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Sample records for asthma ureca birth

  1. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  2. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age ... infant weight gain, we observed the highest risks of school-age asthma in children born preterm with high infant weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% CI, 2.58-7.76). Preterm birth was positively associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1...

  3. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....

  4. Pre-birth origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatford, K L; Wooldridge, A L; Kind, K L; Bischof, R; Clifton, V L

    2017-09-01

    Allergy is a chronic disease that can develop as early as infancy, suggesting that early life factors are important in its aetiology. Variable associations between size at birth, a crude marker of the fetal environment, and allergy have been reported in humans and require comprehensive review. Associations between birth weight and allergy are however confounded in humans, and we and others have therefore begun exploring the effects of early life events on allergy in experimental models. In particular, we are using ovine models to investigate whether and how a restricted environment before birth protects against allergy, whether methyl donor availability contributes to allergic protection in IUGR, and why maternal asthma during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of allergic disease in children. We found that experimental intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in sheep reduced cutaneous responses to antigens in progeny, despite normal or elevated IgE responses. Furthermore, maternal methyl donor supplementation in late pregnancy partially reversed effects of experimental IUGR, consistent with the proposal that epigenetic pathways underlie some but not all effects of IUGR on allergic susceptibility. Ovine experimental allergic asthma with exacerbations reduces relative fetal size in late gestation, with some changes in immune populations in fetal thymus suggestive of increased activation. Maternal allergic asthma in mice also predisposes progeny to allergy development. In conclusion, these findings in experimental models provide direct evidence that a perturbed environment before birth alters immune system development and postnatal function, and provide opportunities to investigate underlying mechanisms and develop and evaluate interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung function trajectories from birth through puberty reflect asthma phenotypes with allergic comorbidity.

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    Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Mowinckel, Petter; Hovland, Vegard; Håland, Geir; Riiser, Amund; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2014-10-01

    Childhood asthma phenotypes reflecting underlying developmental mechanisms are sought, with little information on asthma phenotypes based on allergic comorbidities. We asked whether lung function trajectories from birth to 16 years were associated with asthma phenotypes with comorbid allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Lung function (given as z scores) was measured at birth in 329 subjects in the "Environment and Childhood Asthma" birth cohort study in Oslo by using tidal flow volume loops, and at 10 and 16 years by using spirometry. Asthma phenotypes were classified on the basis of recurrent bronchial obstruction at 0 to 2 years, and asthma from the 2- to 10-year and 10- to 16-year intervals, and by combining asthma, atopic dermatitis, and/or allergic rhinitis from 10 to 16 years, stratifying for allergic sensitization. The reference group included 231 subjects without recurrent bronchial obstruction or asthma. Lung function trajectories differed significantly for asthma comorbidity phenotypes for FEV1, forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of forced vital capacity, and FEV1/forced vital capacity (all P < .0001). Significant lung function impairment was observed from birth through 16 years among subjects with asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. Lung function trajectories in subjects with asthma at 10 to 16 years or asthma in remission differed significantly for all 3 spirometric values compared with the trajectories in those who never had asthma (P < .0001), but not between asthma groups. Allergic sensitization was not significantly associated with asthma phenotype lung function trajectories. The trajectory consisting of impaired lung function from birth throughout childhood in children with asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis appears less likely to be driven by allergic sensitization, and may imply disease onset in utero, with clinical presentation later in childhood. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma

  6. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

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    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  7. Mode of Delivery and Asthma at School Age in 9 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusconi, Franca; Zugna, Daniela; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted ...

  8. Asthma and mode of birth delivery: A study in 5-year-old Dutch twins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies report caesarean section (CS) to be a risk factor for childhood asthma. We used data from a large cohort of 5-year-old twins to examine the relationship between mode of birth delivery and asthma. The extent to which an infant is exposed to maternal vaginal flora may protect against

  9. Characterisation of asthma that develops during adolescence; findings from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Raza, Abid; Scott, Martha; Williams, Paula; Ewart, Susan; Matthews, Sharon; Roberts, Graham; Arshad, S Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding of adolescent-onset asthma remains limited. We sought to characterise this state and identify associated factors within a longitudinal birth cohort study. Methods The Isle of Wight Whole Population Birth Cohort was recruited in 1989 (N=1456) and characterised at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. “Adolescent-onset asthma” was defined as asthma at age 18 without prior history of asthma, “persistent-adolescent asthma” as asthma at both 10 and 18 and “never-asthma” as those without asthma at any assessment. Results Adolescent-onset asthma accounted for 28.3% of asthma at 18-years and was of similar severity to persistent-adolescent asthma. Adolescent-onset asthmatics showed elevated bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and atopy at 10 and 18-years. BHR in this group at 10 was intermediate to that of never-asthmatics and persistent-adolescent asthma. By 18 their BHR, bronchodilator reversibility and sputum eosinophilia was greater than never-asthmatics and comparable to persistent-adolescent asthma. At 10, males who later developed adolescent-onset asthma had reduced FEV1 and FEF25–75, while females had normal lung function but then developed impaired FEV1 and FEF25–75 in parallel with adolescent asthma. Factors independently associated with adolescent-onset asthma included atopy at 10 (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.08–5.09), BHR at 10 (3.42; 1.55–7.59), rhinitis at 10 (2.35; 1.11–5.01) and paracetamol use at 18-years (1.10; 1.01–1.19). Conclusions Adolescent-onset asthma is associated with significant morbidity. Predisposing factors are atopy, rhinitis and BHR at age 10 while adolescent paracetamol use is also associated with this state. Awareness of potentially modifiable influences may offer avenues for mitigating this disease state. PMID:22212639

  10. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, but this may be due, in part, to residual non-genetic confounding factors. This finding lends support to the "fetal origins hypothesis" suggesting undisclosed prenatal determinants for the risk of asthma....

  11. Influence of atopy and asthma on exhaled nitric oxide in an unselected birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Martha; Raza, Abid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Mitchell, Frances; Grundy, Jane; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Arshad, S Hasan; Roberts, Graham

    2010-03-01

    Asthma is considered to be associated with elevated levels of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). The nature of this relationship and how it is influenced by atopy are still not resolved. The Isle of Wight birth cohort (N=1456) was reassessed at 18 years of age. Participants able to attend the research centre were assessed by questionnaires, skin prick testing and FeNO in order to explore the interrelationship between asthma, atopy and FeNO. Atopy was significantly associated with higher levels of FeNO. However, the level of FeNO for non-atopic asthmatic participants was no different to the non-atopic no-asthma group. The highest levels of FeNO were seen in subjects with both atopy and asthma. In addition, FeNO was positively associated with increasing atopic burden as evidenced by increasing FeNO with increasing skin prick testing positivity, and with increasing severity of atopic asthma as evidenced by the number of attacks of wheezing. FeNO and current inhaled corticosteroid use were not significantly associated. FeNO behaves as a biomarker of atopy and the "allergic asthma" phenotype rather than asthma itself. This may explain why FeNO-guided asthma treatment outcomes have proved to be of limited success where atopic status has not been considered and accounted for.

  12. Clinical documentation variations and NLP system portability: a case study in asthma birth cohorts across institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Wang, Yanshan; Wi, Chung-Il; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Ryu, Euijung; Ali, Mir H; Juhn, Young J; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-11-30

    To assess clinical documentation variations across health care institutions using different electronic medical record systems and investigate how they affect natural language processing (NLP) system portability. Birth cohorts from Mayo Clinic and Sanford Children's Hospital (SCH) were used in this study (n = 298 for each). Documentation variations regarding asthma between the 2 cohorts were examined in various aspects: (1) overall corpus at the word level (ie, lexical variation), (2) topics and asthma-related concepts (ie, semantic variation), and (3) clinical note types (ie, process variation). We compared those statistics and explored NLP system portability for asthma ascertainment in 2 stages: prototype and refinement. There exist notable lexical variations (word-level similarity = 0.669) and process variations (differences in major note types containing asthma-related concepts). However, semantic-level corpora were relatively homogeneous (topic similarity = 0.944, asthma-related concept similarity = 0.971). The NLP system for asthma ascertainment had an F-score of 0.937 at Mayo, and produced 0.813 (prototype) and 0.908 (refinement) when applied at SCH. The criteria for asthma ascertainment are largely dependent on asthma-related concepts. Therefore, we believe that semantic similarity is important to estimate NLP system portability. As the Mayo Clinic and SCH corpora were relatively homogeneous at a semantic level, the NLP system, developed at Mayo Clinic, was imported to SCH successfully with proper adjustments to deal with the intrinsic corpus heterogeneity.

  13. Traffic, asthma and genetics : combining international birth cohort data to examine genetics as a mediator of traffic-related air pollution's impact on childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIntyre, Elaina A.; Carlsten, Christopher; MacNutt, Meaghan; Fuertes, Elaine; Melen, Eric; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kraemer, Ursula; Kluemper, Claudia; Kerkhof, Marjan; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl Peter; Herbarth, Olf; Bauer, Mario; Schaaf, Beate; Koletzko, Sibylle; Pershagen, Goran; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim; Brauer, Michael

    Associations between traffic-related air pollution and incident childhood asthma can be strengthened by analysis of gene-environment interactions, but studies have typically been limited by lack of study power. We combined data from six birth cohorts on: asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis to 7/8

  14. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  15. Epigenome-wide analysis links SMAD3 methylation at birth to asthma in children of asthmatic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Avery; Wlasiuk, Gabriela; Miller, Susan J; Bosco, Anthony; Stern, Debra A; Lohman, I Carla; Rothers, Janet; Jones, Anya C; Nicodemus-Johnson, Jessie; Vasquez, Monica M; Curtin, John A; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan; Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Guerra, Stefano; Wright, Anne L; Ober, Carole; Halonen, Marilyn; Vercelli, Donata

