irregular astigmatism after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in relation to the amount of laser ablation.
METHODS—In 189 eyes of 116 patients undergoing LASIK for myopia, corneal topography was obtained before and 1 month after surgery. Using Fourier harmonic analysis of the topography data, corneal irregular astigmatism (asymmetry and higher order irregularity) was calculated.
RESULTS—By surgery, asymmetry component significantly inc...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM OF TRAUMATIC CATARACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    The cell morphology of corneal endothelium in 84 mice with experimental traumatic cataract was investigated with stained corneal buttons. In the experimental group, the boundaries between adjacent corneal endothelial cells were significantly distorted, some cell boundaries manifested degenerative changes that led to coalescence of the cells. The mean density and mean area of endothelial cells of the controls showed significant difference from those of the experimental group during the 12 weeks of observ...

  16. Corneal Neovascularization: An Anti-VEGF Therapy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jin-Hong; Garg, Nitin K.; Lunde, Elisa; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Jain, Sandeep; Azar, Dimitri T.

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization is a serious condition that can lead to a profound decline in vision. The abnormal vessels block light, cause corneal scarring, compromise visual acuity, and may lead to inflammation and edema. Corneal neovascularization occurs when the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors is tipped toward angiogenic molecules. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important mediators of angiogenesis, is upregulated during neovascularization. In...

  17. Intrastromal injection of bevacizumab in patients with corneal neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira; Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima; Gomes, José Álvaro P.; Denise de Freitas; Michel Eid Farah; Rubens Belfort Jr

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization (NV) not only reduces visual acuity, but it also causes loss of the cornea's immune privilege, strongly contributing to a worse prognosis in penetrating keratoplasty. Several mediators participate in corneal angiogenesis, and the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been extensively proven. Anti-VEGF agents have been shown to be effective in slowing the growth of corneal neovessels. Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF agent, has been successfully used in the ...

  18. Spontaneous corneal perforation in ocular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Arfaj, Khalid; Al Zamil, Waseem

    2010-04-01

    Rosacea is a dermatologic condition that affects the midfacial region. Ocular rosacea is most frequently diagnosed when cutaneous signs and symptoms are also present. Ocular manifestations are essentially confined to the eyelids and ocular surface. Ocular involvement ranges from minor irritation, dryness, and blurry vision to potentially severe ocular surface disruption including corneal ulcers, vascularization and rarely perforation. We present a 49-year-old Saudi Arabian female with the diagnosis of rosacea who presented with a peripheral corneal performation. The perforation was successfully managed by surgical repair, oral doxycycline and topical steroid. The final best corrected visual acuity was 20/30 after treatment. Early referral to an ophthalmologist and careful long-term follow-up are recommended. PMID:20616930

  19. Spontaneous corneal perforation in ocular rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Arfaj Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosacea is a dermatologic condition that affects the midfacial region. Ocular rosacea is most frequently diagnosed when cutaneous signs and symptoms are also present. Ocular manifestations are essentially confined to the eyelids and ocular surface. Ocular involvement ranges from minor irritation, dryness, and blurry vision to potentially severe ocular surface disruption including corneal ulcers, vascularization and rarely perforation. We present a 49-year-old Saudi Arabian female with the diagnosis of rosacea who presented with a peripheral corneal performation. The perforation was successfully managed by surgical repair, oral doxycycline and topical steroid. The final best corrected visual acuity was 20/30 after treatment. Early referral to an ophthalmologist and careful long-term follow-up are recommended.

  20. Corneal hymenoptera stings: A new therapeutic approach

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    Mauricio Vélez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We describe five cases, (4 children, with ocular sequelae from honeybee or wasp sting injuries to the eye treated with anterior chamber irrigation to reduce the venom concentration and subsequent complications. All patients were treated on the Ophthalmology Service of Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paul, Medellín, Colombia. Methods: Small case series. Patients with hymenoptera corneal sting injuries were treated in the operating room by performing an anterior chamber washout with balanced saline solution and triamcinolone in an effort to minimize the tissue damage induced by bee venom. Results: Early clearing of inflammation and more rapid recovery of baseline acuity was associated with early surgical intervention. Late complications included corneal decompensation, iris heterochromia, paralytic mydriasis, glaucoma and cataract; these complications are irreversible and sight threatening. Conclusion: Performing an early anterior chamber washout is a treatment option for this type of trauma, since it results in faster resolution and fewer late complications. 

  1. Morphological evaluation of normal human corneal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Heegaard, Steffen; Hjortdal, Jesper; Ivarsen, Anders; Nielsen, Kim; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The human corneal epithelium is usually described as a 50-µm-thick layer of regular stratified squamous non-keratinized cells with a thickness of 5-7 cells. The purpose of this study is systemically to revisit the histopathological appearance of 100 corneas. METHODS: 5-µm-thick sections of...... corneas from 100 consecutively selected paraffin-embedded eyes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS). All specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. The eyes were enucleated from patients with choroidal melanoma. Corneas were considered to be normal. RESULTS: Ninety of 100...... eyes were evaluated. The central epithelial, stromal and total corneal thickness was measured as 36.0 µm, 618 µm and 651µm, respectively, with a variation coefficient from 0.21 to 0.22. Pathological appearances were found in 27% of corneas, including thickened basement membrane and alterations in...

  2. Analysis of correlation between corneal topographical data and visual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanqing; Yu, Lei; Ren, Qiushi

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To study correlation among corneal asphericity, higher-order aberrations and visual performance for eyes of virgin myopia and postoperative laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: There were 320 candidates 590 eyes for LASIK treatment included in this study. The mean preoperative spherical equivalence was -4.35+/-1.51D (-1.25 to -9.75), with astigmatism less than 2.5 D. Corneal topography maps and contrast sensitivity were measured and analyzed for every eye before and one year after LASIK for the analysis of corneal asphericity and wavefront aberrations. Results: Preoperatively, only 4th and 6th order aberration had significant correlation with corneal asphericity and apical radius of curvature (p0.05). Postoperatively, corneal aberrations still didn't have significant correlation with visual acuity (P>0.05), but had significantly negative correlation with AULCSF (P0.05). Conclusions: Corneal aberrations had different correlation with corneal profile and visual performance for eyes of virgin myopia and postoperative LASIK, which may be due to changed corneal profile and limitation of metrics of corneal aberrations.

  3. Corneal Ectasis among Wrestlers: Report of Two Cases

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    Mohammad Ali Zare Mehrjardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Report keratoconus in two patients with a long history of wrestling without any risk factor for corneal ectasia and reviewing the possible pathogenesis. To confirm suspicion of keratoconus, corneal topography was performed using scanning slit topography system and Orbscan. In two wrestlers with the complaint of visual loss in their eyes and IOP raising, corneal topography was performed and development of keratoconus (KCN was detected. Athletes involved in sports with high strenuous exercises might need routine eye examination and also a baseline corneal topography. This may provide an earlier detection of KCN in this group of athletics.

  4. Clinical correlates of common corneal neovascular diseases: a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nizar; Saleh; Abdelfattah; Mohamed; Amgad; Amira; A; Zayed; Hamdy; Salem; Ahmed; E; Elkhanany; Heba; Hussein; Nawal; Abd; El-Baky

    2015-01-01

    A large subset of corneal pathologies involves the formation of new vessels(neovascularization), leading to compromised visual acuity. This article aims to review the clinical causes and presentations of corneal neovascularization(CNV) by examining the mechanisms behind common CNV-related corneal pathologies, with a particular focus on herpes simplex stromal keratitis,contact lenses-induced keratitis and CNV secondary to keratoplasty. Moreover, we reviewed CNV in the context of different types of corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, and summarized the most relevant treatment available so far.

  5. RECURRENT CORNEAL EROSION SYNDROME (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Trufanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent corneal erosion (RCE syndrome is characterized by episodes of recurrent spontaneous epithelial defects. Main clinical symptoms (pain, redness, photophobia, lacrimation occurred at night. Corneal lesions revealed by slit lamp exam vary depending on the presence of corneal epithelium raise, epithelial microcysts or epithelial erosions, stromal infiltrates and opacities. Microtraumas, anterior corneal dystrophies, and herpesvirus give rise to RCE. Other causes or factors which increase the risk of RCE syndrome include meibomian gland dysfunction, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, diabetes, and post-LASIK conditions. Basal membrane abnormalities and instability of epithelial adhesion to stroma play a key role in RCE pathogenesis. Ultrastructural changes in RCE include abnormalities of basal epithelial cells and epithelial basal membrane, absence or deficiency of semi-desmosomes, loss of anchor fibrils. Increase in matrix metalloproteinases and collagenases which contribute to basal membrane destruction results in recurrent erosions and further development of abnormal basal membrane. The goals of RCE therapy are to reduce pain (in acute stage, to stimulate re-epithelization, and to restore «adhesion complex» of basal membrane. In most cases, RCE responds to simple conservative treatment that includes lubricants, healing agents, and eye patches. RCEs that are resistant to simple treatment, require complex approach. Non-invasive methods include long-term contact lens use, instillations of autologous serum (eye drops, injections of botulinum toxin (induces ptosis, antiviral agent use or oral intake of metalloproteinase inhibitors. Cell membrane stabilizers, i.e., antioxidants, should be included into treatment approaches as well. Antioxidant effect of Emoxipine promotes tissue reparation due to the prevention of cell membrane lipid peroxidation as well as due to its anti-hypoxic, angioprotective, and antiplatelet effects. If conservative therapy

  6. CORNEAL HAZE FOLLOWING PHOTO REFRACT IVE KERATECTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Atul; Superna; Pervaiz

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence of corneal haze following surface ablation in (PRK) in high myopic patients (≥6D). METHODS: In this prospective clinical study , 25 patients with high myopia (≥6D) that is 50 eyes in total , underwent photorefractive keratectomy by Schwind Amaris 500E laser machine. At the initial presentation , each patient underwent a detailed clinical evaluation that included recording of medical history , detailed ocular history , ...

  7. Corneal topography of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, S D; Smolek, M K

    1993-01-01

    The application of the 193 nm excimer laser for keratorefractive surgery promises to deliver a higher degree of precision and predictability than traditional procedures such as radial keratotomy. The development and evaluation of keratorefractive surgery have benefited from the parallel advances made in the field of corneal topography analysis. We used the Computed Anatomy Topography Modeling System (TMS-1) to analyze a Louisiana State University (LSU) Eye Center series of patients who had photorefractive keratectomy for the treatment of myopia with the VISX Twenty/Twenty excimer laser system. The excimer ablations were characterized by a relatively uniform distribution of surface powers within the treated zone. In the few cases that exhibited marked refractive regression, corneal topography analysis showed correlative changes. With topographical analysis, centration of the ablations relative to the center of the pupil could be evaluated. Marked improvement in centration occurred in the patients of LSU Series IIB in which the procedure to locate the point on the cornea directly over the pupil's center during surgery was refined. Corneal topographical analysis provides objective measures of keratorefractive surgical results and is able to measure the precise tissue removal effect of excimer laser ablation without the uncertainties caused by measuring visual acuity alone. Our observations forecast the need for improved aids to center the laser ablations and for the development of a course of treatment to prevent post-ablation stromal remodeling. PMID:8450433

  8. The Heritability of Glaucoma-Related Traits Corneal Hysteresis, Central Corneal Thickness, Intraocular Pressure, and Choroidal Blood Flow Pulsatility

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Ellen E.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Descovich, Denise; Massé, Hugues; Mark R. Lesk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. Methods Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined u...

  9. Putative epidermal stem cell convert into corneal epithelium-like cell under corneal tissue in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative corneal epithelium-like cells, which may provide a practical source of autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of epi-dermal stem cells for trans-differentiation into corneal epithelium-like cells. Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells were isolated by type IV collagen attachment method. Flow cytometry analysis, immuno-histology and RT-PCR were conducted to identify the expression of specific markers (β1, α6 integrin, K15, K1/K10, K3/K12 and CD71) on the isolated rapid attaching cells. The isolated cells were cocultured with human corneal limbal stroma and corneal epithelial cells. After coculture, the expression of the same specific markers was evaluated in order to identify expression difference caused by the coculture conditions. K3/K12 expression was analyzed in coculture cells on day 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Putative epi-dermal stem cells in conditioned culture media were used as control. Putative epidermal stem cells were predominant in rapid attaching cells by type IV collagen attachment isolation. Before being co-cultured, the rhesus putative epidermal stem cells expressed K15, α6 and β1 integrin, but no CD71, K1/K10 and K3/K12. After coculture, these cells expressed K3/K12 (a marker of corneal epithelial cells), K15 and β 1 integrin, but no K1/K10. Cells being not coculture converted into terminally differentiated cells expressing K1/K10. These results indicate that rhesus putative epidermal stem cells can trans-differentiate into corneal epithelium-like cells and, therefore, may have potential therapeutic application as autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas.

  10. Neural networks and statistical analysis for classification of corneal videokeratography maps based on Zernike coefficients: a quantitative comparison Redes neurais e análise estatística para classificação de mapas topográficos da córnea baseados em coeficientes de Zernike: uma comparação quantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Vieira de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The main goal of this study was to develop and compare two different techniques for classification of specific types of corneal shapes when Zernike coefficients are used as inputs. A feed-forward artificial Neural Network (NN and discriminant analysis (DA techniques were used. METHODS: The inputs both for the NN and DA were the first 15 standard Zernike coefficients for 80 previously classified corneal elevation data files from an Eyesys System 2000 Videokeratograph (VK, installed at the Departamento de Oftalmologia of the Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo. The NN had 5 output neurons which were associated with 5 typical corneal shapes: keratoconus, with-the-rule astigmatism, against-the-rule astigmatism, "regular" or "normal" shape and post-PRK. RESULTS: The NN and DA responses were statistically analyzed in terms of precision ([true positive+true negative]/total number of cases. Mean overall results for all cases for the NN and DA techniques were, respectively, 94% and 84.8%. CONCLUSION: Although we used a relatively small database, results obtained in the present study indicate that Zernike polynomials as descriptors of corneal shape may be a reliable parameter as input data for diagnostic automation of VK maps, using either NN or DA.OBJETIVOS: Nosso principal objetivo neste trabalho foi de desenvolver e comparar duas técnicas diferentes para classificação de superfícies corneanas. Uma rede neural artificial alimentada adiante e análise descriminante foram as técnicas de classificação comparadas neste trabalho. MÉTODOS: As entradas para ambos os métodos de classificação foram os primeiros 15 coeficientes de Zernike para 80 córneas mensuradas anteriormente em um topógrafo Eyesys instalado no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP. A rede neural tem 5 saídas que foram associados aos cinco casos típicos contidos na base de dados: ceratocone, astigmatismo a favor da regra, astigmatismo

  11. Comparison of corneal sensitivity, tear function and corneal staining following laser in situ keratomileusis with two femtosecond laser platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petznick A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Petznick,1 Annabel Chew,2 Reece C Hall,2 Cordelia ML Chan,2 Mohamad Rosman,1,2 Donald Tan,1–3 Louis Tong,1–4 Jodhbir S Mehta1–31Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; 2Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, SingaporePurpose: To evaluate longitudinal changes in corneal sensitivity, tear function, and corneal staining in patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using two different femtosecond lasers.Methods: In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, contralateral eyes of 45 patients underwent flap creation by either VisuMax or IntraLase™ femtosecond laser. Corneal sensitivity, tear break up time (TBUT, Schirmer’s test, and corneal fluorescein staining were assessed preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively.Results: There were no statistical differences in any clinical outcome measure between the two femtosecond lasers (P > 0.05, although there was a trend towards slightly lower reductions for corneal sensitivity and TBUT in VisuMax-operated eyes. Overall, corneal sensitivity was significantly reduced at 1 week (P 0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that changes in corneal sensitivity, tear function, and corneal staining were statistically similar in LASIK using VisuMax and IntraLase femtosecond lasers for flap creation. However, the trend towards faster recovery of corneal sensitivity and TBUT observed in VisuMax-operated eyes may be attributable to improved technical specifications.Keywords: femtosecond laser, corneal sensitivity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer’s, corneal staining

  12. Corneal stem cells and tissue engineering: Current advancesand future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Major advances are currently being made in regenerativemedicine for cornea. Stem cell-based therapiesrepresent a novel strategy that may substituteconventional corneal transplantation, albeit there aremany challenges ahead given the singularities of eachcellular layer of the cornea. This review recapitulatesthe current data on corneal epithelial stem cells,corneal stromal stem cells and corneal endothelialcell progenitors. Corneal limbal autografts containingepithelial stem cells have been transplanted in humansfor more than 20 years with great successful rates,and researchers now focus on ex vivo cultures andother cell lineages to transplant to the ocular surface.A small population of cells in the corneal endotheliumwas recently reported to have self-renewal capacity,although they do not proliferate in vivo . Two mainobstacles have hindered endothelial cell transplantationto date culture protocols and cell delivery methods tothe posterior cornea in vivo . Human corneal stromalstem cells have been identified shortly after therecognition of precursors of endothelial cells. Stromalstem cells may have the potential to provide a directcell-based therapeutic approach when injected tocorneal scars. Furthermore, they exhibit the ability todeposit organized connective tissue in vitro and maybe useful in corneal stroma engineering in the future.Recent advances and future perspectives in the field arediscussed.

  13. Changes of Corneal Optical Properties after UVB Irradiation Investigated Spectrophotometrically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Čestmír; Pláteník, J.; Širc, Jakub; Ardan, Taras; Michálek, Jiří; Brůnová, B.; Čejková, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 591-597. ISSN 0862-8408 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : corneal hydration * corneal light absorption * absorption coefficients Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  14. Developmental Corneal Innervation: Interactions between Nerves and Specialized Apical Corneal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilus, James K.; Linsenmayer, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    During developmental innervation of the chicken cornea, nerves interact with apical corneal epithelial cells to form synapse-like structures. In addition, these apical epithelial cells express class III β-tubulin, an isoform of β-tubulin generally thought to be neuron specific.

  15. Customized toric intraocular lens implantation for correction of extreme corneal astigmatism due to corneal scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bassily

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available R Bassily, J LuckOphthalmology Department, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UKAbstract: A 76-year-old woman presented with decreased visual function due to cataract formation. Twenty-five years prior she developed right sided corneal ulceration that left her with 10.8 diopters (D of irregular astigmatism at 71.8° (steep axis. Her uncorrected visual acuity was 6/24 and could only ever wear a balanced lens due to the high cylindrical error. Cataract surgery was planned with a custom designed toric intraocular lens (IOL with +16.0 D sphere inserted via a wound at the steep axis of corneal astigmatism. Postoperative refraction was -0.75/+1.50 × 177° with a visual acuity of 6/9 that has remained unchanged at six-week follow-up with no IOL rotation. This case demonstrates the value of high power toric IOLs for the correction of pathological corneal astigmatism.Keywords: intraocular lens, corneal ulceration, visual acuity, scarring

  16. In Vivo Corneal Biomechanical Properties with Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the repeatability of recalculated corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST parameters and to study the variation of biomechanical properties and their association with demographic and ocular characteristics. Methods. A total of 783 healthy subjects were included in this study. Comprehensive ophthalmological examinations were conducted. The repeatability of the recalculated biomechanical parameters with 90 subjects was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to identify demographic and ocular factors. Results. The repeatability of the central corneal thickness (CCT, deformation amplitude (DA, and first/second applanation time (A1/A2-time exhibited excellent repeatability (CV% ≤ 3.312% and ICC ≥ 0.929 for all measurements. The velocity in/out (Vin/out, highest concavity- (HC- radius, peak distance (PD, and DA showed a normal distribution. Univariate linear regression showed a statistically significant correlation between Vin, Vout, DA, PD, and HC-radius and IOP, CCT, and corneal volume, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that IOP and CCT were negatively correlated with Vin, DA, and PD, while there was a positive correlation between Vout and HC-radius. Conclusion. The ICCs of the recalculated parameters, CCT, DA, A1-time, and A2-time, exhibited excellent repeatability. IOP, CCT, and corneal volume significantly influenced the biomechanical properties of the eye.

  17. Paracentral Corneal Dellen:A Rare Sign of Graves Ophthalmopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Zhongyao Wu

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To report a rare sign, paracentral corneal dellen that developed in a middleaged female patient with Graves ophthalmopathy.Methods:A paracentral corneal dellen developed in the left eye in a 42-year-old woman who was diagnosed as Graves ophthalmopathy. The patient had remarkable upper eyelid retraction, upper eyelid lag and upward motility restriction. The Graves ophthalmopathy was classified as Grade V according to NOSPECS classification.Results:Local artificial tear film and 0.3% Tobramycin eye drops were administered to both eyes.Twenty-four hours later, the left corneal dellen disappeared.Conclusions:Graves ophthalmopathy can lead to paracentral corneal dellen because of severe upper eyelid retraction and upward motility restriction of the eye in spite of the lack of lagophthalmos. Artificial tear drop and antibiotic eye drop therapy helped even though the patient did not have corneal exposure.

  18. Riboflavin concentration in corneal stroma after intracameral injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; Li; Xiu-Jun; Peng; Zheng-Jun; Fan; Xu; Pang; Yu; Xia; Teng-Fei; Wu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the enrichment of riboflavin in the corneal stroma after intracameral injection to research the barrier ability of the corneal endothelium to riboflavin in vivo.METHODS: The right eyes of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Different concentrations riboflavin-balanced salt solutions(BSS)were injected into the anterior chamber(10 with 0.5%, 10 with 1%, and 10 with 2%). Eight corneal buttons of 8.5mm in diameter from each group were dissected at 30 min after injection and the riboflavin concentrations in the corneal stroma were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) after removing the epithelium and endothelium. The other two rabbits in every group were observed for 24 h and sacrificed. As a comparison, the riboflavin concentrations from 16 corneal stromal samples were determined using HPLC after instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-BSS solution for30 min on the corneal surface(8 without epithelium and 8with intact epithelium).RESULTS: The mean riboflavin concentrations were11.19, 18.97, 25.08, 20.18, and 1.13 μg/g for 0.5%, 1%, 2%,de-epithelialzed samples, and the transepithelial groups,respectively. The color change of the corneal stroma and the HPLC results showed that enrichment with riboflavin similar to classical de-epithelialized corneal collagen crosslinking(CXL) could be achieved by intracameral 1%riboflavin-BSS solution after 30min; the effect appeared to be continuous for at least 30 min.CONCLUSION: Riboflavin can effectively penetrate the corneal stroma through the endothelium after an intracameral injection in vivo, so it could be an enhancing method that could improve the corneal riboflavin concentration in transepithelial CXL.

  19. In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Observation of Lamellar Corneal Transplantation in the Rabbit Using Xenogenic Acellular Corneal Scaffolds as a Substitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Feng; Wei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:The limiting factor to corneal transplantation is the availability of donors.Research has suggested that xenogenic acellular corneal scaffolds (XACS) may be a possible alternative to transplantation.This study aimed to investigate the viability of performing lamellar corneal transplantation (LCT) in rabbits using canine XACS.Methods:Fresh dog corneas were decellularized by serial digestion,and LCT was performed on rabbit eyes using xenogeneic decellularized corneal matrix.Cellular and morphological changes were observed by slit-lamp,light,and scanning electron microscopy at 7,30 and 90 days postoperatively.Immunocytochemical staining for specific markers such as keratin 3,vimentin and MUC5AC,was used to identify cells in the graft.Results:Decellularized xenogenic corneal matrix remained transparent for about 1-month after LCT.The recipient cells were able to survive and proliferate into the grafts.Three months after transplantation,grafts had merged with host tissue,and graft epithelialization and vascularization had occurred.Corneal nerve fibers were able to grow into the graft in rabbits transplanted with XACS.Conclusions:Xenogenic acellular corneal scaffolds can maintain the transparency of corneal grafts about 1-month and permit growth of cells and nerve fibers,and is,therefore,a potential substitute or carrier for a replacement cornea.

  20. Mycotic corneal ulcers in upper Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the association of various risk factors and epidemiological variables of mycotic keratitis treated at a tertiary referral hospital of upper Assam. Materials and Methods: In this hospital-based prospective study a total of 310 consecutive corneal ulcer cases attending the ophthalmology outpatient department of Assam Medical College were enrolled between April 2007 and March 2009. After clinical and slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination in all suspected cases, smears and culture examination for fungus was done to establish the etiology. Demographic information and associated probable risk factors of individual cases were noted in a predesigned questionnaire. Results: In 188 (60.6% cases fungal etiology could be established. Out of them 67.6% were males. The most commonly affected age group was 41-50 years (25.5%. The maximum (23.4% cases were reported during the paddy harvesting season in Assam (January and February. Fungal element could be demonstrated in 65.2% cases in direct potassium hydroxide (KOH mount. The commonest predisposing factor was corneal injury (74.5%. While diabetes was a significant systemic predisposing factor in mixed bacterial and fungal infections in 11.1% cases, blocked naso-lacrimal duct was the local predisposing factor in 11.1% of cases. Fusarium solani (25% was the commonest isolate followed by Aspergillus species (19%, Curvularia species (18.5% and Penicillium species (15.2%. Yeasts were isolated in 2.7% (n=5 cases. Conclusions : Ocular trauma was the commonest cause of fungal corneal ulcer in Assam and Fusarium solani was the commonest species responsible for it. Most of the mycotic ulcer cases come from rural areas including the tea gardens.

  1. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  2. Corneal surface reconstruction - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan H N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye and when damage due to burns or injury and several other diseases, stem cells residing in its rim called "limbus" are stimulated to multiply to support growth of new epithelial cells over its surface. If this ready source of stem cells is damaged or destroyed the natural repair is not possible and such a condition is known as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (CLSCD disease. Stem cell transplant helps such persons to regenerate the corneal surface. Human corneal limbal stem cell transplantation is at present an established procedure with reasonable good clinical outcome particularly when autologous limbal epithelial tissue from a fellow unaffected eye is used. 1, 2 A major concern related to the autograft is the possibility of CLSCD at the donor site, 3 techniques that allowed the expansion of a small limbal biopsy in the laboratory using cell cultures that could be then transplanted to the affected eye have been developed ,4, 5 Human amniotic membrane (HAM is used as a scaffold for both culturing the human limbal epithelial cells and for ocular surface reconstruction with the cultured limbal epithelial cells. 4-7 However, researchers have used alternative scaffolds like collagen 8, fibrin gel 9 and cross-linked gel of fibronectin and fibrin. 10 All these are biological materials and also need for animal 3T3 feeder layer for stem cell cultures. The properties of HAM are unique including antiadhesive effects, bacteriostatic effects, wound protection, pain reduction, and improvement of epithelialization and characteristically lacking imunogenicity. The use of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT to treat ocular surface abnormalities was first reported by Graziella Pellegrini, chief of stem cell laboratory at Giovanni Paolo Hospital in Venice, Italy, who was the first to demonstrate the limbal stem cell transplant in 1997. Amniotic membrane has been successfully used in

  3. Corneal surface reconstruction - a short review

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan H N

    2009-01-01

    Cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye and when damage due to burns or injury and several other diseases, stem cells residing in its rim called "limbus" are stimulated to multiply to support growth of new epithelial cells over its surface. If this ready source of stem cells is damaged or destroyed the natural repair is not possible and such a condition is known as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (CLSCD) disease. Stem cell transplant helps such persons to...

  4. Temporary graft for closed-system cataract surgery during corneal triple procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, M; Giudice, V; Marabotti, A; Alfieri, E; Rizzo, S

    2001-08-01

    Performing phacoemulsification during a triple corneal procedure has many advantages. Operating in a closed chamber makes surgery easier and safer. In some cases, however, a dense corneal opacity may prevent closed-chamber surgery, necessitating the use of an open-sky technique. In these cases, a temporary corneal graft using a corneal button not suitable for penetrating keratoplasty is proposed to allow phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation through a corneal tunnel. The temporary corneal graft is replaced with a permanent graft after these steps are completed. This technique was effective in 3 patients with cataract and dense corneal opacity. PMID:11524186

  5. Corneal thickness and I.O.P. changes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty patients with Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were subjected to applanation tonometry and Corneal Thickness measurement to ascertain (i the change in central & peripheral corneal thickness and (ii effect of Intra Ocular Pressure on these corneal changes. Twenty age and sex matched controls also underwent similar investigation. It was observed that both the mean Intra Ocular Pressure and the corneal thickness (both Peripheral Corneal Thickness and Central Corneal Thickness] of the affected eye showed statistically significant reduction (P 0.001 when compared to Intra Ocular Pressure and Corneal Thickness changes of fellow-eyes and eyes of control subjects. In addition to these even the fellow eyes which had normal Intra Ocular Pressure, showed statistically low Central Corneal Thickness measurement, when compared with controls. In view of the above observation and reduction in Corneal Thickness measurement, the present study indicates generalised corneal changes in Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment unrelated to intraocular pressure.

  6. The heritability of glaucoma-related traits corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and choroidal blood flow pulsatility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Freeman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. METHODS: Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Three measures of intraocular pressure were obtained: Goldmann-correlated and corneal compensated intraocular pressure using the Ocular Response Analyser, and Pascal intraocular pressure using the Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometer. The pulsatility of choroidal blood velocity and flow were measured in the sub-foveolar choroid using single-point laser Doppler flowmetry (Oculix. We estimated heritability using maximum-likelihood variance components methods implemented in the SOLAR software. RESULTS: No significant heritability was detected for the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow or velocity. The Goldman-correlated, corneal compensated, and Pascal measures of intraocular pressure measures were all significantly heritable at 0.94, 0.79, and 0.53 after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0023, p = 0.0239. Central corneal thickness was significantly heritable at 0.68 (p = 0.0078. Corneal hysteresis was highly heritable but the estimate was at the upper boundary of 1.00 preventing us from giving a precise estimate. CONCLUSION: Corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure are all heritable and may be suitable as glaucoma endophenotypes. The pulsatility of choroidal blood flow and blood velocity were not significantly heritable in this sample.

  7. Corneal astigmatism measuring module for slit lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an automatic keratometer module for slit lamps that provides automatic measurements of the radii of the corneal curvature. The system projects 72 light spots displayed in a precise circle at the examined cornea. The displacement and deformation of the reflected image of these light spots are analysed providing the keratometry. Measurements in the range of 26.8-75 D can be obtained and a self-calibration system has been specially designed in order to keep the system calibrated. Infrared LEDs indicate automatically which eye is being examined. Volunteer patients (492) have been submitted to the system and the results show that our system has a high correlation factor with the commercially available manual keratometers and the keratometry measurements from a topographer. Our developed system is 95% in agreement with the corneal topographer (Humphrey-Atlas 995 CZM) and the manual keratometer (Topcon OM-4). The system's nominal precision is 0.05 mm for the radii of curvature and 10 for the associated axis

  8. Clinical utility of the KAMRA corneal inlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroo, Shehzad Anjam; Bilkhu, Paramdeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of presbyopia has been the focus of much scientific and clinical research over recent years, not least due to an increasingly aging population but also the desire for spectacle independence. Many lens and nonlens-based approaches have been investigated, and with advances in biomaterials and improved surgical methods, removable corneal inlays have been developed. One such development is the KAMRA™ inlay where a small entrance pupil is exploited to create a pinhole-type effect that increases the depth of focus and enables improvement in near visual acuity. Short- and long-term clinical studies have all reported significant improvement in near and intermediate vision compared to preoperative measures following monocular implantation (nondominant eye), with a large proportion of patients achieving Jaeger (J) 2 to J1 (~0.00 logMAR to ~0.10 logMAR) at the final follow-up. Although distance acuity is reduced slightly in the treated eye, binocular visual acuity and function remain very good (mean 0.10 logMAR or better). The safety of the inlay is well established and easily removable, and although some patients have developed corneal changes, these are clinically insignificant and the incidence appears to reduce markedly with advancements in KAMRA design, implantation technique, and femtosecond laser technology. This review aims to summarize the currently published peer-reviewed studies on the safety and efficacy of the KAMRA inlay and discusses the surgical and clinical outcomes with respect to the patient's visual function. PMID:27274194

  9. Clinical utility of the KAMRA corneal inlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroo, Shehzad Anjam; Bilkhu, Paramdeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of presbyopia has been the focus of much scientific and clinical research over recent years, not least due to an increasingly aging population but also the desire for spectacle independence. Many lens and nonlens-based approaches have been investigated, and with advances in biomaterials and improved surgical methods, removable corneal inlays have been developed. One such development is the KAMRA™ inlay where a small entrance pupil is exploited to create a pinhole-type effect that increases the depth of focus and enables improvement in near visual acuity. Short- and long-term clinical studies have all reported significant improvement in near and intermediate vision compared to preoperative measures following monocular implantation (nondominant eye), with a large proportion of patients achieving Jaeger (J) 2 to J1 (~0.00 logMAR to ~0.10 logMAR) at the final follow-up. Although distance acuity is reduced slightly in the treated eye, binocular visual acuity and function remain very good (mean 0.10 logMAR or better). The safety of the inlay is well established and easily removable, and although some patients have developed corneal changes, these are clinically insignificant and the incidence appears to reduce markedly with advancements in KAMRA design, implantation technique, and femtosecond laser technology. This review aims to summarize the currently published peer-reviewed studies on the safety and efficacy of the KAMRA inlay and discusses the surgical and clinical outcomes with respect to the patient’s visual function. PMID:27274194

  10. IOL Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena De Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the different formulas that try to overcome the problem of calculating the intraocular lens (IOL power in patients that underwent corneal refractive surgery (CRS. Methods. A Pubmed literature search review of all published articles, on keyword associated with IOL power calculation and corneal refractive surgery, as well as the reference lists of retrieved articles, was performed. Results. A total of 33 peer reviewed articles dealing with methods that try to overcome the problem of calculating the IOL power in patients that underwent CRS were found. According to the information needed to try to overcome this problem, the methods were divided in two main categories: 18 methods were based on the knowledge of the patient clinical history and 15 methods that do not require such knowledge. The first group was further divided into five subgroups based on the parameters needed to make such calculation. Conclusion. In the light of our findings, to avoid postoperative nasty surprises, we suggest using only those methods that have shown good results in a large number of patients, possibly by averaging the results obtained with these methods.

  11. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 µm in the right eye and of 710 µm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 µm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.

  12. Correlating corneal arcus with atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zech Loren A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A relationship between corneal arcus and atherosclerosis has long been suspected but is controversial. The homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients in this study present a unique opportunity to assess this issue. They have both advanced atherosclerosis and corneal arcus. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 17 patients homozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia presenting to the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. Plasma lipoproteins, circumferential extent of arcus, thoracic aorta and coronary calcific atherosclerosis score, and Achilles tendon width were measured at the National Institutes of Health. Results Patients with corneal arcus had higher scores for calcific atherosclerosis (mean 2865 compared to 412, cholesterol-year score (mean 11830 mg-yr/dl compared to 5707 mg-yr/dl, and Achilles tendon width (mean 2.54 cm compared to 1.41 cm than those without. Corneal arcus and Achilles tendon width were strongly correlated and predictive of each other. Although corneal arcus was correlated with calcific atherosclerosis (r = 0.67; p = 0.004, it was not as highly correlated as was the Achilles tendon width (r = 0.855; p Conclusion Corneal arcus reflects widespread tissue lipid deposition and is correlated with both calcific atherosclerosis and xanthomatosis in these patients. Patients with more severe arcus tend to have more severe calcific atherosclerosis. Corneal arcus is not as good an indicator of calcific atherosclerosis as Achilles tendon thickness, but its presence suggests increased atherosclerosis in these hypercholesterolemic patients.

  13. Growing Three-Dimensional Corneal Tissue in a Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glen F.; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Aten, Laurie; Prewett, Tacey; Fitzgerald, Wendy S.; OConnor, Kim; Caldwell, Delmar; Francis, Karen M.

    2003-01-01

    Spheroids of corneal tissue about 5 mm in diameter have been grown in a bioreactor from an in vitro culture of primary rabbit corneal cells to illustrate the production of optic cells from aggregates and tissue. In comparison with corneal tissues previously grown in vitro by other techniques, this tissue approximates intact corneal tissue more closely in both size and structure. This novel three-dimensional tissue can be used to model cell structures and functions in normal and abnormal corneas. Efforts continue to refine the present in vitro method into one for producing human corneal tissue to overcome the chronic shortage of donors for corneal transplants: The method would be used to prepare corneal tissues, either from in vitro cultures of a patient s own cells or from a well-defined culture from another human donor known to be healthy. As explained in several articles in prior issues of NASA Tech Briefs, generally cylindrical horizontal rotating bioreactors have been developed to provide nutrient-solution environments conducive to the 30 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 growth of delicate animal cells, with gentle, low-shear flow conditions that keep the cells in suspension without damaging them. The horizontal rotating bioreactor used in this method, denoted by the acronym "HARV," was described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 16, No. 5 (May, 1992), page 150.

  14. Mutational spectrum of Korean patients with corneal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, H; Kim, M; Kim, Y; Kim, J; Kwon, A; Choi, H; Park, J; Jang, W; Lee, Y S; Park, S H; Kim, M S

    2016-06-01

    Corneal dystrophy typically refers to a group of rare hereditary disorders with a heterogeneous genetic background. A comprehensive molecular genetic analysis was performed to characterize the genetic spectrum of corneal dystrophies in Korean patients. Patients with various corneal dystrophies underwent thorough ophthalmic examination, histopathologic examination, and Sanger sequencing. A total of 120 probands were included, with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 18 years) and 70% were female. A total of 26 mutations in five genes (14 clearly pathogenic and 12 likely pathogenic) were identified in 49 probands (41%). Epithelial-stromal TGFBI dystrophies, macular corneal dystrophy and Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) showed 100% mutation detection rates, while endothelial corneal dystrophies showed lower detection rates of 3%. Twenty six non-duplicate mutations including eight novel mutations were identified and mutations associated with SCD were identified genetically for the first time in this population. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the genetic aberrations in Korean patients and also highlights the diagnostic value of molecular genetic analysis in corneal dystrophies. PMID:26748743

  15. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: corneal ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena M A Packer

    Full Text Available Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle, and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not, or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s was documented in the dogs' histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%, small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg, with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio <0.5 were twenty times more likely to be affected than non-brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare.

  16. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: corneal ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Hendricks, Anke; Burn, Charlotte C

    2015-01-01

    Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs' histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%), small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg), with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare. PMID:25969983

  17. Papel de los polimorfismos genéticos para enzimas de reparación en el daño en el ADN inducido por el estireno y estireno-7,8-óxido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Laffon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta individual al daño en el ADN inducido por agentes xenobióticos está condicionada por la eficacia de los sistemas de reparación. Algunos de los polimorfismos genéticos descritos en las enzimas de reparación del ADN pueden afectar a su función, determinando una variación en la susceptibilidad ante la exposición a agentes ambientales. El objetivo de este estudio ha consistido en investigar si las variantes alélicas más frecuentes de las enzimas de reparación XRCC1 (Arg194Trp y Arg399Gln, XRCC3 (Thr241Met o APE1 (Asp148Glu pueden condicionar el daño en el ADN inducido por el estireno y su principal metabolito, el estireno-7,8-óxido (EO. Leucocitos periféricos de 30 voluntarios sanos se trataron con estireno o EO, y el daño en el ADN inducido se evaluó mediante el ensayo del cometa. Tras el tratamiento con estireno, los individuos portadores de los alelos XRCC1 399Gln y XRCC3 241Met mostraron mayor nivel de roturas en el ADN, sugiriendo menor eficacia de los sistemas de reparación. Por el contrario, los portadores del alelo APE1 148Glu mostraron daño en el ADN significativamente menor que los individuos 148 Asp/Asp. Sin embargo, no se obtuvo ningún efecto significativo en las células expuestas a EO, debido probablemente a que el daño inducido es inicialmente mayor, y no permite que se pongan de manifiesto pequeñas diferencias en la eficacia de reparación de los genotipos analizados

  18. Designing multifocal corneal models to correct presbyopia by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Aixa; Anera, Rosario G.; Del Barco, Luis Jiménez; Jiménez, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Two multifocal corneal models and an aspheric model designed to correct presbyopia by corneal photoablation were evaluated. The design of each model was optimized to achieve the best visual quality possible for both near and distance vision. In addition, we evaluated the effect of myosis and pupil decentration on visual quality. The corrected model with the central zone for near vision provides better results since it requires less ablated corneal surface area, permits higher addition values, presents stabler visual quality with pupil-size variations and lower high-order aberrations.

  19. Asphericity of the human cornea for different corneal diameters

    OpenAIRE

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Villa-Collar, César; Montés-Micó, Robert; Gomes, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure the anterior corneal asphericity (Q) with different corneal diameters. SETTING: Department of Physics (Optometry), University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. METHODS: Thirty-six eyes of 36 patients were evaluated using a videokeratoscope, and the Q-values were recorded. Topographic data were also analyzed using Vol-CT 6.89 software (Sarver & Associates, Inc) to obtain the Q-values with different corneal diameters (3.0 mm, 4.0 mm, 5.0 mm, 6.0 mm, and 7.0 mm). Variable Q models o...

