WorldWideScience

Sample records for asthma ureca birth

  1. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  2. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  3. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been ...

  4. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) is a consortium of 26 leading European research centres committed to establish a European research area of excellence in the field of allergy and asthma. AIM: One of the GA2LEN work packages was designed to identify and compare...... asthma and atopic diseases. Data were collected by visiting most of the participating research teams and interviewing all relevant study personnel. For each study, the type of objective/subjective outcome parameters and potentially influential factors were recorded precisely for every time point during...... the existing European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review compares their subjective and objective outcomes as well as exposure variables. METHODS: A common database was established to assess study characteristics of observational birth cohort studies designed to examine...

  5. Inequalities in asthma treatment among children by country of birth and ancestry:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Andersen, Anette;

    2013-01-01

    Investigations in several Western countries have reported ethnic differences in asthma prevalence and treatment among children and in some countries these differences are increasing. The aim of this study was to analyse whether there are inequalities in asthma treatment by country of birth...... and ancestry among children residing in Denmark, and whether this potential association may vary between different household income groups....

  6. What accounts for the association between late preterm births and risk of asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, Gretchen A.; Carey, William A.; Ryu, Euijung; King, Katherine S.; Wi, Chung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although results of many studies have indicated an increased risk of asthma in former late preterm (LPT) infants, most of these studies did not fully address covariate imbalance. Objective: To compare the cumulative frequency of asthma in a population-based cohort of former LPT infants to that of matched term infants in their early childhood, when accounting for covariate imbalance. Methods: From a population-based birth cohort of children born 2002–2006 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, we assessed a random sample of LPT (34 to 36 6/7 weeks) and frequency-matched term (37 to 40 6/7 weeks) infants. The subjects were followed-up through 2010 or censored based on the last date of contact, with the asthma status based on predetermined criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of asthma during the study period. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for the risk of asthma, when adjusting for potential confounders. Results: LPT infants (n = 282) had a higher cumulative frequency of asthma than did term infants (n = 297), 29.9 versus 19.5%, respectively; p = 0.01. After adjusting for covariates associated with the risk of asthma, an LPT birth was not associated with a risk of asthma, whereas maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a risk of asthma. Conclusion: LPT birth was not independently associated with a risk of asthma and other atopic conditions. Clinicians should make an effort to reduce exposure to smoking during pregnancy as a modifiable risk factor for asthma. PMID:28234052

  7. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between birth weight and risk of asthma in a population of twins. METHODS: Birth weight of all live twins (8280 pairs) born in Denmark between 1994 and 2000 was linked to information on asthma obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at age 3-9 years...... weight, OR (per 100 g) 1.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.05), ptwin pairs, the lower birthweight twin had a significantly increased risk of asthma compared with the heavier co-twin (11.3% vs 9.9%), OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.54), p=0.002. The result remained significant after adjusting for sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...

  8. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  9. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  10. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitrow, Melissa J; Moore, Vivienne M; Rumbold, Alice R; Davies, Michael J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the timing, dose, and source of folate during pregnancy on childhood asthma by using data from an Australian prospective birth cohort study (n = 557) from 1998 to 2005. At 3.5 years and 5.5 years, 490 and 423 mothers and children participated in the study, respectively. Maternal folate intake from diet and supplements was assessed by food frequency questionnaire in early (late (30-34 weeks) pregnancy. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed asthma, obtained by maternal-completed questionnaire. Asthma was reported in 11.6% of children at 3.5 years (n = 57) and in 11.8% of children at 5.5 years (n = 50). Folic acid taken in supplement form in late pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma at 3.5 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.43) and with persistent asthma (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69). The effect sizes did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. The association was similar at 5.5 years but did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.42) in univariable models. These findings on childhood asthma support previous observations that supplementation with folate in pregnancy leads to an allergic asthma phenotype in mice via epigenetic mechanisms and is associated with poorer respiratory outcomes in young children.

  11. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  12. Asthma Heredity, Cord Blood IgE and Asthma-Related Symptoms and Medication in Adulthood: A Long-Term Follow-Up in a Swedish Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Vogt

    Full Text Available Cord blood IgE has previously been studied as a possible predictor of asthma and allergic diseases. Results from different studies have been contradictory, and most have focused on high-risk infants and early infancy. Few studies have followed their study population into adulthood. This study assessed whether cord blood IgE levels and a family history of asthma were associated with, and could predict, asthma medication and allergy-related respiratory symptoms in adults. A follow-up was carried out in a Swedish birth cohort comprising 1,701 consecutively born children. In all, 1,661 individuals could be linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Medical Birth Register, and 1,227 responded to a postal questionnaire. Cord blood IgE and family history of asthma were correlated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication at 32-34 years. Elevated cord blood IgE was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication. Similarly, a family history of asthma was associated with an increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and anti-inflammatory medication. However, only 8% of the individuals with elevated cord blood IgE or a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication at follow-up. In all, 49 out of 60 individuals with dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication at 32-34 years of age had not been reported having asthma at previous check-ups of the cohort during childhood. Among those, only 5% with elevated cord blood IgE and 6% with a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication as adults. Elevated cord blood IgE and a positive family history of asthma were associated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication in adulthood, but their predictive power was poor

  13. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.

  14. Pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and risk of wheezing and asthma in children: A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated...... with the risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time...

  15. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  16. Low birth weight and preterm delivery as risk factors for asthma and atopic dermatitis in young adult males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, F.H.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gillman, M.W.;

    2000-01-01

    ratio among conscripts born before 34 gestational weeks was 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.3–2.0) compared with conscripts born at term. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 1.0%. The prevalence odds ratio of atopic dermatitis among those with a birth weight below 2,501 g was 3.0 (95% confidence......Gestational factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis. We examined whether fetal growth was associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis separately in a population of 4,795 male conscripts born between 1973 and 1975 in Denmark....... The prevalence of asthma was 4.7%. The prevalence odds ratio of asthma in conscripts with a birth weight below 2,501 g was 1.5 (95% confidence interval = 0.7–3.1) compared with conscripts with a birth weight of 3,001–3,500 g, adjusted for gestational age and potential confounders. The adjusted prevalence odds...

  17. The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheleh, Zamani; Ahmad, Alikhani; Abtin, Heydarzadeh; Roghaye, Zare; Sara, Hashemain; Siavash, Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of "wheeze ever" in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of "severe asthma" in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of "wheeze ever," "asthma ever," and "night cough in the past 12 months" were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of "severe asthma" was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between "wheeze ever" and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of "severe asthma" and birth weight more than 3.5 kg.

  18. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  19. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, S. M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Scholtens, S.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA)

  20. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.25 million of those individuals have severe asthma, a condition that can be difficult to control and treat. Learn more about his research by visiting the NHLBI Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation website: http://www.nhlbi.nih. ...

  1. Gestational Medication Use, Birth Conditions, and Early Postnatal Exposures for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ching Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to explore (1 whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2 the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3 their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.

  2. An ADAM33 polymorphism associates with progression of preschool wheeze into childhood asthma: a prospective case-control study with replication in a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester M M Klaassen

    Full Text Available The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined.To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma.In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis.In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97 p = 0.04 and no association with preschool wheeze.Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.

  3. Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Harold; Mazza, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) inhalers are pr...

  4. Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Harold; Mazza Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) inhale...

  5. Asthma symptoms and medication in the PIAMA birth cohort : Evidence for under and overtreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Under and overtreatment of asthma may be a serious problem especially in young children, but the evidence is scarce and no longitudinal data are available. Our aim was to investigate whether inhaled medication use in young children was in agreement with asthma symptoms at the age of 2-8 y

  6. Breastfeeding, overweight and asthma in Dutch children. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to a lower risk of overweight and asthma in children, however the results of previous studies are conflicting and controversy remains. An important gap in the current knowledge on the association between breastfeeding and overweight and asthma is whether and how the ass

  7. Maternal asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with low birth weight and increased hospital birth and delivery charges; Hawai'i hospital discharge data 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald K; Feigal, David W; Smith, Ruben A; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are common maternal conditions that can impact birth outcomes. Data from hospital discharges in Hawai'i were analyzed for 107,034 singleton births from 2003-2008. Categories were determined using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) from linked delivery records of mother and infant. Prevalence estimates of asthma (ICD-9: 493), diabetes (ICD-9: 250,648.0, 648.8), high blood pressure (ICD-9: 401-405,642) as coded on the delivery record, low birth weight (high birth weight (>4500 grams), Cesarean delivery, and median hospital charges were calculated. Median regression analysis assessed total hospital charges adjusting for maternal age, maternal race, insurance, and Cesarean delivery. Maternal asthma was present in 4.3% (95% confidence interval=4.1-4.4%), maternal diabetes was present in 7.7% (95% CI=7.6-7.9%), and maternal high blood pressure was present in 9.2% (95% CI=9.0-9.3%) of births. In the adjusted median regression analysis, mothers with asthma had $999 (95% CI: $886 to $1,112) higher hospital charges compared to those without; mothers with diabetes had $743 (95% CI: $636 to $850) higher charges compared to those without; and mothers with high blood pressure had $2,314 (95% CI: $2,194 to $2,434) higher charges compared to those without. Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with higher hospital delivery charges and low birth weight. Diabetes and high blood pressure were also associated with Cesarean delivery. An increased awareness of the impact of these conditions on both adverse birth outcomes and the development of chronic disease is needed.

  8. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodrup Carlsen, K.C.; Roll, S.; Carlsen, K.H.; Mowinckel, P.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Torrent, M.; Roberts, G.; Arshad, S.H.; Kull, I.; Kramer, U.; von Berg, A.; Eller, E.; Host, A.; Kuehni, C.; Spycher, B.; Sunyer, J.; Chen, C.M.; Reich, A.; Asarnoj, A.; Puig, C.; Herbarth, O.; Mahachie John, J.M.; Van Steen, K.; Willich, S.N.; Wahn, U.; Lau, S.; Smit, H.A.; et al, X; Keil, T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DE

  9. Does Pet Ownership in Infancy Lead to Asthma or Allergy at School Age? Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data from 11 European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Roll, Stephanie; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Mowinckel, Petter; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Torrent, Maties; Roberts, Graham; Arshad, S. Hasan; Kull, Inger; Kraemer, Ursula; von Berg, Andrea; Eller, Esben; Host, Arne; Kuehni, Claudia; Spycher, Ben; Sunyer, Jordi; Chen, Chih-Mei; Reich, Andreas; Asarnoj, Anna; Puig, Carmen; Herbarth, Olf; John, Jestinah M. Mahachie; Van Steen, Kristel; Willich, Stefan N.; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne; Keil, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. Design: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. Exposure de

  10. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children : the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Smit, Henriette A.; Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were an

  11. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children: a pooled analysis of eight birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman, A.; Hohmann, C.; Pershagen, G.; Eller, E.; Kjaer, H.F.; Gehring, U.; Granell, R.; Henderson, J.; Lau, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Sunyer, J.; Tischer, C.; Torrent, M.; Wahn, U.; Wijga, A.H.; Wickman, M.; Keil, T.; Bergström, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure. Objectives: To assess the effect of

  12. Phenotyping asthma, rhinitis and eczema in MeDALL population-based birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Benet, M; Saeys, Y;

    2015-01-01

    of onset and treatments of asthma, rhinitis and eczema; immunoglobulin E sensitization; weight; and height. We tested the sensitivity of our estimates to subject and variable selections, and to different statistical approaches, including latent class analysis and self-organizing maps. RESULTS: Two groups...

  13. Fish intake during pregnancy and the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis - longitudinal evidence from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Oken, Emily; Campos, Hannia; Lange, Christoph; Gold, Diane; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2013-10-01

    Maternal fish intake during pregnancy may influence the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet evidence is conflicting on its association with these outcomes. We examined the associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis. Mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n 28 936) reported their fish intake at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the associations of fish intake with child wheeze, asthma and rhinitis assessed at several time points: ever wheeze, recurrent wheeze (>3 episodes), ever asthma and allergic rhinitis, and current asthma, assessed at 18 months (n approximately 22,000) and 7 years (n approximately 17,000) using self-report and registry data on hospitalisations and prescribed medications. Compared with consistently high fish intake during pregnancy (fish as a sandwich or hot meal > or equal to 2-3 times/week), never eating fish was associated with a higher risk of child asthma diagnosis at 18 months (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·05, 1·63, P=0·02), and ever asthma by hospitalisation (OR 1·46, 95% CI 0·99, 2·13, P=0·05) and medication prescription (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·10, 1·71, P=0·01). A dose-response was present for asthma at 18 months only (P for trend=0·001). We found no associations with wheeze or recurrent wheeze at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that high (v. no) maternal fish intake during pregnancy is protective against both early and ever asthma in 7-year-old children.

  14. Air pollution and development of asthma, allergy and infections in a birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M.; Hoek, G.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; Brunekreef, B.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have addressed associations between traffic-related air pollution and respiratory disease in young children. The present authors assessed the development of asthmatic/allergic symptoms and respiratory infections during the first 4 yrs of life in a birth cohort study (n=similar to 4,000).

  15. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded.

  16. The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Pinart, Mariona; Tischer, Christina

    2014-01-01

    -translation of the harmonized English MeDALL-CQ into 8 other languages and (iv) implementation of the harmonized follow-up. RESULTS: Three harmonized MeDALL-CQs (2 for parents of children aged 4-9 and 14-18, 1 for adolescents aged 14-18) were developed and used for a harmonized follow-up assessment of 11 European birth cohorts......BACKGROUND: Numerous birth cohorts have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years using heterogeneous methods to assess the incidence, course and risk factors of asthma and allergies. The aim of the present work is to provide the stepwise proceedings of the development and current version...... of the harmonized MeDALL-Core Questionnaire (MeDALL-CQ) used prospectively in 11 European birth cohorts. METHODS: The harmonization of questions was accomplished in 4 steps: (i) collection of variables from 14 birth cohorts, (ii) consensus on questionnaire items, (iii) translation and back...

  17. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Lødrup Carlsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DEFINITION: Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME DEFINITION: Current asthma (primary outcome, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6-10 years of age. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three-step approach: (i Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with "no pets" (10 studies, 11489 participants was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28 (I(2 = 9%; p = 0.36. The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with "no pets" (9 studies, 11433 participants was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03 (I(2 = 0%, p = 0.89. Owning both cat(s and dog(s compared to "no pets" resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84 (I(2 = 33%, p = 0.18. Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6-10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic

  18. Guideline-recommended use of asthma medication by children is associated with parental information and knowledge : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H.; Zuidgeest, Mira G. P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the use of asthma medication by children and the association of use as recommended by guidelines with modifiable risk factors: parental attitudes, knowledge of asthma medication and information provided by health care providers. MethodsQuestionnaire data were obtained from par

  19. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N E; van Stokkom, V L; Gehring, U; Koppelman, G H; Schaap, L A; Smit, H A; Wijga, A H

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives:Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children.Sub

  20. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; van Stokkom, V. L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Schaap, L. A.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children. S

  1. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; Van Stokkom, V. L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Schaap, L. A.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children. S

  2. Phenotyping asthma, rhinitis and eczema in MeDALL population-based birth cohorts : an allergic comorbidity cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Benet, M.; Saeys, Y.; Pinart, M.; Basagana, X.; Smit, H. A.; Siroux, V.; Just, J.; Momas, I.; Ranciere, F.; Keil, T.; Hohmann, C.; Lau, S.; Wahn, U.; Heinrich, J.; Tischer, C. G.; Fantini, M. P.; Lenzi, J.; Porta, D.; Koppelman, G. H.; Postma, D. S.; Berdel, D.; Koletzko, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Gehring, U.; Wickman, M.; Melen, E.; Hallberg, J.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Eller, E.; Kull, I.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Carlsen, K. -H.; Lambrecht, B. N.; Kogevinas, M.; Sunyer, J.; Kauffmann, F.; Bousquet, J.; Anto, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundAsthma, rhinitis and eczema often co-occur in children, but their interrelationships at the population level have been poorly addressed. We assessed co-occurrence of childhood asthma, rhinitis and eczema using unsupervised statistical techniques. MethodsWe included 17209 children at 4years

  3. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate esters and asthma: a 9-year follow-up study of a taiwanese birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Ying Ku

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that phthalate exposure in childhood is associated with the development of respiratory problems. However, few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalates on the development of asthma later in childhood. Therefore, we assessed the impact of prenatal and postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of asthma and wheezing using a Taiwanese birth cohort. A total of 430 pregnant women were recruited, and 171 (39.8% of them had their children followed when they were aged 2, 5, and 8 years. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess asthma and wheezing symptoms and serum total immunoglobulin E levels were measured at 8 years of age. Urine samples were obtained from 136 women during their third trimester of pregnancy, 99 children at 2 years of age, and 110 children at 5 years. Four common phthalate monoester metabolites in maternal and children's urine were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal urinary mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP] concentrations were associated with an increased occurrence of wheezing in boys at 8 years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95 (95% CI 1.08-22.63, for upper quintile compared to the others after controlling for parental allergies and family members' smoking status. Urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] levels over the quintile at 2-year-old were associated with increased asthma occurrence (adjusted OR = 6.14 (1.17-32.13 in boys. Similarly, the sum of di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate [DEHP] metabolites at 5 years was associated with asthma in boys (adjusted OR = 4.36 (1.01-18.86. Urinary MEHP in maternal and 5-year-old children urine were significantly associated with increased IgE in allergic children at 8 years. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate was associated with the occurrence of asthma in children, particularly for boys.

  4. A longitudinal analysis of associations between traffic-related air pollution with asthma, allergies and sensitization in the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fuertes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a need to study whether the adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP on childhood asthma and allergic diseases documented during early-life persist into later childhood. This longitudinal study examined whether TRAP is associated with the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and aeroallergen sensitization in two German cohorts followed from birth to 10 years. Materials. Questionnaire-derived annual reports of doctor diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis, as well as eye and nose symptoms, were collected from 6,604 children. Aeroallergen sensitization was assessed for 3,655 children who provided blood samples. Associations between these health outcomes and nitrogen dioxide (NO2, particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5 mass, PM2.5 absorbance and ozone, individually estimated for each child at the birth, six and 10 year home addresses, were assessed using generalized estimation equations including adjustments for relevant covariates. Odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] per increase in interquartile range of pollutant are presented for the total population and per geographical area (GINI/LISA South, GINI/LISA North and LISA East, Germany. Results. The risk estimates for the total population were generally null across outcomes and pollutants. The area-specific results were heterogeneous. In GINI/LISA North, all associations were null. In LISA East, associations with ozone were elevated for all outcomes, and those for allergic rhinitis and eyes and nose symptom prevalence reached statistical significance (1.30 [1.02, 1.64] and 1.35 [1.16, 1.59], respectively. For GINI/LISA South, two associations with aeroallergen sensitization were significant (0.84 [0.73, 0.97] for NO2 and 0.87 [0.78, 0.97] for PM2.5 absorbance, as well as the association between allergic rhinitis and PM2.5 absorbance (0.83 [0.72, 0.96]. Conclusions. This study did not find consistent evidence that TRAP increases the

  5. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma: European Union-funded initiatives - a MeDALL, CHICOS, ENRIECO, and GA²LEN joint paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vrijheid, Martine; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.

  6. Meta-analysis of determinants for pet ownership in 12 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies: a GA2LEN initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Roll, S; Chen, C-M

    2008-01-01

    with and without allergies. METHODS: Within the EU-funded network of excellence GA(2)LEN, we performed meta-analyses with data from 12 ongoing European birth cohort studies on asthma and allergy. Each of the birth cohort studies enrolled between 485 and 4089 children. Pet ownership, allergic status (asthma......, allergic rhinitis, eczema) of parents and siblings, parental education, access to ground floor, and number of people living at home were assessed by questionnaires. RESULTS: Among the 25 056 families from seven European countries cats (14.9%) were more common than dogs (12.0%). Allergic family history...... significantly reduced the odds to own a cat (adjusted combined random-effect OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.99), or dog (0.90; 0.86-0.94). A higher parental educational level had even more pronounced effects on cat (0.84; 0.71-0.98), and dog ownership (0.61; 0.54-0.70). Elder siblings reduced the odds to own cats...

  7. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M. van de; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting

  8. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors-the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy-might partly explain the conflicting re

  9. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  10. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Asthma Epidemic Eating with Asthma Helping Your Child Cope With a Medical Condition Nasal Wash Guide Cleaning Dirty Items Impact on Families Asthma & Pets Peak Flow Meter Athletes & Asthma Helpful Tools for ...

  11. Association of consumption of products containing milk fat with reduced asthma risk in pre-school children : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, AH; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Boshuizen, HC; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Environment and lifestyle contribute to the development of asthma in children. Understanding the relevant factors in this relationship may provide methods of prevention. The role of diet in the development of asthma in pre-school children was investigated. Methods: Data from 2978 childre

  12. Difficult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uslu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  13. Difficult asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  14. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  15. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... unit and longer postpartum hospital stay. Asthma has been associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, small-for-gestational age, low birth weight, infant hypoglycaemia and preterm birth, but more recent prospective studies have not revealed significant associations with regard...

  16. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentzen, Nina E; Smit, Henriëtte A; Bekkers, Marga B M; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; De Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H

    2014-02-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were analysed. In total 1481 children aged 11-12 years completed a questionnaire (including questions on sleep) and underwent a medical examination. We measured body mass index, waist circumference, total- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. Results showed that in girls, some sleep characteristics were related to anthropometrics (body mass index, waist circumference) and cholesterol. Girls who had a long time in bed (11-12.5 h) had 0.16 lower body mass index z-score (95% confidence interval -0.31; -0.01) and 0.99 cm smaller waist circumference (95% confidence interval -2.01; -0.13) compared with girls who spent 10-10.5 h in bed. Girls who went to bed late and rose early had 0.16 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.31) and 0.08 mm higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.14) than 'early to bed/early rise' girls. Girls with night-time awakenings had 0.14 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.25) than girls without night-time awakenings. Girls who felt sleepy/tired ≥1 day per week had 0.10 mm lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval -0.16; -0.04) and 0.17 mm higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.32) than girls who did not feel sleepy. No associations were found for boys. Sleep characteristics were not related to blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin, and effect sizes of the associations in girls were small. Therefore, we consider it premature to propose that improved sleep could reduce cardiovascular risk during childhood.

  17. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  18. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  19. Asthma pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Minka L

    2014-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that leads to airway obstruction via bronchoconstriction, edema, and mucus hypersecretion. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program has outlined evidence-based guidelines to standardize asthma therapy and improve outcomes. The initial recommendation of choice for persistent asthmatic patients is an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Long-acting beta-2 agonists in combination with ICS, oral corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and anti-IgE therapeutic options can be considered for patients with persistent or worsening symptoms. Many novel therapies are being developed, with an emphasis on anti-inflammatory mechanisms, gene expression, and cytokine modification.

  20. Viral infections and atopy in asthma pathogenesis: new rationales for asthma prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Patrick G; Sly, Peter D

    2012-05-04

    Prospective birth cohort studies tracking asthma initiation and consolidation in community cohorts have identified viral infections occurring against a background of allergic sensitization to aeroallergens as a uniquely potent risk factor for the expression of acute severe asthma-like symptoms and for the ensuing development of asthma that can persist through childhood and into adulthood. A combination of recent experimental and human studies have suggested that underlying this bipartite process are a series of interactions between antiviral and atopic inflammatory pathways that are mediated by local activation of myeloid cell populations in the airway mucosa and the parallel programming and recruitment of their replacements from bone marrow. Targeting key components of these pathways at the appropriate stages of asthma provides new opportunities for the treatment of established asthma but, more crucially, for primary and secondary prevention of asthma during childhood.