    2017-08-01

    The timing and mechanisms of asthma inception remain imprecisely defined. Although epigenetic mechanisms likely contribute to asthma pathogenesis, little is known about their role in asthma inception. We sought to assess whether the trajectory to asthma begins already at birth and whether epigenetic mechanisms, specifically DNA methylation, contribute to asthma inception. We used the Methylated CpG Island Recovery Assay chip to survey DNA methylation in cord blood mononuclear cells from 36 children (18 nonasthmatic and 18 asthmatic subjects by age 9 years) from the Infant Immune Study (IIS), an unselected birth cohort closely monitored for asthma for a decade. SMAD3 methylation in IIS (n = 60) and in 2 replication cohorts (the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [n = 30] and the Childhood Origins of Asthma Study [n = 28]) was analyzed by using bisulfite sequencing or Illumina 450K arrays. Cord blood mononuclear cell-derived IL-1β levels were measured by means of ELISA. Neonatal immune cells harbored 589 differentially methylated regions that distinguished IIS children who did and did not have asthma by age 9 years. In all 3 cohorts methylation in SMAD3, the most connected node within the network of asthma-associated, differentially methylated regions, was selectively increased in asthmatic children of asthmatic mothers and was associated with childhood asthma risk. Moreover, SMAD3 methylation in IIS neonates with maternal asthma was strongly and positively associated with neonatal production of IL-1β, an innate inflammatory mediator. The trajectory to childhood asthma begins at birth and involves epigenetic modifications in immunoregulatory and proinflammatory pathways. Maternal asthma influences epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the inception of this trajectory. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  17. Genome-wide prediction of childhood asthma and related phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Ben D.; Henderson, John; Granell, Raquel; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood wheezing and asthma vary greatly in clinical presentation and time course. The extent to which phenotypic variation reflects heterogeneity in disease pathways is unclear. Objective To assess the extent to which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with childhood asthma in a genome-wide association study are predictive of asthma-related phenotypes. Methods In 8365 children from a population based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, allelic scores were derived based on between 10 and 215,443 SNPs ranked according to inverse of the p-value for their association with physician diagnosed asthma in an independent genome-wide association study (6176 cases and 7111 controls). We assessed the predictive value of allelic scores for asthma-related outcomes at age 7-9 years (physician’s diagnosis, longitudinal wheezing phenotypes, and measurements of pulmonary function, bronchial responsiveness and atopy). Results Scores based on the 46 highest-ranked SNPs were associated with the symptom-based phenotypes persistent (Pasthma (Patopy (Pasthma phenotypes. Conclusion The genetic origins of asthma are diverse and: some pathways are specific to wheezing syndromes while others are shared with atopy and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Out study also provides evidence of aetiological differences among wheezing syndromes. PMID:22846752

  18. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on

  19. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H.; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n = 3963), parents reported on

  20. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Gehring, Ulrike

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on

  1. Multiple atopy phenotypes and their associations with asthma: similar findings from two birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, N; Roberts, G; Custovic, A; Belgrave, D; Bishop, C M; Winn, J; Curtin, J A; Hasan Arshad, S; Simpson, A

    2013-06-01

    Although atopic sensitization is one of the strongest risk factors for asthma, its relationship with asthma is poorly understood. We hypothesize that 'atopy' encompasses multiple sub-phenotypes that relate to asthma in different ways. In two population-based birth cohorts (Manchester and Isle of Wight - IoW), we used a machine learning approach to independently cluster children into different classes of atopic sensitization in an unsupervised manner, based on skin prick and sIgE tests taken throughout childhood and adolescence. We examined the qualitative cluster properties and their relationship to asthma and lung function. A five-class solution best described the data in both cohorts, with striking similarity between the classes across the two populations. Compared with nonsensitized class, children in the class with sensitivity to a wide variety of allergens (~1/3 of children atopic by conventional definition) were much more likely to have asthma (aOR [95% CI0; 20.1 [10.9-40.2] in Manchester and 11.9 [7.3-19.4] in IoW). The relationship between asthma and conventional atopy was much weaker (5.5 [3.4-8.8] in Manchester and 5.8 [4.1-8.3] in IoW). In both cohorts, children in this class had significantly poorer lung function (FEV1 /FVC lower by 4.4% in Manchester and 2.6% in IoW; P asthma (P atopy phenotypes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Asthma incidence in children growing up close to traffic: a registry-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Björk, Jonas; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2013-10-26

    Recent reviews conclude an association between traffic-related pollution and incidence of asthma in children, but not all studies agree. Studies have almost exclusively relied on parental-reported symptoms or parental-reported diagnoses of asthma and wheeze. Our aim was to investigate if traffic exposure is associated with higher incidence of early onset asthma, using registry-based outcome data. We investigated a birth cohort in southern Sweden, consisting of N = 26,128 children with outcome and exposure data (born July 2005-2010). Of these children, N = 7898 had additional covariate information. The cohort was followed to the end of 2011.Traffic intensity, and dispersion-modeled concentrations of NOX (100×100 m grid), at residential addresses, were linked with registry data on dispensed asthma medication (the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register), and hospital and primary health care diagnoses of bronchiolitis, obstructive bronchitis and asthma (The Scania Health Care Register).Covariate information was obtained from questionnaires distributed to parents at Child Health Care-centre visits, eight months after birth. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses. Living in close proximity to a road with ≥8640 cars/day (compared to 0-8640 cars/day), was not associated with higher incidence of first purchase of inhaled β2-agonist (adjusted hazard ratio (adj.HR) = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.0); third year purchase of inhaled β2-agonist (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9); bronchiolitis (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), obstructive bronchitis (adj.HR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9-1.2), or asthma (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6- 0.9). Similar results were found for inhaled corticosteroids, and in relation to NOX. Traffic-related exposure was not associated with higher incidence of asthma medication, or diagnoses of asthma, bronchiolitis, or obstructive bronchitis, in children 0-6 years in southern Sweden. This may depend on the low levels of traffic pollution in the

  3. The effects of early and late paracetamol exposure on asthma and atopy: a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, K; Beasley, R; Town, I; Epton, M; Pattemore, P; Ingham, T; Crane, J

    2011-03-01

    Despite reports of positive associations between paracetamol and asthma, the nature of these associations is unclear. We aimed to investigate the associations between infant and childhood paracetamol use and atopy and allergic disease at 5-6 years. In a birth cohort study, we collected reported paracetamol exposure between birth and 15 months in Christchurch (n=505) and between 5 and 6 years for all participants (Christchurch and Wellington) (n=914). Outcome data for reported current asthma, reported wheeze and atopy (measured using skin prick tests) were collected at 6 years for all participants. Logistic regression models were adjusted for potential confounders, including the number of chest infections and antibiotic use. Paracetamol exposure before the age of 15 months was associated with atopy at 6 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-9.77]. Paracetamol exposure between 5 and 6 years showed dose-dependent associations with reported wheeze and current asthma but there was no association with atopy. Compared with use 0-2 times, the adjusted OR (95% CI) were wheeze 1.83 (1.04-3.23) for use 3-10 times, and 2.30 (1.28-4.16) for use >10 times: current asthma 1.63 (0.92-2.89) for use 3-10 times and 2.16 (1.19-3.92) for use >10 times: atopy 0.96 (0.59-1.56) for use 3-10 times, and 1.05 (0.62-1.77) for use >10 times. Our findings suggest that paracetamol has a role in the development of atopy, and the maintenance of asthma symptoms. Before recommendations for clinical practice can be made, randomized-controlled trials are needed to determine whether these associations are causal. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Asthma Heredity, Cord Blood IgE and Asthma-Related Symptoms and Medication in Adulthood: A Long-Term Follow-Up in a Swedish Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Vogt

    Full Text Available Cord blood IgE has previously been studied as a possible predictor of asthma and allergic diseases. Results from different studies have been contradictory, and most have focused on high-risk infants and early infancy. Few studies have followed their study population into adulthood. This study assessed whether cord blood IgE levels and a family history of asthma were associated with, and could predict, asthma medication and allergy-related respiratory symptoms in adults. A follow-up was carried out in a Swedish birth cohort comprising 1,701 consecutively born children. In all, 1,661 individuals could be linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Medical Birth Register, and 1,227 responded to a postal questionnaire. Cord blood IgE and family history of asthma were correlated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication at 32-34 years. Elevated cord blood IgE was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication. Similarly, a family history of asthma was associated with an increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and anti-inflammatory medication. However, only 8% of the individuals with elevated cord blood IgE or a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication at follow-up. In all, 49 out of 60 individuals with dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication at 32-34 years of age had not been reported having asthma at previous check-ups of the cohort during childhood. Among those, only 5% with elevated cord blood IgE and 6% with a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication as adults. Elevated cord blood IgE and a positive family history of asthma were associated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication in adulthood, but their predictive power was poor

  5. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies. Poor asthma control increases the risk of preeclampsia, a condition in which a pregnant woman develops ... other conditions that can interfere with your asthma management. Watch for Signs That Your Asthma Is Getting ...

  6. Pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and risk of wheezing and asthma in children: A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated...... with the risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time...

  7. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Cough How the Lungs Work Oxygen Therapy Pulmonary Function Tests Other Resources NHLBI Resources "Asthma Action Plan" "Asthma and Physical Activity in the School" "At-A-Glance: Asthma" "How Asthma-Friendly Is ...

  8. Association between clinical variables related to asthma in schoolchildren born with very low birth weight with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Emília da Silva; Mezzacappa-Filho, Francisco; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Morcilo, Andre Moreno; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2016-09-01

    to assess the prevalence, spirometry findings and risk factors for asthma in schoolchildren who were very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Observational and cross-sectional study. The parents and/or tutors answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The schoolchildren were submitted to the skin prick test and spirometry assessment. 54 schoolchildren who were very low birth weight infants were assessed and 43 met the criteria for spirometry. Age at the assessment (bronchopulmonary dysplasia=9.5±0.85; without bronchopulmonary dysplasia=10.1±0.86 years) and birth weight (bronchopulmonary dysplasia=916.7±251.2; without bronchopulmonary dysplasia=1,171.3±190.5g) were lower in the group with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (p<0.05). The prevalence of asthma among very low birth weight infants was 17/54 (31.5%), being 6/18 (33.3%) in the group with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There was an association between wool blanket use in the first year of life (p=0.026) with the presence of asthma at school age. The skin prick test was positive in 13/17 (76.5%) and 23/37 (62.2%) of patients with and without asthma, respectively. The schoolchildren with asthma had lower z-score values of forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (n=16; -1.04±1.19) when compared to the group of patients without asthma (n=27; -0.38±0.93) (p=0.049). There was no difference between the spirometry variables in the groups regarding the presence or absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia showed a high prevalence of asthma (33.3% and 30.6%, respectively). Pulmonary flow in the small airways was lower in children with asthma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and

  10. Impact of Birth Weight and Smoking on Lung Function in Patients with Asthma, COPD, and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaszek, Bernard; Pawłowicz, Robert; Lindner, Karolina; Dobek, Rafał; Panaszek, Konrad; Obojski, Andrzej; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Ichnowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is an important factor for determining the development of the respiratory system. The majority of research analyzed the impact of BW on lung function in youth. BW influence and smoking on lung function in adults with asthma and COPD is an interesting issue. The aim of the study was to investigate relationships between BW, smoking, and lung function in adult healthy individuals and diagnosed with asthma or COPD. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects were divided into 5 groups: 123 healthy non-smokers, 180 healthy smokers, 72 non-smoking asthmatics, 57 smoking asthmatics, and 47 COPD patients. Relationships between 4 BW quartiles and lung function was analyzed with respect to smoking. Impact analyzes of BW, smoking, and asthma on FVC% revealed that asthma is the only significant differentiating factor in this spirometric parameter (p smoking.