  20. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes. PMID:27224079

  1. Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: lattice corneal dystrophy type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of lattice corneal dystrophy type II: American Foundation for the Blind: Living with Vision Loss Genetic Testing Registry: Meretoja syndrome Merck Manual ...

  3. Corneal depositions in tyrosinaemia type I during treatment with Nitisinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, Robert P L; Wittebol-Post, Dienke; Visser, Gepke; van der Lelij, Allegonda

    2012-01-01

    We present a 17-year-old boy, diagnosed with tyrosinaemia type I at an age of 7 months, with new complaints of severe intermittent photophobia and burning eyes. His tyrosinaemia type I is treated with nitisinone and a protein-restricted diet. Dietary compliance is low since he entered puberty. His ocular complaints are attributable to subepithelial corneal deposits, resembling the common corneal phenotype of tyrosinaemia type II. Serum tyrosine levels were markedly elevated. Tyrosinaemia is a metabolic disease of tyrosine metabolism, subdivided into two types. Corneal deposits and photophobia are cardinal features of untreated tyrosinaemia type II, but not of type I. Novel treatment strategies (with nitisinone) for type I tyrosinaemia lead to a phenotype comparable with type II, including these corneal deposits. At follow-up visits his ocular complaints unfortunately remained unchanged, though he states his dietary compliance improved through the years. PMID:23203167

  4. Putative Corneal Neuralgia Responding to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Singman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient with putative corneal neuralgia was incidentally discovered to have hypovitaminosis D. Supplementation of vitamin D appears to have led to a resolution of the patient's pain, whereas other efforts to treat the patient were unsuccessful.

  5. Corneal injury and the appearance of various enzymes in tears

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Štípek, S.; Ardan, Taras; Crkovská, J.; Midelfart, A.

    Prague, 2002. s. 33. [International Symposium on Cornea and Contact Lenses .. 07.12.2002-10.12.2002, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : corneal injury Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  6. Use of Bevacizumab in the Treatment of Corneal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization is a serious condition resulting in various degrees of vision loss. The abnormal vascularization blocks the light depending on the corneal scarring, thus it reduces the visual acuity. Corneal neovascularization occurs as a result of shifting the balance between the angiogenic and the antiangiogenic factors on behalf of the angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is the primary mediator of angiogenesis. Anti-VEGF agents are widely used in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, neovascular glaucoma, and the other neovascular diseases. These agents are also effective in the treatment of corneal neovascularization. Herein, we discuss the most known anti-VEGF agent bevacizumab and its administration routes, the efficiency and the complications. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 31-36

  7. Evaluación de los efectos del policosanol sobre manifestaciones del daño pulmonar inducido por monocrotalina en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Molina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial pulmonar, (HTAP enfermedad crónica que afecta frecuentemente a la población adulta, conduce a una discapacidad importante y progresiva. Las estatinas, agentes hipolipemiantes que inhiben la síntesis de colesterol mediante la inhibición competitiva de la HMG-CoA reductasa que además inhiben la proliferación de las células musculares lisas (CML, han sido referidas como una opción actual para tratar esta enfermedad. El policosanol es una mezcla de alcoholes alifáticos superiores obtenida de la cera de caña que también inhibe la síntesis de colesterol mediante la regulación indirecta de la actividad de la HMG-CoA reductasa, con acción antiproliferativa sobre las CML. Resulta racional investigar si el policosanol protege el daño pulmonar inducido en modelos experimentales en los cuales las estatinas han mostrado ser efectivas. Este estudio investigó los efectos del tratamiento oral con policosanol sobre el daño pulmonar inducido por monocrotalina (MCT en ratas. Para ello, las ratas se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos: un control negativo tratado vía subcutánea (s.c. con disolución salina y por vía oral con el vehículo tween 20/agua y tres inyectados con dosis s.c. únicas de MCT (60 mg/kg, uno tratado por vía oral con el vehículo (control positivo y dos con policosanol (20 y 200 mg/kg. Los tratamientos comenzaron el día de la inyección con MCT y se administraron por 28 d . Se cuantificó el porcentaje de supervivencia, el peso corporal, el peso del pulmón completo, la hipertrofia ventricular y se realizó el estudio histológico. La MCT aumentó significativamente el peso del pulmón, redujo significativamente el peso corporal y produjo marcada hipertrofia ventricular derecha y severa hipertrofia de la capa media arterial, mostrando la validez del modelo. Contrario a lo esperado, al compararse con los datos del control positivo, el policosanol (20 y 200 mg/kg no modificó significativamente ninguna

  8. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  9. Management of pediatric corneal limbal dermoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzian, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the data in the published literature (PubMed from 1937 to 2011) concerning the medical and surgical management of pediatric limbal dermoids. Current standard medical treatment for grade I pediatric limbal dermoids (ie, with superficial corneal involvment) is initially conservative. In stages II (ie, affecting the full thickness of the cornea with/without endothelial involvement) and III (ie, involvement of entire cornea and anterior chamber), a combination of excision, lamellar keratoplasty, and amniotic membrane and limbal stem cell tranplantation are advocated. Combinations of these approaches seem to yield better and more stable long-term ocular surface cosmesis and fewer complications in comparison with traditional methods of excision and lamellar keratoplasty. Management of amblyopia (i.e. occlusion treatment, chemical penalization with/without spectacle wear, etc) must continue after surgical excision to yield optimal results when or if the surgery is done at a younger age. PMID:23576860

  10. The phacoemulsification procedure. II. Corneal endothelial changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, F M; Sugar, A

    1976-06-01

    The effect of phacoemulsification, with the Cavitron-Kelman instrument, on the corneal endothelium of rabbit and cats was studied by scanning electron microscopy and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. The various steps of the procedure were examined separately. Irrigation of the anterior chamber of the eye with balanced salt solution (Plasma-Lyte) for ten minutes caused no cell damage. Ultrasound and irrigation alone for four to six minutes caused increased permeability to NBT. Edema of endothelial cells and cell junction disruption occurred after eight minutes of anterior chamber irrigation with Plasma-Lyte. Uncomplicated phacoemulsification produced moderate cellular edema with scattered loss of endothelial cells. Destruction of endothelial cells was frequent after phacoemulsification, it appeared to be due to lens nucleus manipulation in the anterior chamber, instrumentation, and needle contact. From two to five days postoperatively, intercellular edema, altered cell morphology, and mosaic pattern were seen. However, it gradually recovered and seven to ten days later the endothelium appeared normal. PMID:931690

  11. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  12. Tear Mediators in Corneal Ectatic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Dorottya; Kolozsvári, Bence Lajos; Csutak, Adrienne; Berta, András; Hassan, Ziad; Ujhelyi, Bernadett; Gogolák, Péter; Fodor, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the concentrations of 11 tear mediators in order to reveal the biochemical difference between pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD) and keratoconus (KC). Methods We have designed a cross-sectional study in which patients with corneal ectasia based on slit-lamp biomicroscopy and Pentacam HR (keratometry values (K1, K2, Kmax), astigmatism, minimal radius of curvature (Rmin), corneal thickness (Apex and Min), indices (surface variation, vertical asymmetry, keratoconus, central keratoconus, height asymmetry and decentration)) were enrolled. Eyes of keratoconic patients were similar to the PMD patients in age and severity (K2, Kmax and Rmin). Non-stimulated tear samples were collected from nine eyes of seven PMD patients, 55 eyes of 55 KC patients and 24 eyes of 24 healthy controls. The mediators’ (interleukin -6, -10, chemokine ligand 5, -8, -10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9, -13, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, nerve growth factor) concentrations were measured using Cytometric Bead Array. Results MMP-9 was the only mediator which presented relevant variances between the two patient groups (p = 0.005). The ratios of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were 2.45, 0.40 and 0.23 in PMD, KC and the controls, respectively. Conclusion As far as we are aware, this is the first study that aims to reveal the biochemical differences between PMD and KC. Further studies of biomarkers to investigate the precise role of these mediators need to be defined, and it is important to confirm the observed changes in a larger study to gain further insights into the molecular alterations in PMD. PMID:27074131

  13. Central Corneal Thickness in Adult Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central corneal thickness (CCT) in age 48 years or less of Chinese was characterized and its relationship with gender, age, refraction and intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated.Right eyes of 1669 participants were included in this study (880 men, 52.7 % and 789 women,47.3 %). Mean age of the samples was 23.8±5.9 years. After the examination of corneal topography and refraction, Goldman applanation tonometry was carried out by one physician. Tonometric values were the mean of three consecutive readings. Subsequently, another physician carried out ultrasonic pachymetry with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter. Six measuremen ts were made at the center of the cornea of each eye. The mean value was used for analysis. The results showed that mean CCT of male participants was 551.33± 34. 62 μm, 5.79 μm more than that of female participants. Linear regression analyses revealed that CCT was negatively related with age only in female and no association was found between refractive status and CCT. IOP was positively related to CCT, and there was a difference in IOP of 1.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0. 133 kPa) per 100 μm difference in CCT. Ocular hypertension group was prone to have thicker cornea than average. The results indicated that in adult Chinese CCT tended to decrease with aging in female only. IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry was positively related with CCT so that CCT should be measured along with IOP.

  14. Clinical utility of the KAMRA corneal inlay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naroo SA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shehzad Anjam Naroo, Paramdeep Singh Bilkhu Ophthalmic Research Group, School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK Abstract: The treatment of presbyopia has been the focus of much scientific and clinical research over recent years, not least due to an increasingly aging population but also the desire for spectacle independence. Many lens and nonlens-based approaches have been investigated, and with advances in biomaterials and improved surgical methods, removable corneal inlays have been developed. One such development is the KAMRA™ inlay where a small entrance pupil is exploited to create a pinhole-type effect that increases the depth of focus and enables improvement in near visual acuity. Short- and long-term clinical studies have all reported significant improvement in near and intermediate vision compared to preoperative measures following monocular implantation (nondominant eye, with a large proportion of patients achieving Jaeger (J 2 to J1 (~0.00 logMAR to ~0.10 logMAR at the final follow-up. Although distance acuity is reduced slightly in the treated eye, binocular visual acuity and function remain very good (mean 0.10 logMAR or better. The safety of the inlay is well established and easily removable, and although some patients have developed corneal changes, these are clinically insignificant and the incidence appears to reduce markedly with advancements in KAMRA design, implantation technique, and femtosecond laser technology. This review aims to summarize the currently published peer-reviewed studies on the safety and efficacy of the KAMRA inlay and discusses the surgical and clinical outcomes with respect to the patient’s visual function. Keywords: presbyopia, refractive surgery, implants, cornea

  15. Collagens and proteoglycans of the corneal extracellular matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Michelacci Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    The cornea is a curved and transparent structure that provides the initial focusing of a light image into the eye. It consists of a central stroma that constitutes 90% of the corneal depth, covered anteriorly with epithelium and posteriorly with endothelium. Its transparency is the result of the regular spacing of collagen fibers with remarkably uniform diameter and interfibrillar space. Corneal collagen is composed of heterotypic fibrils consisting of type I and type V collagen molecules. Th...

  16. Dynamic Corneal Surface Mapping with Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S.; Gualini, M. M. S.

    2013-06-01

    In view of the fast advancement in ophthalmic technology and corneal surgery, there is a strong need for the comprehensive mapping and characterization techniques for corneal surface. Optical methods with precision non-contact approaches have been found to be very useful for such bio measurements. Along with the normal mapping approaches, elasticity of corneal surface has an important role in its characterization and needs to be appropriately measured or estimated for broader diagnostics and better prospective surgical results, as it has important role in the post-op corneal surface reconstruction process. Use of normal corneal topographic devices is insufficient for any intricate analysis since these devices operate at relatively moderate resolution. In the given experiment, Pulsed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been utilized along with an excitation mechanism to measure the dynamic response of the sample cornea. A Pulsed ESPI device has been chosen for the study because of its micron-level resolution and other advantages in real-time deformation analysis. A bovine cornea has been used as a sample in the subject experiment. The dynamic response has been taken on a chart recorder and it is observed that it does show a marked deformation at a specific excitation frequency, which may be taken as a characteristic elasticity parameter for the surface of that corneal sample. It was seen that outside resonance conditions the bovine cornea was not that much deformed. Through this study, the resonance frequency and the corresponding corneal deformations are mapped and plotted in real time. In these experiments, data was acquired and processed by FRAMES plus computer analysis system. With some analysis of the results, this technique can help us to refine a more detailed corneal surface mathematical model and some preliminary work was done on this. Such modelling enhancements may be useful for finer ablative surgery planning. After further experimentation

  17. Posterior corneal curvature changes following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Sri Ganesh, Utsav Patel, Sheetal Brar Phaco and Refractive Surgery Department, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Purpose: To compare the posterior corneal curvature changes, in terms of corneal power and asphercity, following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx SMILE) procedure for low, moderate, and high myopia.Methods: This retrospective, non randomized, comparative, interventional trial; included 52 eyes of 26 patients, divided in thr...

  18. Corneal depositions in tyrosinaemia type I during treatment with Nitisinone

    OpenAIRE

    Wisse, Robert P L; Wittebol-Post, Dienke; Visser, Gepke; Lelij, Allegonda

    2012-01-01

    We present a 17-year-old boy, diagnosed with tyrosinaemia type I at an age of 7 months, with new complaints of severe intermittent photophobia and burning eyes. His tyrosinaemia type I is treated with nitisinone and a protein-restricted diet. Dietary compliance is low since he entered puberty. His ocular complaints are attributable to subepithelial corneal deposits, resembling the common corneal phenotype of tyrosinaemia type II. Serum tyrosine levels were markedly elevated. Tyrosinaemia is a...

  19. Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Corneal Ulceration

    OpenAIRE

    Rowena M A Packer; Hendricks, Anke; Burn, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship betwe...

  20. Delayed-onset endophthalmitis associated with corneal suture infections

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Christopher R.; Flynn Jr., Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Schefler, Amy C; Forster, Richard K.; Alfonso, Eduardo C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to report the microbiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in patients with delayed-onset endophthalmitis associated with corneal suture infections. For this retrospective consecutive case series, a search of the ocular microbiology department database was performed to identify all patients with positive corneal and intraocular cultures (anterior chamber and/or vitreous) between 01 January 1995 and 01 January 2010. A subset of patients wit...

  1. Temporal, 3-dimensional, cellular anatomy of corneal wound tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Jester, J V; Petroll, W M; Barry, P. A.; Cavanagh, H D

    1995-01-01

    We have evaluated temporally the 3-dimensional cellular anatomy of corneal wound tissue in the rabbit eye using in vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy. In vivo microscopic studies showed that corneal fibroblast migrated into the wound as an interconnected cellular meshwork with long, thin, randomly oriented cell processes. Interconnection of fibroblasts was further confirmed by localisation of monoclonal antibodies to connexin 43 which demonstrated prominent staining of putative gap junc...

  2. The Effect of Anterior Stromal Puncture Using Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser on Corneal Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdy Abdelaziz, Mohamed; Fouad Ghoneim, Dina; Abdelkawi Ahmed, Salwa; Taher, Ibraheim Mohyeldin; Abdel- Salam, Ahmed Medhat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent corneal erosion occurs when the wounded corneal epithelium failed to adhere to the underlying stroma. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the effect of treatment of corneal injury using Q- switched Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Topical and Subconjunctival Tigecycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertan Goktas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of topical and subconjunctival tigecycline on the prevention of corneal neovascularization. Materials and Methods. Following chemical burn, thirty-two rats were treated daily with topical instillation of 1 mg/mL tigecycline (group 1 or subconjunctival instillation of 1 mg/mL tigecycline (group 3 for 7 days. Control rats received topical (group 2 or subconjunctival (group 4 0.9% saline. Digital photographs of the cornea were taken on the eighth day after treatment and analyzed to determine the percentage area of the cornea covered by neovascularization. Corneal sections were analyzed histopathologically. Results. The median percentages of corneal neovascularization in groups 1 and 3 were 48% (95% confidence interval (CI, 44.2–55.8% and 33.5% (95% CI, 26.6–39.2%, respectively. The median percentages of corneal neovascularization of groups 1 and 3 were significantly lower than that of the control group (P=0.03 and P<0.001, resp.. Histologic examination of samples from groups 1 and 3 showed lower vascularity than that of control groups. Conclusion. Topical and subconjunctival administration of tigecycline seems to be showing promising therapeutic effects on the prevention of corneal neovascularization. Furthermore, subconjunctival administration of tigecycline is more potent than topical administration in the inhibition of corneal neovascularization.

  4. A Case of Solitary Nonvascularized Corneal Epithelial Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Morii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epithelial dysplasia is categorized as conjunctival/corneal intraepithelial neoplasia which is a precancerous lesion. The lesion is usually developed at the limbal region and grows towards central cornea in association with neovascularization into the lesion. Here, we report a case of isolated nonvascularized corneal epithelial dysplasia surrounded by normal corneal epithelium with immune histochemical finding of ocular surface tissues cytokeratins, for example, keratin 13 and keratin 12. Case Presentation. A 76-year-old man consulted us for visual disturbance with localized opacification of the corneal epithelium in his left eye. His visual acuity was 20/20 and 20/200 in his right and left eye, respectively. Slit lamp examination showed a whitish plaque-like lesion at the center of his left corneal epithelium. No vascular invasion to the lesion was found. The lesion was surgically removed and subjected to histopathological examination and diagnosed as epithelial dysplasia. Amyloidosis was excluded by direct fast scarlet 4BS (DFS staining. Immunohistochemistry showed that the dysplastic epithelial cells express keratin 13 and vimentin, but not keratin 12, indicating that the neoplastic epithelial cells lacked corneal-type epithelium differentiation. Conclusions. The lesion was diagnosed as nonvascularized epithelial dysplasia of ocular surface. Etiology of the lesion is not known.

  5. A Case of Solitary Nonvascularized Corneal Epithelial Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Tomoya; Sumioka, Takayoshi; Izutani-Kitano, Ai; Takada, Yukihisa; Okada, Yuka; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Saika, Shizuya

    2016-01-01

    Background. Epithelial dysplasia is categorized as conjunctival/corneal intraepithelial neoplasia which is a precancerous lesion. The lesion is usually developed at the limbal region and grows towards central cornea in association with neovascularization into the lesion. Here, we report a case of isolated nonvascularized corneal epithelial dysplasia surrounded by normal corneal epithelium with immune histochemical finding of ocular surface tissues cytokeratins, for example, keratin 13 and keratin 12. Case Presentation. A 76-year-old man consulted us for visual disturbance with localized opacification of the corneal epithelium in his left eye. His visual acuity was 20/20 and 20/200 in his right and left eye, respectively. Slit lamp examination showed a whitish plaque-like lesion at the center of his left corneal epithelium. No vascular invasion to the lesion was found. The lesion was surgically removed and subjected to histopathological examination and diagnosed as epithelial dysplasia. Amyloidosis was excluded by direct fast scarlet 4BS (DFS) staining. Immunohistochemistry showed that the dysplastic epithelial cells express keratin 13 and vimentin, but not keratin 12, indicating that the neoplastic epithelial cells lacked corneal-type epithelium differentiation. Conclusions. The lesion was diagnosed as nonvascularized epithelial dysplasia of ocular surface. Etiology of the lesion is not known. PMID:27042371

  6. Limbal stem cells: Central concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinny; J; Yoon; Salim; Ismail; Trevor; Sherwin

    2014-01-01

    A strong cohort of evidence exists that supports the localisation of corneal stem cells at the limbus. The distinguishing characteristics of limbal cells as stem cells include slow cycling properties, high proliferative potential when required, clonogenicity, absence of differentiation marker expression coupled with positive expression of progenitor markers, multipotency, centripetal migration, requirement for a distinct niche environment and the ability of transplanted limbal cells to regenerate the entire corneal epithelium. The existence of limbal stem cells supports the prevailing theory of corneal homeostasis, known as the XYZ hypothesis where X represents proliferation and stratification of limbal basal cells, Y centripetal migration of basal cells and Z desquamation of superficial cells. To maintain the mass of cornea, the sum of X and Y must equal Z and very elegant cell tracking experiments provide strong evidence in support of this theory. However, several recent stud-ies have suggested the existence of oligopotent stem cells capable of corneal maintenance outside of the limbus. This review presents a summary of data which led to the current concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis and discusses areas of controversy surrounding the existence of a secondary stem cell reservoir on the corneal surface

  7. Analysis of corneal esthesia in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Torres Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To quantitatively analyze corneal esthesia in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK surgery. Methods: Forty-five patients selected for PRK in one eye underwent corneal esthesia using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer preoperatively and 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Patients with a refractive diopter error of 4 or greater received intraoperative 0.02% mitomycin C for 20 s. Results: Twenty-four (53.3% of the 45 eyes received intraoperative 0.02% mitomycin. Decreased sensitivity was observed on postoperative day 30. By postoperative day 90, corneal esthesia had normalized but remained 14.9% lower than preoperative levels. In the mitomycin group, no recovery of corneal esthesia to normal sensitivity levels was observed. The mean esthesiometer level was 39.2 mm on postoperative day 90 (P<0.001. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate recovery of corneal esthesia to normal levels at 90 days postoperatively in patients who did not receive mitomycin C. In patients administered mitomycin C, a 23.59% reduction in the corneal touch threshold was observed compared with preoperative levels indicating a failure of recovery to normal levels.

  8. Utilização do Anel de Ferrara na estabilização e correção da ectasia corneana pós PRK Use of Ferrara's ring in the stabilization and correction of corneal ectasia after PRK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Bicalho Dias da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação do anel corneano intra-estromal de Ferrara no tratamento da ectasia corneana pós Excimer Laser. Métodos: O anel de Ferrara, que já vem sendo aplicado no tratamento do ceratocone, alta miopia e astigmatismo irregular, foi utilizado para estabilizar e corrigir a ectasia corneana de dois pacientes submetidos à PRK. Resultados: Após o procedimento cirúrgico, foi observado um aplainamento da córnea central de aproximadamente 6 dioptrias no 1º caso e de 10 dioptrias no 2º, com melhora na acuidade visual. Os resultados vêm se mantendo estáveis até o momento. O tempo de seguimento pós-operatório foi de 3 e 8 meses, respectivamente. Conclusões: Anel de Ferrara obteve sucesso no difícil tratamento desta complicação cirúrgica, permitindo que se retarde ou até mesmo se evite a evolução destes casos para um transplante de córnea com todos os seus riscos, lenta recuperação e dependência da agilidade das filas de doações.Purpose: To evaluate the action of Ferrara's Ring in the treatment of corneal ectasia after Excimer Laser. Methods: Ferrara's Ring, that is already being applied in the treatment of keratoconus, high myopia and irregular astigmatism, has been used to stabilize and to correct the corneal ectasia of 2 patients submitted to PRK. Results: After the surgical procedure, a flattening of the central cornea was observed, with approximately 6 D (first case and 10 D in the second, with visual acuity improvement. The results have remained stable until this moment. The postoperative follow-up was of 3 and 8 months, respectively. Conclusions: Ferrara's ring has obtained success in the difficult treatment of this surgical complication, allowing delay of or even avoiding the evolution of these cases to a corneal transplantation with all its risks, slow recovery and dependence on the agility of the donation lines.

  9. Corneal Limbal Microenvironment Can Induce Transdifferentiation of Hair Follicle Stem Cells into Corneal Epithelial-like Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Blazejewska, Ewa Anna; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Zenkel, Matthias; Bachmann, Björn; Chankiewitz, Erik; Jacobi, Christina; Kruse, Friedrich E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transdifferentiation potential of murine vibrissa hair follicle (HF) stem cells into corneal epithelial-like cells through modulation by corneal- or limbus-specific microenvironmental factors. Adult epithelial stem cells were isolated from the HF bulge region by mechanical dissection or fluorescence-activated cell sorting using antibodies to α6 integrin, enriched by clonal expansion, and subcultivated on various extracellular matrices (type IV coll...

  10. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    OpenAIRE

    Semra Tiryaki Demir; Mahmut Odabaşı; Mehmet Ersin Oba; Ayşe Burcu Dirim; Efe Can; Orhan Kara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb) ...

  11. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Tiryaki Demir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT, and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry (Nidek Ultrasonic Pachymetry UP-1000 were used for measurement of CCT. ANOVA (Turkey test was used for variable distribution, paired sample t-test was used for repeated measurements, and the analyses were done by SPSS 20.0. Results: Mean CCT was 558.9±37.2 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry and 553.4±37 µm by corneal topography. There was a significant difference between the two measurements (p0.05. CCT was 555±39.2 µm, 564.3±28.4 µm, and 559.7±41.5 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively; CCT was 550.3±38.3 µm, 558.5±28 µm, and 553.2±42.5 µm by Orbscan II corneal topography in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively. There was a significant linear correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements (r=0.975, p<0.0001. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer was (ICC value 0.990. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements. These two methods of measurements should not be substituted for each other, since ultrasonic pachymetry measures CCT greater than Orbscan II corneal topography. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer is very high. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 263-7

  12. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqi He; Siquan Zhu; Ming Chen; Dejiao Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism) among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes) underwent phacoemulcification were...

  13. Analysis of the problems of induced draft fans in a carbo-electric power station; Analisis de la problematica de ventiladores de tiro inducido de una central carboelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Sanchez, Valentin de Jesus; Vital Flores, Francisco [LAPEM, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The induced draft fans of the 350 MW units of a Thermo-electric power plant presented problems consisting of the failure of the capacity of gases extraction, together with the presence of cracks in the blades; this condition was observed since the stage of putting into service. Consequently, losses have been originated in the availability in two units, as well as, losses due to the manufacture of new impellers, which also originated that, in some cases, that the measures of the impellers, locally manufactured, differed from the originals, resulting in differences in the unit's efficiency. [Spanish] Los ventiladores tiro inducido de las unidades de 350 MW de una Central Termoelectrica presentaban una problematica consistente en la falla de capacidad de extraccion de gases, aunado a la presencia de fracturas en las aspas de los impulsores, esta condicion se observo desde la etapa de puesta en servicio. En consecuencia se han ocasionado perdidas de disponibilidad en dos unidades, asi como tambien, perdidas debido a la fabricacion de nuevos impulsores, lo que tambien origino que, en algunos casos, las medidas de los impulsores, fabricados localmente, diferian de los originales, dando como resultado diferencias en la eficiencia de las unidades.

  14. Precision and agreement of corneal power measurements obtained using a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Huang

    Full Text Available To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of anterior corneal power measurements obtained with a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP (Hummel AG, Germany and agreement with measurements by a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus, Germany and an automated keratometer (IOLMaster, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany.The right eyes of 79 healthy subjects were prospectively measured three times with all three devices. Another examiner performed three additional scans with the OphthaTOP in the same session. Within one week, the first examiner repeated the measurements using the OphthaTOP. The flat simulated keratometry (Kf, steep K (Ks, mean K (Km, J0, and J45 were noted. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by within-subject standard deviation (Sw, repeatability (2.77 Sw, coefficient of variation (CoV, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Agreement between devices was assessed using 95% limits of agreement (LoA.Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of all measured parameters showed a 2.77 Sw of 0.29 diopter or less, a CoV of less than 0.24%, and an ICC of more than 0.906. Statistically significant differences (P<0.001 were found between the parameters analyzed by the three devices, except J0 and J45. The mean differences between OphthaTOP and the other two devices were small, and the 95% LoA was narrow for all results.The OphthaTOP showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of corneal power measurements. Good agreements with the other two devices in these parameters were found in healthy eyes.

  15. CORNEAL HAZE FOLLOWING PHOTO REFRACT IVE KERATECTOMY

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    Atul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the incidence of corneal haze following surface ablation in (PRK in high myopic patients (≥6D. METHODS: In this prospective clinical study , 25 patients with high myopia (≥6D that is 50 eyes in total , underwent photorefractive keratectomy by Schwind Amaris 500E laser machine. At the initial presentation , each patient underwent a detailed clinical evaluation that included recording of medical history , detailed ocular history , Snellen visual acuity testing , and thorough anterior segment by slit - lamp bi o - microscopy and posterior segment examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy were done. Corneal topography and pachymetry were also done. The patient is followed up at 1week to observe for re - epithelialization and then at 1 , 3 and 6 months for observation o f haze under slit - lamp examinamination. RESULTS: In our study of 25 patients , that is 50 eyes in total were divided into 3 groups depending upon the spherical equivalence. Group 1 between 6.00 - 7.00D , group 2 between 7.00 - 8.00D , and in group 3 more than 8D (≥8.00D. Over 6months period of follow up a significant haze was noted as the patient’s refractive error increased. Out of 50 eyes , 11 eyes (84.6% with spherical equivalence of 6.00 - 7.00D (group 1 had grade 0 , 8 eyes (66.6% with spherical equivalence o f 7.00 - 8.00D (group 2 had grade 0 , and 6 eyes (24% with spherical equivalence ≥8.00D (group 3 had grade 0. Thus , the results show that there has been a significant decrease in the eyes with no corneal haze as the refractive error increased. Eyes with gr ade 1 haze in group1 were 2 (15.3% , group 2 were 3 (25% , and group 3 were 7 (28%. These results showed that the incidence of grade 1 haze increased with increase in spherical equivalence. Eyes with grade 2 haze in group 1 were 0 (0% , group 2 were 1 (8. 3% , group 3 were 10 (40%. Thus , it is seen that grade 2 haze was not noted in eyes with spherical equivalence between 6.00 - 7.00D , but were

  16. LIM Homeobox Domain 2 Is Required for Corneal Epithelial Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartaj, Rachel; Chee, Ru-ik; Yang, Jing; Wan, Pengxia; Liu, Aihong; Guaiquil, Victor; Fuchs, Elaine; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2016-02-01

    The cornea requires constant epithelial renewal to maintain clarity for appropriate vision. A subset of stem cells residing at the limbus is primarily responsible for maintaining corneal epithelium homeostasis. Trauma and disease may lead to stem cell deficiency and therapeutic targeting to replenish the stemness capacity has been stalled by the lack of reliable corneal epithelial stem cell markers. Here we identified the location of Lhx2 in mice (mLhx2) cornea and conjunctival tissue using an Lhx2eGFP reporter model and in human tissues (hLHX2). Lhx2 localized to the basal cells of central cornea, the conjunctiva and the entire limbal epithelium in humans and mice. To ascribe a functional role we generated Lhx2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice and the phenotypic effects in corneas were analyzed by slit lamp microscopy, in cell-based assays and in a model of corneal epithelium debridement. Immunodetection on corneal sections were used to visualize conjunctivalization, a sign of limbal barrier failure. Lhx2cKO mice produced reduced body hair and spontaneous epithelial defects in the cornea that included neovascularization, perforation with formation of scar tissue and opacification. Cell based assays showed that Lhx2cKO derived corneal epithelial cells have a significantly lower capacity to form colonies over time and delayed wound-healing recovery when compared to wildtype cells. Repeated corneal epithelial wounding resulted in decreased re-epithelialization and multiple cornea lesions in Lhx2cKO mice compared to normal recovery seen in wildtype mice. We conclude that Lhx2 is required for maintenance of the corneal epithelial cell compartment and the limbal barrier. PMID:26661907

  17. Association between corneal arcus and some of the risk factors for coronary artery disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Pe'er, J; Vidaurri, J.; Halfon, S. T.; Eisenberg, S; Zauberman, H

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between coronary artery disease risk factors and corneal arcus were examined in 150 adults aged 55 years and above of both sexes and from different ethnic origins. The width of the corneal arcus was measured accurately by a digitiser, and the risk factors for coronary artery disease were examined according to the standard procedure used by the Lipid Research Clinics. The results show that the corneal arcus is more frequent in males; the frequency and size of corneal arcus ar...

  18. Bilateral Keratoconus and Corneal Hydrops Associated with Eye Rubbing in a 7-year-old Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud-Reza Panahi-Bazaz; Farideh Sharifipour; Alireza Moghaddasi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report a young child with bilateral keratoconus in the context of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) who developed bilateral corneal hydrops associated with eye rubbing, and to discuss the pathogenesis and review the pertinent literature. Case Report: A seven-year-old girl with VKC and asymmetric keratoconus developed corneal hydrops due to habitual eye rubbing. Corneal edema subsided within 16 weeks in her right eye and 9 weeks in the left eye with subsequent corneal scarring....

  19. Corneal endothelium of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, João A T; Laus, José L; Santos, Jaime M; Cerva, Cristine; Cunha, Luciana S; Ruoppolo, Valéria; Barros, Paulo S M

    2005-12-01

    The corneal endothelium is essential for the maintenance of the corneal transparency. The aim of this study was to examine the morphology of the endothelial surface and perform morphometric analysis of the normal corneal endothelial cells of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) using scanning electron microscopy. The present work demonstrates that the corneal endothelium of the Magellanic penguin is similar to those described in other vertebrates. PMID:17312730

  20. Management of pediatric corneal limbal dermoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirouzian A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amir Pirouzian1,21Tayani Institute, Division of Ophthalmology and Cornea, Mission Viejo in affiliation with Children’s Hospital of Orange County at Mission Hospital, CA, USA; 2Rady’s Children’s Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: This paper reviews the data in the published literature (PubMed from 1937 to 2011 concerning the medical and surgical management of pediatric limbal dermoids. Current standard medical treatment for grade I pediatric limbal dermoids (ie, with superficial corneal involvment is initially conservative. In stages II (ie, affecting the full thickness of the cornea with/without endothelial involvement and III (ie, involvement of entire cornea and anterior chamber, a combination of excision, lamellar keratoplasty, and amniotic membrane and limbal stem cell tranplantation are advocated. Combinations of these approaches seem to yield better and more stable long-term ocular surface cosmesis and fewer complications in comparison with traditional methods of excision and lamellar keratoplasty. Management of amblyopia (i.e. occlusion treatment, chemical penalization with/without spectacle wear, etc must continue after surgical excision to yield optimal results when or if the surgery is done at a younger age.Keywords: limbal dermoid, amniotic membrane, surgical management, tissue adhesive

  1. Surgical device for supporting corneal suturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liliane; Oliveira, Gunter C. D.; De Groote, Jean-Jacques; Sousa, Sidney J. F.; Saia, Paula

    2009-02-01

    A system for ophthalmic surgery support has been developed in order to minimize the residual astigmatism due to the induced irregular shape of the cornea by corneal suture. The system projects 36 light spots, from LEDs, displayed in a precise circle at the lachrymal film of the examined cornea. The displacement, the size and deformation of the reflected image of these light spots are analyzed providing the keratometry and the circularity of the suture. Measurements in the range of 32D - 55D (up to 23D of astigmatism are possible to be obtained) and a self-calibration system has been designed in order to keep the system calibrated. Steel precision spheres have been submitted to the system and the results show 99% of correlation with the fabricant's nominal values. The system has been tested in 13 persons in order to evaluate its clinical applicability and has been compared to a commercial keratometer Topcon OM-4. The correlation factors are 0,92 for the astigmatism and 0.99 for the associated axis. The system indicates that the surgeon should achieve circularity >=98% in order to do not induce astigmatisms over 3D.

  2. Temporary corneal stem cell dysfunction after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy can cause corneal and conjuctival abnormalities that sometimes require surgical treatment. Corneal stem cell dysfunction is described, which recovered after the cessation of radiation. Methods - A 44-year-old man developed a corneal epithelial abnormality associated with conjuctival and corneal inflammation following radiation therapy for maxillary cancer. Examination of brush cytology samples showed goblet cells in the upper and lower parts of the cornea, which showed increased fluorescein permeability, and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Impression cytology showed goblet cells in the same part of the cornea. Specular microscopy revealed spindle type epithelial cells. Patient follow up included artificial tears and an antibiotic ophthalmic ointment. The corneal abnormalities resolved after 4 months with improved visual acuity without any surgical intervention, but the disappearance of the palisades of Vogt did not recover at 1 year after radiation. Radiation therapy in this patient caused temporary stem cell dysfunction which resulted in conjunctivalisation in a part of the cornea. Although limbal stem cell function did not fully recover, this rare case suggested that medical options should be considered before surgery. (Author)

  3. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography on Corneal Surface Laser Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna V. Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on reviewing the roles of optical coherence tomography (OCT on corneal surface laser ablation procedures. OCT is an optical imaging modality that uses low-coherence interferometry to provide noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure in vivo. There are two types of OCTs, each with transverse and axial spatial resolutions of a few micrometers: the time-domain and the fourier-domain OCTs. Both have been increasingly used by refractive surgeons and have specific advantages. Which of the current imaging instruments is a better choice depends on the specific application. In laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and in excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK, OCT can be used to assess corneal characteristics and guide treatment decisions. OCT accurately measures central corneal thickness, evaluates the regularity of LASIK flaps, and quantifies flap and residual stromal bed thickness. When evaluating the ablation depth accuracy by subtracting preoperative from postoperative measurements, OCT pachymetry correlates well with laser ablation settings. In addition, OCT can be used to provide precise information on the morphology and depth of corneal pathologic abnormalities, such as corneal degenerations, dystrophies, and opacities, correlating with histopathologic findings.

  4. Ipsilateral Lymphadenectomy to Inhibit Corneal Allograft Rejection in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Shiqi; HU Yanhua

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the ipsilateral lymphadenectomy for inhibiting rejection in rat corneal transplantation, corneal allogenic transplantation models were established in rats. Eighteen female Wister rats were used as donors, and 36 Sprague Dawley rats as recipients. After penetrating corneal transplantation, recipients were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A (control group);group B, the ipsilateral lymphadenectomy group; group C, the bilateral lymphadenectomy group.Among 12 rats in each group, the corneas of 2 rats in each group were used for pathological study at day 14 after the transplantation, and the remaining 10 rats were used for studying corneal rejection by a slit lamp. The time points when allograft rejection occurred were recorded and mean survival time (MST) was compared. The results showed that MST in groups B and C was 46.30±9.464 days and 44.43 ± 7. 604 days, respectively, which was significantly prolonged as compared with that in group A (10.71±1. 567 days, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in MST between groups B and C (P>0.05). Itwas concluded that both bilateral and ipsilateral lymphadenectomy therapies could effectively inhibit the corneal allograft rejection. Ipsilateral lymphadenectomy is a less complex surgical procedure and is just as effective in preventing rejection.

  5. Spontaneous corneal perforation in an eye with Peters' anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Moosang Kim, Seung-Chan Lee, Seung-Jun Lee Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea Abstract: A premature female infant underwent her first ophthalmologic examination at the age of 4 weeks. The initial examination of the baby was requested for evaluation of a ‘white spot’ on the surface of her right eye. She had been hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit because of systemic abnormalities, such as a right clavicle fracture and microcephaly. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye showed a central corneal opacity, corneal thinning, and an iridocorneal adhesion. The lens and fundus of the right eye could not be observed. We observed no pathologic findings in the left eye. The baby's parents were informed of the high risk for spontaneous corneal perforation without external pressure. At 42 days of age, an ophthalmologic examination of the infant was again requested for evaluation of ‘tears’ from her right eye 3 hours previously. Examination revealed corneal perforation, iris protrusion, and a flat anterior chamber. We performed emergent conjunctival flap surgery. Three months following surgery, the patient's right eye was successfully preserved with no sign of inflammation or leakage. Keywords: conjunctival flap, corneal perforation, Peters' anomaly

  6. Corneal Transplant Infection due to Alternaria alternata: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Konidaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of Alternaria alternata keratitis in a patient with a corneal transplant in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Methods. A 66-year-old female underwent a full-thickness keratoplasty in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Three weeks after keratoplasty, epithelial edema and a stromal opacity with an infiltrate and development of peripheral corneal opacities appeared. The diagnosis of Alternaria alternata keratitis was made. Results. The patient underwent a second keratoplasty, due to the corneal melting as a result of the fungal infection. She was also given combined antifungal treatment locally and systematically. Conclusion. Corneal transplantation alone would not have been sufficient to keep the fungus in the anterior portion of the eye. Combined antifungal treatment, locally and systematically, was important in attempting to prevent the further spread of the fungus to the interior of the eye. To our knowledge, the case presented here is only the second one in the literature concerning a keratomycosis due to Alternaria alternata corneal transplant infection.

  7. Pantoea ananatis as a Cause of Corneal Infiltrate after Rice Husk Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Geetha; Lalitha, Prajna; Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya; DSilva, Sean Socrates; Prajna, N. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an agricultural worker presenting with corneal infiltrate following ocular injury with a rice husk. On examination, a superficial corneal foreign body was removed and sent for culture, which grew Pantoea ananatis. This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical case report of Pantoea ananatis causing corneal infiltrate.

  8. Knockdown of NBCe1 In Vivo Compromises the Corneal Endothelial Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Cailing; Cheng, Qiang; Nguyen, Tracy; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) expression was reduced in corneal endothelium by lentiviral delivery of shRNA. Corneal thickness in these eyes showed greater sensitivity to the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor brinzolamide, indicating that NBC works in conjunction with carbonic anhydrases as a component of the corneal endothelial pump.