  1. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  2. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2014, 2.1 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  3. Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  4. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  5. Asthma Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  6. Recognizing asthma mimics and asthma complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Dennis; Seda, Gilbert; Daheshia, Massoud

    2011-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and underlying inflammation. Two common reasons asthmatics fail standard therapy are incorrect diagnosis and failure to recognize underlying contributing factors. A correct diagnosis of asthma is of great importance to military practitioners since misdiagnosis or uncontrolled asthma affects an individual's operational readiness or determines whether one can receive a medical waiver to enlist in military service. This article presents four cases of patients with dyspnea that have conditions which mimic asthma or complicate asthma management: vocal cord dysfunction misdiagnosed as asthma, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease mistaken as asthma, difficult-to-control asthma because of bronchiectasis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and difficult and fatal asthma. Asthma is contrasted to other respiratory disorders, and an outlined approach to asthma diagnosis and management is presented using the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines.

  7. Sleep in children with asthma: results of the PIAMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Annette; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Smit, Henriëtte A; Oort, Frans J; Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-04-01

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study. Parents reported about asthma symptoms (wheezing, dyspnoea, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids and asthma diagnosis) and children reported about different aspects of sleep (bedtime, rise time, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness/tiredness). Results were analysed with (logistic) regression analysis. Children with frequent asthma symptoms significantly more often reported that they felt sleepy or tired during the day (34.4% experienced daytime sleepiness/tiredness at least once a week) than children without asthma symptoms (22.2%) and children with infrequent asthma symptoms (21.9%). This association was not confounded by sex, age of the child, parental educational level or smoking inside the house; the effect was also not modified by sex. There were no associations between asthma and bedtime, time spent in bed or sleep quality. Children with frequent asthma symptoms experienced daytime sleepiness/tiredness more often than children with infrequent or no asthma symptoms. Otherwise, children with asthma did not differ much from children without asthma with regard to sleep.

  8. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  9. Asthma in pregnancy: a hit for two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa E. Murphy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma commonly occurs in pregnant females, and recent data have outlined the risks of adverse perinatal outcomes among this population. There is an increased risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age, particularly among females with moderate-to-severe asthma and exacerbations during pregnancy. There is also an increased risk of preterm birth, especially with oral steroid use, a small but statistically significant increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and an increased risk of neonatal hospitalisation and death. Active management may reduce these risks, possibly through reductions in exacerbations. Additional reassuring data have been presented for asthma medication use, which support the benefits outweighing the risks of indicated asthma medication use in pregnancy. Viral infections are an important trigger of asthma exacerbations in pregnancy, and recent data provides possible immunological changes that may explain this. Poor medication adherence despite worsening asthma symptoms in pregnancy is a problem which continues to be demonstrated in the literature. Improving asthma control in pregnancy has the potential to improve not only the mother’s health but also that of her child.

  10. Asthma in pregnancy: a hit for two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Vanessa E; Schatz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Asthma commonly occurs in pregnant females, and recent data have outlined the risks of adverse perinatal outcomes among this population. There is an increased risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age, particularly among females with moderate-to-severe asthma and exacerbations during pregnancy. There is also an increased risk of preterm birth, especially with oral steroid use, a small but statistically significant increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and an increased risk of neonatal hospitalisation and death. Active management may reduce these risks, possibly through reductions in exacerbations. Additional reassuring data have been presented for asthma medication use, which support the benefits outweighing the risks of indicated asthma medication use in pregnancy. Viral infections are an important trigger of asthma exacerbations in pregnancy, and recent data provides possible immunological changes that may explain this. Poor medication adherence despite worsening asthma symptoms in pregnancy is a problem which continues to be demonstrated in the literature. Improving asthma control in pregnancy has the potential to improve not only the mother's health but also that of her child.

  11. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples - association with IVF?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Derk B.; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Heineman, Maas J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/IC

  12. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  13. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  14. Bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008049 Activation ralated genes of memory CD+4 T cells in asthma patients. PI Weifeng(皮卫峰),et al. Dept Respir Med, Xinhua Hosp, Sch Med, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(12):932-935. Objective To screen and identify the genes of activated memory CD+4 T cells in asthma. Methods Differential display polymerase chain reaction(DDPCR) was utilized to identify genes of memory CD+4 T cells after activation from asthmatic patients and normal individuals,

  15. [Severe asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended.

  16. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  17. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  18. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  19. Asthma: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Learn How to Control Asthma Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Treated? Select a Language Español (Spanish) What Is Asthma? Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. ...

  20. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  1. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  2. Early childhood infections and immunisation and the development of allergic disease in particular asthma in a high-risk cohort: A prospective study of allergy-prone children from birth to six years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jennifer A; Widjaja, Constance; Darmaputra, Abbi A P; Lowe, Adrian; Matheson, Melanie C; Bennett, Catherine M; Allen, Katrina; Abramson, Michael J; Hosking, Cliff; Hill, David; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2010-11-01

    The role of early childhood infections and immunisation in the development of allergic diseases remains controversial. To examine these associations, six hundred and twenty infants with first-degree relatives with allergic diseases were recruited into the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Information on risk factors and outcomes was collected by interviewer administered questionnaire and was based on parental report and/or a physician's diagnosis. Risk factors examined included early childhood infections (including gastroenteritis, otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections) and immunisations in the first 2 yr of life. Outcomes were current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema at 6 yr of age. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used to estimate relative risk (RR) and assess confounding. By 6 yr, 79% of the original cohort remained in the study. Those with at least three episodes of gastroenteritis showed an increased risk (crude RR 2.36, 95%CI 1.41 3.95; adjusted RR 2.03 95%CI 1.50 2.75) for the later development of asthma at age 6. Of the scheduled immunisations, Sabin immunisation in the second year had a reduced risk of asthma at 6 yr (crude RR 0.60, 95%CI 0.37 0.98; adjusted RR 0.63 95%CI 0.39 1.02). Combined diphtheria and tetanus (CDT) immunisation in the first year had an increased risk of asthma at 6 yr (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.11 2.78; adjusted RR 1.88 95%CI 1.28 2.77). Recurrent gastroenteritis in early childhood is associated with a later risk of asthma. This may reflect a cause and effect relationship, or exposure to common risk factors. In contrast, Sabin immunisation in the second year is associated with a decreased risk of asthma in later childhood. CDT immunisation in the first year may be a risk factor for asthma, but the need for CDT immunisation may also be a marker of increased risk of asthma in later childhood.

  3. Asthma essentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Greene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.

  4. Pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Engeland, Anders; Nafstad, Per; Karlstad, Øystein; Nystad, Wenche

    2016-12-01

    Studies of pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma are conflicting, and none have performed a formal mediation analysis of preterm birth.We examined the association between pre-eclampsia and asthma at 7 years using national registries, including all births in Norway from 1999 to 2006 (n=406 907), and a subsample of children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n=45 028) using log-linear regression. We performed a mediation analysis of preterm birth, and a sibling comparison to evaluate unobserved confounding.There was a positive association between pre-eclampsia and asthma in the registry study, with an adjusted relative risk of 1.31 (95% CI 1.22-1.41), but not in MoBa, which had an adjusted relative risk of 1.19 (95% CI 0.99-1.44). The odds ratios for the direct effect not mediated through preterm birth and the indirect effect in the registry linkage were 1.19 (95% CI 1.10-1.29) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.11-1.14), respectively. The sibling comparison indicated no association between pre-eclampsia and asthma (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.33).In this large study, which used different datasets and analytic approaches, there was little evidence for an association between pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma. The association was weak and largely explained by pre-term birth and confounders shared by siblings.

  5. The PCDH1-gene and asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggests that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school-children.To associate common variants of the PCDH1-gene to longitudinally assessed asthma......-phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.We analysed 8 SNPs in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth-cohort.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed prospectively to age seven and asthma was categorized by temporal pattern...... dermatitis and rs11167761-A (OR=1.85, CI: 1.24-2.75, p=0.0026).Common variations in PCDH1 increase the risk of developing both transient early asthma and atopic dermatitis in early childhood....

  6. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples--association with IVF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Derk B; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L; Roseboom, Tessa J; Heineman, Maas J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/ICSI; and (iii) natural conception in subfertile couples. The rate of asthma medication was higher in the ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI than in the subfertile group (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 1.96 [1.00-3.84]). Time to pregnancy, a proxy for the severity of subfertility, was not associated with asthma and asthma medication. In conclusion, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI is associated with the use of asthma medication in 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples.

  7. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  8. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  9. Asthma in seven year old children: a report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, M R; Jones, D T; Silva, P A; Simpson, A; Williams, S M

    1982-08-11

    The prevalence of asthma between birth and seven years was determined by questionnaire in 875 children as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study. From the combinations of asthma and/or wheezing reported in association with bronchitis, hayfever, eczema and allergies, a diagnosis of certain or probable asthma was made in 12.6 percent of these children. A further 22.6 percent admitted to wheezing, but a diagnosis of asthma could not be made with any certainty. Bronchitis was reported frequently, usually associated with wheezing. Children with more obvious asthma showed a male preponderance and significant differences in body build and school attendance compared with asymptomatic children.

  10. Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... lying in an abnormal position in the uterus before birth. Overall, the rate of birth injuries is much lower now than in previous decades because of improved ...

  11. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  12. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... normal everyday activities without having asthma symptoms. Action Plans Are Unique Each person's experience with asthma is ...

  13. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  14. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  15. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy: Impact on pregnancy complications and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-05-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care unit and longer postpartum hospital stay. Asthma has been associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, small-for-gestational age, low birth weight, infant hypoglycaemia and preterm birth, but more recent prospective studies have not revealed significant associations with regard to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome.

  16. Caesarean delivery and risk of developing asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Jeppesen, Simone K;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between caesarean section and risk of developing asthma. METHOD: We evaluated this association in a Danish cohort, comprising of 11,147 mothers and their babies of which 7119 mother-child pairs were included in the analyses. The mothers' reported asthma data...... on their children were linked to hospitalization records on mode of delivery. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio for developing asthma was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.88-1.39) for caesarean sections versus vaginal births. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that children being delivered by caesarean section have an increased risk...

  17. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients.

  18. Risk of Asthma from Cesarean Delivery Depends on Membrane Rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess our prospective mother-child cohort and the national registry data to analyze the risk of asthma by delivery mode and whether cesarean delivery before or after membrane rupture affects this risk differently. STUDY DESIGN: The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childh......OBJECTIVE: To assess our prospective mother-child cohort and the national registry data to analyze the risk of asthma by delivery mode and whether cesarean delivery before or after membrane rupture affects this risk differently. STUDY DESIGN: The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma...... in Childhood2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma was diagnosed prospectively by physicians at the research site, and associations with cesarean delivery were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. From the Danish national prospective registry we included data from 1997......-2010. Childhood asthma was defined from recurrent use of inhaled corticosteroids filled at pharmacies. Cesarean delivery was classified as either before or after rupture of membranes, and the risk of asthma was compared with vaginal delivery. Results were adjusted stepwise for age and calendar year, sex, birth...

  19. Native and foreign born as predictors of pediatric asthma in an Asian immigrant population: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodin Mark

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma prevalence is lower in less developed countries and among some recent immigrant populations in the US, but the reasons for this are not clear. One possibility is that early childhood infections are protective against asthma. Methods We surveyed Asian immigrant children (n = 204; age 4–18 to assess the relationship between asthma and native or foreign place of birth. We included questions about environmental exposures, demographic variables and family history of asthma to test whether they might explain effects of place of birth on asthma. Results The native and foreign born groups were similar in most respects. Analysis of association with diagnosed asthma for all ages together resulted in two logistic regression models. Both retained born in the US (ORs were 3.2 and 4.3; p Conclusion Our findings are consistent with early childhood infections that are prevalent outside the US protecting against asthma.

  20. Uncontrolled asthma at age 8 : The importance of parental perception towards medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; Wijga, Alet H.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; De Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite existing effective treatment options, asthma is uncontrolled in a considerable proportion of patients. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of uncontrolled asthma at age 8 in children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Methods: One hundred seventy childr

  1. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola

    2017-01-01

    ) was not. In 11 pairs, both twins developed asthma. In the unadjusted analysis, emergency caesarean section did not affect the risk of asthma (odds ratio = 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.17); p = 0.16). After adjusting for birth weight, gender, umbilical cord pH, Apgar score at 5 min. and neonatal...

  2. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age: the PIAMA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M. van de; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H.A.; Jongste, J.C. de; Aalberse, R.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. METHODS: Event history analysis was

  3. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. Methods: Event history analysis was

  4. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: A practice parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2010;105:S1. Krafczyk ... up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma ...

  5. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  6. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... narrowing of the bronchi. This can make breathing difficult, particularly expiration (exhaling) and can cause a feeling of tightness in the chest. Answer: D. All of these can make asthma worse. But some things that make asthma worse ...

  7. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  8. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  9. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  10. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  11. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...

  12. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  13. Fatal asthma or anaphylaxis?

    OpenAIRE

    Rainbow, J; Browne, G

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of anaphylaxis is under-reported. Children with asthma are frequently atopic and prone to allergic reactions. Parents and clinicians may attribute wheeze of rapid onset to acute severe asthma, rather than recognising an anaphylactic event. Two cases of fatal anaphylaxis are reported who were initially diagnosed as acute severe asthma, and responded poorly to bronchodilator treatment. Survivors of "acute asphyxic asthma" should be screened for reactions to common allergens that p...

  14. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  15. Asthma and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the airways of the lungs. When an asthma attack occurs, it is difficult for air to pass through the lungs which ... others have not. In these studies, it is difficult to determine whether the problems noted were due to the mother’s asthma, the medicines needed to control the asthma, or ...

  16. Severe asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into 2 categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, or poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline-based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting β-agonists and other add-on therapies, such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control, including reviewing the diagnosis and removing causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future.

  17. School and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? School and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > School and Asthma A A A What's in this article? Have ... La escuela y el asma If you have asthma , you probably have a routine at home for ...

  18. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma A A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  19. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this article? Pack ... Or how about sleepover camp? If you have asthma , you'll be packing more than your clothes ...

  20. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  1. Antifungals in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite guideline-based treatment, many patients with severe asthma continue to have uncontrolled disease. Fungal allergy is being increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Limited data exist on the approach to treatment of fungal asthma. This review summarizes

  2. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  3. Asthma during pregnancy in a population-based study--pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Rejnö

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases, and prevalence, severity and medication may have an effect on pregnancy. We examined maternal asthma, asthma severity and control in relation to pregnancy complications, labour characteristics and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We retrieved data on all singleton births from July 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009, and prescribed drugs and physician-diagnosed asthma on the same women from multiple Swedish registers. The associations were estimated with logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 266 045 women gave birth to 284 214 singletons during the study period. Maternal asthma was noted in 26 586 (9.4% pregnancies. There was an association between maternal asthma and increased risks of pregnancy complications including preeclampsia or eclampsia (adjusted OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24 and premature contractions (adj OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.29-1.80. There was also a significant association between maternal asthma and emergency caesarean section (adj OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.23-1.34, low birth weight, and small for gestational age (adj OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.13-1.33. The risk of adverse outcomes such as low birth weight increased with increasing asthma severity. For women with uncontrolled compared to those with controlled asthma the results for adverse outcomes were inconsistent displaying both increased and decreased OR for some outcomes. CONCLUSION: Maternal asthma is associated with a number of serious pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes. Some complications are even more likely with increased asthma severity. With greater awareness and proper management, outcomes would most likely improve.

  4. [Cytokines and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, F; Senna, G; Piglia, P; Grosso, B; Mezzelani, P; Pozzi, E

    1998-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease in which eosinophils are one of the most important involved cells. These cells accumulate in the lung because of cytokines, which are able to regulate cellular responses. The role of cytokines is well known in allergic asthma: IL4, IL5, IL3, GMCSF are the principally cytokine involved. IL4 regulate IgE synthesis while IL5, (and IL3) cause the activation and accumulation of eosinophils. In non allergic asthma, whilst only IL5 seemed to be important recent data, shows that also IL4 plays an important role. Therefore nowadays no relevant difference seems to exist between allergic and non allergic asthma; instead the primer is different: the allergen in allergic asthma and often an unknown factor in the non allergic asthma. Recently other cytokines have been proved to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL8 is chemotactic not only for neutrophils but also for eosinophils and might cause chronic inflammation in severe asthma. IL13 works like IL4, while RANTES seems to be a more important chemotactic agent than IL5. Finally IL10, which immunoregulates T lymphocyte responses, may reduce asthma inflammation. In conclusion cytokine made us to learn more about the pathogenesis of asthma even if we do not yet know when and how asthma inflammation develops.

  5. Obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal.

  6. Epigenetics of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andrew L; Wiegman, Coen; Adcock, Ian M

    2011-11-01

    Asthma is caused by both heritable and environmental factors. It has become clear that genetic studies do not adequately explain the heritability and susceptibility to asthma. The study of epigenetics, heritable non-coding changes to DNA may help to explain the heritable component of asthma. Additionally, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by the environment, including pollution and cigarette smoking, which are known asthma risk factors. These environmental trigger-induced epigenetic changes may be involved in skewing the immune system towards a Th2 phenotype following in utero exposure and thereby enhancing the risk of asthma. Alternatively, they may directly or indirectly modulate the immune and inflammatory processes in asthmatics via effects on treatment responsiveness. The study of epigenetics may therefore play an important role in our understanding and possible treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biochemistry of Asthma.

  7. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  8. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These range from how you hope to handle pain relief to fetal monitoring. Think about the environment in which you ... include in your birth plan are preferences about fetal monitoring, extra ... during labor. Pain management. This is important for most women and ...

  9. Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Stark, Michael J; Scheil, Wendy; Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Clifton, Vicki L

    2014-03-01

    Does cigarette smoking in pregnancy explain the increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes that occur with maternal asthma or does it compound the effect? Using population based birth records, a retrospective analysis was conducted of all singleton pregnancies in South Australia over 10 years (1999-2008; n=172 305), examining maternal asthma, cigarette smoking and quantity of smoking to estimate odds ratios. Compared with nonasthmatic females who did not smoke during pregnancy, both asthmatic females who smoked and those who did not smoke during pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes, antepartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membranes, emergency Caesarean section, and the child being small for gestational age and having congenital abnormalities. These associations suggest that asthma, independently of maternal smoking, increases the risk of these adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal smoking was itself associated with an increased risk of a number of poor neonatal outcomes, with a dose-response relationship observed. Notably, maternal asthma combined with cigarette smoking significantly increased the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections to a greater degree than with either exposure alone. Maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy are both independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and, combined, compound the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections.

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  11. Examining the association between childhood asthma and parent and grandparent asthma status: Implications for Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Melissa A.; Andreski, Patricia M.; Schoeni, Robert F.; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of intergenerational asthma beyond maternal asthma has been limited. The association between childhood asthma and intergenerational asthma status among a national cohort of children was examined.

  12. A population-based prescription study of asthma drugs during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana; Nielsen, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    . Methods: The Birth Registry was used to identify all 15,756 primiparous women who gave birth in the County of North Jutland between 1991 and 1996. According to the North Jutland Prescription Database, 303 of these women received prescriptions for asthma drugs during pregnancy. Women who did not purchase...

  13. Prematurity and prescription asthma medication from childhood to young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anne Louise; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Mathiasen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of asthma-like symptoms and purchase of prescription asthma medication in childhood. We investigated whether this association persists into adulthood and whether it is affected by accounting for neonatal respiratory morbidity (acute...... respiratory disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia). METHODS: A national cohort of all infants born in Denmark in the period 1980-2009 was included in this register study. Data on purchase of asthma medication (combination of inhaled β-2 agonists and other drugs for obstructive airway disease) in 2010......-2011 were obtained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Associations between gestational age (GA), neonatal respiratory morbidity and a cross-sectional evaluation of asthma medication purchase were explored by multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: A full dataset was obtained on 1...

  14. Asthma in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a common problem with enormous medical and economics impacts. It is an inflammatory disease of the airways associated with intermittent episodes of bronchospasm. Asthma is not uncommon in the elderly patients. Prevalence of asthma is similar in older and younger adults. Asthma in the elderly patient is underdiagnosed because of false perceptions by both patient and physician. The high incidence of comorbid conditions in the elderly patient makes the diagnosis and management more difficult. Correct diagnosis is demonstrated with spirometry. The goals of asthma treatment are to achieve and maintain control of symptoms and to prevent development of irreversible airflow limitation. Asthma drugs are preferably inhaled because this route minimizes systemic absorption and, thus, improves the ratio of the therapeutic benefit to the potential side-effects in elderly patients.

  15. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  16. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  17. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  18. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma.

  19. Pharmacogenomics of pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sarika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to it. A component of this complexity is a highly variable response to pharmacological therapy. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of genetic determinants in the variable response to therapy. A number of examples of possible pharmacogenomic approaches that may prove of value in the management of asthma are discussed below. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed, Google scholar, E-Medicine, BMJ and Mbase was done using the key words "pharmacogenomics of asthma", "pharmacogenomics of β-agonist, glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, muscarinic antagonists in asthma". Results: Presently, there are limited examples of gene polymorphism that can influence response to asthma therapy. Polymorphisms that alter response to asthma therapy include Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile for β-agonist receptor, polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene, CRHR1 variants and polymorphism of LTC4S, ALOX5. Polymorphic variants of muscarinic receptors, PDE4 and CYP450 gene variants. Conclusion: It was concluded that genetic variation can improve the response to asthma therapy. However, no gene polymorphism has been associated with consistent results in different populations. Therefore, asthma pharmacogenomic studies in different populations with a large number of subjects are required to make possible tailoring the asthma therapy according to the genetic characteristic of individual patient.

  20. Asthma, sports, and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDario, A Geoffrey; Becker, Jack M

    2005-01-01

    The impact of asthma on the general population has been described in detail in medical literature. However, asthma also has a significant impact on the pediatric and adult athlete. This is rarely reported in either the lay press or the medical literature. In 2003, Becker and coworkers conducted a retrospective analysis of the incidence of asthma as a direct cause of death in competitive athletes across the United States between 1993 and 2000. They sought to raise awareness that severe asthma exacerbations and even death can occur during sports from asthma in athletes, while still supporting the concept of maximal participation in sporting activities. To their knowledge, this remains the only published study looking specifically at this issue. Fortunately, fatal asthma events are infrequent in either the adult or the pediatric populations. Those rare cases involving athletes are commonly highlighted in the lay press when they do occur, e.g., when the victim is a college football player such as Rashidi Wheeler. Wheeler died of a fatal asthma exacerbation on August 3, 2002, during a conditioning drill as a member of the Northwestern University football team. Although he was known to have chronic asthma with no obvious barriers to health care, he nevertheless succumbed to his condition. Here, we report a similar, although less well-known, case of an adolescent who died as a direct result of an asthma exacerbation during a high school physical education class. We also offer a brief review of the literature regarding morbidity and mortality in athletes.

  1. A comparison of three methods to measure asthma in epidemiologic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina;

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old...... the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due......, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between...

  2. Risk factors for asthma in young adults: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Ulrik, C S; Kyvik, K O;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The liability to asthma is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for asthma in young adult twin pairs during an 8-year period. METHODS: From the birth cohorts 1953-1982 of the Danish Twin Registry, 6,090 twin pairs...... who were initially unaffected with respect to asthma at a nationwide questionnaire-based study in 1994 participated in a similar follow-up study in 2002. Subjects were regarded incident asthma cases when responding affirmatively to the question 'Do you have, or have you ever had asthma'? in 2002....... Pairs in which only one twin developed asthma -- discordant pairs -- were identified and conditional logistic regression was applied to detect effects of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 126 monozygotic (MZ) and 273 dizygotic (DZ) discordant twin pairs were identified. In MZ twins hay fever (OR = 3...