  11. Breastfeeding and the development of asthma and atopy during childhood: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Semic-Jusufagic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Within the context of a population based-birth cohort, we investigated the association between breastfeeding and development of asthma and atopy in childhood. Methods. Children (n=1072 were followed from birth and reviewed at age one, three, five and eight years. Based on the onset and resolution of symptoms, we assigned children into the wheeze phenotypes (never, transient, intermittent, lateonset and persistent. Atopy was determined by skin testing and specific IgE measurement. According to the duration of breastfeeding, participants were assigned as not breastfed, breastfed ≤ four months and breastfed > four months. Results. In a multinomial regression model adjusted for gender, we found that breastfeeding > four months was protective of transient early wheeze (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.90, p=0.01, with no significant association between breastfeeding and other wheeze phenotypes. In a multivariate model, we found a significant protective effect of breastfeeding >four months on doctor-diagnosed asthma by age eight (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88, p=0.01. However, we observed a strong trend which failed to reach statistical significance for breastfeeding >four months to increase the risk of atopy at age one year (aOR 2.41, 95% CI 0.94-6.14, p=0.07. There was no significant association between breastfeeding and atopy at any other time point. Conclusion. Breastfeeding may prevent viral-infection induced wheezing illnesses in early childhood (transient early wheezing.

  12. Cord blood 25(OH)-vitamin D deficiency and childhood asthma, allergy and eczema: the COPSAC2000 birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo L; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jensen, Pia F; Schoos, Ann-Marie M; Heickendorff, Lene; Bisgaard, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal vitamin D dietary intake during pregnancy and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. However, prospective clinical studies on vitamin D measured in cord blood and development of clinical end-points are sparse. To investigate the interdependence of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-Vitamin D) level and investigator-diagnosed asthma- and allergy-related conditions during preschool-age. Cord blood 25(OH)-Vitamin D level was measured in 257 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) at-risk mother-child cohort. Troublesome lung symptoms (TROLS), asthma, respiratory infections, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, at age 0-7 yrs were diagnosed exclusively by the COPSAC pediatricians strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Objective assessments of lung function and sensitization were performed repeatedly from birth. After adjusting for season of birth, deficient cord blood 25(OH)-Vitamin D level (, but showed no association with respiratory infections or asthma. We saw no association between cord blood 25(OH)-Vitamin D level and lung function, sensitization, rhinitis or eczema. The effects were unaffected from adjusting for multiple lifestyle factors. Cord blood 25(OH)-Vitamin D deficiency associated with increased risk of recurrent TROLS till age 7 years. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy are needed to prove causality.

  13. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  14. Close correlation between season of birth and the prevalence of bronchial asthma in a Taiwanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chiao Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma (BA, atopic dermatitis (AD, and allergic rhinitis (AR are common allergic diseases. Environmental factors were indicated to influence the development of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the month of birth and the prevalence of allergic diseases in Taiwan. METHODS: Data from 104,455 children were collected from the National Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Subjects were identified by at least two service claims for ambulatory care or one claim for inpatient care. All of the enrolled patients were aged 7∼15 years in 2010. In a bio-clinical data analysis, total immunoglobulin E (IgE and ImmunoCAP™ allergen data (CAP from mothers and infants were collected in a medical center in Taiwan. Correlations between children's allergic factors and the season of birth were assessed. RESULTS: A significant difference in the prevalence of BA according to the month of birth (Χ(2 = 18.2, p<0.001 was found in the Taiwanese population. The fewest schoolchildren with were born in May (7.21%, and the most were born in October (10.59%. However, no tendency for the prevalence of AD (Χ(2 = 4.6, P = 0.204 or AR (Χ(2 = 4.3 P = 0.229 was found. In addition, we found that children born in autumn (August to October had a higher prevalence of BA compared to those born in spring (February to April (odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.05∼1.21. In a bio-clinical data study, markers of maternal and childhood allergies including IgE and CAP were detected in a risk analysis section. Children who were born in autumn had higher levels of CAP and total IgE. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that the month of birth was closely correlated with the prevalence of BA and higher levels of CAP and IgE.

  15. IgE antibodies in relation to prevalence and multimorbidity of eczema, asthma, and rhinitis from birth to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardini, N; Bergström, A; Wahlgren, C-F; van Hage, M; Hallner, E; Kull, I; Melén, E; Antó, J M; Bousquet, J; Wickman, M

    2016-03-01

    Eczema, asthma, and rhinitis affect a large proportion of children, but their prevalence varies with age. IgE antibodies are also common in the pediatric population. However, the links between IgE, disease, and trajectories are unclear. To better understand the links between sensitization and disease, we studied IgE sensitization ever in relation to eczema, asthma, and rhinitis, in children followed up to 16 years of age. From the Swedish population-based birth cohort BAMSE, 2607 children were included. Parental reports from six time points between 1 and 16 years were used to identify children with eczema, asthma, and rhinitis. Blood was collected at 4, 8, and 16 years, and sensitization ever was defined as allergen-specific IgE ≥0.35 kUA /l to common food and/or inhalant allergens at any time point. Odds ratios for eczema, asthma, rhinitis, and multimorbidity in relation to sensitization ever were calculated using generalized estimating equations. Fifty-one percent were sensitized at least once up to 16 years. Almost a quarter of ever-sensitized children did not have any disease. After adjustment for potential confounders, sensitization ever was significantly associated with the following: (i) eczema throughout childhood, (ii) multimorbidity of eczema, asthma, and rhinitis from 1 to 16 years (OR for multimorbidity: 5.11, 95% CI: 3.99-6.55), (iii) asthma and rhinitis from 4 to 16 years of age. Specific IgE is strongly associated with eczema and allergic multimorbidity throughout childhood and with asthma and rhinitis from age 4 years. However, 23% of the children with IgE sensitization do not develop any disease in childhood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cord blood 25(OH-vitamin D deficiency and childhood asthma, allergy and eczema: the COPSAC2000 birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo L Chawes

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal vitamin D dietary intake during pregnancy and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. However, prospective clinical studies on vitamin D measured in cord blood and development of clinical end-points are sparse.To investigate the interdependence of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH-Vitamin D level and investigator-diagnosed asthma- and allergy-related conditions during preschool-age.Cord blood 25(OH-Vitamin D level was measured in 257 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000 at-risk mother-child cohort. Troublesome lung symptoms (TROLS, asthma, respiratory infections, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, at age 0-7 yrs were diagnosed exclusively by the COPSAC pediatricians strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Objective assessments of lung function and sensitization were performed repeatedly from birth.After adjusting for season of birth, deficient cord blood 25(OH-Vitamin D level (<50 nmol/L was associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of recurrent TROLS (HR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.02-6.86, but showed no association with respiratory infections or asthma. We saw no association between cord blood 25(OH-Vitamin D level and lung function, sensitization, rhinitis or eczema. The effects were unaffected from adjusting for multiple lifestyle factors.Cord blood 25(OH-Vitamin D deficiency associated with increased risk of recurrent TROLS till age 7 years. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy are needed to prove causality.

  17. The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Pinart, Mariona; Tischer, Christina

    2014-01-01

    of the harmonized MeDALL-Core Questionnaire (MeDALL-CQ) used prospectively in 11 European birth cohorts. METHODS: The harmonization of questions was accomplished in 4 steps: (i) collection of variables from 14 birth cohorts, (ii) consensus on questionnaire items, (iii) translation and back...... plan, conduct and support future common asthma and allergy research initiatives in Europe....

  18. Gestational Medication Use, Birth Conditions, and Early Postnatal Exposures for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ching Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to explore (1 whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2 the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3 their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.

  19. An ADAM33 polymorphism associates with progression of preschool wheeze into childhood asthma: a prospective case-control study with replication in a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester M M Klaassen

    Full Text Available The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined.To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma.In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis.In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97 p = 0.04 and no association with preschool wheeze.Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.

  20. Asthma symptoms and medication in the PIAMA birth cohort : Evidence for under and overtreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Under and overtreatment of asthma may be a serious problem especially in young children, but the evidence is scarce and no longitudinal data are available. Our aim was to investigate whether inhaled medication use in young children was in agreement with asthma symptoms at the age of 2-8

  1. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children: a pooled analysis of eight birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman, A.; Hohmann, C.; Pershagen, G.; Eller, E.; Kjaer, H.F.; Gehring, U.; Granell, R.; Henderson, J.; Lau, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Sunyer, J.; Tischer, C.; Torrent, M.; Wahn, U.; Wijga, A.H.; Wickman, M.; Keil, T.; Bergström, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure. Objectives: To assess the effect of

  2. Serum micronutrient concentrations and childhood asthma: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeffelen, van A.A.M.; Bekkers, M.B.M.; Smit, H.A.; Kerkhof, van de M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Haveman-Nies, A.; A, van der D.L.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research suggests an influence of micronutrients on childhood asthma. So far, evidence mainly originates from cross-sectional studies using nutrient intake data, which is not an accurate measure of nutrient status. This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional and prospective

  3. Serum micronutrient concentrations and childhood asthma : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, A. A. M.; Bekkers, M. B. M.; Smit, H. A.; Kerkhof, M.; Koppelman, G. H.; Haveman-Nies, A.; van der A, D. L.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Wijga, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research suggests an influence of micronutrients on childhood asthma. So far, evidence mainly originates from cross-sectional studies using nutrient intake data, which is not an accurate measure of nutrient status. This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional and prospective

  4. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children : the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Smit, Henriette A.; Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were

  5. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodrup Carlsen, K.C.; Roll, S.; Carlsen, K.H.; Mowinckel, P.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Torrent, M.; Roberts, G.; Arshad, S.H.; Kull, I.; Kramer, U.; von Berg, A.; Eller, E.; Host, A.; Kuehni, C.; Spycher, B.; Sunyer, J.; Chen, C.M.; Reich, A.; Asarnoj, A.; Puig, C.; Herbarth, O.; Mahachie John, J.M.; Van Steen, K.; Willich, S.N.; Wahn, U.; Lau, S.; Smit, H.A.; et al, X; Keil, T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE

  6. Pet ownership is associated with increased risk of non-atopic asthma and reduced risk of atopy in childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, S M; Granell, R; Westgarth, C; Murray, J; Paul, E; Sterne, J A C; John Henderson, A

