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Sample records for asthma ureca birth

  1. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  2. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in...... the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  3. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  4. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2010-01-01

    . Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of asthma. RESULTS: Subjects with a history of asthma at age 3-9 years weighed on average 122 g (95% CI 85 to 160) less at birth than subjects who had not developed asthma, p<0.001. There was a linear increase in asthma risk with decreasing birth......AIM: To examine the relationship between birth weight and risk of asthma in a population of twins. METHODS: Birth weight of all live twins (8280 pairs) born in Denmark between 1994 and 2000 was linked to information on asthma obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at age 3-9 years...... weight, OR (per 100 g) 1.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.05), p<0.001. Within twin pairs, the lower birthweight twin had a significantly increased risk of asthma compared with the heavier co-twin (11.3% vs 9.9%), OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.54), p=0.002. The result remained significant after adjusting for sex, birth...

  5. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    variables (e.g. pet ownership, tobacco smoke exposure and day-care) and selected outcome measures for atopy, asthma or allergic rhinitis (e.g. sensitization assessed by IgE or skin prick tests, doctor's diagnosis of asthma, parental perception regarding asthma/wheezing or hay fever symptoms)....

  6. Antenatal steroid treatment reduces childhood asthma risk in very low birth weight infants without bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Yi-Li; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Chien-Yi; Tsao, Po-Nien

    2009-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and very low birth weight (VLBW) are associated with increased incidences of asthma and pulmonary dysfunction in childhood. However, no studies exist which examine asthma risk factors in children who were VLBW infants and did not have BPD. To address this issue, we assessed the asthma incidence and risk factors for asthma in 117 children (approximate mean age of 5 years) who were VLBW [<1500 g, mean gestational age (GA): 30 weeks] infants without BPD. The ...

  7. The novel 10-item asthma prediction tool: external validation in the German MAS birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus B Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma.We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort.The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years.For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23 and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78. Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome 'physicians' diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89.The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings.

  8. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  9. Low birth weight and preterm delivery as risk factors for asthma and atopic dermatitis in young adult males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, F.H.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gillman, M.W.; Rothman, K.J.; Sabroe, Svend; Fischer, P.; Olsen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Gestational factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis. We examined whether fetal growth was associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis separately in a population of 4,795 male conscripts born between 1973 and 1975 in Denmark. The...... of male infants is the main gestational factor underlying the associations but does not explain the apparent increase over time of asthma or atopic diseases....... prevalence of asthma was 4.7%. The prevalence odds ratio of asthma in conscripts with a birth weight below 2,501 g was 1.5 (95% confidence interval = 0.7–3.1) compared with conscripts with a birth weight of 3,001–3,500 g, adjusted for gestational age and potential confounders. The adjusted prevalence odds...

  10. Asthma Heredity, Cord Blood IgE and Asthma-Related Symptoms and Medication in Adulthood: A Long-Term Follow-Up in a Swedish Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Vogt

    Full Text Available Cord blood IgE has previously been studied as a possible predictor of asthma and allergic diseases. Results from different studies have been contradictory, and most have focused on high-risk infants and early infancy. Few studies have followed their study population into adulthood. This study assessed whether cord blood IgE levels and a family history of asthma were associated with, and could predict, asthma medication and allergy-related respiratory symptoms in adults. A follow-up was carried out in a Swedish birth cohort comprising 1,701 consecutively born children. In all, 1,661 individuals could be linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Medical Birth Register, and 1,227 responded to a postal questionnaire. Cord blood IgE and family history of asthma were correlated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication at 32-34 years. Elevated cord blood IgE was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication. Similarly, a family history of asthma was associated with an increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and anti-inflammatory medication. However, only 8% of the individuals with elevated cord blood IgE or a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication at follow-up. In all, 49 out of 60 individuals with dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication at 32-34 years of age had not been reported having asthma at previous check-ups of the cohort during childhood. Among those, only 5% with elevated cord blood IgE and 6% with a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication as adults. Elevated cord blood IgE and a positive family history of asthma were associated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication in adulthood, but their predictive power was poor

  11. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65 254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years. PMID:26862123

  12. Pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and risk of wheezing and asthma in children: A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated with the...... risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time of...

  13. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  14. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it as a kid. What Causes an Asthma Flare-Up? Anything that causes an asthma flare-up (attack) is called an asthma trigger. Different kids ... doctor will think about what causes the asthma flare-ups, how fast the flare-ups happen, and how ...

  15. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by allergens or physical activity. Occasionally, doctors use X-rays to diagnose asthma. Doctors treat each asthma case ... them. If you get flare-ups during a game or workout, stop what you're doing until ...

  16. Urban Tree Canopy and Asthma, Wheeze, Rhinitis, and Allergic Sensitization to Tree Pollen in a New York City Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lovasi, Gina S.; O’Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P.M.; Lu, Jacqueline W.T.; Sheehan, Daniel; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; MacFaden, Sean W.; King, Kristen L.; Matte, Thomas; Miller, Rachel L.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urban landscape elements, particularly trees, have the potential to affect airflow, air quality, and production of aeroallergens. Several large-scale urban tree planting projects have sought to promote respiratory health, yet evidence linking tree cover to human health is limited. Objectives: We sought to investigate the association of tree canopy cover with subsequent development of childhood asthma, wheeze, rhinitis, and allergic sensitization. Methods: Birth cohort study data w...

  17. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  18. Breastfeeding, overweight and asthma in Dutch children. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to a lower risk of overweight and asthma in children, however the results of previous studies are conflicting and controversy remains. An important gap in the current knowledge on the association between breastfeeding and overweight and asthma is whether and how the ass

  19. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children : the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Smit, Henriette A.; Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were an

  20. Pooling Birth Cohorts in Allergy and Asthma: European Union-Funded Initiatives - A MeDALL, CHICOS, ENRIECO, and GA(2)LEN Joint Paper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bousquet, J.; Anto, J.; Sunyer, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, N.; Vrijheid, M.; Keil, T.; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-10. ISSN 1018-2438 Grant ostatní: EU FP6(XE) FOOD-CT-2004-506378 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Birth cohorts * asthma * allergy Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.433, year: 2013

  1. Serum micronutrient concentrations and childhood asthma: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeffelen, van A.A.M.; Bekkers, M.B.M.; Smit, H.A.; Kerkhof, van de M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Haveman-Nies, A.; A, van der D.L.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research suggests an influence of micronutrients on childhood asthma. So far, evidence mainly originates from cross-sectional studies using nutrient intake data, which is not an accurate measure of nutrient status. This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional and prospective assoc

  2. Serum micronutrient concentrations and childhood asthma : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, A. A. M.; Bekkers, M. B. M.; Smit, H. A.; Kerkhof, M.; Koppelman, G. H.; Haveman-Nies, A.; van der A, D. L.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Wijga, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research suggests an influence of micronutrients on childhood asthma. So far, evidence mainly originates from cross-sectional studies using nutrient intake data, which is not an accurate measure of nutrient status. This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional and prospective assoc

  3. Air pollution and development of asthma, allergy and infections in a birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M.; Hoek, G.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; Brunekreef, B.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have addressed associations between traffic-related air pollution and respiratory disease in young children. The present authors assessed the development of asthmatic/allergic symptoms and respiratory infections during the first 4 yrs of life in a birth cohort study (n=similar to 4,000).

  4. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  5. Asthma and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Asthma and Pregnancy Saturday, 01 August 2015 In every ... her background risk. This sheet talks about whether asthma may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  6. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Lødrup Carlsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DEFINITION: Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME DEFINITION: Current asthma (primary outcome, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6-10 years of age. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three-step approach: (i Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with "no pets" (10 studies, 11489 participants was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28 (I(2 = 9%; p = 0.36. The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with "no pets" (9 studies, 11433 participants was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03 (I(2 = 0%, p = 0.89. Owning both cat(s and dog(s compared to "no pets" resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84 (I(2 = 33%, p = 0.18. Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6-10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic

  7. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95 % CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded. PMID:25957084

  8. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; Van Stokkom, V. L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Schaap, L. A.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children. S

  9. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.; van Stokkom, V L; Gehring, U; Koppelman, G H; Schaap, L A; Smit, H A; Wijga, A H

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives:Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children.Sub

  10. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; van Stokkom, V. L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Schaap, L. A.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children. S

  11. The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Pinart, Mariona; Tischer, Christina;

    2014-01-01

    -translation of the harmonized English MeDALL-CQ into 8 other languages and (iv) implementation of the harmonized follow-up. RESULTS: Three harmonized MeDALL-CQs (2 for parents of children aged 4-9 and 14-18, 1 for adolescents aged 14-18) were developed and used for a harmonized follow-up assessment of 11......BACKGROUND: Numerous birth cohorts have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years using heterogeneous methods to assess the incidence, course and risk factors of asthma and allergies. The aim of the present work is to provide the stepwise proceedings of the development and current version...

  12. Cord Blood 25(OH)-Vitamin D Deficiency and Childhood Asthma, Allergy and Eczema: The COPSAC2000 Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bo L Chawes; Klaus Bønnelykke; Pia F Jensen; Schoos, Ann-Marie M.; Lene Heickendorff; Hans Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal vitamin D dietary intake during pregnancy and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. However, prospective clinical studies on vitamin D measured in cord blood and development of clinical end-points are sparse. Objective To investigate the interdependence of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-Vitamin D) level and investigator-diagnosed asthma- and allergy-related conditions during preschool-age. Methods...

  13. Asthma and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Rani Reddy; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2012-08-01

    Asthma is probably the most common serious medical disorder that may complicate pregnancy. A third of pregnant women with asthma will experience worsening of their symptoms, a third will see improvement of their symptoms and a third will see no change. The primary goal is to maintain optimal control of asthma for maternal health and well-being as well as fetal maturation. Vital patient education should cover the use of controller medication, avoidance of asthma triggers and early treatment of asthma exacerbations. Proper asthma management should ideally be started in the preconception period. Since smoking is probably the most modifiable risk factor of asthma, pregnant woman should avoid active and passive smoking. Acute asthma exacerbation during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with low birth weight, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Medications used for asthma control in the non-pregnant population are generally the same in pregnancy with a few exceptions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the preferred controller therapy. Budesonide is the preferred ICS. Long-acting B-agonists (LABA) are the preferred add-on therapy to medium to high dose ICS. Major triggers for asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are viral infections and ICS nonadherence. PMID:21858482

  14. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, A. M. M.; Arends, L. R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Arshad, S. H.; Barros, H.; Basterrechea, M.; Bisgaard, H.; Chatzi, L.; Corpeleijn, E.; Correia, S.; Craig, L. C.; Devereux, G.; Dogaru, C.; Dostál, Miroslav; Duchen, K.; Eggesbø, M.; van der Ent, C. K.; Fantini, M. P.; Forastiere, F.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Gori, D.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Hanke, W.; Henderson, A. J.; Heude, B.; Iniguez, C.; Inskip, H. M.; Keil, T.; Kelleher, C.; Kogevinas, M.; Kreiner-Moller, E.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kuepers, L. K.; Lancz, K.; Larsen, P. S.; Lau, S.; Ludvigsson, J.; Mommers, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Palkovicova, L.; Pike, K. C.; Pizzi, C.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Roberts, G.; Schmidt, A.; Šrám, Radim; Sunyer, J.; Thijs, C.; Torrent, M.; Viljoen, K.; Wijga, A. H.; Vrijheid, M.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Duijts, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 5 (2014), s. 1317-1329. ISSN 0091-6749 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : gestational age * low birth weight * infant growth Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  15. Nocturnal Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... give extra protection during the night. More Nocturnal Asthma Information Back to Asthma: Types Print Page Email ...

  16. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  17. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease ... the workplace can trigger asthma symptoms, leading to occupational asthma. The most common triggers are wood dust, grain ...

  18. Difficult asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  19. Pathophysiological characterization of asthma transitions across adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Syed Hasan; Raza, Abid; Lau, Laurie; Bawakid, Khalid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Patil, Veersh; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of change, which coincides with disease remission in a significant proportion of subjects with childhood asthma. There is incomplete understanding of the changing characteristics underlying different adolescent asthma transitions. We undertook pathophysiological characterization of transitional adolescent asthma phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort. Methods The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1456) was reviewed at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Characterizat...

  20. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive...... care unit and longer postpartum hospital stay. Asthma has been associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, small-for-gestational age, low birth weight, infant hypoglycaemia and preterm birth, but more recent prospective studies have not revealed significant associations with...

  1. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Dept. of Pediatrics View full profile Pediatric Asthma: Overview For some children with asthma, their first ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Asthma Treatment Program At National Jewish Health, we offer ...

  2. Meta-analysis of determinants for pet ownership in 12 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies: a GA2LEN initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Roll, S; Chen, C-M;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on pet ownership as a risk or protective factor for asthma and allergy show inconsistent results. This may be on account of insufficient adjustment of confounding factors. AIM: The objective of this study was to describe determinants of cat and dog ownership in European families...... homes without convenient ground access. In addition to parental allergies, social and housing factors should be considered as potential confounders in studies on pet exposure and allergic diseases....

  3. Occupational Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-te...

  4. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working with laboratory animals or with powdered natural rubber latex gloves have developed occupational asthma. Occupational asthma can also occur in workers after repeated exposure to small chemical molecules in the ... plastics, rubber and foam. These chemicals can cause occupational asthma ...

  5. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  6. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding t...

  7. Occupational Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    SF Voelter-Mahlknecht

    2011-01-01

    Occupational asthma is defined as “a disease of variable airflow limitations and/or airway hyper-responsiveness due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment and not stimuli that are being encountered outside the workplace.” An analysis of general population-based studies published up to 2007 showed that 17.6% of all adultonset asthma is due to workplace exposures. In this article, Different aspects of occupational asthma are briefly reviewed.

  8. Asthma Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these triggers vary from person to person with asthma. These factors include tobacco smoke, viral and bacterial infections, exercise, exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust mites or pet dander, acid reflux, ... emotional anxiety. Asthma is a chronic disorder and may affect up ...

  9. A population-based prescription study of asthma drugs during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana; Nielsen, G.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Background: Among the goals of gestational asthma, therapy is optimisation of pulmonary function. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, no asthma drugs can be considered ‘safe’ during pregnancy. Fear of adverse fetal effects may thus lead to restrictive use of asthma drugs during...... pregnancy, and no population-based studies concerning gestational asthma therapy exist. Objectives: To examine whether asthma drugs or changing intensity of asthma therapy during pregnancy was associated with deviations from expected values of gestational age, birth weight, length at birth, or malformations....... Methods: The Birth Registry was used to identify all 15,756 primiparous women who gave birth in the County of North Jutland between 1991 and 1996. According to the North Jutland Prescription Database, 303 of these women received prescriptions for asthma drugs during pregnancy. Women who did not purchase...

  10. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  11. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cooperate While Using the Nebulizer? Handling an Asthma Flare-Up What's an Asthma Flare-Up? Asthma Center Asthma Basics Managing Asthma When Your ... a Health Problem Asthma Center Handling an Asthma Flare-Up How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Asthma Asthma Center ...

  12. Review: Genetic diversity of HLA-DR and varion of asthma susceptibility; an overview of Asthma in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD ARMAN SUBIJANTO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the most common potentially serious medical condition to complicate pregnancy. To date, many attempts have been done to detect genetic loci contributing to asthma susceptibility. HLA-DR loci may play an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic inflammation by influencing specific IgE responses. Asthma affects almost 7 percent of women in their childbearing years. When women with asthma become pregnant, a third of the patients improve, one third worsen, and the last third remain unchanged. Asthma exacerbations are most likely to appear during the weeks 24 to 36 of gestation, with only occasional patients (10 percent or fewer becoming symptomatic during labor and delivery. Uncontrolled asthma can cause serious complications for mother, including high blood pressure, toxemia and premature delivery. For the baby, complications of uncontrolled asthma include increased risk of stillbirth, fetal growth retardation, premature birth, low birth weight and a low APGAR score at birth. The goal management of asthma during pregnancy is to achieve optimal therapy, maintaining controlled asthma and increased the mother and baby’s quality of life. Most asthma medications are safe during pregnancy.

  13. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  14. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... other disease may be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  15. Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... one child. Unfortunately, there is not a single test that provides all the answers. An allergist / immunologist, ...

  16. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, ...