  9. Comparative study of visual acuity and aberrations after intralase femtosecond LASIK: small corneal flap versus big corneal flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li; Zhang; Lei; Liu; Chang-Xia; Cui; Ming; Hu; Zhao-Na; Li; Li-Jun; Cao; Xiu-Hua; Jing; Guo-Ying; Mu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of different flap sizes on visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and aberrations after femtosecond laser for laser keratomileusis (LASIK). ·METHODS: In each of the forty patients enrolled, 1 eye was randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 8.1mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the small flap, while the other eye was treated with a 8.6mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the big flap. Refractive errors, visual acuity, and higher -order aberrations were compared between the two groups at week 1, month 1 and 3 postoperatively. · RESULTS: The postoperative refractive errors and visual acuity all conformed to the intended goal. Postoperative higher -order aberrations were increased, especially in spherical aberration (Z12) and vertical coma (Z7). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative refractive errors, visual acuity, root mean square of total HOAs (HO -RMS), trefoil 30° (Z6), vertical coma (Z7), horizontal coma (Z8), trefoil 0° (Z9), and spherical aberration (Z12) at any point during the postoperative follow-up. ·CONCLUSION: Both the small and big flaps are safe and effective procedures to correct myopia, provided the exposure stroma meets the excimer laser ablations. The personalized size corneal flap is feasible, as we can design the size of corneal flap based on the principle that the corneal flap diameter should be equal to or greater than the sum of the maximum ablation diameter and apparatus error.

  10. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocmăreanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Drăgan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  11. Corneal wound healing is compromised by immunoproteasome deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Ferrington

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed roles for immunoproteasome in regulating cell processes essential for maintaining homeostasis and in responding to stress and injury. The current study investigates how the absence of immunoproteasome affects the corneal epithelium under normal and stressed conditions by comparing corneas from wildtype (WT mice and those deficient in two immunoproteasome catalytic subunits (lmp7(-/-/mecl-1(-/-, L7M1. Immunoproteasome expression was confirmed in WT epithelial cells and in cells of the immune system that were present in the cornea. More apoptotic cells were found in both corneal explant cultures and uninjured corneas of L7M1 compared to WT mice. Following mechanical debridement, L7M1 corneas displayed delayed wound healing, including delayed re-epithelialization and re-establishment of the epithelial barrier, as well as altered inflammatory cytokine production compared to WT mice. These results suggest that immunoproteasome plays an important role in corneal homeostasis and wound healing.

  12. Synchronous interferometric demodulation of Placido mires applied to corneal topography

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel digital interferometric method to demodulate Placido fringe patterns. This is a synchronous method which uses a computer-stored conic-wavefront as demodulating reference. Here we focuses on the experimental aspects to phase-demodulate Placido mires applied to corneal topography. This synchronous method is applied to two topographic Placido images and their de-modulated corneal-slope deformation is estimated. This conic-interferometric method is highly robust against typical "noisy" signals in Placido topography such as: reflected eyelashes and iris structures. That is because the eyelashes and the iris structure are high frequency "noisy" signals corrupting the reflected Placido mire, so they are filtered-out by this method. Digital synchronous interferometry is here applied for the first time to demodulate corneal topographic concentric-rings images (Patent pending at the USPTO).

  13. Tectonic corneal graft for conjunctival rhinosporidiosis with scleral melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16 year old girl presented with irritation and watering of the right eye for 3 months. On examination, the superior perilimbal sclera was ectatic with incarcerated uveal tissue covered by conjunctiva. The conjunctiva showed discreet, yellow white mucoid spots. Excision biopsy of the conjunctiva showed subepithelial spherules of sporangia containing numerous endospores, suggestive of rhinosporidiosis. Diathermy was applied to flatten the staphyloma. The ectatic area was covered with a corneal patch graft. The patient was started on prednisolone acetate eye drops and oral dapsone for 6 months. Corneal graft was well incorporated and conjunctivalized by 3 months. Since the graft was not seen within the palpebral aperture, there was good cosmetic result. The corneal graft had the added advantage of transparency which allowed visualization of the underlying tissue to diagnose early recurrence. There was no recurrence at 6 months.

  14. Measurement of corneal tangent modulus using ultrasound indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ke; Huang, Yan-Ping; Tian, Lei; Kee, Chea-Su; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanical properties are potential information for the diagnosis of corneal pathologies. An ultrasound indentation probe consisting of a load cell and a miniature ultrasound transducer as indenter was developed to detect the force-indentation relationship of the cornea. The key idea was to utilize the ultrasound transducer to compress the cornea and to ultrasonically measure the corneal deformation with the eyeball overall displacement compensated. Twelve corneal silicone phantoms were fabricated with different stiffness for the validation of measurement with reference to an extension test. In addition, fifteen fresh porcine eyes were measured by the developed system in vitro. The tangent moduli of the corneal phantoms calculated using the ultrasound indentation data agreed well with the results from the tensile test of the corresponding phantom strips (R(2)=0.96). The mean tangent moduli of the porcine corneas measured by the proposed method were 0.089±0.026MPa at intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15mmHg and 0.220±0.053MPa at IOP of 30mmHg, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of tangent modulus were 14.4% and 0.765 at 15mmHg, and 8.6% and 0.870 at 30mmHg, respectively. The preliminary study showed that ultrasound indentation could be applied to the measurement of corneal tangent modulus with good repeatability and improved measurement accuracy compared to conventional surface displacement-based measurement method. The ultrasound indentation can be a potential tool for the corneal biomechanical properties measurement in vivo. PMID:27262352

  15. The theory and art of corneal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McQuaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the discovery of corneal cross-linking (CXL, patients with keratoconus would have had to undergo corneal transplantation, or wear rigid gas permeable lenses (RGPs that would temporarily flatten the cone, thereby improving the vision. The RGP contact lens (CL would not however alter the corneal stability and if the keratoconus was progressive, the continued steepening of the cone would occur under the RGP CL. To date, the Siena Eye has been the largest study to investigate long term effects of standard CXL. Three hundred and sixty-three eyes were treated and monitored over 4 years, producing reliable long-term results proving long-term stability of the cornea by halting the progression of keratoconus, and proving the safety of the procedure. Traditionally, CXL requires epithelial removal prior to corneal soakage of a dextran-based 0.1% riboflavin solution, followed by exposure of ultraviolet-A (UV-A light for 30 min with an intensity of 3 mW/cm2. A series of in vitro investigations on human and porcine corneas examined the best treatment parameters for standard CXL, such as riboflavin concentration, intensity, wavelength of UV-A light, and duration of treatment. Photochemically, CXL is achieved by the generation of chemical bonds within the corneal stroma through localized photopolymerization, strengthening the cornea whilst minimizing exposure to the surrounding structures of the eye. In vitro studies have shown that CXL has an effect on the biomechanical properties of the cornea, with an increased corneal rigidity of approximately 70%. This is a result of the creation of new chemical bonds within the stroma.

  16. The application of excimer lasers for corneal sculpturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the broad selection of lasers available for surgery, the argon fluoride excimer laser offers a set of attributes that make it uniquely suited for the removal of corneal tissue. With ultraviolet radiation at 193mm, the energy of an individual photon (6.3 electron volts) is sufficient to break bonds in protein molecules without generating molecular vibration (heat). A single laser pulse is capable of removing 0.25 microns of corneal tissue over a well defined area 80 mm2 in extent. This excision with a lateral precision to a fraction of a micron causes no discernible damage to neighboring cells. The smooth surface left after the tissue is removed promotes a quick and predictable regrowth of the epithelium. The penetration of radiation into the underlying tissue is the order of a micron so there is no potential harm to the lens or retinal tissue. Insignificant mutagenesis or unscheduled DNA synthesis has been detected as a result of tissue irradiation at this wavelength. In the past few years major progress has been made towards developing ophthalmic procedures which utilize the unique properties of this laser. To date there are FDA IDE's (Investigational Device Exemptions) for the following procedures: Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) or corneal reshaping for correcting near-sightedness, far-sightedness and astigmatism without the need for eye glasses, contact lenses or conventional refractive surgery (Radial Keratotomy); Partial Excimer Trabeculectomy for relieving the pressure build-up caused by glaucoma; T-Excisons for reducing astigmatism; Myopic Keratomileusis (MKM) for the refractive correction of severe myopia; superficial Keratectomy (corneal smoothing) for treating various corneal scars, dystrophies, recurrent corneal erosion etc. In this paper the fundamentals of beam tissue interaction at 193nm will be discussed

  17. Correlation between Corneal Thickness and Degree of Myopic Refractory Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mortazavi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: corneal thickness is an important factor in refractive surgeries such as Radial Keratotomy (RK, Photo Refractive Keratotomy (PRK and Laser Insitu Keratomileusis (LASIK. This study evaluated the correlation between this factor and the degree of myopic refractory error. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 224 myopic eyes (112 patients which had undergone LASIK operation were assessed. These patients had referred to Aban Eye Clinic, Isfahan, Iran, during August and September 2002. Corneal thickness was measured by ORB SCAN Topoghraphy, and cycloplegic refraction was performed with autorefratometery and retinoscopy. Suspected keratoconus cases and hyperopic patients were excluded. Results: The patients' age was 27.2 ± 1.36 in men (N = 35 and 30.13 ± 1.04 in women (N = 77. Mean value of myopic refractory error in male patients was 5.1 ± 0.24D and in female patients was 3.8 ± 0.36D. Mean of corneal thickness was 540 ± 5.25 µM and 530 ± 5.88 µM in male and female patients respectively. There was no correlation between the degree of myopia and corneal thickness in any of the patients. Also in this research, no relations between the age and myopia were found. Right eye (P > 0.5, r = 0.124 Left eye (P > 0.5, r = 0.104. Conclusion: Based on our findings, corneal thickness and myopic refectory error do not seem to have any relations. (r = 0.039, p = 0.684. Keywords: Corneal Thickness, Cornea, Myopia, LASIK, Refractory Error

  18. Efectos del D-004, extracto lipídico de los frutos de la Palma Real (Roystonea regia), sobre el granuloma inducido por algodón en ratas y sobre la lipoxigenasa presente en leucocitos polimorfonucleares (PMNs)

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez, Roberto; Carvajal, Daysi; Mas, Rosa; Pérez, Yohanis; Molina, Vivian; Arruzazabala, María de Lourdes; González, Rosa María

    2006-01-01

    El D-004 es un extracto lipídico del fruto de la palma real (Roystonea regia, Arecaceae), en el cual los ácidos oleico, laurico y palmítico son los principales componentes. La administración oral inhibe significativamente la hiperplasia prostática inducida por testosterona en roedores. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en investigar los efectos anti-inflamatorios inducidos por el tratamiento oral con D-004 en el modelo de granuloma por algodón y sus efectos in vitro sobre la activida...

  19. Estudio histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de páncreas en perros diabéticos inducidos con aloxano Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    V. CUBILLOS; C López; Alberdi, A.

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en perros diabéticos tipo I inducidos con Aloxano®, con el propósito de evaluar las lesiones microscópicas presentes en páncreas y relacionarlas con la presencia o ausencia de insulina en los islotes de Langerhans a distintos tiempos posinducción. Se utilizaron 20 caninos mestizos, machos enteros de 4 a 7 años de edad, los cuales fueron divididos en 2 grupos: Control (n = 5) y Experimental (n = 15). Este último fue subdividido en grupos de 3 animales cada u...

  20. Tolerancia al daño inducido bajo solicitaciones de contacto cíclicas en carburos cementados WC-Co//Tolerance induced damage under cyclic contact loading of WC-Co cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    David Coureaux‐Mustelier; Anna Ingebrand; Alexey Goéz‐Úsuga; Luís Miguel Llanes‐Pitarch

    2014-01-01

    El comportamiento mecánico de los carburos cementados WC-Co ha sido estudiado en detalle teniendo en cuenta los defectos preexistentes del material (daño intrínseco). Sin embargo, la información sobre los efectos del daño inducido en servicio (daño extrínseco) en la integridad estructural de estos materiales esescasa. En este contexto, en este trabajo se evalúa la influencia del daño extrínseco en la resistencia mecánica residual de dos calidades con microestructuras diferentes. Para ello, se...

  1. Traumatic Wound Dehiscence following Corneal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Jafarinasab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the incidence, mechanisms, characteristics, and visual outcomes of traumatic wound dehiscence following keratoplasty. Methods: Medical records of 32 consecutive patients with traumatic globe rupture following keratoplasty who had been treated at our center from 2001 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The study population consisted of 32 eyes of 32 patients including 25 men and 7 women with history of corneal transplantation who had sustained eye trauma leading to globe rupture. Mean patient age was 38.1 (range, 8 to 87 years and median interval between keratoplasty and the traumatic event was 9 months (range, 30 days to 20 years. Associated anterior segment findings included iris prolapse in 71.9%, lens extrusion in 34.4%, and hyphema in 40.6% of eyes. Posterior segment complications included vitreous prolapse (56%, vitreous hemorrhage (28% and retinal detachment (18%. Eyes which had undergone deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK; 5 cases, 15.6% tended to have less severe presentation and better final visual acuity. There was no correlation between the time interval from keratoplasty to the traumatic event, and final visual outcomes. Conclusion: The host-graft interface demonstrates decreased stability long after surgery and the visual prognosis of traumatic wound dehiscence is poor in many cases. An intact Descemet′s membrane in DALK may mitigate the severity of ocular injuries, but even in these cases, the visual outcome of globe rupture is not good and prevention of ocular trauma should be emphasized to all patients undergoing any kind of keratoplasty.

  2. Minocycline Inhibits Alkali Burn-Induced Corneal Neovascularization in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ou Xiao; Zhao-lian Xie; Bin-wu Lin; Xiao-fang Yin; Rong-biao Pi; Shi-you Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). A total of 105 mice treated with alkali burns were randomly divided into three groups to receive intraperitoneal injections of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or minocycline twice a day (60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The area of CNV and corneal epithelial defects was measured on day 4, 7, 10, and14 after alkali burns. On day 14, a histopathol...

  3. A circum-corneal conjunctival nevus in a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, T.F.; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Toft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    An amelanotic, circum-corneal nevus in a 2-year-old child is described. The nevus presented at birth as a red spot in the nasal conjunctiva that subsequently enlarged to completely encircle the cornea. The tumour was partially removed three times, but at the age of 6 years, the nevus still covers...... the entire limbal region. The case illustrates that circum-corneal redness in a child may be caused by a nevus and that a conjunctival limbal nevus in a child tend to recur after incomplete excision....

  4. Multi-gene targeted antiangiogenic therapies for experimental corneal neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peng; Yin, Hongmei; Wang, Yao; Mi, Jing; He, Wenxiao; Xie, Lixin; Wang, Yiqiang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effectiveness of multigene-based anti-angiogenic gene therapies for experimental murine corneal neovascularization (corneal NV). Methods Recombinant retroviral vectors encoding murine endostatin (mEndo), murine-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (msFlk-1), or murine-soluble Tie2 (msTie2) were constructed and packaged in PT67 cells. Viral titers were determined by infection of NIH3T3 cells. Expressions of mEndo, msFlk-1, and msTie2 were confirmed by ...

  5. MicroRNA-145 regulates human corneal epithelial differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Ka-Wai Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic factors, such as microRNAs, are important regulators in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells and progenies. Here we investigated the microRNAs expressed in human limbal-peripheral corneal (LPC epithelia containing corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs and early transit amplifying cells, and their role in corneal epithelium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human LPC epithelia was extracted for small RNAs or dissociated for CEPC culture. By Agilent Human microRNA Microarray V2 platform and GeneSpring GX11.0 analysis, we found differential expression of 18 microRNAs against central corneal (CC epithelia, which were devoid of CEPCs. Among them, miR-184 was up-regulated in CC epithelia, similar to reported finding. Cluster miR-143/145 was expressed strongly in LPC but weakly in CC epithelia (P = 0.0004, Mann-Whitney U-test. This was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization on corneal rim cryosections showed miR-143/145 presence localized to the parabasal cells of limbal epithelium but negligible in basal and superficial epithelia. With holoclone forming ability, CEPCs transfected with lentiviral plasmid containing mature miR-145 sequence gave rise to defective epithelium in organotypic culture and had increased cytokeratin-3/12 and connexin-43 expressions and decreased ABCG2 and p63 compared with cells transfected with scrambled sequences. Global gene expression was analyzed using Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray and GeneSpring GX11.0. With a 5-fold difference compared to cells with scrambled sequences, miR-145 up-regulated 324 genes (containing genes for immune response and down-regulated 277 genes (containing genes for epithelial development and stem cell maintenance. As validated by qPCR and luciferase reporter assay, our results showed miR-145 suppressed integrin β8 (ITGB8 expression in both human corneal epithelial cells

  6. Hypoxia preconditioning protects corneal stromal cells against induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Dongmei; Sun, Xingcai; Li, Jinhua; CUI, MIAO; Tan-Allen, Kah; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study, was to determine whether hypoxia preconditioning can protect corneal stromal cells from UV stress and cytokine mediated apoptosis. Two models were implemented. First, primary cultured bovine corneal fibroblasts were preconditioned with 0.5–1.5% O2 for 4 hr and stressed with UV-irradiation or stimulation of Fas receptor. Second, bovine eyes were preconditioned with 0.5% O2 for 4 hr and stressed by epithelial scraping to induce anterior keratocyte apoptosis. Cell fate...

  7. Bacterial corneal ulcer associated with common variable immune deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Edmund; Deng, Jie; Siedlecki, Andrew N; Zegans, Michael E

    2016-12-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is one of the most commonly diagnosed primary immunodeficiencies. Generally, patients have a history of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, hypogammaglobulinemia of two or more immunoglobulin isotypes, and impaired functional antibody responses. Reports of corneal involvement associated with CVID are limited. We describe a case of corneal ulceration associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a patient with CVID that developed while on monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusions and in which there were no common risk factors for bacterial keratitis, such as prior history of ocular surface disease, trichiasis, trauma, or contact lens wear. PMID:27491761

  8. Noninvasive spectroscopic diagnosis of superficial ocular lesions and corneal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gritz, D.C.; Storey-Held, K. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    1994-02-01

    The potential of a rapid noninvasive diagnostic system to detect tissue abnormalities on the surface of the eye has been investigated. The optical scatter signal from lesions and normal areas on the conjunctival sclera of the human eye were measured in vivo. It is possible to distinguish nonpigmented pingueculas from other lesions. The ability of the system to detect malignancies could not be tested because none of the measured and biopsied lesions were malignant. Optical scatter and fluorescence spectra of bacterial and fungal suspensions, and corneal irritations were also collected. Both scattering and fluorescence show potential for diagnosing corneal infections.

  9. Nivel de corte de los ELISAs para cuantificación de anticuerpos inducidos por la vacuna antimeningocócica VA-MENGOC-BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ochoa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Para medir el grado de protección inducido por vacunas antimeningocócicas se ha establecido el Ensayo Bactericida en Suero (EBS y se perfeccionan otros ensayos inmunobiológicos, sin embargo, es necesario contar con pruebas sencillas como el ELISA, capaz de evaluar un gran número de muestras. Se estimó el nivel de corte de los ELISAs para la cuantificación de IgG humana contra los antígenos de VA-MENGOC-BC, vacuna antimeningocócica compuesta por vesículas proteicas de membrana externa de meningococo B y polisacárido capsular de meningococo C, con respecto a un panel de muestras de suero de lactantes, caracterizado por Ensayo Bactericida en Sangre Total (EBST. Los valores correspondientes a la máxima sensibilidad y especificidad fueron respectivamente; 2 μg/mL y 12 μg/mL para antipolisacárido C, y 1000 U/mL y 7000 U/mL para antiproteínas de membrana externa. La mayor coincidencia se obtuvo con 6 μg/mL y 2500 U/mL. Se evaluó otro panel de muestras de suero de adolescentes entre 14 y 18 años, por ELISA y EBS para Neisseria meningitidis serogrupos B y C, alcanzándose una buena concordancia. Doce años después de la inmunización con VA-MENGOC-BC persiste una importante concentración de anticuerpos contra los antígenos vacunales en los sueros estudiados.

  10. Effects of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Application on Corneal High-order Aberration and Visual Guality in Patients with Corneal Opacities

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Aydın Kurna; Sibel Aksoy; Tomris Şengör; Ayşe Sönmez

    2012-01-01

    Pur po se: Evaluation of the corneal high-order aberrations and visual quality changes after application of silicone hydrogel contact lenses in patients with corneal opacities due to various etiologies. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifteen eyes of 13 patients with corneal opacities were included in the study. During the ophthalmologic examination before and after contact lens application, visual acuity was measured with Snellen acuity chart and contrast sensitivity - with Bailey-Lowie Ch...

  11. Corneal astigmatism change and wavefront aberration evaluation after cataract surgery: "Single" versus "paired opposite" clear corneal incisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Razmjoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correcting the pre-existing astigmatism is an optimal goal in cataract surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the astigmatic correcting effect of a single regular 3.2 mm clear corneal incision (CCI with paired opposite CCI in cataract patients and effect of these incisions on optical aberrations using the wavefront quantitative analysis. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial study undertaken in an ophthalmology referral center on 50 patients planned for cataract surgery who were randomized to either single 3.2 mm CCI or paired opposite CCI group. Post-operative evaluation was performed at 12 weeks and included refraction, keratometery, corneal topography and wavefront analysis. Corneal astigmatism and post-operative values were compared in two groups. Results: The mean pre-operative corneal astigmatism was 2.58 ± 1.03 D in the single incision group and 2.70 ± 0.94 D in the paired opposite incisions group. After 12 weeks of surgery, the corneal astigmatism was reached to 2.15 ± 0.82 D in single incision group and 1.63 ± 1.21 in the paired opposite incisions group. There was a statistically significant difference in two arms of treatment regarding to surgically induced astigmatism after 3 months. The mean post-operative total and higher order aberrations and values were not significantly different in two groups. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that paired opposite incisions is an effective procedure for reducing pre-existing corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery. Paired incisions did not show any beneficial effect regarding wavefront aberrations compared with conventional single incision method.

  12. New therapeutic modality for corneal endothelial disease using Rho-associated kinase inhibitor eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    Corneal endothelial dysfunction accompanied by visual disturbance is a primary indication for corneal endothelial transplantation. However, despite the value and potential of endothelial graft surgery, a strictly pharmacological approach for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction remains an attractive proposition. Previously, we reported that the selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 promotes cell adhesion and proliferation, and inhibits the apoptosis of primate corneal endothelial cells in culture. These findings have led us to develop a novel medical treatment for the early phase of corneal endothelial disease using ROCK inhibitor eye drops. In rabbit and monkey models of partial endothelial dysfunction, we showed that corneal endothelial wound healing was accelerated via the topical application of ROCK inhibitor to the ocular surface, resulting in the regeneration of a corneal endothelial monolayer with a high endothelial cell density. Based on these animal studies, we are now attempting to advance the clinical application of ROCK inhibitor eye drops for patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. A pilot clinical study was performed at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, and the effects of Y-27632 eye drops after transcorneal freezing were evaluated in 8 patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. We observed a positive effect of ROCK inhibitor eye drops in treating patients with central edema caused by Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy. We believe that our new findings will contribute to the establishment of a new approach for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25289721

  13. Hypocellular scar formation or aberrant fibrosis induced by an intrastromal corneal ring: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Hema L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intrastromal corneal rings or segments are approved for the treatment of myopia and astigmatism associated with keratoconus. We describe a clinicopathological case of intrastromal corneal rings. For the first time, the molecular pathological findings of intrastromal corneal rings in the cornea are illustrated. Case presentation A 47-year-old African-American man with a history of keratoconus and failure in using a Rigid Gas Permeable contact lens received an intrastromal corneal ring implant in his left eye. Due to complications, penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The intrastromal corneal ring channels were surrounded by a dense acellular (channel haze and/or hypocellular (acidophilic densification collagen scar and slightly edematous keratocytes. Mild macrophage infiltration was found near the inner aspect of the intrastromal corneal rings. Molecular analyses of the microdissected cells surrounding the intrastromal corneal ring channels and central corneal stroma revealed 10 times lower relative expression of IP-10/CXCL10 mRNA and two times higher CCL5 mRNA in the cells surrounding the intrastromal corneal ring, as compared to the central corneal stroma. IP-10/CXCL10 is a fibrotic and angiostatic chemokine produced by macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Conclusion An intrastromal corneal ring implant can induce hypocellular scar formation and mild inflammation, which may result from aberrant release of fibrosis-related chemokines.

  14. Analysis of human transforming growth factor β-induced gene mutation in corneal dystrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 孙旭光; 任慧媛; 董冰; 王智群; 孙秀英

    2004-01-01

    Background Corneal dystrophy is a group of inherited blinding diseases of the cornea. This study was to identify the mutations of the keratoepithelin (KE) gene for proper diagnosis of corneal dystrophy. Methods Three families with corneal dystrophy were analysed. Thirteen individuals at risk for corneal dystrophy in family A, the proband and her son in family B, and the proband in family C were examined after their blood samples were obtained. Mutation screening of human transforming growth factor β-induced gene (BIGH3 gene) was performed. Results Five individuals in family A were found by clinical evaluation to be affected with granular corneal dystrophy and carried the BIGH3 mutation W555R. However, both probands in families B and C, also diagnosed with granular corneal dystrophy, harboured the BIGH3 mutation R124H. Conclusion Molecular genetic analysis can improve accurate diagnosis of corneal dystrophy.

  15. Corneal Biomechanical and Anterior Chamber Parameters Variations after 1-year of Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking in Eyes of Children with Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Abdelrahman Gaber

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) 1-year following transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) treatment in eyes of children with keratoconus. Methods: This case series was conducted in 22 eyes of 22 children. Children aged 0.05). Conclusion: Transepithelial CXL in keratoconus in pediatric age group seems to have good stability in corneal biomechanical parameters after 1-year. Further studies with a larger sample and better study design are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:26957852

  16. Collagens and proteoglycans of the corneal extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Michelacci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is a curved and transparent structure that provides the initial focusing of a light image into the eye. It consists of a central stroma that constitutes 90% of the corneal depth, covered anteriorly with epithelium and posteriorly with endothelium. Its transparency is the result of the regular spacing of collagen fibers with remarkably uniform diameter and interfibrillar space. Corneal collagen is composed of heterotypic fibrils consisting of type I and type V collagen molecules. The cornea also contains unusually high amounts of type VI collagen, which form microfibrillar structures, FACIT collagens (XII and XIV, and other nonfibrillar collagens (XIII and XVIII. FACIT collagens and other molecules, such as leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans, play important roles in modifying the structure and function of collagen fibrils.Proteoglycans are macromolecules composed of a protein core with covalently linked glycosaminoglycan side chains. Four leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans are present in the extracellular matrix of corneal stroma: decorin, lumican, mimecan and keratocan. The first is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, and the other three are keratan sulfate proteoglycans. Experimental evidence indicates that the keratan sulfate proteoglycans are involved in the regulation of collagen fibril diameter, and dermatan sulfate proteoglycan participates in the control of interfibrillar spacing and in the lamellar adhesion properties of corneal collagens. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are minor components of the cornea, and are synthesized mainly by epithelial cells. The effect of injuries on proteoglycan synthesis is discussed.

  17. Corneal biomechanical changes following toric soft contact lens wear

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    Somayeh Radaie-Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: CH and CRF decreased significantly one month after fitting toric soft contact lenses while CCT and K mean did not change significantly. Corneal biomechanical parameters may alter with toric soft contact lens use and such changes may have implications with long-term use such lenses.

  18. The Impact of Pterygium Excision on Corneal Astigmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the corneal astigmatism before and after the excision of pterygium and also to determine the correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Study Design: Cross-sectional interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department, Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad, from May 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Thirty patients underwent pterygium excision. Pre-operatively Snellen visual acuity, manifest refraction and slit lamp examination was done. The size of the pterygium was recorded in mm by projecting a horizontal slit lamp beam from the limbus to the apex. All the pterygium were equal to or greater than 2.5 mm. Keratometry was performed with an automated keratometer. Keratometric data was recorded pre-operatively and at 28 days postoperatively. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparing the pre-operative and the postoperative corneal astigmatism. Spearman's rank order was calculated to observe correlation of pterygium size with the postoperative astigmatism. Results: The median (mean rank) pre-operative astigmatism of 2.25 (15.50) reduced to a median (mean rank) postoperative astigmatism of 1.30 (14.96). This decrease in the postoperative astigmatism was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically non-significant correlation between the postoperative astigmatism and the pterygium size (rs = -0.29, p = 0.12). Conclusion: Pterygium excision caused significant reduction in corneal astigmatism. (author)

  19. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in recurrent corneal melting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brejchová, K.; Lisková, P.; Čejková, Jitka; Jirsová, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2010), s. 583-590. ISSN 0014-4835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : corneal melting * extracellular matrix degradation * matrix metalloproteinases Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2010

  20. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...

  1. Corneal manifestations of selected systemic diseases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D.H. Gillan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corneal manifestations of several selected systemic diseases are reviewed. Metabolic, immunologic and inflammatory and infectious diseases are included. A brief overview of each disease and how it manifests in the cornea is discussed. The importance of conducting a slit-lamp examination on every patient is emphasised.

  2. Proteins of the corneal stroma: importance in visual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Meng; Wang, Shurong; Liu, Xin; He, Yuxi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    The human cornea, consisting of five layers, is the transparent tissue that refracts and transmits light to the lens and retina, providing about two thirds of the refractive power of the eye. The stroma layer comprises nearly 90 % of the thickness of the cornea and thus plays a pivotal role in normal visual function. The bulk of this layer is constituted by proteins in the extracellular martrix secreted by the corneal epithelial, stroma, and endothelial cells. Clinical research has shown that corneal stroma diseases are common and involve conditions such as infections, injuries, and genetic defects, which cause severe visual disturbances or even blindness. To improve our understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in the physiological and pathological activities of the corneal stroma, its proteins have been brought into the limelight to determine their crucial and irreplaceable roles. The data presented in a previous study have demonstrated the presence of 1679 proteins in the stroma, and this data set has subsequently been perfected by utilizing a highly sensitive isobaric peptide-labeling approach. According to their manifestations, these proteins can be classified as a gel-like organic material composed of proteoglycans, enzymes, and hemocyanin-binding proteins and a network of filaments composed of collagen, elastin, keratin, vimentin, and interconnected filaments comprising fibronectin and laminin. The aim of this review is to describe some corneal stroma proteins by highlighting their major functions and valuable applications in ophthalmologic research toward the better characterization and treatment of eye diseases. PMID:26905288

  3. Implantation epithelial iris cyst following the perforating corneal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this case report was to present the development of implantation cyst following the perforating corneal injury, the problems related to the treatment, including total surgical excision of the cyst, the secondary cataract extraction, iridoplasty and the artificial intraocular lens reposition. A patient first presented with perforating corneal injury inflicted by a piece of wood, with the iris prolapse. Primary wound management, reposition of prolapsed iris and corneal sutures were performed four days after the injury. Eight months later, the patient was rehospitalized due to an implantation iris cyst and traumatic cataract. The cyst was excised, the extracapsular cataract extraction was done and the anterior chamber lens was implanted. Postoperative visual acuity was normal. Three years later, the patient presented for a follow-up examination, with the cyst filled up again, occupying two thirds of the anterior chamber. This time, the cyst was completely excised, all fibrous remnants of the secondary cataract were removed, and the iridoplasty was necessary due to large iris coloboma. Reposition of the anterior chamber lens was carried out. Histological examination revealed an implantation iris cyst covered by multilayered squamous epithelium. Normal visual acuity was achieved. The patient has been followed-up for six months uneventfully. Management of perforating corneal wound with iris prolapse may lead to development of an implantation iris cyst. Puncture of the cyst as well as incomplete excision will not solve the problem. Complete surgical removal of the iris cyst is the treatment of choice.

  4. The response of healing corneal epithelium to grooved polymer surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, M.D.; McFarland, G.A.; Taylor, S.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2005-01-01

    Corneal epithelial wounds heal rapidly by the inwards growth of tissue with a contracting wound front. A synthetic polymer lens to correct refractive error (an implantable contact lens) could be incorporated into the cornea using this wound healing process. Topographical cues on the polymer surface

  5. Posterior corneal curvature changes following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sri Ganesh, Utsav Patel, Sheetal Brar Phaco and Refractive Surgery Department, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Purpose: To compare the posterior corneal curvature changes, in terms of corneal power and asphercity, following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx SMILE procedure for low, moderate, and high myopia.Methods: This retrospective, non randomized, comparative, interventional trial; included 52 eyes of 26 patients, divided in three groups: low myopia (myopia ≤3 D [diopters] spherical equivalent [SE], moderate myopia (myopia >3 D and <6 D SE, and high myopia (myopia ≥6 D SE. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using ReLEx SMILE. The eyes were examined pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively using SCHWIND SIRIUS, a three-dimensional rotating Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer to assess corneal changes with regard to keratometric power and asphericity of the cornea.Results: A statistically significant increase in mean keratometric power in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones of the posterior corneal surface compared with its pre-ReLEx SMILE value was detected after 3 months in the moderate myopia group (pre-operative [pre-op] -6.14±0.23, post-operative [post-op] -6.29±0.22, P<0.001 and high myopia group (pre-op -6.19±0.16, post-op -6.4±0.18, P<0.001, but there was no significant change in keratometric power of the posterior surface in the low myopia group (pre-op -5.87±0.17, post-op -6.06±0.29, P=0.143. Asphericity (Q-value of the posterior surface changed significantly (P<0.001 after ReLEx SMILE in the moderate myopia group in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones, and in the high myopia group in the 3 and 7 mm zones; but there was no significant change in the Q-value in the low myopia group in all three zones (pre-op 0.23±0.43, post-op -0.40±0.71, P=0.170, and in the high myopia group in the 5 mm zone (P=0.228.Conclusion: ReLEx SMILE causes significant

  6. Corneal Endothelial Safety of Intracameral Preservative-free 1% Xylocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Alpesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the effect of intracameral preservative-free 1% xylocaine on the corneal endothelium as an adjuvant to topical anaesthesia during phacoemulsification and Acrysof foldable IOL implantation. Material & Methods: This is a prospective, controlled, randomised, double-masked study. 106 patients with soft to moderately dense (Grade 1-3 senile cataract and corneal endothelial cell density of >1500/mm2 were randomised to the xylocaine group (n=53 and control group(n=53. Central endothelial specular microscopy and ultrasound corneal pachymetry were performed preoperatively. On the first postoperative day the eyes were evaluated for corneal oedema and Descemet′s folds. Ultrasound corneal pachymetry was performed at 1, 3 and 12 months. Specular microscopy was performed at 3 and 12 months. Cell loss was expressed as a percentage of preoperative cell density. Six patients could not complete one year follow-up. Chi-square and paired t test (2 tail statistical tests were applied for analysis. Results: Four (7.54% patients in the xylocaine group and 5 (9.43% in the control group had a few Descemet′s folds associated with mild central stromal oedema. Corneal thickness increased from 549.3µ ± 37.2µ to 555.5µ ± 36.5µ in the xylocaine group and from 553.1µ ± 36.2µ to 559.3µ ± 40.5µ in the control group at the one-month postoperative visit. Thickness returned to the preoperative level in xylocaine group 549.6µ ± 34.5µ and control group 554.7µ ± 41.1µ at three months. (P=0.484 The percentage of cell loss was 4.47 ± 2.53% in the xylocaine group and 4.49 ± 3.09 % in the control group at one year. (P=0.97 Conclusion: Intracameral preservative-free 1% xylocaine does not appear to affect corneal endothelium adversely during phacoemulsification.

  7. Corneal collagen crosslinking in keratoconus and other eye disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel; Alhayek; Pei-Rong; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus is a condition characterized by biomechanical instability of the cornea, presenting in a progressive, asymmetric and bilateral way. Corneal collagen crosslinking(CXL) with riboflavin and Ultraviolet-A(UVA) is a new technique of corneal tissue strengthening that combines the use of riboflavin as a photo sensitizer and UVA irradiation. Studies showed that CXL was effective in halting the progression of keratoconus over a period of up to four years. The published studies also revealed a reduction of max K readings by more than 2 D, while the postoperative spherical equivalent(SEQ) was reduced by an average of more than 1 D and refractive cylinder decreased by about1 D. The major indication for the use of CXL is to inhibit the progression of corneal ecstasies, such as keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration. CXL may also be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of iatrogenic keratectasia, resulting from excessively aggressive photo ablation. This treatment has been used to treat infectious corneal ulcers with apparent favorable results. Most recent studies demonstrate the beneficial impact of CXL for iatrogenic ecstasies, pellucid marginal degeneration, infectious keratitis, bullous keratopathy and ulcerative keratitis. Several long-term and short-term complications of CXL have been studied and documented. The possibility of a secondary infection after the procedure exists because the patient is subject to epithelial debridement and the application of a soft contact lens. Formation of temporary corneal haze,permanent scars, endothelial damage, treatment failure,sterile infiltrates, bullous keratopathy and herpes reactivation are the other reported complications of this procedure.

  8. Influence of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR matching on rejection of random corneal grafts using corneal tissue for retrospective DNA HLA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Bartels (Marjolijn); H.G. Otten; B.E. van Gelderen; A. van der Lelij (Allegonda)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To establish if coincidental HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR tissue matching is associated with a reduced likelihood of corneal graft rejection. METHODS: Organ culture preserved random donor corneas were used for penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Corneal tissue from all gra

  9. Hevin plays a pivotal role in corneal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Chaurasia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hevin is a matricellular protein involved in tissue repair and remodeling via interaction with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. In this study, we examined the functional role of hevin using a corneal stromal wound healing model achieved by an excimer laser-induced irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (IrrPTK in hevin-null (hevin(-/- mice. We also investigated the effects of exogenous supplementation of recombinant human hevin (rhHevin to rescue the stromal cellular components damaged by the excimer laser. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild type (WT and hevin (-/- mice were divided into three groups at 4 time points- 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Group I served as naïve without any treatment. Group II received epithelial debridement and underwent IrrPTK using excimer laser. Group III received topical application of rhHevin after IrrPTK surgery for 3 days. Eyes were analyzed for corneal haze and matrix remodeling components using slit lamp biomicroscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, light microscopy (LM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blotting (WB. IHC showed upregulation of hevin in IrrPTK-injured WT mice. Hevin (-/- mice developed corneal haze as early as 1-2 weeks post IrrPTK-treatment compared to the WT group, which peaked at 3-4 weeks. They also exhibited accumulation of inflammatory cells, fibrotic components of ECM proteins and vascularized corneas as seen by IHC and WB. LM and TEM showed activated keratocytes (myofibroblasts, inflammatory debris and vascular tissues in the stroma. Exogenous application of rhHevin for 3 days reinstated inflammatory index of the corneal stroma similar to WT mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hevin is transiently expressed in the IrrPTK-injured corneas and loss of hevin predisposes them to aberrant wound healing. Hevin (-/- mice develop early corneal haze characterized by severe chronic inflammation and stromal fibrosis that can be rescued

  10. Minocycline inhibits alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in mice.

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    Ou Xiao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV. A total of 105 mice treated with alkali burns were randomly divided into three groups to receive intraperitoneal injections of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS or minocycline twice a day (60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days. The area of CNV and corneal epithelial defects was measured on day 4, 7, 10, and14 after alkali burns. On day 14, a histopathological examination was performed to assess morphological change and the infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs. The mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin-1α, 1β, 6 (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins was determined by gelatin zymography. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze the protein levels of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, IL-1β and IL-6. Minocycline at a dose of 60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg significantly enhanced the recovery of the corneal epithelial defects more than PBS did. There were significant decreases of corneal neovascularization in the group of high-dosage minocycline compared with the control group at all checkpoints. On day 14, the infiltrated PMNs was reduced, and the mRNA expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, bFGF, IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, -13 as well as the protein expression of VEGFR2, MMP-2, -9, IL-1β, IL-6 in the corneas were down-regulated with the use of 60 mg/kg minocycline twice a day. Our results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (60 mg/kg b.i.d. can significantly inhibit alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in mice, possibly by accelerating corneal wound healing and by reducing the production of angiogenic factors, inflammatory cytokines and MMPs.