  3. Filaggrin mutations in the onset of eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and the interaction with cat exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.; Kerkhof, M.; Jonkman, M.F.; Koppelman, G.H.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J.C.; Wijga, A.; McLean, W.H.; Postma, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. Methods: FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth coho

  4. Filaggrin mutations in the onset of eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and the interaction with cat exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M L A; Kerkhof, M; Jonkman, M F; Koppelman, G H; Brunekreef, B; de Jongste, J C; Wijga, A; McLean, W H I; Postma, D S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. METHODS: FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth coho

  5. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  6. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.25 million of those individuals have severe asthma, a condition that can be difficult to control and treat. Learn more about his research by visiting the NHLBI Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation website: http://www.nhlbi.nih. ...

  7. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  8. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  9. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  10. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  11. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...

  12. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  13. [Distinguishing asthma from COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kouhei; Samukawa, Takuya; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-05-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major public health burdens. Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, airway narrowing with reversibility, and hyperresponsiveness of airways. COPD has been associated with smoking and exposure to environmental fumes, which typically characterized by persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation of the airways. These differences are most apparent when young non-smoker with asthma and older smokers with COPD are compared. However, it would be difficult to differentiate asthma from COPD, especially in elderly who currently smoke or have a significant history of smoking. Furthermore, some patients exhibit characteristics of both diseases, this may represent a phenotype known as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Therefore, the precise understanding of these diseases is important.

  14. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with an increased number of days lost from school, exacerbations and days in hospital. Furthermore, children with uncontrolled asthma have more frequent contacts with the health-care system. Recent...... studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... these studies it seems that poor asthma control may have a greater impact on the child than previously thought. This may have important long-term consequences for the child such as an increased risk of life-style associated diseases and poorer school performance. The level of control seems to be the most...

  15. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  16. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, L.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related

  17. Factors associated with asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Lince, S.; Muris, J.W.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with asthma control experienced by asthma patients. In a cross-sectional study patients aged 16-60 years with mild to moderate asthma were selected. The influence of the following factors on asthma control was studied in a multivaria

  18. Season of birth and risk of atopic disease among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Season of birth (SOB) has been regarded as a risk factor for atopy. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between season of birth (SOB) and later development of atopic disease in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1,007 randomly selected subjects, 7 to 17...... not significantly related to SOB. CONCLUSIONS: Atopy itself is independent of season of birth, whereas asthma is more prevalent among subjects born during the autumn. Regarding asthma, these results suggest that the first months of life enclose a period of particular vulnerability towards environmental risk factors...

  19. Advances in pediatric asthma in 2013: coordinating asthma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J

    2014-03-01

    Last year's "Advances in pediatric asthma: moving toward asthma prevention" concluded that "We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma." This year's summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on prenatal and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children, as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention, as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma, as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations, and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists, and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality.

  20. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  1. Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum IgE at birth in high-risk children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, H.J.; Dompeling, E.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Kuiper, S.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to mite, cat and dog allergens and total serum IgE at birth in newborns at high risk of asthma. In the homes of 221 newborns with at least one first-degree relative with asthma, concentrations (ng/g dust) of allergens of house dust mite (mite), c

  2. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  3. Asthma in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hem, Erlend; Stensrud, Trine

    2011-12-01

    Athletes active in endurance sports are at an increased risk of acquiring asthma through their sports activities, especially so for cross-country skiers, biathlon skiers, swimmers and athletes of other endurance sports. Asthma may be present from early childhood or develop while in active sports. This article focuses on the physical activity and sports activities in children and adolescents. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is found in 8-10% of a normal child population of school age and in about 35% of children with current asthma. EIA is caused by the markedly increased ventilation during exercise, with increased heat and water loss through respiration, leading to bronchial constriction. The risk of developing asthma in the young athlete is related to the repeated daily training activity with increased epithelial damage of the airways, delayed repair due to the daily repetition of the training and increased airway mucosal inflammation. The increased environmental exposure through the sports activity to environmental agents, such as cold, dry air in skiers and chlorine compounds in swimmers, increases symptoms and signs of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, either worsening an existing asthma or leading to a novel disease in a previously healthy athlete. Several specific aspects of daily training life, environmental exposure, diagnostic procedures and aspects of treatment related to the regulations of medication use in sports need particular attention when addressing the adolescent athlete with respiratory symptoms.

  4. Maternal bereavement and childhood asthma-analyses in two large samples of Swedish children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal factors such as prenatal psychological stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the association between maternal bereavement shortly before and during pregnancy, as a proxy for prenatal stress, and the risk of childhood asthma in the offspring, based on two samples of children 1-4 (n = 426,334 and 7-12 (n = 493,813 years assembled from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Exposure was maternal bereavement of a close relative from one year before pregnancy to child birth. Asthma event was defined by a hospital contact for asthma or at least two dispenses of inhaled corticosteroids or montelukast. In the younger sample we calculated hazards ratios (HRs of a first-ever asthma event using Cox models and in the older sample odds ratio (ORs of an asthma attack during 12 months using logistic regression. Compared to unexposed boys, exposed boys seemed to have a weakly higher risk of first-ever asthma event at 1-4 years (HR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 1.22 as well as an asthma attack during 12 months at 7-12 years (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.24. No association was suggested for girls. Boys exposed during the second trimester had a significantly higher risk of asthma event at 1-4 years (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.02 and asthma attack at 7-12 years if the bereavement was an older child (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.25. The associations tended to be stronger if the bereavement was due to a traumatic death compared to natural death, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed some evidence for a positive association between prenatal stress and childhood asthma among boys but not girls.

  5. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice.

  6. Pediatric asthma disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, T R; Chatburn, R L

    2000-03-01

    The prevalence of asthma in children in the United States is estimated at more than 5% of the population, and it has risen more than 40% in the previous decade. Several guidelines for the management of acute and chronic asthma exist, and they all emphasize several basic components including state-of-the-art pharmacologic treatment, trigger avoidance, and patient self-management skills. This Article highlights the necessary components for pediatric asthma disease management to insure a smooth continuum of care across all disciplines and settings.

  7. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  8. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  9. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  10. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  12. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  13. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Flare-Up? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma ... of a straw that's being pinched. Causes of Asthma Flare-Ups People with asthma have airways that ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled Asthma among ...

  15. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Asthma Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... remove an animal from the home, it is important to thoroughly clean the floors, walls, carpets and ...

  16. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) The annual flu shot is recommended for ... second or third trimester. Read more about the flu vaccine . Immunotherapy (allergy shots) Allergy shots should not be ...

  17. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  18. Interleukin-16 in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jing-min; SHI Huan-zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by lymphocyte, eosinophil, and mast cell infiltration of the submucosa along with mucous gland hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis.

  19. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  20. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  1. Asthma, Allergies and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  2. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  3. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  4. Relvar Ellipta for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Relvar Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler that contains a corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate) and a long-acting beta2 agonist (vilanterol trifenatate). It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In a previous article we considered its use in the management of COPD.1 Here we review the evidence for Relvar Ellipta in the treatment of patients with asthma.

  5. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program.

  6. Role of Asthma Education in the Management of Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Côté

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available When a patient is newly diagnosed as having asthma, he or she is often prescribed new medication without getting much information on the disease and its treatment. This article emphasizes the need to educate asthmatics. Asthma treatment should begin with a proper adjustment of the medication, allowing asthmatics to lead a normal life. All asthmatics should be shown how to use their inhalation device properly. They should he knowledgeable about the basic aspects of asthma, airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction, use or medication and early symptoms heralding an asthma attack. Environmental factors that may trigger an asthma attack should be explained. Patients should be able to self-monitor asthma using either symptom severity or a peak flow meter. Because asthma is an unpredictable disease, patients should have a self-action plan to implement when their asthma deteriorates.

  7. Pediatric asthma controller therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of children with asthma has historically relied upon expert opinion using data extrapolated from adult studies. Over the past few years, landmark studies have been completed providing healthcare professionals with evidence on which a reasonable approach can be made for children suffering from this common and serious disease. Asthmatic phenotype in children, unlike adults, tends to differ according to age, which must be taken into account as well as triggers, severity, and level of control. The care of the child with asthma is complex, but accumulating data have demonstrated that we are on the right path for optimizing control while reducing the burden of side effects. The newest Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, as well as recent updates from the landmark CAMP (Childhood Asthma Management Program) study and information from the PACT (Pediatric Asthma Control Trial) and budesonide/formoterol controller and reliever studies, along with recent comparisons of higher dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and ICS/long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) combination and leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) therapies in children have clarified a few of the big questions in pediatric asthma. For children with asthma aged 5 years and older, the CAMP trial demonstrated that regular use of ICS reduces the frequency of symptoms; however, height was adversely affected and there is no evidence for altering the natural history of asthma. In patients aged 6 years and over whose asthma is uncontrolled on ICS alone, combination therapy with ICS and a LABA has been recently compared with the use of higher dose ICS and the addition of an LTRA in pediatric patients. The addition of a LABA statistically will be of most benefit; however, some children will have optimal control with doubling the baseline dose of ICS or addition of an LTRA. Use of budesonide/formoterol as a controller and reliever therapy extends the time to first exacerbation versus

  8. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Axelsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional data were collected through questionnaires and structured interviews. Results. The mean adherence value for filled prescriptions for regular asthma medication was 68% (median 55.3% but varied over the year under study. Adherence to combination inhalers with corticosteroids and long-acting beta2 agonists was higher than adherence to single inhalers with corticosteroids only. More than one-third of participants reported not having seen an asthma nurse or physician for several years. Regular asthma follow-up consultations were associated with both higher adherence and the belief that asthma medication was necessary but were not associated with asthma control. Conclusions. Adherence to asthma medication treatment was low and varied over the year under study. The current study suggests that quality improvements in asthma care are needed if adherence to asthma medication is to be improved.

  9. Validity of Health Plan and Birth Certificate Data for Pregnancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Susan E.; Scott, Pamela E.; Davis, Robert L.; Li, De-Kun; Getahun, Darios; Cheetham, T. Craig; Raebel, Marsha A.; Toh, Sengwee; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Smith, David H.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Cooper, William O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using administrative and claims data from 11 U.S. health plans, and corresponding birth certificate data from state health departments. Diagnoses, drug dispensings, and procedure codes were used to identify infant outcomes (cardiac defects, anencephaly, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) and maternal diagnoses (asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) recorded in the health plan data for live born deliveries between January 2001 and December 2007. A random sample of medical charts (n = 802) was abstracted for infants and mothers identified with the specified outcomes. Information on newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics (gestational age at birth, birth weight, previous pregnancies and live births, race/ethnicity) was also abstracted and compared to birth certificate data. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated with documentation in the medical chart serving as the gold standard. Results PPVs were 71% for cardiac defects, 37% for anencephaly, 87% for preterm birth, and 92% for NICU admission. PPVs for algorithms to identify maternal diagnoses of asthma and SLE were ≥ 93%. Our findings indicated considerable agreement (PPVs > 90%) between birth certificate and medical record data for measures related to birth weight, gestational age, prior obstetrical history, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Health plan and birth certificate data can be useful to accurately identify some infant outcomes, maternal diagnoses, and newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics. Other outcomes and variables may require medical record review for validation. PMID:22753079

  10. The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans

    2004-01-01

    . Exposure assessments comprise respiratory, intestinal, and skin microbiology; the child's diet; indoor and outdoor air quality; allergens; and indicators of lifestyle. Genetic characteristics of probands and parents are evaluated. Quality assurance follows Good Clinical Practice guidelines. RESULTS: Four....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships among genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors in the development of atopic diseases in high-risk children with the aim of developing evidence-based prevention strategies. METHODS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood is a single......-center, birth cohort study of children of asthmatic mothers. Objective assessments begin at birth, with scheduled visits every 6 months and when acute symptoms manifest. Clinical outcomes comprise preasthma, asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergy, lung function, and bronchial responsiveness...

  11. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home un

  12. Maternal antibiotic use and risk of asthma in offspring--Authors' reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid;

    2014-01-01

    We thank Martin J Blaser and Maria Bello for their interest in our study.1 Our original discovery of an association between use of antibiotics in pregnancy and an offspring's risk of asthma was replicated in the COPSAC2000 birth cohort and another Danish birth cohort, as well as in national...... registries.2,3 We interpreted this association between use of antibiotics in pregnancy and the child's risk of asthma as one that was mediated through changes in the microbiome. In our study we aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating the temporal associations between maternal antibiotics and childhood...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 link) American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology: Asthma Treatment and Management General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How are genetic conditions ...

  14. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  15. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get absorbed into upholstery, clothing, and carpeting, leaving carcinogens that can't be washed away with soap ... asthma, let friends, relatives, and caregivers know that tobacco smoke may cause an asthma flare-up. To ...

  16. URECA: Efficient Resource Location Middleware for Ubiquitous Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donggeon Noh; Heonshik Shin

    2008-01-01

    We describe an effective resource location framework for ubiquitous computing environments populated by a diverse set of networks, devices, services and computational entities. Our framework provides context adaptation with the aid of a middleware service to improve the quality of resource location. A resource location protocol suitable to each type of network locates resource effectively by means of dynamic reconfiguration to the current context. Our framework is also refined by support for interoperability between different types of resource location protocols occurring across a hybrid ubiquitous network. These characteristics also reduce the control overhead for resource location, saving resource, decreasing latency and permitting a considerable degree of scalability.

  17. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause an intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, while the number of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.7 per 100,000 patients in 2009. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a healthy life without any symptoms. A partnership between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with agents and elimination of causes and risk factors are fundamental to asthma treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate mild to intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, varying from low to high doses. Long-acting β2 agonists (LABA, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and theophylline sustained-release preparation are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-IgE antibody therapy is a new choice for the most severe and persistent asthma. Inhaled β2 agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, etc., are used as needed against acute exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, aspirin induced asthma, pregnancy, and cough variant asthma are also important factors that need to be considered.

  18. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  19. Genetics of onset of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F. Nicole; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Most asthma starts early in life. Defining phenotypes of asthma at this age is difficult as many preschool children have asthma-like respiratory symptoms. This review discusses progress in defining early wheezing phenotypes and describes genetic factors associated with the age of o

  20. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  1. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines Work? A A A en español ¿Cómo funcionan los medicamentos para el asma? People with asthma have what is called a chronic (say: KRAH- ...

  2. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H;

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  3. Risk of Asthma in Late Preterm Infants: A Propensity Score Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, Gretchen A; Katusic, Slavica K; Qin, Rui; Juhn, Young J

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of asthma, specifically in former late preterm infants, has not been well defined. Covariate imbalance and lack of controlling for this has led to inconsistent results in prior studies. Objective Determine the risk of asthma in former late preterm infants using a propensity score approach. Methods The study was a population-based birth cohort study. Study subjects were all children born in Rochester, Minnesota, between 1976 and 1982. Asthma status during the first seven years of life was assessed by applying predetermined criteria. The propensity score was formulated using 15 covariates by fitting a logistic regression model for late preterm birth versus term birth. We applied the propensity score method to match late preterm infants (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation) to term infants (37 0/7 to 40 6/7 weeks gestation) within a caliper of 0.2 standard deviation of logit of propensity score. Results Of the eligible 7,040 infants, 5,915 children had complete data. Before propensity score matching, late preterm infants had a higher risk of asthma (20 of 262, 7.6%) compared to full-term infants (272 of 5,653, 4.8%)(p=0.039). There was significant covariate imbalance between comparison groups. After matching with propensity scores, we found that former late preterm infants had a similar risk of asthma to the matched full-term infants (6.6% vs. 7.7%, respectively, p=0.61), and the result were consistent with covariate-adjustment, Cox regression models controlling for significant covariates (p=0.57). Conclusion A late preterm birth history is not independently associated with childhood asthma, as the reported risk of asthma among former late preterm infants appears to be due to covariate imbalance. PMID:25944734

  4. Leveraging gene-environment interactions and endotypes for asthma gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Ober, Carole

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that includes subtypes of disease with different underlying causes and disease mechanisms. Asthma is caused by a complex interaction between genes and environmental exposures; early-life exposures in particular play an important role. Asthma is also heritable, and a number of susceptibility variants have been discovered in genome-wide association studies, although the known risk alleles explain only a small proportion of the heritability. In this review, we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that focusing on more specific asthma phenotypes, such as childhood asthma with severe exacerbations, and on relevant exposures that are involved in gene-environment interactions (GEIs), such as rhinovirus infections, will improve detection of asthma genes and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. We will discuss the challenges of considering GEIs and the advantages of studying responses to asthma-associated exposures in clinical birth cohorts, as well as in cell models of GEIs, to dissect the context-specific nature of genotypic risks, to prioritize variants in genome-wide association studies, and to identify pathways involved in pathogenesis in subgroups of patients. We propose that such approaches, in spite of their many challenges, present great opportunities for better understanding of asthma pathogenesis and heterogeneity and, ultimately, for improving prevention and treatment of disease.

  5. Ion channels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  6. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  7. Difficult childhood asthma: management and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; de Blic, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of severe asthma implies the definition of different entities, that is, difficult asthma and refractory severe asthma, but also the different phenotypes included in the term refractory severe asthma. A complete evaluation by a physician expert in asthma is necessary, adapted for each child. Identification of mechanisms involved in different phenotypes in refractory severe asthma may improve the therapeutic approach. The quality of care and monitoring of children with severe asthma is as important as the prescription drug, and is also crucial for differentiating between severe asthma and difficult asthma, whereby expertise is required.

  8. Influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospitalisation for asthma in children: evidence from the Oxford record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotton Clare J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much interest in the possibility that perinatal factors may influence the risk of disease in later life. We investigated the influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for asthma in children. Methods Analysis of data from the Oxford record linkage study (ORLS to generate a retrospective cohort of 248 612 records of births between 1970 and 1989, with follow-up to records of subsequent hospital admission for 4 017 children with asthma up to 1999. Results Univariate analysis showed significant associations between an increased risk of admission for asthma and later years of birth (reflecting the increase in asthma in the 1970s and 1980s, low social class, asthma in the mother, unmarried mothers, maternal smoking in pregnancy, subsequent births compared with first-born, male sex, low birth weight, short gestational age, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery and not being breastfed. Multivariate analysis, identifying each risk factor that had a significant effect independently of other risk factors, confirmed associations with maternal asthma (odds ratio (OR 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.7-3.6, male sex (versus female, 1.8, 1.7-2.0, low birth weight (1000-2999 g versus 3000-3999 g, 1.2, 1.1-1.3, maternal smoking (1.1, 1.0-1.3 and delivery by caesarean section (1.2; 1.0-1.3. In those first admitted with asthma under two years old, there were associations with having siblings (e.g. second child compared with first-born, OR 1.3, 1.0-1.7 and short gestational age (24-37 weeks versus 38-41 weeks, 1.6, 1.2-2.2. Multivariate analysis confined to those admitted with asthma aged six years or more, showed associations with maternal asthma (OR 3.8, 3.1-4.7, age of mother (under 25 versus 25-34 at birth, OR 1.16, 1.03-1.31; over 35 versus 25-34, OR 1.4, 1.1-1.7; high social class was protective (1 and 2, compared with 3, 0.72; 0.63-0.82. Hospital admission for asthma in people aged over six was more

  9. Allergy, asthma and the environment; Allergie, Asthma und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Gfesser, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-10-11

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Asthma and other allergic diseases have increased in prevalence during the last decades in many industrialized countries. Among other hypotheses, the possible role of environmental pollutants has received much public and scientific attention. Some pollutants may modulate the different phases of allergic reactions. Inflammation is a critical feature in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore, beside allergen avoidance, anti-inflammatory treatment is the first line therapy of asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid mediators which appear to play a major role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Based on current data, it appears that leukotrience receptor antagonists have bronchodilative and anti-inflammatory effects and may therefore enrich the pharmacotherapeutic spectrum within the therapeutic concept of patient management in asthma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Asthma bronchiale ist eine entzuendliche Erkrankung der Atemwege. Epidemiologische Studien konnten eine deutliche Zunahme der Erkrankung in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten aufzeigen. In der Entstehung von Allergien und Asthma bronchiale spielen Umwelteinfluesse eine grosse Rolle. Luftschadstoffe scheinen mit verschiedenen Allergie-Parametern bei der Sensibilisierung, Symptombildung und Chronifizierung zu interferieren. Da beim Asthma bronchiale neben der Bronchokonstriktion die Entzuendung der Bronchialschleimhaut eine besondere Rolle spielt, wird heute neben Allergenkarenz und prophylaktischen Massnahmen eine fruehzeitige antientzuendliche Asthmatherapie angestrebt. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene gehoeren zu den wirksamsten Entzuendungsmediatoren beim Asthma bronchiale. Leukotrien-Rezeptorantagonisten scheinen sowohl bronchodilatatorische als auch antientzuendliche Wirkungen zu haben und koennten so innerhalb eines Gesamtkonzeptes von antiallergischer und antiasthmatischer Therapie das pharmakotherapeutische Spektrum bereichern. (orig.)

  10. Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mitzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the potential of a new procedure, termed Bronchial Thermoplasty to prevent serious consequences resulting from excessive airway narrowing. The most important factor in minimizing an asthmatic attack is limiting the degree of smooth muscle shortening. The premise that airway smooth muscle can be either inactivated or obliterated without any long-term alteration of other lung tissues, and that airway function will remain normal, albeit with reduced bronchoconstriction, has now been demonstrated in dogs, a subset of normal subjects, and mild asthmatics. Bronchial Thermoplasty may thus develop into a useful clinical procedure to effectively impair the ability for airway smooth muscle to reach the levels of pathologic narrowing that characterizes an asthma attack. It may also enable more successful treatment of asthma patients who are unresponsive to more conventional therapies. Whether this will remain stable for the lifetime of the patient still remains to be determined, but at the present time, there are no indications that the smooth muscle contractility will return. This successful preliminary experience showing that Bronchial Thermoplasty could be safely performed in patients with asthma has led to an ongoing clinical trial at a number of sites in Europe and North America designed to examine the effectiveness of this procedure in subjects with moderately severe asthma.

  11. Elastin in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddel, Caroline J; Weiss, Anthony S; Burgess, Janette K

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix is generally increased in asthma, causing thickening of the airways which may either increase or decrease airway responsiveness, depending on the mechanical requirements of the deposited matrix. However, in vitro studies have shown that the altered extracellular matrix produced

  12. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  13. The microbiome in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yvonne J; Boushey, Homer A

    2015-01-01

    The application of recently developed sensitive, specific, culture-independent tools for identification of microbes is transforming concepts of microbial ecology, including concepts of the relationships between the vast complex populations of microbes associated with ourselves and with states of health and disease. Although most work initially focused on the community of microbes (microbiome) in the gastrointestinal tract and its relationship to gastrointestinal disease, interest has expanded to include study of the relationships of the airway microbiome to asthma and its phenotypes and to the relationships between the gastrointestinal microbiome, development of immune function, and predisposition to allergic sensitization and asthma. Here we provide our perspective on the findings of studies of differences in the airway microbiome between asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and of studies of relationships between environmental microbiota, gut microbiota, immune function, and asthma development. In addition, we provide our perspective on how these findings suggest the broad outline of a rationale for approaches involving directed manipulation of the gut and airway microbiome for the treatment and prevention of allergic asthma.