  17. Perinatal risk factors for asthma in Finnish adolescent twins

    OpenAIRE

    Rasanen, M.; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, T.; Winter, T.; Koskenvuo, M.; Laitinen, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Previous studies have suggested that, in addition to genetic liability and environment in early childhood, intrauterine life also influences the risk for asthma beyond childhood. Low birth weight, prematurity, young maternal age, and maternal smoking have all shown an association with asthma. The effect of perinatal factors on the risk for asthma in relation to familial and social risk factors was studied in a nationwide population-based sample of adolescent tw...

  18. A genetic approach to understanding asthma and lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    in the Health2006 study and replicated findings in the B58C birth cohort in a pooled analysis including more than 10,000 individuals. The 17q21 locus was not associated with current adult asthma. This contrasts with findings in children and suggests that this locus is associated with a specific transient asthma...

  19. Prematurity and prescription asthma medication from childhood to young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anne Louise; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Mathiasen, René; Buchvald, Frederik; Lange, Theis; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of asthma-like symptoms and purchase of prescription asthma medication in childhood. We investigated whether this association persists into adulthood and whether it is affected by accounting for neonatal respiratory morbidity (acute re...

  20. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples - association with IVF?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Derk B.; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Heineman, Maas J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/IC

  1. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  2. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  3. Bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008049 Activation ralated genes of memory CD+4 T cells in asthma patients. PI Weifeng(皮卫峰),et al. Dept Respir Med, Xinhua Hosp, Sch Med, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(12):932-935. Objective To screen and identify the genes of activated memory CD+4 T cells in asthma. Methods Differential display polymerase chain reaction(DDPCR) was utilized to identify genes of memory CD+4 T cells after activation from asthmatic patients and normal individuals,

  4. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  5. Thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AN ASSOCIATION between asthma and thunderstorms based on retrospective data has been noted in several papers. This study, however, draws on almost-real-time, anonymised attendance data from 35 emergency departments (EDs) in the UK, and lightning-strike plots from the Met Office. PMID:25270814

  6. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoç, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Allergic disease such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing prevelanceand affect up to 15% of population in Westernized countries. Among them, asthma is achronic inflammatory disease of airways and the underlying physiological and immunologicalprocesses are not fully understood. Mouse models of asthma dupicates many featuresof human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, andairway inflammation. Therefore, relevantmodels for asthma are important to understand the mechanis...

  7. The PCDH1 gene and asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene with...... longitudinally assessed asthma phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood. We analysed eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed...

  8. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - adult Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ...

  9. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Test Your Asthma Knowledge Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... Asthma: A Chance to Heal / Test Your Asthma Knowledge Fall 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 4 Page ...

  10. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  11. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  12. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Asthma and Pregnancy: Asthma Medications We would like to avoid all medicine ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  13. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  14. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  15. Asthma action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  16. Severe asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite man...

  17. Risk of Asthma from Cesarean Delivery Depends on Membrane Rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    weight, gestational age, multiple births, parity, and maternal factors (age, smoking/antibiotics during pregnancy,employment status, and asthma). RESULTS: In the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio for asthma was increased by cesarean delivery...... rate ratio to vaginal delivery 1.12 [1.09-1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed cesarean delivery to be a risk factor for childhood asthma. This effect was more pronounced for cesarean delivery performed before rupture of membranes.......OBJECTIVE: To assess our prospective mother-child cohort and the national registry data to analyze the risk of asthma by delivery mode and whether cesarean delivery before or after membrane rupture affects this risk differently. STUDY DESIGN: The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in...

  18. Birth, Simply

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this column, a mother describes the home birth of her fourth child, which included the supportive presence of her husband, young children, and other family members, along with the help of a midwife. The mother's experience demonstrates the advantages of normal birth and its benefits to the entire family.

  19. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  20. Redemptive birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  1. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  2. Imaging of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John Caleb; Lynch, David; Koelsch, Tilman; Dyer, Debra

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases of the lung. Asthma manifests with common, although often subjective and nonspecific, imaging features at radiography and high-resolution computed tomography. The primary role of imaging is not to make a diagnosis of asthma but to identify complications, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or mimics of asthma, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This article reviews the imaging features of asthma as well as common complications and mimics. PMID:27401624

  3. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  4. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma and...... impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard to...

  5. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy: Impact on pregnancy complications and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-05-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care unit and longer postpartum hospital stay. Asthma has been associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, small-for-gestational age, low birth weight, infant hypoglycaemia and preterm birth, but more recent prospective studies have not revealed significant associations with regard to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome. PMID:26467747

  6. Caesarean delivery and risk of developing asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Jeppesen, Simone K;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between caesarean section and risk of developing asthma. METHOD: We evaluated this association in a Danish cohort, comprising of 11,147 mothers and their babies of which 7119 mother-child pairs were included in the analyses. The mothers' reported asthma data on...... their children were linked to hospitalization records on mode of delivery. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio for developing asthma was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.88-1.39) for caesarean sections versus vaginal births. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that children being delivered by caesarean section have an...

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma Resources for Professionals National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  9. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  10. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. Methods: Event history analysis was

  11. Risk factors for asthma in young adults: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Ulrik, C S; Kyvik, K O;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The liability to asthma is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for asthma in young adult twin pairs during an 8-year period. METHODS: From the birth cohorts 1953-1982 of the Danish Twin Registry, 6,090 twin pairs...

  12. Uncontrolled asthma at age 8 : The importance of parental perception towards medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; Wijga, Alet H.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; De Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite existing effective treatment options, asthma is uncontrolled in a considerable proportion of patients. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of uncontrolled asthma at age 8 in children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Methods: One hundred seventy childr

  13. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  14. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of exercise may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms than others. Swimming is a good sport for people with EIA. The warm, moist air helps keep asthma symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports with ...

  15. Asthma and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with asthma need a lot of support at school. They may need help from school staff to keep their asthma under control and to be able to do school activities. You should give your child's school staff ...

  16. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  17. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  18. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  19. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  20. Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

  1. Occupational asthma: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensiti...

  2. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  3. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lieshout Ryan J; MacQueen Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in im...

  4. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  5. Domestic exposure to indoor air chemical pollutants : modeled exposure related to respiratory health effects in infancy : findings from the PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk an Infant Study) birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Roda, Célina

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public health concern about indoor air quality due to the time spent indoors and the presence of numerous biological and chemical pollutants. Aims: To assess indoor chemical pollutant levels, to model domestic exposure and to examine the impact of indoor chemical pollutants on the respiratory health of infants from the PARIS birth cohort, during their first year of life. Methods: Multiple self-administered questionnaires were used to gather information from parents about re...

  6. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  7. Antifungals in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite guideline-based treatment, many patients with severe asthma continue to have uncontrolled disease. Fungal allergy is being increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Limited data exist on the approach to treatment of fungal asthma. This review summarizes

  8. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...

  9. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  10. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)

  11. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  12. Asthma in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2012-01-01

    As the population increases in age, the diseases of older age will have increasing prevalence and place a greater burden on the health system. Despite asthma being usually considered a disease of younger people, asthma mortality is currently greatest in the over 55 age-group. Symptoms and emergency presentations for health care due to asthma place a great burden on the quality of life of those over age 55 with asthma. Asthma in older people is under-diagnosed due to patient and physiological ...

  13. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of...... weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  14. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe birth ...

  15. Safety of bronchodilators and corticosteroids for asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Thorbjørn Lomholt; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common medical condition complicating pregnancy with potentially serious effects on pregnancy outcome. The aim of this review is to provide an update on efficacy and safety of asthma medications, primarily bronchodilators and corticosteroids, used during pregnancy with focus on...... safety of add-on long-acting β2-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are generally found to be safe, although further research is needed to investigate both the efficacy and safety of high dose therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. Studies have reported associations between the...... use of systemic corticosteroids and adverse perinatal outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and pre-eclampsia. This must, however, be weighed against the potential serious impact of severe, uncontrolled asthma itself on pregnancy outcome. The main obstacle to a valid interpretation of...

  16. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  17. Factors related to under-diagnosis and under-treatment of childhood asthma in metropolitan France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annesi-Maesano Isabella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-diagnosis and under-treatment of childhood asthma were investigated in France using data collected during the 6 Cities Study, the French contribution to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Methods 7,781 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 10 years underwent a medical visit including skin prick tests to common allergens and exercise test for Exercise-Induced Asthma (EIA and their parents filled in a standardized questionnaire on asthma, management, treatment and potential risk factors. Results 903 children reported asthma (11.6%, 377 without a doctor’s diagnosis. Of the 526 participants with a diagnosis of asthma confirmed by a doctor (58.2%, 353 were treated and 76 were not treated during the year preceding the investigation despite their diagnosis. The information on the treatment was missing for the rest of individuals diagnosed with asthma (n = 97. Having a treatment was significantly associated with severe asthma and with the presence of other respiratory and allergic stigmata (atopic eczema, rhinitis, positive skin allergy tests, and EIA. In addition, having a treatment did not correspond to a good control of the disease. Similarly, children with asthma-like symptoms but without doctor-diagnosed asthma had asthma less well controlled than children with diagnosed asthma. They were also more exposed to passive smoking and traffic but had fewer pets. In contrast, diagnosed children reported more frequently a small weight at birth and a preterm birth. Conclusions In France, childhood asthma is still under-diagnosed and under-treated and environmental factors play a role in these phenomena.

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  19. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some students experience asthma symptoms only when they exercise. Asthma varies from student to student and often from ... activities and other regular school activities. Table 1: BENEFITS OF ASTHMA CONTROL With good asthma management, students with asthma ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  1. Examining the association between childhood asthma and parent and grandparent asthma status: Implications for Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Melissa A.; Andreski, Patricia M.; Schoeni, Robert F.; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of intergenerational asthma beyond maternal asthma has been limited. The association between childhood asthma and intergenerational asthma status among a national cohort of children was examined.

  2. Teaching Your Child about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Library ▸ Teaching your child about asthma Share | Teaching Your Child About Asthma This article has been ... understand? Keep It Simple for Young Children Use language that is appropriate for your child’s age to ...

  3. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)E (omalizumab, Xolair) markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. E...

  4. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  5. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  6. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness......: Weight reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  7. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with...... asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung...

  8. Asma e função pulmonar aos 6-7 anos de idade em uma coorte de nascimentos no Sul do Brasil Asthma and lung function in a birth cohort at 6-7 years of age in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Nudilemon Chatkin

    2008-10-01

    . The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of various respiratory symptoms with wheezing patterns (persistent, early, and late-onset and lung function, as well as to determine whether lung function was associated with atopy or with demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and gestational factors, in a birth cohort at 6-7 years of age. METHODS: The target population consisted of children aged 6-7 years from a birth cohort of 5,304 children born in southern Brazil in 1993. For this follow-up evaluation, 532 of those children were randomly selected, and a sub-sample was submitted to spirometry and skin prick tests. A questionnaire was administered to the parent(s or legal guardian(s of each child. RESULTS: Spirometric values were lower in the children with respiratory symptoms or asthma. Mean forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC ratio was lower in children with any of the following: current wheezing and asthma; asthma ever; four or more episodes of wheezing within the preceding 12 months; sleep disturbance due to wheezing; and exercise-induced wheezing. Persistent wheezing was associated with lower FEV1/FVC ratio. After multiple linear regression, exercise-induced wheezing was also associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratio. Nonwhite skin color and wheezing severe enough to limit speech were associated with lower FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: Children with persistent wheezing and symptoms of severe asthma have impaired lung function at 6-7 years of age.

  9. Basic mechanisms of asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Boushey, H A; Fahy, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Results of studies of the epidemiology, physiology, histopathology, and cell biology of asthma have revised our conception of the disease. Epidemiologic studies have shown asthma to be an important cause of death, suffering, and economic hardship. Physiologic studies have shown that asthma is a chronic illness characterized by persistent bronchial hyperreactivity. Histopathologic studies have shown characteristic changes: epithelial damage, deposition of collagen beneath the basement membrane...

  10. Ketotifen and nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, J R; Calverley, P M; Power, J T; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Patients with asthma often wheeze at night and they also become hypoxic during sleep. To determine whether ketotifen, a drug with sedative properties, is safe for use at night in patients with asthma, we performed a double blind crossover study comparing the effects of a single 1 mg dose of ketotifen and of placebo on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), breathing patterns, electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep stage, and overnight change in FEV1 in 10 patients with stable asthma. After taking ke...

  11. Epidemiological Trends in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Malcolm R

    1996-01-01

    Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the infl...

  12. Asthma and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kewalramani, Anupama; Bollinger, Mary E.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of comorbidity of asthma and mood disorders would imply the possibility of potential shared pathophysiologic factors. Proposed links between asthma and mood disorders include a vulnerability (trait) and state connection. Vulnerability for both asthma and mood disorders may involve genetic and early developmental factors. State-related connections may include obstructive factors, inflammatory factors, sleep impairment, psychological reactions to chronic medical illness, as well a...

  13. Asthma in Olympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of asthma has been reported repeatedly among elite athletes, especially among endurance athletes. So many athletes used asthma drugs that the objective demonstration of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was required to obtain approval for their use in international sports until 2012 when the most used inhaled asthma drugs was allowed for free use, but with a maximum dose for inhaled β2-agonists. Several factors contribute to the development of asthma among the Olympians causing airways inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:26631837

  14. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf;

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  15. Asthma: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  16. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  17. Pharmacogenomics of pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sarika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to it. A component of this complexity is a highly variable response to pharmacological therapy. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of genetic determinants in the variable response to therapy. A number of examples of possible pharmacogenomic approaches that may prove of value in the management of asthma are discussed below. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed, Google scholar, E-Medicine, BMJ and Mbase was done using the key words "pharmacogenomics of asthma", "pharmacogenomics of β-agonist, glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, muscarinic antagonists in asthma". Results: Presently, there are limited examples of gene polymorphism that can influence response to asthma therapy. Polymorphisms that alter response to asthma therapy include Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile for β-agonist receptor, polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene, CRHR1 variants and polymorphism of LTC4S, ALOX5. Polymorphic variants of muscarinic receptors, PDE4 and CYP450 gene variants. Conclusion: It was concluded that genetic variation can improve the response to asthma therapy. However, no gene polymorphism has been associated with consistent results in different populations. Therefore, asthma pharmacogenomic studies in different populations with a large number of subjects are required to make possible tailoring the asthma therapy according to the genetic characteristic of individual patient.

  18. Rhinovirus Wheezing Illness and Genetic Risk of Childhood-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calışkan, Minal; Bochkov, Yury A; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Stein, Michelle M; Du, Gaixin; Bisgaard, Hans; Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic variation at the 17q21 locus and virus-induced respiratory wheezing illnesses are associated with the development of asthma. Our aim was to determine the effects of these two factors on the risk of asthma in the Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) and the Copenhagen...... Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohorts. Methods We tested genotypes at the 17q21 locus for associations with asthma and with human rhinovirus (HRV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) wheezing illnesses and tested for interactions between 17q21 genotypes and HRV and RSV wheezing...... illnesses with respect to the risk of asthma. Finally, we examined genotype-specific expression of 17q21 genes in unstimulated and HRV-stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results The 17q21 variants were associated with HRV wheezing illnesses in early life, but not with RSV wheezing...

  19. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  20. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (IgE (omalizumab, Xolair markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. Early use in atopic asthmatics may be even more effective. Several approaches target interleukin (IL-4. Soluble IL-4 receptor has been shown to effectively replace inhaled corticosteroid; further studies are under way. Recombinant anti-IL-5 and recombinant IL-12 inhibit blood and sputum eosinophils and allergen-induced eosinophilia without any effect on airway responsiveness, allergen-induced airway responses, or allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Efalizumab, a recombinant antibody that inhibits lymphocyte trafficking, is effective in psoriasis. A bronchoprovocation study showed a reduction in allergen-induced late asthmatic response and allergen-induced eosinophilia, which suggests that it should be effective in clinical asthma. These exciting novel therapies provide not only promise of new therapies for asthma but also valuable tools for investigation of asthma mechanisms.

  1. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that it is a combination of your family history and your environment. There is no cure for asthma. Once you ... administrators with information, education and resources to incorporate environmental management into clinical practices and standards of care for asthma patients. Top ...

  2. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the night every night or competing in the Olympics. In other words, you should be able to live a normal active life! The following list shows what your life could be like if your asthma were controlled: As a rule, you should have: • Few, if any, asthma symptoms • ...