  11. Isolation of bovine corneal keratan sulfate and its growth factor and morphogen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Amanda; Yang, Bo; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yee, Vienna; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is an important glycosaminoglycan that is found in cartilage, reproductive tissues, and neural tissues. Corneal KS glycosaminoglycan is found N-linked to lumican, keratocan and mimecan proteoglycans, and has been widely studied by investigators interested in corneal development and diseases. Recently, the availability of corneal KS has become severely limited, owing to restrictions on the shipment of bovine central nervous system byproducts across international borders in an effort to prevent additional cases of mad cow disease. We report a simple method for the purification of multi-milligram quantities of bovine corneal KS, and characterize its structural properties. We also examined its protein-binding properties, and discovered that corneal KS bound with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor-2 and sonic hedgehog, a growth factor and a morphogen involved in corneal development and healing. PMID:23402351

  12. Opposite Clear Corneal Incisions versus Steep Meridian Incision Phacoemulsification for Correction of Pre-existing Astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naim Aminifard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the efficacy of adding an opposite clear corneal incision (OCCI on the steep meridian versus performing surgery on the steep meridian alone during phacoemulsification in reducing pre-existing corneal astigmatism in Alzahra ophthalmology center. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 eyes with corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification and divided randomly to two groups. In the first group 3.2 mm phacoemulsification incision was made on steep meridian and in the other group after the procedure was completed the surgeon made 3.2 mm incision opposite to the main incision. Patients were followed with refraction, keratometry at 1, 4, 12 weeks. Results: Mean corrected astigmatism was greater in opposite clear corneal incision group than steep meridian incision phacoemulsification group. No significant change occurred in amount of astigmatism in two groups. Conclusion: Opposite clear corneal incisions achieve an enhanced effect over single clear corneal incisions in treating preexisting astigmatism in cataract patients.

  13. Indications for Corneal Transplantation at a Tertiary Referral Center in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Zare; Mohammad-Ali Javadi; Bahram Einollahi; Alireza Baradaran-Rafii; Siamak Zarei Ghanavati; Mohammad-Reza Jamshidi Farsani; Parviz Mohammadi; Sepehr Feizi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report the indications and techniques of corneal transplantation at a tertiary referral center in Tehran over a 3-year period. Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Results: During this period, 776 eyes of 756 patients (including 504 male subjects) with mean age of 41.3±21.3 ...

  14. PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND SUTURELESS LARGE-INCISION MANUAL CATARACT EXTRACTION CHANGE CORNEAL SENSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    I Anom-Supradnya; W Jayanegara; I Sugiana; I Raka-Widiana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with surgery as a definitive therapy. Incisions may damage the underlying tissue, including loss of corneal sensibility. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in corneal sensibility decreased in patients afterphacoemulsification and SLIMCE.Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial assessingchanges of corneal sensibility in immature senile cataract patients after phacoemulsification and SLIMCE at Sangla...

  15. Human limbal biopsy–derived stromal stem cells prevent corneal scarring

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Sayan; Hertsenberg, Andrew J.; Funderburgh, Martha L.; Burrow, Michael K.; Mann, Mary M.; Du, Yiqin; Lathrop, Kira L.; Syed-Picard, Fatima N.; Adams, Sheila M.; Birk, David E.; Funderburgh, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional allograft therapy for corneal scarring is widespread and successful, but donor tissue is not universally available, and some grafts fail owing to rejection and complications such as endothelial failure. We investigated direct treatment of corneal scarring using autologous stem cells, a therapy that, if successful, could reduce the need for corneal grafts. Mesenchymal cells were expanded from small superficial, clinically replicable limbal biopsies of human cadaveric corneo-sclera...

  16. Gelam honey potentiates ex vivo corneal keratocytes proliferation with desirable phenotype expression

    OpenAIRE

    Yusof, Alia Md; Abd Ghafar, Norzana; Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Hui, Chua Kien; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Gelam honey on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypic characterization via MTT assay, gene expression and immunocytochemistry. Methods Corneal keratocytes from New Zealand white rabbits were cultured in basal medium (BM) and serum enriched medium (BMS). Serial dilutions of Gelam honey (GH) were added to both media and cells were cultured until passage 1. MTT assay was performed on corneal keratocytes in both media to as...

  17. Change in Astigmatism After Temporal Clear Corneal Cataract Extraction in the Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Helene Y; Yen, Kimberly G

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the early postoperative change in astigmatism in pediatric patients having cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation using sutured temporal clear corneal incision. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all pediatric patients who underwent clear corneal cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation between 12/01/2005 and 11/30/2006. Results: A total of 31 eyes of 22 patients who underwent temporal clear corneal cataract surgery and intra...

  18. Isolation of bovine corneal keratan sulfate and its growth factor and morphogen binding

    OpenAIRE

    Weyers, Amanda; Yang, Bo; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yee, Vienna; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is an important glycosaminoglycan that is found in cartilage, reproductive, and neural tissues. Corneal KS glycosaminoglycan is found N-linked to lumican, keratocan, and mimecan proteoglycans and has been widely studied by investigators interested in corneal development and diseases. Recently, the availability of corneal KS has become severely limited due to restricted the shipment of bovine central nervous system by-products across international borders in efforts to pre...

  19. Corneal-Based Surgical Presbyopic Therapies and Their Application in Pseudophakic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Paley, Grace l.; Chuck, Roy S.; Tsai, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of laser refractive surgery and corneal inlay approaches to treat presbyopia in patients after cataract surgery. Summary. The presbyopic population is growing rapidly along with increasing demands for spectacle independence. This review will focus on the corneal-based surgical options to address presbyopia including various types of corneal intrastromal inlays and laser ablation techniques to generate either a multifocal cornea (“Pre...

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion of and multiplication within corneal epithelial cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Fleiszig, S M; Zaidi, T S; Pier, G.B. (G.B.)

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is usually considered an extracellular pathogen. Using assays to determine intracellular survival in the presence of gentamicin, we have previously demonstrated that P. aeruginosa is able to invade corneal cells during infectious keratitis in mice. In vitro, P. aeruginosa was found to enter the following cells: human corneal cells removed by irrigation; epithelial cells in the cornea of rats, mice, and rabbits; and primary corneal epithelial cells cultured from rat and ...

  1. Risk Factors for Senile Corneal Arcus in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Mirnaghi; Sareshtedar, Ahmad; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran; Ramezanfar, Nazanin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between senile corneal arcus and atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction. Methods In this cross sectional study, atherosclerosis risk factors including fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in 165 patients with recent (less than three months’ duration) acute myocardial infarction. Slitlamp examination was performed to detect corneal arcus. Associations between senile corneal ...

  2. Reconstruction of the corneal epithelium with induced marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ting-Shuai; Cai, Li; Ji, Wei-Ying; Hui, Yan-Nian; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To explore the feasibility of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transdifferentiating into corneal epithelial cells in a limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) model in rats. Methods Rat MSCs were isolated and purified using a gradient isolation procedure. The cells were induced by rat corneal stromal cells (CSCs) in a transwell co-culture system. The induced MSCs were identified by immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A corneal LSCD ...

  3. Allergic Conjunctivitis Exacerbates Corneal Allograft Rejection by Activating Th1 and Th2 Alloimmune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Niederkorn, Jerry Y.; Chen, Peter W.; Mellon, Jessamee; Stevens, Christina; Mayhew, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and airway hyperreactivity exacerbate corneal allograft rejection. Because AC and airway hyperreactivity are allergic diseases of mucosal tissues, we determined whether an allergic disease of a nonmucosal tissue would affect corneal allograft rejection and whether Th2 cells alone accounted for accelerated graft rejection in allergic mice. Hosts sensitized cutaneously with short ragweed pollen developed cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity but rejected corneal allo...

  4. Successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors to corneal endothelial surface using a nanocomposite sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors in animal models of endothelial damage by injecting into the anterior chamber has been reported, the practical difficulties of accomplishing such procedure in human patients have been a hurdle to clinical translation. Here we report the successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal precursor cells to an animal eye using a transparent Nano-composite sheet and their engraftment.Materials and Methods: Human Corneal endothelial cells (HCEC were isolated from human cadaver eyes with informed consent and expanded in the lab using a sphere forming assay in a novel Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP for 26 days. HCEC obtained by sphere forming assay were seeded in a novel Nano-composite sheet, which was made of PNIPA-NC gels by in-situ, free-radical polymerization of NIPA monomer in the presence of exfoliated clay (synthetic hectorite “Laponite XLG” uniformly dispersed in aqueous media. After a further seven days in vitro culture of HCEC in the Nano-composite sheet, cells were harvested and transplanted on cadaver-bovine eyes (n=3. The cells were injected between the corneal endothelial layer and the Nano-composite sheet that had been placed prior to the injection in close proximity to the endothelial layer. After three hours, the transplanted Nano-composite sheets were removed from the bovine eyes and subjected to microscopic examination. The corneas were subjected to Histo-pathological studies along with controls. Results: HCEC formed sphere like colonies in TGP which expressed relevant markers as confirmed by RT-PCR. Microscopic studies of the Nanosheets and histopathological studies of the cornea of the Bull’s eye revealed that the HCEC got engrafted to the corneal endothelial layer of the bovine eyes with no remnant cells in the Nanosheet. Conclusion: Transplantation of in vitro expanded donor human corneal endothelial cells

  5. Comparative analysis of corneal morphological changes after transversal and torsional phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm corneal incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Assaf, Maged Maher RoshdyOphthalmology Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: This paper compares and evaluates the corneal morphological changes occurring after cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. We use two platforms for comparison and evaluation, transversal and torsional phacoemulsification.Patients and methods: This study includes 139 consecutive cataractous eyes (nuclear color 2–4, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III [LOCSIII] of 82 patients undergoing cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. Two different phacoemulsification platforms were used and assigned randomly: we used the WhiteStar Signature® system with the Ellips™ FX transversal continuous ultrasound (US mode for group I (mean age: 65.33 ± 6.97 years, and we used the Infiniti® system with the OZil® Intelligent Phaco (IP torsional US mode for group II (mean age: 64.02 ± 7.55 years. The corneal endothelium and pachymetry were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Incision size changes were also evaluated.Results: All surgeries were uneventful. Before intraocular lens implantation, the mean incision size was 2.24 ± 0.06 mm in both groups (P = 0.75. In terms of corneal endothelial cell density, neither preoperative (I vs II: 2304.1 ± 122.5 cell/mm2 vs 2315.6 ± 83.1 cell/mm2, P = 0.80 nor postoperative (I vs II: 2264.1 ± 124.3 cell/mm2 vs 2270.3 ± 89.9 cell/mm2, P = 0.98 differences between the groups were statistically significant. The mean endothelial cell density loss was 1.7% ± 1.6% and 2.0% ± 1.4% in groups I and II, respectively. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups I and II were found preoperatively (P = 0.40 and postoperatively (P = 0.68 in central pachymetry. With surgery, the mean increase in central pachymetry was 28.1 ± 23.6 µm and 24.0 ± 24.0 µm in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.1.Conclusion: Ellips™ FX transversal and OZil® IP torsional

  6. Phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen on rabbit corneal endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) were investigated using the rabbit corneal endothelium in organ culture. The corneas were divided into four groups: (a) irradiated with a mercury vapor lamp (emitting UVA and visible radiation) in the presence of 8-MOP (experimental), (b) irradiated without 8-MOP (control A), (c) incubated with 8-MOP (control B) and (d) incubated without 8-MOP (control C). Specular and light microscopic examination showed that the experimental corneas had greater cellular damage compared to the control corneas. The effects of 8-MOP were restricted to certain localized areas of the cornea. However there was no significant difference in the amounts of 51Cr released from the labelled experimental and control corneas. These results show phototoxic damage of the corneal endothelial cells

  7. Phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen on rabbit corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Basu, P.K.; Hasany, S.M.; Persad, S.D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) were investigated using the rabbit corneal endothelium in organ culture. The corneas were divided into four groups: (a) irradiated with a mercury vapor lamp (emitting UVA and visible radiation) in the presence of 8-MOP (experimental), (b) irradiated without 8-MOP (control A), (c) incubated with 8-MOP (control B) and (d) incubated without 8-MOP (control C). Specular and light microscopic examination showed that the experimental corneas had greater cellular damage compared to the control corneas. The effects of 8-MOP were restricted to certain localized areas of the cornea. However there was no significant difference in the amounts of 51Cr released from the labelled experimental and control corneas. These results show phototoxic damage of the corneal endothelial cells.

  8. Research Progress in Corneal Cross-linking Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Xiujun Peng; Zhengjun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking with UVA-riboflavin is cur-rently the only method for preventing the progression of kera-toconus from the pathological perspective. Topical application of a direct cross-linking agent is now attracting widespread at-tention in clinical settings..This article reviews the research progress in the application of indirect or direct cross-linking agents (e.g., riboflavin, glucose, ribose, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde,.glyceraldehyde,.short chain aliphatic β-nitro alcohol, and genipin) in the treatment of corneal diseases and analyzes the cross-linking efficacy,.toxicity,.and merits and disadvantages of each cross-linking agent,.providing clinical information for further studies.

  9. Transient Anisocoria after Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Kymionis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case with transient anisocoria after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL. Methods. Case report. Results. A 24-year-old male underwent corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL in his right eye for keratoconus. At the end of the procedure, the pupil of the treated eye was irregular and dilated, while the pupil of the fellow eye was round, regular, and reactive (anisocoria. The following day, pupils were round, regular, and reactive in both eyes. Conclusion. Anisocoria may be a transient and innocuous complication after CXL. A possible cause for this complication might be the anesthetic drops used before and during the surgical procedure or/and the ultraviolet A irradiation during the treatment.

  10. Topical antibiotics in the management of corneal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy P

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 82 patients suffering from corneal ulcer were treated with framycetin 0.5%, gentamicin 3 mg./ml, chloramphenicol 0.4% and a neomycin combination containing Polymixin B sulphate 5000 u, neomycin sulphate 1700 u and gramicidin 0.025 mg/mL in a Randomised comparative study. The commonest organism isolated was Staphylococcus followed by Pneumococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas. The in vitro sensitivity of these isolates to framycetin was higher than that to others Framycetin produced both earlier and a greater degree of improvement in mean score of signs and symptoms than the other antibiotics. It can thus be concluded that framycetin has a better profile of antibacterial activity and clinical efficacy than some other commonly used topical antibiotics in the treatment of corneal ulcer.

  11. Toxicity of methods of implant material sterilization on corneal endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of different procedures utilized for the sterilization of intraocular implant material was assessed on the endothelium of organ-cultured porcine corneas. Polymethylmethacrylate lenses sterilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, and gamma radiation were added to a culture medium containing normal porcine corneas. Considering the viability of endothelial cells, appearance of intracellular degenerative vacuoles, and denudation of corneal Descemet's membrane as criterion for the evaluation of toxicity of different methods of sterilization, the NaOH-treated lenses were found to be the least toxic to porcine corneal endothelium. Phase-contrast microscopy and vital staining of the endothelium permitted direct viewing of the endothelium aiding in the assessment of toxicity

  12. Molecular underpinnings of corneal angiogenesis: advances over the past decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Zayed, Amira A.; Hussein, Heba; Abd El-Baky, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    The cornea is maintained in an avascular state by maintaining an environment whereby anti-angiogenic factors take the upper hand over factors promoting angiogenesis. Many of the common pathologies affecting the cornea involve the disruption of such equilibrium and the shift towards new vessel formation, leading to corneal opacity and eventually-vision loss. Therefore it is of paramount importance that the molecular underpinnings of corneal neovascularization (CNV) be clearly understood, in order to develop better targeted treatments. This article is a review of the literature on the recent discoveries regarding pro-angiogenic factors of the cornea (such as vascular endothelial growth factors, fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinases) and anti-angiogenic factors of the cornea (such as endostatins and neostatins). Further, we review the molecular underpinnings of lymphangiogenesis, a process now known to be almost separate from (yet related to) hemangiogenesis. PMID:27275438

  13. Keratometry and corneal topography using multiple delay element OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2008-02-01

    We have presented previously a novel method for the evaluation of the surface shape of an object, with immediate application to measurement of cornea shape. This method uses single shot C-scans obtained by using a multiple delay element (MDE) in the reference path of an OCT system. A calibrated MDE-OCT system can be used to measure the elevation of points on the cornea, in contrast to existing methods which are based on measurement of the cornea slope. The associated algorithm for extracting corneal topography data points from the MDE-OCT C-Scan image will be presented, data points which can then be used to calculate the Zernike coefficients for the cornea shape. The differences between the existing systems and the MDE-OCT method for keratometry and corneal topography are discussed.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF ROBOTIC MECHANISM FOR MICROSURGICAL CORNEAL GRAFTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yida; Zhao Zhiwen; Li Dazhai; Zong Guanghua

    2005-01-01

    In order to enhance the effect of corneal grafting, an assisting microsurgical robot has been developed. As one of principal issues for the robotic system design, type and size synthesis of the robotic mechanism is discussed. For this purpose, timeline subtask is analyzed with surgical component motion in manual corneal grafting microsurgery, as the reference of robotic mechanism synthesis. On the basis of study on the kinematic correlation between the arm structures and the wrist structures, configuration of joint is determined for the surgical task and motion in type synthesis of the mechanism. The objective for size synthesis of robotic mechanism is optimization of the mechanism dexterity as a manipulation capability. The condition number based on Jacob matrix is chosen as dexterity measure of the mechanism. The prototype is developed.

  15. Clinical correlates of common corneal neovascular diseases:a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A large subset of corneal pathologies involves the formation of new blood and lymph vessels (neovascularization, leading to compromised visual acuity. This article aims to review the clinical causes and presentations of corneal neovascularization (CNV by examining the mechanisms behind common CNV-related corneal pathologies, with a particular focus on herpes simplex stromal keratitis, contact lenses-induced keratitis and CNV secondary to keratoplasty. Moreover, we reviewed CNV in the context of different types of corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, and summarized the most relevant treatments available so far.

  16. Optimal incision sites to reduce corneal aberration variations after small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ling; Zhao, Jiang-Yue; Zhang, Jin-Song; Meng, Jie; Wang, Ming-Wu; Yang, Ya-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the effect of steep meridian small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery on anterior, posterior and total corneal wavefront aberration. METHODS Steep meridian small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed in age-related cataract patients which were divided into three groups according to the incision site: 12 o'clock, 9 o'clock and between 9 and 12 o'clock (BENT) incision groups. The preoperative and 3-month postoperative root mean square (RMS) values of anterior, posterior and total corneal wavefront aberration including coma, spherical aberration, and total higher-order aberrations (HOAs), were measured by Pentacam scheimpflug imaging. The mean preoperative and postoperative corneal wavefront aberrations were documented. RESULTS Total corneal aberration and total lower-order aberrations decreased significantly in three groups after operation. RMS value of total HOAs decreased significantly postoperatively in the 12 o'clock incision group (Pastigmatism changes in all three corneal incision location. CONCLUSION Corneal incision of phacoemulsification cataract surgery can affect corneal wavefront aberration. The 12 o'clock corneal incision eliminated more HOAs and the spherical aberrations decreased in BENT incision group obviously when we selected steep meridian small incision. Cataract lens replacement using wavefront-corrected intraocular lens combined with optimized corneal incision site would improve ocular aberration results. PMID:27162725

  17. Bilateral Keratoconus and Corneal Hydrops Associated with Eye Rubbing in a 7-year-old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud-Reza Panahi-Bazaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a young child with bilateral keratoconus in the context of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC who developed bilateral corneal hydrops associated with eye rubbing, and to discuss the pathogenesis and review the pertinent literature. Case Report: A seven-year-old girl with VKC and asymmetric keratoconus developed corneal hydrops due to habitual eye rubbing. Corneal edema subsided within 16 weeks in her right eye and 9 weeks in the left eye with subsequent corneal scarring. Conclusion: Continuous mechanical trauma, such as eye rubbing, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of keratoconus and subsequent hydrops even in childhood.

  18. Evaluation of Corneal Topography and Biomechanical Parameters after Use of Systemic Isotretinoin in Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report the effect of isotretinoin on corneal topography, corneal thickness, and biomechanical parameters in patients with acne vulgaris. Method. Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who received oral isotretinoin for treatment of acne vulgaris were evaluated. All patients underwent a corneal topographical evaluation with a Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido-disk (Sirius, ultrasonic pachymetry measurements, and corneal biomechanical evaluation with an ocular response analyzer at baseline, in the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of treatment, and 6 months after isotretinoin discontinuation. Results. The thinnest corneal thickness measured with Sirius differed significantly in the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months compared with the baseline measurement; there was no significant change in ultrasonic central corneal thickness measurements and biomechanical parameters (corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor throughout the study. Average simulated keratometry and surface asymmetry index increased significantly only in the first month of treatment according to the baseline. All changes disappeared 6 months after the end of treatment. Conclusion. Basal tear secretion and corneal morphologic properties were significantly influenced during the systemic isotretinoin treatment and the changes were reversible after discontinuation. No statistical important biomechanical differences were found to be induced by isotretinoin.

  19. [Corneal reinnervation after lamellar keratoplasty in comparison with epikeratophakia and photorefractive keratectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, A; Kohlhaas, M; Kliefoth, U; Draeger, J; Lombardi, M; Abbondanza, M; Zuppardo, M; Görne, M

    1994-10-01

    Corneal sensitivity was examined with the Draeger aesthesiometer in 8 patients after lamellar keratoplasty, 7 patients after epikeratophakia and 82 patients after photorefractive keratectomy. We examined 9 different points in each cornea. The corneal sensitivity of patients after lamellar keratoplasty was normal 1 year after operation. A correlation with the depth of the lamellar dissection was demonstrated. Patients with lamellar keratoplasty with pterygium showed a sensitivity decrease in the nasal parts of the lenticule even after one year. Three years after epikeratophakia the corneal center was still not sensitive. After photorefractive keratectomy of more than 10 D, corneal hyposensitivity was shown even 2 years after operation. PMID:7812096

  20. Corneal confocal microscopy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Stettner, Mark; Hinrichs, Lena; Guthoff, Rainer; Bairov, Silja; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Warnke, Clemens; Hartung, Hans‐Peter; Malik, Rayaz A.; Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective There is an unmet need for better diagnostic tools to further delineate clinical subsets of heterogeneous chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) to facilitate treatment decisions. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive and reproducible nerve imaging technique. This study evaluates the potential of CCM as a diagnostic surrogate in CIDP and MMN. Methods In a cross‐sectional prospective approach, 182 p...

  1. Cytotoxicity of proparacaine to human corneal endothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qian; Fan, Tingjun; Bai, Suran; Sui, Yunlong

    2015-08-01

    Proparacaine is a widely used topical anesthetic in ophthalmic optometry and surgery, and has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on rabbit corneal endothelial cells after prolonged and repeated usage. Since rabbit is an exceptive mammal whose corneal endothelial cells still maintaining proliferation abilities even in adulthood, whether proparacaine has cytotoxic effects on human corneal endothelial (HCE) cells need to be further verified. Our objectives in the present study were to investigate the cytotoxicity to HCE cells of proparacaine and its underlying mechanisms in vitro and verify the cytotoxicity using cat corneal endothelial (CCE) cells in an in vivo model of cat corneas. Cytotoxic evaluation results indicated that a dose- and time-dependent toxic response of HCE cells to proparacaine over 0.03125% was rated based on morphology and viability, and a toxic response of CCE cells to 0.5% (clinical applied dosage) proparacaine was also rated based on cell density and histology. Importantly, treatment with proparacaine resulted in significant elevation of plasma membrane permeability, cell cycle arrest at S phase, fragmentation of genomic DNA, formation of apoptotic bodies, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) of HCE cells. Moreover, proparacaine demonstrated disrupting effects on mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) of HCE cells and activating effects on caspase-3, -8 and -9. This study demonstrates that proparacaine has notable cytotoxicity to both HCE cells in vitro and CCE cells in vivo, and its dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCE cells is achieved by inducing apoptosis via a mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent pathway. These findings provide new insights into the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing effect of local anesthetics which should be used with great caution in the eye clinic. PMID:26165639

  2. Interlamellar cohesion after corneal crosslinking using riboflavin and UVA

    OpenAIRE

    Wollensak, Gregor; Spörl, Eberhard; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Kalinski, Thomas; Sel, Saadettin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT Aims: Collagen crosslinking (CXL) treatment of progressive keratoconus using the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA light of 370 nm wavelength has been shown to increase significantly the tensile strength of corneal collagen by about 300%. In keratoconus, interlamellar and interfibrillar slippage have been proposed as pathogenetic mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of CXL on the interlamellar cohesive force. Methods: 72 po...

  3. Corneal Structure and Biomechanics in Collagen Vascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Colaço, Maria Luisa; Franco, Mónica; Pinto, Rita; Maia Sêco, José

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate corneal biomechanics and structure in asymptomatic individuals with Collagen Vascular Diseases (CVD), and compare with an age- -matched control group. Methods: In this prospective study 23 patients with the diagnosis of CVD (46 eyes) and 17 healthy age and gender-matched controls (34 eyes) underwent Ocular Response Analyzer and Specular Microscopy measurements. CH and CRF were recorded for each eye using the ORA, pachymetry and endothelial ce...

  4. CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM AFTER MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni; Mohd Ayaz; Pallvi; Syed Tariq

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cataract is the leading cause of preventable blindness in India. Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery is still the preferred method of cataract surgery because of its low cost and non-dependence on costly equipments. Postoperatively astigmatism is an important cause of poor uncorrected visual acuity after cataract surgery. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess corneal astigmatism in manual small incision cataract surgery in superior versus temporal ...

  5. [A 25-year-old patient with corneal infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperlic, K; Tietz, H-J; Erhard, M; Regnath, T

    2011-05-01

    Filamentous fungal keratitis represents a serious infection of the eye. When corneal infiltrates appear, particularly in those who wear contact lenses, mycological assessment should already be performed initially so that filamentous fungal keratitis can be recognized early and treated. Keratitis caused by Fusarium responds well in most cases to topical therapy with ketoconazole or other antimycotic agents so that surgical intervention is only necessary in advanced or treatment-refractory cases. PMID:21528373

  6. Oral acyclovir (Zovirax) in herpes simplex dendritic corneal ulceration.

    OpenAIRE

    Collum, L M; McGettrick, P.; Akhtar, J.; Lavin, J.; Rees, P J

    1986-01-01

    Sixty patients with simple dendritic corneal ulceration were randomly assigned to double blind treatment with either acyclovir tablets (400 mg) or acyclovir ophthalmic ointment administered five times daily. There was no significant difference in the proportions of patients healed in either treatment group (88.9% on oral acyclovir and 96.6% on acyclovir ointment). The median healing time was five days in both groups. No systemic or significant local side effects were noted in either treatment...

  7. Corneal allograft rejection: Risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Harminder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in corneal graft technology, including donor tissue retrieval, storage and surgical techniques, have greatly improved the clinical outcome of corneal grafts. Despite these advances, immune mediated corneal graft rejection remains the single most important cause of corneal graft failure. Several host factors have been identified as conferring a "high risk" status to the host. These include: more than two quadrant vascularisation, with associated lymphatics, which augment the afferent and efferent arc of the immune response; herpes simplex keratitis; uveitis; silicone oil keratopathy; previous failed (rejected grafts; "hot eyes"; young recipient age; and multiple surgical procedures at the time of grafting. Large grafts, by virtue of being closer to the host limbus, with its complement of vessels and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells, also are more susceptible to rejection. The diagnosis of graft rejection is entirely clinical and in its early stages the clinical signs could be subtle. Graft rejection is largely mediated by the major histocompatibility antigens, minor antigens and perhaps blood group ABO antigens and some cornea-specific antigens. Just as rejection is mediated by active immune mediated events, the lack of rejection (tolerance is also sustained by active immune regulatory mechanisms. The anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID and probably, conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT induced mucosal tolerance, besides others, play an important role. Although graft rejection can lead to graft failure, most rejections can be readily controlled if appropriate management is commenced at the proper time. Topical steroids are the mainstay of graft rejection management. In the high-risk situations however, systemic steroids, and other immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus (FK506 are of proven benefit, both for treatment and prevention of rejection.

  8. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography on Corneal Surface Laser Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Bruna V.; Moraes, Haroldo V.; Newton Kara-Junior; Santhiago, Marcony R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on reviewing the roles of optical coherence tomography (OCT) on corneal surface laser ablation procedures. OCT is an optical imaging modality that uses low-coherence interferometry to provide noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure in vivo. There are two types of OCTs, each with transverse and axial spatial resolutions of a few micrometers: the time-domain and the fourier-domain OCTs. Both have been increasingly used by refractive surgeons and have spec...

  9. Correlation between Corneal Thickness and Degree of Myopic Refractory Error

    OpenAIRE

    A Mortazavi; K Nasrolahi

    2005-01-01

    Background: corneal thickness is an important factor in refractive surgeries such as Radial Keratotomy (RK), Photo Refractive Keratotomy (PRK) and Laser Insitu Keratomileusis (LASIK). This study evaluated the correlation between this factor and the degree of myopic refractory error. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 224 myopic eyes (112 patients) which had undergone LASIK operation were assessed. These patients had referred to Aban Eye Clinic, Isfahan, Iran, during August and Septe...

  10. Pigmented corneal ring associated with orthokeratology in caucasians : case reports

    OpenAIRE

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; González-Pérez, Javier; Garcia-Porta, Nery; Diaz-Rey, José Alberto; Parafita, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to report the appearance of a pigmented ring in both eyes of two patients undergoing overnight orthokeratology. METHODS: Two Caucasian patients, one male and one female, were fitted with orthokeratology lenses to correct myopia between -2.00 and -2.50 DS with Paragon corneal refractive therapy lenses worn overnight. Treatment was successful in both patients achieving uncorrected vision of 6/6 or better monocularly under high (100 per cent) and low (10 per cent) con...

  11. Personalised lamellar keratoplasty and keratopigmentation in Asian corneal leucoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Shen, Jun-Hui; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Tang, Shen-Fei; Chen, Ran-Ran; SUI, GUI-QIN; Bi, Yan-Long

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a personalised lamellar keratoplasty (LK) associated with the keratopigmentation (KTP) technique for corneal leucoma among Asian patients. Methods: This report was a non-randomised, retrospective clinical study performed in 32 consecutive eyes of 32 patients to improve cosmetic appearance. Twenty-two patients underwent LK combined with KTP, either by intralamellar or superficial route. Ten patients underwent the single personalised keratopigmentation method. The subject...

  12. Decision making nomogram for intrastromal corneal ring segments in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Shetty; Sharon D′Souza; Sarika Ramachandran; Mathew Kurian; Rudy M. M. A. Nuijts

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create a nomogram for the insertion of intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) (Intacs® ) in eyes with keratoconus. Setting: Tertiary eye care center in South India. Materials and Methods: This prospective, non-randomized, interventional case series used a self-designed decision-making nomogram for the selection of ICRS in keratoconus patients based on the centration of the cone, mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), and mean keratometry (Km) values. The 3, 6, and 12 mont...

  13. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa Vance; Telmo Llanga; Will Bennett; Kenton Woodard; Giridhar Murlidharan; Neil Chungfat; Aravind Asokan; Brian Gilger; Joanne Kurtzberg; Jude Samulski, R.; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse...

  14. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK. PMID:18190354

  15. Effect of a cyclosporine A delivery system in corneal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立信; 史伟云; 王治宇; 贝建中; 王身国

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the immunosuppressive effect of cyclosporine (Cs) in a polymer placed in the anterior chamber of corneal allograft recipients. Methods Wistar inbred rats with vascularized corneas were recipients of corneal allografts from Sprague-Dawley donor rats. Rats underwent penetrating keratoplasty and were divided randomly into four groups: untreated control animals (UCA); Cs-polymer anterior chamber recipients (CPA); co-polymer subconjunctival recipients (CPS); and Cs-olive oil drop recipients (COO). Grafts were examined by slit lamp every 3 days and clinical conditions were scored. Cs concentration in the aqueous humor was assayed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. At 1, 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation, the operated eyes were collected for histopathological evaluation of the grafts. Results The median survival time of the allografts was 8.2±1.48 days for the UCA group, 11.4±2.50 days for the CPS group, and 17.0±2.00 days for the CPA group. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between survival time of the allografts in the animals of the CPA group compared to the other groups of graft recipients. Significantly higher concentrations of Cs were found in the eyes given an anterior chamber implant of Cs-polymer, compared to other treatment groups or untreated rats. A transient inflammatory response in the anterior chamber was observed in the CPA group. Conclusions Cs-polymer placed in the anterior chamber significantly prolongs corneal allograft survival time in a high risk corneal graft rejection model. This intraocular delivery system may be a valuable adjunct for the suppression of immune graft rejection.

  16. Quantitative trait loci associated with murine central corneal thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Lively, Geoffrey D.; Koehn, Demelza; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Wang, Kai; Anderson, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    The cornea is a specialized transparent tissue responsible for refracting light, serving as a protective barrier, and lending structural support to eye shape. Given its importance, the cornea exhibits a surprising amount of phenotypic variability in some traits, including central corneal thickness (CCT). More than a mere anatomic curiosity, differences in CCT have recently been associated with risk for glaucoma. Although multiple lines of evidence support a strong role for heredity in regulat...

  17. Fine mapping of the Schnyder's crystalline corneal dystrophy locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theendakara, Veena; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena; White, Peter S; Panchal, Seema; Cox, Jennifer; Winters, R Scott; Riebeling, Petra; Tost, Frank; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tervo, Timo M; Henn, Wolfram; Denniger, Elke; Krause, Matthias; Koksal, Murat; Kargi, Sebnem; Ugurbas, Suat H; Latvala, Terho; Shearman, Amanda M; Weiss, Jayne S

    2004-05-01

    Schnyder's crystalline corneal dystrophy (SCCD) is a rare autosomal dominant eye disease with a spectrum of clinical manifestations that may include bilateral corneal clouding, arcus lipoides, and anterior corneal crystalline cholesterol deposition. We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage analysis on two large Swede-Finn families and mapped the SCCD locus to a 16-cM interval between markers D1S2633 and D1S228 on chromosome 1p36. We have collected 11 additional families from Finland, Germany, Turkey, and USA to narrow the critical region for SCCD. Here, we have used haplotype analysis with densely spaced microsatellite markers in a total of 13 families to refine the candidate interval. A common disease haplotype was observed among the four Swede-Finn families indicating the presence of a founder effect. Recombination results from all 13 families refined the SCCD locus to 2.32 Mbp between markers D1S1160 and D1S1635. Within this interval, identity-by-state was present in all 13 families for two markers D1S244 and D1S3153, further refining the candidate region to 1.58 Mbp. PMID:15034782

  18. Optimization model for UV-Riboflavin corneal cross-linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S.; Wernli, J.; Scherrer, S.; Bueehler, M.; Seiler, T.; Mrochen, M.

    2011-03-01

    Nowadays UV-cross-linking is an established method for the treatment of keraectasia. Currently a standardized protocol is used for the cross-linking treatment. We will now present a theoretical model which predicts the number of induced crosslinks in the corneal tissue, in dependence of the Riboflavin concentration, the radiation intensity, the pre-treatment time and the treatment time. The model is developed by merging the difussion equation, the equation for the light distribution in dependence on the absorbers in the tissue and a rate equation for the polymerization process. A higher concentration of Riboflavin solution as well as a higher irradiation intensity will increase the number of induced crosslinks. However, performed stress-strain experiments which support the model showed that higher Riboflavin concentrations (> 0.125%) do not result in a further increase in stability of the corneal tissue. This is caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of induced crosslinks throughout the cornea due to the uneven absorption of the UV-light. The new model offers the possibility to optimize the treatment individually for every patient depending on their corneal thickness in terms of efficiency, saftey and treatment time.

  19. Corneal relaxing incision combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晔; 童剑萍; 李毓敏

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effectiveness and safety of corneal relaxing incisions (CRI) in correcting keratometric astigmatism during cataract surgery. Methods: A prospective study of two groups: control group and treatment group. A treatment group included 25 eyes of 25 patients who had combined clear corneal phacoemulsification, IOL implantation and CRI. A control group included 25 eyes of 25 patients who had clear corneal phacoemulsification and IOL implantation.Postoperative keratometric astigmatism was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Results: CRI significantly decreased keratometric astigmatism in patients with preexisting astigmatism compared with astigmatic changes in the control group. In eyes with CRI, the mean keratometric astigmatism was 0.29±0.17 D (range 0 to 0.5 D) at 1 week, 0.41±0.21 D (range 0 to 0.82 D) at 1 month, respectively reduced by 2.42 D and 2.30 D at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively (P=0.000, P=0.000), and postoperative astigmatism was stable until 6 months follow-up. The keratometric astigmatism of all patients decreased to less than 1.00 D postoperatively. Conclusions: CRI is a practical, simple, safe and effective method to reduce preexisting astigmatism during cataract surgery. A modified nomogram is proposed. The long-term effect of CRI should be investigated.

  20. Corneal relaxing incision combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晔; 童剑萍; 李毓敏

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effectiveness and safety of corneal relaxing incisions (CRI) in correcting keratometric astigmatism during cataract surgery. Methods: A prospective study of two groups: control group and treatment group. A treatment group included 25 eyes of 25 patients who had combined clear corneal phacoemulsification, IOL implantation and CRI. A control group included 25 eyes of 25 patients who had clear corneal phacoemulsification and IOL implantation.Postoperative keratometric astigmatism was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Results: CRI signifi-cantly decreased keratometric astigmatism in patients with preexisting astigmatism compared with astigmatic changes in the control group. In eyes with CRI, the mean keratometric astigmatism was 0.29±0.17 D(range 0 to 0.5 D) at 1 week, 0.41±0.21 D (range 0 to 0.82 D) at 1 month, respectively reduced by 2.42 D and 2.30 D at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively (P=0.000, P=0.000), and postoperative astigmatism was stable until 6 months follow-up. The keratometric astigmatism of all patients decreased to less than 1.00 D postoperatively. Conclusions: CRI is a practical, simple, safe and effective method to reduce preexisting astigmatism during cataract surgery. A modified nomogram is proposed. The long-term effect of CRI should be investigated.

  1. Ultrastructural analysis of corneal exposure to UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primate cornea was exposed to 300 nm UVR with five levels of radiant expsure from 0.08 to 0.6 Jcm-2. All cellular layers of the cornea were damaged at the 0.08 Jcm-2 exposure, and damage became more severe as the exposure level was increased. The corneal cells showed variable response in that essentially normal cells were found among damaged cells. Eight days post-exposure using the 0.6 Jcm-2 level, the epithelium had regained its normal thickness and was populated largely by normal appearing cells; however, the stroma showed damaged keratocytes and the loss of keratocytes. The corneal basement membranes (the epithelial basement membrane and the posterior limiting lamina) and the anterior limiting lamina were not damaged at any exposure level except for an isolated area along the epithelial basement membrane in one cornea. Therefore, one is lead to conclude that basement membranes are unaffected by UVR. The endothelium continued to demonstrate the loss of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and some vacuoles at 8 days after exposure. However, the endothelium appeared to have resumed its physiological function as demonstrated by the reduced stromal oedema. This research gives the first complete description of UV-B induced corneal damage and repair of the full, in-depth cornea of the primate using the EM. (author)

  2. Metallic corneal foreign bodies: an occupational health hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gursel Ozkurt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the risk factors, outcomes, demographic characteristics, and attitudes of workers with metallic corneal foreign body (FB injury. Methods: One hundred consecutive patients who presented with a metallic corneal FB to the eye clinic at Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital were evaluated. The patients completed a questionnaire and were examined to determine features of the injury. Results: All patients were male. The mean age was 32.46 ± 1.03 years. Fiftyfive percent of the patients were unregistered workers, 59% were working in the metal industry sector, and 65% injuries resulted from metal cutting. Protective goggles were available in the workplace of 64% patients. However, 57% patients were not wearing goggles when the accident occurred, and 43% were injured despite goggle use. Most patients (52% attempted to remove FBs by themselves. FBs were located in the central zone of the cornea in 16% patients. Rust marks remained after FB removal in 26% patients. Corneal scars from previous FB injuries were present in 58% patients. Only 8% workplaces provided compensation for physician visits for occupation related illnesses. Conclusions: Workplaces with a high risk for eye injuries should increase their protective measures, and educational programs should be implemented for both workers and occupational physicians. The government should enforce laws regarding unregistered workers in a better manner.

  3. Tectonic DSAEK for the Management of Impending Corneal Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique O. Graue-Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of severe corneal thinning secondary to dry eye treated with a tectonic Descemet stripping automated lamellar keratoplasty (DSAEK and amniotic membrane graft. Methods. A 72-year-old man with a history of long standing diabetes mellitus type 2 and dry eye presented with 80% corneal thinning and edema on the right eye and no signs of infectious disease, initially managed with topical unpreserved lubrication and 20% autologous serum drops. Eight weeks after, the defect advanced in size and depth until Descemetocele was formed. Thereafter, he underwent DSAEK for tectonic purposes. One month after the procedure, the posterior lamellar graft was well adhered but a 4 mm epithelial defect was still present. A multilayered amniotic membrane graft was then performed. Results. Ocular surface healed quickly and reepithelization occurred over a 2-week period. Eight months after, the ocular surface remained stable and structurally adequate. Conclusion. Tectonic DSAEK in conjunction with multilayered amniotic graft may not only provide structural support and avoid corneal perforation, but may also promote reepithelization and ocular surface healing and decrease concomitant inflammation.