  14. Managing Asthma at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    School personnel must know which students have asthma, typical warning signs, and appropriate actions in an emergency. Administering appropriate medication and reducing environmental triggers are not enough. Policymaking in schools and workplaces and legislation to increase health care access and eliminate substandard housing and air pollution are…

  15. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  16. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  17. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  18. Mast cell-nerve interactions in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, Hanneke Paulina Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the airways. Roughly, asthma can be subdivided into atopic asthma involving elevated levels of serum IgE and a less familiar form, non-atopic asthma. Non-atopic asthma is an increasing problem in the developed world. The mechanisms involv

  19. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  20. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  1. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  2. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  3. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  4. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  5. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  6. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  7. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  8. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  9. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  10. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  11. Introduction to genetics and genomics in asthma: genetics of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Rasika Ann

    2014-01-01

    While asthma is a heterogeneous disease, a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Rather than being a single disease entity, asthma consists of related, overlapping syndromes [Barnes (Proc Am Thor Soc 8:143-148, 2011)] including three general domains: variable airway obstruction, airway hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation with a considerable proportion, but not all, of asthma being IgE-mediated further adding to its heterogeneity. This chapter reviews the approaches to the elucidation of genetics of asthma from the early evidence of familial clustering to the current state of knowledge with genome-wide approaches. The conclusion is that research efforts have led to a tremendous repository of genetic determinants of asthma, most of which fall into the above phenotypic domains of the syndrome. We now look to future integrative approaches of genetics, genomics (Chap. 10), and epigenetics (Chap. 11) to better understand the causal mechanism through which, these genetic loci act in manifesting asthma.

  12. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  13. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D.S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  14. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D. S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  15. Early growth characteristics and the risk of reduced lung function and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Dekker, Herman T; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; de Jongste, Johan C;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children born preterm or with a small size for gestational age are at increased risk for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the hypothesis that these associations are explained by reduced airway patency. METHODS: We used individual participant data of 24,938 children from...... 24 birth cohorts to examine and meta-analyze the associations of gestational age, size for gestational age, and infant weight gain with childhood lung function and asthma (age range, 3.9-19.1 years). Second, we explored whether these lung function outcomes mediated the associations of early growth...... characteristics with childhood asthma. RESULTS: Children born with a younger gestational age had a lower FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, and forced expiratory volume after exhaling 75% of vital capacity (FEF75), whereas those born with a smaller size for gestational age at birth had a lower FEV1...

  16. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  17. Influenza vaccination for children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION Parents of children with asthma are encouraged by many health organizations to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza viruses. Is the influenza vaccine efficient in preventing asthma exacerbation? Are current vaccinations safe to administer to children with asthma?

  18. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  19. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled ...

  1. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  2. Early Life and Environmental Risk Factors Modify the Effect of Acculturation on Hispanic Children's Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Payan, Paola; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation tends to erode Hispanic immigrants' initial health advantage. Using a more nuanced conceptualization of acculturation than previous studies, we explore the associations between acculturation and Hispanic children's asthma. Data came from an observational mail survey of caretakers of Hispanic schoolchildren in El Paso, Texas (N = 1,513). Results from generalized linear models (GzLMs) demonstrate that acculturation was a significant positive predictor of asthma. The addition of interaction terms revealed that prenatal smoking, low birth weight, breastfeeding, and pest exposure significantly modified the effect of acculturation on asthma. Results suggest that although higher levels of acculturation were detrimental overall, the effects were not equally damaging for all Hispanic children. Findings foster an understanding of how the effect of acculturation on Hispanic children's asthma is intensified or attenuated by distinct individual-level risk factors.

  3. Association of prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    PurposeSome studies have suggested that maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with asthma in the offspring, and coffee consumption may modify the toxicity of acetaminophen. We aim to examine whether pregnancy maternal acetaminophen use increases the risk for offspring asthma......, and whether such a potential association could be modified by maternal coffee consumption. MethodsWe included 63 652 live-born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal acetaminophen use and coffee consumption during pregnancy were assessed prospectively via the enrolment questionnaire...... and three computer-assisted telephone interviews. Asthma cases were identified by using the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for asthma according to prenatal acetaminophen and coffee exposure using Cox proportional hazards...

  4. Seventy Years of Asthma in Italy: Age, Period and Cohort Effects on Incidence and Remission of Self-Reported Asthma from 1940 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Pesce

    Full Text Available It is well known that asthma prevalence has been increasing all over the world in the last decades. However, few data are available on temporal trends of incidence and remission of asthma.To evaluate the rates of asthma incidence and remission in Italy from 1940 to 2010.The subjects were randomly sampled from the general Italian population between 1991 and 2010 in the three population-based multicentre studies: ECRHS, ISAYA, and GEIRD. Individual information on the history of asthma (age at onset, age at the last attack, use of drugs for asthma control, co-presence of hay-fever was collected on 35,495 subjects aged 20-84 and born between 1925-1989. Temporal changes in rates of asthma incidence and remission in relation to age, birth cohort and calendar period (APC were modelled using Poisson regression and APC models.The average yearly rate of asthma incidence was 2.6/1000 (3,297 new cases among 1,263,885 person-years. The incidence rates have been linearly increasing, with a percentage increase of +3.9% (95%CI: 3.1-4.5, from 1940 up to the year 1995, when the rates begun to level off. The stabilization of asthma incidence was mainly due to a decrease in the rates of atopic asthma after 1995, while non-atopic asthma has continued to increase. The overall rate of remission was 43.2/1000person-years, and it did not vary significantly across generations, but was associated with atopy, age at asthma onset and duration of the disease.After 50 years of a continuous upward trend, the rates of asthma incidence underwent a substantial stabilization in the late 90s. Despite remarkable improvements in the treatment of asthma, the rate of remission did not change significantly in the last seventy years. Some caveats are required in interpreting our results, given that our estimates are based on self-reported events that could be affected by the recall bias.

  5. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  6. Early intestinal Bacteroides fragilis colonisation and development of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Herman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'hygiene hypothesis' suggests that early exposure to microbes can be protective against atopic disease. The intestinal microbial flora could operate as an important postnatal regulator of the Th1/Th2 balance. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between early intestinal colonisation and the development of asthma in the first 3 years of life. Methods In a prospective birth cohort, 117 children were classified according to the Asthma Predictive Index. A positive index included wheezing during the first three years of life combined with eczema in the child in the first years of life or with a parental history of asthma. A faecal sample was taken at the age of 3 weeks and cultured on selective media. Results Asthma Predictive Index was positive in 26/117 (22% of the children. The prevalence of colonisation with Bacteroides fragilis was higher at 3 weeks in index+ compared to index- children (64% vs. 34% p Bacteroides fragilis and Total Anaerobes counts at 3 weeks were significantly higher in children with a positive index as compared with those without. After adjusting for confounders a positive association was found between Bacteroides fragilis colonisation and Asthma Predictive Index (odds ratio: 4,4; confidence interval: 1,7 – 11,8. Conclusion Bacteroides fragilis colonisation at age 3 weeks is an early indicator of possible asthma later in life. This study could provide the means for more accurate targeting of treatment and prevention and thus more effective and better controlled modulation of the microbial milieu.

  7. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma.

  8. Pediatric obesity and asthma quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Militello, Lisa K; Kouba, Joanne; Harrison, Patrick R; Manion, Amy; Doumit, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Widely researched as separate entities, our understanding of the comorbid effects of childhood obesity and asthma on quality of life is limited. This article discusses the effects of childhood obesity and asthma on self-reported quality of life in low-income African American teens with asthma. When controlling for the influence of symptom frequency, asthma classification, asthma self-efficacy, and asthma self-care levels, body mass index remains a most important factor in determining self-reported quality of life among teens with asthma. Although overweight and obesity did not change the effectiveness of the asthma intervention program, obesity did affect participants quality of life scores.

  9. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  10. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic ß2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  11. Future treatment for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Charriot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of asthma has considerably changed after 40 years of inhaled corticosteroid development and nearly 20 years since the first monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were approved. New members of pharmacological families and more effective drug-delivery devices have been designed but the proportion of uncontrolled patients, unfortunately, remains stable. The most promising treatments now rely on targeted therapies that encourage the improvement of the characterisation of our patients. These clinical (phenotype or new biological (endotype tools lead to palpable personalised medicine. This review examines not only the future of mAbs and other new ways of treating asthma but also describes futuristic views based on the paradigm shifts that are ready to occur.

  12. Steroid resistant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhadia, S K

    2014-03-01

    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  13. Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1,500 people die from asthma. Standard treatment has been based on bronchodilators (e.g. beta 2-stimulants) and anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids). The recently revised British Guideline on the Management of Asthma suggests also using a single dose of i.v. magnesium sulphate in patients with acute severe asthma, an unlicensed indication. Here we discuss the rationale for giving i.v. magnesium and whether it offers any advantage for patients with acute severe asthma.

  14. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  15. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  16. A novel study design to investigate the early-life origins of asthma in children (SAGE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrskyj, A L; HayGlass, K T; Sandford, A J; Paré, P D; Chan-Yeung, M; Becker, A B

    2009-08-01

    This is a description of the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE), a novel birth cohort created from provincial healthcare administrative records. It is a general population-based cohort, composed of children at high and low risk for asthma, living in urban and rural environments in Manitoba, Canada. The SAGE study captures the complete longitudinal healthcare records of children born in 1995 and contains detailed information on early-life exposures, such as antibiotic utilization and immunization, in relationship to the development of asthma. Nested within the birth cohort is a case-control study, which was created to collect information on home environmental exposures from detailed surveys and home dust sampling, to confirm asthma status in children and use this data to validate healthcare database measures of asthma, to determine differences in immune system responsiveness to innate and adaptive immune stimuli in asthma, to genotype children for genes likely associated with the development of asthma and to study the epigenetic regulation of pre-established protective vs allergic immune responses. The SAGE study is a multidisciplinary collaboration of researchers from pediatric allergy, population health, immunology, and genetic and environmental epidemiology. As such, it serves as a fertile, interdisciplinary training ground for graduate students, and postdoctoral and clinician fellows.

  17. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  18. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  19. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lusia Godoy Fernandes

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A asma relacionada ao trabalho é uma das principais doenças respiratórias ocupacionais em termos de prevalência. Inúmeras substâncias químicas utilizadas nas mais diversas atividades produtivas podem desencadear ou agravar essa doença. A definição e a classificação da asma relacionada ao trabalho são descritas, bem como, suas repercussões epidemiológicas, história natural, critérios diagnósticos, evolução, prognóstico e seus aspectos legais, de forma resumida, objetivando alertar sobre essa doença e suas implicações trabalhistas.Work-related asthma is one of the principal occupational respiratory diseases in terms of prevalence. Innumerable chemical substances used in various production processes can cause or aggravate occupational asthma. This chapter contains a brief description of the definition and classification of work-related asthma, as well as the epidemiological repercussions, natural course, diagnostic criteria, progression and legal aspects of the disease, with the objective of raising an alert regarding this disease and its implications for workers.

  20. Asthma and PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour M Ian

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.

  1. Occupational asthma often goes unrecognised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Paul; Cannon, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Occupational asthma is induced de novo by an airborne agent encountered in the workplace. The risk of occupational asthma is greater in those with a prior atopic history. Work-exacerbated asthma is the provocation of pre-existing, or coincidental, disease by one or more irritant exposures at work. Distinguishing occupational from work-exacerbated asthma can be difficult but it is important since the two have very different clinical, occupational and legal implications. Occupational asthma is underrecognised, the disease often develops in young people who are otherwise fit. They may not recognise their symptoms as anything out of the ordinary, or may confuse them with hay fever or a cold. It is sensible to consider occupational and work-exacerbated asthma in every working adult who has asthma or who presents with suggestive symptoms such as rhinitis. Occupational asthma almost always arises from an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to a respiratory sensitising agent in the workplace. The disease has a short latency with symptoms developing 6 to 36 months after employment in a new job. Rhinitis is common and in those working in an environment with airborne proteins the absence of rhinitis effectively rules out occupational asthma. In occupational asthma, symptoms (including nasal symptoms) improve away from work. Once the disease is established symptoms are provoked by even very small exposures at work and begin to be provoked by a wide variety of irritant exposures both at, and away from, work. It is good practice to enquire into the employment of every working-age adult with asthma, or rhinitis, and particularly in those presenting with new symptoms or symptoms that have become more difficult to manage. Patients should routinely be asked whether their symptoms improve when they are not at work.

  2. at birth, at a birth, by birth, from birth, of... birth与give birth to

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝亚娟

    2000-01-01

    birth是中学英语教材中的一个常用词,也常见于birthday(生日)、birthplace(出生地)、birthrate(出生率)和birth control(计划生育)等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看,这些复合词和短语的意义容易理解,但下面一些含birth的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。

  3. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    Background House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma among children. Children spend 14 hours of their time indoor everyday in aberage, where they are exposed to different components in the indoor air. These components are children with asthma and HDM allergy specially...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring...... a minimum of 400 µg of inhaled steroid daily Verified HDM allergy Verified exposure to HDMallergene No pet- or birch allergy A ventilation system will be placed in to the child’s bedroom, ventilating the room with a rate of 2-3 air changes per hour for 9 months during the winter season. We monitor indoor...

  4. Domestic dog exposure at birth reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, S; Thyssen, J P; Stokholm, J

    2016-01-01

    affected the risk of atopic dermatitis in children during the first 3 years of life. METHODS: Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) are ongoing prospective clinical birth cohort studies. Data from 411 children born to mothers with asthma (COPSAC2000 ) and 700 unselected children...... serum IgE against eight inhalant allergens was sampled after the children's birth and at pregnancy week 24 in the COPSAC2010 cohort. Associations between dog exposure and atopic dermatitis were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard regression models and adjusted for lifestyle confounders. RESULTS...... (COPSAC2010 ) were analyzed following the same protocols at the same research site. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed prospectively according to the Hanifin-Rajka criteria. Parental history of asthma, eczema, or rhinitis was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis. In the COPSAC2000 , maternal specific...

  5. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  6. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  7. Environment and asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moual, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Dumas, Orianne; Kauffmann, Francine; Nadif, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    The present review addresses recent advances and especially challenging aspects regarding the role of environmental risk factors in adult-onset asthma, for which the causes are poorly established. In the first part of the review, we discuss aspects regarding some environmental risk factors for adult-onset asthma: air pollution, occupational exposures with a focus on an emerging risk represented by exposure to cleaning agents (both at home and in the workplace), and lifestyle and nutrition. The second part is focused on perspectives and challenges, regarding relevant topics on which research is needed to improve the understanding of the role of environmental factors in asthma. Aspects of exposure assessment, the complexity of multiple exposures, the interrelationships of the environment with behavioral characteristics and the importance of studying biological markers and gene-environment interactions to identify the role of the environment in asthma are discussed. We conclude that environmental and lifestyle exposures play an important role in asthma or related phenotypes. The changes in lifestyle and the environment in recent decades have modified the specific risk factors in asthma even for well-recognized risks such as occupational exposures. To better understand the role of the environment in asthma, the use of objective (quantitative measurement of exposures) or modern tools (bar code, GPS) and the development of multidisciplinary collaboration would be very promising. A better understanding of the complex interrelationships between socio-economic, nutritional, lifestyle and environmental conditions might help to study their joint and independent roles in asthma.

  8. Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been recognized that asthma is not a single disease, but comprises several clinical syndromes, which all share respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities, associated with different types of airway inflammation. These syndromes are now known as different asthma p

  9. The management of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, S

    1997-04-01

    Health professionals likely to come into contact with people experiencing an acute episode of asthma, such as school nurses, ambulance personnel and A&E staff, need clear guidelines on management. The British Thoracic Society guidelines, revised this year, advise on the categorisation of asthma, assessment and treatment.

  10. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, L; Skytthe, A;

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  11. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. DNA vaccine and asthma therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Huan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is currently considered a chronic airway inflammatory disorder associated with the presence of activated CD4+ Th2-type lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Interestingly, therapeutic strategies based on immune deviation and suppression have been shown to successfully attenuate the development of the asthma phenotype.

  13. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact of exposu...

  14. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  15. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma A A A What's in this ... family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, from kids' birthday ...

  16. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma curriculum…

  17. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  18. Infectious triggers of pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory infections can cause wheezing illnesses in children of all ages and also can influence the causation and disease activity of asthma. For years it has been recognized that respiratory syncytial virus infections often produce the first episode of wheezing in children who go on to develop chronic asthma. More recently, it has been proposed that repeated infections with other common childhood viral pathogens might help the immune system develop in such a way as to prevent the onset of allergic diseases and possibly asthma. In addition to the effects of viral infections, infections with certain intracellular pathogens, such as chlamydia and mycoplasma, may cause acute and chronic wheezing in some individuals, whereas common cold and acute sinus infections can trigger acute symptoms of asthma. In this article, the epidemiologic, mechanistic, and treatment implications of the association between respiratory infections and asthma are discussed.

  19. BENEFIT OF ASTHMA ACTION PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagadpally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of asthma action plan on asthma control, reducing unscheduled hospital visits of children with asthma. The study also was to know if the instructions regarding management are being documented in the patient notes. METHOD: It was a retrospective study. The data was collected from a random sample of 100 patients with asthma between Jan . 2012 to Dec . 2014 who were admitted as in - patients to the children’s ward in our hospital. RESULTS: Children who received asthma action plan had fewer exacerbations and fewer lost school days. Good documentation of symptoms led to better compliance and outcome in the child KEYWORDS: A sthma; A ction plan.

  20. Sex differences in the relationship between asthma and overweight in Dutch children: a survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Willeboordse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for asthma in children. However, in the Netherlands, the obesity prevalence is rising while the asthma prevalence in children is stabilising. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between asthma and Body Mass Index (BMI in children and whether this association is influenced by sex. STUDY DESIGN: Parents of 39,316 children (6-16 years in the south of the Netherlands were invited to complete an online questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, anthropometric variables and several potential confounding factors for asthma and obesity (including sex, birth weight and breastfeeding. Data was analysed by multivariable logistic regression models and an ordinal regression model. RESULTS: The response rate was 24% (n boys= 4,743, n girls= 4,529. The prevalence of asthma, overweight and obesity was 8%, 15% and 2% respectively. Body mass index--standard deviation Score (BMI-SDS was related to current asthma (adjusted OR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.14-1.45, p ≤ 0.001. When stratified for sex, asthma and BMI-SDS were only related in girls (Girls: adjusted OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.13-1.51, p ≤ 0.001. Boys: adjusted OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 0.91-1.14, p=0.72. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between BMI-SDS and asthma is only present in girls, not boys. Future studies into obesity and asthma should correct for sex in their analyses.

  1. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S

    2003-01-01

    Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 10...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  3. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  4. Sources of Stress in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Children with asthma were studied to determine their perceptions of the frequency and severity of stressors they experienced other than asthma. Results indicated children with asthma were similar to peers regarding perceptions of stressors. Perceptions of most stressors related more strongly to gender role development than to asthma. (SM)

  5. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  6. Physiopathology of severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Todo-Bom, Ana; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    A história natural da asma e as condições determinantes de evolução para formas moderadas ou graves não estão completamente estabelecidas. Contudo, quer os fatores genéticos quer os fatores ambientais serão determinantes na fisiopatologia e no prognóstico da doença. Nesta revisão são apresentados os mecanismos envolvidos na fisiopatologia da asma grave The natural history of asthma and the determinant factors involved in its evolution from moderate to severe forms are not completely establ...

  7. Politics, power, and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  8. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  9. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers...... and concentration are negatively affected in patients with untreated asthma, and patients with asthma are at greater risk for depression. Also, poorly controlled asthma increases the risks of severe asthma exacerbations following upper respiratory and pneumococcal pulmonary infections. ICSs used to improve asthma...

  10. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  11. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  12. Mode of delivery and risk of asthma in children 5-14 years old in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Sahebi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been suggested that a cesarean section increases risk of developing asthma due to lack of exposure to maternal microflora during birth. To investigate the association between the mode of delivery and the risk of asthma in children aged 5-14 years in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A case-control study was performed on 233 (case = 81, control = 152 children aged 5-14 years referred to outpatient clinics of Tabriz Children’s Hospital and Sheikhorrais Clinic in 2014. Clinical asthma diagnosis was done according to Global Initiative for Asthma Criteria. A questionnaire was administered to obtain a demographic, environmental, and clinical history. Age-sex frequency matching with cases was carried out during sampling for controlling of possible cofounding effects of age and sex for asthma. Results: Of 233 children, 53.6% of them were male (case group = 54.3% and control group = 53.3%. Over half (54.5%, the participants had been delivered by caesarian section. Cases were not significantly more likely to have been delivered by caesarian section as compared to controls [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34-1.42]. However, more frequent episodes of common cold [b = 0.094; standard error (SE (b = 0.031, P < 0.001], birth order (second born children compared to firstborns (AOR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.18-5.46, high maternal education levels: 12 years (AOR = 3.76; 95% CI = 1.10-12.9, collegiate (AOR = 6.12; 95% CI = 1.43-26.20, and intra-family marriage (AOR = 2.89; 95% CI = 1.21-6.89 were associated with childhood asthma. Conclusion: Delivery mode was not associated with risk of developing childhood asthma in our study. Intra-family marriage increased the odds of childhood asthma. Further study on the relationship between maternal education and the odds of asthma is proposed.

  13. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  14. Asthma and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, J

    2000-06-01

    The rejection of Cartesian dualism can be taken to imply that the mind is implicated in health and illness to a greater degree than conventional medicine would suggest. Surprisingly, however, there appears to be a train of thought in antidualist nursing theory which takes the opposite view. This paper looks closely at an interesting example of antidualist thinking - an article in which Benner and her colleagues comment on the ways in which people with asthma make sense of their condition - and concludes that it places unduly stringent and arbitrary limits on the mind's role. It then asks how antidualism can lead to such a dogmatic rejection of the idea that states of the body are clinically influenced by states of mind. The answer to this question is that Benner assimilates very different philosophical theories into the same 'tradition'. On this occasion, she has combined Descartes, Kant and the Platonist ascetics into a single package, misleadingly labelled 'Cartesianism', and this move accounts for her unexpected views on the relation between mind and body in asthma.

  15. Indoor Domestic environment and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimitriou E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genesis and development of asthma are greatly affected by the indoor environmental quality. Duringrecent years, it is noted an important increase in asthma cases worldwide which is mainly caused by the effects ofpollutants in indoor environments. Purpose: In this study, there has been an effort to show the impact of indoorenvironment on asthma development. Methodology: Reviewing bibliography by information retrieval from thePubmed and TRIP Database.Conclusion: Indoor air pollution is an interdisciplinary subject. The great number ofpollutants, their variety on structure and action, the conditions under which they are developed as well as theirdifferent and disparate ways of treatment and control require knowledge from many scientific fields. By assuming newdimensions in world climate changes, increasing sensitization in allergens, using respiratory irritants, such aspesticides and compounds and chemicals of industrial origin, and at the same time the poor home indoor air qualityand the family history of asthma lead to new asthma cases worldwide. An important number of asthma cases in afamily could be avoided by implementing a better environmental policy inside our homes. Finally, by understandingbetter the link between environment and asthma as well as by explaining the involved gene action, they will bedelivered more effective prevention and treatment programs.