  3. The significance of early recurrent wheeze for asthma outcomes in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Vegard; Riiser, Amund; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent early life wheeze is not always asthma, and up to 50% of children are reported to remit. With reports of adult asthma symptom relapse, we assessed the prognosis of recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) through adolescence in the Environment and Childhood Asthma (ECA) prospective birth cohort study. The present study is based on data from investigations at ages 2, 10 and 16 years of 550 young people (52% males) attending at 16 years of age. Based on the presence of rBO from 0-2 years, defined as recurrent (at least two episodes) doctor-diagnosed wheeze, and asthma from 2-10 years and 10-16 years, defined as at least two episodes of doctor-diagnosed asthma, symptoms and medication use, prognosis of rBO was assessed. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) was diagnosed by a metacholine provocation dose ≤ 8 μmol that caused 20% reduction in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s. At 10-16 years, 34% of the 143 rBO children had asthma. All children with rBO had reduced lung function compared with the never asthmatics. Of the rBO children in remission, 48.4% had asthma symptoms, medication use and/or BHR compared with 26.7% with never asthma (p<0.001). Only 34.3% of rBO children were without asthma symptoms, medication use or BHR by 16 years, possibly indicating future asthma risk. PMID:22903966

  4. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    OpenAIRE

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors alt...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among ...

  6. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  7. Cough and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Cough is the most common complaint for which patients seek medical attention. Cough variant asthma (CVA) is a form of asthma, which presents solely with cough. CVA is one of the most common causes of chronic cough. More importantly, 30 to 40% of adult patients with CVA, unless adequately treated, may progress to classic asthma. CVA shares a number of pathophysiological features with classic asthma such as atopy, airway hyper-responsiveness, eosinophilic airway inflammation and various features of airway remodeling. Inhaled corticosteroids remain the most important form of treatment of CVA as they improve cough and reduce the risk of progression to classic asthma most likely through their prevention of airway remodeling and chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:22081767

  8. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.M. Rijssenbeek-Nouwens

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related

  9. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  10. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  11. Screening for asthma in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The primary health care team is at the forefront of asthma management and there is evidence of improved delivery of care via nurse run, audited, general practice clinics. However, hospital admissions for asthma continue to rise. Screening for childhood asthma would appear to have advantages for patient care. This review looks critically at the literature that addresses important issues in screening for childhood asthma, including the problem of defining asthma, its prevalence rate and the imp...

  12. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A.

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  15. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  16. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, C.; Scholtens, S.; Jongste, de, J.C.; Wijga, A H; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Brunekreef, B; Hoekstra, M.O.; Aalberse, R; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might be a risk factor for asthma because of delayed microbial colonisation, but the association remains controversial. A study was undertaken to investigate prospectively whether children born by caesarean section are more at risk of having asthma in childhood and sensitisation at the age of 8 years, taking into account the allergic status of the parents. METHODS: 2917 children who participated in a birth cohort study were followed for 8 years. The definition of...

  17. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Gayan Bowatte; Lodge, Caroline J.; Adrian J. Lowe; Bircan Erbas; Martine Dennekamp; Marks, Guy B; Jennifer Perret; Jennie Hui; Matthias Wjst; Gurrin, Lyle C; Allen, Katrina J.; Michael J. Abramson; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort...

  18. Asthma, atopy and tuberculin responses in Chinese schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, G; Hui, D.; Tam, C; Chan, H; Fok, T; Chan-Yeung, M.; Lai, C

    2001-01-01

    [Headnote] Background-The prevalence rates of asthma and other atopic disorders have increased steadily in many developed countries over the past few decades. Recent epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that BCG vaccination might be beneficial in reducing the subsequent development of atopy. This study investigates the relationship between asthma, allergic symptoms, atopy, and tuberculin response in Chinese school-- children who received BCG vaccination at birth. Methods...

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  2. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled Asthma among Persons with ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors ... Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier ...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ...

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  8. The Association Between Community Stressors and Asthma Prevalence of School Children in Winnipeg, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Kozyrskyj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally surmised that community stressors have an incubating effect for a variety of diagnoses on maternal and child health. This is of public health significance, as children of mothers facing long-term distress were found to have a 60% higher risk for asthma diagnosis at age 7 in Manitoba, Canada. Our objective was to determine the association of community stressors with childhood asthma prevalence in Winnipeg, Canada from participants who completed the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE survey administered in 2002–2003 to a birth cohort from 1995. Measures of community socioeconomic makeup and community disorder with rank ordinalized by quintile at the census tract level were obtained from the 1996 Canada Census. Crime data (annual incidence per 10,000 persons by neighbourhood profile for 2001 was provided by the Winnipeg Police Service. Dichotomous caregiver report of child asthma along with other indicators from the geocoded SAGE survey allowed linkage to 23 neighbourhood profiles. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of community stressors on childhood asthma prevalence for birth and non-birth home children (N = 1472 and children resident of birth homes at age 7 or 8 (N = 698. After adjusting for individual risk factors, children resident of birth homes in a high thefts over $5,000 neighbourhood profile were twice as likely (Adjusted OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11–3.81 to have report of asthma compared to children in a lower thefts over $5,000 profile, with community thefts over $5,000 explaining over half of the observed neighbourhood variation in asthma.

  9. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... conducting a physical examination and performing a breathing test called spirometry. If your breathing test shows that ...

  10. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

  11. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P;

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active or...... simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  12. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  13. Interleukin-16 in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jing-min; SHI Huan-zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by lymphocyte, eosinophil, and mast cell infiltration of the submucosa along with mucous gland hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis.

  14. A Wondrous Birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the author describes tending to a mother who displayed a quiet confidence throughout her pregnancy and birth experience. This birth story provides powerful support for women's inherent ability to give birth. Women already know what they need to give birth simply and easily.

  15. Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting β-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternative...

  16. Families, Parenting and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This thesis follows the paper based format in that Papers One and Two are stand-alone papers prepared for submission for Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review and the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology respectively. The relevant submission guidelines are included in the appendix (Appendix 1). Asthma is the most common childhood chronic illness affecting an estimated 1.1 million children in the UK. A substantial body of research has shown that asthma prevalence and morbi...

  17. Asthma in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, J; Mroueh, S

    2001-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that cannot be cured but can be effectively controlled. Control is achieved through education of the patient, monitoring of symptoms and pulmonary functions, environmental modification and pharmacologic therapy. The latter should aim at providing control with the least amount of medications. Any form of asthma more severe than mild intermittent requires the use of long term anti-inflammatory medications. PMID:12243423

  18. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Ohta; Masakazu Ichinose; Hiroyuki Nagase; Masao Yamaguchi; Hisatoshi Sugiura; Yuji Tohda; Kohei Yamauchi; Mitsuru Adachi; Kazuo Akiyama

    2014-01-01

    Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012). The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship...

  19. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

  20. Asthma: a chronic infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramori, Gaetano; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Contoli, Marco; Marku, Brunilda; Forini, Giacomo; Pauletti, Alessia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Papi, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    There are increasing data to support the "hygiene" and "microbiota" hypotheses of a protective role of infections in modulating the risk of subsequent development of asthma. There is less evidence that respiratory infections can actually cause the development of asthma. There is some evidence that rhinovirus respiratory infections are associated with the development of asthma, particularly in childhood, whereas these infections in later life seem to have a weaker association with the development of asthma. The role of bacterial infections in chronic asthma remains unclear. This article reviews the available evidence indicating that asthma may be considered as a chronic infectious disease. PMID:22929096

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication ...

  3. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cetlin Andrea; Gutierrez Manoel; Bettiol Heloísa; Barbieri Marco; Vianna Elcio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. W...

  4. Asthma in general practice : risk factors and asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhof, L. van den

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory, pulmonary disease with a significant impact on patients, their families, and society. When symptomatic asthma is diagnosed, often irreversible changes in the airways have occurred. Therefore it is important to detect persons at high risk of asthma as early as possible. The studies described in this thesis show that certain groups with an allergy or allergic rhinitis ('hay fever') are more at risk for an asthma diagnosis than persons without these features. O...

  5. Domestic use of cleaning sprays and asthma activity in females. : Domestic cleaning sprays and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moual, Nicole; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Siroux, Valérie; Dumas, Orianne; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Zock, Jean-Paul; Kauffmann, Francine

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study the associations between the household use of cleaning sprays and asthma symptoms and control of asthma, in females from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Data were available for 683 females (mean age 44 yrs, 55% never smokers, 439 without asthma and 244 with current asthma). Both domestic exposures and asthma phenotypes (asthma symptom score, current asthma, poorly-controlled asthma (56%)) were evaluated as previously described in t...

  6. Issues in Design and Implementation in an Urban Birth Cohort Study: The Syracuse AUDIT Project

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Judith A.; Hargrave, Teresa M; Hunt, Andrew; Liu, Chien-Chih; Anbar, Ran D; Hall, Geralyn E.; Naishadham, Deepa; Czerwinski, Maria H.; Webster, Noah; Lane, Sandra D.; Abraham, Jerrold L.

    2006-01-01

    The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size. We studied 103 infants of mothers with asthma, living predominantly in inner-city households. Our study combines measurements ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of ... the Symptoms of an Allergy? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease InfoSearch: Asthma Johns Hopkins Medicine: ...

  8. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part in recess, physical education (PE), and after-school sports is important for all children. And children with asthma should not have to sit on the side lines. School staff and coaches should know your child's asthma ...

  9. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, E.H.D.; Weersink, E.J.M.; Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, L.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related factors, such as adherence and health status, as well as environmental related factors such as exposure to house dust mite allergen. Finally we studied the effect of a combination of these patient ...

  10. The Asthma Cost in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Joan B; Zulfikar Habibullah; Al-Busaidi, Nasser H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the direct costs of treating asthma in Oman. Methods: Asthma prevalence and unit cost estimates were based on results from a panel using the Delphi technique, and were appliedto the total Omani population aged 5 and older to obtain the number of people diagnosed with asthma. The estimates from the Delphi exercise were multiplied by the percentage of patients using government facilities to estimate the number of asthma patients managed in Oman. Treatment costs ...

  11. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  12. Asthma in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  13. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  14. Asthma: where is it going?

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural...

  15. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H;

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  16. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  17. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  18. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  19. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most effective ... periods Treat acne Prevent ovarian cancer Combination birth control pills contain both estrogen and progestin. Some combination ...

  20. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  1. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne;

    Background House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma among children. Children spend 14 hours of their time indoor everyday in aberage, where they are exposed to different components in the indoor air. These components are children with asthma and HDM allergy specially...... sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring a...

  2. Salmeterol in paediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, C; Shrewsbury, S.; Barnes, P; Bush, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The addition of long acting inhaled β2 agonists is recommended at step 3 of the British guidelines on asthma management but a recent study suggested no additional benefit in children with asthma.
METHODS—The aim of this study was to compare, in a double blind, three way, crossover study, the effects of the addition of salmeterol 50 µg bd, salmeterol 100 µg bd, and salbutamol 200 µg qds in asthmatic children who were symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled co...

  3. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however...

  4. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however...

  5. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The...... objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA in new-onset or incident asthma among children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase and......42014013761; available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO [accessed: 24 March 2016])....

  6. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27401628

  7. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A Text Size What's ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  8. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A Text Size What's ... Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  9. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A Text Size What's ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  10. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A Text Size What's ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  11. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in...

  12. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  13. Exposure to organophosphate and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants via indoor dust and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz, D; van Velzen, M J M; Hallner, E; Zwinderman, A H; Wickman, M; Leonards, P E G; van Ree, R; van Rijt, L S

    2016-06-01

    Although the ubiquitous detection of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in indoor dust has raised health concerns, only very few epidemiological studies have assessed their impact on human health. Inhalation of dust is one of the exposure routes of FRs, especially in children and can be hazardous for the respiratory health. Moreover, PFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides, which have been associated with allergic asthma. Thus, we investigated whether the concentrations of PFRs and PBDEs in indoor dust are associated with the development of childhood asthma. We selected 110 children who developed asthma at 4 or at 8 years old and 110 matched controls from a large prospective birth cohort (BAMSE - Barn, Allergy, Milieu Stockholm Epidemiology). We analyzed the concentrations of 7 PFRs and 21 PBDEs in dust collected around 2 months after birth from the mother's mattress. The abundance rank in dust was as follows: TBOEP⪢TPHP>mmp-TMPP>EHDPHP~TDCIPP>TCEP~TCIPP~BDE-209⪢BDE-99>BDE-47>BDE-153>BDE-183>BDE-100. There was no positive association between the FRs in mattress dust and the development of childhood asthma. In contrast, dust collected from mattresses of the mothers of children who would develop asthma contained significant lower levels of TPHP and mmp-TMPP. This study provides data on a wide range of PFRs and PBDEs in dust samples and development of asthma in children. PMID:25952720

  14. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can come from factories, cars, and other sources. Pay attention to air quality forecasts on radio, television, and the Internet and check your newspaper to plan ... levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  15. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  16. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  17. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  18. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  19. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D. S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  20. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D.S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  1. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  2. Asthma in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Asthma Program for Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L Cowie; Underwood, Margot F; Little, Cinde B; Ian Mitchell; Sheldon Spier; Ford, Gordon T

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is common and is often poorly controlled in adolescent subjects.OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an age-specific asthma program on asthma control, particularly on exacerbations of asthma requiring emergency department treatment, and on the quality of life of adolescents with asthma.METHODS: The present randomized, controlled trial included patients who were 15 to 20 years of age and had visited emergency departments for management of their asthma. The interventional gr...

  3. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  4. Childhood Asthma Management Pre- and Post-Incident Asthma Hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Marina; Clavenna, Antonio; Sequi, Marco; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6–17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004–2...

  5. Role of Asthma Education in the Management of Adult Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Côté, Johanne

    1995-01-01

    When a patient is newly diagnosed as having asthma, he or she is often prescribed new medication without getting much information on the disease and its treatment. This article emphasizes the need to educate asthmatics. Asthma treatment should begin with a proper adjustment of the medication, allowing asthmatics to lead a normal life. All asthmatics should be shown how to use their inhalation device properly. They should he knowledgeable about the basic aspects of asthma, airway inflammation ...

  6. A comparison of three methods to measure asthma in epidemiologic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Granström, Charlotta; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the...... prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the...... methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa¿=¿0.21-0.38). When all three methods were combined the...

  7. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich;

    2014-01-01

    (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic...... Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort was followed prospectively, and asthma was diagnosed at age 7 years. The immune response to H influenzae, M catarrhalis, and S pneumoniae was analyzed in 292 infants using PBMCs isolated and stored since the age of 6 months. The immune response was...... assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. ResultsThe immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17...

  8. Association of prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    PurposeSome studies have suggested that maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with asthma in the offspring, and coffee consumption may modify the toxicity of acetaminophen. We aim to examine whether pregnancy maternal acetaminophen use increases the risk for offspring asthma......, and whether such a potential association could be modified by maternal coffee consumption. MethodsWe included 63 652 live-born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal acetaminophen use and coffee consumption during pregnancy were assessed prospectively via the enrolment questionnaire...... and three computer-assisted telephone interviews. Asthma cases were identified by using the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for asthma according to prenatal acetaminophen and coffee exposure using Cox proportional hazards...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  10. Occupational asthma caused by dry metabisulphite.

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, J.L.; Cartier, A.; Desjardins, A.

    1995-01-01

    A case is described of occupational asthma in a worker with no previous history of asthma who sprinkled dried metabisulphite powder onto potatoes and developed work-related symptoms. Occupational asthma was confirmed by specific inhalation challenges.

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ... Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare Providers More Asthma Resources ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma ... Home Pregnant Women - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance ... gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ...

  16. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby's Growth Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  17. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  18. Seventy Years of Asthma in Italy: Age, Period and Cohort Effects on Incidence and Remission of Self-Reported Asthma from 1940 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Pesce

    Full Text Available It is well known that asthma prevalence has been increasing all over the world in the last decades. However, few data are available on temporal trends of incidence and remission of asthma.To evaluate the rates of asthma incidence and remission in Italy from 1940 to 2010.The subjects were randomly sampled from the general Italian population between 1991 and 2010 in the three population-based multicentre studies: ECRHS, ISAYA, and GEIRD. Individual information on the history of asthma (age at onset, age at the last attack, use of drugs for asthma control, co-presence of hay-fever was collected on 35,495 subjects aged 20-84 and born between 1925-1989. Temporal changes in rates of asthma incidence and remission in relation to age, birth cohort and calendar period (APC were modelled using Poisson regression and APC models.The average yearly rate of asthma incidence was 2.6/1000 (3,297 new cases among 1,263,885 person-years. The incidence rates have been linearly increasing, with a percentage increase of +3.9% (95%CI: 3.1-4.5, from 1940 up to the year 1995, when the rates begun to level off. The stabilization of asthma incidence was mainly due to a decrease in the rates of atopic asthma after 1995, while non-atopic asthma has continued to increase. The overall rate of remission was 43.2/1000person-years, and it did not vary significantly across generations, but was associated with atopy, age at asthma onset and duration of the disease.After 50 years of a continuous upward trend, the rates of asthma incidence underwent a substantial stabilization in the late 90s. Despite remarkable improvements in the treatment of asthma, the rate of remission did not change significantly in the last seventy years. Some caveats are required in interpreting our results, given that our estimates are based on self-reported events that could be affected by the recall bias.