  4. Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Corneal Stromal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yuka; Reinach, Peter S; Shirai, Kumi; Kitano-Izutani, Ai; Miyajima, Masayasu; Yamanaka, Osamu; Sumioka, Takayoshi; Saika, Shizuya

    2015-11-01

    Corneal transparency is dependent on the maintenance of the structural integrity and functional activity of its epithelial and endothelial limiting layers and the stroma. Different transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subtypes are expressed in cells and on corneal sensory nerve endings. They serve as sensors and transducers of environmental stimuli that can reduce tissue transparency. These nonselective cation channels are members of a superfamily sharing TRP box protein sequence homology having 6 membrane spanning domains with a pore between the fifth and sixth segments. TRP channels are composed of 4 monomeric subunits that oligomerize in homomeric or heteromeric configurations derived from different TRP subtypes belonging to the same or any of 6 different subfamilies. TRP subfamily members identified in the cornea include those belonging to the canonical, vanilloid, ankyrin, or melastatin subfamilies. In this review, we specifically focus on the functional roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 expression in the cornea as their activation provides adaptive nociceptive and immune responses to noxious environmental stresses such as irritating ligands, temperature fluctuations, rises in ambient osmolarity, mechanical stretch, decline in pH, and tissue injury. Our previous studies have indicated that TRPV1 and TRPA1 subtypes are potential drug targets for improving corneal wound healing after alkali burns, because injury-induced fibrosis, neovascularization, and inflammation in either TRPV1 or TRPA1 gene-silenced mice were all significantly reduced. PMID:26448171

  5. Transparent, resilient human amniotic membrane laminates for corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariya, Takehiro; Tanaka, Yuji; Yokokura, Shunji; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated a new technique to toughen and optically clarify human amniotic membrane (AM) tissue, which is naturally thin and clouded, and determined the suitability of the altered tissue for corneal transplantation. The technique created a tissue laminate by repeatedly depositing wet layers of AM and dehydrating them, followed by chemical cross-linking to tighten integration at the layer interfaces and within the layers, thereby improving the physical properties of the laminates by increasing light transmittance and mechanical strength. Interestingly, this improvement only occurred in laminates with at least 4 layers. Cross-linking also improved the resistance of the laminates to collagenase degradation, such as occurs in corneal melting. This study also confirmed that the AM tissue was biocompatible by inserting AM monolayers into the corneal stroma of rabbits, and by performing lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits with cross-linked AM laminates. The laminates were sufficiently thick and resilient to need only one set of sutures, whereas in previously described multi-layer AM transplantation technique, each layer required separate sutures. The current findings are a promising advance in the engineering of novel biomaterials and the alteration of existing tissues for medical use. PMID:27267629

  6. Ultrastructural analysis of corneal exposure to UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, D.G.; Bergmanson, J.P.G.; Chu, L.W.-F.

    1987-01-01

    The primate cornea was exposed to 300 nm UVR with five levels of radiant expsure from 0.08 to 0.6 Jcm/sup -2/. All cellular layers of the cornea were damaged at the 0.08 Jcm/sup -2/ exposure, and damage became more severe as the exposure level was increased. The corneal cells showed variable response in that essentially normal cells were found among damaged cells. Eight days post-exposure using the 0.6 Jcm/sup -2/ level, the epithelium had regained its normal thickness and was populated largely by normal appearing cells; however, the stroma showed damaged keratocytes and the loss of keratocytes. The corneal basement membranes (the epithelial basement membrane and the posterior limiting lamina) and the anterior limiting lamina were not damaged at any exposure level except for an isolated area along the epithelial basement membrane in one cornea. Therefore, one is lead to conclude that basement membranes are unaffected by UVR. The endothelium continued to demonstrate the loss of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and some vacuoles at 8 days after exposure. However, the endothelium appeared to have resumed its physiological function as demonstrated by the reduced stromal oedema. This research gives the first complete description of UV-B induced corneal damage and repair of the full, in-depth cornea of the primate using the EM.

  7. Effects of Topically Applied Vitamin D during Corneal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reins, Rose Y.; Hanlon, Samuel D.; Magadi, Sri; McDermott, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important regulator of immune function and largely acts to dampen chronic inflammatory events in a variety of tissues. There is also accumulating evidence that vitamin D acts to enhance initial inflammation, beneficial during both infection and wound healing, and then promotes resolution and prevention of chronic, damaging inflammation. The current study examines the effect of topical vitamin D in a mouse of model of corneal epithelial wound healing, where acute inflammation is necessary for efficient wound closure. At 12 and 18 hours post-wounding, vitamin D treatment significantly delayed wound closure by ~17% and increased infiltration of neutrophils into the central cornea. Basal epithelial cell division, corneal nerve density, and levels of VEGF, TGFβ, IL-1β, and TNFα were unchanged. However, vitamin D increased the production of the anti-microbial peptide CRAMP 12 hours after wounding. These data suggest a possible role for vitamin D in modulating corneal wound healing and have important implications for therapeutic use of vitamin D at the ocular surface. PMID:27035345

  8. Theoretical and numerical analysis of the corneal air puff test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonini, Irene; Angelillo, Maurizio; Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Ocular analyzers are used in the current clinical practice to estimate, by means of a rapid air jet, the intraocular pressure and other eye's parameters. In this study, we model the biomechanical response of the human cornea to the dynamic test with two approaches. In the first approach, the corneal system undergoing the air puff test is regarded as a harmonic oscillator. In the second approach, we use patient-specific geometries and the finite element method to simulate the dynamic test on surgically treated corneas. In spite of the different levels of approximation, the qualitative response of the two models is very similar, and the most meaningful results of both models are not significantly affected by the inclusion of viscosity of the corneal material in the dynamic analysis. Finite element calculations reproduce the observed snap-through of the corneal shell, including two applanate configurations, and compare well with in vivo images provided by ocular analyzers, suggesting that the mechanical response of the cornea to the air puff test is actually driven only by the elasticity of the stromal tissue. These observations agree with the dynamic characteristics of the test, since the frequency of the air puff impulse is several orders of magnitude larger than the reciprocal of any reasonable relaxation time for the material, downplaying the role of viscosity during the fast snap-through phase.

  9. [Corneal metabolism with contact lenses in competitive sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, D; Khaireddin, R

    2013-06-01

    The corneal metabolism during the use of contact lenses plays an important role for permanent corneal health, especially in competitive sports. Thus, it is important to understand the steps of corneal metabolism in general and during highly competitive sports activity in particular. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on physiological and biochemical effects of contact lens wear. Of the energy requirements of the cornea 75 % is supplied by aerobic processes; therefore, the eye needs the highest possible amount of oxygen and sufficient glucose which can be obtained from external air and to a lesser degree from within the anterior chamber. If the oxygen supply is too low this results in hypoxic edema. Fitting athletes with contact lenses must still be viewed with caution as the visual needs of athletes are usually much more demanding than those of the general public. An indiscriminate choice of lens design can adversely affect athletic performance and may even create a hazardous situation. An intelligent choice of contact lens can provide some subtle advantages that may improve athletic performance and provide the decisive margin for victory. PMID:23783993

  10. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  11. Oxidative stress to the cornea, changes in corneal optical properties, and advances in treatment of corneal oxidative injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, Cestmir; Cejkova, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress) leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown. PMID:25861412

  12. MAGNITUDE OF POST OPERATIVE CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM AFTER PHACOEMULSIFICATION THROUGH 3.2MM TEMPORAL CLEAR CORNEAL INCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA is a common obstacle for achieving excellent uncorrected visual acuity after Phacoemulsification with implantation of foldable IOL. The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of surgically induced post-operative astigmatism after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation through a temporal clear corneal incision. This study included 16 eyes with senile cataract which were operated using phacoemulsification with implantation of a foldable intraocular lens through a temporal clear corneal incision. Temporal incision at 180 degree was used for all cases. Astigmatism was measured by autorefracto keratometer preoperatively and at 6 weeks postoperatively. The mean surgically induced astigmatism was 0.53 D (Diopter with the Rule. The vertical component of astigmatism increased postoperatively than preoperatively. Horizontal component of astigmatism decreased in majority of cases postoperatively

  13. Limbal Stem Cell Allografts and Corneal Transplant in a Patient with Severe Corneal Melting and Perforation due to Thermokeratoplasty andCross-Linking Treatment Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Garduño-Vieyra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report corneal stem cell allografts in a patient with a persistent epithelial defect as well as corneal melting and perforation due to severe ultraviolet light burn and thermokeratoplasty treatment for keratoconus. Methods: A 21-year-old female patient with corneal melting, perforation and a persistent epithelial defect in her left eye secondary to iatrogenic treatment for keratoconus, thermokeratoplasty and cross-linking was treated with penetrating keratoplasty, using a 9.0-mm diameter corneal graft and limbal stem cell allograft implants. At the end of the procedure, subtenonian injections of a combination of bevacizumab and triamcinolone were given. Results: The patient had a favorable outcome 48 h after surgery, with an improvement of symptoms and a complete corneal healing. By the third week after surgery, she had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/60 and a clear corneal graft, which remained stable for the 9 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Treatment with limbal stem cell allografts and penetrating keratoplasty in a female patient with a large corneal defect and melting in her left eye was effective. Larger studies are warranted to explore the real impact of this procedure.

  14. MAGNITUDE OF POST OPERATIVE CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM AFTER PHACOEMULSIFICATION THROUGH 3.2MM TEMPORAL CLEAR CORNEAL INCISION

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) is a common obstacle for achieving excellent uncorrected visual acuity after Phacoemulsification with implantation of foldable IOL. The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of surgically induced post-operative astigmatism after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation through a temporal clear corneal incision. This study included 16 eyes with senile cataract which were operated using phacoemulsification with imp...

  15. Corneal astigmatism change and wavefront aberration evaluation after cataract surgery: "Single" versus "paired opposite" clear corneal incisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Razmjoo; Nima Koosha; Mohammad Hadi Vaezi; Behrooz Rahimi; Alireza Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Correcting the pre-existing astigmatism is an optimal goal in cataract surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the astigmatic correcting effect of a single regular 3.2 mm clear corneal incision (CCI) with paired opposite CCI in cataract patients and effect of these incisions on optical aberrations using the wavefront quantitative analysis. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial study undertaken in an ophthalmology referral center on 50 patients plan...

  16. Medición del daño genético inducido por el basuco en linfocitos humanos empleando la prueba de micronúcleos con Citocalasina B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo AP.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El bazuco es una mezcla compleja que se deriva del proceso de extracción de la cocaína. El frecuente consumo de bazuco constituye un problema de salud pública. La prueba de micronúcleos en linfocitos humanos de sangre periférica por bloqueo de la citocinesis con Citocalasina B, es más sensible y precisa para evaluar daño  cromosómico porque permite registrar micronúcleos originados de fragmentos de cromosomas o cromosomas enteros en células que se han dividido una sola vez. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el daño genético, inducido por el bazuco en linfocitos humanos in vitro empleando la prueba de micronúcleos con Citocalasina B.

  17. Spatiotemporal temperature profiling of corneal surface during LTK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Maguen, Ezra I.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2002-06-01

    Accurate prediction of LTK treatments requires refined thermal corneal models which necessitate precise input parameters. The overall objective of this study was to provide detailed information on the spatiotemporal temperature profile of the corneal surface, during in-vitro thermal keratoplasty. LTK was performed in-vitro on freshly harvested porcine eyes (N equals 16) with the Sunrise Technologies corneal shaping system (Model SUN 1000). Spatiotemporal thermal imaging of the irradiated corneas were obtained with a short wave Inframetrics thermal camera (Model PM290). Images were obtained at 8-bits resolution, with ~100 microns spatial and ~17 msec temporal resolution respectively. Treatment pattern consisted of eight spots at 6 mm zone, while lasing was conducted at settings of either 100 mJ and 15 pulses (N equals 8), or 260 mJ and 7 pulses (N equals 8). Temporal and spatial variation of the corneal surface temperatures were calculated at locations of importance to LTK. At the laser spot, temperature profiles consisted of transients coinciding approximately with the laser pulses. Maximum transient temperatures observed were 98.0+/- 4.6 degree(s)C for the high and 56.3+/- 2.6 degree(s)C for the low energy respectively. These temperature transients were superimposed on an envelope of lower-slowly varying temperatures. The maximum temperatures observed for this temperature envelope, were 51.8+/- 3.4 degree(s)C for the high and 35.4+/- 3.4 degree(s)C for the low energy respectively. The evolution of either the maximum temperature transients or the lower temperature envelope, followed exponential growth of the form: T equals A * exp(B*t). Maximum temperatures at locations 0.5 mm and 1 mm away from the laser spot, reached 25.7 degree(s)C and 23.3 degree(s)C for the low energy, and 34 degree(s)C and 25.6 degree(s)C for the high energy settings respectively. Temperature decay constants were approximately 2 to 3 sec, while the spatial temperature profile at the laser

  18. Corneal Sensitivity and Dry Eye Symptoms in Patients with Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Lóránt; Kiss, Huba J.; Perényi, Kristóf; Nagy, Zoltán Z.; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate corneal sensitivity to selective mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation and to evaluate their relation to dry eye symptoms in patients with keratoconus. Methods Corneal sensitivity to mechanical, chemical, and thermal thresholds were determined using a gas esthesiometer in 19 patients with keratoconus (KC group) and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects (control group). Tear film dynamics was assessed by Schirmer I test and by the non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT). All eyes were examined with a rotating Scheimpflug camera to assess keratoconus severity. Results KC patients had significatly decreased tear secretion and significantly higher ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores compared to controls (5.3±2.2 vs. 13.2±2.0 mm and 26.8±15.8 vs. 8.1±2.3; p0.05). The mean threshold for selective mechanical (KC: 139.2±25.8 vs. control: 109.1±24.0 ml/min), chemical (KC: 39.4±3.9 vs. control: 35.2±1.9%CO2), heat (KC: 0.91±0.32 vs. control: 0.54±0.26 Δ°C) and cold (KC: 1.28±0.27 vs. control: 0.98±0.25 Δ°C) stimulation in the KC patients were significantly higher than in the control subjects (p0.05), whereas in the control subjects both mechanical (r = 0.52, p = 0.02), chemical (r = 0.47, p = 0.04), heat (r = 0.26, p = 0.04) and cold threshold (r = 0.40, p = 0.03) increased with age. In the KC group, neither corneal thickness nor tear flow, NI-BUT or OSDI correlated significantly with mechanical, chemical, heat or cold thresholds (p>0.05 for all variables). Conclusions Corneal sensitivity to different types of stimuli is decreased in patients with keratoconus independently of age and disease severity. The reduction of the sensory input from corneal nerves may contribute to the onset of unpleasant sensations in these patients and might lead to the impaired tear film dynamics. PMID:26495846

  19. Optimization of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells for Culture: The Removal of Corneal Stromal Fibroblast Contamination Using Magnetic Cell Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. L. Peh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of human corneal endothelial cells (CECs is critical for the development of suitable graft alternative on biodegradable material, specifically for endothelial keratoplasty, which can potentially alleviate the global shortage of transplant-grade donor corneas available. However, the propagation of slow proliferative CECs in vitro can be hindered by rapid growing stromal corneal fibroblasts (CSFs that may be coisolated in some cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a strategy using magnetic cell separation (MACS technique to deplete the contaminating CSFs from CEC cultures using antifibroblast magnetic microbeads. Separated “labeled” and “flow-through” cell fractions were collected separately, cultured, and morphologically assessed. Cells from the “flow-through” fraction displayed compact polygonal morphology and expressed Na+/K+ATPase indicative of corneal endothelial cells, whilst cells from the “labeled” fraction were mostly elongated and fibroblastic. A separation efficacy of 96.88% was observed. Hence, MACS technique can be useful in the depletion of contaminating CSFs from within a culture of CECs.

  20. Daño inducido en el ADN plasmidial por la radiación mixta de neutrones térmicos + rayos gamma en presencia y ausencia de capturador de radicales libres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez-Gual

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cuantifica por primera vez el daño en ADN plasmidial inducido por la radiación mixta de neutrones térmicos + rayos gamma. Para el estudio fue utilizado el plasmidio pBs KS+ de 2 961 pb en disolución acuosa a 88 ng/¿L a concentraciones de 0, 2 y 20 mmol/L de glicerina que actúa como un capturador de radicales libres. Este plasmidio cambia su forma superenrollada para circular cuando es producida una rotura simple en su cadena y adquiere una forma linear cuando se produce una rotura doble en su cadena. Cuantificando las fracciones que se producen de cada una de estas formas es posible estimar el efecto de la radiación en el ADN. Las irradiaciones fueron realizadas en el canal radial # 3 del reactor de investigaciones IEA-R1 del Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas y Nucleares de São Paulo, Brasil. Las formas del ADN fueron separadas mediante la electroforesis en gel de agarosa. En la cuantificación se utilizó el programa GelAnalis. Las fracciones de ADN en sus diferentes formas fueron graficadas en función de la dosis y ajustadas a funciones exponenciales y lineares para obtener las probabilidades de roturas simples y dobles en la cadena de ADN normalizadas por dosis y por masa molecular. Los resultados evidenciaron la acción protectora del capturador de radicales libres contra el daño inducido por la radiación, lo cual corrobora resultados anteriores obtenidos con otras radiaciones ionizantes. Los rendimientos de SSB y DSB serán de interés para la validación de diferentes modelos que intentan reproducir los resultados experimentales.

  1. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, Japan Objective: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Case presentation: A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and

  2. Concise Review: An Update on the Culture of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Mohit; Ferrari, Stefano; Sheridan, Carl; Kaye, Stephen; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2016-02-01

    The cornea forms the front window of the eye, enabling the transmission of light to the retina through a crystalline lens. Many disorders of the cornea lead to partial or total blindness, and therefore corneal transplantation becomes mandatory. Recently, selective corneal layer (as opposed to full thickness) transplantation has become popular because this leads to earlier rehabilitation and visual outcomes. Corneal endothelial disorders are a common cause of corneal disease and transplantation. Corneal endothelial transplantation is successful but limited worldwide because of lower donor corneal supply. Alternatives to corneal tissue for endothelial transplantation therefore require immediate attention. The field of human corneal endothelial culture for transplantation is rapidly emerging as a possible viable option. This manuscript provides an update regarding these developments. Significance: The cornea is the front clear window of the eye. It needs to be kept transparent for normal vision. It is formed of various layers of which the posterior layer (the endothelium) is responsible for the transparency of the cornea because it allows the transport of ions and solutes to and from the other layers of the cornea. Corneal blindness that results from the corneal endothelial dysfunction can be treated using healthy donor tissues. There is a huge demand for human donor corneas but limited supply, and therefore there is a need to identify alternatives that would reduce this demand. Research is underway to understand the isolation techniques for corneal endothelial cells, culturing these cells in the laboratory, and finding possible options to transplant these cells in the patients. This review article is an update on the recent developments in this field. PMID:26702128

  3. Fibrin-glue assisted multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation in surgical management of pediatric corneal limbal dermoid: a novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ly, Hang; Holz, Huck; Sudesh, Rattehalli S.; Chuck, Roy S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report a new surgical technique for excising pediatric corneal limbal dermoid and the post-resection ocular surface reconstruction. Methods We describe a method of deep lamellar excision followed by sutureless multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation in surgical management of corneal limbal dermoid. Result This technique achieves a rapid corneal re-epithelization, reduces post-operative pain, and will diminish post-operative scarring. Preoperative corneal astigmatism will per...

  4. Confocal Comparison of Corneal Reinnervation after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) and Femtosecond Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meiyan; Niu, Lingling; Qin, Bing; Zhou, Zimei; Ni, Katherine; Le, Qihua; Xiang, Jun; Wei, Anji; Ma, Weiping; Zhou, Xingtao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate corneal reinnervation, and the corresponding corneal sensitivity and keratocyte density after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). Methods In this prospective, non-randomized observational study, 18 patients (32 eyes) received SMILE surgery, and 22 patients (42 eyes) received FS-LASIK surgery to correct myopia. The corneal subbasal nerve density and microscopic morphological changes in corneal architecture wer...

  5. Efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Peng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects.METHODS:In this retrospective case analysis, 28 patients(28 eyeswith persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery from January 2011 to June 2013 in our hospital were reviewed. After regular treatment for at least 2wk, the persistent corneal epithelial defects were treated with highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses, until the corneal epithelial healing. Continued to wear the same lens no more than 3wk, or in need of replacement the new one. All cases were followed up for 6mo. Key indicators of corneal epithelial healling, corneal fluorescein staining and ocular symptoms improvement were observed.RESULTS: Twenty-one eyes were cured(75.00%, markedly effective in 5 eyes(17.86%, effective in 2 eyes(7.14%, no invalid cases, the total efficiency of 100.00%. Ocular symptoms of 25 cases(89.29%relieved within 2d, the rest 3 cases(10.71%relieved within 1wk. The corneal epithelial of 6 cases(21.43%repaired in 3wk, 13 cases(46.43%in 6wk, 7 cases(25.00%in 9wk, 2 cases(7.14%over 12wk. There were no signs of secondary infection. And no evidence of recurrence in 6mo. CONCLUSION: Highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses could repair persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery significantly, while quickly and effectively relieve a variety of ocular irritation.

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pseudomonas corneal ulcers in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : P. aeruginosa was highly sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. All cases were resistant to cefazolin. Resistance to multiple antibiotics might be a significant concern in patients with corneal ulcers. In referral centers dealing with corneal ulcers, the initial antibiotic regimens should be changed from time to time to prevent this phenomenon.

  7. Influence of corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-a irradiation on excimer laser surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampik, D.; Ralla, B.; Keller, S.; Hirschberg, M.; Friedl, P.H.A.; Geerling, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking (CXL) of corneal collagen is a novel method of stabilizing corneal mechanical properties and preventing progression of keratectasias. This study was conducted to investigate whether CXL influences ablation rate, flap thickness, and refractive res

  8. Changes in the micromorphology of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus in patients after plaque brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantify the development of radiation neuropathy in corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) after plaque brachytherapy, and the subsequent regeneration of SNP micromorphology and corneal sensation. Nine eyes of 9 melanoma patients (ciliary body: 3, iris: 2, conjunctiva: 4) underwent brachytherapy (ruthenium-106 plaque, dose to tumour base: 523 ± 231 Gy). SNP micromorphology was assessed by in-vivo confocal microscopy. Using software developed in–house, pre-irradiation findings were compared with those obtained after 3 days, 1, 4 and 7 months, and related to radiation dose and corneal sensation. After 3 days nerve fibres were absent from the applicator zone and central cornea, and corneal sensation was abolished. The earliest regenerating fibres were seen at the one-month follow-up. By 4 months SNP structures had increased to one-third of pre-treatment status (based on nerve fibre density and nerve fibre count), and corneal sensation had returned to approximately two-thirds of pre-irradiation values. Regeneration of SNP and corneal sensation was nearly complete 7 months after plaque brachytherapy. The evaluation of SNP micromorphology and corneal sensation is a reliable and clinically useful method for assessing neuropathy after plaque brachytherapy. Radiation-induced neuropathy of corneal nerves develops quickly and is partly reversible within 7 months. The clinical impact of radiation-induced SNP damage is moderate

  9. Corneal endothelial cell changes associated with cataract surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugod, Mikkel; Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Norregaard, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in patients with and without diabetes after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation.......To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in patients with and without diabetes after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation....

  10. Application of corneal tomography before keratorefractive procedure for laser vision correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Allan; Lopes, Bernardo; Salomão, Marcela; Ambrósio, Renato

    2016-05-01

    Ectasia after refractive surgery represents a major concern among refractive surgeons. Corneal abnormalities and preexisting corneal ectasia are the most important risk factors. Corneal topography and central corneal thickness are the factors traditionally screening for in refractive surgery candidates. Study of the anterior surface by Placido topography allows for identification of keratoconus before biomicroscopy. However, this is insufficient for the evaluation of pre-operative refractive surgery. There are cases of ectasia after laser in situ keratomilusis (LASIK) without identifiable risk factors such that there is a need to go beyond the corneal surface. A key requirement is quantifying susceptibility to corneal biomechanical instability and progression to ectasia. Tomographic indices derived from elevation maps and pachymetry spatial variation produce a Belin Ambrosio display final D index (BAD-D index), which has shown better results compared to surface curvature indices for detecting very mild forms of ectasia. A logistic regression formula, integrating age, residual stromal bed, and BAD-D (Ectasia Susceptibility Score, ESS) resulted in a significant improvement in accuracy, leading to 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity for detecting susceptible cases. A comprehensive corneal structural analysis based on corneal segmental tomography can detect susceptible corneas, which increases safety for refractive surgery patients. PMID:27079610

  11. Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Foletti, S; Palasantzas, G; Arikawa, K

    2006-01-01

    The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmiss

  12. Recurrent corneal perforation due to chronic graft versus host disease; a clinicopathologic report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with GVHD are at risk of severe dry eye and subsequent corneal vascularization. Recurrent and recalcitrant corneal perforation resistant to cyanoacrylate glue and multilayer AMT may occur. Proper systemic and ocular management alongside close collaboration with the hematologist is strongly recommended to control the condition.

  13. Shape of the anterior cornea : Comparison of height data from 4 corneal topographers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tim; Sheehan, Matthew T.; Dubbelman, Michiel; Koopmans, Steven A.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the ability of clinical corneal topographers to describe the shape of the anterior cornea for optical modeling. SETTING: University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The anterior corneal shape of healthy subjects was assesse

  14. Superior forniceal advancement conjunctival pedicle (SFACP) in the management of corneal perforations and impending perforations due to rheumatoid arthritis related autoimmune corneal melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) is a disorder consisting of a crescent-shaped destructive inflammation of the perilimbal corneal stroma. PUK may occur in variety of systemic diseases including collagen vascular disease. We describe the outcome of superior forniceal advancement conjunctival pedicle (SFACP) in two patients with corneal perforation and impending perforation due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related auto immune corneal melt that has not previously been reported. Both patients had good recovery with restoration of vision when SFACP was performed as an adjunct to systemic immunosuppressive agents. SFACP is a valuable surgical option which may have an important role in reducing progression of corneal melt and underlying disease when used along with adequate systemic immunosuppressive agents. (author)

  15. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty in a child with corneal opacity:case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacities are the fourth cause of blindness world-wide. Over the past two centuries, various corneal transplantation (i.e., keratoplasty methods have been developed and improved. Nowadays, femtolaserssisted keratoplasty is one of most promising techniques. Femtosecond laser have several advantages that provide additional surgical benefits. Among them, no thermal injury, the ability to cut deeply on a single plane and to perform various corneal profiles should be mentioned. In children, corneal disorders are of special importance while femtosecondassisted keraatoplasty case reports are rare. Here, we describe femtosecond laserssisted penetrating keratoplasty in a girl with a rough central corneal opacity.

  16. Cyanoacrylate repair of laser in situ keratomileusis corneal flap perforation by a snake bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Bobby S; Korn, Tommy S

    2005-11-01

    A 30-year-old man who had laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia 1 year earlier developed a corneal perforation in the left eye from a boa constrictor. The patient presented to the emergency room, and a small corneal perforation just outside the visual axis was diagnosed within the LASIK flap. Cyanoacrylate adhesive was used to close the corneal perforation. The patient went on to full visual recovery with an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20. This is the first reported case of a penetrating corneal injury from a serpent in an eye that had LASIK. Cyanoacrylate may be used to repair small traumatic corneal perforations with a favorable visual outcome in eyes that have had LASIK. PMID:16412943

  17. A computer model for the evaluation of the effect of corneal topography on optical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J J; Maguire, L J; Cameron, B M; Robb, R A

    1990-04-15

    We developed a method that models the effect of irregular corneal surface topography on corneal optical performance. A computer program mimics the function of an optical bench. The method generates a variety of objects (single point, standard Snellen letters, low contrast Snellen letters, arbitrarily complex objects) in object space. The lens is the corneal surface evaluated by a corneal topography analysis system. The objects are refracted by the cornea by using raytracing analysis to produce an image, which is displayed on a video monitor. Optically degraded images are generated by raytracing analysis of selected irregular corneal surfaces, such as those from patients with keratoconus and those from patients having undergone epikeratophakia for aphakia. PMID:2330940

  18. Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: Strong Association with rs613872 Not Paralleled by Changes in Corneal Endothelial TCF4 mRNA Level

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Ołdak; Ewelina Ruszkowska; Monika Udziela; Dominika Oziębło; Ewelina Bińczyk; Aneta Ścieżyńska; Rafał Płoski; Jacek P. Szaflik

    2015-01-01

    Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a common corneal endotheliopathy with a complex and heterogeneous genetic background. Different variants in the TCF4 gene have been strongly associated with the development of FECD. TCF4 encodes the E2-2 transcription factor but the link between the strong susceptibility locus and disease mechanism remains elusive. Here, we confirm a strong positive association between TCF4 single nucleotide polymorphism rs613872 and FECD in Polish patients (OR = ...

  19. Indications for Corneal Transplantation at a Tertiary Referral Center in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Einollahi, Bahram; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Ghanavati, Siamak Zarei; Farsani, Mohammad-Reza Jamshidi; Mohammadi, Parviz; Feizi, Sepehr

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report the indications and techniques of corneal transplantation at a tertiary referral center in Tehran over a 3-year period. Methods Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Results During this period, 776 eyes of 756 patients (including 504 male subjects) with mean age of 41.3±21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (n=317, 40.8%) followed by bullous keratopathy (n=90, 11.6%), non-herpetic corneal scars (n=62, 8.0%), infectious corneal ulcers (n=61, 7.9%), previously failed grafts (n=61, 7.9%), endothelial and stromal corneal dystrophies (n=28, 3.6%), and trachoma keratopathy (n=26, 3.3%). Other indications including Terrien’s marginal degeneration, post-LASIK keratectasia, trauma, chemical burns, and peripheral ulcerative keratitis constituted the rest of cases. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (n=607, 78.2%), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=108, 13.9%), conventional lamellar keratoplasty (n=44, 5.7%), automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (n=8, 1.0%), and Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (n=6, 0.8%) in descending order. The remaining cases were endothelial keratoplasty and sclerokeratoplasty. Conclusion In this study, keratoconus was the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty which was the most prevalent technique of corneal transplantation. However, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty is emerging as a growing alternative for corneal pathologies not involving the endothelium. PMID:22737335

  20. Indications for Corneal Transplantation at a Tertiary Referral Center in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the indications and techniques of corneal transplantation at a tertiary referral center in Tehran over a 3-year period. Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Results: During this period, 776 eyes of 756 patients (including 504 male subjects with mean age of 41.3±21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (n=317, 40.8% followed by bullous keratopathy (n=90, 11.6%, non-herpetic corneal scars (n=62, 8.0%, infectious corneal ulcers (n=61, 7.9%, previously failed grafts (n=61, 7.9%, endothelial and stromal corneal dystrophies (n=28, 3.6%, and trachoma keratopathy (n=26, 3.3%. Other indications including Terrien′s marginal degeneration, post-LASIK keratectasia, trauma, chemical burns, and peripheral ulcerative keratitis constituted the rest of cases. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (n=607, 78.2%, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=108, 13.9%, conventional lamellar keratoplasty (n=44, 5.7%, automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (n=8, 1.0%, and Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (n=6, 0.8% in descending order. The remaining cases were endothelial keratoplasty and sclerokeratoplasty. Conclusion: In this study, keratoconus was the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty which was the most prevalent technique of corneal transplantation. However, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty is emerging as a growing alternative for corneal pathologies not involving the endothelium.

  1. Cornea stress test--evaluation of corneal endothelial function in vivo by contact lens induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jagjit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and valid assessment of corneal endothelial function is a critical input for diagnosing, prognosticating and monitoring progression of disorders affecting corneal endothelium. In 123 eyes, corneal endothelial function was assessed employing data from the corneal hydration recovery dynamics. Serial pachometric readings were recorded on Haag-Striet pachometer with Mishima-Hedbys modification before and after two hours of thick soft contact lens wear. Percentage Recovery Per Hour (PRPH was derived from raw data as an index of endothelial function. Assessed PRPH in pseudophakic corneal oedema and Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy eyes (35.9 +/- 9.8% was significantly lower than normal controls (61.9 +/- 10.5%. On employing receiver operation characteristics curve analysis the tested results demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and specificity (92% for detection of low endothelial function at PRPH cut off of 47.5%. Using this PRPH cut off, 80% of Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy and 93.3% of pseudophakic corneal oedema eyes could be demonstrated to have low endothelial function. A total of 66.7% of diabetic eyes also demonstrated PRPH of lower than 47.5%. Clear corneal grafts demonstrated PRPH values of 24.6% to 73.0%. Of 6 corneal grafts that demonstrated initial PRPH of lower than 47.5%, 4 failed within 4 to 6 months. Our data demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this corneal stress test. PRPH index was useful in quantifying endothelial function in clinical disorders including diabetes mellitus. The index PRPH was demonstrated to be useful in monitoring and prognosticating outcome of corneal grafts.

  2. Effects of vitamin B12 on the corneal nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maria Rosaria; Biagioni, Francesca; Carrizzo, Albino; Lorusso, Massimo; Spadaro, Angelo; Micelli Ferrari, Tommaso; Vecchione, Carmine; Zurria, Monia; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mascio, Giada; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Madonna, Michele; Fornai, Francesco; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Lograno, Marcello Diego

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of a new ophthalmic solution containing 0.05% vitamin B12 0.05% on corneal nerve regeneration in rats after corneal injury. Eyes of anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to corneal injury by removing the corneal epithelium with corneal brush (Algerbrush). After the epithelial debridement, the right eye of each animal received the instillation of one drop of the ophthalmic solution containing vitamin B12 0.05% plus taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% four time per day for 10 or 30 days. Left eyes were used as control and treated with solution containing taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% alone following the same regimen. Fluorescein staining by slit-lamp and morphological analysis was used to determine corneal wound healing. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and confocal microscopy were used to examine corneal re-innervation. Slit-lamp and histological analyses showed that re-epithelization of the corneas was accelerated in rats treated with vitamin B12. A clear-cut difference between the two groups of rats was seen after 10 days of treatment, whereas a near-to-complete re-epithelization was observed in both groups at 30 days. Vitamin B12 treatment had also a remarkable effect on corneal re-innervation, as shown by substantial increased in the expression of neurofilament 160 and β-III tubulin at both 10 and 30 days. The presence of SV2A-positive nerve endings suggests the presence of synapse-like specialized structures in corneal epithelium of the eye treated with vitamin B12. Our findings suggest that vitamin B12 treatment represents a powerful strategy to accelerate not only re-epithelization but also corneal re-innervation after mechanical injury. PMID:24486457

  3. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Case presentation A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and improving the wettability and stability of the tear film, which resulted in the promotion of healing of the corneal epithelial defect in a short time period. PMID:27257394

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of treatment of corneal ulcers via computer-based automatic image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoum, Nesreen A.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.; Dua, Harminder; Faraj, Lana

    2012-06-01

    Corneal Ulcers are a common eye disease that requires prompt treatment. Recently a number of treatment approaches have been introduced that have been proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the monitoring process of the treatment procedure remains manual and hence time consuming and prone to human errors. In this research we propose an automatic image analysis based approach to measure the size of an ulcer and its subsequent further investigation to determine the effectiveness of any treatment process followed. In Ophthalmology an ulcer area is detected for further inspection via luminous excitation of a dye. Usually in the imaging systems utilised for this purpose (i.e. a slit lamp with an appropriate dye) the ulcer area is excited to be luminous green in colour as compared to rest of the cornea which appears blue/brown. In the proposed approach we analyse the image in the HVS colour space. Initially a pre-processing stage that carries out a local histogram equalisation is used to bring back detail in any over or under exposed areas. Secondly we deal with the removal of potential reflections from the affected areas by making use of image registration of two candidate corneal images based on the detected corneal areas. Thirdly the exact corneal boundary is detected by initially registering an ellipse to the candidate corneal boundary detected via edge detection and subsequently allowing the user to modify the boundary to overlap with the boundary of the ulcer being observed. Although this step makes the approach semi automatic, it removes the impact of breakages of the corneal boundary due to occlusion, noise, image quality degradations. The ratio between the ulcer area confined within the corneal area to the corneal area is used as a measure of comparison. We demonstrate the use of the proposed tool in the analysis of the effectiveness of a treatment procedure adopted for corneal ulcers in patients by comparing the variation of corneal size over time.

  5. Toxic carriers in pepper sprays may cause corneal erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Juha M; Moilanen, Jukka A O; Hack, Tapani; Tervo, Timo M T

    2003-02-01

    We describe four patients who developed corneal erosion after an exposure to a pepper spray containing toxic carriers. Two of these patients were exposed to a pepper gas containing 5% oleoresin capsicum (OC) as an irritant and 92% trichlorethylene or unknown amount of dichloromethane as a carrier. One patient was exposed to a mock (containing 92% trichlorethylene as a carrier) training pepper gas without OC. The fourth patient was exposed to an unidentified Russian pepper gas spray. Two of the patients were examined by in vivo confocal microscopy to demonstrate the depth and quality of the stromal damage. To test the toxicity of the commercial tear spray, it was analyzed and test sprayed on a soft contact lens and into a plastic cup. Visual acuity was measured and the eyes were examined with a slit-lamp up to 5 months. Physical damage to a soft contact lens was visually acquired. All patients showed a long-lasting, deep corneal and conjuctival erosion, which resolved partly with medical therapy during the following weeks/months. Confocal microscopy revealed corneal nerve damage, and keratocyte activation reaching two-thirds of stroma for one patient. The spray caused serious damage to both the soft contact lens and the plastic cup. The safety of the commercially available pepper sprays should be assessed before marketing, and a list of acceptable ingredients created. The sprays should also have instructions on the use of the compound as well as on the first aid measures after the exposure. Solvents known to be toxic should not be used. PMID:12620368

  6. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in Phramongkutklao Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumon Sopapornamorn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Narumon Sopapornamorn1, Manapon Lekskul1, Suthee Panichkul21Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To describe the corneal endothelial density and morphology in patients of Phramongkutklao Hospital and the relationship between endothelial cell parameters and other factors.Methods: Four hundred and four eyes of 202 volunteers were included. Noncontact specular microscopy was performed after taking a history and testing the visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, Schirmer’s test and routine eye examination by slit lamp microscope. The studied parameters included mean endothelial cell density (MCD, coefficient of variation (CV, and percentage of hexagonality.Results: The mean age of volunteers was 45.73 years; the range being 20 to 80 years old. Their MCD (SD, mean percentage of CV (SD and mean (SD percentage of hexagonality were 2623.49(325 cell/mm2, 39.43(8.23% and 51.50(10.99%, respectively. Statistically, MCD decreased significantly with age (p < 0.01. There was a significant difference in the percentage of CV between genders. There was no statistical significance between parameters and other factors.Conclusion: The normative data of the corneal endothelium of Thai eyes indicated that, statistically, MCD decreased significantly with age. Previous studies have reported no difference in MCD, percentage of CV, and percentage of hexagonality between gender. Nevertheless, significantly different percentages of CV between genders were presented in this study.Keywords: Corneal endothelial cell, parameters, age, gender, smoking, Thailand

  7. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Nozaki, Miho; Singh, Nirbhai; Takeda, Atsunobu; Jani, Pooja D; Suthar, Tushar; Albuquerque, Romulo J C; Richter, Elizabeth; Sakurai, Eiji; Newcomb, Michael T; Kleinman, Mark E; Caldwell, Ruth B; Lin, Qing; Ogura, Yuichiro; Orecchia, Angela; Samuelson, Don A; Agnew, Dalen W; St Leger, Judy; Green, W Richard; Mahasreshti, Parameshwar J; Curiel, David T; Kwan, Donna; Marsh, Helene; Ikeda, Sakae; Leiper, Lucy J; Collinson, J Martin; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Khurana, Tejvir S; Shibuya, Masabumi; Baldwin, Megan E; Ferrara, Napoleone; Gerber, Hans-Peter; De Falco, Sandro; Witta, Jassir; Baffi, Judit Z; Raisler, Brian J; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2006-10-26

    Corneal avascularity-the absence of blood vessels in the cornea-is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure and are all the more remarkable given the presence in the cornea of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, and the proximity of the cornea to vascularized tissues. Here we show that the cornea expresses soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1; also known as sflt-1) and that suppression of this endogenous VEGF-A trap by neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference or Cre-lox-mediated gene disruption abolishes corneal avascularity in mice. The spontaneously vascularized corneas of corn1 and Pax6+/- mice and Pax6+/- patients with aniridia are deficient in sflt-1, and recombinant sflt-1 administration restores corneal avascularity in corn1 and Pax6+/- mice. Manatees, the only known creatures uniformly to have vascularized corneas, do not express sflt-1, whereas the avascular corneas of dugongs, also members of the order Sirenia, elephants, the closest extant terrestrial phylogenetic relatives of manatees, and other marine mammals (dolphins and whales) contain sflt-1, indicating that it has a crucial, evolutionarily conserved role. The recognition that sflt-1 is essential for preserving the avascular ambit of the cornea can rationally guide its use as a platform for angiogenic modulators, supports its use in treating neovascular diseases, and might provide insight into the immunological privilege of the cornea. PMID:17051153

  8. Time-gated FLIM microscope for corneal metabolic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F.; Batista, Ana; Domingues, José Paulo; Quadrado, Maria João.; Morgado, António Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Detecting corneal cells metabolic alterations may prove a valuable tool in the early diagnosis of corneal diseases. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are autofluorescent metabolic co-factors that allow the assessment of metabolic changes through non-invasive optical methods. These co-factors exhibit double-exponential fluorescence decays, with well-separated short and lifetime components, which are related to their protein-bound and free-states. Corneal metabolism can be assessed by measuring the relative contributions of these two components. For that purpose, we have developed a wide-field time-gated fluorescence lifetime microscope based on structured illumination and one-photon excitation to record FAD lifetime images from corneas. NADH imaging was not considered as its UV excitation peak is regarded as not safe for in vivo measurements. The microscope relies on a pulsed blue diode laser (λ=443 nm) as excitation source, an ultra-high speed gated image intensifier coupled to a CCD camera to acquire fluorescence signals and a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) to implement the Structured Illumination technique. The system has a lateral resolution better than 2.4 μm, a field of view of 160 per 120 μm and an optical sectioning of 6.91 +/- 0.45 μm when used with a 40x, 0.75 NA, Water Immersion Objective. With this setup we were able to measure FAD contributions from ex-vivo chicken corneas collected from a local slaughterhouse..