  16. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  17. Severe and Moderate Asthma Exacerbations in Asthmatic Children and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the role of early life or long-term exposure is less clear. We assessed the association between severe asthma exacerbations with both birth and annual exposure to outdoor air pollutants with a population-based cohort of asthmatic children in the province of Quebec (Canada). Method: Exacerbations of asthma occurring between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2011 were defined as one hospitalization or emergency room visit with a diagnosis of asthma for children (<13 years old) already diagnosed with asthma. Annual daily average concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at the child’s residential postal code. Satellite based levels of fine particulate (PM2.5) estimated for a grid of 10 km by 10 km were also assigned to postal codes of residence for the whole province. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox models with a gap time approach for both birth and time-dependant exposure. Results: Of the 162,752 asthmatic children followed (1,020,280 person-years), 35,229 had at least one asthma exacerbation. The HRs stratified by age groups and adjusted for the year of birth, the ordinal number of exacerbations, sex, as well as material and social deprivation, showed an interquartile range increase in the time-dependant exposure to NO2 (4.95 ppb), O3 (3.85 ppb), and PM2.5 (1.82 μg/m3) of 1.095 (95% CI 1.058–1.131), 1.052 (95% CI 1.037–1.066) and 1.025 (95% CI 1.017–1.031), respectively. While a positive association was found to PM2.5, no associations were found between exposure at birth to NO2 or O3. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion, within the limitation of this study, that asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children are mainly associated with time dependent residential exposures less with exposure at birth. PMID:27490556

  18. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  19. Social class in asthma and allergic rhinitis: a national cohort study over three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråbäck, L; Hjern, A; Rasmussen, F

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the association with social class differed between allergic rhinitis and asthma and whether these associations have changed over time. The Swedish Military Service Conscription Register was linked to two other national registers for 1,247,038 male conscripts in successive cohorts born between 1952 and 1977. The percentage of asthma cases associated with allergic rhinitis was 15% in the oldest cohort and 44% in the youngest cohort. Low socio-economic status (SES) was associated with an increased risk (assessed as odds ratio) of asthma without allergic rhinitis (1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.17) but a slightly reduced risk of asthma with allergic rhinitis (0.96, 95% CI 0.93-1.00). The risk of allergic rhinitis was 0.84, 95% CI 0.82-0.85. A positive interaction between SES and year of birth occurred in all three conditions. Low SES was related to a reduced risk of asthma with allergic rhinitis in the earliest cohort (0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.82) but a slightly increased risk in the most recent cohort (1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14). In conclusion, the role of social class has changed over time. The steepest increase in asthma and allergic rhinitis occurred in conscripts with a low socio-economic status.

  20. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. Methods We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%). Results We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval]) among children with current eczema symptoms (1.77 [1.29–2.26]), current asthma symptoms (2.53 [2.08–2.98]), and current hay fever symptoms (1.21 [0.74–1.67]), compared with children without these symptoms. We also found increased use of prescribed medication and most subtypes of health services. Current asthma symptoms and current eczema symptoms, but not current hay fever symptoms, increased the health service costs with at least €300 per year per child. Conclusion Children with eczema, asthma, and hay fever used health services and prescribed medication more than children without these diseases. PMID:27695364

  1. Risk factors for asthma in school children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza Villarreal, Albino; Sanín Aguirre, Luz Helena; Téllez Rojo, Martha María; Lacasaña Navarro, Marina; Romieu, Isabelle

    2003-06-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis were analyzed in a random sample of school children (n=6174) residing in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood methodology was applied through a standardized questionnaire. The sample was obtained with a bietapic design. Cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheezing was 6.8% (95% CI 6.2, 7.4) and 20% (95% of CI 19.7, 21.8) respectively; the prevalence of rhinitis was 5.0% (95% CI 4.5, 5.6). Family history of asthma odds ratio (OR) 2.33 (95% CI 1.78-3.05), respiratory infection after birth (OR) 3.44 (95% CI 2.76-4.29), and exposure to environmental tobacco (OR) 1.35 (95% CI 1.06-1.68) were the strongest risk factors for asthma and allergic rhinitis. The multifactorial etiology of asthma and allergic rhinitis was confirmed, as well as the importance of early exposure to environmental factors.

  2. [Epidural emphysema complicating bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouetbi, N; Ben Saad, A; Joobeur, S; Skhiri, N; Cheikh Mhamed, S; Mribah, H; El Kamel, A

    2012-12-01

    Epidural emphysema is an exceptional complication of bronchial asthma, revealed by an incidental finding in chest tomography. We report a case of a 21-year-old man admitted with asthma attack complicated by subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema. Chest tomography confirmed the mediastinal emphysema and also revealed the epidural emphysema within the vertebral canal. Neurological examination was negative. The patient showed complete recovery 10days after the onset of symptoms. The epidural emphysema is a rare complication during asthma attacks. The benignity of this complication should not require a systematic chest tomography.

  3. Environmental factors and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2006-09-01

    Indoor allergens are potent triggers for acute and chronic pediatric asthma. Environmental control measures of these allergens should be considered first-line treatment measures. Allergen avoidance can produce changes in disease activity and symptoms that can be beneficial before any medical intervention is implemented. In addition to allergen avoidance, studies evaluating other exposures, such as endotoxin and diet, in the pathogenesis of asthma are in progress. Understanding the complex relationships between exposure and allergy/asthma development is vitally important to the development of potentially more effective primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  4. [Occupational asthma--the case of bakers' asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Hasham; Carel, Rafael S

    2013-08-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the most common of all occupational lung diseases in industrialized countries and its prevalence has been rising steadily. It is estimated that occupational factors account for one out of six cases of adult asthmatic patients causing significant morbidity, disability and costs. Due to its high prevalence and substantial health and socio-economic impacts OA represents a significant public health concern. OA can be divided into allergic and non allergic asthma. Allergic OA is further divided into IgE mediated and non IgE mediated. Baker's asthma (BA), is the leading cause of IgE mediated OA caused by high molecular weight antgens in industrialized countries. Innovations in the baking industry during the last few decades have led to the introduction of new allergens inducing OA. OA is potentially preventable, through early diagnosis and exposure cessation interventions. Thus, clinicians should consider the occupational history in every adult patient presenting with newly diagnosed asthma.

  5. Predicting Asthma in Preschool Children with Asthma-Like Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  6. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B; Backer, V

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise. Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use of asthma medication (15%) than all other athletes (Pendurance sports have a higher prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medication. The frequency of asthma medication is lower than the prevalence of current asthma indicating that there is no overuse of asthma medication among Danish elite athletes.

  7. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B;

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national...... organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise...... among Danish elite athletes....

  8. Childhood Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants and the Onset of Asthma: An Administrative Cohort Study in Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although it is well established that air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the link with new asthma onset in children is less clear. Objective: We assessed the association between the onset of childhood asthma with both time of birth and time-varying exposures to outdoor air pollutants. Method: An open cohort of children born in the province of Québec, Canada, was created using linked medical–administrative databases. New cases of asthma were defined as one hospital discharge with a diagnosis of asthma or two physician claims for asthma within a 2 year period. Annual ozone (O3) levels were estimated at the child’s residence for all births 1999–2010, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels during 1996–2006 were estimated for births on the Montreal Island. Satellite based concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) were estimated at a 10 km × 10 km resolution and assigned to residential postal codes throughout the province (1996–2011). Hazard ratios (HRs) were assessed with Cox models for the exposure at the birth address and for the time-dependent exposure. We performed an indirect adjustment for secondhand smoke (SHS). Results: We followed 1,183,865 children (7,752,083 person-years), of whom 162,752 became asthmatic. After controlling for sex and material and social deprivation, HRs for an interquartile range increase in exposure at the birth address to NO2 (5.45 ppb), O3 (3.22 ppb), and PM2.5 (6.50 μg/m3) were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.12), and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.33), respectively. Effects of O3 and PM2.5 estimated with time-varying Cox models were similar to those estimated using exposure at birth, whereas the effect of NO2 was slightly stronger (HR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09). Conclusions: Asthma onset in children appears to be associated with residential exposure to PM2.5, O3 and NO2. Citation: Tétreault LF, Doucet M, Gamache P, Fournier M, Brand A, Kosatsky T, Smargiassi A. 2016. Childhood exposure to ambient air

  9. Coexistence of asthma and polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Louise; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    Asthma may be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and possibly patients with PCOS have a more severe type of asthma. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to summarize evidence of a coexistense of PCOS and asthma using the available literature. The search was completed...... on 01.01.2016. English language articles were retrieved using the search terms 'Asthma' AND 'PCOS', 'Asthma' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'Asthma' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'asthma' AND 'gynaecology', 'PCOS' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'PCOS' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'PCOS' AND 'allergy'. Five papers...... meeting prespecified search criteria were found of which two were registry studies of relevance. The current literature supports a coexistense of PCOS and asthma and gives us an indication of the causes for the possible link between PCOS and asthma. Further research in the area must be conducted...

  10. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  11. Adherence to asthma guidelines in general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghmann, M C; Sexton, M

    1999-06-01

    Adherence to asthma practice guidelines is low. Improved compliance could potentially improve care of patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients managed in a general practice with an associated asthma clinic are more likely to use asthma medications according to clinical practice guidelines than patients managed in the general surgery of the practice. A cross-sectional study of adult asthmatics, aged 18-55 years, was conducted in six British general practices. Prescription data on all asthma medication was collected for a 6-month period. Information on asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, and how patients used their inhaled beta2-agonist was collected through questionnaire. The prescription data for asthma medication and patient use of inhaled beta2-agonist were compared to the British Thoracic Society's (BTS) Guidelines for Management of Asthma in Adults to determine if the patient's asthma medication regimen was appropriate. There was no significant association found between appropriate asthma medication and asthma clinic attendance or other patient characteristics. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low. Fifty-eight percent of the asthma patients used asthma medication regimens that were not consistent with the BTS guidelines published 1 year earlier. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low regardless of patient characteristics, including asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, or individual practice. These findings underscore the need to document the utility of clinical practice guidelines which may improve physician compliance.

  12. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  13. Birth control after 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-04

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  14. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  15. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9743 Accredited since January 2016 98 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg ... Accredited since November 2015 96 Footprints in Time Midwifery Services and Birth Center Accredited 351 N. Water ...

  16. Asthma in Adults Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States: 2002-2007. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology . 2011; 127:145-52. American Lung Association Asthma ... Oppose House-Passed REINS Act Blog: Why Lung Cancer Screening Isn’t for Never Smokers Blog: The ...

  17. The placebo effect in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutile, Stefanie; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Wechsler, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    The placebo effect is a complex phenomenon occurring across a variety of clinical conditions. While much placebo research has been conducted in diseases defined by self-report such as depression, chronic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), asthma has been proposed as a useful model because of its easily measured objective outcomes. Studies examining the placebo response in asthma have not only contributed to an understanding of the mechanisms behind the placebo response but also shed an interesting light on the current treatment and diagnosis of asthma. This paper will review current literature on placebos in general and specifically on the placebo response in asthma. It focuses on what we know about the mechanisms behind the placebo effect, whether there is a specific portion of the population who responds to placebos, which patient outcomes are influenced by the placebo effect, and whether the effect can be augmented.

  18. Teaching Your Child about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  19. [Macrophages in asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Avalos, M A; Orea Solano, M

    1997-01-01

    Every time they exist more demonstrations of the paper than performs the line monocytes-macrophage in the patogenesis of the bronchial asthma. The mononuclear phagocytes cells, as the alveolar macrophages, also they can be activated during allergic methods. The monocytes macrophages are possible efficient inductors of the inflammation; this due to the fact that they can secrete inflammatory mediators, between those which are counted the pre-forming granules of peptides, metabolites of oxidation activation, activator of platelets activator and metabolites of the arachidonic acid. The identification of IL-1 in the liquidate of the bronchial ablution of sick asthmatic, as well as the identification of IL-1 in the I bronchioalveolar washing of places of allergens cutaneous prick, supports the activation concept mononuclear of phagocytic cells in allergic sufferings.

  20. Identification of asthma clusters in two independent Korean adult asthma cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Bum; Jang, An-Soo; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Jong-Sook; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Young-Joo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook; Park, Choon-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease with various clinical phenotypes. It is crucial to clearly identify clinical phenotypes to achieve better asthma management. We used cluster analysis to classify the clinical groups of 724 asthmatic patients from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea (COREA), and in 1843 subjects from another independent Korean asthma cohort of Soonchunhyang University Asthma Genome Research Centre (SCH) (Bucheon, Republic of Korea). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed by Ward's method, followed by κ-means cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the COREA cohort indicated four asthma subtypes: 1) smoking asthma; 2) severe obstructive asthma; 3) early-onset atopic asthma; and 4) late-onset mild asthma. An independent cluster analysis of the SCH cohort also indicated four clusters that were similar to the COREA clusters. Our results indicate that adult Korean asthma patients can be classified into four distinct clusters.

  1. Lifetime-Dependent Effects of Bisphenol A on Asthma Development in an Experimental Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Susanne; Averbeck, Marco; Simon, Jan C.; Lehmann, Irina; Polte, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are thought to contribute significantly to the increase of asthma prevalence in the last two decades. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen commonly used in consumer products and the plastic industry. There is evidence and an ongoing discussion that endocrine disruptors like BPA may affect human health and also exert alterations on in the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate age-dependent effects of BPA on the asthma risk using a murine model to explain the controversial results reported till date. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to BPA via the drinking water for different time periods including pregnancy and breastfeeding. To induce an asthma phenotype, mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA), followed by an intrapulmonary allergen challenge. Results BPA exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding had no significant effect on asthma development in the offspring. In contrast, lifelong exposure from birth until the last antigen challenge clearly increased eosinophilic inflammation in the lung, airway hyperreactivity and antigen-specific serum IgE levels in OVA-sensitized adult mice compared to mice without BPA exposure. Surprisingly, BPA intake during the sensitization period significantly reduced the development of allergic asthma. This effect was reversed in the presence of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the impact of BPA on asthma risk is strongly age-dependent and ranges from asthma-promoting to asthma-reducing effects. This could explain the diversity of results from previous studies regarding the observed health impact of BPA. PMID:24950052

  2. The disease management approach to controlling asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahtela, T

    2002-02-01

    Asthma has become an important public health issue worldwide and certain groups, such as children, are at particular risk of the disease. Often asthma remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Despite these worrying trends, the disease management approach to asthma control can help most asthma patients achieve a 'normal' way of life. The increased prevalence and greater diagnostic awareness of asthma have placed increased demands on healthcare resources, but effective asthma control can minimize the personal, social and economic burdens of asthma. Early diagnosis and immediate anti-inflammatory treatment is the first step in gaining control of symptoms. A stepwise approach is then used to classify asthma severity and treatment, with the number and frequency of medications increasing (step up) as asthma severity increases and decreasing (step down) when asthma is under control. This stepwise approach to asthma management necessitates regular review of treatment once asthma is under control. However, effective asthma management is dependent on successful patient education, adherence to prescribed medication and good doctor patient partnerships. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of a written asthma management plan that should be agreed between the doctor and patient. These plans should cover all aspects of asthma treatment, including prevention steps for long-term control and action steps to stop attacks once a worsening in asthma has been recognized. This comprehensive approach to asthma management increases the likelihood of achieving asthma control, which in turn reduces the need for emergency visits to the hospital or clinic and reduces the limitations on physical activity previously imposed by the condition.

  3. Asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xian Qiao; Yi Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To get a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma by reviewing the epidemiology,pathophysiology,and clinical manifestation and then summarizing the latest progress on diagnosis and treatment.Data Sources:Articles referred in this review were mainly collected from a comprehensive search of the PubMed published in English from 1990 to 2015 with the terms "OSA" and “asthma'" as the main keywords.Highly regarded older publications were also included.Study Selection:Information about the features of the two diseases in common,the pathophysiologic association between them and their current treatments from the literature search were identified,retrieved,and summarized.Results:Both OSA and asthma are very prevalent conditions.The incidences of them have kept on rising in recent years.Asthma is often accompanied by snoring and apnea,and OSA often combines with asthma,as well.They have many predisposing and aggravating factors in common.Possible shared direct mechanistic links between them include mechanical effects,intermittent hypoxia,nerve reflex,inflammation,leptin,etc.Indirect mechanistic links include medication,nose diseases,smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.Since OSA presents many similar features with nocturnal asthma,some scholars termed them as a sole syndrome "alternative overlap syndrome,"and proved that asthma symptoms in those patients could be improved through the treatment of continuous positive airway pressure.Conclusions:OSA and asthma are closely associated in pathogenesis,symptoms,and therapies.With the growing awareness of the relationship between them,we should raise our vigilance on the coexistence of OSA in those difficult-to-control asthmatic patients.Further studies are still needed to guide the clinical works.

  4. Respiratory Reviews in Asthma 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    From January 2012 up until March 2013, many articles with huge clinical importance in asthma were published based on large numbered clinical trials or meta-analysis. The main subjects of these studies were the new therapeutic plan based on the asthma phenotype or efficacy along with the safety issues regarding the current treatment guidelines. For efficacy and safety issues, inhaled corticosteroid tapering strategy or continued long-acting beta agonists use was the major concern. As new thera...

  5. Persistent cough: is it asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faniran, A; Peat, J; Woolcock, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if children in the community with persistent cough can be considered to have asthma. A validated questionnaire was given to the parents of 1245 randomly selected children aged 6-12 years. Atopy was measured with skin prick tests. Children with persistent cough had less morbidity and less atopy compared with children with wheeze. Although the syndrome commonly referred to as "cough variant asthma" could not be shown in this study, a sign...

  6. Asthma in Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Newaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, evidence has increased that asthma predisposes to complications of sickle cell disease (SCD, such as pain crises, acute chest syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and stroke, and is associated with increased mortality. An obstructive pattern of pulmonary function, along with a higher-than-expected prevalence of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR when compared to the general population, has led some researchers to suspect that underlying hemolysis may contribute to the development of a pulmonary disease similar to asthma in patients with SCD. While the pathophysiologic mechanism in atopic asthma involves up-regulation of Th2 cytokines, mast cell– and eosinophil-driven inflammation, plus increased activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and arginase in airway epithelium resulting in obstructive changes and AHR, the exact mechanisms of AHR, obstructive and restrictive lung disease in SCD is unclear. It is known that SCD is associated with a proinflammatory state and an enhanced inflammatory response is seen during vaso-occlusive events (VOE. Hemolysis-driven acute-on-chronic inflammation and dysregulated arginines–nitric oxide metabolism are potential mechanisms by which pulmonary dysfunction could occur in patients with SCD. In patients with a genetic predisposition of atopic asthma, these changes are probably more severe and result in increased susceptibility to sickle cell complications. Early recognition and aggressive management of asthma based on established National Institutes of Health asthma guidelines is recommended in order to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  7. Childhood Asthma: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim M. van Aalderen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  8. Childhood asthma: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen, Wim M

    2012-01-01

    Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  9. [Difficult to control severe asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Antoine; Pipet, Anaïs

    2011-03-01

    Difficult to control severe asthma is characterized by the persistence of inacceptable symptoms of asthma despite a continuous treatment with at least high doses of inhaled steroids and long acting bronchodilators. The diagnosis is done after a period of observation and some investigations that will allow confirm the diagnosis of asthma, eliminate alternative diagnosis and etiological forms that would be difficult to treat intrinsically (allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, Churg and Strauss disease, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, occupational asthma). At the end of this period devoted to diagnosis a systematic approach is set up to take care of these patients. Therapeutic education includes action plans and measures for triggering factors avoidance in order to prevent exacerbations. Comorbidities such as rhinitis, nasal polyposis, gastro-oesophageal reflux and obesity are taken into account. Lastly, the treatment must be adapted according to the patient's preferences and aims, and to the asthma severity. Ultimately in steroid-dependent asthma, the lowest efficient dose is tracked continuously. For these patients, new molecules are needed.

  10. Genetic Ancestry and Asthma and Rhinitis Occurrence in Hispanic Children: Findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad T Salam

    Full Text Available Asthma and rhinitis are common childhood health conditions. Being an understudied and rapidly growing population in the US, Hispanic children have a varying risk for these conditions that may result from sociocultural (including acculturative factors, exposure and genetic diversities. Hispanic populations have varying contributions from European, Amerindian and African ancestries. While previous literature separately reported associations between genetic ancestry and acculturation factors with asthma, whether Amerindian ancestry and acculturative factors have independent associations with development of early-life asthma and rhinitis in Hispanic children remains unknown. We hypothesized that genetic ancestry is an important determinant of early-life asthma and rhinitis occurrence in Hispanic children independent of sociodemographic, acculturation and environmental factors.Subjects were Hispanic children (5-7 years who participated in the southern California Children's Health Study. Data from birth certificates and questionnaire provided information on acculturation, sociodemographic and environmental factors. Genetic ancestries (Amerindian, European, African and Asian were estimated based on 233 ancestry informative markers. Asthma was defined by parental report of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Rhinitis was defined by parental report of a history of chronic sneezing or runny or blocked nose without a cold or flu. Sample sizes were 1,719 and 1,788 for investigating the role of genetic ancestry on asthma and rhinitis, respectively.Children had major contributions from Amerindian and European ancestries. After accounting for potential confounders, per 25% increase in Amerindian ancestry was associated with 17.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.99 and 13.6% (95% CI: 0.79-0.98 lower odds of asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Acculturation was not associated with either outcome.Earlier work documented that Hispanic children with significant

  11. Patient and physician asthma deterioration terminology: results from the 2009 Asthma Insight and Management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, Michael S; Nathan, Robert A; Stoloff, Stuart W; Meltzer, Eli O; Murphy, Kevin R; Doherty, Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    Long-term achievement of asthma control is dependent in part on the use of mutually understandable asthma terminology in all verbal and written patient-physician communications. Using data from the Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey, the objective of this analysis is to provide a contemporary depiction of asthma deterioration terminology as used by current asthma patients and physicians in the United States. As part of the 2009 AIM survey, current asthma patients (≥12 years of age; weighted n = 2499) and physicians (n = 309) were queried about their recognition, understanding, and/or use of the terms "asthma attack," "asthma flare-up," and "asthma exacerbation" in telephone interviews. Nearly all patients had heard the term "asthma attack" (97%), but relatively few had heard the term "asthma exacerbation" (24%); 71% had heard "asthma flare-up." In contrast, physicians reported using the term "asthma attack" least (65%) and the term "asthma exacerbation" most (77%) when discussing asthma with their patients; 70% reported using "asthma flare-up." Among patients familiar with "asthma flare-up" and "asthma exacerbation" (n = 502), only 38% said that the terms mean the same thing; nearly all physicians (94%) said that the terms mean the same thing. Collectively, data from the AIM survey suggest that patients and physicians use different asthma deterioration terminology and, more importantly, that they do not necessarily understand each other's terms. Standardizing asthma deterioration terminology may help optimize asthma patient-physician communication to improve patient understanding of written asthma action plans and therefore, enhance patient outcomes.

  12. Difficult asthma: assessment and management, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aidan A; Fanta, Christopher H

    2012-01-01

    A minority of asthma patients have disease that proves difficult to control with usual medications and experience ongoing symptoms, poor quality of life, and limitations in activity and/or frequent asthma exacerbations. This group of patients accounts for much of the expense associated with asthma care and is the focus of national and international collaborative study groups. Distinguishing between "difficult-to-manage asthma" and truly "therapy-resistant asthma" is helpful and promotes a systematic consideration of contributory factors. Critical evaluation of factors contributing to difficult-to-manage asthma including adverse environment, comorbidities, nonadherence, and incorrect diagnosis is recommended in a systematic fashion in Part 1 of this contribution.

  13. Childhood Asthma Management and Environmental Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2015-10-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. It cannot be prevented but can be controlled. Industrialized countries experience high lifetime asthma prevalence that has increased over recent decades. Asthma has a complex interplay of genetic and environmental triggers. Studies have revealed complex interactions of lung structure and function genes with environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke and vitamin D. Home environmental strategies can reduce asthma morbidity in children but should be tailored to specific allergens. Coupled with education and severity-specific asthma therapy, tailored interventions may be the most effective strategy to manage childhood asthma.

  14. Chemical pollution, respiratory allergy and asthma: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gareth S; Cadogan, David; Flueckiger, Andreas; Hennes, Christa; Kimber, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) convened a workshop in June 2005 to address the speculation that exposure to specific chemicals, and/or chemical pollutants in general, may play an important role in the increased prevalence of allergy and asthma in 'westernized' societies. This paper summarises one perspective arrived at during this workshop. It was acknowledged that certain chemicals and certain types of pollution might trigger or exacerbate asthmatic reactions in sensitised subjects. However, overall levels of pollution appear not to have had a major impact upon the prevalence of atopic allergy. Epidemiological studies suggest that pollution may in some circumstances protect from acquisition of sensitisation. Increasing exposure to household chemicals may enhance pre-existing allergies, but evidence for their causation of allergy is lacking. Other risk factors considered included societal dietary changes and exposure to endotoxins. Future research needs were identified which included epidemiological studies employing exposure and biomonitoring data, studies on domestic exposure to chemicals and their association with the incidence of allergy and asthma, and prospective birth cohort studies employing well-defined aspects of lifestyle, diet, chemical and endotoxin exposure as factors that may drive susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  15. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2016-01-01

    with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. METHODS: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register...... information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%). RESULTS: We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval]) among children with current eczema symptoms (1......BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children...