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an inverse association of pet ownership with allergy but inconclusive findings for asthma. To investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood was associated with asthma and atopy at the age of 7 in a UK population-based birth cohort. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time points from pregnancy to the age of 7 with asthma, atopy (grass, house dust mite, and cat skin prick test) and atopic vs. non-atopic asthma at the age of 7 using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity. A total of 3768 children had complete data on pet ownership, asthma, and atopy. Compared with non-ownership, continuous ownership of any pet (before and after the age of 3) was associated with 52% lower odds of atopic asthma [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68]. Pet ownership tended to be associated with increased risk of non-atopic asthma, particularly rabbits (OR 1.61, 1.04-2.51) and rodents (OR 1.86, 1.15-3.01), comparing continuous vs. non-ownership. Pet ownership was consistently associated with lower odds of sensitization to grass, house dust mite, and cat allergens, but rodent ownership was associated with higher odds of sensitization to rodent allergen. Differential effects of pet ownership on atopic vs. non-atopic asthma were evident for all pet types. Pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood in this birth cohort was consistently associated with a reduced risk of aeroallergen sensitization and atopic asthma at the age of 7, but tended to be associated (particularly for rabbits and rodents) with an increased risk of non-atopic asthma. The opposing effects on atopy vs. non-atopic asthma might be considered by parents when they are deciding whether to acquire a pet. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study: design and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Jet; de Jongste, Johan; Neijens, Herman; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Postma, Dirkje; Aalberse, Rob; Koopman, Laurens; Kerkhof, Marjan; Wilga, Alet; van Strien, Rob

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and non-allergic mothers were enrolled in a 'natural history' study to assess the role of environmental and dietary risk factors for the development of allergic disease in childhood. Recruitment started by distributing a validated screening questionnaire among >10,000 pregnant women during their first visit to a prenatal health clinic. Allergic mothers-to-be were invited to participate in the intervention study. Allergic, and a random sample of non-allergic, mothers-to-be were invited to participate in the 'natural history' arm of the study. In the intervention study, homes were visited before birth, 3 months after birth, and 12 months after birth for the collection of dust samples from floors and mattresses. In addition, the homes of about one-third of the children in the 'natural history' part of the study were visited for dust collection when the children were 3 months of age. The intervention study started with 855 participants and the 'natural history' study with 3,291 participants. Follow-up at 3 years of age has now been completed with satisfactory compliance (>90%). A medical investigation and home visit at 4years of age are nearing completion. Preliminary results show that mite-allergen levels were lower than found in previous Dutch studies, and that the intervention measure had a significant effect on mite-allergen levels, without important clinical benefits up to age 2 years old. The allergic families lived in homes with fewer 'triggers' such as pets, smoking and carpets than the non-allergic families, regardless of the intervention. The ongoing PIAMA cohort study will probably reveal useful information concerning effects of allergen load and reduction in the

  8. The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheleh, Zamani; Ahmad, Alikhani; Abtin, Heydarzadeh; Roghaye, Zare; Sara, Hashemain; Siavash, Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of “wheeze ever” in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of “severe asthma” in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of “wheeze ever,” “asthma ever,” and “night cough in the past 12 months” were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of “severe asthma” was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between “wheeze ever” and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of “severe asthma” and birth weight more than 3.5 kg. PMID:27379196

  9. Fish intake during pregnancy and the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis - longitudinal evidence from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Oken, Emily; Campos, Hannia; Lange, Christoph; Gold, Diane; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2013-10-01

    Maternal fish intake during pregnancy may influence the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet evidence is conflicting on its association with these outcomes. We examined the associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis. Mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n 28 936) reported their fish intake at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the associations of fish intake with child wheeze, asthma and rhinitis assessed at several time points: ever wheeze, recurrent wheeze (>3 episodes), ever asthma and allergic rhinitis, and current asthma, assessed at 18 months (n approximately 22,000) and 7 years (n approximately 17,000) using self-report and registry data on hospitalisations and prescribed medications. Compared with consistently high fish intake during pregnancy (fish as a sandwich or hot meal > or equal to 2-3 times/week), never eating fish was associated with a higher risk of child asthma diagnosis at 18 months (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·05, 1·63, P=0·02), and ever asthma by hospitalisation (OR 1·46, 95% CI 0·99, 2·13, P=0·05) and medication prescription (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·10, 1·71, P=0·01). A dose-response was present for asthma at 18 months only (P for trend=0·001). We found no associations with wheeze or recurrent wheeze at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that high (v. no) maternal fish intake during pregnancy is protective against both early and ever asthma in 7-year-old children.

  10. Phenotyping asthma, rhinitis and eczema in MeDALL population-based birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Benet, M; Saeys, Y

    2015-01-01

    at 4 years and 14 585 at 8 years from seven European population-based birth cohorts (MeDALL project). At each age period, children were grouped, using partitioning cluster analysis, according to the distribution of 23 variables covering symptoms 'ever' and 'in the last 12 months', doctor diagnosis, age...

  11. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  12. The influence of childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma, allergy and sensitization: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowatte, G; Lodge, C; Lowe, A J; Erbas, B; Perret, J; Abramson, M J; Matheson, M; Dharmage, S C

    2015-03-01

    The impact of early childhood traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure on development of asthma and allergies remains unclear. Birth cohort studies are the best available study design to answer this question, but the evidence from such studies has not been synthesized to date. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of published birth cohort studies to understand the association between early childhood TRAP exposure, and subsequent asthma, allergies and sensitization. Increased longitudinal childhood exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon was associated with increasing risk of subsequent asthma in childhood (PM2.5 : OR 1.14, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.30 per 2 μg/m(3) and black carbon: OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.38 per 1 × 10(-5) m(-1) ). Also, early childhood exposure to TRAP was associated with development of asthma across childhood up to 12 years of age. The magnitude of these associations increased with age, and the pattern was prominent for PM2.5 . Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with sensitization to both aero- and food allergens. There was some evidence that TRAP was associated with eczema and hay fever. In summary, exposure to TRAP was related to asthma and allergic diseases. However, the substantial variability across studies warrants long-term birth cohort studies with regular repeated follow-ups to confirm these findings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The influence of atopy and asthma on immune responses in inner-city adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Sujani; Jaffee, Katy; Visness, Cynthia M; Dresen, Amy; Burger, Melissa; Witter, Frank R; O'Connor, George T; Cruikshank, William W; Shreffler, Wayne G; Bacharier, Leonard B; Gern, James E

    2016-03-01

    Asthma in the inner-city population is usually atopic in nature, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying immune abnormalities that underlie asthma in urban adults have not been well defined. We investigated the influence of atopy and asthma on cytokine responses of inner-city adult women to define immune abnormalities associated with asthma and atopy. Blood samples were collected from 509 of 606 inner-city women enrolled in the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study. We tested for associations between atopy and asthma status and cytokine responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells incubated ex vivo with a panel of innate and adaptive immune stimulants. Atopic subjects had heightened Th2 cytokine responses (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) to cockroach and dust mite antigens, tetanus toxoid, and phytohemagglutinin (P atopy was broadly related to increased Th2-like responses to all antigens and PHA, while asthma was only weakly related to mitogen-induced IL-4 and IL-5 responses. There were few asthma or allergy-related differences in responses to innate stimuli, including IFN-α and IFN-γ responses. In this inner-city adult female population, atopy is associated with enhanced Th2 responses to allergens and other stimuli, and there was little or no additional signal attributable to asthma. In particular, these data indicate that altered systemic interferon and innate immune responses are not associated with allergies and/or asthma in inner-city women.

  14. Breastfeeding, soluble CD14 concentration in breast milk and risk of atopic dermatitis and asthma in early childhood: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbacher, D; Weyermann, M; Beermann, C; Brenner, H

    2005-08-01

    Breast milk contains a variety of bioactive substances, among them, soluble CD14 (sCD14), which plays an important role in innate immunity. We analysed data of a large prospective birth cohort study to examine the determinants of sCD14 in breast milk, and investigated whether breastfeeding practice and sCD14 concentrations in breast milk are determinants of the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma in children. Eight hundred and three mothers and their newborns were included in this analysis. We measured sCD14 concentrations in breast milk samples collected 6 weeks post-partum. During a 2-year follow-up the cumulative incidences of AD and asthma were recorded. Overall, AD was reported for 20.6% of the 2-year-olds and asthma was reported for 19.6%. We found the lowest incidence of physician-reported AD in children of mothers without a history of atopic diseases if breastfed for 6 to less than 9 months. Furthermore, we found an inverse association between duration of breastfeeding and risk of asthma, which was especially evident in children with mothers without a history of atopic disease (P=0.01). These patterns persisted after control for other factors by multivariate analysis methods. The protective effect of breastfeeding seemed to be synergistic with sCD14 concentrations in breast milk (P for trend 0.0005). The results of this prospective birth cohort study suggest that a longer duration of breastfeeding does decrease the risk for asthma in early childhood, especially in children of mothers without a history of atopic disease. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding might be further supported by high levels of sCD14 in breast milk.

  15. Does Pet Ownership in Infancy Lead to Asthma or Allergy at School Age? Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data from 11 European Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Torrent, Maties; Roberts, Graham; Arshad, S. Hasan; Kull, Inger; Krämer, Ursula; von Berg, Andrea; Eller, Esben; Høst, Arne; Kuehni, Claudia; Spycher, Ben; Sunyer, Jordi; Chen, Chih-Mei; Reich, Andreas; Asarnoj, Anna; Puig, Carmen; Herbarth, Olf; Mahachie John, Jestinah M.; Van Steen, Kristel; Willich, Stefan N.; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne; Keil, Thomas; Wickman, Magnus; Hallner, Eva; Alm, Johan; Almqvist, Catarina; Wennergren, Göran; Alm, Bernt; Heinrich, Joachim; Smit, Henriette A.; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fantini, Maria Pia; Bravi, Francesca; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Custovic, Adnan; Dubakiene, Ruta; Mahachie, Jestinah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6–10 years. Design Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. Exposure definition Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. Outcome definition Current asthma (primary outcome), allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6–10 years of age. Data synthesis Three-step approach: (i) Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii) calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii) pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. Results We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with “no pets” (10 studies, 11489 participants) was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28) (I2 = 9%; p = 0.36). The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with “no pets” (9 studies, 11433 participants) was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03) (I2 = 0%, p = 0.89). Owning both cat(s) and dog(s) compared to “no pets” resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84) (I2 = 33%, p = 0.18). Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. Conclusions Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6–10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic

  16. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Roll, Stephanie; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Wijga, Alet H; Brunekreef, Bert; Torrent, Maties; Roberts, Graham; Arshad, S Hasan; Kull, Inger; Krämer, Ursula; von Berg, Andrea; Eller, Esben; Høst, Arne; Kuehni, Claudia; Spycher, Ben; Sunyer, Jordi; Chen, Chih-Mei; Reich, Andreas; Asarnoj, Anna; Puig, Carmen; Herbarth, Olf; Mahachie John, Jestinah M; Van Steen, Kristel; Willich, Stefan N; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne; Keil, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DEFINITION: Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME DEFINITION: Current asthma (primary outcome), allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6-10 years of age. Three-step approach: (i) Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii) calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii) pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with "no pets" (10 studies, 11489 participants) was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28) (I(2) = 9%; p = 0.36). The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with "no pets" (9 studies, 11433 participants) was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03) (I(2) = 0%, p = 0.89). Owning both cat(s) and dog(s) compared to "no pets" resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84) (I(2) = 33%, p = 0.18). Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6-10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic rhinitis in children should not be given.