  9. System for quantifying the formation stages of corneal arcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Aulia; Fahdarina, Sally; Cahya, Deny I.

    2015-07-01

    Extensive research on interpreting the clinical signs of corneal-arcus formation and their related diagnostics potentials have found that there is a strong correlation of the arcus formation with the risk of coronary artery diseases and lipid stratification. Clinically the stages of the arcus formation are normally observed as separate grey-whitish arcs, that are formed at the inferior and then at the superior poles of the cornea. These arcs will by time being elongated to form a ring approximately 1 mm in width. In this paper, efforts to develop quantification system that is capable to recognize the stages of the arcus formation will be reported. The quantification was based on eye-images taken using prior developed low-cost digital image acquisition system, which self constructed from a plastic safety welding-goggle that was modified by placing two Logitec C525 webcam and LEDs lighting system. Pattern images of arcs with variation of arc's positions, lengths and thickness were used for pre-calibration purposes. Then these similar arcs are drawn on the of periphery of cornea images to simulate dummy corneal arcus, which mimick the stages of corneal arcus development. Using 672 data images, results of recognition show a good recognition rate, i.e. 93.6 % for determining arc's length (with maximum %RSD of 5.67 %) and 84.83 % for determining arc's thickness (with maximum %RSD of 5.67 %). Worser precision data were observed to happen for the small arc's length as well as small arc's thickness. Current efforts are devoted to translate the system for clinical trials.

  10. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into corneal epithelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhichong; LIU Jingbo; GE Jian; HUANG Bing; GAO Qianying; LIU Bingqian; WANG Linghua; YU Ling; FAN Zhigang; LU Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Our project was to determine whether embryonic stem (ES) cells could be induced to differentiate into corneal epithelia by superficial corneoscleral limbal stroma. To achieve this goal, ES-GFP cell line D3 was pre-induced by retinoic acid (RA). The pre-induced cells were seeded on deepithelialized superficial corneoscleral slices (SCSS) to form a monolayer, and divided into three groups. Group 1 was cultured and passaged in vitro for direct detection. Group 2 was exposed to air-liquid interfaces for 10 days and implanted into the subcutaneous layer of nude mice for 2 weeks for further induction in vivo. Group 3 was cultured in vitro without any inducing factors for control. There were no teratomas found in nude mice which were implanted with differentiated ES cells after two weeks. The differentiated cells showed an appearance of epithelia both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of CK3, P63 and PCNA was detected by immunohistochemical staining in the differentiated cells in group 1 and 2. Microvillis and zonula occludens were observed on the surface of the differentiated cells under an electron microscope. In the control group, ES cells differentiated freely without any inducing factors. Most cells were shed and formed a neuronal dendrite-like structure, and a minority of cells appeared polymorphic. These results demonstrate that ES cells can differentiate into corneal epithelia on the surface of SCSS under the controlled condition. Differentiated ES cells could be used as epithelial seeding cells for the reconstruction of ocular surface and corneal tissue engineering in the future.

  11. Effects of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Application on Corneal High-order Aberration and Visual Guality in Patients with Corneal Opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Aydın Kurna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Evaluation of the corneal high-order aberrations and visual quality changes after application of silicone hydrogel contact lenses in patients with corneal opacities due to various etiologies. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifteen eyes of 13 patients with corneal opacities were included in the study. During the ophthalmologic examination before and after contact lens application, visual acuity was measured with Snellen acuity chart and contrast sensitivity - with Bailey-Lowie Charts in letters. Aberrations were measured with corneal aberrometer (NIDEK Magellan Mapper under a naturally dilated pupil. Spherical aberration, coma, trefoil, irregular astigmatism and total high-order root mean square (RMS values were recorded. Measurements were repeated with balafilcon A lenses (PureVision 2 HD, B&L on all patients. Re sults: Patient age varied between 23 and 50 years. Two eyes had subepithelial infiltrates due to adenoviral keratitis, 1 had nebulae due to previous infections or trauma, and 2 had Salzmann’s nodular degeneration. We observed a mean increase of 1 line in visual acuity and 5 letters in contrast sensitivity with contact lenses versus glasses in the patients. Mean RMS values of spherical aberration, irregular astigmatism and total high-order aberrations decreased significantly with contact lenses. Dis cus si on: Silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses may improve visual quality by decreasing the corneal aberrations in patients with corneal opacities. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 97-102

  12. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ambati, Balamurali K.; Nozaki, Miho; Singh, Nirbhai; Takeda, Atsunobu; Jani, Pooja D.; Suthar, Tushar; Albuquerque, Romulo J. C.; Richter, Elizabeth; Sakurai, Eiji; Newcomb, Michael T.; Kleinman, Mark E.; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Lin, Qing; OGURA, Yuichiro; Orecchia, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Corneal avascularity—the absence of blood vessels in the cornea—is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders1-4. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure5-10 and are all the more remarkable given the presence in the cornea of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, and th...

  13. Epithelial metabolism of the corneal graft is abnormal.

    OpenAIRE

    Vannas, A; Holden, B A; Sweeney, D F

    1987-01-01

    Both eyes of 16 patients who had undergone unilateral penetrating keratoplasty were examined in this study. The mean corneal oxygen uptake rate in the centre of the graft was 3.88 (SD 0.55) mmHg/s and in the control eye was 4.29 (SD 0.62) mmHg/s. In the temporal host periphery the results for the grafted and control eyes were 4.52 (SD 0.54) mmHg/s and 4.26 (SD 0.52) mmHg/s respectively. The differences in the oxygen uptake rate between the centre of the graft cornea and the contralateral cont...

  14. Contact Lens Applications and the Corneal Dystrophies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Justin T; Dalton, Kristine; Weissman, Barry A

    2016-05-01

    The cornea is precious to sight. Its intricate cellular arrangement and physiology enable it to be transparent and refractive. Corneal dystrophies (CDs) impact vision at various decades of life depending on the dystrophy at hand. Left untreated, visual ramifications ensue. This review article will summarize the current knowledge of the various CDs and the relatively controversial classification based on new genetic knowledge and clinical and histological characteristics. The application of contact lenses, both soft and rigid, has a place in the care and rehabilitation of these unique corneas. PMID:26309025

  15. The effects of the presence of the corneal epithelium and supplemental hydrocortisone on ß-glucuronidase levels with corneal preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger TF

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Mauger, Eric QuartettiHavener Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, The Ohio State University, OH, USAPurpose: To analyze the levels of ß-glucuronidase during prolonged (14 day corneal preservation with epithelialized (EPI and deepithelialized (DEP corneas and the effect of supplemental hydrocortisone (HCT on these levels.Methods: Thirty-six freshly excised bovine corneas were preserved in Optisol solution (4°C for 14 days with the following conditions EPI/no supplemental HCT, DEP no supplemental HCT, EPI/10-8 M HCT, and EPI 10-4 M HCT. ß-glucuronidase activity levels were measured at the end of this period.Results: ß-glucuronidase levels (nmol/mL/h for each group were found to be: EPI – No HCT: 4.302, SEM 0.586; DEP – No HCT: 2.178, SEM 0.271; EPI – 10-8 M HCT: 4.472, SEM 0.435; EPI – 10-4 M HCT: 2.072, SEM 0.437. The EPI – No HCT and EPI – 10-8 M HCT were not significantly different as were the DEP – No HCT and EPI – 10-4 M HCT groups. The EPI – No HCT group and the EPI – 10-8 M HCT group were independently significantly different from the DEP – No HCT and the EPI – 10-4 M HCT groups.Conclusions: The corneal epithelium contributes significantly to the formation of the lysosomal enzyme, ß-glucuronidase, during preservation. The addition of 10-4 M HCT decreases the production of ß-glucuronidase during corneal preservation in this model.Keywords: ß-glucuronidase, preservation 

  16. KERATOCONUS AND EPI-OFF CORNEAL CROSS-LINKING BY RIBOFLAVIN-ULTRAVIOLET TYPE A: INDICATIONS AND RATIONAL OF EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caporossi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common dystrophic corneal ectasia, characterized by the presence of irregular astigmatism associated with a reduction of corneal thickness. It is the leading cause of corneal transplant in Italy and Europe. Recently a new therapeutic opportunity is offered by Riboflavin + UV A Corneal Cross-linking, first introduced in Italy in 2004 by Professor Aldo Caporossi at the Department of Ophthalmology of Siena. This treatment requires early diagnosis to prevent corneal ectatic modifications related to pathology. The modern treatment of keratoconus is directed into three "directories": 1 prevention of its progression; 2 reduction of the related refractive defect and induced corneal aberrations; 3 replacement of ectatic corneal in advanced phase not subjected to conservative approach and HRGP lens intolerance. Riboflavin + UV A Collagen Cross-linking is mostly indicated in patients between 10 and 26 years old with progressive keratoconus (stage 1 and 2 with strict adherence to the recommended inclusion thickness (thinnest point > 400 microns.

  17. 软性角膜接触镜在角膜外伤中的应用%Soft corneal contact lens in the treatment of corneal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰香兰; 梁惠英; 张宁; 张玉环; 田玉民

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the therapeutic effect of the soft corneal contact lens in the treatment of corneal trauma.Method:63 eyes of 59 cases with corneal,including 9 eyes not sutured with penetrating injury of corneal,39 eyes postsutured,15 eyes with chemical and thermic burns,were treated with soft corneal contact lens.After dressing for two or three days,they wore the soft corneal contact lens on the condition of asepsis,frequently local medication and application of general medication.Results:After being worn the soft corneal contact lens,the symptom of stimulation was eliminated.Corneal epithelial renewed rapidly,wound recovery stage was shortened.There was no complications. The visual acuity was improved to some degree.Conclusion:During the treatment of corneal trauma,the soft corneal contact lens and reasonable medication make complementation.It also can promote wound healing,shorten the course of the treatment and reduce the complications.%目的:评价软性角膜接触镜治疗角膜外伤的疗效。方法:配戴软性角膜接触镜治疗角膜外伤59例、63眼,包括角膜穿通伤未缝合9眼,缝合术后39眼,化学及热烫伤11例、15眼,伤后包扎2~3d,无菌条件下戴镜,局部用药,配合全身用药。结果:戴镜后刺激症状消除,角膜上皮修复快,伤口愈合期缩短,无并发症发生,视力均有不同程度的提高。结论:在角膜外伤治疗过程中,角膜接触镜与全身及局部合理用药,有助于促进伤口愈合,缩短疗程,减少并发症。

  18. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Corneal Epithelial Stem/progenitor Cells by Up-regulation of MMPs through the Phosphorylation of Akt

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jialin; Chen, Peng; Backman, Ludvig J; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The migration of limbal epithelial stem cells is important for the homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been found to promote corneal epithelial wound healing by activating corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells. However, the possible effect of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells is not clear. This study found the expression of CNTF in mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) to be up-regulated ...

  19. Novel characterization of lymphatic valve formation during corneal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Truong

    Full Text Available Lymphatic research has progressed rapidly in recent years. Though lymphatic dysfunction has been found in a wide array of disorders from transplant rejection to cancer metastasis, to date, there is still little effective treatment for lymphatic diseases. The cornea offers an optimal site for lymphatic research due to its accessible location, transparent nature, and lymphatic-free but inducible features. However, it still remains unknown whether lymphatic valves exist in newly formed lymphatic vessels in the cornea, and how this relates to an inflammatory response. In this study, we provide the first evidence showing that lymphatic valves were formed in mouse cornea during suture-induced inflammation with the up-regulation of integrin alpha 9. The number of corneal valves increased with the progression of inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. Moreover, we have detected lymphatic valves at various developmental stages, from incomplete to more developed ones. In addition to defining the average diameter of lymphatic vessels equipped with lymphatic valves, we also report that lymphatic valves were more often located near the branching points. Taken together, these novel findings not only provide new insights into corneal lymphatic formation and maturation, but also identify a new model for future investigation on lymphatic valve formation and possibly therapeutic intervention.

  20. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R. Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  1. Decellularization of human stromal refractive lenticules for corneal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Yusoff, Nur Zahirah Binte M; Goh, Tze-Wei; Setiawan, Melina; Lee, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chi; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2016-01-01

    Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) becomes a procedure to correct myopia. The extracted lenticule can be used for other clinical scenarios. To prepare for allogeneic implantation, lenticule decellularization with preserved optical property, stromal architecture and chemistry would be necessary. We evaluated different methods to decellularize thin human corneal stromal lenticules created by femtosecond laser. Treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) followed by extensive washes was the most efficient protocol to remove cellular and nuclear materials. Empty cell space was found inside the stroma, which displayed aligned collagen fibril architecture similar to native stroma. The SDS-based method was superior to other treatments with hyperosmotic 1.5 M sodium chloride, 0.1% Triton X-100 and nucleases (from 2 to 10 U/ml DNase and RNase) in preserving extracellular matrix content (collagens, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). The stromal transparency and light transmittance was indifferent to untreated lenticules. In vitro recellularization showed that the SDS-treated lenticules supported corneal stromal fibroblast growth. In vivo re-implantation into a rabbit stromal pocket further revealed the safety and biocompatibility of SDS-decellularized lenticules without short- and long-term rejection risk. Our results concluded that femtosecond laser-derived human stromal lenticules decellularized by 0.1% SDS could generate a transplantable bioscaffold with native-like stromal architecture and chemistry. PMID:27210519

  2. A reproducible method for injecting the mouse corneal stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved delivery system for injecting the mouse corneal stroma was developed. This system incorporates the following features: a repeating dispenser that eliminates inaccuracies in depressing a syringe plunger, foot activation which frees both hands for manipulating the needle and permits constant observation of the injection site, and a flexible 30-cm, 32-gauge stainless steel needle with a 30 degrees bevel and a locking hub that resists pulsation due to back pressure while permitting freedom of motion by the operator. These injections were done while observing the cornea with a vertically mounted slit lamp, ideally suited for examining and photographing the eyes of laboratory animals. The reproducibility of the new delivery system, expressed in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, was estimated and compared with that of a hand-held microsyringe by injecting a solution of radioactive chromium into the corneal stroma of A/J mice. The eyes were removed within 1 hr of injection, and the amount of chromium in each eye was determined in a gamma counter. The new delivery system had significantly (P less than 0.05) greater reproducibility than the hand-held syringe and could be calibrated to deliver up to 0.65 microliter to the mouse cornea

  3. Decellularization of human stromal refractive lenticules for corneal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Yusoff, Nur Zahirah Binte M.; Goh, Tze-Wei; Setiawan, Melina; Lee, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chi; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2016-01-01

    Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) becomes a procedure to correct myopia. The extracted lenticule can be used for other clinical scenarios. To prepare for allogeneic implantation, lenticule decellularization with preserved optical property, stromal architecture and chemistry would be necessary. We evaluated different methods to decellularize thin human corneal stromal lenticules created by femtosecond laser. Treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) followed by extensive washes was the most efficient protocol to remove cellular and nuclear materials. Empty cell space was found inside the stroma, which displayed aligned collagen fibril architecture similar to native stroma. The SDS-based method was superior to other treatments with hyperosmotic 1.5 M sodium chloride, 0.1% Triton X-100 and nucleases (from 2 to 10 U/ml DNase and RNase) in preserving extracellular matrix content (collagens, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). The stromal transparency and light transmittance was indifferent to untreated lenticules. In vitro recellularization showed that the SDS-treated lenticules supported corneal stromal fibroblast growth. In vivo re-implantation into a rabbit stromal pocket further revealed the safety and biocompatibility of SDS-decellularized lenticules without short- and long-term rejection risk. Our results concluded that femtosecond laser-derived human stromal lenticules decellularized by 0.1% SDS could generate a transplantable bioscaffold with native-like stromal architecture and chemistry. PMID:27210519

  4. Effect of topical dorzolamide on rabbit central corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jr. G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to study the effect of dorzolamide on corneal hydration in an 18-week controlled experiment using ultrasonic pachymetry. Twenty-eight male rabbits were divided randomly into four groups. The 7 rabbits in each group received eye drops containing either 2% (w/v dorzolamide or placebo in their right eye, or in their left eye. The 2% dorzolamide rabbits were treated every 8 h. Fellow eyes are defined as eyes which did not receive either dorzolamide or placebo. The study was blind for both the person who applied the drug and the one who performed the pachymetry. The effect of treatments is reported on the basis of the percentage of pachymetric variation compared to the measurement made before drug application. There was no significant difference (P = 0.061 in pachymetric variation between dorzolamide (-4.42 ± 11.71% and placebo (2.48 ± 9.63%. However, there was a significant difference (P = 0.0034 in pachymetric variation between the dorzolamide fellow eyes (-7.56 ± 10.50% and the placebo (-4.42 ± 11.71%. In conclusion, dorzolamide did not increase the corneal thickness in rabbits.

  5. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  6. Sphingosine-1 phosphate prevents ethanol-induced corneal epithelial apoptosis

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    Pierre Fournie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apoptosis is a programmed cell death in multicellular organisms, found in a wide variety of conditions, including inflammatory process, everywhere in the body, including the cornea and conjunctiva. Aim: To evaluate the effect of a new topical formulation of sphingosine-1 phosphate on preventing apoptosis of the corneal epithelium. Setting: Medical University. Materials and Methods: We tested several formulations suitable for topical application. Twenty-five rabbits were distributed among five groups. Group 1 comprised the controls. In Group 2, 20% ethanol was applied topically for 20 seconds; in Group 3, 50 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours prior to 20% ethanol application. In Group 4, 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied 2 hours before the 20% ethanol application. In Group 5, only 200 μM topical sphingosine-1 phosphate was applied. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL assay. Pairwise comparisons were performed using t-tests with Scheffe′s correction. Data were analyzed using STATA 9.0 statistical software. Results: A suspension of sphingosine-1 phosphate in the presence of Montanox 80 was stable and could be formulated without sonication. Epithelial apoptosis was detected only in Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Sphingosine-1 phosphate can prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis in the corneal epithelium of rabbits.

  7. "All-laser" endothelial corneal transplant in human patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca; Malandrini, Alex; Canovetti, Annalisa; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Femtosecond laser sculpturing of corneal tissue is commonly used for the preparation of endothelial flaps. Diode laser welding of ocular tissues is a procedure that enables minimally invasive suturing of tissues. The combination of these laser based techniques results in a new approach to minimally invasive ophthalmic surgery, such as in endothelial corneal transplant (or endothelial keratoplasty - EK). In this work we present the "all laser" EK performed in human subjects. 24 pseudophakic patients with bullous keratopathy underwent EK: the femtosecond laser was used to prepare the 100 ìm thick and 8.5 mm diameter donor Descemet endothelial flap. After staining the stromal layer of the donor flap with a liquid ICG solution, the donor flap was inserted in the recipient eye by the use of the Busin injector. Then, the endothelial layer was laser-welded to the recipient eye (10 laser spots around the periphery of the flap), in order to reduce the risk of postoperative dislocation of the transplanted flap. A transplanted flap engraftment was observed in all the treated eyes. The staining procedure used to perform laser welding also enabled to evidence the stromal side of the donor flap, so as the flap was always placed in the right side position. The endothelial cells counts in both the laserwelded flaps and in a control group were in good agreement. The proposed technique is easy to perform and enables the reduction of postoperative endothelial flap dislocations.

  8. Activation of toll like receptor-3 induces corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Jiang, Hua; Gao, Hongrui; Wang, Guangjie

    2015-06-01

    The epithelial barrier is critical in the maintenance of the homeostasis of the cornea. A number of eye disorders are associated with the corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Viral infection is one common eye disease type. This study aims to elucidate the mechanism by which the activation of toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) in the disruption of the corneal epithelial barrier. In this study, HCE cells (a human corneal epithelial cell line) were cultured into epithelial layers using as an in vitro model of the corneal epithelial barrier. PolyI:C was used as a ligand of TLR3. The transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and permeability of the HCE epithelial layer were assessed using as the parameters to evaluate the corneal epithelial barrier integrity. The results showed that exposure to PolyI:C markedly decreased the TER and increased the permeability of the HCE epithelial layers; the levels of cell junction protein, E-cadherin, were repressed by PolyI:C via increasing histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), the latter binding to the promoter of E-cadherin and repressed the transcription of E-cadherin. The addition of butyrate (an inhibitor of HDAC1) to the culture blocked the corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction caused by PolyI:C. In conclusion, activation of TLR3 can disrupt the corneal epithelial barrier, which can be blocked by the inhibitor of HDAC1. PMID:25912142

  9. Dynamic ultra high speed Scheimpflug imaging for assessing corneal biomechanical properties

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    Renato Ambrósio Jr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel technique for clinical characterization of corneal biomechanics using non-invasive dynamic imaging. METHODS: Corneal deformation response during non contact tonometry (NCT is monitored by ultra-high-speed (UHS photography. The Oculus Corvis ST (Scheimpflug Technology; Wetzlar, Germany has a UHS Scheimpflug camera, taking over 4,300 frames per second and of a single 8mm horizontal slit, for monitoring corneal deformation response to NCT. The metered collimated air pulse or puff has a symmetrical configuration and fixed maximal internal pump pressure of 25 kPa. The bidirectional movement of the cornea in response to the air puff is monitored. RESULTS: Measurement time is 30ms, with 140 frames acquired. Advanced algorithms for edge detection of the front and back corneal contours are applied for every frame. IOP is calculated based on the first applanation moment. Deformation amplitude (DA is determined as the highest displacement of the apex in the highest concavity (HC moment. Applanation length (AL and corneal velocity (CVel are recorded during ingoing and outgoing phases. CONCLUSION: Corneal deformation can be monitored during non contact tonometry. The parameters generated provide clinical in vivo characterization of corneal biomechanical properties in two dimensions, which is relevant for different applications in Ophthalmology.

  10. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands. PMID:27592207

  11. Corneal viscoelastic properties from finite-element analysis of in vivo air-puff deformation.

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    Sabine Kling

    Full Text Available Biomechanical properties are an excellent health marker of biological tissues, however they are challenging to be measured in-vivo. Non-invasive approaches to assess tissue biomechanics have been suggested, but there is a clear need for more accurate techniques for diagnosis, surgical guidance and treatment evaluation. Recently air-puff systems have been developed to study the dynamic tissue response, nevertheless the experimental geometrical observations lack from an analysis that addresses specifically the inherent dynamic properties. In this study a viscoelastic finite element model was built that predicts the experimental corneal deformation response to an air-puff for different conditions. A sensitivity analysis reveals significant contributions to corneal deformation of intraocular pressure and corneal thickness, besides corneal biomechanical properties. The results show the capability of dynamic imaging to reveal inherent biomechanical properties in vivo. Estimates of corneal biomechanical parameters will contribute to the basic understanding of corneal structure, shape and integrity and increase the predictability of corneal surgery.

  12. Rho kinase inhibitor enables cell-based therapy for corneal endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Naoki; Sakamoto, Yuji; Fujii, Keita; Kitano, Junji; Nakano, Shinichiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Shin-Ichiro; Ueno, Morio; Hagiya, Michio; Hamuro, Junji; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Suzuki, Shingo; Shiina, Takashi; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Koizumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The corneal endothelium maintains corneal transparency; consequently, its dysfunction causes severe vision loss. Tissue engineering-based therapy, as an alternative to conventional donor corneal transplantation, is anticipated to provide a less invasive and more effective therapeutic modality. We conducted a preclinical study for cell-based therapy in a primate model and demonstrated regeneration of the corneal endothelium following injection of cultured monkey corneal endothelial cells (MCECs) or human CECs (HCECs), in combination with a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632, into the anterior chamber. We also evaluated the safety and efficacy of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade HCECs, similar to those planned for use as transplant material for human patients in a clinical trial, and we showed that the corneal endothelium was regenerated without adverse effect. We also showed that CEC engraftment is impaired by limited substrate adhesion, which is due to actomyosin contraction induced by dissociation-induced activation of ROCK/MLC signaling. Inclusion of a ROCK inhibitor improves efficiency of engraftment of CECs and enables cell-based therapy for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction as a clinically relevant therapy. PMID:27189516

  13. Cell therapy of congenital corneal diseases with umbilical mesenchymal stem cells: lumican null mice.

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    Hongshan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratoplasty is the most effective treatment for corneal blindness, but suboptimal medical conditions and lack of qualified medical personnel and donated cornea often prevent the performance of corneal transplantation in developing countries. Our study aims to develop alternative treatment regimens for congenital corneal diseases of genetic mutation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from neonatal umbilical cords were transplanted to treat thin and cloudy corneas of lumican null mice. Transplantation of umbilical mesenchymal stem cells significantly improved corneal transparency and increased stromal thickness of lumican null mice, but human umbilical hematopoietic stem cells failed to do the same. Further studies revealed that collagen lamellae were re-organized in corneal stroma of lumican null mice after mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Transplanted umbilical mesenchymal stem cells survived in the mouse corneal stroma for more than 3 months with little or no graft rejection. In addition, these cells assumed a keratocyte phenotype, e.g., dendritic morphology, quiescence, expression of keratocyte unique keratan sulfated keratocan and lumican, and CD34. Moreover, umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improved host keratocyte functions, which was verified by enhanced expression of keratocan and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 3A1 in lumican null mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for congenital corneal diseases involving keratocyte dysfunction. Unlike donated corneas, umbilical mesenchymal stem cells are easily isolated, expanded, stored, and can be quickly recovered from liquid nitrogen when a patient is in urgent need.

  14. Comparison of Corneal Topographical and Biomechanical Properties in Cases with Atopic Dermatitis and Healthy Subjects

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    Yusuf Yıldırım

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the topographic, biomechanical, and thickness properties of corneas of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD and of healthy individuals. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this prospective, cross-sectional, and comparative study, 28 healthy individuals (control group and 28 patients with AD (study group were enrolled. Corneal topographical measurements using Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius, corneal biomechanical properties using Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, and central corneal thickness (CCT using ultrasonic pachymeter were obtained for each participant. Re sults: Topographic parameters were not significantly different between both groups (p>0.05. Corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF were found same in both groups. CCT measured with ultrasonic pachymeter was significantly lower in patients with AD compared to health controls (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: No significant difference was found between patients with AD and age-matched healthy individuals regarding the corneal topographic findings and corneal biomechanical parameters. CCT was found to be lower in cases with AD than in healthy controls. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 140-4

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells: Potential role in corneal wound repair and transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; Li; Shao-Zhen; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Corneal diseases are a major cause of blindness in the world. Although great progress has been achieved in the treatment of corneal diseases, wound healing after severe corneal damage and immunosuppressive therapy after corneal transplantation remain prob-lematic. Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) derived from bone marrow or other adult tissues can differentiate into various types of mesenchymal lineages, such as osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. These cells can further differentiate into specific cell types under specific conditions. MSCs migrate to injury sites and promote wound healing by secreting anti-inflammatory and growth factors. In ad-dition, MSCs interact with innate and acquired immune cells and modulate the immune response through their powerful paracrine function. Over the last decade, MSCs have drawn considerable attention because of their beneficial properties and promising therapeutic prospective. Furthermore, MSCs have been applied to various studies related to wound healing, autoim-mune diseases, and organ transplantation. This review discusses the potential functions of MSCs in protecting corneal tissue and their possible mechanisms in corneal wound healing and corneal transplantation.

  16. Corneal refractive surgery: Is intracorneal the way to go and what are the needs for technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Ivarsen, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Corneal refractive surgery aims to reduce or eliminate refractive errors of the eye by changing the refractive power of the cornea. For the last 20 years controlled excimer laser ablation of corneal tissue, either directly from the corneal stromal surface or from the corneal interior after creation of a superficial corneal flap has become widely used to correct myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Recently, an intrastromal refractive procedure whereby a tissue lenticule is cut free in the corneal stroma by a femtosecond laser and removed through a small peripheral incision has been introduced. This procedure avoids creation of a corneal flap and the potential associated risks while avoiding the slow visual recovery of surface ablation procedures. Precise intrastromal femtosecond laser cutting of the fine lenticule requires very controlled laser energy delivery in order to avoid lenticule irregularities, which would compromise the refractive result and visual acuity. This newly introduced all-femtosecond based flap-free intracorneal refractive procedure has been documented to be a predictable, efficient, and safe procedure for correction of myopia and astigmatism. Technological developments related to further improved cutting quality, hyperopic and individualized treatments are desirable.

  17. Macrophage depletion impairs corneal wound healing after autologous transplantation in mice.

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    Suxia Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Macrophages have been shown to play a critical role in the wound healing process. In the present study, the role of macrophages in wound healing after autologous corneal transplantation was investigated by depleting local infiltrated macrophages. METHODS: Autologous corneal transplantation model was used to induce wound repair in Balb/c mice. Macrophages were depleted by sub-conjunctival injections of clodronate-containing liposomes (Cl2MDP-LIP. The presence of CD11b(+ F4/80(+ macrophages, α-smooth muscle actin(+ (α-SMA(+ myofibroblasts, CD31(+ vascular endothelial cells and NG2 (+ pericytes was examined by immunohistochemical and corneal whole-mount staining 14 days after penetrating keratoplasty. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from Balb/c mice and transfused into conjunctiva to examine the recovery role of macrophages depletion on wound healing after autologous corneal transplantation. RESULTS: Sub-conjunctival Cl2MDP-LIP injection significantly depleted the corneal resident phagocytes and infiltrated macrophages into corneal stroma. Compared with the mice injected with PBS-liposome, the Cl2MDP-LIP-injected mice showed few inflammatory cells, irregularly distributed extracellular matrix, ingrowth of corneal epithelium into stroma, and even the detachment of donor cornea from recipient. Moreover, the number of macrophages, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells and pericytes was also decreased in the junction area between the donor and recipient cornea in macrophage-depleted mice. Peritoneal macrophages transfusion recovered the defect of corneal wound healing caused by macrophages depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage depletion significantly impairs wound healing after autologous corneal transplantation through at least partially impacting on angiogenesis and wound closure.

  18. Evaluation of central and peripheral corneal thicknesses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Alime Gunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate central corneal thickness (CCT and peripheral corneal thickness (PCT in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to assess the relationships among the corneal parameters, dry eye disease, and clinical variables of RA.Methods:A total of 58 RA patients and 58 control subjects participated in this study. A detailed ophthalmological examination was performed on each subject. Dry eye evaluation was performed using Schirmer’s test, tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal fluorescein staining, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI. Corneal thickness at the apex point, the center of the pupil, the thinnest point, and PCT (3 mm from the apex to the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal locations were evaluated using Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam®. Additionally, the relative peripheral index (RPI was calculated by dividing the PCT by the CCT. The disease severity and quality of life were evaluated with DAS28 and HAQ, respectively. The laboratory evaluation comprised ESR and CRP.Results:The mean corneal thicknesses at the apex point, the center of the pupil, the thinnest point, and the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal points were significantly thinner in RA patients than controls. Schirmer’s test scores and TBUT were significantly lower, and corneal staining and OSDI scores were significantly higher in RA patients. There were no significant correlations between the corneal parameters and the clinical variables of RA or dry eye tests.Conclusion:The CCT and PCT were thinner in RA patients compared to those in control subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between the corneal parameters and the clinical variables of RA or dry eye tests.

  19. Corneal tissue water content mapping with THz imaging: preliminary clinical results (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Deng, Sophie X.; Taylor, Zachary; Grundfest, Warren

    2016-03-01

    Well-regulated corneal water content is critical for ocular health and function and can be adversely affected by a number of diseases and injuries. Current clinical practice limits detection of unhealthy corneal water content levels to central corneal thickness measurements performed by ultrasound or optical coherence tomography. Trends revealing increasing or decreasing corneal thickness are fair indicators of corneal water content by individual measurements are highly inaccurate due to the poorly understood relationship between corneal thickness and natural physiologic variation. Recently the utility of THz imaging to accuarately measure corneal water content has been explored on with rabbit models. Preliminary experiments revealed that contact with dielectric windows confounded imaging data and made it nearly impossible to deconvolve thickness variations due to contact from thickness variations due to water content variation. A follow up study with a new optical design allowed the acquisition of rabbit data and the results suggest that the observed, time varying contrast was due entirely to the water dynamics of the cornea. This paper presents the first ever in vivo images of human cornea. Five volunteers with healthy cornea were recruited and their eyes were imaged three times over the course of a few minutes with our novel imaging system. Noticeable changes in corneal reflectivity were observed and attributed to the drying of the tear film. The results suggest that clinically compatible, non-contact corneal imaging is feasible and indicate that signal acquired from non-contact imaging of the cornea is a complicated coupling of stromal water content and tear film.

  20. Protocolized eye care prevents corneal complications in ventilated patients in a medical intensive care unit

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    Mohammad Feroz Azfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye care is an essential component in the management of critically ill patients. Standardized eye care can prevent corneal complications in ventilated patients. Objective: This study was designed to compare old and new practices of corneal care for reduction in corneal complications in ventilated patients. Methods: This study was done in three phases each of six month duration. Phase 1 was the ongoing practice of eye care in the unit. Before the start of phase 2, a new protocol was made for eye care. Corneal complications were observed in terms of haziness, dryness, and ulceration. All nursing staffs were educated and made compliant with the new protocol. In phase 2, a follow-up audit was done to check the effectiveness and compliance to protocol. In phase 3, a follow-up audit was started 3 months after phase 2. Results: In phase 1, total ventilated patients were 40 with 240 ventilator days. The corneal dryness rate was 40 per 1000 ventilator days while the haziness and ulceration rate was 16 per 1000 ventilator days each. In the second phase 2, total ventilated patients were 53 making 561 ventilator days. The rate of corneal haziness and dryness was 3.52 and 1.78 per 1000 ventilator days, respectively, with no case of corneal ulceration. In phase 3, the number of ventilated patients was 91 with 1114 ventilator days. The corneal dryness rate was 2.69 while the haziness and ulceration rate was 1.79 each. Conclusion: Protocolized eye care can reduce the risk of corneal complications in ventilated patients.

  1. Stepwise Protocol for Cytospin-enhanced Smearing for Scraped Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyalatha, Mani V; Malathi, Jambulingam; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2016-01-01

    Proteins and antigens present on the cell surface are usually determined by immunofluorescence staining. Uniform distribution of cells is required to appreciate the presence of surface proteins. Improper smearing or crushing of the corneal epithelial cells can potentially destroy the cellular integrity. Thus a simplified, systemic method was designed to smear the cells scraped from the cornea. The procedure includes trypsinisation for dissociation of corneal epithelial cells and cytospinning for concentrating the cells in a smear. The standardized protocol was found to be efficient in maintaining the integrity of the corneal epithelial cells and also the distribution of the cells in the smear. PMID:26633702

  2. Demonstration of structural alterations in experimental corneal infectious model using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chang, Yuh-Ling; Sun, Yen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the application of multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for investigating the structural alterations and the pattern of microbial spreading during corneal infectious process in an in vitro organ culture model. The autofluorescence spectrum derived from pathogens allows us to monitoring the pattern of microbial spreading within corneal lamellae. In addition, the destruction and regeneration of second harmonic generating collagen during infectious process can also be monitored in a non-invasive fashion. Therefore we propose that multiphoton microscopy may potentially be applied as an effective monitoring tool for corneal infection studies.

  3. Changes in Corneal Biomechanical Properties after Long-Term Topical Prostaglandin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaobo; Li, Mengwei; Wen, Wen; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare corneal biomechanical properties, measured by a newly developed tonometer (Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology, Corvis ST), in untreated primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, POAG patients with long-term topical prostaglandin analog (PGA) therapy and in normal controls. Further is to investigate the potential effects of PGA on corneal biomechanics. Methods In this case-control study, 35 consecutive medication naïve eyes with POAG, 34 POAG eyes with at least 2 years treatment by PGA and 19 normal eyes were included. Intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal biomechanical parameters, including deformation amplitude (DA), applanation time (AT1 and AT2), applanation length (AL1 and AL2), applanation velocity (AV1 and AV2), and peak distance and radius were measured using Corvis ST. Axial length and corneal curvature were measured with partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster, Zeiss, Germany). General linear model analysis was performed to investigate the corneal biomechanical property changes among the normal controls, newly diagnosed POAG patients and POAG patients with long-term PGA treatment, and among the subgroups of different types of PGA treatment, including bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni correction for least squares means were employed. Results AT1 (p<0.0001), AV1 (p<0.0001), AT2 (p = 0.0001), AV2 (p<0.0001) and DA (p = 0.0004) in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were significantly different from those in normal subjects and in patients underwent at least 2 years topical PGA therapy after adjusting for age and gender. After adjusting for age, gender, IOP, CCT, axial length and corneal curvature, a significant difference was detected for DA between glaucoma patients without PGA treatment and patients with long-term PGA therapy (p = 0.0387). Furthermore, there were no statistical significant differences in all of the corneal

  4. Rates of and Experiences with Corneal Donation at the University Hospital Tübingen From 2002 To 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to report the rates and experiences of corneal donation at the University Hospital Tübingen. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from all cornea donors from January 2002 to December 2015 were analyzed. The rates of corneal donation were examined. From 2002 to 2008, an ophthalmic resident handled the corneal donor procurement in addition to his ward work. From 2009 to 2015, an ophthalmic resident handled the corneal donor procurement on a full-time basis. RESULTS Among the 10 260 deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 892 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 8.7 donors per 100 deaths (range: 2.0-17.8). The mean corneal donation rate in the first period without a full-time ophthalmic resident in the eye bank team was 4.0 donors per 100 deaths (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-6.9) and in the second period 12.3 donors per 100 deaths (95 % CI: 3.2-21.5) (Peye bank team, the corneal donation rate was increased by more than 3 times. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed the influence of the eye banking team on the corneal donation rate. Modification of the eye bank team, by recruiting a full-time resident at a University Hospital with 1500 beds, increased the corneal donation rate by more than 3 times. It appears necessary to strengthen this team with sufficient staff levels to improve donor rates. PMID:27402149

  5. Expression of Innate and Adaptive Immune Mediators in Human Corneal Tissue Infected With Aspergillus or Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Leal, Sixto M.; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Geiser, David M.; Pearlman, Eric; Lalitha, Prajna

    2011-01-01

    Background. Filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium are major causes of corneal ulcers in the United States and in the developing world and result in significant visual impairment and blindness.

  6. IL-1β regulates the mouse Fas ligand expression in corneal endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; Yang Ke; TAN DeYong; ZENG JunYing; Alan FINE

    2007-01-01

    Constitutively expressed Fas ligand (FasL) in several distinct epithelial cell types appears to protect tissues by inducing apoptosis of Fas+ immune cells during inflammatory reactions.To study the relationship of FasL and inflammation process in cornea, we examined the effects of inflammatory cytokine IL-1βon the FasL production, expression and cytotoxic function in corneal endothelial cells.In this paper, we demonstrate that IL-1βinhibits the FasL production and expression in corneal endothelial cells.The promoter activities of FasL in these cells are reduced by IL-1βin a dose-dependent manner.Finally, we also find that IL-1βblock the cytotoxic effects of FasL derived from corneal endothelial cells to the Fas+ target cells.These data support the view that FasL derived from corneal endothelial cells modulate inflammation within cornea.