  16. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... with asthma and eczema in school-age children. METHODS: We studied 1024 mother-child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine from the INUENDO birth cohort. Data were collected by means of an interview-based questionnaire when the children were 5-9 years of age. Questions from the ISAAC study were used to define.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....

  17. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children...... with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. METHODS: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register...... information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%). RESULTS: We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval]) among children with current eczema symptoms (1...

  18. Azithromycin for episodes with asthma-like symptoms in young children aged 1-3 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L; Vissing, Nadja H;

    2016-01-01

    Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort; a birth cohort consisting of the general Danish population of Zealand, including Copenhagen. Exclusion criteria were macrolide allergy, heart, liver, neurological, and kidney disease, and, before each treatment, one or more clinical signs of pneumonia...... children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms, hypothesising that it reduces the duration of the symptomatic period. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited children aged 1-3 years, who were diagnosed with recurrent asthma-like symptoms from the Copenhagen...... masked until the youngest child turned 3 years of age and throughout the data validation and analysis phases. The primary outcome was duration of the respiratory episode after treatment, verified by prospective daily diaries and analysed with Poisson regression. Analyses were per protocol (excluding...

  19. Hormonal contraception increases risk of asthma among obese but decreases it among nonobese subjects: a prospective, population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Matheson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data on asthma suggest a sex difference that varies with age. Hormonal effects have been suggested as a possible explanation for these differences but there is a scarcity of evidence on these relationships. Our objective was to examine the relationship between reproductive factors and asthma risk among females and to examine whether body mass index (BMI modifies this relationship. Female participants in the 2004 fifth decade follow-up postal survey of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study formed the study population. Reproductive history and data on hormonal contraceptive (HC use were collected on 2764 females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between the reproductive factors and current asthma. The mean age of participants was 43 years and the prevalence of middle-aged current asthma was 12.8%. Females with very early menarche (≤10 years had higher odds of middle-aged current asthma (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.14–3.2. Pregnancy history (number of births and age at first pregnancy were not associated with current asthma risk at 44 years. Ever having used HCs, years of use and age started using HCs were not individually associated with current asthma risk. However, body mass index significantly modified the relationship between HC use and asthma. We found increasing years of pill use was associated with a significantly increased risk of current asthma in overweight/obese women but a reduced risk in normal weight women (interaction p=0.015. Hormonal effects from use of HCs and early menarche may contribute to the sex differential in asthma risk. Our findings suggest that in obese women with a history of long-term HC use may be at an increased risk of chronic respiratory disease, and regular monitoring for asthma and asthma symptoms may be recommended.

  20. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Kim, Kwan Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma.

  1. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma…

  2. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for ... with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to ...

  3. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults.

  4. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  5. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Are tree nut allergies diagnosed too ...

  6. Physician Asthma Management Practices in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To establish national baseline information on asthma management practices of physicians, to compare the reported practices with the Canadian Consensus recommendations and to identify results potentially useful for interventions that improve physician asthma management practices.

  7. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...

  8. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  9. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Territory Data AsthmaStats Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) among Children Health Care Coverage among ...

  11. Asthma: New Information for the Early Interventionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonsson, Nancy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article highlights key portions of the National Institutes of Health's National Asthma Education Program. Guidelines for understanding asthma triggers and medications are provided, and approaches to controlling environmental factors are suggested. (Author/PB)

  12. Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Asthma in Children Obesity in Children Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Asthma in Children Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  13. Predicting the risk of newborn children to become overweight later in childhood: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steur, M.; Smit, H.A.; Schipper, C.M.A.; Scholtens, S.; Kerkhof, van de M.; Jongste, de J.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Brunekreef, B.; Wijga, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To develop a decision rule by which children with a high risk to develop overweight can be distinguished at birth from children at low risk. Design, setting and participants. Data of 1 687 Dutch children born in 1996/1997 who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite

  14. Predicting the risk of newborn children to become overweight later in childhood : The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steur, Marinka; Smit, Henriette A.; Schipper, C. Maarten A.; Scholtens, Salome; Kerkhof, Marjan; De Jongste, Johan C.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Brunekreef, Bert; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To develop a decision rule by which children with a high risk to develop overweight can be distinguished at birth from children at low risk. Design, setting and participants. Data of 1 687 Dutch children born in 1996/1997 who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite

  15. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  16. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  17. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to investigate the mental health status in patients with asthma and assess the effects of asthma on suicidal ideation and attempts using a representative sample from Korea. Methods Individual-level data were obtained from 228,744 participants (6372 with asthma and 222,372 without asthma) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patient...

  18. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  19. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  20. Progress in the management of childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Pensrichon, Rattana; Kurasirikul, Suruthai

    2012-01-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in childhood. Significant advances in epidemiological research as well as in therapy of pediatric asthma have been made over the past 2 decades. In this review, we look at certain aspects therapy of childhood asthma, both in the past and present. Literature review on allergen avoidance (including mites, cockroach and cat), intensive therapy with β2-agonists in acute asthma (administering via continuous nebulization and intravenous routes), a r...

  1. [Severe asthma--where are we today?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-13

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors.

  2. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  3. An Online Simulation in Pediatric Asthma Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Keith B.

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that nearly 20 million Americans suffer from asthma, 6.3 million of which are children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004). It is not merely an annoyance disease, as is commonly believed. Asthma kills. It takes more than 5,000 American lives each year (Asthma Statistics in America,…

  4. Treating Asthma in Children under 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation makes the airways vulnerable to episodes of difficult breathing (asthma attacks). Common triggers include allergies, colds and exercise. ... asthma in children under age 5 can be difficult. In infants and young children, the ... symptoms of asthma — wheezing and coughing — may be caused by other ...

  5. How Can I Deal with My Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breakfasts Shyness How Can I Deal With My Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Deal With My Asthma? A A A What's in this article? Taking ... Tips en español ¿Cómo puedo afrontar mi asma? Asthma is more common these days than it used ...

  6. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  7. Taking ACTion for better control of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The global prevalence of asthma ranges from 1% to 18% of the population in different countries.1 In China, while national data of asthma prevalence are still lacking, an epidemiological study in Beijing showed that the prevalence of asthma in occupational populations was 1.25%.2

  8. Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Jackie ... the heptathlon and long-jump competitions, despite severe asthma. While she was a top student-athlete at ...

  9. Asthma: Not Just a Childhood Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kandra

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has grown to epidemic proportions among school-age children, and nearly 10 million U.S. adults suffer from it. This paper describes asthma and its triggers and explains how to take measures to manage asthma symptoms within the school (e.g., dusting regularly and keeping medications available). A sidebar presents tips on controlling asthma…

  10. Children with Asthma: Strategies for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for managing the child with asthma in educational settings address effects of asthma on academic performance, psychosocial effects, the need for collaboration with parents and medical personnel, common triggers of asthmatic episodes, symptoms, communication with parents, and resources. A sample asthma care plan is attached. (DB)

  11. Understanding Children with Asthma: Trouble and Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JungHa; Wood, Beatrice L.; Cheah, PoAnn

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common illnesses of childhood; in the United States, nearly 9% of children have the condition (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2006). Among children with chronic illnesses, asthma is the most common cause for school absence and hospitalization (Akinbami, 2006). Asthma is a chronic disorder of the…

  12. Adult Asthma Consensus Guidelines Update 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lemière

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sets of Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the past 15 years. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines.

  13. Individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with worse asthma morbidity in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Anne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status (SES has been linked to higher morbidity in patients with chronic diseases, but may be particularly relevant to asthma, as asthmatics of lower SES may have higher exposures to indoor (e.g., cockroaches, tobacco smoke and outdoor (e.g., urban pollution allergens, thus increasing risk for exacerbations. Methods This study assessed associations between adult SES (measured according to educational level and asthma morbidity, including asthma control; asthma-related emergency health service use; asthma self-efficacy, and asthma-related quality of life, in a Canadian cohort of 781 adult asthmatics. All patients underwent a sociodemographic and medical history interview and pulmonary function testing on the day of their asthma clinic visit, and completed a battery of questionnaires (Asthma Control Questionnaire, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Asthma Self-Efficacy Scale. General Linear Models assessed associations between SES and each morbidity measure. Results Lower SES was associated with worse asthma control (F = 11.63, p Conclusions Results suggest that lower SES (measured according to education level, is associated with several indices of worse asthma morbidity, particularly worse asthma control, in adult asthmatics independent of disease severity. Results are consistent with previous studies linking lower SES to worse asthma in children, and add asthma to the list of chronic diseases affected by individual-level SES.

  14. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J; Lowe, Adrian J; Erbas, Bircan; Dennekamp, Martine; Marks, Guy B; Perret, Jennifer; Hui, Jennie; Wjst, Matthias; Gurrin, Lyle C; Allen, Katrina J; Abramson, Michael J; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participant's residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370) and 18 (n = 434) years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s) were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes.

  15. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayan Bowatte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participant’s residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370 and 18 (n = 434 years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes.

  16. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope...

  17. Medication exposure in pregnancy risk evaluation program: the prevalence of asthma medication use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Craig; Joski, Peter; Freiman, Heather; Andrade, Susan; Toh, Sengwee; Dublin, Sascha; Cheetham, Craig; Cooper, William; Pawloski, Pamala; Li, De-Kun; Beaton, Sarah; Kaplan, Sigal; Scott, Pamela; Hammad, Tarek; Davis, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in women of reproductive age, occurring in up to 8 % of pregnancies. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of asthma medication use during pregnancy in a large diverse cohort. We identified women aged 15-45 years who delivered a live born infant between 2001 and 2007 across 11 U.S. health plans within the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP). Using health plans' administrative and claims data, and birth certificate data, we identified deliveries for which women filled asthma medications from 90 days before pregnancy through delivery. Prevalence (%) was calculated for asthma diagnosis and medication dispensing. There were 586,276 infants from 575,632 eligible deliveries in the MEPREP cohort. Asthma prevalence among mothers was 6.7 %, increasing from 5.5 % in 2001 to 7.8 % in 2007. A total of 9.7 % (n = 55,914) of women were dispensed asthma medications during pregnancy. The overall prevalence of maintenance-only medication, rescue-only medication, and combined maintenance and rescue medication was 0.6, 6.7, and 2.4 % respectively. The prevalence of maintenance-only use doubled during the study period from 0.4 to 0.8 %, while rescue-only use decreased from 7.4 to 5.8 %. In this large population-based pregnancy cohort, the prevalence of asthma diagnoses increased over time. The dispensing of maintenance-only medication increased over time, while rescue-only medication dispensing decreased over time.

  18. The “time-window” effect of early allergen exposure on a rat asthma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan; LIU Ping; LI Hai-chao; WANG Yue-dan

    2013-01-01

    Background The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of asthma.Allergen exposure was shown to inhibit asthma in an animal model.But the optimal timing of allergen exposure remains unclear.This study aims to explore the time effcct of allergen exposure and the possible mechanisms.Methods Neonate Wistar rats were randomly divided into asthma group,control group and day 1,day 3,day 7,and day 14 groups.The day 1,day 3,day 7 and day 14 groups were injected with ovalbumin (OVA) subcutaneously on days 1,3,7 and 14 after birth,respectively.Six weeks later,all groups,except the control group,were sensitized and stimulated with OVA to make the asthma model.We observed the pulmonary pathologic changes,detected the regulatory T cells,and CD28 expression level in thymus and spleen by flow cytometry.Results The asthmatic inflammation in the day 1,day 3 and day 7 groups,but not the day 14 group,was alleviated.The asthma group and day 14 group had lower proportions of regulatory T cells in the thymus compared with the control group,day 1,day 3,and day 7 groups.There was no significant difference in the CD28 expression levels on the regulatory and conventional T cells among groups.But the control group and the day 1,day 3,and day 7 groups had relatively higher proportions of CD28 positive regulatory T cells in the thymus than the day 14 group and the asthma group.Conclusions There is a “time-window” for early allergen exposure.The impairment of regulatory T cells may promote the development of asthma.Allergen exposure in the “time-window” can make the thymus produce normal quantity of regulatory cells.The CD28 signal on regulatory T cells may participate in the production of regulatory T cells.

  19. Patterns, predictors and outcomes of asthma control and exacerbations during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E. Grzeskowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There exists a paucity of data for socially disadvantaged populations describing patterns and predictors of asthma control status and exacerbations during pregnancy, and their relationship to adverse perinatal outcomes. Asthmatic women (n=189 were followed prospectively during pregnancy, with visits at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Data on loss of control, recurrent uncontrolled asthma and moderate/severe exacerbations were collected at each visit and their relationship to perinatal outcomes examined following stratification for fetal sex. 50% of asthmatic women experienced a loss of control or moderate/severe exacerbation during pregnancy, with 22% of women experiencing a moderate/severe exacerbation. Factors associated with an increased risk of women experiencing recurrent uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy included smoking (relative risk 2.92, 95% CI 1.53–5.58, inhaled corticosteroid use at the beginning of pregnancy (relative risk 2.40, 95% CI 1.25–4.60 and increasing maternal age (relative risk 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11. No factors were associated with moderate/severe exacerbations. Asthma control rather than exacerbations during pregnancy appeared to be most strongly correlated with perinatal outcomes. Following stratification by fetal sex, the presence of recurrent uncontrolled asthma was associated with an increased risk of being small for gestational age in women pregnant with females (33.3% versus 9.5%; p=0.018. In contrast, there was a nonsignificant increased risk of preterm birth in women with recurrent uncontrolled asthma that were pregnant with males (25.0% versus 11.8%; p=0.201 These results suggest that the key to improving perinatal outcomes lies in improving asthma control as early as possible in pregnancy and monitoring throughout pregnancy, rather than focusing on preventing exacerbations alone.

  20. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 of her menstrual cycle. It remains in place for 3 weeks in a row. At the end of the third week, on the same day of the week ... birth control until the ring has been in place for 7 days. If the ring is out for more than 3 hours during your third week wearing it, call your doctor to see ...

  1. Visual Memory at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  2. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  3. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  4. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A D; Connaughton, J J; Catterall, J R; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D C

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturnal oxygenation. This study suggests that mast cell degranulation may not be important in the pathogenesis of nocturnal asthma. PMID:3085257

  5. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agache Ioana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA, sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO, NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status and FEV1 After 1 year of observation, there were 5 deaths, 28 severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalisations, 24 cases requiring high inhaled corticosteroid intake, and 19 patients with fast FEV1 decline (>100 ml/year. Multiple regression analysis pointed out several different independent risk factors for severe asthma evolution: for death presence of ANA (P=0.037, NSAID intolerance (P100 ml ANA (P=0.006, sputum EO (P=0.037, BMI>25 (P=0.046 and NSAID intolerance (P=0.017The presence of ANA is an independent risk factor in asthma for evolution with death, severe exacerbations, high inhaled corticosteroid intake and FEV1 decline >100 ml.

  6. Childhood asthma prediction models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2015-12-01

    Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.

  7. Pediatric asthma: an integrative approach to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, John David

    2009-01-01

    Asthma in children and young adults is a complex disease with many different phenotypic expressions. Diagnosis is often made based on history and lung function including measuring airway reversibility. However, in children younger than 6 years of age, the diagnosis is more difficult because many children wheeze in the first 4-6 years of life, especially with viral infections. For those children, asthma treatment is often started empirically. Those who go on to develop chronic asthma most likely have a genetic predisposition and exposure to various environmental factors resulting in chronic inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. There are established national guidelines for diagnosing and treating asthma in children and adults. For persistent asthma, it is recommended that medications be taken on a regular basis after identifying and avoiding environmental triggers. Because many factors play a role in developing asthma in children, many nonmedical approaches to asthma and asthma-like conditions have been promoted even when the diagnosis is at times uncertain. The nonmedical approaches and therapies are often referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This review will discuss the conventional therapies recommended for children with asthma in addition to CAM therapies, some of which have supporting scientific evidence. Integrating conventional and CAM therapies can prove to be an effective way to treat pediatric asthma, a common and chronic childhood lung disorder. A case is provided to illustrate how such an integrative approach was used in the successful treatment of a child with moderate persistent asthma.

  8. Pediatric asthma self-management: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of asthma self-management began in asthma camps in the 1970s. Today all asthma camps are required to provide an educational asthma self-management program. The interaction between children and educators is brief, and if the children do not continue in an associated program after camp, the benefits may be lost. Open Airways, the first program developed specifically for minority children, has been the prototype for community asthma self-management. School-based intervention programs have incorporated asthma education into the health curriculum. Some asthma education programs include an emphasis on the environment. Another approach is to develop intervention projects with parents, as in the Head Start program. This program has been very effective in increasing early recognition of asthma and decreasing recidivism in a high-risk population. Another type of project addressed the reading ability and reading comprehension of asthmatic children. Improvement in reading skills resulted in a 47% decrease in asthma recidivism. After 18 months, there were only two hospitalizations among the enrolled participants. Asthma self-management programs that are most effective for inner-city children provide an interactive, culturally relevant form of asthma education and address issues such as literacy and continuity. PMID:12653391

  9. The Danish National Database for Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Bodtger, Uffe;

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in children, adolescents, and young adults. In Denmark (with a population of 5.6 million citizens), >400,000 persons are prescribed antiasthmatic medication annually. However, undiagnosed cases, dubious diagnoses, and poor asthma...... management are probably common. The Danish National Database for Asthma (DNDA) was established in 2015. The aim of the DNDA was to collect the data on all patients treated for asthma in Denmark and to monitor asthma occurrence, the quality of diagnosis, and management. STUDY POPULATION: Persons above the age...... year, the inclusion criteria are a second purchase of asthma prescription medicine within a 2-year period (National Prescription Registry) or a diagnosis of asthma (National Patient Register). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are excluded, but smokers are not excluded. DESCRIPTIVE...

  10. Obesity in asthma: approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepan, Shyamala; Garrison, Garth; Dixon, Anne E

    2013-10-01

    There is mounting evidence that obesity is associated with asthma, both of which are seeing a dramatic increase in prevalence. Not only is obesity a risk factor for the development of asthma but it is also associated with poor asthma control. Asthma phenotypes associated with obesity include early-onset allergic asthma and late-onset non-allergic asthma. The pathogenesis of the linkage is complex; obesity causes a variety of mechanical, metabolic, and immunological changes that can affect the airways. The treatment of asthma in obesity can be challenging, as obesity is associated with poor response to standard controller medications. A tailored approach that involves combining pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies including weight loss, dietary interventions, and exercise, along with identification and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, should therefore be considered in this population.

  11. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health-car......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors.......Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health...

  12. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001946.htm Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  13. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  14. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  15. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  16. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  17. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, prebiotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable.

  18. [Asthma mortality trends in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Ramírez, M; Segura Méndez, N H; Martínez-Cairo Cueto, S

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate mortality and morbidity from asthma in Mexico by federative entity (state) of residence, age, and sex during the period between 1960 and 1988. Statistics published by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information Science were reviewed, as were vital statistics and information from other sources. Data were selected on mortality, hospital admissions, and outpatient visits, as well as population by federative entity, age, and sex. Mortality and morbidity rates were adjusted for age using the direct method. From 1960 to 1987, mortality decreased for both sexes. The groups with the highest asthma mortality were those under 4 years of age and those over 50. From 1960 to the present, the state with the highest mortality was Tlaxcala. Hospitalizations increased from 10 to 140 per 100,000 population for the country as a whole. When both outpatient visits and hospitalizations were considered, the morbidity rates rose from 180 to 203.4 per 100,000 between 1960 and 1970. In 1970, hospital morbidity was higher among males than females. From 1960 up to the 1990s, the highest rates of hospitalization and outpatient visits were registered among those under 4 and those over 60. The states with the highest asthma hospitalization rates were Morelos, Baja California Sur, Nuevo León, Durango, and Tamaulipas. It is concluded that asthma mortality in Mexico is showing a downward trend, while morbidity is increasing considerably, especially among adolescents.

  19. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  20. Occupational asthma caused by palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenen, M.; Rochette, F.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. [K.U. Leuven, Pneumology (Belgium); Rogiers, P. [A.Z. St-Lucas, Brugge (Belgium); Walle, C. Van de [Siemens, Oostkamp (Belgium)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex platinum salts is a well-known cause of occupational asthma. Although there is evidence that platinum refinery workers may also be sensitized to other precious metals, such as palladium or rhodium, no instances of occupational asthma due to an isolated sensitization to palladium have been reported. A case is reported of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a previously healthy worker exposed to the fumes of an electroplating bath containing palladium. There was no exposure to platinum. Sensitization to palladium was documented by skin-prick tests. The skin-prick test was positive with Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, but not with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. Corresponding salts of platinum were all negative. A bronchial provocation test with Pd(NH{sub 34})Cl{sub 2} (0.0001 % for a total of 315 s, followed by 0.001 % for a total of 210 s) led to an early decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (-35%). A similar exposure (0.001 % for a total of 16 min) in an unrelated asthmatic gave no reaction. This case shows that an isolated sensitization to palladium can occur and that respiratory exposure to palladium is a novel cause of metal-induced occupational asthma. (au) 24 refs.

  1. Carboxyhemoglobin and Methemoglobin in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robert; Laskowski, Dan; McCarthy, Kevin; Mattox, Emmea; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are synthesized at high levels in asthmatic airways. NO can oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb). CO binds to heme to produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). We hypothesized that MetHb and COHb may be increased in asthma. COHb, MetHb, and Hb were measured in venous blood of healthy controls (n=32) and asthmatics (n=31). Arterial COHb and oxyhemoglobin were measured by pulse CO-oximeter. Hb, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin were similar among groups, but arterial COHb was higher in asthmatics than controls (p=0.04). Venous COHb was similar among groups, and thus arteriovenous COHb (a-v COHb) concentration difference was greater in asthma compared with controls. Venous MetHb was lower in asthma compared to controls (p=0.01) and correlated to venous NO (p=0.009). The greater a-v COHb in asthma suggests CO offloading to tissues, but lower than normal MetHb suggests countermeasures to avoid adverse effects of high NO on gas transfer. PMID:25680415

  2. Gastric asthma : a pathophysiological entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, FTM; Kleibeuker, JH; Postma, DS

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is manifested by typical reflux symptoms and atypical extra-oesophageal symptoms. Important in this respect are respiratory conditions. Gastric asthma is a prominent example of these extra-oesophageal manifestations of GORD. There is, however, muc

  3. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC. Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma.

  4. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  5. Controlling Your Symptoms of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disease that affects the tubes in your lungs that carry air (oxygen). These tubes are called airways. In people with asthma, the airways can be sensitive to pollen, dust mites, animal dander, chemicals, tobacco smoke, wood Visit your doctor to talk about your health ...

  6. Children with problematic severe asthma: A biopsychosocial perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on problematic severe asthma in children and its treatment from a biopsychosocial perspective. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. In children with problematic severe asthma, asthma is not under control despite optimal medical treatment. Asthma control is the

  7. Asthma and Adolescents: Review of Strategies to Improve Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy-Harstad, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One of every 10 adolescents in the United States has asthma. Adolescents who lack asthma control are at increased risk for severe asthma episodes and death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2007 asthma guidelines and research studies indicated that school nurses are instrumental in assisting adolescents to monitor their asthma, learn…

  8. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  9. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    of recent research on this topic. Individual papers/studies Stewart, M et al: The Birthplace in England Study – maternal outcomes and issues of choice and equity Overgaard, C et al: Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units – outcomes, care perceptions, equity and access in maternity care...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...