  19. FeNO and Bronchial Responsiveness are Associated and Continuous traits in Young Children Independent of Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    and in children without a history of asthma symptoms. METHODS 196 six-year-old children comprising asymptomatic children, children with intermittent asthmatic symptoms and children with persistent asthma were randomly included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Elevated fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are used as surrogate markers of asthma. These traits may be continuous in the population. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether FeNO and bronchial responsiveness are associated both in children with......) high-risk birth cohort born of mothers with asthma. Bronchial responsiveness was assessed as the relative change in specific airway resistance after cold-dry-air hyperventilation. FeNO measurements were performed prior to the hyperventilation test. The association between FeNO and bronchial...

  20. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show that...... these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different...... admissions. Obese patients, who present with symptoms suggesting a diagnosis of asthma, may have a distinct phenotype or a disease mimicking asthma, likely to have a potentially higher remission rate. And by that, our approach to this group of patients should combine pharmacologic and non...

  1. Asthma severity and exposure to occupational asthmogens

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moual, Nicole; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine; Kennedy, Susan,

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE: Severe asthma is a public health problem with limited information regarding preventable causes. Although occupational exposures have been implicated as important risk factors for asthma and asthma exacerbations, associations between occupational exposures and asthma severity have not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between occupational exposures and asthma severity. METHODS: The Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma combines a case-contro...

  2. Obesity in Asthma: Approaches to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeepan, Shyamala; Garrison, Garth; Dixon, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that obesity is associated with asthma, both of which are seeing a dramatic increase in prevalence. Not only is obesity a risk factor for the development of asthma, it is also associated with poor asthma control. Asthma phenotypes associated with obesity include early-onset allergic asthma and late-onset non-allergic asthma. The pathogenesis of the linkage is complex; obesity causes a variety of mechanical, metabolic, and immunological changes that can affect the ai...

  3. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zein, Joe G.; Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Sally E. Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results: The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by ap...

  4. The Effects of Bronchiectasis on Asthma Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hye Ran; Choi, Gyu-Sik; Park, Sun Jin; Song, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Ha, Junghoon; Lee, Yung Hee; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchiectasis and asthma are different in many respects, but some patients have both conditions. Studies assessing the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation. Methods We enrolled 2,270 asthma patients who were followed up in our hospital. Fifty patients had bronchiectasis and asthma. We selected fifty age- and sex-matched controls from the 2,220 asthma patients without br...

  5. Exploring the association between severe respiratory syncytial virus infection and asthma: a registry-based twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; van der Sluis, Sophie; Stensballe, Lone G;

    2009-01-01

    asthma "causes" RSV hospitalization fitted the data significantly better (P = 0.39 for deterioration in model fit) than a model in which RSV hospitalization "causes" asthma (P < 0.001 for deterioration in model fit), even when sex, birth weight, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were accounted for...... hospitalization due to RSV infection was gathered for all twins born in Denmark between 1994 and 2000 (8,280 pairs) and linked to information on asthma obtained from hospital discharge registries and parent-completed questionnaires. Genetic variance components models and direction of causation models were fitted...

  6. Jonah’s Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ...

  7. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Alen Faiz; Janette K. Burgess

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more ef...

  8. Pharmacogenetics of asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Naomi; Matsui, Eiko; Nishimura, Akane; KANEKO, HIDEO

    2009-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis develop by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several candidate causative genes of asthma and atopy have been reported as the genetic factors. The clinical features of patients and causes of diseases vary. Therefore, personalized medicine (tailor-made medicine) is necessary for the improvement of quality of life (QOL) and for asthma cure. Pharmacogenetics is very important for personalized medicine. Here, we pre...

  9. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  10. Studies on provoked asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of adult patients with perennial bronchial asthma has been studied as to lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation (81m-Kr) at rest and after provocation of an acute attack. Asthma was provoked by exercise and by histamine inhalation. After provocation the peak expiratory flow values were reduced to less than 80% of the base line values. Perfusion was often deranged. Regional ventilation changed rapidly after provocation and not always in the same fashion after exercise and histamine. During attacks lung volume increased. The expansion decreased (in parallel with increased peak expiratory flow) after inhalator of a #betta#-2 agonist (terbutaline). 81m-Kr offers unique opportunities for studying acute regional changes in alveolar ventilation. (Author)

  11. Metabolic origins of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity and incidence of asthma are increasing globally. The parallel increase of the two suggests that obesity and asthma may be related and that abnormalities in the lipid and/or glucose metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. The clinical presentation of obese asthma is distinct from other asthma phenotypes and depending on age of onset of symptoms. Asthma in obese people tends to be more severe, not typically associated with allergy, and less responsive to standard anti-inflammatory therapy, including corticosteroids. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities may lead to asthma via a number of mechanisms including changes in lung mechanics, the nitric oxide metabolism, and by causing inflammation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that nutrition during pregnancy contributes to intrauterine immune and metabolic programming in the offspring, which may have major influences on predisposition to cardiovascular, metabolic, and allergic diseases, including asthma, later in life. This review will highlight some suggested mechanistic links between obesity and diabetes with asthma. PMID:26542296

  12. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ...

  13. Chromosome 17q21 gene variants are associated with asthma and exacerbations but not atopy in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick M A;

    2009-01-01

    7216389, was genotyped in 376 of 411 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohort born to mothers with asthma together with 305 mothers and 224 fathers. Nineteen additional SNPs in the region were genotyped in the children. Investigator-diagnosed clinical...... endpoints were based on diary cards and clinic visits every 6 months and at acute symptoms from birth. Lung function, bronchial responsiveness, and sensitization were tested longitudinally from early infancy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: rs7216389 was significantly associated with the development of...

  14. Pathogenesis of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Barlan, Işıl B.; Başaran, Müjdat M.

    2000-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction in response to allergen chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonspecific airway hyperreponsiveness Allergic reaction appears to be the result of a TH2 type T cell response to one or more common environmental allergens The allergen specific TH2 response represents the triggering event for the recruitment and the involvement of the other cell types as well as a large number of soluble factors and adhesion molecules thus ...

  15. Adenosine Receptors and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Constance N; Nadeem, Ahmed; Spina, Domenico; Brown, Rachel; Page, Clive P.; Jamal Mustafa, S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathophysiological processes underlying respiratory diseases like asthma are complex, resulting in an overwhelming choice of potential targets for the novel treatment of this disease. Despite this complexity, asthmatic subjects are uniquely sensitive to a range of substances like adenosine, thought to act indirectly to evoke changes in respiratory mechanics and in the underlying pathology, and thereby to offer novel insights into the pathophysiology of this disease. Adenosine is of partic...

  16. Holy Saturday asthma

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, ...

  17. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  18. Pulmonary remodeling in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The inflammatory and immunologic processes responsible for asthma can produce permanently fixed obstructive lung disease unresponsive to medical therapy. This can be manifested clinically by the failure of a childhood asthmatic to reach full expected lung capacity at adulthood and by an accelerated decline in pulmonary capacity in adults. Recent studies have furthered our insight into the pathologic processes underlying these changes and the potential effects of therapy to prevent them.

  19. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  20. Acute bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  1. Beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor Methylation Influences Asthma Phenotype in The School Inner City Asthma Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and inner city residents suffer a disproportionately high rate of asthma diagnosis and asthma morbidity. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the school classroom based environmental exposures that may lead to asthma morbidity in inner city school children with asthma. Within this cohort, we investigated the role of methylation at the promoter region of the beta-2-adrenergic receptor in relation to asthma morbidity. We found th...

  2. Occupational asthma due to polyethylene shrink wrapping (paper wrapper's asthma).

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, P. F.; Burge, P S; Benfield, G F

    1992-01-01

    Occupational asthma due to the pyrolysis products of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) produced by shrink wrapping processes has previously been reported. The first case of occupational asthma in a shrink wrap worker using a different plastic, polyethylene, is reported; the association was confirmed by specific bronchial provocation testing.

  3. Emerging therapeutic options for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colice, Gene L

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Due to these pathologic features, the foundation of asthma treatment has historically been anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Numerous factors in addition to IgE and eosinophils, however, likely play important roles in mediating the airway inflammatory response characteristic of asthma. ICSs are effective therapy for some patients with persistent asthma, but clinical trials have shown that even increasing doses of ICSs under carefully controlled situations does not always result in acceptable asthma control. Consequently, other classes of medications, in addition to ICSs, are recommended in those patients with more severe asthma. The class of medication most commonly used in more severe asthma, along with ICSs, is long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists, but leukotriene modifying agents and anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies may also be used. Agents such as tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled anti-muscarinic agent, and those aimed at inhibiting cytokines, such as mepoluzimab, daclizumab, and etanercept, hold promise in the treatment of asthma. Other agents under investigation include phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors and oligonucleotides. Bronchial thermoplasty, a nonpharmacologic option, may also be beneficial in patients with poorly controlled asthma. As our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of asthma increases, it will enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients who are not responding well to traditional treatments. Although more studies are necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, there is future promise for therapeutic advances in severe, persistent asthma. PMID:21761958

  4. Birth control failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocles, A M

    1986-10-01

    Birth control failure usually results from the incorrect or inconsistent use of contraceptives. By providing anticipatory counseling, based on an understanding of the reasons for birth control failure, family physicians can help curtail the current epidemic of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:3766356

  5. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  6. A Season for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  7. Safely Giving Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the growing challenge of assuring a safe birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect normal birth.

  8. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  9. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  10. Asthma: where is it going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural changes or remodeling. However, persistence of airway dysfunction despite inflammatory control is observed in chronic severe asthma of both adults and children. More recently, a potential role for epithelial-mesenchymal communication or transition is emerging, with epithelial injury often resulting in a self-sustaining phenotype of wound repair modulation by activation/reactivation of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit, suggesting that chronic asthma can be more than an inflammatory disease. It is noteworthy that the gene-environmental interactions critical for the development of a full asthma phenotype involve processes similar to those occurring in branching morphogenesis. In addition, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of the disease has been explored, highlighting its secretory function as well as different intrinsic properties compared to normal subjects. These new concepts can potentially shed light on the mechanisms underlying some asthma phenotypes and improve our understanding of the disease in terms of the therapeutic strategies to be applied. How we understand asthma and its mechanisms along time will be the focus of this overview.

  11. How can microarrays unlock asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faiz, Alen; Burgess, Janette K

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although curr

  12. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? If You Smoke If Other People Smoke en español Fumar y el asma You may have family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, ...

  13. DNA vaccine and asthma therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Huan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is currently considered a chronic airway inflammatory disorder associated with the presence of activated CD4+ Th2-type lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Interestingly, therapeutic strategies based on immune deviation and suppression have been shown to successfully attenuate the development of the asthma phenotype.

  14. Comorbidity of Asthma with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how frequently drugs used to treat asthma and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients. Method: The authors used data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (n = 4,640,219). Results: Anti-asthma drugs were prescribed to 350,894 persons (7.56 % of the population), anti-ADHD…

  15. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, A;

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  17. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma curriculum…

  18. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  19. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma ... FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare ...

  1. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ... 4. Gathering and Using Data 4A. Focus On: Data Collection Choices 4B. Focus on Using Mixed Methods 5. ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma Call-back Survey Technical Information Prevalence Tables BRFSS Prevalence Data NHIS ... Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare ...

  4. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  5. Asthma and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  6. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  7. Childhood asthma management pre- and post-incident asthma hospitalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bianchi

    Full Text Available Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6-17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004-2006 period, anti-asthma therapy, specialist visit referrals, and claims for spirometry, released in the 12 months before and after hospitalization. Each patient's asthma management profile was compared with GINA guideline recommendations. Among the 183 hospitalized subjects, 101 (55% received therapy before hospitalization and 82 (45% did not. 10% did not receive any therapy either before or after hospital admission and in 13% the therapy was discontinued afterward. Based on GINA guidelines, asthma management adhered to recommendations only for 55% of subjects. Results may suggest that for half of hospitalized subjects, inaccurate diagnosis, under-treatment/scarce compliance with asthma guidelines by physicians, and/or scarce compliance to therapy by patients/their parents occurred. In all these cases, hospitalization would be a proxy indicator of preventable poor control of disease, rather than a proxy indicator of severity.

  8. Mode of delivery and risk of asthma in children 5-14 years old in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Sahebi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been suggested that a cesarean section increases risk of developing asthma due to lack of exposure to maternal microflora during birth. To investigate the association between the mode of delivery and the risk of asthma in children aged 5-14 years in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A case-control study was performed on 233 (case = 81, control = 152 children aged 5-14 years referred to outpatient clinics of Tabriz Children’s Hospital and Sheikhorrais Clinic in 2014. Clinical asthma diagnosis was done according to Global Initiative for Asthma Criteria. A questionnaire was administered to obtain a demographic, environmental, and clinical history. Age-sex frequency matching with cases was carried out during sampling for controlling of possible cofounding effects of age and sex for asthma. Results: Of 233 children, 53.6% of them were male (case group = 54.3% and control group = 53.3%. Over half (54.5%, the participants had been delivered by caesarian section. Cases were not significantly more likely to have been delivered by caesarian section as compared to controls [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34-1.42]. However, more frequent episodes of common cold [b = 0.094; standard error (SE (b = 0.031, P < 0.001], birth order (second born children compared to firstborns (AOR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.18-5.46, high maternal education levels: 12 years (AOR = 3.76; 95% CI = 1.10-12.9, collegiate (AOR = 6.12; 95% CI = 1.43-26.20, and intra-family marriage (AOR = 2.89; 95% CI = 1.21-6.89 were associated with childhood asthma. Conclusion: Delivery mode was not associated with risk of developing childhood asthma in our study. Intra-family marriage increased the odds of childhood asthma. Further study on the relationship between maternal education and the odds of asthma is proposed.

  9. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States and...... Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems to be...... unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation into...

  10. Association between respiratory infections in early life and later asthma is independent of virus type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Sevelsted, Astrid;

    2015-01-01

    (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, other picornaviruses, coronaviruses 229E and OC43, parainfluenza viruses 1-3, influenza viruses AH1, AH3, and B, human metapneumovirus, adenoviruses, and bocavirus) and 3 pathogenic airway bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella...... study the association between specific infections in early life and development of asthma later in childhood. METHODS: Three hundred thirteen children were followed prospectively in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies of Asthma in Childhood2000 high-risk birth cohort. Nine respiratory virus types...

  11. Severe and Moderate Asthma Exacerbations in Asthmatic Children and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the role of early life or long-term exposure is less clear. We assessed the association between severe asthma exacerbations with both birth and annual exposure to outdoor air pollutants with a population-based cohort of asthmatic children in the province of Quebec (Canada). Method: Exacerbations of asthma occurring between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2011 were defined as one hospitalization or emergency room visit with a diagnosis of asthma for children (<13 years old) already diagnosed with asthma. Annual daily average concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at the child’s residential postal code. Satellite based levels of fine particulate (PM2.5) estimated for a grid of 10 km by 10 km were also assigned to postal codes of residence for the whole province. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox models with a gap time approach for both birth and time-dependant exposure. Results: Of the 162,752 asthmatic children followed (1,020,280 person-years), 35,229 had at least one asthma exacerbation. The HRs stratified by age groups and adjusted for the year of birth, the ordinal number of exacerbations, sex, as well as material and social deprivation, showed an interquartile range increase in the time-dependant exposure to NO2 (4.95 ppb), O3 (3.85 ppb), and PM2.5 (1.82 μg/m3) of 1.095 (95% CI 1.058–1.131), 1.052 (95% CI 1.037–1.066) and 1.025 (95% CI 1.017–1.031), respectively. While a positive association was found to PM2.5, no associations were found between exposure at birth to NO2 or O3. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion, within the limitation of this study, that asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children are mainly associated with time dependent residential exposures less with exposure at birth. PMID:27490556

  12. Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reviews the current evidence indicating that comorbid allergic rhinitis may have clinically relevant effects on asthma. Discussion Allergic rhinitis is very common in patients with asthma, with a reported prevalence of up to 100% in those with allergic asthma. While the temporal relation of allergic rhinitis and asthma diagnoses can be variable, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis often precedes that of asthma. Rhinitis is an independent risk factor for the subsequent dev...