  17. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Lødrup Carlsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DEFINITION: Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME DEFINITION: Current asthma (primary outcome, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6-10 years of age. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three-step approach: (i Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with "no pets" (10 studies, 11489 participants was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28 (I(2 = 9%; p = 0.36. The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with "no pets" (9 studies, 11433 participants was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03 (I(2 = 0%, p = 0.89. Owning both cat(s and dog(s compared to "no pets" resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84 (I(2 = 33%, p = 0.18. Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6-10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic

  18. Fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy and the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood: a pooled analysis of 18 European and US birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, Nikos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Oken, Emily; Ballester, Ferran; Barros, Henrique; Basterrechea, Mikel; Cordier, Sylvaine; de Groot, Renate; den Dekker, Herman T; Duijts, Liesbeth; Eggesbø, Merete; Pia Fantini, Maria; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Gielen, Marij; Gori, Davide; Govarts, Eva; Inskip, Hazel M; Iszatt, Nina; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Mehegan, John; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Pelé, Fabienne; Pizzi, Costanza; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Robinson, Sian M; Schoeters, Greet; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Vrijheid, Martine; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Kogevinas, Manolis; Zeegers, Maurice P; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-10-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.

  19. Phenotyping asthma, rhinitis and eczema in MeDALL population-based birth cohorts : an allergic comorbidity cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Benet, M.; Saeys, Y.; Pinart, M.; Basagana, X.; Smit, H. A.; Siroux, V.; Just, J.; Momas, I.; Ranciere, F.; Keil, T.; Hohmann, C.; Lau, S.; Wahn, U.; Heinrich, J.; Tischer, C. G.; Fantini, M. P.; Lenzi, J.; Porta, D.; Koppelman, G. H.; Postma, D. S.; Berdel, D.; Koletzko, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Gehring, U.; Wickman, M.; Melen, E.; Hallberg, J.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Eller, E.; Kull, I.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Carlsen, K. -H.; Lambrecht, B. N.; Kogevinas, M.; Sunyer, J.; Kauffmann, F.; Bousquet, J.; Anto, J. M.

    BackgroundAsthma, rhinitis and eczema often co-occur in children, but their interrelationships at the population level have been poorly addressed. We assessed co-occurrence of childhood asthma, rhinitis and eczema using unsupervised statistical techniques. MethodsWe included 17209 children at 4years

  20. Low birth weight and preterm delivery as risk factors for asthma and atopic dermatitis in young adult males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, F.H.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gillman, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Gestational factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis. We examined whether fetal growth was associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis separately in a population of 4,795 male conscripts born between 1973 and 1975 in Denmark. The prevale...

  1. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; Van Stokkom, V. L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Schaap, L. A.; Smit, H. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067730043; Wijga, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children.

  2. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children: the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.; van Stokkom, V.L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G.H.; Schaap, L.A.; Smit, H.A.; Wijga, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children.

  3. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; van Stokkom, V. L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Schaap, L. A.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children.

  4. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N E; van Stokkom, V L; Gehring, U; Koppelman, G H; Schaap, L A; Smit, H A; Wijga, A H

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives:Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old

  5. In utero exposure to 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of childhood asthma, wheeze, and respiratory tract infections: A meta-analysis of birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haixia; Xun, Pengcheng; Pike, Katharine; Wills, Andrew K; Chawes, Bo L; Bisgaard, Hans; Cai, Wei; Wan, Yanping; He, Ka

    2017-05-01

    Studies of the associations between in utero 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) exposure and risk of childhood asthma, wheeze, and respiratory tract infections are inconsistent and inconclusive. We sought to assess associations between 25(OH)D levels in cord blood or maternal venous blood and risk of offspring's asthma, wheeze, and respiratory tract infections. Data were derived from PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, references from relevant articles, and de novo results from published studies until December 2015. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted among 16 birth cohort studies. Comparing the highest with the lowest category of 25(OH)D levels, the pooled odds ratios were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-1.01; P = .064) for asthma, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.58-1.03; P = .083) for wheeze, and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.66-1.09; P = .187) for respiratory tract infections. The observed inverse association for wheeze was more pronounced and became statistically significant in the studies that measured 25(OH)D levels in cord blood (0.43; 95% CI, 0.29-0.62; P < .001). Accumulated evidence generated from this meta-analysis suggests that increased in utero exposure to 25(OH)D is inversely associated with the risk of asthma and wheeze during childhood. These findings are in keeping with the results of 2 recently published randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of asthma and allergic outcomes in the offspring in relation to maternal food consumption during pregnancy: a Finnish birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Nwaru, Bright I; Kaila, Minna; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy might affect the development of allergic diseases in the offspring. The authors set out to study the effect of maternal food consumption during pregnancy on the emergence of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based allergic outcomes: asthma, allergic rhinitis, and wheeze by the 5 yr of age. Data from 2441 children at 5 yr of age were analyzed within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Nutrition Study, a population-based birth cohort study. Maternal diet was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. In multiple regression models adjusted for known confounders, low maternal consumption of leafy vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.98), malaceous fruits (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.84), and chocolate (aOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.70) were positively associated with the risk of wheeze in children. High maternal consumption of fruit and berry juices was positively associated with the risk of allergic rhinitis (aOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.90) in children. No associations were observed between maternal food consumption and asthma. Development of allergic diseases in preschool children may be influenced by intrauterine exposure to maternal diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Meta-analysis of determinants for pet ownership in 12 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies: a GA2LEN initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E; Roll, S; Chen, C-M; Herbarth, O; Wichmann, H-E; von Berg, A; Krämer, U; Mommers, M; Thijs, C; Wijga, A; Brunekreef, B; Fantini, M P; Bravi, F; Forastiere, F; Porta, D; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Høst, A; Halken, S; Lødrup Carlsen, K C; Carlsen, K-H; Wickman, M; Kull, I; Wahn, U; Willich, S N; Lau, S; Keil, T; Heinrich, J

    2008-11-01

    Studies on pet ownership as a risk or protective factor for asthma and allergy show inconsistent results. This may be on account of insufficient adjustment of confounding factors. The objective of this study was to describe determinants of cat and dog ownership in European families with and without allergies. Within the EU-funded network of excellence GA(2)LEN, we performed meta-analyses with data from 12 ongoing European birth cohort studies on asthma and allergy. Each of the birth cohort studies enrolled between 485 and 4089 children. Pet ownership, allergic status (asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema) of parents and siblings, parental education, access to ground floor, and number of people living at home were assessed by questionnaires. Among the 25 056 families from seven European countries cats (14.9%) were more common than dogs (12.0%). Allergic family history significantly reduced the odds to own a cat (adjusted combined random-effect OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.99), or dog (0.90; 0.86-0.94). A higher parental educational level had even more pronounced effects on cat (0.84; 0.71-0.98), and dog ownership (0.61; 0.54-0.70). Elder siblings reduced the odds to own cats, but not dogs. Convenient ground access significantly increased the odds, whereas crowding at home was not associated with cat or dog ownership. The chances to own a cat or dog were significantly reduced in allergic families, in parents with a higher educational level, and in homes without convenient ground access. In addition to parental allergies, social and housing factors should be considered as potential confounders in studies on pet exposure and allergic diseases.

  8. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M. van de; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting

  9. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    Background: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors-the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy-might partly explain the conflicting

  10. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting

  11. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, A. M. M.; Arends, L. R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Arshad, S. H.; Barros, H.; Basterrechea, M.; Bisgaard, H.; Chatzi, L.; Corpeleijn, E.; Correia, S.; Craig, L. C.; Devereux, G.; Dogaru, C.; Dostál, Miroslav; Duchen, K.; Eggesbø, M.; van der Ent, C. K.; Fantini, M. P.; Forastiere, F.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Gori, D.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Hanke, W.; Henderson, A. J.; Heude, B.; Iniguez, C.; Inskip, H. M.; Keil, T.; Kelleher, C.; Kogevinas, M.; Kreiner-Moller, E.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kuepers, L. K.; Lancz, K.; Larsen, P. S.; Lau, S.; Ludvigsson, J.; Mommers, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Palkovicova, L.; Pike, K. C.; Pizzi, C.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Roberts, G.; Schmidt, A.; Šrám, Radim; Sunyer, J.; Thijs, C.; Torrent, M.; Viljoen, K.; Wijga, A. H.; Vrijheid, M.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Duijts, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 5 (2014), s. 1317-1329 ISSN 0091-6749 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : gestational age * low birth weight * infant growth Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  12. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Print A A A ... Should I Know? en español Asma What Is Asthma? Asthma is a condition that causes breathing problems. ...

  13. Fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy and the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood : a pooled analysis of 18 European and US birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Stratakis, Nikos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Oken, Emily; Ballester, Ferran; Barros, Henrique; Basterrechea, Mikel; Cordier, Sylvaine; de Groot, Renate; den Dekker, Herman T.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Eggesbo, Merete; Fantini, Maria Pia; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Gielen, Marij

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs parti...

  14. Early risk factors for pubertal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, V; Riiser, A; Mowinckel, P; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C

    2015-01-01

    Early life risk factors are previously described for childhood asthma, but less is known related to asthma in adolescence. We aimed to investigate early risk factors (before 2 years) for pubertal asthma and secondarily for pubertal asthma phenotypes based upon allergic comorbidities. Based on data from 550 adolescents in the prospective birth cohort 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study, subjects were categorized by recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) 0-2 years, asthma 2-10 years, and pubertal asthma from 10 to 16 years including incident asthma in puberty and asthma in remission from 10 to 16 years or as never rBO/asthma 0-16 years. Asthma in puberty was further classified based on the comorbidities atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis (AR) from 10 to 16 years. Twenty-three common asthma risk factors identified by 2 years of age, including frequency and persistence of bronchial obstruction (severity score), were analysed by weighted logistic regression for each phenotype. In adjusted models, the risk of pubertal asthma increased significantly with higher severity score, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and familial stress around birth. Pubertal asthma in remission was significantly associated with severity score and number of lower respiratory tract infections and inversely associated with breastfeeding beyond 4 months. Pubertal incident asthma was more common among firstborn children. All asthma phenotypes with allergic diseases were significantly associated with severity score, whereas familial perinatal stress increased the risk of asthma only. Asthma combined with AR was associated with parental asthma and being firstborn, whereas the risk of asthma with both atopic dermatitis and AR increased with higher paternal education, atopic dermatitis, being firstborn, and familial perinatal stress. Important early risk factors for pubertal asthma were early airways obstruction, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and perinatal familial

  15. Asthma education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-01

    ). Allergy and Asthma Clinic, Red Cross War Memorial Hospital. Mike Levin runs a secondary level asthma/ allergy clinic and does a tertiary allergy session once a week, focusing on difficult asthma and food allergies. He has ...