  10. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  11. Intrauterine exposure to smoking and wheezing in adolescence: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhmeister, F C; Nunes, B P; Loret de Mola, C; Gómez-Cofré, N; de Oliveira, P D; Marco, P L; Assunção, M C F; Gonçalves, H; Horta, B L; Menezes, A M B

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and asthma symptoms such as wheezing during childhood. However, few have evaluated this association in adolescence, especially in populations with high prevalence of wheezing as in Brazil. Using the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort, a longitudinal study set in southern Brazil of 5249 urban live births, we aimed to evaluate the association between maternal and the partner's smoking during pregnancy and wheezing at 11 and 15 years of age. We evaluated smoking during pregnancy using number of cigarettes/day, and our main outcomes were as follows: wheezing in the last year and number of wheezing crises, at both 11 and 15 years of age, as well as persistent wheezing (having crises at 11 and 15 years of age) and medical asthma diagnosis at age 15. In addition, other socio-demographic variables were included as possible confounders and mediators of this association. We used Poisson regression models to evaluate crude and adjusted associations. Of the 5249 live births in 1993, 87.5% and 85.7% were followed-up to 11 and 15 years of age, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy showed a dose-response association with number of wheezing crises at age 15 (P = 0.023), presence of persistent wheezing (P = 0.034) and asthma diagnosis (P = 0.023). Partner's smoking was not associated with any wheezing variables. Maternal smoking during pregnancy appears to exert an effect on respiratory morbidity of adolescents, evaluated by wheezing symptoms.

  12. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  13. The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS: Assembly, Demographics and Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

  14. The impact of food allergy on asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kewalramani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anupama Kewalramani, Mary E BollingerDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy/Pulmonology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Food allergy is a potentially severe immune response to a food or food additive. Although a majority of children will outgrow their food allergies, some may have lifelong issues. Food allergies and other atopic conditions, such as asthma, are increasing in prevalence in Western countries. As such, it is not uncommon to note the co-existence of food allergy and asthma in the same patient. As part of the atopic march, many food allergic patients may develop asthma later in life. Each can adversely affect the other. Food allergic patients with asthma have a higher risk of developing life-threatening food-induced reactions. Although food allergy is not typically an etiology of asthma, an asthmatic patient with food allergy may have higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the asthma. Asthma is rarely a manifestation of food allergy alone, but the symptoms can be seen with allergic reactions to foods. There may be evidence to suggest that early childhood environmental factors, such as the mother’s and child’s diets, factor in the development of asthma; however, the evidence continues to be conflicting. All food allergic patients and their families should be counseled on the management of food allergy and the risk of developing co-morbid asthma.Keywords: food allergy, diagnosis, treatment, asthma

  15. Difficult asthma: assessment and management, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanta, Christopher H; Long, Aidan A

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma have considerable morbidity related to their asthma and are at risk for serious, life-threatening exacerbations. Their management requires an intensive and comprehensive approach, including attention to reducing exposure to environmental inciters of airway inflammation and triggers of symptoms, patient education (including an asthma action plan), and opportunity for close patient-provider communication. Approved medical options include the lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton; the anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody, omalizumab; and bronchial thermoplasty. Nonapproved interventions of potential benefit are ultrahigh-dose inhaled corticosteroids, anticholinergic bronchodilators (tiotropium), macrolide antibiotics, and vitamin D supplementation for the vitamin D-deficient patient. Potentially toxic, "steroid-sparing" therapies such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, and etanercept are best reserved for patients participating in clinical trials. Recognition of specific subtypes of patients with therapy-resistant asthma permits more targeted treatment approaches, such as for aspirin-sensitive asthma, persistent eosinophilic asthma, asthma complicated by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, asthma with persistent airflow obstruction, and asthma with life-threatening (near fatal) asthmatic attacks. Novel therapies based on an improved understanding of the pathobiology of therapy-resistant asthma are greatly needed.

  16. Current asthma deaths among adults in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugio Nakazawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent asthma deaths were examined from yearly reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan and from reports published by the Japan Asthma Death Investigation Committee on 811 deaths over the period 1992–2000. The rate and number of recent asthma deaths in Japan have been decreasing rapidly. Most asthma deaths were of patients aged 70–90 years and there has been a marked trend for increased asthma deaths in the elderly. As for the circumstances surrounding the deaths, sudden death, unstable sudden aggravation and intermittent aggravation were mainly noted. Respiratory infections, fatigue and stress were the major courses of fatal attacks contributing to deaths due to asthma. Many of the patients who died from asthma had been diagnosed as having as moderate to severe asthma and many had non-atopic asthma. There are some reports that suggest that the recent decrease in asthma deaths in Japan is correlated with the use of inhaled cortico- steroids.

  17. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities.

  18. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  19. School variation in asthma: compositional or contextual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K Richmond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity have been shown to vary by neighborhood. Less is known about between-school variation in asthma prevalence and whether it exists beyond what one might expect due to students at higher risk of asthma clustering within different schools. Our objective was to determine whether between-school variation in asthma prevalence exists and if so, if it is related to the differential distribution of individual risk factors for and correlates of asthma or to contextual influences of schools. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 16,640 teens in grades 7-12 in Wave 1 (data collected in 1994-5 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Outcome was current diagnosis of asthma as reported by respondents' parents. Two-level random effects models were used to assess the contribution of schools to the variance in asthma prevalence before and after controlling for individual attributes. RESULTS: The highest quartile schools had mean asthma prevalence of 21.9% compared to the lowest quartile schools with mean asthma prevalence of 7.1%. In our null model, the school contributed significantly to the variance in asthma (sigma(u0(2 = 0.27, CI: 0.20, 0.35. Controlling for individual, school and neighborhood attributes reduced the between-school variance modestly (sigma(u0(2 = 0.19 CI: 0.13-0.29. CONCLUSION: Significant between-school variation in current asthma prevalence exists even after controlling for the individual, school and neighborhood factors. This provides evidence for school level contextual influences on asthma. Further research is needed to determine potential mechanisms through which schools may influence asthma outcomes.

  20. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and the high prevalence of asthma might be associated with specific types of sport. It has been suggested that chronic endurance training might increase the number of neutrophils in the airways, and this may reflect airway injury. The use of anti......-asthmatic medication in elite athletes is also currently under scrutiny in order to reduce the risk of under-treatment or over treatment. OBJECTIVES: Determine the use of anti-asthmatic medication and the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma in Danish elite athletes. Further, to determine whether elite...... survey of elite athletes (N = 418); and (iii) a clinical study of elite athletes. A total of 54 elite athletes (19 with physician-diagnosed asthma) participated together with two control groups: (i) 22 non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma (steroid naïve for 4 weeks before the examination) and (ii...

  1. Extrinsic and intrinsic asthma: influence of classification on family history of asthma and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, B

    1980-05-01

    The distributions of asthma, hay fever and eczema were examined in the first degree relatives of 516 asthmatics grouped according to atopic status, history of hay fever/eczema and history of asthma provoked by pollens, dust or animals. The prevalences of both asthma and eczema in relatives were strongly correlated with the presence of hay fever/eczema in probands and to a lesser extent with their atopic status. The prevalence of hay fever in relatives was strongly correlated with both the presence of hay fever/eczema and the degree of atopy in probands. In contrast, allergic provocation of asthma in probands did not influence the prevalences of asthma, hay fever or eczema. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of asthma in relatives of atopic asthmatics which may arise from the enhanced susceptibility to asthma of individuals who inherit both a predisposition to asthma and a predisposition to atopy.

  2. Perceived Stress, Severity of Asthma, and Quality of Life in Young Adults with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kimura

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: A major variable related to the disease-specific quality of life was perceived stress, followed by the severity of asthma. Stress management of patients with asthma may improve their quality of life.

  3. Efffect of Aeroallergen Sensitization on Asthma Control in African-American Teens with Persistent Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In African-American adolescents with persistent asthma, allergic profile predicted the likelihood of having poorly controlled asthma despite guidelines-directed therapies. Our results suggest that tree and weed pollen sensitization are independent risk factors for poorly controll...

  4. The Prevalence of Severe Asthma and Low Asthma Control Among Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Kriegbaum, Margit; Backer, Vibeke;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe asthma is unknown. However, international expert statements estimate that severe asthma represents 5% to 10 % of the entire asthma population. OBJECTIVE: Based on register data from a nationwide population, we wanted to investigate the prevalence of severe...... asthma, the extent of asthma control, and contact with specialist care. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional register study was performed. By using a nationwide prescription database, we identified current patients with asthma (age, 18-44 years) in 2010. Severity was classified as severe versus mild......-moderate asthma according to the level of antiasthma treatment. We investigated prescription drug use, hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient clinic visits according to severity. RESULTS: Among a nationwide population, we identified 61,583 current patients with asthma. Based on the level...

  5. Electronic asthma action plan database: asthma action plan development using Microsoft Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Rita A; Salzman, Gary A

    2005-04-01

    We created a user-friendly database for use with asthma management consistent with the national guidelines for asthma. A database was designed by using Microsoft Access for the creation of asthma action plans that can be shared between providers caring for patients with asthma. This database and the use of "form entry" improved documentation of asthma action plans, which are increasingly being used to assess appropriateness of care. We currently have 400 asthma action plans in the database. These action plans can be queried to document compliance with accepted best practices. Asthma action plans can be created and stored in an Access database that is both user-friendly and that can be networked to provide more consistent asthma care.

  6. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and clinical studies in athletes have found increased airway inflammation. Objective: To investigate asthma-like symptoms, airway inflammation, airway reactivity (AR) to mannitol and use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. Methods......: The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e......NO) in parts per billion, spirometry, skin prick test, AR to mannitol and blood samples. Induced sputum was done in subjects with asthma. Results: No significant difference was found in values for eNO, AR and atopy between 42 elite athletes with and 12 without asthma-like symptoms. Elite athletes with doctor...

  7. Characteristics of phenotypes of elderly patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sano

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Half of elderly patients with asthma are characterized by asthma-emphysema overlap. Our results showed that elderly patients with asthma who are smokers and have moderate or severe OAD are also likely to have emphysema.

  8. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Fumikazu; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujimura, Kaori; Hayano, Toshio; Nishii, Noriko; Machida, Haruhiko; Toda, Jo; Saito, Naoko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  9. Treating Asthma in Children Ages 5 to 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggers such as cigarette smoke or seasonal allergies. Asthma emergencies Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening ... doctor at every visit. Immunotherapy for allergy-induced asthma Allergy-desensitization shots (immunotherapy) may help if your ...

  10. Asthma and Schools | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Schools Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... of America 800–727–8462 www.aafa.org Asthma and Physical Activity Exercise-induced asthma is triggered ...

  11. Preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V Been

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995-23 September 2013 epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated "dose-response" associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57-1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29-1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children. The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61-3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55-3.12. Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual

  12. Evolution of Asthma Concept and Effect of Current Asthma Management Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Concept of asthma has changed from symptom-complex or airway hypersensitivity to airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Based on this concept asthma management guidelines (JGL) has been developed in Japan. Death from asthma has decreased drastically since the publication of the guidelines, although it is still high in elderly population. Further works are expected for "zero-death" from asthma and for tighter control of airway inflammation and resultant airway remodeling.

  13. Metabolic asthma: is there a link between obesity, diabetes, and asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Miriam K; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Childhood asthma and obesity have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, and the latter is also contributing to increasing rates of related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. However, the relationship between asthma, obesity, and abnormal metabolism is not well understood nor has it been adequately explored in children. This article discusses the concept of metabolic asthma and the recent hypothesis that early derangement in lipid and glucose metabolism is independently associated with increased risk for asthma.

  14. Sleep Disorders in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Dragisic, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory disturbances during sleep are recognized as extremely common disorders with important clinical consequences. Breathing disorders during sleep can result in broad range of clinical manifestations, the most prevalent of which are unrefreshing sleep, daytime sleepiness and fatigue, and cognitive impairmant. There is also evidence that respiratory-related sleep disturbances can contribute to several common cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, including systemic hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, and insulin-resistance. Correlations are found between asthma-related symptoms and sleep disturbances. Difficulties inducing sleep, sleep fragmentation on polysomnography, early morning awakenings and daytime sleepiness are more common in asthmatics compared with subjects without asthma. The “morning deep” in asthma is relevant for the characterization of asthma severity, and impact drugs’ choices. Sleep and night control of asthma could be relevant to evaluate disease’s control. Appropriate asthma control recovering is guarantor for better sleep quality in these patients and less clinical consequences of respiratory disturbances during sleep. PMID:23678304

  15. Tiotropium – what role in asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tiotropium solution for inhalation (Spiriva Respimat - Boehringer Ingelheim) is the first long-acting muscarinic antagonist to be marketed in the UK for the management of asthma. It is licensed as add-on maintenance bronchodilator treatment in adults with asthma who are using an inhaled corticosteroid (≥800μg budesonide/day or equivalent) and a long-acting beta2 agonist, and who have had one or more severe exacerbations in the previous year. This corresponds to use at step 4 of both the British asthma guideline and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) strategy for the treatment of asthma in adults. Here we consider the evidence for tiotropium in the management of asthma and whether it offers any advantages over existing therapeutic options at step 4.

  16. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study...... including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage...... in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma...

  17. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...... in under-5s without fever, which suggests the diagnosis of asthma/wheezing rather than bacterial pneumonia. Ultimately, underlying asthma may have contributed to malnutrition and fatal bacterial pneumonia. In conclusion, preschool asthma in low-income countries may be significantly under...

  18. The treatment of asthma in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Anne

    2012-06-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. This epidemic has led to major changes in the epidemiology of common diseases such as asthma. Obesity is a major risk factor for new-onset asthma. This article will discuss the role of mechanical and metabolic factors, as well as obesity-related comorbidities, in both causing airway disease and also affecting response to therapy in obese asthmatics. Asthma in obese individuals probably includes a spectrum of disease with at least two distinct phenotypes: early-onset allergic disease complicated by obesity and late-onset disease developing in the setting of obesity. Both phenotypes are distinct from asthma in lean individuals. Treatment of asthma in obesity needs to consider altered response to controller therapy, and the fact that mechanical factors, metabolic inflammation and other comorbidities are probably contributing to airway disease. Future studies should focus on the development of therapies specifically tailored towards the treatment of asthma in obesity.

  19. Gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions of childhood asthma: a multifactor dimension reduction approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on asthma is well documented in literature, but a systematic analysis on the interaction between various genetic and environmental factors is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study comprised of seventh-grade children from 14 Taiwanese communities. A total of 235 asthmatic cases and 1,310 non-asthmatic controls were selected for DNA collection and genotyping. We examined the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions between 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidative, inflammatory and obesity-related genes, and childhood asthma. Environmental exposures and disease status were obtained from parental questionnaires. The model-free and non-parametrical multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was used for the analysis. A three-way gene-gene interaction was elucidated between the gene coding glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP1, the gene coding interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain (IL4Ra and the gene coding insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2 on the risk of lifetime asthma. The testing-balanced accuracy on asthma was 57.83% with a cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10. The interaction of preterm birth and indoor dampness had the highest training-balanced accuracy at 59.09%. Indoor dampness also interacted with many genes, including IL13, beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. We also used likelihood ratio tests for interaction and chi-square tests to validate our results and all tests showed statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study suggest that GSTP1, INSIG2 and IL4Ra may influence the lifetime asthma susceptibility through gene-gene interactions in schoolchildren. Home dampness combined with each one of the genes STAT6, IL13 and ADRB2 could raise the asthma risk.

  20. Mixed handedness prevails among children and adolescents with infantile asthma and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Lai, Alessandra; Serra, Marianna; Zurrida, Giampiero Giorgio

    2008-12-01

    Non-right handedness has been associated with allergic diseases and asthma. Infantile diabetes, too, has been associated with non-right handedness but, to date, data are more consistent on a link between left handedness and asthma than on diabetes. We surmised that mixed handedness, as an indicator of neurodevelopmental disturbance of brain laterality, rather than left handedness is more prevalent among children with asthma and diabetes mellitus. A total of 100 families with a child or an adolescent diagnosed with infantile asthma (n = 50) or diabetes mellitus type 1 (n = 50) attending the Paediatric Clinic of the 'Brotzu' Hospital in Cagliari (Italy) in 2006 agreed to participate in the study. The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire was used to test handedness. Compared with 99 same-age and -sex controls, cases were marginally less likely to be right handed (71% vs. 86%; OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.54-1.25), and statistically more likely to be mixed handed (20% vs. 6%; OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.27-8.56) than controls: chi(2) = 8.84, d.f. = 2, p = 0.01. Children with asthma or diabetes did not differ from controls by season of birth; however, mixed-handed (n = 12, 46%) and left-handed (n = 6, 35%) children were statistically more likely to be born in winter as against the other seasons than those who were right handed (n = 36, 23%). Severity was also marginally related to the chance of being classified as non-right handed. People with a genetic predisposition to immune disorders could be more likely to have been negatively affected by infection and inflammation during fetal life, thus developing a deviation in handedness during neurodevelopment, as well as suffering the consequence of disordered immunity during childhood, such as allergic reactions (asthma) and immune-mediated damage to specific internal organs (diabetes type 1).

  1. PILL Series. The ‘problematic’ asthma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kui, Swee Leng; How, Choon How; Koh, Jansen

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that can be effectively controlled without causing any lifestyle limitation or burden on the quality of life of the majority of asthma patients. However, persistently uncontrolled asthma can be frustrating for both the patient and the managing physician. Patients who fail to respond to high-intensity asthma treatment fall into the category of ‘problematic’ asthma, which is further subdivided into ‘difficult’ asthma and ‘sever...

  2. Asthma Education and Intervention Program: Partnership for Asthma Trigger-Free Homes (PATH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    triggers can reduce the disease symptoms and severity. Indoor asthma triggers include allergens (dust mite, cockroach, cat , dog , rodent), environmental...cockroach, cat , dog , rodent), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), pesticides, and molds. The Project Coordinator trained participants (parents or guardians...Although asthma is a complicated multi-factorial disease with both genetic and environmental components, reducing levels of certain indoor asthma

  3. Challenges of Asthma Management for School Nurses in Districts with High Asthma Hospitalization Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatos, Penny; Leone, Jennifer; Craig, Ann Marie; Frei, Elizabeth Mary; Fuentes, Natalie; Harris, India Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background: School nurses play a central role in assisting elementary school children in managing their asthma, especially those in higher-risk school districts that are at increased risk of uncontrolled asthma. Study purposes are to (1) identify barriers to asthma management by school nurses in higher-risk school districts; and (2) assess the…

  4. Adjusting prednisone using blood eosinophils reduces exacerbations and improves asthma control in difficult patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Peter Ab; McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G

    2015-11-01

    Severe or therapy-resistant asthma represents a major problem, and despite advanced treatment, many patients require oral corticosteroids (OCS). We aimed to determine if patients with severe asthma and elevated peripheral blood eosinophils (PBE) could have treatment with OCS adjusted using an algorithm that controlled PBE (asthma symptoms with an overall lower OCS dose.

  5. Scheduled asthma management in general practice generally improve asthma control in those who attend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Bornemann, Maja; Knudsen, Anja Dorte Brandt;

    2012-01-01

    Successful asthma management involves guideline-based treatment and regular follow-up. We aimed to study the level of disease control in asthmatic individuals managed by their GP and a dedicated nurse when using a systematic asthma consultation guide based on Global Initiative of Asthma guideline...

  6. Asthma Risk Profiles of Children Participating in an Asthma Education and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candice; Rapp, Kristi Isaac; Jack, Leonard, Jr.; Hayes, Sandra; Post, Robert; Malveaux, Floyd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focused risk assessment is essential in the effective management of asthma. Purpose: This study identified and examined correlations among areas of pediatric asthma risk and determined associations between these risks and demographic characteristics. Methods: This exploratory study identified risk factors that affect asthma management…

  7. My Child Is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What?: Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children's functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. Schoolwide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to…

  8. Obesity and asthma: impact on severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-05-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese, compared with normal weight, subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy. Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma and impaired quality of life, compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy, with regard to symptoms, level of FEV1, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, and airway responsiveness. Some studies suggest that asthma in the obese patient might be more responsive to leukotriene modifiers, orchestrated by leptin and/or adiponectin derived from adipose tissue, than to inhaled corticosteroids, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying airway inflammation in obese versus non-obese asthmatics. In conclusion, overweight and obesity is associated with poorer asthma control and, very importantly, overall poorer response to asthma therapy, compared with normal weight individuals.

  9. Poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, H K; Björkstén, B

    1980-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a combination of paralytic disease, resembling poliomyelitis, and asthma is described. The girl developed neurological symptoms 5 days after a severe attack of asthma. No aetiology to the flaccid paralysis could be demonstrated although Coxsackie B5 virus was isolated from a stool. A similar poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma has previously been reported in 13 cases from Australia and the UK.

  10. Asthma in the Navy and Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J P; Baez, S A

    1991-09-01

    Today, asthma is an increasing health problem in young Americans. In some cases, it can be quite difficult to diagnose. Many individuals enter military service each year with undiagnosed asthma, which subsequently limits their performance of duty. We review the patterns of asthma in children and young adults and relate this to Navy and Marine Corps personnel. We also review the current evaluation of this disease in the U.S. Navy Medical Department and suggest future improvements in this evaluation.

  11. The pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics of asthma therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Sze Man; Tantisira, Kelan; Weiss, Scott Tillman

    2011-01-01

    Despite the availability of several classes of asthma medications and their overall effectiveness, a significant portion of patients fail to respond to these therapeutic agents. Evidence suggests that genetic factors may partly mediate the heterogeneity in asthma treatment response. This review discusses important findings in asthma pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics studies conducted to date, examines limitations of these studies and finally, proposes future research directions in this fi...

  12. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  13. Bronchial asthma with ABPA presenting as PTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika Azad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, as a complication of asthma, is rare in children. The persistent and poorly-controlled asthma leading to cor pulmonale is not uncommon in adults but rarely described in the pediatric age group. Here, we report a case of asthma and ABPA complicated by pulmonary thrombo-embolism and cor pulmonale. To the best of our knowledge, such association has never been reported in the pediatric age group.

  14. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma.

  15. Birth rites: redefining the visual language of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Elaine

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a review of a Birth Rites organisation event to launch its new website and art competition. Birth Rites is the first and only collection of contemporary artwork dedicated to the subject of childbirth. The collection aims to redefine visual language in contemporary art around the subject of birth, making women the protagonists, with more choice and a greater understanding of the process. The organisation was founded by two women, Phoebe Mortimer and curator Helen Knowles.

  16. Maternal vaginal microflora during pregnancy and the risk of asthma hospitalization and use of antiasthma medication in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Thorsen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Skov;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infants with wheezing and allergic diseases have a microflora that differs from that of healthy infants. The fetus acquires microorganisms during birth when exposed to the maternal vaginal microflora. It is therefore conceivable that the maternal vaginal microflora might influence...... the establishment of the infant flora and, as a consequence, the development of wheezing and allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the associations between the composition of the maternal vaginal microflora and the development of wheezing and asthma in childhood. METHODS: We performed a population....... Maternal colonization with staphylococci (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.4) and use of antibiotics in pregnancy (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6) were associated with asthma during the fifth year of life. CONCLUSION: The composition of the maternal vaginal micro-flora might be associated with wheezing and asthma...

  17. Perceived triggers of asthma: key to symptom perception and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, T; Ritz, T

    2013-09-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this article, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioural interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control.