  7. Corneal decompensation following filtering surgery with the Ex-PRESS® mini glaucoma shunt device

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    Tojo N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Tojo, Atsushi Hayashi, Akio Miyakoshi Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan Purpose: To report a case of corneal decompensation due to the Ex-PRESS® mini glaucoma shunt device (Ex-PRESS.Patient and methods: A 75-year-old man had pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in his right eye. He underwent filtration surgery with Ex-PRESS. His intraocular pressure was 7 mmHg after 9 months.Results: We observed partial decompensation of the corneal endothelium adjacent to the filtering bleb. Specular microscopy revealed a marked decrease in the endothelial cell density at the center of the cornea.Conclusion: Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is very useful for evaluating corneal edema and the position of Ex-PRESS. It is important to follow up with an examination of the corneal endothelial cells. Keywords: Ex-PRESS, bullous keratopathy, trabeculectomy, complication, cornea 

  8. The Preliminary Experimental Study of Induced Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yu; Jian Ge; Zhichong Wang; Bing Huang; Keming Yu; Chongde Long; Xigu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To study preliminarily induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells intocorneal epithelial cells in vitro.Methods: Murine embryonic stem cells were co-cultured with Rabbit limbal cornealepithelial cells in Transwell system to induce differentiation. Mophological andimmunohistochemical examination were implemented.Results: The induced cells from embryonic stem cells have an epithelial appearance.The cells formed a network and were confluent into film gradually after beingco-cultured with rabbit limbal corneal epithelial cells for 24 ~ 96 hours. The cells rangedmosaic structure and localized together with clear rim. Most of the cells showedpolygonal appearance. Transmission electron microscope showed lots of microvilli on thesurface of induced cells and tight junctions between them. These epithelial-like cellsexpressed the corneal epithelial cell specific marker cytokeratin3/cytokeratinl2.Conclusion: The potential mechanism of the differentiation of murine embryonic stemcells into corneal epithelial cells induced by limbal corneal epithelial cell-derivedinducing activity is to be further verified.

  9. Investigation the Porous Collagen-Chitosan /Glycosaminoglycans for Corneal Cell Culture as Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qin-Hua; CHEN Jian-Su

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to produce the porous collagen-chitosan/Glycosanminglycans (GAG) for corneal ceil-seed implant as a three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffold to improve the regeneration corneas. The effect of various content of glycerol as form porous agent to collagen-chitosan/GAG preserved a porous dimensional structure was investigated. The heat-drying was used to prepare porous collagen-chitosan /GAG scaffold. The pore morphology of collagenchitosan/GAG was controlled by changing the concentration of glycerol solution and drying methods. The porous structure morphology was observed by SEM. The diameter of the pores form 10 to 50 μm. The highly porous scaffold had interconnecting pores. The corneal cell morphology was observed under the light microscope. These results suggest that collagen-chitosan/GAG showed that corneal cell have formed confluent layers and resemble the surface of normal corneal cell surface.

  10. A COMPARISON OF SURGICAL INDUCED ASTIGMATISM FOLLOWING PHACOEMULSIFICATION WITH CLEAR CORNEAL VERSUS SCLERAL INCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyavardhana Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study included 50 Cases, Group-1- 25 Cases, underwent Temporal Sclera incision phacoemulsification, Group-2: 25 Cases underwent temporal clear corneal incision phacoemulsification. Out of this majority of the cases with scleral incision Group showed an surgically induced astigmatism of 0.5 D(56%, in clear corneal group 40% showed 0.5 D and 32% showed 0.75 D of Surgically induced astigmatism. The mean surgically induced astigmatism in scleral incision Group was 0.550.28 and in clear corneal group 0.690.25. In both the cases there is decrease in pre-operative against the rule astigmatism to Post–Operative against the rule astigmatism and an increase in with the rule astigmatism from Pre-Operative to Post–Operative period, but this is seen more with clear corneal incision group compared to scleral incision group.

  11. Generation of Corneal Keratocytes from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsenberg, Andrew J; Funderburgh, James L

    2016-01-01

    Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) offer an important resource as a limitless supply of any differentiated cell type of the human body. Keratocytes, cells from the corneal stroma, may have the potential for restoration of vision in cell therapy and biomedical engineering applications, but these specialized cells are not readily expanded in vitro. Here we describe a two-part method to produce keratocytes from the H1 hESC cell line. The hESC cells, maintained and expanded in feeder-free culture medium are first differentiated to neural crest cells using the stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) of the PA6 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The resulting neural crest cells are selected by their expression of cell-surface CD271 and subsequently cultured as 3D pellets in a defined differentiation medium to induce a keratocyte phenotype. PMID:26026882

  12. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Petricli, İkbal Seza; Karakaya, Jale; Ozcan, Beyza; Yucel, Husniye; Kavurt, Aysen Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) of premature infants and to document correlation of them with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight of infants. Using a hand-held applanation tonometer and a portable pachymeter, IOP and CCT of 170 premature infants were measured just before initial retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and re-measured 4 weeks after the first visit. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated during the first (r = 0.616, p premature infants with a smaller gestational age were found to be higher (p Premature infants with smaller gestational age have higher CCT and IOP values when compared to older infants. These values tend to become lower 4 weeks after the first examination as infants become older. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated with each other and both were negatively correlated with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight during first and second visits. PMID:26286757

  13. Contact Lens Visual Rehabilitation in Keratoconus and Corneal Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Ozkurt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal distrophy. It’s a noninflammatory progressive thinning process that leads to conical ectasia of the cornea, causing high myopia and astigmatism. Many treatment choices include spectacle correction and contact lens wear, collagen cross linking, intracorneal ring segments implantation and finally keratoplasty. Contact lenses are commonly used to reduce astigmatism and increase vision. There are various types of lenses are available. We reviewed soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable contact lenses, piggyback contact lenses, hybrid contact lenses and scleral-semiscleral contact lenses in keratoconus management. The surgical option is keratoplasty, but even after sutur removal, high astigmatism may stil exists. Therefore, contact lens is an adequate treatment option to correct astigmatism after keratoplasty.

  14. Histomorphology of the corneal epithelium of anastrozole treated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of prolonged use of anastrozole as an endocrine treatment of breast cancer on the corneal epithelium in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, six months from Jun 2012 to Nov 2012. Material and Methods: Twenty adult female NewZealand white rabbits were taken. Ten rabbits were placed in control group taking normal diet and 10 were given anastrozole orally in the normal dose of 1 mg/day (0.02 mg/kg/day). After the completion of the study, corneas were removed and grossly examined. The specimen were fixed and slides prepared for histomorphological examination. The epithelium in each slide was examined for any deposits, edema or increase in stratification and the height of the epithelium was measured for each eye. The results were compared between the groups for statistical significance. Results: The epithelium had normal shape with no areas of any deposits, edema or ulceration. The mean epithelial height in the control group was 21.25 +- 4.29 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in the right corneas and left corneas, respectively. The mean epithelial height taken from the experimental group was 20.50 +- 4.97 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in right sided and left sided corneas, respectively. The p value was calculated to be 0.722 and 1.00 for the right and left corneas, respectively and no statistical significance was found in between the two groups. Conclusion: Long term administration of anastrozole has no effect on the histological morphology of the corneal epithelium. (author)

  15. Therapy of canine corneal pannus with strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Corneal pannus is a disease which, if untreated, nearly always is progressive and may lead to blindness of the affected dog. A therapeutic standard is yet to be defined. Beta-ray irradiation with Sr-90 is often recommended on a casuistic basis, but systematic studies are sparse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy and to document side effects of radiotherapy with Sr-90. Material and Methods: 17 animals were treated. 13 of them received treatment of 15 Gy surface dose twice within 2 days with additional medical therapy with ciclosporin and prednisolon. Only the more affected eye was treated with radiation which was applied with an eye-applicator, the other eye served as control. Four animals with already advanced impairment of vision received keratectomy, afterwards radiation was applied on both sides. Results: Medical treatment alone led to deterioration in vascularization and spread of pigmentation in eleven of 13 (85%) of the control-eyes, density of pigmentation increased in eight of 13 (62%). After radiation therapy, almost all animals showed a marked initial improvement. Even if progressive disease occurred later on, further worsening as it happened in the control-eyes could be stopped in nine resp. ten of 13 eyes (69% and 77%). All animals with keratectomy and radiotherapy regained and preserved adequate vision. Besides short-term blepharospasm, no side effects were recorded. Conclusion: Corneal pannus is responsive to radiation therapy with Sr-90 and long-term benefit can be achieved. Side effects are minimal. Optimal sequencing of therapy and dosage still have to be examined. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Intracameral Use of Dexamethasone on Corneal Endothelial Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intracameral dexamethasone on corneal endothelium. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Layton Rehmatulla Benevolent Trust Eye Hospital, Lahore, from May 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Study subjects were adults of either gender with senile cataract who underwent phacoemulsification. They were divided in two groups, each had 110 patients. Group-A received subconjunctival injection of dexamethasone (2 mg/0.5 ml) at the end of surgery while group-B received intracameral injection of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/0.1 ml) at the end of surgery. Endothelial cell count was performed by specular microscopy pre-operatively and postoperatively at first week, first month and three months. Outcome measures included changes in endothelial cell count. Results were compared using t-test for means. Results: There were 55 (50%) males and 55 (50%) females in group-A and 44 (40%) males and 66 (60%) females in group-B. In group-A, there were 66 (60%) right and 44 (40%) left eyes while group-B had 62 (56.36%) right and 48 (43.63%) left eyes. Mean age in group-A was 55.17 A +- 5.93 years and 54.87 A +- 5.55 years in group-B. Mean phacoemulsification time in group-A was 1.92 A +- 0.63 minutes and 1.82 A +- 0.54 minutes in group-B. After 3 months, in group-A, there was 7.55 A +- 1.19% endothelial cell loss while in group-B, there was 7.63 A +- 1.10% endothelial cell loss. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.614). Conclusion: Use of intracameral dexamethasone at the end of cataract surgery is safe for corneal endothelium. (author)

  17. Cannabinoid receptor 1 suppresses transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-induced inflammatory responses to corneal injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wang, Z; Varadaraj, K; Kumari, S.S.; Mergler, S; Okada, Y.; Saika, S.; Kingsley, P J; Marnett, L J; Reinach, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-induced suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation provides a therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and pain in different animal disease models through mechanisms involving dampening of TRPV1 activation and signaling events. As we found in both mouse corneal epithelium and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) that there is CB1 and TRPV1 expression colocalization based on overlap of coimmunostaining, we determined in m...

  18. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi Y; Toshida H; Matsuzaki Y; Matsui A; Ohta T

    2016-01-01

    Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, Japan Objective: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case ...

  19. Ultrastructure Organization of Collagen Fibrils and Proteoglycans of Stingray and Shark Corneal Stroma

    OpenAIRE

    Alanazi, Saud A.; Turki Almubrad; Ahmad I. A. AlIbrahim; Khan, Adnan A; Saeed Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    We report here the ultrastructural organization of collagen fibrils (CF) and proteoglycans (PGs) of the corneal stroma of both the stingray and the shark. Three corneas from three stingrays and three corneas from three sharks were processed for electron microscopy. Tissues were embedded in TAAB 031 resin. The corneal stroma of both the stingray and shark consisted of parallel running lamellae of CFs which were decorated with PGs. In the stingray, the mean area of PGs in the posterior stroma w...

  20. A comparison study of corneal topographic changes following 20-, 23-, and 25-G pars plana vitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Achille Grandinetti; Vinicius Kniggendorf; Luciane Bugmann Moreira; Carlos Augusto Moreira Junior; Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate and compare corneal topographic changes following pars plana vitrectomy with the 23-gauge (G) and 25-G transconjuntival sutureless vitrectomy system as well as the standard 20-G vitrectomy system.Methods:We prospectively evaluated corneal topographic changes in 45 eyes of 45 patients divided into three groups according to vitrectomy system used (20-, 23-, and 25-G). All patients underwent computer-assisted videokeratography using an EyeSys System 3000 topographer p...

  1. Changes in Corneal Topography after 25-Gauge Transconjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy versus after 20-Gauge Standard Vitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, F; Okamoto, C.; Sakata, N.; Hiratsuka, K; Yamane, N; Hiraoka, T.; Kaji, Y; Oshika, T.

    2007-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the changes in regular and irregular corneal astigmatism after 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy and 20-gauge standard vitrectomy.DesignProspective observational comparative case series.ParticipantsThirty-two eyes of 32 patients undergoing 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy and 25 eyes of 24 patients undergoing 20-gauge standard vitrectomy.MethodsCorneal topography was obtained preoperatively and at 2 weeks and 1 month postoperatively.Main Outco...

  2. Presentation and Management Outcomes of Corneal and Scleral Perforations in Geriatric Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Fong, Yoly Yeuk; Yu, Marco; Young, Alvin Lerrmann; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compared the clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of corneal and scleral perforations in geriatric nursing home residents, geriatric community residents, and non-geriatric population. The medical records of patients who were treated for corneal and scleral perforations at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong between January 1, 2004 and May 1, 2013, were reviewed retrospectively. Of 144 cases, 53 (37%) occurred in the geriatric population, of which 16 (11%) lived in nurs...

  3. Isolated Bilateral Trigeminal Neuropathy in Sarcoidosis Presenting with Neurotrophic Corneal Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    L. Esakowit; M. Gupta; Lascaratos, G.; A. Syrogiannis

    2010-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease that may affect various organs. Nevertheless, involvement of the trigeminal nerve is exceedingly uncommon. This report presents a rare case of isolated bilateral trigeminal neuropathy presenting with neurotrophic corneal ulcers. The patient was treated with topical chloramphenicol and lubricants, as well as botulinum toxin injection to the upper eyelid to induce ptosis. Our case illustrates the importance of recognizing that bilateral corneal...

  4. Preoperative corneal astigmatism among adult patients with cataract in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Isyaku; Ali, Syed A.; Sadiq Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of corneal astigmatism among patients with cataract has not been well-documented in the resident African population. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate preexisting corneal astigmatism in adult patients with cataract. We analyzed keratometric readings acquired by manual Javal-Schiotz keratometry before surgery between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. There were 3,169 patients (3286 eyes) aged between 16 and 110 years involved with a Male to f...

  5. A COMPARISON OF SURGICAL INDUCED ASTIGMATISM FOLLOWING PHACOEMULSIFICATION WITH CLEAR CORNEAL VERSUS SCLERAL INCISION

    OpenAIRE

    Satyavardhana Rao

    2015-01-01

    The present study included 50 Cases, Group-1- 25 Cases, underwent Temporal Sclera incision phacoemulsification, Group-2: 25 Cases underwent temporal clear corneal incision phacoemulsification. Out of this majority of the cases with scleral incision Group showed an surgically induced astigmatism of 0.5 D(56%), in clear corneal group 40% showed 0.5 D and 32% showed 0.75 D of Surgically induced astigmatism. The mean surgically induced astigmatism in scleral incision Group was 0.5...

  6. Anterior and Posterior Corneal Astigmatism after Refractive Lenticule Extraction for Myopic Astigmatism

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the amount and the axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism after refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for myopic astigmatism. Methods. We retrospectively examined 53 eyes of 53 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 33.2 ± 6.5 years) undergoing ReLEx to correct myopic astigmatism (manifest cylinder = 0.5 diopters (D)). Power vector analysis was performed with anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism measured with a rotating Scheimpf...

  7. The Changes in Corneal Astigmatism after Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Patients with Blepharospasm

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Hyeon IL; Kim, Jae Chan

    2006-01-01

    To determine if the involuntary contractions of eyelids may have any effects on the development of corneal astigmatism, we performed this prospective study which includes 19 patients with either essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm. In hemifacial spasm, the degree of corneal astigmatism was evaluated between two eyes. Then the topographic changes were checked using vector analysis technique before and after passively opening the eyelids. They were also measured before and at 1 and 6 mo...

  8. New technique to demonstrate corneal magnification using trypan blue in cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico F. Marques; Daniela M.V. Marques; Robert H. Osher

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the corneal magnification using trypan blue in cataract surgery. METHODS: Eight eyes of eight patients undergoing phacoemulsification with an intraocular lens implantation were enrolled in this study. After staining the anterior capsule with Trypan Blue 0.1% and performing the capsulorhexis, the excised anterior capsule was placed on the corneal surface. By observing and measuring the relationship between the border of the excised anterior capsule and the intracameral ...

  9. Factors Influencing Efficacy of Peripheral Corneal Relaxing Incisions during Cataract Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nino Hirnschall; Jörg Wiesinger; Petra Draschl; Oliver Findl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate influencing factors on the residual astigmatism after performing peripheral corneal relaxing incisions (PCRIs) during cataract surgery. Methods. This prospective study included patients who were scheduled for cataract surgery with PCRIs. Optical biometry (IOLMaster 500, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany) was taken preoperatively, 1 week, 4 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Additionally, corneal topography (Atlas model 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany), ORA (Ocular Resp...

  10. Correlation of axial length and corneal curvature with diopter in eyes of adults with anisometropia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jin; Cui, Ying; LI Juan; Xie, Wenjuan; Li, Zhongming; Zhang, Liang; MENG, QIANLI

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the causes of anisometropia. Methods: Between June 2011 and November 2012 101 participants were divided into three groups. The refraction comprising the degree of refractive errors in the presence of astigmatism which was converted into the degree of spherical equivalent as well as ocular axial length (AL), corneal curvature (CR), average corneal power (ave K) and diopters were measured. Results: The differences of ocular AL/CR and CR between two eyes were statistically si...

  11. Evaluation of corneal changes after myopic LASIK using the Pentacam®

    OpenAIRE

    Khairat, Yehia M; Mohamed, Yasser H.; Moftah, Ismail ANO; Fouad, Narden N

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study, we used a Pentacam® device to evaluate the corneal changes that occur after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods Our study included 60 eyes of 32 patients. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using LASIK. The eyes were examined preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively using a Pentacam to assess corneal changes with regard to curvature, elevation, and asphericity of the cornea. Results A statistically significant decrease i...

  12. Transport of L-carnitine in human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shunjiang; Flanagan, Judith L.; Simmons, Peter A; Vehige, Joseph; Willcox, Mark D.; Garrett, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previously we demonstrated expression and localization of carnitine/organic cation transporters, OCTN1 and OCTN2, in human corneal and conjunctival epithelia. The present study aimed to examine the characteristics of L-carnitine transporters in cultured human limbal corneal (HCLE) and conjunctival epithelial (HCjE) cells. Methods Time-course, Na+-dependence, kinetics, energy- and pH- dependence of L-carnitine transport were investigated by monitoring L-[3H]carnitine uptake into HCLE a...

  13. Keratocytes Derived from Spheroid Culture of Corneal Stromal Cells Resemble Tissue Resident Keratocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Yong-Soo; Tibrewal, Sapna; Kim, Eunjae; Yco, Lisette; Sarkar, Joy; Ivanir, Yair; Liu, Chia-Yang; Sano, Cecile M.; Jain, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Corneal stromal cells transform to precursor cells in spheroid culture. We determined whether keratocytes derived from spheroid culture of murine corneal stromal cells resemble tissue resident keratocytes. Methods Spheroid culture was performed by seeding dissociated stromal cells onto ultra-low attachment plates containing serum-free mesenchymal stem cell culture medium. Spheroids were characterized with phenotype specific markers and stemness transcription factor genes. Spheroids an...

  14. Repeatability of corneal parameters with Pentacam after laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the coefficient of repeatability (CR for corneal parameters evaluated with Pentacam after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in myopic eyes. Design and Setting: Prospective, non-interventional, non-comparative study in an institutional setup. Materials and Methods: Forty eyes of 40 consecutive subjects who had undergone LASIK for myopia were assessed with the Scheimpflug system (Pentacam 70700: Oculus, Wetzlar Germany. The mean of five consecutive measurements of all the corneal parameters was recorded and CR was calculated as standard deviation of the difference from the mean of these repeat measurements divided by the mean response. The statistical significance of the CR was calculated for these parameters at 5% significance level. Results: The best CR was observed for the periphery of the anterior corneal curvature (0.18% and the least for the horizontal meridian of the posterior corneal curvature (1.29%. Despite being significantly different ( P < 0.001, both the measurements were highly repeatable in post-LASIK eyes. The central, apical and minimal corneal thickness had a CR of 1%, 0.78% and 0.77% respectively. These were equally repeatable ( P >0.323. The CR of the mean radius of curvature of the anterior cornea (0.29% was significantly better ( P < 0.001 than the posterior corneal curvature (0.57%. Conclusion: The CR for the post-LASIK cornea with Pentacam was the best for the anterior corneal curvature. Significantly, Pentacam has a high degree of repeatability for the posterior corneal curvature, which has a potential for early detection of keratectasia in these eyes. Post-LASIK pachymetry with Pentacam also showed excellent repeatability.

  15. Long-term changes in corneal structure and tear inflammatory mediators after orthokeratology and LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez, Javier; Villa-Collar, César; González-Méijome, José Manuel; Garcia-Porta, Nery; Parafita, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To monitor changes in corneal structure and level of inflammatory mediators in tears of myopic patients following orthokeratology (OK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS: Sixty-two myopic subjects were analyzed in this prospective study. Thirty-two had worn Paragon CRT contact lenses and 30 underwent standard LASIK. Thirty-two control subjects were also recruited. Pachometry and corneal topography were performed 12 months after both interventions. Tears were collec...

  16. Risk Factors for Senile Corneal Arcus in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Mirnaghi Moosavi; Ahmad Sareshtedar; Siamak Zarei-Ghanavati; Mehran Zarei-Ghanavati; Nazanin Ramezanfar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between senile corneal arcus and atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction. Methods: In this cross sectional study, atherosclerosis risk factors including fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in 165 patients with recent (less than three months′ duration) acute myocardial infarction. Slitlamp examination was performed to detect corneal arcus. Associations between senile co...

  17. Enhanced survival in vitro of human corneal endothelial cells using mouse embryonic stem cell conditioned medium

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Dong; Liu, Zhiping; Li, Chaoyang; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jin; Wan, Pengxia; Mou, Yong-Gao; Wang, Zhichong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether mouse embryonic stem cell conditioned medium (ESC-CM) increases the proliferative capacity of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. Methods Primary cultures of HCECs were established from explants of the endothelial cell layer, including the Descemet’s membrane. Cells were cultured in human corneal endothelium medium (CEM) containing 25% ESC-CM for the experimental group and CEM alone for the control group. Phase-contrast microscopy and reverse-transcr...

  18. Automatized Patient-Specific Methodology for Numerical Determination of Biomechanical Corneal Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Gracia, M Á; Zurita, J; Piñero, D P; Calvo, B; Rodríguez-Matas, J F

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a novel methodology for building a three-dimensional patient-specific eyeball model suitable for performing a fully automatic finite element (FE) analysis of the corneal biomechanics. The reconstruction algorithm fits and smooths the patient's corneal surfaces obtained in clinic with corneal topographers and creates an FE mesh for the simulation. The patient's corneal elevation and pachymetry data is kept where available, to account for all corneal geometric features (central corneal thickness-CCT and curvature). Subsequently, an iterative free-stress algorithm including a fiber's pull-back is applied to incorporate the pre-stress field to the model. A convergence analysis of the mesh and a sensitivity analysis of the parameters involved in the numerical response is also addressed to determine the most influential features of the FE model. As a final step, the methodology is applied on the simulation of a general non-commercial non-contact tonometry diagnostic test over a large set of 130 patients-53 healthy, 63 keratoconic (KTC) and 14 post-LASIK surgery eyes. Results show the influence of the CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP) and fibers (87%) on the numerical corneal displacement [Formula: see text] the good agreement of the [Formula: see text] with clinical results, and the importance of considering the corneal pre-stress in the FE analysis. The potential and flexibility of the methodology can help improve understanding of the eye biomechanics, to help to plan surgeries, or to interpret the results of new diagnosis tools (i.e., non-contact tonometers). PMID:26307330

  19. Microtubule regulation of corneal fibroblast morphology and mechanical activity in 3-D culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Areum; Petroll, W. Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of microtubules in regulating corneal fibroblast structure and mechanical behavior using static (3-D) and dynamic (4-D) imaging of both cells and their surrounding matrix. Human corneal fibroblasts transfected to express GFP-zyxin (to label focal adhesions) or GFP-tubulin (to label microtubules) were plated at low density inside 100 μm thick type I collagen matrices. After 24 hours, the effects of nocodazole (to depolymerize microtubules),...

  20. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry and Contact Ultrasonic Pachymeter

    OpenAIRE

    Kocatürk, Tolga; Erkan, Erol; Çakmak, Harun; Kurt Ömürlü, İmran; Dayanır, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjective: The aim is to compare the central corneal thickness measurements by optical low-coherence reflectometry and contact ultrasonic pachymeter in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma as well as healthy subjects.Materials and Methods: We have made a survey of the data of the patients with glaucoma who had been followed for ten years at the Department of Ophthalmology. 148 eyes of 76 patients who had central corneal thic...

  1. Central corneal thickness vs Goldman´ tonometry. Study in suspecting patients of Glaucoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa E. Cabeza Martínez; Damaris Peralta Palmero; Elena Triana Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Measuring of the central corneal thickness through ultrasonic pachymetry, in several opportunities can contribute to diagnose glaucoma. The main objective of this research was to determine, the central corneal thickness in suspecting patients of having glaucoma.to check if it makes influence while taking the intraocular pressure with the Tonometer of Goldman, 328 eyes were studied out of the 164 patients who attended the glaucoma provincial appointment as suspecting of suffering from this pat...

  2. Hearing disability in patients with Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy: unrecognized co-pathology?

    OpenAIRE

    Stehouwer, Marilette; Bijlsma, Ward R; Lelij, Allegonda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate a possible association between Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and hearing disability. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was performed at the University Medical Center Utrecht. Cases and controls were patients who were treated by a cornea specialist between 2004 and 2008. FECD patients had either already undergone or were planned for a keratoplasty procedure. All controls were patients treated for cataract without any corneal pathology. Cases and...

  3. Comparison of Corneal Endothelial Changes After a Single-Dose Injection of Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Horozoğlu; Tansu Gönen; Mustafa Yaşar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the corneal endothelial changes after injection of a single-dose intravitreal bevacizumab or intravitreal ranibizumab. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 27 eyes of 27 patients with either diabetic macular edema or senile macular degeneration, who underwent 1.25 mg/0.05 ml intravitreal bevacizumab or 0.5 mg/0.05 ml ranibizumab injection. None of the patients had corneal pathology. Fourteen eyes of 14 patients received intravitreal ra...

  4. Delayed Corneal Epithelial Healing after Intravitreal Bevacizumab: A Clinical and Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo A Colombres; Ana L Gramajo; Maria P Arrambide; Juarez, Silvina M; J. Fernando Arevalo; Jorge Bar; Claudio P Juarez; Luna, Jose D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report corneal epithelial defects (CEDs) and delayed epithelial healing after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection and to describe delayed corneal epithelial healing with topical administration of bevacizumab in an experimental rabbit model. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 850 eyes of 850 patients with neovascular eye disease and diabetic macular edema who had received 1.25 to 2.5 mg IVB. In the experimental arm of the study, photorefractive keratect...

  5. The clinical and cellular basis of contact lens-related corneal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Danielle M.; H Dwight Cavanagh

    2008-01-01

    Danielle M Robertson, H Dwight CavanaghDepartment of Ophthalmology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Microbial keratitis (MK) is the most visually devastating complication associated with contact lens wear. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is highly invasive in the corneal epithelium and is responsible for more than half of the reported cases of contact lens-related MK. To protect against Pseudomonas-mediated MK, the corneal epithelium has evolved overl...

  6. The Effects of Silicone Hydrogel Lens Wear on the Corneal Epithelium and Risk for Microbial Keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies using animal models and human clinical trials have demonstrated that the use of low oxygen transmissible contact lens materials produce corneal epithelial surface damage resulting in increased Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) adhesion and raft-mediated internalization into surface corneal epithelial cells. These findings led to the testable clinical predictions that: (1) microbial keratitis (MK) risk is expected to be greatest during the first 6 months of wear; (2) there is no dif...

  7. Tear film inflammatory mediators during continuous wear of contact lenses and corneal refractive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez, Javier; Villa-Collar, César; Sobrino Moreiras, Tomás; Lema Gesto, Isabel; González-Méijome, José Manuel; Rodríguez Ares, María T.; Parafita, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study changes in tear film inflammatory mediators following continuous wear of silicone-hydrogel lenses and corneal refractive therapy with reverse geometry contact lenses. DESIGN: A prospective, case-control study. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects had worn silicone-hydrogel lenses on a 30-night continuous wear basis. Thirty-two subjects had worn corneal refractive therapy lenses on an overnight basis. Thirty-two matched control subjects were also recruited. Tear samples ...

  8. Stabilization in early adult-onset myopia with corneal refractive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Ferreira, Daniela Patrícia Lopes; Ribeiro, Miguel António Faria; Matos, Sofia Cláudia Peixoto; Queirós, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the stabilization of early adult-onset myopia in three university students after initiating orthokeratology treatment with corneal refractive therapy contact lenses. Methods: Three Caucasian early adult-onset progressing myopic subjects (1 male, 2 females) were fitted with corneal refractive therapy lenses to correct myopia between ?1.50 and ?2.50 D of sphere using Paragon CRT (Paragon Vision Sciences, Mesa, AZ)lenses for overnight orthokeratology. The pre-treatment refra...

  9. A comparison study of corneal topographic changes following 20-, 23-, and 25-G pars plana vitrectomy

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    Alexandre Achille Grandinetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate and compare corneal topographic changes following pars plana vitrectomy with the 23-gauge (G and 25-G transconjuntival sutureless vitrectomy system as well as the standard 20-G vitrectomy system.Methods:We prospectively evaluated corneal topographic changes in 45 eyes of 45 patients divided into three groups according to vitrectomy system used (20-, 23-, and 25-G. All patients underwent computer-assisted videokeratography using an EyeSys System 3000 topographer preoperatively and at one week, one month, and three months postoperatively.Results:In the 20-G vitrectomy group, we found statistically significant postoperative changes in corneal curvature parameters with an average steepening of 0.98 ± 0.18 D (P<0.001 and 0.93 ± 0.21 D (P<0.001 at one week and one month, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed at the three-month follow-up visit. In the 23- and 25-G groups, no statistically significant changes in corneal curvature parameters were observed at any postoperative follow-up visit.Conclusion:Twenty-three-gauge and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy did not induce topographic corneal changes following surgery, whereas 20-G vitrectomy was found to induce transient topographic corneal changes that had returned to preoperative levels at three months postoperatively.

  10. Preserved xenogenic amniotic membrane as a patch on the repair of superficial corneal ulcers in rabbits

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    Kelly Cristine de Sousa Pontes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of canine amniotic membrane, previously preserved in glycerin, used as a patch on the repair of experimentally-made superficial corneal ulcers and to compare corneal epithelization between the treated and non-treated groups. Xenogeneic amniotic membranes were collected aseptically and preserved in 99% glycerin at room temperature. Each animal was anesthetized and submitted to superficial corneal keratectomy of the left eye. The treated group received a fragment of canine amniotic membrane as a patch, while the control group had no treatment. The treated group showed blepharospasm, ocular discharge and conjunctival congestion. The membrane accelerated corneal repair in the beginning of the process, however, it delayed its conclusion (p<0.05. Treated eyes showed greater vessel formation and decreased corneal transparency (p<0.05. The stroma of the control group was thicker than that of the treated group (p<0.05. We suggest that amniotic membrane used in this manner can be applied as a therapy for superficial corneal ulcers in the beginning phases of the repair process.

  11. Management of a Small Paracentral Corneal Perforation Using Iatrogenic Iris Incarceration and Tissue Adhesive

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    Akira Kobayashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention for corneal perforation is indicated when the anterior chamber does not reform within a short period of time. Herein, we report the successful management of a small paracentral corneal perforation using autologous iris incarceration and tissue adhesive. Case: A 41-year-old man developed a small paracentral corneal perforation (0.5 mm in size in the right eye, while the treating physician attempted to remove the residual rust ring after removal of a piece of metallic foreign body. Observations: The eye was initially managed with a bandage soft contact lens to ameliorate the aqueous leakage; however, without success. Iatrogenic iris incarceration of the wound was first induced, followed by application of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to the perforated site. As a result, the anterior chamber was immediately reformed and maintained. Complete corneal epithelialization of the perforation was achieved in 2 months without visual compromises. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive with iatrogenic incarceration of the autologous iris was effective in treating this type of small corneal perforation. This technique is simple and potentially useful for small paracentral corneal perforations outside the visual axis and without good apposition.

  12. Delayed Corneal Epithelial Healing after Intravitreal Bevacizumab: A Clinical and Experimental Study

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    Gustavo A Colombres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report corneal epithelial defects (CEDs and delayed epithelial healing after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection and to describe delayed corneal epithelial healing with topical administration of bevacizumab in an experimental rabbit model. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 850 eyes of 850 patients with neovascular eye disease and diabetic macular edema who had received 1.25 to 2.5 mg IVB. In the experimental arm of the study, photorefractive keratectomy was used to create a 3 mm CED in the right eyes of 18 New Zealand rabbits which were then randomized to three equal groups. All rabbits received topical antibiotics, additionally those in group A received topical bevacizumab and animals in group B were treated with topical corticosteroids. The rate of epithelial healing was assessed at different time points using slitlamp photography. Results: In the clinical study, seven eyes of seven subjects developed CEDs the day after IVB injection. All of these eyes had preexisting corneal edema. The healing period ranged from 3 to 38 days (average 11 days despite appropriate medical management. In the experimental study, topical bevacizumab and corticosteroids both significantly hindered corneal epithelial healing at 12 and 24 hours. Conclusion: Bevacizumab was demonstrated to cause CEDs in clinical settings. Moreover, corneal epithelial healing was delayed by topical application of bevacizumab, in the experimental model. These short-term results suggest that corneal edema may be considered as a risk factor for epithelial defects after IVB.

  13. Corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking with UV-A irradiation and hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas

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    Belquiz Amaral Nassaralla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the thinnest corneal thickness changes during and after corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with ultraviolet-A irradiation, using hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in thin corneas. METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients were included in this study. After epithelium removal, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was instilled to the cornea every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was then applied every 20 seconds for 5 minutes or until the thinnest corneal thickness reached 400 µm. Ultraviolet-A irradiation was performed for 30 minutes. During irradiation, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops were applied every 5 minutes. Ultrasound pachymetry was performed at approximately the thinnest point of the cornea preoperatively, after epithelial removal, after iso-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after hypo-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after ultraviolet-A irradiation, and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Mean preoperative thinnest corneal thickness was 380 ± 11 µm. After epithelial removal it decreased to 341 ± 11 µm, and after 30 minutes of iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, to 330 ± 7.6 µm. After hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, mean thinnest corneal thickness increased to 418 ± 11 µm. After UVA irradiation, it was 384 ± 10 µm. At 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment, it was 372 ± 10 µm, 381 ± 12.7, and 379 ± 15 µm, respectively. No intraoperative, early postoperative, or late postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution seems to be effective for swelling thin corneas. The swelling effect is transient and short acting. Corneal thickness should be monitored throughout the procedure. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are required in order to make meaningful conclusions regarding safety.

  14. Corneal Cross-Linking (with a Partial Deepithelization) in Keratoconus with Five Years of Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Carreño, Néstor I.; Ortiz, Alvaro I.; Barrera, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, Carlos Julián; Ochoa, Miguel E.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective interventional case series including 80 eyes of 48 patients with keratoconus (KC) who were treated with modified corneal cross-linking (CXL) for KC (with a partial deepithelization in a pattern of stripes). The average follow-up was 5.8 years (with a minimum of 5 years). At the last follow-up visit, compared with preoperative values, there were no significant changes in spherical equivalent, average keratometry, corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, or corneal resistance factor. The distance-corrected visual acuity was 20/39 preoperatively and 20/36 postoperatively (P = 0.3). The endothelial cell count decreased by 4.7% (P < 0.005). These findings suggest that this modified corneal CXL technique is a safe and effective alternative to halt the progression of KC up to five years after the procedure. However, some concerns remain as to whether this technique can affect in some degree the corneal endothelial cells. PMID:27199574

  15. “EYE BALL HANGER”–AN INDIGENOUSLY DESIGNED DEVICE F OR DONOR CORNEAL EVALUATION IN ENUCLEATED EYES

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    Sudhir Babu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Outcome of a corneal transplant surgery mainly depend s on the functional reserve of the cornea being transplanted. Thus Donor corneal tissue evaluation forms a vital step in assessing the viability of the graft. Cornea retrieval can be done as an in situ corneal button excision or whole globe enucleation. Studies have shown that enucleation causes less corneal damage and striae as compared to in situ Cor neo scleral button excision. 1 As soon as the eye is received at the eye bank corneal evaluation is done by corneal surgeon using slit lamp and specular microscope, and the cornea is graded, labele d and sent for storage. Before evaluation, cornea should be allowed to come to room temperature. Whole globe or corneo sclera button should not be left at room temperature for more than one hour.

  16. Distribution and Repeatability of Corneal Astigmatism Measurements (Magnitude and Axis) Evaluated With Color Light Emitting Diode Reflection Topography

    OpenAIRE

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and investigate the distribution and repeatability of anterior corneal surface astigmatism measurements (axis and magnitude) using a novel corneal topographer. Methods: Anterior corneal surface astigmatism was investigated in a total of 195 eyes using a novel multicolored spot reflection topographer (Cassini; i-Optics). Two patient groups were studied, a younger-age group A and an older-age group B. Three consecutive acquisitions were obtained from each eye. The repeatabi...

  17. Generation and Feasibility Assessment of a New Vehicle for Cell-Based Therapy for Treating Corneal Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Naoki; Kakutani, Kazuya; Inoue, Ryota; Matsumoto, Daiki; Shimada, Tomoki; Nakahara, Makiko; Kiyanagi, Yumiko; Itoh, Takehiro; Koizumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The corneal endothelium maintains corneal transparency by its pump and barrier functions; consequently, its decompensation due to any pathological reason causes severe vision loss due to corneal haziness. Corneal transplantation is the only therapeutic choice for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, but associated problems, such as a shortages of donor corneas, the difficulty of the surgical procedure, and graft failure, still need to be resolved. Regenerative medicine is attractive to researchers as a means of providing innovative therapies for corneal endothelial dysfunction, as it now does for other diseases. We previously demonstrated the successful regeneration of corneal endothelium in animal models by injecting cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs) in combination with a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the vehicle for clinical use in cell-based therapy. Our screening of cell culture media revealed that RELAR medium promoted CEC adhesion. We then modified RELAR medium by removing hormones, growth factors, and potentially toxic materials to generate a cell therapy vehicle (CTV) composed of amino acid, salts, glucose, and vitamins. Injection of CECs in CTV enabled efficient engraftment and regeneration of the corneal endothelium in the rabbit corneal endothelial dysfunction model, with restoration of a transparent cornea. The CECs retained >85% viability after a 24 hour preservation as a cell suspension in CTV at 4°C and maintained their potency to regenerate the corneal endothelium in vivo. The vehicle developed here is clinically applicable for cell-based therapy aimed at treating the corneal endothelium. Our strategy involves the generation of vehicle from a culture medium appropriate for a given cell type by removing materials that are not favorable for clinical use. PMID:27355373

  18. Generation and Feasibility Assessment of a New Vehicle for Cell-Based Therapy for Treating Corneal Endothelial Dysfunction.

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    Naoki Okumura

    Full Text Available The corneal endothelium maintains corneal transparency by its pump and barrier functions; consequently, its decompensation due to any pathological reason causes severe vision loss due to corneal haziness. Corneal transplantation is the only therapeutic choice for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, but associated problems, such as a shortages of donor corneas, the difficulty of the surgical procedure, and graft failure, still need to be resolved. Regenerative medicine is attractive to researchers as a means of providing innovative therapies for corneal endothelial dysfunction, as it now does for other diseases. We previously demonstrated the successful regeneration of corneal endothelium in animal models by injecting cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs in combination with a Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the vehicle for clinical use in cell-based therapy. Our screening of cell culture media revealed that RELAR medium promoted CEC adhesion. We then modified RELAR medium by removing hormones, growth factors, and potentially toxic materials to generate a cell therapy vehicle (CTV composed of amino acid, salts, glucose, and vitamins. Injection of CECs in CTV enabled efficient engraftment and regeneration of the corneal endothelium in the rabbit corneal endothelial dysfunction model, with restoration of a transparent cornea. The CECs retained >85% viability after a 24 hour preservation as a cell suspension in CTV at 4°C and maintained their potency to regenerate the corneal endothelium in vivo. The vehicle developed here is clinically applicable for cell-based therapy aimed at treating the corneal endothelium. Our strategy involves the generation of vehicle from a culture medium appropriate for a given cell type by removing materials that are not favorable for clinical use.

  19. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Je Hwan Yoon; Kyun-Hyung Kim; Jong Yeon Lee; Dong Heun Nam

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes). The outcome measures were surgically induced astig...