  13. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Izuhara; Hisako Matsumoto; Shoichiro Ohta; Junya Ono; Kazuhiko Arima; Masahiro Ogawa

    2015-01-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis ...

  14. Screening, Diagnostic and Outcome Tools for Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony M.J. Wever; Jopie Wever-Hess; Mark G. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, affecting about 10% of children and 5 to 7% of the adult population. Improved asthma control will not only benefit the patient but will also result in reduced financial expenditure in asthma healthcare. This article summarises the tools that are available for assessing asthma and attempts to quantify the usefulness of each tool in assessing asthma in different clinical contexts, whether it be screening for asthmatics within a populatio...

  15. Innate lymphocyte cells in asthma phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; MORITA, Hideaki; Akdis, Mubeccel

    2015-01-01

    T helper type 2 (TH2) cells were previously thought to be the main initiating effector cell type in asthma; however, exaggerated TH2 cell activities alone were insufficient to explain all aspects of asthma. Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome comprising different phenotypes that are characterized by their different clinical features, treatment responses, and inflammation patterns. The most-studied subgroups of asthma include TH2-associated early-onset allergic asthma, late-onset persistent eos...

  16. Ways of coping with asthma in everyday life: validation of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Aro, Arja R;

    2002-01-01

    ]. Data were collected by questionnaires. RESULTS: The expected structure of the six subscales (restricted lifestyle, hiding asthma, positive reappraisal, information seeking, ignoring asthma, and asthma worry) was supported. The Cronbach's alpha reliabilities of the subscales ranged from .63 to .84...

  17. Holy Saturday asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, necessitating his departure from the church. Inhalation challenge tests using two blends of incense used at his church (Greek and Vatican) led to identical symptoms and a significant reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s 15 min after exposure and PEFRs up to 48 h after exposure, indicating an early and late phase asthmatic reaction. This is the first report of coexistent colophony and incense-induced asthma. The similarities in chemical structures between abietic acid in colophony and boswellic acid in incense suggest a common mechanism. PMID:24626388

  18. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  19. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after they're born. We also give a shot of vitamin K. That helps control bleeding. There's ... born. Parents can elect to have their hepatitis shot also given at birth or they can elect ...

  20. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... births can also take a heavy emotional and economic toll on families. 5 American College of Obstetricians ... Dimes. (2012). The March of Dimes Foundation Data Book for Policy Makers: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health ...

  1. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ...

  2. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ... birth versus a repeat cesarean delivery. There's an issue called placenta accreta, which if you have multiple ...

  3. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  4. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  5. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  6. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I know that we have a very formal process in our office for patients with a prior ... with a vaginal birth, we have a formalized process where we go through an information sheet that ...

  7. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be able to schedule the birth. Some women have a preference for a cesarean delivery because ... subject doesn't really come up. But in women with a prior uterine incision that's compatible with ...

  8. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  9. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... to learn more. Just click on the "request information" button on your webcast screen and open the ...

  10. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  12. Indoor Domestic environment and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimitriou E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genesis and development of asthma are greatly affected by the indoor environmental quality. Duringrecent years, it is noted an important increase in asthma cases worldwide which is mainly caused by the effects ofpollutants in indoor environments. Purpose: In this study, there has been an effort to show the impact of indoorenvironment on asthma development. Methodology: Reviewing bibliography by information retrieval from thePubmed and TRIP Database.Conclusion: Indoor air pollution is an interdisciplinary subject. The great number ofpollutants, their variety on structure and action, the conditions under which they are developed as well as theirdifferent and disparate ways of treatment and control require knowledge from many scientific fields. By assuming newdimensions in world climate changes, increasing sensitization in allergens, using respiratory irritants, such aspesticides and compounds and chemicals of industrial origin, and at the same time the poor home indoor air qualityand the family history of asthma lead to new asthma cases worldwide. An important number of asthma cases in afamily could be avoided by implementing a better environmental policy inside our homes. Finally, by understandingbetter the link between environment and asthma as well as by explaining the involved gene action, they will bedelivered more effective prevention and treatment programs.

  13. Researching asthma across the ages: Insights from the NHLBI Asthma Network

    OpenAIRE

    Cabana, Michael D; Kunselman, Susan J.; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Wechsler, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical asthma studies across different age groups, or ‘cross-age’ studies, can potentially offer insight into the similarities, differences and relationships between childhood and adult asthma. The National Institutes of Health Asthma Research Network (AsthmaNet) is unique and innovative in that it has merged pediatric and adult asthma research into one clinical research network. This combination enhances scientific exchange between pediatric and adult asthma investigators and encourages th...

  14. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global In...

  15. Level of asthma control and its relationship with medication use in asthma patients in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Marchioro; Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti; Oliver Augusto Nascimento; Federico Montealegre; James Fish; José Roberto Jardim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess asthma patients in Brazil in terms of the level of asthma control, compliance with maintenance treatment, and the use of rescue medication. METHODS: We used data from a Latin American survey of a total of 400 asthma patients in four Brazilian state capitals, all of whom completed a questionnaire regarding asthma control and treatment. RESULTS: In that sample, the prevalence of asthma was 8.8%. Among the 400 patients studied, asthma was classified, in accordance with the G...

  16. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  17. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Yumi Matsunaga; Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro; Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad; André Moreno Morcillo; José Dirceu Ribeiro; Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Globa...

  18. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  19. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  20. #3: Periviable birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  1. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  2. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some exercises may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms. Swimming is often a good choice. The warm, moist air may keep symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports that ... symptoms. Activities that are more intense and sustained, ...

  3. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Faiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified. In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach. In this review we follow the history of expression microarray technologies and describe their contributions to advancing our current knowledge and understanding of asthma pathology.

  4. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht;

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the...

  5. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B; Wenzel, Sally E

    2015-01-15

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  6. Flu and People with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  7. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma action plan is to reduce or prevent flare-ups and emergency department visits through day-to-day ... can: avoid triggers identify early symptoms of a flare-up and treat them to prevent the flare-up ...

  8. Dendritic cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, Mary J; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-12-01

    The lungs are constantly exposed to antigens, most of which are non-pathogenic and do not require the induction of an immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) are situated at the basolateral site of the lungs and continuously scan the environment to detect the presence of pathogens and subsequently initiate an immune response. They are a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that exert specific functions. Compelling evidence is now provided that DCs are both sufficient and necessary to induce allergic responses against several inhaled harmless allergens. How various DC subsets exactly contribute to the induction of allergic asthma is currently a subject of intense investigation. We here review the current progress in this field. PMID:24455765

  9. Identification of asthma clusters in two independent Korean adult asthma cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Bum; Jang, An-Soo; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Jong-Sook; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Young-Joo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook; Park, Choon-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease with various clinical phenotypes. It is crucial to clearly identify clinical phenotypes to achieve better asthma management. We used cluster analysis to classify the clinical groups of 724 asthmatic patients from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea (COREA), and in 1843 subjects from another independent Korean asthma cohort of Soonchunhyang University Asthma Genome Research Centre (SCH) (Bucheon, Republic of Korea). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed by Ward's method, followed by κ-means cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the COREA cohort indicated four asthma subtypes: 1) smoking asthma; 2) severe obstructive asthma; 3) early-onset atopic asthma; and 4) late-onset mild asthma. An independent cluster analysis of the SCH cohort also indicated four clusters that were similar to the COREA clusters. Our results indicate that adult Korean asthma patients can be classified into four distinct clusters. PMID:23060627

  10. Asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xian Qiao; Yi Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To get a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma by reviewing the epidemiology,pathophysiology,and clinical manifestation and then summarizing the latest progress on diagnosis and treatment.Data Sources:Articles referred in this review were mainly collected from a comprehensive search of the PubMed published in English from 1990 to 2015 with the terms "OSA" and “asthma'" as the main keywords.Highly regarded older publications were also included.Study Selection:Information about the features of the two diseases in common,the pathophysiologic association between them and their current treatments from the literature search were identified,retrieved,and summarized.Results:Both OSA and asthma are very prevalent conditions.The incidences of them have kept on rising in recent years.Asthma is often accompanied by snoring and apnea,and OSA often combines with asthma,as well.They have many predisposing and aggravating factors in common.Possible shared direct mechanistic links between them include mechanical effects,intermittent hypoxia,nerve reflex,inflammation,leptin,etc.Indirect mechanistic links include medication,nose diseases,smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.Since OSA presents many similar features with nocturnal asthma,some scholars termed them as a sole syndrome "alternative overlap syndrome,"and proved that asthma symptoms in those patients could be improved through the treatment of continuous positive airway pressure.Conclusions:OSA and asthma are closely associated in pathogenesis,symptoms,and therapies.With the growing awareness of the relationship between them,we should raise our vigilance on the coexistence of OSA in those difficult-to-control asthmatic patients.Further studies are still needed to guide the clinical works.

  11. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Boulet, L. P.; A. Becker; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control o...

  12. Exercise and asthma: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Giacco, Stefano R. Del; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms ‘exercise-induced asthma’ (EIA) and ‘exercise-induced bronchoconstriction’ (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals...

  13. Therapeutic options for severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Jilcy; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Chandy, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidit...

  14. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  15. Twin births: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani Anil Wanjari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal, foetal and obstetric parameters surrounding twin pregnancies. An attempt was made to find out the perinatal mortality and morbidity rates of twin births and to determine the underlying factors responsible for the increase in these rates. Methods: A one year observational study was done at Daga hospital Nagpur, which is a referral maternity hospital receiving a large number of antenatal patients daily. Perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, and caesarean section rates were analysed. Results: The commonest presentation in our study vertex/vertex presentation (62%. A large percentage of twins in our study had a normal delivery. 37% women had caesarean section. In our study nearly 17% of the neonates had birth weights <1.5 kg. In 51 % women the first baby had more birth weight than the second twin. Among the 95 twin births (190 twins studied, we had one discordant twins and one conjoined twins. Conclusions: Twin pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with more obstetrical complications compared to singleton pregnancies. Twin pregnancies have higher perinatal mortality and morbidity rates especially before 34 weeks of gestation. Hence deliveries should be performed in referral centres with competent NICUs. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 995-997

  16. Lifestyle changes and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades there have been marked increases in asthma prevalence in Western countries. More recently, asthma prevalence has peaked, or even begun to decline, in Western countries, but many low and middle income countries are now beginning to experience increases in prevalence (although there is no evidence of increases in prevalence in India to date). "Established" risk factors for asthma cannot account for the global prevalence increases, or the international patterns that have been observed, or the recent declines in prevalence in some Western countries. It seems that as a result of the "package" of changes in the intrauterine and infant environment that are occurring with "Westernization", we are seeing an increased susceptibility to the development of asthma and/or allergy. There are a number of elements of this "package" including changes in maternal diet, increased fetal growth, smaller family size, reduced infant infections and increased use of antibiotics and paracetamol, and immunization, all of which have been (inconsistently) associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, but none of which can alone explain the increases in prevalence. It is likely that the "package" is more than the sum of its parts, and that these social and environmental changes are all pushing the infants' immune systems towards an increased risk of asthma. PMID:22555908

  17. Early growth characteristics and the risk of reduced lung function and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Dekker, Herman T; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; de Jongste, Johan C;

    2016-01-01

    %) to 45% (95% CI, 15% to 81%) of the associations between early growth characteristics and asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Younger gestational age, smaller size for gestational age, and greater infant weight gain were across the full ranges associated with childhood lung function. These associations explain the......BACKGROUND: Children born preterm or with a small size for gestational age are at increased risk for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the hypothesis that these associations are explained by reduced airway patency. METHODS: We used individual participant data of 24,938 children from...... 24 birth cohorts to examine and meta-analyze the associations of gestational age, size for gestational age, and infant weight gain with childhood lung function and asthma (age range, 3.9-19.1 years). Second, we explored whether these lung function outcomes mediated the associations of early growth...

  18. Association between parental socioeconomic position and prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever among children in different age groups and examine the associations with parental socioeconomic position. METHODS: A cross-sectional health survey of four complete birth-cohorts in the municipality of Copenhagen was conducted...... educational level, whereas asthma and hay fever were associated with low educational level. No association with household income was found........ Children aged 11 and 15 years and parents of children aged 3 and 6 years completed questionnaires on symptoms and diseases. Data were linked to national registers on demographics and socioeconomic position measured as education, employment and income. In total, 9720 children/parents responded (50...... a decreased risk of atopic eczema and eczema symptoms. There was no independent association between household income and any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma and hay fever, but not atopic eczema, increased with increasing age. Atopic eczema was associated with high parental...

  19. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  20. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas. PMID:12291551

  1. Hormonal contraception increases risk of asthma among obese but decreases it among nonobese subjects: a prospective, population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Matheson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data on asthma suggest a sex difference that varies with age. Hormonal effects have been suggested as a possible explanation for these differences but there is a scarcity of evidence on these relationships. Our objective was to examine the relationship between reproductive factors and asthma risk among females and to examine whether body mass index (BMI modifies this relationship. Female participants in the 2004 fifth decade follow-up postal survey of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study formed the study population. Reproductive history and data on hormonal contraceptive (HC use were collected on 2764 females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between the reproductive factors and current asthma. The mean age of participants was 43 years and the prevalence of middle-aged current asthma was 12.8%. Females with very early menarche (≤10 years had higher odds of middle-aged current asthma (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.14–3.2. Pregnancy history (number of births and age at first pregnancy were not associated with current asthma risk at 44 years. Ever having used HCs, years of use and age started using HCs were not individually associated with current asthma risk. However, body mass index significantly modified the relationship between HC use and asthma. We found increasing years of pill use was associated with a significantly increased risk of current asthma in overweight/obese women but a reduced risk in normal weight women (interaction p=0.015. Hormonal effects from use of HCs and early menarche may contribute to the sex differential in asthma risk. Our findings suggest that in obese women with a history of long-term HC use may be at an increased risk of chronic respiratory disease, and regular monitoring for asthma and asthma symptoms may be recommended.

  2. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  3. Awareness regarding childhood asthma in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Saleh; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Khorayyef, Abdullah; Al-Qwaiee, Mansour; Al-Shamarani, Abdullah; Al-Aslani, Wafa; Kamfar, Hayat; Felemban, Osama; Barzanji, Mohammed; Al-Harbi, Naser; Dhabab, Ruqaia; Al-Omari, Mohammed Ahmed; Yousef, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing the knowledge and awareness of the Saudi society about bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 1039 Saudi Arabians in May 2014 at Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. RESULTS: The awareness of bronchial asthma questions showed that 67% of total sample thought that it could be a fatal disease, and only 13.2% thought that there is a difference between bronchial asthma and chest allergies in children. 86.1% thought that the symptoms of bronchial asthma include dyspnea and nocturnal cough, and 45.7% thought that fever, a runny nose and throat inflammation are not symptoms. 60.2% thought that infectious respiratory diseases may increase bronchial asthma progression. In addition, 40% thought that the use of antibiotics doesn’t help in diminishing bronchial asthma complications, and some thought that the patient can stop medication after an acute asthma attack. 34.1% thought that inhaled medication for asthma doesn’t cause addiction. Very highly significant results are shown between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, the level of education, marital status, and if the individual knows a person who suffers from bronchial asthma (P < 0.001). There are positive correlations between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, marital status, and level of education (r = 0.152, 0.150, 0.197), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread bronchial asthma management. PMID:26933459

  4. Asthma in adolescents and young adults: relationship with early childhood respiratory morbidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolnaar, B G; Lier, A. van; van den Bosch, W J; Folgering, H; Herwaarden, C. van; van den Hoogen, H J; van Weel, C

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between respiratory illness in early childhood and asthma in adolescence and young adulthood (age group 10-23 years). METHOD. The study population comprised 277 boys and 274 girls, born between 1967 and 1978 and registered from their birth to the year of study (1989) on the practice lists of the four general practices taking part in the continuous morbidity registration project (CMR) at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands. D...

  5. Environmental issues in managing asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-05-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  6. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The ...