  16. Timing of solid food introduction in relation to eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food and inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years: results from the prospective birth cohort study LISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Diez, Ulrike; Borte, Michael; Kraemer, Ursula; Herbarth, Olf; Behrendt, Heidrun; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Current prophylactic feeding guidelines recommend a delayed introduction of solids for the prevention of atopic diseases. This study investigates whether a delayed introduction of solids (past 4 or 6 months) is protective against the development of eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food or inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years. Data from 2073 children in the ongoing LISA birth cohort study were analyzed at 6 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for all children and for children without skin or allergic symptoms within the first 6 months of life to take into account reverse causality. A delayed introduction of solids (past 4 or 6 months) was not associated with decreased odds for asthma, allergic rhinitis, or sensitization against food or inhalant allergens at 6 years of age. On the contrary, food sensitization was more frequent in children who were introduced to solids later. The relationship between the timing of solid food introduction and eczema was not clear. There was no protective effect of a late introduction of solids or a less diverse diet within the first 4 months of life. However, in children without early skin or allergic symptoms were considered, eczema was significantly more frequent in children who received a more diverse diet within the first 4 months. This study found no evidence supporting a delayed introduction of solids beyond 4 or 6 months for the prevention of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food or inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years. For eczema, the results were conflicting, and a protective effect of a delayed introduction of solids cannot be excluded. Positive associations between late introduction of solids and food sensitization have to be interpreted with caution. A true protective effect of a delayed introduction of solids on food sensitization seems unlikely.

  17. Maternal asthma, asthma medication use, and the risk of congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao; Herdt-Losavio, Michele; Gensburg, Lenore; Marshall, Elizabeth; Druschel, Charlotte

    2009-02-01

    Asthma is a common problem that complicates pregnancy. Several drugs are considered acceptable for use during pregnancy, although none have been classified as safe. Few studies have assessed the health impact of maternal asthma/medication use on the fetus. A population-based case-control study was conducted in New York State to determine if cardiac congenital malformations in offspring were associated with maternal use of asthma medication and/or maternal asthma. Cases were cardiac anomalies in the New York State Congenital Malformations Registry. Controls were live births without any major birth defects randomly selected from birth certificates and frequency matched by year of birth. Data were collected through a 30 min telephone interview. Exposure was maternal asthma/medication use, maternal asthma/no medication use, no asthma/medication use, and no asthma/no medication use (reference). A total of 502 (59.4%) cases and 1,066 (53.8%) controls participated. A positive association was seen between any heart defect and women with asthma who used medication (OR 2.38; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.82). No significant associations were observed between heart defects and either women with asthma who did not use medication or women without asthma who used asthma medications. When considering types of medication used, offspring of women with asthma who used bronchodilators had an increased risk of any heart defect (OR 2.20; 95%CI: 1.05, 4.61). These results suggest that both maternal asthma status (controlled vs. uncontrolled; severe vs. mild) and asthma medication use, particularly bronchodilators, may play a role in cardiac malformations in offspring. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Asthma Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to explore the role of common air pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma at different life stages as well as other environmental and genetic factors that might make a person more sensitive to developing asthma.

  19. Risk of Asthma from Cesarean Delivery Depends on Membrane Rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    weight, gestational age, multiple births, parity, and maternal factors (age, smoking/antibiotics during pregnancy, employment status, and asthma). RESULTS: In the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio for asthma was increased by cesarean delivery...

  20. Fetal and infant origins of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duijts (Liesbeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have suggested that asthma, like other common diseases, has at least part of its origin early in life. Low birth weight has been shown to be associated with increased risks of asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease, and impaired lung function in adults, and increased

  1. Trends in the age of diagnosis of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka Kannan; Dell, Sharon D; Guttmann, Astrid; Shariff, Salimah Z; Liu, Kuan; To, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    The cause of rising asthma incidence over time remains unexplained. Examining trends in the age of diagnosis across successive birth cohorts may offer insights into asthma etiology. To examine trends in the age at asthma diagnosis and the age and proportion of children hospitalized at first asthma diagnosis in Ontario, Canada. Eight consecutive birth cohorts of children (1993-2000) were observed using administrative data from a universal health insurance plan in Ontario, Canada (population 13 million). Trends in the need for hospitalization and age at asthma diagnosis were examined with descriptive and survival analyses. The records of 1,059,511 children were examined, of whom 201,958 developed asthma in the first 8 years of life, with an average cumulative incidence of 19.1%. Mean age at asthma diagnosis decreased from 4.7 ± 1.5 years in birth year 1993 to 2.6 ± 2.0 years in birth year 2000 (P < .0001), with a higher adjusted risk of asthma diagnosis (hazard ratio, 6.7; 95% CI, 6.5-6.9) in the first 3 years of life for children born after 1996 versus children born in the period 1993 to 1995 (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.4). The proportion of children hospitalized at asthma diagnosis stayed stable while the age at first asthma hospitalization decreased over time (P < .0001). This study demonstrates a significant increase in asthma incidence and a decrease in the age of asthma diagnosis across multiple birth cohorts. Changes in asthma incidence over time are primarily explained by variations in asthma rates in children younger than 3 years. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efeitos das condições climáticas no trimestre de nascimento sobre asma e pneumonia na infância e na vida adulta em uma coorte no Sul do Brasil The effects of season at time of birth on asthma and pneumonia in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alejandro González

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do clima no trimestre do nascimento e nos seis primeiros meses de vida (temperatura média em tercis sobre as hospitalizações por asma e pneumonia em pré-escolares e sobre o diagnóstico de asma em adultos pertencentes ao estudo de coorte de nascimento de 1982 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Essa coorte incluiu todos os 5.914 nascidos vivos naquele ano, dos quais, 77% foram acompanhados até a idade adulta (23-24 anos. Os resultados demonstraram que os nascidos entre abril e junho (outono apresentaram risco de hospitalização por pneumonia e asma/"bronquite" 1,31 (IC95%: 0,99-1,73 a 2,35 (IC95%: 1,11-4,99 vezes maior do que os nascidos entre janeiro-março (verão. O risco de hospitalizações conforme a temperatura média nos seis primeiros meses de vida foi 1,64 (IC95%: 1,26-2,13 a 3,16 (IC95%: 1,63-6,12 vezes maior no tercil frio do que no quente. Os efeitos da sazonalidade diminuíram com a idade, sendo pouco evidente a associação com asma aos 23-24 anos. As hospitalizações foram mais freqüentes entre crianças pobres, mas os efeitos da sazonalidade sobre a pneumonia foram mais evidentes entre os ricos.This study evaluated the effects of seasonal weather at time of birth and ambient temperature during the first six months of life on hospitalizations due to asthma and pneumonia in preschool children and on diagnosis of asthma in adulthood among individuals from the 1982 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The cohort included 5,914 live births, of which 77% were followed up until adulthood (23-24 yr. The risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia and asthma among children born from April to June (autumn was 1.31 (95%CI: 0.99-1.73 to 2.4 (95%CI: 1.11-4.99 times higher than that of children born from January to March (summer. For temperature in the first six months of life, risk of hospitalization was 1.64 (95%CI: 1.26-2.13 to 3.16 (95%CI: 1.63-6.12 times higher for children born in the

  3. Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A.; Fain, Sean B.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A.; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Busse, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure–function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies. PMID:22095547

  4. Blood pressure in 12-year-old children is associated with fatty acid composition of human milk: the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H; de Jongste, Johan C; Koppelman, Gerard H; Oldenwening, Marieke; Postma, Dirkje S; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van de Heijning, Bert; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A

    2012-10-01

    Breastfed individuals have a lower blood pressure than formula-fed individuals. Supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in adults is also associated with a lower blood pressure. We studied whether children receiving human milk with a relatively high content of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have a lower blood pressure at age 12 years, and, if so, whether this association is explained by the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in erythrocyte membranes at age 12 years. Within a 12-year follow-up of a population-based birth cohort, we compared blood pressure of 205 never-breastfed children and 109 children who had fatty acid composition of their mothers' breast milk measured during lactation. In addition, 973 children had information on erythrocyte fatty acid composition and blood pressure at age 12 years. Children who received human milk with an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content above the median (ie, 0.51 weight percentage) had a 4.79-mm Hg lower systolic (95% CI, -7.64 to -1.94) and a 2.47-mm Hg lower diastolic (95% CI, -4.45 to -0.49) blood pressure at age 12 years than never-breastfed children. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in human milk below the median value and current n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status were not associated with blood pressure at age 12 years. Thus, a relatively high content of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk is associated with a lower blood pressure in children at age 12 years, a finding not explained by current n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids status.

  5. Diagnosing Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... were tried and if they helped Any family history of allergies or asthma It is very important ...

  6. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms ... counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the ...

  7. A population-based prescription study of asthma drugs during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana; Nielsen, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Among the goals of gestational asthma, therapy is optimisation of pulmonary function. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, no asthma drugs can be considered ‘safe’ during pregnancy. Fear of adverse fetal effects may thus lead to restrictive use of asthma drugs during...... pregnancy, and no population-based studies concerning gestational asthma therapy exist. Objectives: To examine whether asthma drugs or changing intensity of asthma therapy during pregnancy was associated with deviations from expected values of gestational age, birth weight, length at birth, or malformations....... Methods: The Birth Registry was used to identify all 15,756 primiparous women who gave birth in the County of North Jutland between 1991 and 1996. According to the North Jutland Prescription Database, 303 of these women received prescriptions for asthma drugs during pregnancy. Women who did not purchase...

  8. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  9. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... mother and child. Making Decisions about Medication During Pregnancy It is important that your asthma be controlled ...

  10. Asthma Hospitalizations Among US Military Personnel, 1994 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    14. Ciprandi G, Vizzaccaro A, Cirillo I, Crimi P, Canonica GW. Increase of asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence in young Italian men. Int Arch...antiinflammatory therapy on hospitalization and emer- gency department visits for children with asthma. Pediatrics . 2001;107:706–711. VOLUME 98, JANUARY, 2007 41...adolescence and gender on asthma hospitalization: a population-based birth cohort study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004;38:443–450. 26. Laor A, Cohen L, Danon YL

  11. Death due to asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L. Sheffer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minorities are at increased risk of asthma. The perception of dyspnea may be blunted in asthma sufferers. Slow-onset fatal asthma may be associated with submucosal eosinophilic, whereas sudden-onset may be associated with submucosal neutrophilia. Fatal asthma occurs in patients abusing regular |32-agonist therapy. Peak flow assessment often provides insight into asthma deterioration prior to signs of respiratory distress. Markers of risk of death due to asthma further identify the fatality-prone asthma patient.