  20. Multi-aspheric description of the myopic cornea after different refractive treatments and its correlation with corneal higher order aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, António; Villa-Collar, César; Jorge, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ángel Ramón; González-Méijome, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background To analyse the asphericity of the anterior corneal surface (ACS) for different diameters, and correlate those values with corneal higher order aberrations (cHOA) before and after myopic treatments with corneal refractive therapy (CRT) for orthokeratology and customized (CL) and standard laser (SL) assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Setting Clínica Oftalmológica NovoVisión, Madrid, Spain. Methods The right eyes of 81 patients (27 in each treatment group), with a mean age of 29.94 ± 7.5 years, were analysed. Corneal videokeratographic data were used to obtain corneal asphericity (Q) for different corneal diameters from 3 to 8 mm and cHOA root mean square (RMS) obtained from Zernike polynomials for a pupil diameter of 6 mm. Results There were statistically significant differences in asphericity values calculated at different corneal diameters for different refractive treatments and their changes. The difference between asphericity at 3 and 8 mm reference diameters showed statistically significant correlations with spherical-like cHOA that was also significantly increased after all procedures. Conclusions The shift in corneal asphericity and the differences among different treatment techniques are more evident for the smaller reference diameters. These differences can be much reduced or even masked for a peripheral reference point at 4 mm from centre, which is used by some corneal topographers.

  1. Evaluation of corneal changes after myopic LASIK using the Pentacam®

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    Khairat YM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yehia M Khairat, Yasser H Mohamed, Ismail ANO Moftah, Narden N Fouad Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minya University, Egypt Background: In this study, we used a Pentacam® device to evaluate the corneal changes that occur after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. Methods: Our study included 60 eyes of 32 patients. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using LASIK. The eyes were examined preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively using a Pentacam to assess corneal changes with regard to curvature, elevation, and asphericity of the cornea. Results: A statistically significant decrease in mean keratometric power of the anterior corneal surface (P = 0.001 compared with its pre-LASIK value was detected after 3 months, but there was no significant change in keratometric power of the posterior surface (P = 0.836. Asphericity (Q-value of the anterior and posterior surfaces increased significantly after LASIK (P = 0.001. A significant forward bulge of the anterior corneal surface 4 mm and 7 mm from the central zone was detected 3 months post-LASIK (P = 0.001 for both, but there was no significant increase in posterior elevation at 4 mm and 7 mm from the center (P = 0.637 and P = 0.26, respectively. No cases of post-LASIK ectasia were detected. Correlation between different parameters of the corneal surface revealed an indirect relation between changes in pachymetry and anterior corneal elevation at 4 mm and 7 mm from the central zone (r = −0.27, P = 0.13, and r = −0.37, P = 0.04, respectively, and a direct proportion between changes in pachymetry and mean keratometric power of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces (r = 0.7, P = 0.001 and r = 0.4, P = 0.028, respectively. Conclusion: LASIK causes significant changes at the anterior corneal surface but the effect is subtle and insignificant at the posterior surface. Keywords: LASIK, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, Pentacam®, corneal

  2. Astigmatic Outcomes of Temporal versus Nasal Clear Corneal Phacoemulsification

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    Mohammad Pakravan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the astigmatic outcomes of phacoemulsification cataract surgery using temporal versus nasal clear corneal incisions. METHODS: In a clinical trial, consecutive patients with senile cataracts underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic foldable intraocular lens through a horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in right and nasal in left eyes. Outcome measures included keratometric astigmatism and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA calculated by the vector analysis method using the Holladay-Cravy-Koch formula. RESULTS: The nasal and temporal groups consisted of 20 eyes each. Mean preoperative keratometric astigmatism was 0.63±0.48 D and 0.38±0.39 D in the temporal and nasal incision groups respectively (P=0.09. Data on 10 eyes in each study group was available for the six-month analysis. Mean keratometric astigmatism was as follows in the temporal and nasal groups respectively: 0.85±0.47 D versus 1.95±0.45 D at 1 week (P < 0.001, 0.73±0.46 D versus 1.79±0.55 D at 4 weeks (P < 0.001, and 0.63±0.30 D versus 1.05±0.56 D at 6 months (P=0.053 after surgery. SIA at the same follow-up intervals was 0.71±0.20 D versus 1.80±0.22 D (P < 0.001, 0.63±0.20 D versus 1.65±0.31 D (P < 0.001 and 0.26±0.46 D versus 0.92±0.36 D (P=0.002 in the temporal versus nasal incision groups

  3. Ecuación hiperbólica de transmisión del calor para el estudio de la ablación corneal

    OpenAIRE

    Berjano Zanón, Enrique; López Molina, Juan Antonio; Rivera Ortún, María José; Trujillo Guillén, Macarena

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo presentamos el estudio del problema de transmisión del calor que se produce en el proceso de ablación de la córnea humana por radiofrecuencia, tal es el caso de la queratoplastia conductiva para la corrección de la hipermetropía y/o el astigmatismo mediante el empleo de electrodos intracorneales de muy pequeñas dimensiones. En estos casos, las distancias de interés son lo suficientemente pequeñas y los tiempos de excitación lo suficientemente cortos, como para que el est...

  4. Evaluación del cambio en la calidad de vida de pacientes miopes operados con cirugía de láser excimer corneal

    OpenAIRE

    Perdomo Argüello, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    [ES]La Miopía es un defecto en el enfoque visual (refractivo), que produce dificultad al ver los objetos distantes. La mayor parte (43%) de las principales causas de discapacidad visual en el mundo corresponden a errores de refracción no corregidos como la miopía, hipermetropía o el astigmatismo (Roselló et al., 2011). Adicionalmente su prevalencia va en aumento, afectando entre el 70 y 90% de la población en Asia, 30 al 40% en Europa y América, y cerca del 10 al 20% en África, (Saw et al., 1...

  5. Evaluation of corneal thickness alterations during menstrual cycle in productive age women

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    Negar Amiri Ghahfarokhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the change in corneal thickness through different phases of menstrual cycle in women who are in their productive age. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy women with normal past medical history were enrolled in this prospective study. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter three times during a menstrual cycle: Beginning of the cycle (days 1-3, ovulation time, and at the end of cycle (days 27-32. We confirmed ovulation time with determining a peak in luteinizing hormone in urine. To avoid the diurnal variation of the corneal thickness which is well recognized, we checked all our subjects at 10 in the morning. Results: In days 1 to 3 of menstruation, mean corneal thickness was 541.40±11.36 and 540.82±11.70 microns for left and right eyes respectively. At ovulation time the mean thickness changed to 556.50±7.11 and 555.98±7.26 microns for left and right eyes respectively, and at the end of the cycle, the corneal thickness turned in to 536.38±12.83 and 535.48±13.08 microns for left and right eyes respectively. The difference of corneal thickness was statistically significant relating to the different stages of menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The thickest cornea during the menstruation cycle is achieved at the ovulation time and the thinnest at the end of the cycle and this should be taken in to account whilst plan to do a corneal refractive surgery.

  6. Effect of corneal hydration on the quality of the femtosecond laser anterior lamellar cut.

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    Ossama Nada

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effect of corneal hydration on the quality of the femtosecond laser (FSL anterior lamellar cut. The Visumax FSL was used to dissect an 8-mm-diameter corneal flap in 22 eye bank corneas showing various levels of hydration. The intended ablation depth was 220 µm in all eyes, which corresponded to the maximal depth available with this laser. After the cut, the achieved ablation depth was measured using optical coherence tomography images, flap separability was assessed by measuring the mean force generated to detach the flap, and stromal bed roughness was assessed by measuring the Haralick contrast level on the 1000× scanning electron microscopy images of the ablated surfaces. The preoperative central corneal thickness ranged from 547 to 1104 µm (mean ± SEM: 833 ± 30 µm. A negative correlation was found between the level of corneal hydration and the ablation depth measured in the mid-peripheral cornea (r =  -0.626, p = 0.003, the ablation being more superficial in more edematous corneas. The Haralick contrast also tended to increase as a function of corneal hydration (r = 0.416, p = 0.061, suggesting that laser ablation in edematous corneas results in rougher stromal surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that the quality of the FSL lamellar cut decreases as the level of corneal hydration increases. Although FSL is still considered in the field as the tool of the future for corneal dissection, a better understanding of the limits of this tool will be needed before it can replace manual or automated stromal dissection techniques in hydrated corneas.

  7. IκB kinase β regulates epithelium migration during corneal wound healing.

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    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available The IKKβ is known to regulate transcription factor NF-κB activation leading to inflammatory responses. Recent gene knockout studies have shown that IKKβ can orchestrate local inflammatory responses and regulate homeostasis of epithelial tissues. To investigate whether IKKβ has an intrinsic role in epithelial cells, we established an in vivo system in the immune privileged corneal epithelium. We generated triple transgenic Krt12(rtTA/rtTAt/tet-O-Cre/Ikkβ(F/F (Ikkβ(ΔCE/ΔCE mice by crossing the Krt12-rtTA knock-in mice, which express the reverse tetracycline transcription activator in corneal epithelial cells, with the tet-O-Cre and Ikkβ(F/F mice. Doxycycline-induced IKKβ ablation occurred in corneal epithelial cells of triple transgenic Ikkβ(ΔCE/ΔCE mice, but loss of IKKβ did not cause ocular abnormalities in fetal development and postnatal maintenance. Instead, loss of IKKβ significantly delayed healing of corneal epithelial debridement without affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis or macrophage infiltration. In vitro studies with human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpi also showed that IKKβ was required for cytokine-induced cell migration and wound closure but was dispensable for cell proliferation. In both in vivo and in vitro settings, IKKβ was required for optimal activation of NF-κB and p38 signaling in corneal epithelial cells, and p38 activation is likely mediated through formation of an IKKβ-p38 protein complex. Thus, our studies in corneal epithelium reveal a previously un-recognized role for IKKβ in the control of epithelial cell motility and wound healing.

  8. Intraocular Lens Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery

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    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report refractive outcomes following phacoemulsification (PE and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation in eyes with previous corneal refractive surgery. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, 18 consecutive eyes of 14 patients with previous keratorefractive surgery for myopia including photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, 6 eyes; 33.3% and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, 12 eyes; 66.7% underwent PE+PCIOL. Computerized corneal topography was employed to determine the flattest keratometric reading within the 3-mm central zone. This value was inserted into the Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff/T (SRK/T formula to calculate IOL power. IOL power selected for implantation was 1 D greater than the calculated value described above. Results: Mean age and follow-up period were 54.1±11.5 years and 29.9±26.3 months, respectively. Mean implanted lens power was 18.56±3.86 D which was not significantly different from mean back-calculated IOL power for target refraction (19.04±4.16 D (P=0.28. There was no significant difference between mean target refraction (-0.94±0.52 D and achieved postoperative spherical equivalent refractive error (-0.62±1.06 at final follow-up (P=0.28. The achieved spherical equivalent refractive error was within ±0.50 D of intended refraction in 8 (44.4% eyes, within ±1.0 D in 11 (61.1% eyes, and within ±2.0 D in 16 (88.9% eyes. In a subgroup of patients (5 eyes with complete pre-refractive surgery data, the difference between post-refractive surgery keratometry method and all other methods (P=0.02 and between the current method and the Feiz-Mannis method (P=0.01 was statistically significant. Conclusion: The method suggested herein is simple and independent of pre-refractive surgery data with results comparable to other commonly used methods.

  9. Phenotypic Spectrum of Granular Corneal Dystrophy Type II in Two Italian Families Presenting an Unusual Granular Corneal Dystrophy Type I Clinical Appearance

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    Cosimo Mazzotta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, instrumental, and genetic findings are reported in Italian families with Type II Granular Corneal Dystrophies (GCD2 presenting an initial unusual presentation of a Granular Corneal Dystrophy Type I (GCD1 phenotypic spectrum in female descendants. Slit-lamp examinations showed the typical phenotypic features of GCD2 in both mothers and a phenotypic appearance of GCD1 in both daughters. Despite the different phenotypic onset, the genetic diagnostic testing revealed the presence of a mutation in the TGFB-I gene, typical of GCD2 in both cases, excluding GCD1. Patients who were clinically suspected of corneal dystrophy need a genetic confirmatory testing for certain diagnosis. Genetic test may help to find the specific mutation distinguishing between different phenotypic spectra with relative diagnostic and prognostic implications. The study demonstrates that the phenotypic spectrum of genetically confirmed granular corneal dystrophies in patients may change over time. Since the R124H mutation has also been described in clinically asymptomatic individuals prior to LASIK, who then develop dramatic deposition, suggesting that this particular mutation and phenotype may be sensitive to, precipitated, or modified by central cornea trauma, a careful familial anamnesis excluding cornel dystrophies and specific preoperative genetic test are recommended prior to LASIK.

  10. Trehalose treatment accelerates the healing of UVB-irradiated corneas. Comparative immunohistochemical studies on corneal cryostat sections and corneal impression cytology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Čejka, Čestmír; Luyckx, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 8 (2012), s. 1029-1040. ISSN 0213-3911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Trehalose * UVB rays * Corneal healing Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2012

  11. A Dual Role for Corneal Dendritic Cells in Herpes Simplex Keratitis: Local Suppression of Corneal Damage and Promotion of Systemic Viral Dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hu

    Full Text Available The cornea is the shield to the foreign world and thus, a primary site for peripheral infections. However, transparency and vision are incompatible with inflammation and scarring that may result from infections. Thus, the cornea is required to perform a delicate balance between fighting infections and preserving vision. To date, little is known about the specific role of antigen-presenting cells in viral keratitis. In this study, utilizing an established murine model of primary acute herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 keratitis, we demonstrate that primary HSV keratitis results in increased conventional dendritic cells (cDCs and macrophages within 24 hours after infection. Local depletion of cDCs in CD11c-DTR mice by subconjuntival diphtheria toxin injections, led to increased viral proliferation, and influx of inflammatory cells, resulting in increased scarring and clinical keratitis. In addition, while HSV infection resulted in significant corneal nerve destruction, local depletion of cDCs resulted in a much more severe loss of corneal nerves. Further, local cDC depletion resulted in decreased corneal nerve infection, and subsequently decreased and delayed systemic viral transmission in the trigeminal ganglion and draining lymph node, resulting in decreased mortality of mice. In contrast, sham depletion or depletion of macrophages through local injection of clodronate liposomes had neither a significant impact on the cornea, nor an effect on systemic viral transmission. In conclusion, we demonstrate that corneal cDCs may play a primary role in local corneal defense during viral keratitis and preserve vision, at the cost of inducing systemic viral dissemination, leading to increased mortality.

  12. DNA Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling in Porcine Keratocytes and Corneal Endothelial Cells and Comparative Analysis Associated with Xeno-related Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mee Kum; Oh, Joo Youn; Ko, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jung, Jin Ho; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang Joon; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Seung-Jun; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Porcine to rat corneal xenotransplantation resulted in severe inflammation and rejection of the corneal stroma, whereas an allograft showed mainly endothelial cell-associated rejection. We, therefore, investigated and compared the gene expression between porcine keratocytes and corneal endothelial cells. RNA was isolated from primary cultured porcine or human keratocytes and porcine corneal endothelial cells. Gene expression was comparatively analyzed after normalization with microarray metho...

  13. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in eyes with anterior corneal dystrophies: preoperative and postoperative ultrasound biomicroscopic examination and short-term clinical outcomes with and without an antihyperopia treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Rapuano, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of high-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in determining the depth of corneal pathology in eyes undergoing excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for primary or recurrent anterior stromal corneal dystrophies. Corneal clarity, visual acuity and refractive changes in eyes with and without an antihyperopia treatment were also analyzed. METHODS: Twenty eyes of 14 patients with anterior stromal corneal dystrophies were treated with PTK. Eyes were evalu...

  14. Adjuvant corneal crosslinking to prevent hyperopic LASIK regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslanides IM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ioannis M Aslanides, Achyut N MukherjeeEmmetropia Mediterranean Eye Clinic, Heraklion, Crete, GreecePurpose: To report the long term outcomes, safety, stability, and efficacy in a pilot series of simultaneous hyperopic laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and corneal crosslinking (CXL.Method: A small cohort series of five eyes, with clinically suboptimal topography and/or thickness, underwent LASIK surgery with immediate riboflavin application under the flap, followed by UV light irradiation. Postoperative assessment was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, with late follow up at 4 years, and results were compared with a matched cohort that received LASIK only.Results: The average age of the LASIK-CXL group was 39 years (26–46, and the average spherical equivalent hyperopic refractive error was +3.45 diopters (standard deviation 0.76; range 2.5 to 4.5. All eyes maintained refractive stability over the 4 years. There were no complications related to CXL, and topographic and clinical outcomes were as expected for standard LASIK.Conclusion: This limited series suggests that simultaneous LASIK and CXL for hyperopia is safe. Outcomes of the small cohort suggest that this technique may be promising for ameliorating hyperopic regression, presumed to be biomechanical in origin, and may also address ectasia risk.Keyword: CXL

  15. Microfabricated instruments and methods to treat recurrent corneal erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; D' urso, Brian R.; Chaum, Edward; Simpson, John T.; Baba, Justin S.; Ericson, M. Nance; Warmack, Robert J.

    2015-06-02

    In one embodiment, the present invention provides a device and method for treating recurrent corneal erosion. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of contacting an epithelium layer of a cornea with an array of glass micro-rods including a plurality of sharp features having a length that penetrates a Bowman's layer of the eye, wherein the plurality of sharp features of the array of glass micro-rods produces a plurality of punctures in the Bowman's layer of the eye that are of micro-scale or less. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method and device for drug delivery. In one embodiment, the device includes an array of glass micro-rods, wherein at least one glass micro-rod of the array of glass micro-rods includes a sharp feature opposite a base of the array of glass micro-rods, wherein the sharp feature includes a treated surface for delivering a chemical compound to the eye.

  16. Microfabricated instruments and methods to treat recurrent corneal erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Charles L; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R; Chaum, Edward; Simpson, John T; Baba, Justin S; Ericson, M. Nance; Warmack, Robert J

    2013-11-26

    In one embodiment, the present invention provides a device and method for treating recurrent corneal erosion. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of contacting an epithelium layer of a cornea with an array of glass micro-rods including a plurality of sharp features having a length that penetrates a Bowman's layer of the eye, wherein the plurality of sharp features of the array of glass micro-rods produces a plurality of punctures in the Bowman's layer of the eye that are of micro-scale or less. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method and device for drug delivery. In one embodiment, the device includes an array of glass micro-rods, wherein at least one glass micro-rod of the array of glass micro-rods includes a sharp feature opposite a base of the array of glass micro-rods, wherein the sharp feature includes a treated surface for delivering a chemical compound to the eye.

  17. Microfabricated instruments and methods to treat recurrent corneal erosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; D'urso, Brian R.; Chaum, Edward; Simpson, John T.; Baba, Justin S.; Ericson, M. Nance; Warmack, Robert J.

    2015-06-02

    In one embodiment, the present invention provides a device and method for treating recurrent corneal erosion. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of contacting an epithelium layer of a cornea with an array of glass micro-rods including a plurality of sharp features having a length that penetrates a Bowman's layer of the eye, wherein the plurality of sharp features of the array of glass micro-rods produces a plurality of punctures in the Bowman's layer of the eye that are of micro-scale or less. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method and device for drug delivery. In one embodiment, the device includes an array of glass micro-rods, wherein at least one glass micro-rod of the array of glass micro-rods includes a sharp feature opposite a base of the array of glass micro-rods, wherein the sharp feature includes a treated surface for delivering a chemical compound to the eye.

  18. Risk Factors in Post-LASIK Corneal Ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gurkan Tatar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the risk factors for post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia. Materials and Methods. Medical records of 42 eyes of 28 (10 women, 18 men patients who developed corneal ectasia after LASIK were retrospectively reviewed. Topographical features and surgical parameters of those patients were evaluated. Results. The mean age of patients was 34.73±6.50 (23–48 years and the mean interval from LASIK to the diagnosis of post-LASIK ectasia was 36.0±16.92 (12–60 months. The following factors were determined as a risk factors: deep ablation (>75 μm in 10 eyes, FFK (forme fruste keratoconus in 6 eyes, steep cornea (>47 D in 3 eyes, pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD in 2 eyes, thin cornea (<500 μm in 2 eyes, thin and steep cornea in 2 eyes, thin cornea and deep ablation in 5 eyes, FFK and steep cornea in 2 eyes, and FFK, steep cornea, and deep ablation in 1 eye. However no risk factor has been determined in 9 eyes (21.4%. Conclusion. The findings of our study showed that most of the patients who developed post-LASIK ectasia have a risk factor for post-LASIK ectasia. However, the most common risk factor was deep ablation.

  19. Central Corneal Thickness Measurement by Ultrasound versus Orbscan II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Amir; Ziai, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare Orbscan II and ultrasonic pachymetry for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) in eyes scheduled for keratorefractive surgery. Methods CCT was measured using Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb, USA) and then by ultrasonic pachymetry (Tomey SP-3000, Tomey Ltd, Japan) in 100 eyes of 100 patients with no history of ocular surgery scheduled for excimer laser refractive surgery. Results Mean CCT was 544.7±35.5 (range 453–637) μm by ultrasonic pachymetry versus 546.9±41.6 (range 435–648) μm measured by Orbscan II applying an acoustic factor of 0.92 (P=0.14). The standard deviation of measurements was greater with Orbscan pachymetry but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion CCT measurements by Orbscan II (applying an acoustic factor) and by ultrasonic pachymetry are not significantly different; however, when CCT readings by Orbscan II are in the lower range, it is advisable to recheck the measurements using ultrasonic pachymetry. PMID:23479527

  20. CORNEAL ASTIGMATISM AFTER MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

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    Rajni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cataract is the leading cause of preventable blindness in India. Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery is still the preferred method of cataract surgery because of its low cost and non-dependence on costly equipments. Postoperatively astigmatism is an important cause of poor uncorrected visual acuity after cataract surgery. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess corneal astigmatism in manual small incision cataract surgery in superior versus temporal incision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 patients were included in our study. 50 patients received superior incision and 50 patients received temporal incision. Surgically induced astigmatism was calculated in these patients postoperatively. RESULTS: We observed mean 1.16 D of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with superior incision and mean 0.62 D of astigmatism in patients with temporal incision at the end of 12th postoperative week. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study showed a favourable influence of temporal incision over superior incision in manual incision cataract surgery in terms of surgically induced astigmatism.

  1. Effect of Homoharringtonine on Corneal Haze after Excimer Laser Photorefractive Keratectomy in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mingchang; WANG Li; WANG Yong; DING Zhengping; MAI Caikeng; NIE Shaosong; CHEN Fei

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the inhibiting effect of Homoharringtonine HHT) on the corneal haze after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits. 18 healthy rabbits which underwent PRK were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C). The refractive degree of ablation was -10. 0DS in each group. Group A was locally treated with a piece of filter paper soaked with 1 mg/mi HHT for 5 min, and then the entire cornea was repeatedly irrigated with balance solution;Group B was dropped with 0.1 mg/mL HHT after PRK for 3 months; Group C was the control group. Corneal haze, histopathology, response, ect. were investigated. The corneal haze was sig nificantly less in group A, while the difference between group B and group C was insignificant.Keratocytes and fibrocytes in corneal stroma were more active up to 3 months in group B and group C. Intraoperative use of topical HHT can reduce corneal haze after PRK in rabbits.

  2. Anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of SERPINA3K on corneal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Liu

    Full Text Available SERPINA3K is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (SERPIN family. Here we evaluated the therapeutic effects of SERPINA3K on neovascularization and inflammation in a rat cornea alkali burn model that is commonly employed to study corneal wounding. Topical treatment of the injured rat cornea with SERPINA3K (20 µg/eye/day for 7 days significantly decreased the neovascular area, compared with the groups treated with BSA or PBS. The SERPINA3K treatment also ameliorated the corneal inflammation as evaluated by the inflammatory index. Furthermore, SERPINA3K enhanced the recovery of corneal epithelium after the alkali injury. Toward the mechanism of action, SERPINA3K down-regulated the expression of the pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α and up-regulated the expression of the anti-angiogenic factor, pigment epithelium-derived factor. SERPINA3K specifically inhibited growth of vascular endothelial cells. Meanwhile, SERPINA3K significantly up-regulated the expression of EGFR in the corneal epithelium. These findings suggest that SERPINA3K has therapeutic potential for corneal inflammation and NV.

  3. The clinical and cellular basis of contact lens-related corneal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Robertson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Danielle M Robertson, H Dwight CavanaghDepartment of Ophthalmology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Microbial keratitis (MK is the most visually devastating complication associated with contact lens wear. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is highly invasive in the corneal epithelium and is responsible for more than half of the reported cases of contact lens-related MK. To protect against Pseudomonas-mediated MK, the corneal epithelium has evolved overlapping defense mechanisms that function to protect the ocular surface from microbial invasion. Research has shown that contact lens wear disrupts these protective mechanisms through breakdown of normal homeostatic surface renewal as well as damaging the corneal surface, exposing underlying cell membrane receptors that bind and internalize PA through the formation of lipid rafts. Human clinical trials have shown that initial adherence of PA with resulting increased risk for microbial infection is mediated in part by contact lens oxygen transmissibility. Recently, chemical preserved multipurpose solutions (MPS have been implicated in increasing PA adherence to corneal epithelial cells, in addition to inducing significant levels of toxic staining when used in conjunction with specific silicone hydrogel lenses. This review summarizes what is currently known about the relationship between contact lenses, the corneal epithelium, MPS, and infection.Keywords: cornea, epithelium, contact lens, microbial keratitis

  4. Photothrombosis of Corneal Neovascularization by Photodynamic Therapy Utilizing Verteporfin and Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Hassan, Aziza; Foad Ghoneim, Dina; Abdelraheem El-dib, Amr; Abdelkawi Ahmed, Salwa; Abdel- Salam, Ahmed Medhat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of experimental corneal neovascularization (NV) with benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD). Methods: One group was considered as control (n=6 eyes) then, corneal NV was induced in 30 New Zealand male rabbits (n=60 eyes) by placing 7.0 silk sutures at midstromal depth approximately1mm from the limbus. Fifteen rabbits with corneal NV were left without any treatment, and 15 rabbits were subjected to photodynamic therapy (PDT) by intravenous injection with Verteporfin at a dose of 1.5 mg /Kg. Diode laser (660 nm) was applied after 15 minutes for 5 minutes with a power of 50 mW/cm2. All rabbits were successively followed up by slit lamp examination for periods of 1 day, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Three rabbits were selected and sacrificed weekly (n=6 eyes each) and the corneas were isolated for histopathological examination. Results: The results of slit lamp examination indicated the gradual regression of the cornea neovascularization 4 weeks of PDT. Furthermore, regression of corneal neovascularization was documented clinically by decrease number and length of blood vessels and by histopathological examination. Conclusion: PDT with Verteporfin can provide efficacious treatment of corneal neovascularization. PMID:25606321

  5. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study on the barrier function of pig corneal epithelium and endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a tracer, the barrier function of the corneal epithelium and endothelium was evaluated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Whole pig eyes and cornea excised with scleral rim, which had been incubated in dextran-added Gd-DTPA solution, were subjected to T1 relaxation measurement and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After incubation, the T1 relaxation rate (1/T1) of the excised cornea increased to a steady value, whereas that of the cornea from the whole eye increased only slightly. These results indicated that the increase in the T1 relaxation rate of the excised cornea was attributable to Gd-DTPA penetration from the corneal endothelium and that the corneal epithelium exhibited a strong barrier function against Gd-DTPA entry. The MRI study also confirmed the strong barrier, enhanced signals being detected within the aqueous fluid in the T1-weighted image only when the corneal epithelium was abraded. Since Gd-DTPA scarcely penetrates the intact corneal epithelium, Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI shows potential as a quantitative tracer in evaluating epithelial barrier disruption. (author)

  6. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties following penetrating keratoplasty using ocular response analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanathi Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in eyes that has undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary care centre. Data recorded included ocular response analyzer (ORA values of normal and post-keratoplasty eyes [corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc], corneal topography, and central corneal thickness (CCT. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze the difference in ORA parameter between post-PK eyes and normal eyes. Correlation between parameters was evaluated with Spearman′s rho correlation. Results: The ORA study of 100 eyes of 50 normal subjects and 54 post-keratoplasty eyes of 51 patients showed CH of 8.340 ± 1.85 and 9.923 ± 1.558, CRF of 8.846 ± 2.39 and 9.577 ± 1.631 in post-PK eyes and normal eyes, respectively. CH and CRF did not correlate with post-keratoplasty astigmatism (P = 0.311 and 0.276, respectively while a significant correlation was observed with IOPg (P = 0.004 and IOPcc (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Biomechanical profiles were significantly decreased in post-keratoplasty eyes with significant correlation with higher IOP as compared with that in normal eyes.

  7. p53 protein expression in corneal squamous cell carcinomas of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bahdour Cossi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocular tumors play an increasing concern in veterinary ophthalmology. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma is unfrequent in dogs, and by this way it has little studies. Studies that investigated the carcinogenesis mechanisms wich could help to the development of ocular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in dog are rare. The aim of this work was to identify by immunohistochemical techniques, the p53 protein expression in the spontaneous dog corneal SCC. For this work, were used five cases of corneal SCC and one case of actinic keratitis. The sections were obtained from paraffin-wax blocks and submitted to histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. All the six samples showed immunolabeling to cytokeratin and p53 protein. These results support the conclusions that the immunoreactivity of p53 protein by immunohistochemistry is present in canine corneal SCC suppporting its role in carcinogenesis of this tumor, but not provides prognostic indicators in cases of SCC corneal in dog; and can be a association of exposure to solar radiation with the possible mutation of the TP53 gene.

  8. Precision of anterior and posterior corneal curvature measurements taken with the Oculus Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Chetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of rapid advances in technology, new ophthalmic instruments are constantly influencing health sciences and necessitating investigations of the accuracy and precision of the new technology. The Oculus Pentacam (70700 has been available for some time now and numerous studies have investigated the precision of some of the parameters that the Pentacam is capable of measuring. Unfortunately some of these studies fall short in confusing the meaning of accuracy and precision and in not being able to analyse the data correctly or completely. The aim of this study was to investigate the precision of the anterior and posterior corneal curvature measurements taken with the Oculus Pentacam (70700 holistically with sound multivariate statistical methods. Twenty successive Pentacam measurements were taken over three different measuring sessions on one subject. Keratometric data for both the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces were analysed using multivariate statistics to determine the precision of the Oculus Pentacam. This instrument was found to have good precision both clinically and statistically for anterior corneal measurements but only good clinical precision for the posterior corneal surface. Key words: Oculus Pentacam; keratometric variation; corneal curvature; multivariate statistics

  9. An unusual case of spontaneous Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer in a healthy middle-aged adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vipul Bhandari, R Sriganesh, Kirti RelekarDepartment of Cornea, Nethradhama Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, IndiaBackground: To report a rare presentation of culture-positive Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer and its management.Findings: We report a rare case of a patient with a history of chronic pain and blurriness of vision. Examination revealed a chronic nonhealing paracentral corneal ulcer inferiorly at the 5–7 o'clock meridian with anterior chamber reaction unresponsive to routine antibiotic and antifungal medications with Mantoux test positivity in a middle-aged nondiabetic patient with no prior history of trauma, ocular surgery, and contact lens usage. Ziehl–Neelsen staining of the nonhealing ulcer revealed acid-fast bacilli typical of M. chelonae, with subsequent culture positivity in Löwenstein–Jensen medium. Subsequent treatment with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin resulted in rapid healing of the corneal ulcer.Conclusion: M. chelonae presenting as a chronic nonhealing corneal ulcer spontaneously occurring in a healthy adult with no predisposing factor draws attention towards the need to have a good index of suspicion by performing a Ziehl–Neelsen stain and culture, and subsequent successful management with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin.Keywords: spontaneous, M. chelonae, nonhealing corneal ulcer, healthy

  10. Corneal cell adhesion to contact lens hydrogel materials enhanced via tear film protein deposition.

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    Claire M Elkins

    Full Text Available Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS, borate buffered saline (BBS, or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes, either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo.

  11. Nerve Growth Factor Modulate Proliferation of Cultured Rabbit Corneal Endothelial Cells and Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells, the in vitro cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells were treated with different concentrations of NGF.MTT assay was used to examine the clonal growth and proliferation of the cells by determining the absorbency values at 570nm. The results showed that NGF with three concentrations ranging from 5 U/mL to 500 U/mL enhanced the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner.50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF got more increase of proliferation than that of 5 U/mL NGF did.Meanwhile, 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF could promote the proliferation of the rabbit corneal epithelial cells significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5 U/mL NGF did not enhance the proliferation of epithelial cells. It was suggested that exogenous NGF can stimulate the proliferation of both rabbit corneal endothelial and epithelial cells, but the extent of modulation is different.

  12. Effect of the chosen incision on corneal astigmatism after implantable collamer lens surgery

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    Xia Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of the chosen incision on corneal astigmatism after implantable collamer lens(ICLsurgery.METHODS: The study included 195 eyes of 102 patients, and all eyes were randomly divided into two groups: the chosen incision group(Group A, 97 eyesand temporal corneal incision(Group B, 98 eyes. Before the operation, and 1wk,1mo and 3mo after the operation, each patient was examined with corneal topography to observe the changes of corneal astigmatism. RESULTS: Preoperative corneal astigmatisms were(1.26±0.35D in group A and(1.28±0.38D in group B, thus there was no statistically significant difference(P>0.05. One week postoperatively, the astigmatism were(0.93±0.29D in group A and(1.32±0.33D in group B. One month postoperatively, the astigmatism were(0.85±0.16D in group A and(1.27±0.18D in group B. Three months postoperatively, the astigmatism were(0.80±0.13D in group A and(1.25±0.20D in group B. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: The chosen incision can reduce postoperative astigmatism to a certain extent after ICL surgery.

  13. A Rat Model of Autologous Oral Mucosal Epithelial Transplantation for Corneal Limbal Stem Cell Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Li; Qiaoli Li; Wencong Wang; Kaijing Li; Shiqi Ling; Yuanzhe Yang; Lingyi Liang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To establish an animal model of autologous oral mucosa grafting for limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods:.The study was carried from August to October 2012. Fourteen SD rats were randomly and evenly allocated to study group A and control group B. Limbal stem cell defi-ciency was established by alkali burn in the right eye of each rat in both groups. Rats in group A received autologous oral mucosa strip transplantation following the chemical burn. Rats in group B did not receive surgery after the chemical burn. Topical antibiotics and dexamethasone were used in all rats. Corneal clarity,.corneal fluorescein staining,.oral mucosal graft survival, and complications at postoperative days 1,3,7, 14 were observed. Results:.The oral mucosa strip graft was detached in one rat in group A. Reepithelialization was observed starting from the graft position and was completed within 14 days in the re-maining 6 eyes in group A. However, persistent corneal ep-ithelium defect was observed in all eyes in group B, among which corneal melting and perforation was observed in 2 eyes and corneal opacification with neovascularization was ob-served in the remaining 5 eyes. Conclusion:.Autologous oral mucosa strip grafting for limbal stem cell deficiency can be achieved by a rat model following chemical burn. The fate of the transplanted oral mucosal ep-ithelial cells warrants further study. (Eye Science 2014; 29:1-5).

  14. Inhibition of corneal neovascularization with new Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Sunitinib malate and Sorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delnia Arshadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (NV is a significant, sight-threatening, complication of many ocular surface disorders. Presence of new vessels in cornea can compromise clarity and thus vision. The data supporting a causal role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in corneal NV are extensive. Inhibition of VEGF remains as a main strategy for treating corneal NV. There is a growing body of evidence that corneal NV can be reduced by using anti-VEGF agents. Sunitinib malate and Sorafenib are new orally bio-available anti-angiogenic agents undergoing tests of efficacy in the treatment of various types of cancers. The main mechanism of these drugs is inhibiting angiogenesis by diminishing signaling through VEGF receptor1 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. Since VEGF exerts its angiogenic effects through tyrosine kinase receptors in cornea, any mechanisms which reduce VEGF signaling may inhibit corneal NV or at least attenuate it. Based on this fact we herein hypothesize that Sunitinib malate and Sorafenib can be prepared in topical form and be used in corneal neovascularization states. These approaches offer new hope for the successful treatment of corneal NV. Further investigations in animal models are needed to place these two drugs alongside corneal NV therapeutics.

  15. Neutrophil (PMN) surface contact with keratocytes following corneal epithelial abrasion in the mouse: a novel role for ICAM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneal epithelial abrasion is associated with an inflammatory response that involves PMN recruitment from the limbal vessels into the corneal stroma. Previously, in the injured mouse cornea, we showed that migrating PMNs not only make contact with collagen, but they also make extensive surface cont...

  16. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Erin M.; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe indicates that the mean amount of corneal astigmatism is higher than reported for non–Native American populations and increases from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age.

  17. Pilot Study for OCT Guided Design and Fit of a Prosthetic Device for Treatment of Corneal Disease

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    Hong-Gam T. Le

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess optical coherence tomography (OCT for guiding design and fit of a prosthetic device for corneal disease. Methods. A prototype time domain OCT scanner was used to image the anterior segment of patients fitted with large diameter (18.5–20 mm prosthetic devices for corneal disease. OCT images were processed and analyzed to characterize corneal diameter, corneal sagittal height, scleral sagittal height, scleral toricity, and alignment of device. Within-subject variance of OCT-measured parameters was evaluated. OCT-measured parameters were compared with device parameters for each eye fitted. OCT image correspondence with ocular alignment and clinical fit was assessed. Results. Six eyes in 5 patients were studied. OCT measurement of corneal diameter (coefficient of variation, %, cornea sagittal height (%, and scleral sagittal height (% is highly repeatable within each subject. OCT image-derived measurements reveal strong correlation between corneal sagittal height and device corneal height ( and modest correlation between scleral and on-eye device toricity (. Qualitative assessment of a fitted device on OCT montages reveals correspondence with slit lamp images and clinical assessment of fit. Conclusions. OCT imaging of the anterior segment is suitable for custom design and fit of large diameter (18.5–20 mm prosthetic devices used in the treatment of corneal disease.

  18. Effect of fluidics on corneal endothelial cell density, central corneal thickness, and central macular thickness after phacoemulsification with torsional ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the relative effects of high and low fluidic parameters on endothelial cell density (ECD, central corneal thickness (CCT, and central macular thickness (CMT after phacoemulsification with torsional ultrasound. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial based on a tertiary eye hospital. Subjects and Methods: The study included 65 patients in each group. Patients were randomized to either the high or the low flow group using a computerized random number table. The study was patient and examiner masked. All patients underwent phacoemulsification with torsional ultrasound. Visual acuity, ECD, CCT, and CMT were measured for all patients preoperatively at 2 weeks and 6 weeks postoperatively. Statistical Analysis Used: The Shapiro–Wilks test was used to assess the normality of the data. Mann–Whitney U-test with the P value set at 0.05 was used to compare the two groups. Results: Cumulative dissipated energy was significantly higher in the low flow group (16.44 ± 9.07 vs. 11.74 ± 6.68; P = 0.002. No statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups in the ECD, CCT, CMT, or corrected distance visual acuity at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusions: No significant difference was noted in the postoperative outcome between high and low flow groups. Parameters can be modified to suit the surgeon's preference, as both high and low flow parameters were found to have comparable postoperative outcomes.

  19. Corneal topographic changes after 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy associated with scleral buckling for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Achille Grandinetti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in corneal topography after 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy associated with scleral buckling for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were included in this study. 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy associated with scleral buckling was performed in all patients. The corneal topography of each was measured before surgery and one week, one month, and three months after surgery by computer-assisted videokeratoscopy. RESULTS: A statistically significant central corneal steepening (average, 0,9 D , p<0,001 was noted one week after surgery. The total corneal astigmatism had a significant increase in the first postoperative month (p=0,007. All these topographic changes persisted for the first month but returned to preoperative values three months after the surgery. CONCLUSION: Pars plana vitrectomy with scleral buckling was found to induce transient changes in corneal topography.

  20. Self-organized centripetal movement of corneal epithelium in the absence of external cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Erwin P.; Delic, Naomi C.; Richardson, Alex; Raviraj, Vanisri; Halliday, Gary M.; di Girolamo, Nick; Myerscough, Mary R.; Lyons, J. Guy

    2016-08-01

    Maintaining the structure of the cornea is essential for high-quality vision. In adult mammals, corneal epithelial cells emanate from stem cells in the limbus, driven by an unknown mechanism towards the centre of the cornea as cohesive clonal groups. Here we use complementary mathematical and biological models to show that corneal epithelial cells can self-organize into a cohesive, centripetal growth pattern in the absence of external physiological cues. Three conditions are required: a circumferential location of stem cells, a limited number of cell divisions and mobility in response to population pressure. We have used these complementary models to provide explanations for the increased rate of centripetal migration caused by wounding and the potential for stem cell leakage to account for stable transplants derived from central corneal tissue, despite the predominantly limbal location of stem cells.