  18. Interleukin 18 receptor 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Guohua; Whyte, Moira K B; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2008-01-01

    The interleukin 18 receptor (IL18R1) gene is a strong candidate gene for asthma. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma and maps to an asthma susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q12. The possibility of association between polymorphisms in IL18R1 and asthma was examined...... by genotyping seven SNPs in 294, 342 and 100 families from Denmark, United Kingdom and Norway and conducting family-based association analyses for asthma, atopic asthma and bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) phenotypes. Three SNPs in IL18R1 were associated with asthma (0.01131 ... in IL18R1 and asthma....

  19. Hematopoietic Processes in Eosinophilic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brittany M; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-01-24

    Airway eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic asthma and understanding mechanisms that promote increases in lung eosinophil numbers is important for effective pharmaco-therapeutic development. It has become evident that expansion of hemopoietic compartments in the bone marrow promotes differentiation and trafficking of mature eosinophils to the airways. Hematopoietic progenitor cells egress the bone marrow and home to the lungs, where in-situ differentiative processes within the tissue provide an ongoing source of pro-inflammatory cells. In addition, hematopoietic progenitor cells in the airways can respond to locally-derived alarmins, to produce a panoply of cytokines thereby themselves acting as effector pro-inflammatory cells that potentiate type 2 responses in eosinophilic asthma. In this review, we will provide evidence for these findings and discuss novel targets for modulating eosinophilopoietic processes, migration and effector function of precursor cells.

  20. Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani K. Abu-Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective. To investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods. Using a self-administered questionnaire, a two-stage cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged between 3 and 15 years, was conducted from schools located in Riyadh province in central Saudi Arabia. Results. During the study interval, 2000 parents were asked to participate in the study; 1450 parents responded, of whom 600 (41.4% reported that their children had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy (recurrent wheezing or coughing, while 478 (32.9% of the parents reported that their children were diagnosed earlier with asthma by a physician. Therefore, the final statistical analyses were performed with 600 participants. Furthermore, 321 (53.5% respondents believed that asthma is solely a hereditary disease. Interestingly, 361 (60.3% were concerned about side effects of inhaled corticosteroids and 192 (32% about the development of dependency on asthma medications. Almost 76% of parents had previously visited a pediatric emergency department during an asthma attack. Conclusions. Parents had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. Therefore, improving asthma care and compliance requires added parental education.

  1. Perimenstrual asthma: from pathophysiology to treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Serafini, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is about 9,7 % in women and 5,5 % in men. Asthma can deteriorate during the perimenstrual period, a phenomenon known as perimenstrual asthma (PMA), which represents a unique, highly symptomatic asthma phenotype. It is distinguished from traditional allergic asthma by aspirin sensitivity, less atopy, and lower lung capacity. PMA incidence is reported to vary between 19 and 40 % of asthmatic women. The presence of PMA has been related to increases in asthma-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations and emergency treatment including intubations. It is hypothesized that hormonal status may influence asthma in women, focusing on the role of sex hormones, and specifically on the impact of estrogens' fluctuations at ovulation and before periods. This paper will focus on the pathophysiology of hormone triggered cycle related inflammatory/allergic events and their relation with asthma. We reviewed the scientific literature on Pubmed database for studies on PMA. Key word were PMA, mastcells, estrogens, inflammation, oral contraception, hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and hormone free interval (HFI). Special attention will be devoted to the possibility of reducing the perimenstrual worsening of asthma and associated symptoms by reducing estrogens fluctuations, with appropriate hormonal contraception and reduced HFI. This novel therapeutical approach will be finally discussed.

  2. Genetics of asthma: a molecular biologist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Balaram

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma belongs to the category of classical allergic diseases which generally arise due to IgE mediated hypersensitivity to environmental triggers. Since its prevalence is very high in developed or urbanized societies it is also referred to as "disease of civilizations". Due to its increased prevalence among related individuals, it was understood quite long back that it is a genetic disorder. Well designed epidemiological studies reinforced these views. The advent of modern biological technology saw further refinements in our understanding of genetics of asthma and led to the realization that asthma is not a disorder with simple Mendelian mode of inheritance but a multifactorial disorder of the airways brought about by complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Current asthma research has witnessed evidences that are compelling researchers to redefine asthma altogether. Although no consensus exists among workers regarding its definition, it seems obvious that several pathologies, all affecting the airways, have been clubbed into one common category called asthma. Needless to say, genetic studies have led from the front in bringing about these transformations. Genomics, molecular biology, immunology and other interrelated disciplines have unearthed data that has changed the way we think about asthma now. In this review, we center our discussions on genetic basis of asthma; the molecular mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Taking cue from the existing data we would briefly ponder over the future directions that should improve our understanding of asthma pathogenesis.

  3. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturn...

  4. When to Suspect Occupational Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lemière

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma (OA is a difficult diagnosis to make. The present review describes the work environments in which workers are at risk for developing OA, the characteristics of the individuals in whom OA should be suspected and the investigation that can be performed to diagnose the condition. Accurately diagnosing OA is crucial because of the major social and economic consequences of this diagnosis on the patient.

  5. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma.

  6. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  7. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  8. How menstrual shame affects birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Sharon

    2010-12-01

    In Western, industrialised culture, menstruation and birth are commonly seen as unstable, pathological processes requiring medical control. Girls learn to see menstruation as shameful and secretive. Menarche is a nodal event around which girls' beliefs and attitudes to being female are organised. The perception of menstruation as a liability has foundational implications for future female experiences, particularly birth. Other cultures have recognised menstruation and birth as spiritual phenomena, with menarche and childbirth experienced as powerful initiatory processes. My PhD research explored the links between cultural attitudes to menstruation and spirituality, and women's experiences of birth. My feminist perspective recognised the power imbalances, patriarchal controls and structural inequities that oppress women in their intimate body experiences. Menstrual shame was identified as a core patriarchal organising principle that inculcates and perpetuates male dominance and female subordination. Engendering the perception of female physiology - and thus womanhood - as inherently flawed, menstrual shame was a key factor that predisposed women to approach birth feeling fearful, disempowered and vulnerable to intervention. However, my research also unearthed a counter-cultural group of women who had transformed their relationship with both menstruation and birth. Redesignating menstruation as a spiritual phenomenon enabled these women to dismantle their menstrual shame, connect with their female spirituality and give birth fearlessly and powerfully. For others, the profound spirituality of birth transformed their understanding of menstruation. Contrary to cultural norms, both menstruation and birth can be sacred female experiences which are sources of authority and empowerment.

  9. The Brussels Declaration: the need for change in asthma management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Bjermer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration on A...... reviews the evidence supporting the need for change in asthma management and summarises the ten key points contained in the Brussels Declaration Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration...... on Asthma, sponsored by The Asthma, Allergy and Inflammation Research Charity, was developed to call attention to the shortfalls in asthma management and to urge European policy makers to recognise that asthma is a public health problem that should be a political priority. The Declaration urges recognition...

  10. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Dubakiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558 established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers.

  11. Birth control over 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnes, M

    1994-07-01

    Among 30-40 year old women, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, which is indicative of the unreliability of the birth control methods they are using. The 1992 Ortho Birth Control Study interviewed almost 7000 women, of whom 8% listed withdrawal and 4% listed the rhythm method. These two methods have failure rates of 24% and 19%, respectively. Birth control methods often disappoint the users and increasingly they turn to sterilization. 48% of married women aged 15-44 had themselves been sterilized or had a sterilized partner in the Ortho survey. Although reversal of tubal ligation succeeds in 43-88% of cases, conception cannot be guaranteed. For women over the age of 30 who are healthy and do not smoke, low-estrogen or no-estrogen oral contraceptive pills are considered safe. Taking the pill also helps prevent ovarian and endometrial cancer. The failure rate is 6%. Barrier methods also offer protection from sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Condoms are favored by 33% of unmarried women and 19% of married women. Sexually active 40-44 year old unmarried women run a 14-19% risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in a 12-month period. Diaphragms offer some protection against STDs, but their failure rate is 18%. IUDs are regaining popularity, but only 1% of women use them (ParaGard T380A or Progestasert). Pelvic inflammatory disease is the reason: a 1992 study showed that 0.97% of women developed it within 20 days of use. Norplant is a long-term implant containing levonorgestrel with a failure rate of 0.5%. A 1993 study followed 1253 implant users over 12 months and found a very low rate of pregnancy, but 75% experienced some side effects during the first year. About half of the women using Norplant removed it after 2.5 years because of irregular bleeding. Depo-Provera is an injectable administered every 3 months, but after removal it can take up to a year for ovulation to return. Side effects may include hair loss and weight gain; and links to

  12. Obese individuals experience wheezing without asthma but not asthma without wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Shoaib, Afzal; Lange, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with increased risk of asthma. However, it is unknown whether this could be explained by wheezing. We tested the hypothesis that high body mass index (BMI) observationally and genetically is associated with high risk of wheezing...... and asthma, and that the association between high BMI and asthma is explained by wheezing. METHODS: We genotyped 85 437 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study for FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313), TMEM18 (rs6548238) GNPDA2 (rs10938397) and BDNF (rs10767664); 14 500...... individuals experienced wheezing and 5406 had asthma. Wheezing was self-reported, and asthma was ascertained through self-report, hospital contacts with asthma, and/or receiving medication for asthma. BMI was calculated as measured weight divided by measured height squared (kg/m(2)). RESULTS: In observational...

  13. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  14. Asthma Associations in Children Attending a Museum of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Brugge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored the relative strength of environmental and social factors associated with pediatric asthma in middle class families and considered the efficacy of recruitment for an educational study at a science museum. Eligibility criteria were having a child aged 4–12 and English fluency. Our questionnaire included information on demographics, home environment, medical history, and environmental toxicant exposures. Statistically significant associations were found for: child’s age (t = −2.46; p = 0.014, allergies (OR = 11.5; 95%CI = 5.9–22.5, maternal asthma (OR = 2.2; 95%CI = 1.2–3.9, parents’ education level (OR = 0.5; 95%CI = 0.3–0.9, family income (OR = 2.4; 95%CI = 1.1–5.5, water damage at home (OR = 2.5; 95%CI = 1.1–5.5, stuffed animals in bedroom (OR = 0.4; 95%CI = 0.2–0.7, hospitalization within a week after birth (OR = 3.2; 95%CI = 1.4–7.0, diagnosis of pneumonia (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.4–5.9, and multiple colds in a year (OR = 2.9; 95%CI = 1.5–5.7. Several other associations approached statistical significance, including African American race (OR = 3.3; 95%CI = 1.0–10.7, vitamin D supplement directive (OR = 0.2; 95%CI = 0.02–1.2, mice in the home (OR = 0.5, 95%CI = 0.2–1.1, and cockroaches in the home (OR = 4.3; CI = 0.8–21.6. In logistic regression, age, parents’ education, allergies, mold allergies, hospitalization after birth, stuffed animals in the bedroom, vitamin D supplement directive, and water damage in the home were all significant independent predictors of asthma. The urban science museum was a low-resource approach to address the relative importance of risk factors in this population.

  15. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents' modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents' personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn.

  16. Current asthma control predicts future risk of asthma exacerbation: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua-hua; ZHOU Ting; WANG Lan; ZHANG Hong-ping; FU Juan-juan; WANG Lei; JI Yu-lin; WANG Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The performance of asthma control test (ACT) at baseline for predicting future risk of asthma exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated.This study was designed to explore the ability of the baseline ACT score to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation during a 12-month follow-up.Methods This post hoc analysis included data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in patients with asthma (n=290).The time to the first asthma exacerbation was analyzed and the association between baseline ACT scores and future risk of asthma exacerbation was calculated as adjusted odds ratio (OR) using Logistic regression models.Further,sensitivity and specificity were estimated at each cut-point of ACT scores for predicting asthma exacerbations.Results The subjects were divided into three groups,which were uncontrolled (U,n=128),partly-controlled (PC,n=111),and well controlled (C,n=51) asthma.After adjustment,the decreased ACT scores at baseline in the U and PC groups were associated with an increased probability of asthma exacerbations (OR 3.65 and OR 5.75,respectively),unplanned visits (OR 8.03 and OR 8.21,respectively) and emergency visits (OR 20.00 and OR 22.60,respectively) over a 12-month follow-up period.The time to the first asthma exacerbation was shorter in the groups with U and PC asthma (all P<0.05).The baseline ACT of 20 identified as the cut-point for screening the patients at high risk of asthma exacerbations had an increased sensitivity of over 90.0% but a lower specificity of about 30.0%.Conclusion Our findings indicate that the baseline ACT score with a high sensitivity could rule out patients at low risk of asthma exacerbations and oredict future risk of asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

  17. Early childhood wheezing: various natural courses and their relationship to later asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong In Suh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheezing is one of the most frequent complaints that lead to the use of medical resources in younger children. Generally, wheezing is caused by bronchiolitis and resolves spontaneously without recurrence, but sometimes, wheezing can progress into asthma. Early data on the natural history of childhood wheezing was mostly obtained from retrospective reviews of medical records or from questionnaires, which made it difficult to exclude biases. Now that many cohort studies are available, reviewing the results of birth cohort studies makes it possible to understand the natural course of early childhood wheezing and the risk factors for asthma. In this study, we have reviewed the various phenotypes of early childhood wheezing and their natural courses to help select the most appropriate management modalities for the different types of early childhood wheezing.

  18. Mine dumps, wheeze, asthma, and rhinoconjunctivitis among adolescents in South Africa: any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the association between community proximity to mine dumps, and current wheeze, rhinoconjunctivitis, and asthma among adolescents. This study was conducted during May-November 2012 around five mine dumps in South Africa. Communities in close proximity to mine dumps had an increased likelihood of current wheeze OR 1.38 (95 % CI: 1.10-1.71), rhinoconjunctivitis OR 1.54 (95 % CI: 1.29-1.82), and a protective association with asthma OR 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.23-0.35). Factors associated with health outcomes included other indoor and outdoor pollution sources. Wheeze and rhinoconjunctivitis appear to be a public health problem in these communities. The findings of this study serve as a base for further detailed epidemiological studies for communities in close proximity to the mine dumps e.g. a planned birth cohort study.

  19. Body mass index at school age and hospital admissions for asthma in early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lophaven, Søren Nymand; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Current international dietary guidelines advise people to reduce their consumption of sugar. Whilst clues are emerging that a high consumption of sugar in childhood may increase the risk of asthma, the relation between maternal sugar intake during pregnancy and respiratory and atopic outcomes...... in the offspring has been little studied.In the population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we analysed associations between maternal intake of total sugar, free sugars and added sugar in pregnancy (estimated by food frequency questionnaire in the last trimester......) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma (n=7677), current wheezing (n=7762), atopy (n=6117), serum total IgE (n=4843), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; n=5308) and forced vital capacity (FVC; n=5387) at 7-9 years of age.After controlling for potential confounders, maternal intake of total sugar...

  20. Association between parental socioeconomic position and prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever among children in different age groups and examine the associations with parental socioeconomic position. METHODS: A cross-sectional health survey of four complete birth-cohorts in the municipality of Copenhagen was conducted....... Children aged 11 and 15 years and parents of children aged 3 and 6 years completed questionnaires on symptoms and diseases. Data were linked to national registers on demographics and socioeconomic position measured as education, employment and income. In total, 9720 children/parents responded (50...... and ranged between 15.5% and 17.8%. Odds Ratios for children of parents with the lowest vs. the highest educational level were 1.50 (95% CI = 1.17-1.91) for asthma; 1.68 (95% CI = 1.35-2.10) for hay fever; and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.89) for atopic eczema. Unemployment was significantly associated...

  1. Mechanisms of Airway Remodeling in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Tagaya

    2007-01-01

    To date, many studies have identified candidate mechanisms and mediators for these observed structural changes, which are thus potential targets in the treatment of asthma. In this review, we describe the recent knowledge of the mechanisms and clinical implications of airway remodeling in asthma.

  2. Asthma in children : origins and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer - Kooijker, K.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. At school age, 4-7% of all children is experiencing asthmatic symptoms. Improvement of asthma control and health related quality of life (HRQOL) may lower the huge burden of this disease. This requires insight into the determinants of a

  3. Exhaled nitric oxide and asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAsthma was first described in the medical literature of Greek antiquity. It is difficult to determine whether by referring to “asthma”, Hippocrates and his school (460-360 B.C.) meant an autonomous clinical entity or a symptom. The clinical presentation of asthma nowadays has probably ch

  4. Rhinovirus and childhood asthma: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is recognized as a complex disease resulting from interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory viral infections in early life constitute a major environmental risk factor for the development of childhood asthma. Respiratory viral infections have also been recognized as the most common cause of asthma exacerbation. The advent of molecular diagnostics to detect respiratory viruses has provided new insights into the role of human rhinovirus (HRV) infections in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, it is still unclear whether HRV infections cause asthma or if wheezing with HRV infection is simply a predictor of childhood asthma. Recent clinical and experimental studies have identified plausible pathways by which HRV infection could cause asthma, particularly in a susceptible host, and exacerbate disease. Airway epithelial cells, the primary site of infection and replication of HRV, play a key role in these processes. Details regarding the role of genetic factors, including ORMDL3, are beginning to emerge. This review discusses recent clinical and experimental evidence for the role of HRV infection in the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma and the potential underlying mechanisms that have been proposed. PMID:27895690

  5. Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, AJM; Bloksma, N

    2005-01-01

    T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. However, little is known about immunoregulatory mechanisms that determine susceptibility to, severity of, or persistence of asthma. The concept of a dist

  6. Asthma Management in Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common comorbid factor in sickle cell disease (SCD. However, the incidence of asthma in SCD is much higher than expected compared to rates in the general population. Whether “asthma” in SCD is purely related to genetic and environmental factors or rather is the consequence of the underlying hemolytic and inflammatory state is a topic of recent debate. Regardless of the etiology, hypoxemia induced by bronchoconstriction and inflammation associated with asthma exacerbations will contribute to a cycle of sickling and subsequent complications of SCD. Recent studies confirm that asthma predisposes to complications of SCD such as pain crises, acute chest syndrome, and stroke and is associated with increased mortality. Early recognition and aggressive standard of care management of asthma may prevent serious pulmonary complications and reduce mortality. However, data regarding the management of asthma in SCD is very limited. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of current asthma therapy in patients with SCD and coincident asthma, while mechanistic studies are needed to delineate the underlying pathophysiology.

  7. Nebulised ipratropium and salbutamol in asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Storr, J; LENNEY, W.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment with nebulised salbutamol or a mixture of salbutamol and ipratropium was given to 138 children. Length of hospital stay and number of nebulised doses required did not differ. In severe asthma response was greater with salbutamol alone. In mild asthma response was greater with combined treatment.

  8. Metabolic Abnormalities in Children with Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Childhood asthma and obesity have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, and the latter is also contributing to increasing rates of related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. Yet, the relationship between asthma, obesity, and abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism is not well understood, nor has it been adequately explored in children.

  9. The prevalence of severe refractory asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekking, Pieter-Paul W; Wener, Reinier R; Amelink, Marijke; Zwinderman, Aelko H; Bouvy, Marcel L; Bel, Elisabeth H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is characterized by difficulty to achieve disease control despite high-intensity treatment. However, prevalence figures of severe asthma are lacking, whereas longstanding estimates vary between 5% and 10% of all asthmatic patients. Knowing the exact prevalence of severe ref

  10. Anti-inflammatory drug therapy in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, Bart L.; Duiverman, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with chronic inflammation of the airways and and-inflammatory treatment is a logical treatment. Inhaled corticosteroids [ICS] remain the cornerstone of anti-inflammatory therapy in recent international guidelines. Asthma cannot be cured by any medication: if the drug is discontin

  11. Creating an Asthma-Safe Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clean the cage daily. Cockroaches are another major asthma trigger that can be difficult to avoid in multifamily dwellings, especially in urban areas. To avoid cockroaches: Have your home professionally ... can aggravate asthma). Avoid saving boxes, paper bags, or newspapers in ...

  12. How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.25 million of those individuals have severe asthma, a condition that can be difficult to control and treat. Learn more about his research by visiting the NHLBI Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation website: http://www.nhlbi.nih. ...

  13. Physicians' Preferences for Asthma Guidelines Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Patient care based on asthma guidelines is cost-effective and leads to improved treatment outcomes. However, ineffective implementation strategies interfere with the use of these recommendations in clinical practice. This study investigated physicians' preferences for asthma guidelines, including content, supporting evidence, learning strategies, format, and placement in the clinical workplace. Methods We obtained information through a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was distr...

  14. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheezing phenotypes in young children and about potential mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic asthma. The goal of these studies was to provide a better insight into the causes and natural course of childhood asthma. It is well-known that complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma. Because childhood is a period of rapid growth in both the lungs and the immune system, developmental factors should be considered in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The pulmonary system continues to grow and develop until linear growth is completed. Longitudinal studies have reported significant age-related immune development during postnatal early life. These observations suggest that the phenotypes of childhood asthma vary among children and also in an individual child over time. Improved classification of heterogeneous conditions of the disease will help determine novel strategies for primary and secondary prevention and for the development of individualized treatment for childhood asthma.

  15. [Asthma and allergic diseases in Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbäck, B; Lindström, M; Forsberg, B

    1992-01-01

    Until recently the prevalence of asthma in Sweden was assessed to be 2-3 per cent. An increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was noted among new conscripts undergoing health work-ups prior to military service with the most marked increase in northern Sweden, were 5 per cent of conscripts were reported to have asthma. In southern Sweden the prevalence remained about 2 per cent. More recent questionnaire studies in mid- and southern Sweden have reported similar rates of respiratory symptoms and use of anti-asthmatic drugs as in northern Sweden, suggesting that there may be no difference in asthma prevalence between the north and the south of the country. The exact prevalence of allergic diseases among Swedish adults is still not clear, but 40 per cent of adults in northern Sweden report that they often have wheezing in the chest, attacks of breathlessness, longstanding cough or sputum production. In questionnaire studies among children about 40 per cent of respondents have reported that they had asthma, allergic rhinitis or other type of hypersensitivity. The absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma and allergic disorders in epidemiological studies makes comparison of prevalence difficult. It is thus not possible to be sure that the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders in Sweden has recently increased. Risk factors for the development of asthma and allergic disorders are under study in Sweden. Several studies report an association in children between urban living and allergic disorders.

  16. Identifying novel genes contributing to asthma pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holloway, John W.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review To illustrate recent examples of novel asthma genes such as those encoding G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility, filaggrin and tenascin-C, and to describe the process that is needed to translate these findings to the clinic. Recent findings Many hundreds of studies

  17. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  18. Epidemiology of asthma in western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Vervloet, D; Charpin, J

    1988-10-01

    Asthma deaths are uncommon, but have recently increased in some countries due to problems in the management of the disease. Morbidity rates show large variations, which can be attributed to differences in defining the disease, but also to genuine variations, with a trend towards less asthma in northern Europe. It has been suggested that allergic diseases as a whole, and asthma in particular, may exhibit an upward secular trend. Risk factors include a genetic background and environmental triggering factors. The importance of genetic factors is illustrated by family studies and by extreme prevalence rates observed in some communities. Environmental factors include rapid air pollution variations which act as a trigger for asthma attacks. However, at levels currently prevailing in western Europe, air pollutants do not induce a higher incidence of asthma. Altitude generates a gradual decrease in Dermatophagoides, thus explaining both the clinical improvement in asthmatics living in altitude and a lower prevalence of asthma in populations born and living there. Among the other aero-allergens, grass pollens plays a major role in spring, elicitating asthma attacks. Some natural allergens transformed by man (castor bean, soja) can be responsible for asthma epidemics.

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Care Coverage among Children Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma ... FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare ...

  20. The Danish National Database for Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Hoffmann-Petersen, Benjamin; Sverrild, Asger

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark, including the National Patient Register, the National Prescription Registry, and the National Health Insurance Services register, and potentially includes all asthma patients in Denmark. The following quality indicators have been selected to monitor trends: first, conduction of annual asthma...