  12. A Survey of Asthma Management Practices and Implementation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... morbidity and mortality in all age groups. ..... that low birth weight infants may have increased risk of developing asthma symptoms in childhood and adolescence.[14] The excess risk of asthma may be the outcome of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infancy including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and.

  13. Death due to asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffer, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minoriti...

  14. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  15. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Lingsma, Hester F; Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Steyerberg, Ewout W; de Jongste, Johan C; Raat, Hein

    2012-10-16

    In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1) to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2) to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of) preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3) to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index) and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth). The (updated) PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear.This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of) preschool children, who present with asthma symptoms at well

  16. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples - association with IVF?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Derk B.; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Heineman, Maas J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle

  17. Asthma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 53. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  18. Childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atopy, night cough, exercise-induced cough and/or wheeze and seasonal variation in symptoms. Epidemiology. Asthma is on the increase in both the developed and developing countries of the world. In South Africa, its prevalence in children in Cape Town (measured by exercise challenge) was only three per cent in 1979.

  19. Childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence in children in Cape Town (measured by exercise challenge) was only three per ... mortality among the five to 34-year-old age group, and fifth for asthma ... clouded by differences in terminology used by respondents, depending on ...

  20. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  1. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  2. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  3. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Asthma Center When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Kids and Exercise Asthma Triggers Word! Exercise-Induced Asthma ...

  4. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  5. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma. Dogs, cats, rodents (including hamsters and guinea pigs) and other warm-blooded mammals can trigger asthma ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Asthma Indoor Air Quality ...

  6. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Awareness National Asthma Awards Federal and Partner Organizations Public Service Announcements & Multimedia Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental ...

  7. Early childhood infections and immunisation and the development of allergic disease in particular asthma in a high-risk cohort: A prospective study of allergy-prone children from birth to six years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jennifer A; Widjaja, Constance; Darmaputra, Abbi A P; Lowe, Adrian; Matheson, Melanie C; Bennett, Catherine M; Allen, Katrina; Abramson, Michael J; Hosking, Cliff; Hill, David; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2010-11-01

    The role of early childhood infections and immunisation in the development of allergic diseases remains controversial. To examine these associations, six hundred and twenty infants with first-degree relatives with allergic diseases were recruited into the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Information on risk factors and outcomes was collected by interviewer administered questionnaire and was based on parental report and/or a physician's diagnosis. Risk factors examined included early childhood infections (including gastroenteritis, otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections) and immunisations in the first 2 yr of life. Outcomes were current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema at 6 yr of age. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used to estimate relative risk (RR) and assess confounding. By 6 yr, 79% of the original cohort remained in the study. Those with at least three episodes of gastroenteritis showed an increased risk (crude RR 2.36, 95%CI 1.41 3.95; adjusted RR 2.03 95%CI 1.50 2.75) for the later development of asthma at age 6. Of the scheduled immunisations, Sabin immunisation in the second year had a reduced risk of asthma at 6 yr (crude RR 0.60, 95%CI 0.37 0.98; adjusted RR 0.63 95%CI 0.39 1.02). Combined diphtheria and tetanus (CDT) immunisation in the first year had an increased risk of asthma at 6 yr (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.11 2.78; adjusted RR 1.88 95%CI 1.28 2.77). Recurrent gastroenteritis in early childhood is associated with a later risk of asthma. This may reflect a cause and effect relationship, or exposure to common risk factors. In contrast, Sabin immunisation in the second year is associated with a decreased risk of asthma in later childhood. CDT immunisation in the first year may be a risk factor for asthma, but the need for CDT immunisation may also be a marker of increased risk of asthma in later childhood. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  9. Demographic and neonatal risk factors for childhood asthma in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2017-10-29

    Asthma is the most common chronic condition diagnosed among children worldwide according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This study evaluated on a longitudinal basis prospectively collected medical records for demographic and neonatal information among United States (US) children diagnosed with childhood asthma in comparison to controls. The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database was examined to identify cases (n = 5907) diagnosed with International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9) healthcare provider diagnosed childhood asthma (493.xx) and controls (n = 11,662). All cases and controls were health maintenance organization (HMO)-enrolled from birth until diagnosis or sufficient time to ensure that they were unlikely to receive a diagnosis, respectively. Child's gestational age in weeks at birth, birth weight in grams, maternal age in years at birth, Appearance-Pulse-Grimace-Activity-Respiration (APGAR) score at 1 minute and 5 minutes following birth, gender, and race. The study results revealed childhood asthma was diagnosed significantly more frequently among males than females, and significantly more frequently among minority populations (Black > Hispanic > Native American > Asian) than White populations. Cases diagnosed with childhood asthma had significantly decreased mean values for the following neonatal risk factors: gestational age, maternal age, birth weight, and APGAR scores at 1 and 5 minutes following birth in comparison to controls. This study offers healthcare providers important demographic and neonatal factors significantly associated with childhood asthma, and should help aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma.

  10. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have sex makes sense Talking to your parents about sex Deciding about sex Birth control Types of birth ... not planned. Some young people are afraid their parents will find out they’re having sex. If you get birth control from a doctor, ...

  11. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  12. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Personal Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma ... A en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...

  13. Validation of maternal reported pregnancy and birth characteristics against the Medical Birth Registry of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igland, Jannicke; Johannessen, Ane; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Lønnebotn, Marianne; Omenaas, Ernst Reidar

    2017-01-01

    Studies using mothers’ self-reported information on birth and pregnancy characteristics are common, but the validity of such data is uncertain. We evaluated questionnaire data from the RHINE III study on reproductive health provided by 715 mothers from Bergen, Norway, about their 1629 births between 1967 and 2010, using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) as gold standard. Validity of dichotomous variables (gender, preterm birth [postterm birth [>42 weeks’ gestation], induction of labour, forceps delivery, vacuum delivery, caesarean section, were assessed by sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) and Cohen’s kappa. Paired t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to validate birthweight, stratified by mother’s level of education, parity, birth year and child’s asthma status. Child’s gender and caesarean section showed high degree of validity (kappa = 0.99, sensitivity and specificity 100%). Instrumental delivery and extremely preterm birth showed good agreement with sensitivity 75–92%. Preterm birth and induction of labour showed moderate agreement. Post-term delivery was poorly reported. The validity appeared to be independent of recall time over 45 years, and of the child’s asthma status. Maternally reported birth and pregnancy information is feasible and cheap, showed high validity for important birth and pregnancy parameters, and showed similar risk-associations compared to registry data. PMID:28783742

  14. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma Resources for Professionals National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  18. Filaggrin gene variants and atopic diseases in early childhood assessed longitudinally from birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Tavendale, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) was one of the discovery cohorts of the association between eczema and variants in the filaggrin coding gene (FLG). Here, we study the FLG-associated risk of asthma symptoms in early life and describe the temporal relationship...... in the development of the different FLG-associated atopic outcomes: asthma, sensitization and eczema, assessed longitudinally from birth. A high-risk cohort of 411 children was assessed in a prospective clinical study from birth to school-age. Asthma, acute severe asthma exacerbations, sensitization and eczema were....... Children with filaggrin variants had a marked and persistent increase in acute severe asthma exacerbations from 1 yr of age (incidence ratio 2.40 [1.19-4.81], p = 0.01) and increased risk of asthma by age 5 (odds ratio 2.62 [1.12-6.11], p = 0.03). FLG variants increased the risk of eczema, manifesting...

  19. Infant origins of childhood asthma associated with specific molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Tiina; Lockey, James; Bernstein, David I; Vesper, Stephen J; Levin, Linda; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Zheng, Shu; Ryan, Patrick; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Villareal, Manuel; Lemasters, Grace

    2012-09-01

    The specific cause or causes of asthma development must be identified to prevent this disease. Our hypothesis was that specific mold exposures are associated with childhood asthma development. Infants were identified from birth certificates. Dust samples were collected from 289 homes when the infants were 8 months of age. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of 36 molds that comprise the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) and endotoxin, house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach allergens. Children were evaluated at age 7 years for asthma based on reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function. Host, environmental exposure, and home characteristics evaluated included a history of parental asthma, race, sex, upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, season of birth, family income, cigarette smoke exposure, air conditioning, use of a dehumidifier, presence of carpeting, age of home, and visible mold at age 1 year and child's positive skin prick test response to aeroallergens and molds at age 7 years. Asthma was diagnosed in 24% of the children at age 7 years. A statistically significant increase in asthma risk at age 7 years was associated with high ERMI values in the child's home in infancy (adjusted relative risk for a 10-unit increase in ERMI value, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2). The summation of levels of 3 mold species, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus unguis, and Penicillium variabile, was significantly associated with asthma (adjusted relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-2.7). In this birth cohort study exposure during infancy to 3 mold species common to water-damaged buildings was associated with childhood asthma at age 7 years. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 104 COPD Awareness Month: Connecting with Social Support American Lung Association ... Asthma - Duration: 3:36. Nucleus Medical Media 658,979 views 3:36 What is asthma. ...

  1. Obesity, adipokines and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jartti, T; Saarikoski, L; Jartti, L; Lisinen, I; Jula, A; Huupponen, R; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O. T

    2009-01-01

    .... Our objective was to examine whether obesity is associated with asthma in three time points of life, and whether immunomodulatory adipokines, leptin and adiponectin are linked to overweight-associated asthma. Methods...

  2. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 139 Barbara Tie talks about Alpha 1-caused COPD American Lung Association 140 Judy Pruitt ... American Lung Association 182 Asthma - Theresa Moore PSA 1 American Lung Association 183 Asthma Walk PSA American ...

  3. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  4. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  5. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clubs American Lung Association 146 Angela Abel on exercise and COPD American Lung Association 147 American Lung ... 40 Types of Asthma - Duration: 11:38. Affinity Health Plan 6,222 views 11:38 Asthma Tech - ...

  6. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  7. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the ...

  8. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  9. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy: Impact on pregnancy complications and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-05-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care unit and longer postpartum hospital stay. Asthma has been associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, small-for-gestational age, low birth weight, infant hypoglycaemia and preterm birth, but more recent prospective studies have not revealed significant associations with regard to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome.

  10. Prematurity and prescription asthma medication from childhood to young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anne Louise; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Mathiasen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of asthma-like symptoms and purchase of prescription asthma medication in childhood. We investigated whether this association persists into adulthood and whether it is affected by accounting for neonatal respiratory morbidity (acute...... both in childhood and adolescence. CONCLUSION: There was a strong dose-response association between gestational age and the purchase of prescription asthma medication in infancy and childhood. This association weakened during adolescence and was mostly non-significant in young adulthood. The increased...