  7. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  8. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... based on a patient's individual characteristics." What differences should patients now expect in asthma care? You should ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-2 Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Reports and Publications Asthma Surveillance Summaries MMWR Publications NCHS Reports and Publications Related Articles, Publications, and Links Asthma's ...

  10. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  11. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157202.html Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm Airway disease ... People 50 and older who have had recent asthma activity appear to be at an increased risk ...

  12. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities. PMID:25470264

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  14. Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157642.html Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure Patients from ... said. But the study did not show a cause-and-effect relationship between income and asthma and ...

  15. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy What's an Asthma Flare-Up? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Flare-Up? ... in the neck and chest How a Flare-Up Affects Lungs Here's what's happening inside the body ...

  16. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall ... HEAL is seeking ways to reduce the nation's childhood asthma challenge. Even before Hurricane Katrina swept through ...

  17. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  18. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dr. Michelle Freemer, an NIH asthma expert. For youngsters, a doctor will do a physical exam and ... and treat asthma. Levine’s team is studying the effects of house dust mites inside the home. While ...

  19. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  20. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know Past Issues / Fall ... on. If you or a relative suffers from asthma, it is important to know that quality care ...

  1. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  2. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with ...

  4. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  5. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  6. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults. PMID:27336439

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for people with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma Call-back Survey Technical Information Prevalence Tables BRFSS Prevalence ... last updated: November 19, 2014 Content source: National Center for Environmental Health Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  8. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish ( en español ) Recovering from birth Related information Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet When to call the baby's doctor – ... Get more details on postpartum depression in our Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet . Emerging research suggests that 1 in ...

  9. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  10. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  11. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  12. Supported self-management for asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Pinnock

    2015-01-01

    Key points Self-management education in asthma is not an optional extra. Healthcare professionals have a responsibility to ensure that everyone with asthma has personalised advice to enable them to optimise how they self-manage their condition.; Overviews of the extensive evidence-base conclude that asthma self-management supported by regular professional review, improves asthma control, reduces exacerbations and admissions, and improves quality of life.; Self-management education sh...

  13. Prevalence of Bronchial Asthma in Indian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pal Ranabir; Dahal Sanjay; Pal Shrayan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma and allergic disease has increased in developed countries. Studies have identified asthma among Indian children. Still, there is paucity of information on the overall prevalence of childhood asthma in India. Objective: To assess time trends and the overall prevalence rate of bronchial asthma among Indian children. Materials and Methods: Literature search for data sources was done through an extensive search in indexed literatures a...

  14. Is Asthma Related to Choroidal Neovascularization?

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoyao Sun; Wenzhen Yu; Lvzhen Huang; Jing Hou; Peihua Gong; Yi Zheng; Mingwei Zhao; Peng Zhou; Xiaoxin Li

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD) and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023). However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association b...

  15. Psychiatric and social aspects of brittle asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Garden, G M; Ayres, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Many studies have shown that emotional factors play a part in asthma, but few have compared patients with differing severities of asthma. It was our impression that patients with "brittle" asthma (BA; more than 40% diurnal variation in peak flow on 15 or more days a month over a period of at least six months, and persistent symptoms despite multiple drug treatment) had greater psychosocial morbidity than asthmatic patients with less variable asthma. METHODS--Twenty patients with B...

  16. Psychosocial Components of Asthma Management in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Shari L.

    2000-01-01

    Asthma is a growing health problem that affects 4.8 million children in the US alone. This paper considers empirical studies from the past 20 years examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma management and morbidity. Research indicates that psychosocial factors, including risk and protective factors in the social environment, and knowledge, attitudes and skills pertaining to asthma management, can play an important role in asthma management, adherence and morbidity. Ca...

  17. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  18. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  19. Progress in the management of childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Pensrichon, Rattana; Kurasirikul, Suruthai

    2012-01-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in childhood. Significant advances in epidemiological research as well as in therapy of pediatric asthma have been made over the past 2 decades. In this review, we look at certain aspects therapy of childhood asthma, both in the past and present. Literature review on allergen avoidance (including mites, cockroach and cat), intensive therapy with β2-agonists in acute asthma (administering via continuous nebulization and intravenous routes), a r...

  20. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Harmesh; Soni R.K; Gill P J S

    1998-01-01

    Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking,...

  1. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control*

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Mariana Nadal; Chong, Herberto José; Rabelo, Lêda Maria; Riedi, Carlos Antônio; Rosário, Nelson Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  2. Tracing Uncontrolled Asthma in Family Practice Using a Mailed Asthma Control Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE A substantial proportion of adult patients with asthma have inadequately controlled symptoms despite the availability of effective treatment. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) can be used to discriminate between asthma patients with well- and suboptimally controlled asthma symptoms. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a postal mailing of the ACQ can be used to identify asthma patients with suboptimal symptom control in family practice.

  3. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Nadal Cardoso; Herberto José Chong Neto; Lêda Maria Rabelo; Carlos Antônio Riedi; Nelson Augusto Rosário

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  4. 10. Occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, Emil J

    2008-02-01

    A diversity of airborne dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors can induce dose-related respiratory symptoms in individuals exposed in the workplace. These agents can cause annoyance reactions, irritational effects, sensitization, or the induction of corrosive changes in the respiratory tract, depending on their composition, concentration, and duration of exposure. The prevalence of occupational asthma (OA) ranges from 9% to 15% of the asthmatic population. Factors that might influence the development of OA include the work environment, climatic conditions, genetic proclivities, tobacco and recreational drug use, respiratory infection, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and endotoxin exposure. Pathogenetically, new-onset OA can be allergic or nonallergic in origin. The allergic variants are usually caused by high-molecular-weight allergens, such as grain dust and animal or fish protein. Selected low-molecular-weight agents are also capable of inducing allergic OA. Symptoms ensue after a latent period of months to years. Nonallergic OA can be precipitated by a brief high-level exposure to a potent irritant. Symptoms occur immediately or within a few hours of the exposure. Once the diagnosis of allergic OA is established, the worker should be removed from further exposure in the workplace. In nonallergic OA the worker can return to work if the exposure was clearly a nonrecurring event. If the diagnosis is made in a timely fashion, most workers experience improvement. Prevention is the best therapeutic intervention. PMID:18241692

  5. Nerve growth factor and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, S; Lambiase, A; Lapucci, G; Properzi, F; Bresciani, M; Bracci Laudiero, M L; Mancini, M J; Procoli, A; Micera, A; Sacerdoti, G; Bonini, S; Levi-Schaffer, F; Rasi, G; Aloe, L

    2002-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts biological activity not only on the central and peripheral nervous system, but also on the immune system thereby influencing allergic diseases and asthma. (1) NGF circulating levels are increased in patients with allergic diseases and asthma, and are related to the severity of the inflammatory process and disease. In vernal keratoconjunctivitis, NGF plasma levels correlate with the number of mast cells infiltrating the conjunctiva, and NGF mRNA is increased in nasal mucosal scrapings of patients with allergic rhinitis who have high levels of NGF in serum and nasal fluids; NGF is further increased in nasal fluids after specific allergen challenge. (2) NGF is produced and released by several modulatory and effector cells of allergic inflammation and asthma, for example T-helper 2 lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. (3) NGF receptors are expressed on the conjunctival epithelium of patients with allergic conjunctivitis and the number of NGF-receptor positive cells is increased in the conjunctiva of these patients. Indeed, local administration of NGF induces fibroblast activation and healing processes of human corneal ulcers, which suggests that NGF plays a role in tissue remodelling processes occurring in asthma. (4) NGF increases airway hyperreactivity to histamine in an animal model of asthma, while anti-NGF treatment reduces airway hyperreactivity induced by ovalbumin topical challenge in the sensitized mouse. PMID:12144547

  6. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, James

    2015-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting. PMID:26033128

  7. Domestic Dog Exposure at birth reduces the Incidence of Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sunna; Thyssen, Jacob P; Stokholm, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is complex and poorly understood, neonatal exposures are important for disease occurrence. However, the effect of dog exposure on the risk of atopic dermatitis is unresolved. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether domestic dog exposure...... affected the risk of atopic dermatitis in children during the first 3 years of life. METHODS: Copenhagen prospective studies on asthma in childhood (COPSAC) are ongoing prospective clinical birth cohort studies. Data from 411 children born to mothers with asthma (COPSAC2000 ), and 700 unselected children...... (COPSAC2010 ) were analyzed following the same protocols at the same research site. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed prospectively according to the Hanifin-Rajka criteria. Parental history of asthma, eczema or rhinitis was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis. In COPSAC2000, maternal specific serum...

  8. The importance of genetic influences in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, H; Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder in which the mode of inheritance is not known. Many segregation studies suggest that a major gene could be involved in asthma, but until now different genetic models have been obtained, Twin studies, too, have shown evidence for genetic influences in asthma, but

  9. Taking ACTion for better control of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The global prevalence of asthma ranges from 1% to 18% of the population in different countries.1 In China, while national data of asthma prevalence are still lacking, an epidemiological study in Beijing showed that the prevalence of asthma in occupational populations was 1.25%.2

  10. Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Jackie ... the heptathlon and long-jump competitions, despite severe asthma. While she was a top student-athlete at ...

  11. Epidemiology and Pulmonary Physiology of Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Jacqueline; Mikulic, Lucas; Kaminsky, David A

    2016-08-01

    The epidemiology and physiology of severe asthma are inherently linked because of varying phenotypes and expressions of asthma throughout the population. To understand how to better treat severe asthma, we must use both population data and physiologic principles to individualize therapies among groups with similar expressions of this disease. PMID:27401616

  12. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  13. The school environment and asthma in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school environment and pediatric asthma morbidity. This article will conclude by reviewing novel school based asthma education and therapeutic programs and environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity.

  14. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts & Video E-Cards Flu Badge Real Stories Cleft Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... premature birth, certain birth defects (such as cleft lip, cleft palate, or both ), and infant death. Quitting smoking before ...

  15. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Erbas, Bircan; Dennekamp, Martine; Marks, Guy B.; Perret, Jennifer; Hui, Jennie; Wjst, Matthias; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Allen, Katrina J.; Abramson, Michael J.; Matheson, Melanie C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participant’s residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370) and 18 (n = 434) years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s) were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes. PMID:27043549

  16. Risk factors for asthma in young adults: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO; Larsen, Klaus; Skadhauge, LR; Steffensen, IE; Duffy, DL; Backer, V

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The liability to asthma is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for asthma in young adult twin pairs during an 8-year period. METHODS: From the birth cohorts 1953-1982 of the Danish Twin Registry, 6,090 twin pairs....... Pairs in which only one twin developed asthma -- discordant pairs -- were identified and conditional logistic regression was applied to detect effects of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 126 monozygotic (MZ) and 273 dizygotic (DZ) discordant twin pairs were identified. In MZ twins hay fever (OR = 3...... females = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.80, P = 0.002), and increasing levels of body mass index (BMI; OR per unit = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20, P = 0.009) were significant predictors of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Hay fever, eczema, female sex, exercise and increasing levels of BMI were risk factors for asthma in young...

  17. The “time-window” effect of early allergen exposure on a rat asthma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan; LIU Ping; LI Hai-chao; WANG Yue-dan

    2013-01-01

    Background The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of asthma.Allergen exposure was shown to inhibit asthma in an animal model.But the optimal timing of allergen exposure remains unclear.This study aims to explore the time effcct of allergen exposure and the possible mechanisms.Methods Neonate Wistar rats were randomly divided into asthma group,control group and day 1,day 3,day 7,and day 14 groups.The day 1,day 3,day 7 and day 14 groups were injected with ovalbumin (OVA) subcutaneously on days 1,3,7 and 14 after birth,respectively.Six weeks later,all groups,except the control group,were sensitized and stimulated with OVA to make the asthma model.We observed the pulmonary pathologic changes,detected the regulatory T cells,and CD28 expression level in thymus and spleen by flow cytometry.Results The asthmatic inflammation in the day 1,day 3 and day 7 groups,but not the day 14 group,was alleviated.The asthma group and day 14 group had lower proportions of regulatory T cells in the thymus compared with the control group,day 1,day 3,and day 7 groups.There was no significant difference in the CD28 expression levels on the regulatory and conventional T cells among groups.But the control group and the day 1,day 3,and day 7 groups had relatively higher proportions of CD28 positive regulatory T cells in the thymus than the day 14 group and the asthma group.Conclusions There is a “time-window” for early allergen exposure.The impairment of regulatory T cells may promote the development of asthma.Allergen exposure in the “time-window” can make the thymus produce normal quantity of regulatory cells.The CD28 signal on regulatory T cells may participate in the production of regulatory T cells.

  18. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  19. Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Bochner, Bruce S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is clearly related to airway or blood eosinophilia, and asthmatics with significant eosinophilia are at higher risk for more severe disease. Eosinophils actively contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammatory cascades through the production and release of diverse chemokines, cytokines, lipid mediators and other growth factors. Eosinophils may persist in the blood and airways despite guidelines-based treatment. This review details eosinophil effector mechanisms, surface markers, and clinical outcomes associated with eosinophilia and asthma severity. There is interest in the potential of eosinophils or their products to predict treatment response with biotherapeutics and their usefulness as biomarkers. This is important as monoclonal antibodies are targeting cytokines and eosinophils in different lung environments for treating severe asthma. Identifying disease state-specific eosinophil biomarkers would help to refine these strategies and choose likely responders to biotherapeutics. PMID:27386041

  20. MedlinePlus: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Start Here Birth Control Methods (Department of Health and Human Services, Office ... Male Contraception? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Patient ... Birth control - slow release methods Also in Spanish Birth control ...

  1. Asthma in Primary Care : Severity, Treatment and Level of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ställberg, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Aims. The overall aim was to examine the severity, treatment and level of control in patients with asthma in primary care in Sweden. The specific aims were to assess what matters to asthma patients, evaluate symptoms, medication and identify factors related to asthma severity, compare the extent of asthma control in 2001 and 2005, and investigate the development of asthma and degree of asthma control in adolescents and young adults who had reported asthma six years earlier. Methods. The first...

  2. Exercise and asthma: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms 'exercise-induced asthma' (EIA) and 'exercise-induced bronchoconstriction' (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals as shown by epidemiological studies. EIA and EIB have a high prevalence also in elite athletes, especially within endurance type of sports, and an athlete's asthma phenotype has been described. However, the occurrence in elite athletes shows that EIA/EIB, if correctly managed, may not impair physical activity and top sports performance. The pathogenic mechanisms of EIA/EIB classically involve both osmolar and vascular changes in the airways in addition to cooling of the airways with parasympathetic stimulation. Airways inflammation plays a fundamental role in EIA/EIB. Diagnosis and pharmacological management must be carefully performed, with particular consideration of current anti-doping regulations, when caring for athletes. Based on the demonstration that the inhaled asthma drugs do not improve performance in healthy athletes, the doping regulations are presently much less strict than previously. Some sports are at a higher asthma risk than others, probably due to a high environmental exposure while performing the sport, with swimming and chlorine exposure during swimming as one example. It is considered very important for the asthmatic child and adolescent to master EIA/EIB to be able to participate in physical activity on an equal level with their peers, and a precise early diagnosis with optimal treatment follow-up is vital in this aspect. In addition, surprising recent preliminary evidences offer new perspectives for moderate exercise as a potential therapeutic tool for

  3. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  4. Free running asthma screening test.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanakas, J N; Milner, R D; Bannister, O M; Boon, A W

    1988-01-01

    The free running asthma screening test (FRAST) was evaluated in 503 Sheffield schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years and compared with responses to an asthma questionnaire. The FRAST measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) before and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after maximum voluntary running for at least 5 minutes in a standardised environment. A fall in PEFR of greater than 15% in at least two postexercise readings was defined as abnormal. Six (1%) children did not do the test and 69 (14%) failed ...

  5. Emerging Biologics in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavord, Ian D; Hilvering, Bart; Shrimanker, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by persistently elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Eosinophil activity in the airway may be more important than their numbers and this needs to be investigated. Transcriplomic or Metabolomic signatures may also be useful to identify this endotype. PMID:27401629

  6. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2014-01-01

    including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage of...... tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve...

  7. Linkage and Genetic Association in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bridgette L; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-08-01

    A significant body of work in the genetics of asthma currently exists. However, current knowledge has not been clarifying in understanding the pathophysiology of asthma and therapeutic treatment of the disease. Severe asthma in adults and children is a significant burden in relation to disproportionate disease morbidity, mortality, and health utilization. This disease phenotype is not well understood; current effective treatment regimens are limited. Genetic studies may lead to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma and identification of relevant subsets, which allow more targeted and effective therapies and the realization of Precision Medicine in asthma. PMID:27401617

  8. Defining and managing risk in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, J D; Zaidi, S; Shaw, D E

    2014-08-01

    Asthma attacks are a major global source of morbidity and cost. The incidence and impact of asthma attacks have not improved despite widespread adoption of effective universal treatment guidelines. Consequently, there is increasing interest in managing asthma based on specific assessments of both current symptoms and future risk. In this review, we consider 'risk' in asthma, and how it might be assessed from the patient's history and objective measurements. We also discuss the potential for encouraging shared decision-making and improving medical consensus through explicit communication of risk and highlight the potential opportunities and challenges in risk assessment to improve asthma management through individualised treatment strategies. PMID:24773229

  9. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  10. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ...

  11. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  12. Advances in asthma 2015: Across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andrew H; Anderson, William C; Dutmer, Cullen M; Searing, Daniel A; Szefler, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, progress in understanding asthma ranged from insights to asthma inception, exacerbations, and severity to advancements that will improve disease management throughout the lifespan. 2015's insights to asthma inception included how the intestinal microbiome affects asthma expression with the identification of specific gastrointestinal bacterial taxa in early infancy associated with less asthma risk, possibly by promoting regulatory immune development at a critical early age. The relevance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating asthma-related gene expression was strengthened. Predicting and preventing exacerbations throughout life might help to reduce progressive lung function decrease and disease severity in adulthood. Although allergy has long been linked to asthma exacerbations, a mechanism through which IgE impairs rhinovirus immunity and underlies asthma exacerbations was demonstrated and improved by anti-IgE therapy (omalizumab). Other key molecular pathways underlying asthma exacerbations, such as cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) and orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3), were elucidated. New anti-IL-5 therapeutics, mepolizumab and reslizumab, were US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. In a clinical trial the novel therapeutic inhaled GATA3 mRNA-specific DNAzyme attenuated early- and late-phase allergic responses to inhaled allergen. These current findings are significant steps toward addressing unmet needs in asthma prevention, severity modification, disparities, and lifespan outcomes. PMID:27497278

  13. Managed care opportunities for improving asthma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan D

    2011-04-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is an enormous burden in terms of the propensity to reach asthma control in the future, direct and indirect costs, and health-related quality of life. The complex pathophysiology, treatment, and triggers of asthma warrant a unified, yet targeted, approach to care. No single factor is fully responsible for poor control. Complicating the problem of asthma control is adherence to long-term controller medications. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) established several key points for asthma control, and developed classifications for asthma control and recommended actions for treatment. All parties involved in the management of asthma, including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, patients, family members, and insurance companies, need to be aware of the NAEPP guidelines. To determine if the goals of asthma therapy are being met, assessment of asthma outcomes is necessary. Unfortunately, some measures may get overlooked, and patient-reported outcomes (as assessed by the validated control instruments) are not often collected during routine examinations. The Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set measure for asthma may be used to quantify asthma care, but there is evidence that it does not fully capture the goals of asthma management. Most well-designed, education-based interventions are considered good value for money, but it can be difficult to put into practice such policy interventions. An optimal managed care plan will adhere to known evidence-based guidelines, can measure outcomes, is targeted to the patient's risk and impairment, and can adapt to changes in our understanding of asthma and its treatment. PMID:21761959

  14. Congenital malformations in multiple births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done to know and compare the incidence of congenital malformations in singleton and multiple births in our hospital & compare with other studies. Methods: A retrospective study done by collecting the data from parturition register from Jan 2008 to Dec 2011 (4yrs from Cheluvamba Hospital attached to Mysore Medical College and Research Institute. Total number of the live births, still births, and abortions> 20 wks were collected. Details of multiple births such as maternal age, gestational age, sex & birth weight of the babies, U/S reports and congenital anomalies (CA were noted. Results: The total number of singleton births were 48700 and number of babies who had congenital malformations were 235 (48.25/10,000 births.Total number of multiple births were 579 including 10 triplets and number of babies who had CA were 11 (189.98/10,000 births, P<0.0001. In the present study sex of the babies were noted in all multiple births and zygosity could not be recorded. Among 579 multiple births 404 were of the Same Sex (SS and 165 were of Opposite Sex (OS in twins and 6 were of the same sex and 4 were of opposite sex in triplets. According to Weinberg formula 50% of same sex (SS twins are monozygotic and 50% are dizygotic twins. Among the 11 babies with CA, 4 monozygotic twins had anomalies related to twinning such as Acardia with TRAP sequence (3 twins, and Thoracophagus (1 twin.5 babies had CNS anomalies, 1 with cystic hygroma, 1 baby with multiple system affected. Conclusion: The incidence of birth defects is more in multiple births and especially in monozygotic twins. In the present days increase in twinning rate due to advanced maternal age, hereditary factors and use of ovulation inducing drugs, which results in premature and low birth wt babies associated with poor lung maturity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 216-221

  15. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC. Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma.

  16. Asthma and Adolescents: Review of Strategies to Improve Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy-Harstad, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One of every 10 adolescents in the United States has asthma. Adolescents who lack asthma control are at increased risk for severe asthma episodes and death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2007 asthma guidelines and research studies indicated that school nurses are instrumental in assisting adolescents to monitor their asthma, learn…

  17. Evaluation of an Educational Program for Adolescents with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill; Tichacek, Mary J.; Theodorakis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    In addition to challenges of adolescence itself, teens with asthma face demands of asthma management and risks of asthma sequelae, including fatalities. Few asthma educational programs specifically address their needs. In response to school nurse concern, this pilot study evaluated an adolescent asthma education program, the "Power Breathing[TM]…

  18. The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS: Assembly, Demographics and Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

  19. Epidemiology of asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2002-04-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders, in particular asthma are increasing in prevalence, which is a global phenomenon. Even though genetic predisposition is one of the factors in children for the increased prevalence - urbanisation, air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke contribute more significantly. Our hospital based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979,1984,1989,1994 and 1999 in the city of Bangalore showed a prevalence of 9%,10.5%,18.5%, 24.5% and 29.5% respectively. The increased prevalence correlated well with demographic changes of the city. Further to the hospital study, a school survey in 12 schools on 6550 children in the age group of 6 to 15 years was undertaken for prevalence of asthma and children were categorized into three groups depending upon the geographical situation of the school in relation to vehicular traffic and the socioeconomic group of children. Group I-Children from schools of heavy traffic area showed prevalence of 19.34%, Group II-Children from heavy traffic region and low socioeconomic population had 31.14% and Group III-Children from low traffic area school had 11.15% respectively. (P: I & II; II & III <0.001). A continuation of study in rural areas showed 5.7% in children of 6-15 years. The persistent asthma also showed an increase from 20% to 27.5% and persistent severe asthma 4% to 6.5% between 1994-99. Various epidemiological spectra of asthma in children are discussed here. PMID:12019551

  20. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities. PMID:24881937

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  2. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma. PMID:26344077

  3. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma.

  4. Birth Muse: The Birth Story of Eliza Michelle

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Maria J

    2009-01-01

    The author, a birth doula and Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, agreed to attend the birth of a second child to a mother whose military husband was serving overseas. Because labor seemed to be progressing slowly, they waited at a hotel near the birth center. A very quick labor progression led to a rapid birth in the hotel, with the midwife still on her way. The author shares how learning to trust the power of natural childbirth helped her to remain calm and present for the mother for a on...

  5. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and the high prevalence of asthma might be associated with specific types of sport. It has been suggested that chronic endurance training might increase the number of neutrophils in the airways, and this may reflect airway injury. The use of anti...... survey of elite athletes (N = 418); and (iii) a clinical study of elite athletes. A total of 54 elite athletes (19 with physician-diagnosed asthma) participated together with two control groups: (i) 22 non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma (steroid naïve for 4 weeks before the examination) and (ii......-asthmatic medication was currently taken by 24 (7%) elite athletes. Elite athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of asthma-like symptoms (74%), use of anti-asthmatic medication (15%) and current asthma (24%) than all other athletes (P

  6. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  7. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  8. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  9. Asthma and Schools | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Schools Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... of America 800–727–8462 www.aafa.org Asthma and Physical Activity Exercise-induced asthma is triggered ...

  10. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  11. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  12. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  13. Brain birth and personal identity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain devel...

  14. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  15. Ethnic differences in asthma treatment among Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Perez Vicente, Raquel; Juarez, Sol Pia;

    2016-01-01

    adolescents born from Swedish mothers, all other children had a lower AAM use, especially those whose mothers were from upper-middle- and low-income countries (OR = 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.61). However, the ICC was low (i.e., ICC ≈ 3%) for both preventive and relief AAM. CONCLUSIONS MCOB WAS......AIMS: Adolescents with immigrant or ethnic minority background suffering from asthma receive on average less appropriate anti-asthmatic medication (AAM) than the majority population. However, those findings are based on analyses of differences between group averages which prevents our understanding...... of individual heterogeneity around the averages. Taking into account individual socioeconomic factors and medical needs, we performed multilevel analysis in order to evaluate if maternal country of birth (MCOB) accurately identifies adolescents with inappropriate AAM use. METHODS: Using the Swedish...

  16. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Agache Ioana; Duca Liliana; Anghel Mariana; Pamfil Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS) and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA), sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO), NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking stat...

  17. Increased Asthma Risk and Asthma-Related Health Care Complications Associated With Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Mary Helen; Zhou, Hui; Takayanagi, Miwa; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Koebnick, Corinna

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood, yet the relationship between obesity and asthma risk and the impact of obesity on clinical asthma outcomes are not well understood. For this population-based, longitudinal study, demographic and clinical data were extracted from administrative and electronic health records of 623,358 patients aged 6–19 years who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan in 2007–2011. Crude asthma incidence ranged from 16.9 ...

  18. Validation of The 30 Second Asthma Test™ as a measure of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ahmed; Pierre Ernst; Robyn Tamblyn; Neil Colman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary objective of asthma management is to help patients establish and maintain optimal disease control. Simple and efficient tools are needed to assess patient-reported symptoms so that they can be used with or without airway function to evaluate asthma control.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of The 30 Second Asthma Test (GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Canada), based on the Canadian Asthma Guidelines, by estimating its relationship with crit...

  19. Evolution of Asthma Concept and Effect of Current Asthma Management Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Sohei; Sagara, Hironori

    2010-01-01

    Concept of asthma has changed from symptom-complex or airway hypersensitivity to airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Based on this concept asthma management guidelines (JGL) has been developed in Japan. Death from asthma has decreased drastically since the publication of the guidelines, although it is still high in elderly population. Further works are expected for "zero-death" from asthma and for tighter control of airway inflammation and resultant airway remodeling.

  20. Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmanan B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Balaji Laxmanan, D Kyle Hogarth Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT is a novel therapy for patients with severe asthma. Using radio frequency thermal energy, it aims to reduce the airway smooth muscle mass. Several clinical trials have demonstrated improvements in asthma-related quality of life and a reduction in the number of exacerbations following treatment with BT. In addition, recent data has demonstrated the long-term safety of the procedure as well as sustained improvements in rates of asthma exacerbations, reduction in health care utilization, and improved quality of life. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that result in these improvements. In addition, improved characterization of the asthma subphenotypes likely to exhibit the largest clinical benefit is a critical step in determining the precise role of BT in the management of severe asthma. Keywords: bronchial thermoplasty, severe asthma, airway smooth muscle

  1. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  2. Effect of asthma severity on symptom perception in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.B. Cabral

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual ability to perceive airway obstruction varies substantially. The factors influencing the perception of asthma are probably numerous and not well established in children. The present study was designed to examine the influence of asthma severity, use of preventive medication, age and gender on the association between respiratory symptoms (RS and peak expiratory flow (PEF rates in asthmatic children. We followed 92 asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, for five months. Symptom scores were recorded daily and PEF was measured twice a day. The correlations among variables at the within-person level over time were analyzed for each child and for the pooled data by multivariate analysis. After pooling the data, there was a significant (P<0.05 correlation between each symptom and PEF; 60% of the children were accurate perceivers (defined by a statistically significant correlation between symptoms and PEF across time for diurnal symptoms and 37% for nocturnal symptoms. The accuracy of perception was independent of asthma severity, age, gender or the use of preventive medication. Symptom perception is inaccurate in a substantial number of asthmatic children, independently of clinical severity, age, gender or use of preventive medication. It is not clear why some asthmatic patients are capable of accurately perceiving the severity of airway obstruction while others are not.

  3. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, P. W.; Rasmussen, S A; Lynberg, M. C.; Moore, C A; Anderka, M.; Carmichael, S.L.; Costa, P.; Druschel, C.; Hobbs, C. A.; Romitti, P A; Langlois, P. H.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Birth Defects Prevention Study was designed to identify infants with major birth defects and evaluate genetic and environmental factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. The ongoing case-control study covers an annual birth population of 482,000 and includes cases identified from birth defect surveillance registries in eight states. Infants used as controls are randomly selected from birth certificates or birth hospital records. Mothers of case and control infants ...

  4. Maternal vaginal microflora during pregnancy and the risk of asthma hospitalization and use of antiasthma medication in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Thorsen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Skov;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infants with wheezing and allergic diseases have a microflora that differs from that of healthy infants. The fetus acquires microorganisms during birth when exposed to the maternal vaginal microflora. It is therefore conceivable that the maternal vaginal microflora might influence...... the establishment of the infant flora and, as a consequence, the development of wheezing and allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the associations between the composition of the maternal vaginal microflora and the development of wheezing and asthma in childhood. METHODS: We performed a population....... Maternal colonization with staphylococci (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.4) and use of antibiotics in pregnancy (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6) were associated with asthma during the fifth year of life. CONCLUSION: The composition of the maternal vaginal micro-flora might be associated with wheezing and asthma...

  5. Validation of the Arabic version of the asthma control test

    OpenAIRE

    Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...

  6. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targ...

  7. PILL Series. The ‘problematic’ asthma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kui, Swee Leng; How, Choon How; Koh, Jansen

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that can be effectively controlled without causing any lifestyle limitation or burden on the quality of life of the majority of asthma patients. However, persistently uncontrolled asthma can be frustrating for both the patient and the managing physician. Patients who fail to respond to high-intensity asthma treatment fall into the category of ‘problematic’ asthma, which is further subdivided into ‘difficult’ asthma and ‘sever...

  8. The Relationship between Asthma and Obesity in Urban Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Melanie; Wijetunga, N Ari; Stepney, Cesalie; Dorsey, Karen; Chua, Danica Marie; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity, which have reached epidemic proportions, impact urban youth to a great extent. Findings are inconsistent regarding their relationship; no studies have considered asthma management. We explored the association of obesity and asthma-related morbidity, asthma-related health care utilization, and asthma management in urban adolescents with uncontrolled asthma. We classified 373 early adolescents (mean age=12.8 years; 82% Hispanic or Black) from New York City public middle scho...

  9. Identifying Children with Persistent Asthma from Health Care Administrative Records

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Mustard, Cameron A; Becker, Allan B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigation into the origins of asthma is contingent on definitions of asthma, which can differentiate asthma from transient wheezing syndromes in children.OBJECTIVES: This research was undertaken to develop a definition for asthma derived from health care administrative records, which would identify children with persistent asthma.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using population-based, health care administrative data, children with possible asthma were identified as having one or more ph...

  10. Allergic rhinitis is associated with poor asthma control in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Eric P.; Nijkamp, Anke; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma and allergic rhinitis are the two most common chronic disorders in childhood and adolescence. To date, no study has examined the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis on asthma control in children. Objective To examine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma, and

  11. My Child Is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What?: Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children's functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. Schoolwide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to…

  12. Challenges of Asthma Management for School Nurses in Districts with High Asthma Hospitalization Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatos, Penny; Leone, Jennifer; Craig, Ann Marie; Frei, Elizabeth Mary; Fuentes, Natalie; Harris, India Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background: School nurses play a central role in assisting elementary school children in managing their asthma, especially those in higher-risk school districts that are at increased risk of uncontrolled asthma. Study purposes are to (1) identify barriers to asthma management by school nurses in higher-risk school districts; and (2) assess the…

  13. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.;

    2009-01-01

    : The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e...

  14. Asthma Risk Profiles of Children Participating in an Asthma Education and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candice; Rapp, Kristi Isaac; Jack, Leonard, Jr.; Hayes, Sandra; Post, Robert; Malveaux, Floyd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focused risk assessment is essential in the effective management of asthma. Purpose: This study identified and examined correlations among areas of pediatric asthma risk and determined associations between these risks and demographic characteristics. Methods: This exploratory study identified risk factors that affect asthma management…

  15. Frequent paracetamol use and asthma in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, S; Sterne, J; Songhurst, C.; Burney, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The pulmonary antioxidant glutathione may limit airway inflammation in asthma. Since paracetamol (acetaminophen) depletes the lung of glutathione in animals, a study was undertaken to investigate whether frequent use in humans was associated with asthma.
METHODS—Information was collected on the use of analgesics as part of a population based case-control study of dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults aged 16-49 years registered with 40 general practices in ...

  16. The airway microvasculature and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S. D.; Daviskas, E

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that exercise induced asthma is a result of "rapid expansion of the blood volume of peribronchial plexi" (McFadden ER, Lancet 1990;335:880-3). This hypothesis proposes that the development of exercise induced asthma depends on the thermal gradient in the airways at the end of hyperpnoea. The events that result in exercise induced asthma are vasoconstriction and airway cooling followed by reactive hyperaemia. We agree that the airway microcirculation has the potential for ...

  17. Clinical Asthma Phenotypes and Therapeutic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, M.; Attia, G.; Zedan, M. M.; Osman, A; Abo-Elkheir, N.; Maysara, N.; Barakat, T.; Gamil, N.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that means not all asthmatics respond to the same treatment. We hypothesize an approach to characterize asthma phenotypes based on symptomatology (shortness of breath (SOB), cough, and wheezy phenotypes) in correlation with airway inflammatory biomarkers and FEV1. We aimed to detect whether those clinical phenotypes have an impact on the response to asthma medications. Two hundred three asthmatic children were allocated randomly to receive either montelukast ...

  18. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1985-01-01

    Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a control group of 53 patients with asthma matched for age, sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drug...

  19. Occupational asthma in salbutamol process workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Agius, R M; Davison, A G; Hawkins, E R; Newman Taylor, A J

    1994-01-01

    Occupational asthma after exposure to salbutamol in the pharmaceutical industry has not been previously reported. The occurrence of occupational asthma is described in two pharmaceutical process workers who were likely to have inhaled doses appreciably in excess of the therapeutic dose range. The findings do not lead to an unequivocal conclusion on the mechanism of the asthma but it was probably a pharmacological consequence of high exposure.

  20. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma. PMID:25511380

  1. Asthma and Its Impacts on Oral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Keleş; Nasibe Aycan Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and reversible airflow obstruction. Genetic factors and environmental factors may play a role in the etiology of asthma. An approximately 300 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with asthma and there may be an additional 100 million diagnosis by 2025. Studies conducted in Turkey reported a prevalence between 1.5% and 9.4%. In the literature, there are many studies investigating the imp...

  2. Predicting patient attitudes to asthma medication.

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, L M; Russell, I.T.; Friend, J. A.; Legge, J. S.; Douglas, J G

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Studies of patient attitudes to asthma and its control have focused on crisis action, and little attention has been paid to attitudes to regular preventive medication. It is not clear whether attitudes to regular medication are related to the degree of distress or interference with life perceived by patients as being caused by their asthma. For this reason this study examined how far dislike of medication related to dislike of other aspects of interference of asthma with daily lif...

  3. Asthma, allergy, mood disorders, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska-Kwiatek A; Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Lapinski L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the ...

  4. Poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, H. K.; Björkstén, B

    1980-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a combination of paralytic disease, resembling poliomyelitis, and asthma is described. The girl developed neurological symptoms 5 days after a severe attack of asthma. No aetiology to the flaccid paralysis could be demonstrated although Coxsackie B5 virus was isolated from a stool. A similar poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma has previously been reported in 13 cases from Australia and the UK.

  5. Eosinophil Apoptosis and Clearance in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Garry M

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is an increasingly common respiratory condition characterized by reversible airway obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation with a clear unmet need for more effective therapy. Eosinophilic asthma is a phenotype of the condition that features increased blood or sputum eosinophils whose numbers correlate with disease severity. Several lines of evidence are now emerging, which implicate increased persistence of eosinophils in the lungs of patients with asthma as...

  6. Asthma Therapies Revisited: What Have We Learned?

    OpenAIRE

    Lemanske, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogenous disorder related to numerous biologic, immunologic, and physiologic components that generate multiple clinical phenotypes. Further, genetic and environmental factors interact in ways that produce variability in both disease onset and severity and differential expression based on both the age and sex of the patient. Thus, the natural history of asthma is complex in terms of disease expression, remission, relapse, and progression. As such, therapy for asthma is complica...

  7. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  8. Adapting physical education to pupils with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Diklić, Dajana

    2013-01-01

    Asthma »is the most common chronic disease among children« (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs307/en/index.html). This disease affects the small airways in the lungs, which are hypersensitive to one or more triggers. During the asthma attack airways narrow, airway mucosa swells and secretion of mucus increases. That makes breathing more difficult, especially exhalation (Corrigan, Berger, Meredith, Jenkis and Mason, 2009). Pupils with asthma are chronically ill children. That is ...

  9. Asthma Management in Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Gomez; Morris, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common comorbid factor in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the incidence of asthma in SCD is much higher than expected compared to rates in the general population. Whether “asthma” in SCD is purely related to genetic and environmental factors or rather is the consequence of the underlying hemolytic and inflammatory state is a topic of recent debate. Regardless of the etiology, hypoxemia induced by bronchoconstriction and inflammation associated with asthma exacerbations will co...

  10. The role of rhinosinusitis in severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, An-Soo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is approximately 5% to 10% in the general population. Of these, approximately 5% to 10% are severe asthmatics who respond poorly to asthmatic drugs, including high-dose inhaled steroids. Severe asthmatics have persistent symptoms, frequent symptom exacerbation, and severe airway obstruction even when taking high-dose inhaled steroids. The medical costs of treating severe asthmatics represent ~50% of the total healthcare costs for asthma. Risk factors for severe asthma...

  11. Deciphering Asthma Biomarkers with Protein Profiling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhizhou Kuang; Wilson, Jarad J.; Shuhong Luo; Si-Wei Zhu; Ruo-Pan Huang

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, resulting in bronchial hyperresponsiveness with every allergen exposure. It is now clear that asthma is not a single disease, but rather a multifaceted syndrome that results from a variety of biologic mechanisms. Asthma is further problematic given that the disease consists of many variants, each with its own etiologic and pathophysiologic factors, including different cellular responses and inflammatory phenotypes. These facets make the...

  12. Determinants of Risk Factors for Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, William W.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of risk factors for the development of asthma, including genetic and environmental components. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that a variety of genes are associated with the features of asthma, such as persistent wheezing, airway responsiveness and chronic bronchial inflammation. However, for expression of these features, other factors must also come into play. This paper focuses on the importance of environmental factors in the development of asthma, including allerg...

  13. Recent advances in asthma genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandford Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are over 100 genes that have been reported to be associated with asthma or related phenotypes. In 2006–2007 alone there were 53 novel candidate gene associations reported in the literature. Replication of genetic associations and demonstration of a functional mechanism for the associated variants are needed to confirm an asthma susceptibility gene. For most of the candidate genes there is little functional information. In a previous review by Hoffjan et al. published in 2003, functional information was reported for 40 polymorphisms and here we list another 22 genes which have such data. Some important genes such as filaggrin, interleukin-13, interleukin-17 and the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 which not only were replicated by independent association studies but also have functional data are reviewed in this article.

  14. New combination therapies for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J F; Ohar, J A

    2001-03-01

    Combination products often have useful clinical benefits in asthma. The scientific rationale for combination therapy includes the fact that different agents have complimentary modes of action. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists have effects on airway smooth muscle, and inhaled corticosteroids have potent topical antiinflammatory effect. This combination has been shown to effectively reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Substantial clinical trial data provide a rationale for dual-control therapy supported by basic scientific data. Another combined therapy is inhaled steroids plus leukotriene-receptor antagonists, which provides the patient with two effective therapies. Leukotriene-receptor antagonist can also be combined with antihistamines for improved asthma control. Older therapies including theophylline and controlled release albuterol have been effectively added to inhaled corticosteroids, enabling a reduction in the dose of the inhaled steroids. Many other combination therapies are presently being tested. PMID:11224725

  15. Wilderness and adventure travel with underlying asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Daniel; Luks, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Given the high prevalence of asthma, it is likely that providers working in a pretravel setting will be asked to provide guidance for asthma patients about how to manage their disease before and during wilderness or adventure travel, while providers working in the field setting may need to address asthma-related issues that arise during such excursions. This review aims to provide information to assist providers facing these issues. Relevant literature was identified through the MEDLINE database using a key word search of the English-language literature from 1980 to 2013 using the term "asthma" cross-referenced with "adventure travel," "trekking," "exercise," "exercise-induced bronchoconstriction," "high-altitude," "scuba," and "diving." We review data on the frequency of worsening asthma control during wilderness or adventure travel and discuss the unique aspects of wilderness travel that may affect asthma patients in the field. We then provide a general approach to evaluation and management of asthma before and during a planned sojourn and address 2 particular situations, activities at high altitude and scuba diving, which pose unique risks to asthma patients and warrant additional attention. Although wilderness and adventure travel should be avoided in individuals with poorly controlled disease or worsening control at the time of a planned trip, individuals with well-controlled asthma who undergo appropriate pretravel assessment and planning can safely engage in a wide range of wilderness and adventure-related activities. PMID:24393703

  16. CD137-mediated immunotherapy for allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Polte, Tobias; Foell, Juergen; Werner, Christoph; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Braun, Armin; Burdach, Stefan; Mittler, Robert S.; Hansen, Gesine

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is caused by a Th2 cell–driven immune response. Its optimal treatment remains a challenge, and a sufficient immunotherapeutic approach to treating asthma has yet to be found. Using a murine asthma model, we show that a single injection of an anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAb prevents the development of airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, excessive mucus production, and elevated IgE during the observation period of 7 weeks. Most...

  17. National Asthma Control Program State Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  18. Is asthma related to choroidal neovascularization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023. However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association between AMD and asthma. In an animal model, we found more fluoresce in leakage of CNV lesions by FA analysis and more angiogenesis by histological analysis in rats with asthma. Western blot demonstrated an elevated level of C3α-chain, C3α'-chain and VEGF. After compstatin was intravitreally injected, CNV leakage decreased according to FA analysis, with the level of C3 and VEGF protein decreasing at the same time. SIGNIFICANCE: This study first investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systematically, and it was found that asthma could be a risk factor for the development of AMD. The study may provide a better understanding of the disease, which may advance the potential for screening asthma patients in clinical practice.

  19. Genetics of asthma: a molecular biologist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Balaram

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma belongs to the category of classical allergic diseases which generally arise due to IgE mediated hypersensitivity to environmental triggers. Since its prevalence is very high in developed or urbanized societies it is also referred to as "disease of civilizations". Due to its increased prevalence among related individuals, it was understood quite long back that it is a genetic disorder. Well designed epidemiological studies reinforced these views. The advent of modern biological technology saw further refinements in our understanding of genetics of asthma and led to the realization that asthma is not a disorder with simple Mendelian mode of inheritance but a multifactorial disorder of the airways brought about by complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Current asthma research has witnessed evidences that are compelling researchers to redefine asthma altogether. Although no consensus exists among workers regarding its definition, it seems obvious that several pathologies, all affecting the airways, have been clubbed into one common category called asthma. Needless to say, genetic studies have led from the front in bringing about these transformations. Genomics, molecular biology, immunology and other interrelated disciplines have unearthed data that has changed the way we think about asthma now. In this review, we center our discussions on genetic basis of asthma; the molecular mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Taking cue from the existing data we would briefly ponder over the future directions that should improve our understanding of asthma pathogenesis.

  20. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  1. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  2. When to suspect occupational asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Lemière

    2013-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is a difficult diagnosis to make. The present review describes the work environments in which workers are at risk for developing OA, the characteristics of the individuals in whom OA should be suspected and the investigation that can be performed to diagnose the condition. Accurately diagnosing OA is crucial because of the major social and economic consequences of this diagnosis on the patient.

  3. Moses Maimonides' Treatise on Asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, F

    1981-01-01

    This paper contains an analysis and appreciation of one of Moses Maimonides' authentic medical works, his Treatise on Asthma. After a brief biographical section, passages from the work are cited and analysed to illustrate the approach of this medieval physician who organised the knowledge of Greeks and others who preceded him. Maimonides presents a logical and systematic approach to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, an approach which is clearly evident in his Treatise on As...

  4. Resolution of Inflammation in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Bruce D.; Vachier, Isabelle; Serhan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation in healthy airways is an active process with specialized mediators and cellular mechanisms that are enlisted to restore tissue homeostasis. In this article, we will focus on recent discoveries of natural mediators derived from essential fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, that have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. These specialized pro-resolving mediators serve as agonists at specific receptors. Asthma is a disease of chronic, non-resolving i...

  5. Environmental Issues in Managing Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Diette, Gregory B.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2008-01-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and c...

  6. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila; Petrović Slobodanka; Tomić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemio...

  7. Circulating catecholamines in acute asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ind, P. W.; Causon, R C; Brown, M. J.; Barnes, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured in 15 patients (six male) aged 14-63 years attending the casualty department with acute severe asthma (peak expiratory flow 27% (SEM 3%) of predicted). Nine patients were admitted and six were not. The plasma noradrenaline concentration, reflecting sympathetic nervous discharge, was two to three times normal in all patients and was significantly higher in those who required admission compared with those discharged home (mean 7.7 (SEM 0.6) v 4....

  8. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest clinics in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Mbatchou Ngahane Bertrand; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Maïmouna, Mama; Malea, Nganda Motto; Ubald, Olinga; Adeline, Wandji; Bruno, Tengang; Emmanuel, Nyankiyé; Emmanuel, Afane Ze; Christopher, Kuaban

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain and maintain a good control of symptoms. Investigating factors associated with inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma in asthma patients under chest specialist care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 12 years and...

  9. Consumption of Artificially-Sweetened Soft Drinks in Pregnancy and Risk of Child Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Maslova; Marin Strøm; Sjurdur F Olsen; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we admi...

  10. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  11. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  12. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha Bhinder; Lisa Cicutto; Husam M. Abdel-Qadir; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice.METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physici...

  13. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  14. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  15. Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.;

    2007-01-01

    corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient...... medical record of asthma. Forty percent of the children claimed by their parents to be asthmatic had no medical record of asthma. An ISAAC-based parentally completed WQ provided an acceptable estimation of the prevalence of asthma in children 2-6 yr of age, although only half of the individual patients......Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ with the...

  16. Current asthma control predicts future risk of asthma exacerbation: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua-hua; ZHOU Ting; WANG Lan; ZHANG Hong-ping; FU Juan-juan; WANG Lei; JI Yu-lin; WANG Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The performance of asthma control test (ACT) at baseline for predicting future risk of asthma exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated.This study was designed to explore the ability of the baseline ACT score to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation during a 12-month follow-up.Methods This post hoc analysis included data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in patients with asthma (n=290).The time to the first asthma exacerbation was analyzed and the association between baseline ACT scores and future risk of asthma exacerbation was calculated as adjusted odds ratio (OR) using Logistic regression models.Further,sensitivity and specificity were estimated at each cut-point of ACT scores for predicting asthma exacerbations.Results The subjects were divided into three groups,which were uncontrolled (U,n=128),partly-controlled (PC,n=111),and well controlled (C,n=51) asthma.After adjustment,the decreased ACT scores at baseline in the U and PC groups were associated with an increased probability of asthma exacerbations (OR 3.65 and OR 5.75,respectively),unplanned visits (OR 8.03 and OR 8.21,respectively) and emergency visits (OR 20.00 and OR 22.60,respectively) over a 12-month follow-up period.The time to the first asthma exacerbation was shorter in the groups with U and PC asthma (all P<0.05).The baseline ACT of 20 identified as the cut-point for screening the patients at high risk of asthma exacerbations had an increased sensitivity of over 90.0% but a lower specificity of about 30.0%.Conclusion Our findings indicate that the baseline ACT score with a high sensitivity could rule out patients at low risk of asthma exacerbations and oredict future risk of asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

  17. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  19. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S;

    2003-01-01

    asthma; time and place of death; long-term and ongoing medical treatment; quality of medical care; circumstances of final illness; and medical treatment during the final episode of asthma. Age groups of 1-4 years, 5-14 years, and 15-19 years were analyzed separately and in aggregate. Death occurred...

  20. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K;

    2012-01-01

    and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...