  11. Natural Language Processing for Asthma Ascertainment in Different Practice Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Chung-Il; Sohn, Sunghwan; Ali, Mir; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ryu, Euijung; Liu, Hongfang; Juhn, Young J

    2017-06-17

    We developed and validated NLP-PAC, a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm based on predetermined asthma criteria (PAC) for asthma ascertainment using electronic health records at Mayo Clinic. To adapt NLP-PAC in a different health care setting, Sanford Children Hospital, by assessing its external validity. The study was designed as a retrospective cohort study that used a random sample of 2011-2012 Sanford Birth cohort (n = 595). Manual chart review was performed on the cohort for asthma ascertainment on the basis of the PAC. We then used half of the cohort as a training cohort (n = 298) and the other half as a blind test cohort to evaluate the adapted NLP-PAC algorithm. Association of known asthma-related risk factors with the Sanford-NLP algorithm-driven asthma ascertainment was tested. Among the eligible test cohort (n = 297), 160 (53%) were males, 268 (90%) white, and the median age was 2.3 years (range, 1.5-3.1 years). NLP-PAC, after adaptation, and the human abstractor identified 74 (25%) and 72 (24%) subjects, respectively, with 66 subjects identified by both approaches. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the NLP algorithm in predicting asthma status were 92%, 96%, 89%, and 97%, respectively. The known risk factors for asthma identified by NLP (eg, smoking history) were similar to the ones identified by manual chart review. Successful implementation of NLP-PAC for asthma ascertainment in 2 different practice settings demonstrates the feasibility of automated asthma ascertainment leveraging electronic health record data with a potential to enable large-scale, multisite asthma studies to improve asthma care and research. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  13. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  14. Clinical phenotypes of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic

  15. Association between dietary habits and asthma severity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Denise Halpern; Zhang, Linjie; Prietsch, Silvio O M; Vecchi, Amilcare Angelo; Susin, Lulie Rosane Odeh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate association between dietary habits and asthma severity in children. Cross-sectional study. Two teaching hospitals in Brazil. Cases (n=268) were children (3-12yr) with persistent asthma and age-matched controls (n=126) were those with intermittent asthma. Dietary habits were determined based on food consumption in the past 12 months classified as frequent (≥3 times per week) or infrequent (never or 2Z-score of BMI-for-age; non-obese: ≤2Z-score of BMI-for-age. After adjusting for confounding factors, maternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth and obesity were significantly associated with persistent asthma, with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 2.11 (1.08- 4.13), 2.61(1.07-6.35) and 2.89 (1.49-5.61), respectively. No significant association was observed between frequency of consumption of specific foods, food groups, or dietary pattern (pro- or contra-Mediterranean diet) and the severity of asthma. This study did not find a significant association between dietary habits and asthma severity in children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth and obesity were independent factors associated with persistent asthma.

  16. Severe bronchial asthma in children: the role of clinical and anamnestic indices in diagnosis verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyubakina L.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparative analysis of results of clinical and anamnestic examination of children depending on the asthma severity. Severe asthma in schoolchildren relative to moderate phenotype characterized by birth overweight, more burdened individual allergic history, highly infectious index, drug or combined (medication, food and household allergies, seasonal exacerbations (mainly from November to March, what associated with the trigger role of ARVI and meteorological factors, inadequate asthma control during standard basic therapy.

  17. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola

    2017-01-01

    ) was not. In 11 pairs, both twins developed asthma. In the unadjusted analysis, emergency caesarean section did not affect the risk of asthma (odds ratio = 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.17); p = 0.16). After adjusting for birth weight, gender, umbilical cord pH, Apgar score at 5 min. and neonatal...

  18. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age: the PIAMA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Smit, H.A.; de Jongste, J.C.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336510160; Postma, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. METHODS: Event history analysis was

  19. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age: the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. METHODS: Event history analysis was

  20. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    Background: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. Methods: Event history analysis was

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2016-03-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic noncommunicable diseases of childhood, but the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Because epigenetic mechanisms link gene regulation to environmental cues and developmental trajectories, their contribution to asthma and allergy pathogenesis is under active investigation. DNA methylation signatures associated with concurrent disease and with the development of asthma during childhood asthma have been identified, but their significance is not easily interpretable. On the other hand, the characterization of early epigenetic predictors of asthma points to a potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating the inception of, and the susceptibility to, this disease.

  2. Obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal.

  3. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  4. Patient's adherence in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillisen, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Nonadherence in asthma treatment results in increasing mortality, morbidity, and it is associated with increasing treatment costs. In asthma, adherence rates are often below 50%. Understanding of the needs and behaviors of asthma patients as well as treatment barriers to comply with asthma guidelines is important in developing programs to promote adherence. This article presents information on common types of nonadherence in asthma patients, the causes, and it reviews the literature on interventions to overcome these factors to maximize adherence rates. Although several interventions are effective in improving medication adherence in asthma, only few significantly enhance adherence rates and clinical outcomes of these patients. An improvement in treatment adherence is a complex task, requiring asthma self-management, education programs coupled with educational reinforcements, simplifying treatment planes and applications forms. Good communications skills among clinicians and patient education are also central for improving adherence. Methods to overcoming physician barriers ensure consistency in implementing guideline recommendations in practice.

  5. Use of Antibiotics during pregnancy increases the risk of Asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother's use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Severe...... verified eczema. All children were followed to age 5 years in a cohort study design. RESULTS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood data showed increased risk of asthma exacerbation (hazard ratio 1.98 [95% CI 1.08-3.63]) if mothers had used antibiotics during third trimester. The Danish...... asthma exacerbations and eczema were diagnosed by research unit physicians. Replication was sought in children from the Danish National Birth Cohort (N = 30 675). Asthma outcomes were hospitalization and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Eczema was defined by an algorithm developed from cases of clinically...

  6. Nucleated red blood cells in infants of mothers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littner, Yoav; Mandel, Dror; Sheffer-Mimouni, Galit; Mimouni, Francis B; Deutsch, Varda; Dollberg, Shaul

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte count is elevated in term, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants born to women with asthma. We compared absolute nucleated red blood cell counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants; one group was born to mothers with active asthma during pregnancy (n = 28 infants), and the other group was born to control mothers (n = 29 infants). Asthma severity was classified according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. We excluded infants of women with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, alcohol, and tobacco or drug abuse and infants with fetal heart rate abnormalities, hemolysis, blood loss, or chromosomal anomalies. There were no differences between groups in birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal analgesia during labor, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and infant sex. The hematocrit level, red blood cell count, absolute nucleated red blood cell count, and corrected leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the asthma group than in the control group. The platelet count was not significantly different between groups. The absolute nucleated red blood cell count correlated significantly with the asthma severity score (r (2) = 28%, P cell count with the presence of asthma and its severity (P mothers with asthma have increased circulating absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte counts compared with control infants.

  7. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm ... Their Families What are the warning signs of preterm labor? In most cases, preterm labor (labor that ...

  8. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class setting. Some hospitals are beginning to offer online courses, too.Expect to be required to pay ... called The Mongan Method, HypnoBirthing helps women learn self-hypnosis techniques to deliver their babies in a ...

  9. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and planning to shop for baby clothes. The reality of labor and birth may seem extremely far ... all women in labor, but many now show increased flexibility in how they handle their patients. Some ...

  10. Asthma during pregnancy in a population-based study--pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Rejnö

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases, and prevalence, severity and medication may have an effect on pregnancy. We examined maternal asthma, asthma severity and control in relation to pregnancy complications, labour characteristics and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We retrieved data on all singleton births from July 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009, and prescribed drugs and physician-diagnosed asthma on the same women from multiple Swedish registers. The associations were estimated with logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 266 045 women gave birth to 284 214 singletons during the study period. Maternal asthma was noted in 26 586 (9.4% pregnancies. There was an association between maternal asthma and increased risks of pregnancy complications including preeclampsia or eclampsia (adjusted OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24 and premature contractions (adj OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.29-1.80. There was also a significant association between maternal asthma and emergency caesarean section (adj OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.23-1.34, low birth weight, and small for gestational age (adj OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.13-1.33. The risk of adverse outcomes such as low birth weight increased with increasing asthma severity. For women with uncontrolled compared to those with controlled asthma the results for adverse outcomes were inconsistent displaying both increased and decreased OR for some outcomes. CONCLUSION: Maternal asthma is associated with a number of serious pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes. Some complications are even more likely with increased asthma severity. With greater awareness and proper management, outcomes would most likely improve.

  11. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemm, Hege H; Engeseth, Merete; Vollsæter, Maria; Kotecha, Sailesh; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2017-06-20

    Being born preterm often adversely affects later lung function. Airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are common findings. Respiratory symptoms in asthma and in lung disease after preterm birth might appear similar, but clinical experience and studies indicate that symptoms secondary to preterm birth reflect a separate disease entity. BHR is a defining feature of asthma, but can also be found in other lung disorders and in subjects without respiratory symptoms. We review different methods to assess BHR, and findings reported from studies that have investigated BHR after preterm birth. The area appeared understudied with relatively few and heterogeneous articles identified, and lack of a pervasive understanding. BHR seemed related to low gestational age at delivery and a neonatal history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. No studies reported associations between BHR after preterm birth and the markers of eosinophilic inflammatory airway responses typically found in asthma. This should be borne in mind when treating preterm born individuals with BHR and airway symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  13. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  14. Asthma in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a common problem with enormous medical and economics impacts. It is an inflammatory disease of the airways associated with intermittent episodes of bronchospasm. Asthma is not uncommon in the elderly patients. Prevalence of asthma is similar in older and younger adults. Asthma in the elderly patient is underdiagnosed because of false perceptions by both patient and physician. The high incidence of comorbid conditions in the elderly patient makes the diagnosis and management more difficult. Correct diagnosis is demonstrated with spirometry. The goals of asthma treatment are to achieve and maintain control of symptoms and to prevent development of irreversible airflow limitation. Asthma drugs are preferably inhaled because this route minimizes systemic absorption and, thus, improves the ratio of the therapeutic benefit to the potential side-effects in elderly patients.

  15. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  16. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    , to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...... the risk of systemic effects. However, most recommendations are based on extrapolation from findings in younger patients. Comorbidities are very common in patients with late-onset asthma and need to be taken into account in the management of the disease. In conclusion, late-onset asthma is poorly...

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather ... Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler ... ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... among Children Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  3. Severe Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Bradley E; Parikh, Neil G; Maharaj, Sheena K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma. Understanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient's response is highly variable. The onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state.

  4. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Asthma in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Sidney S

    2017-11-01

    The older population has seen the greatest increase in the prevalence of current asthma in recent years. Asthma may begin at any age and when it occurs at an advanced as opposed to a young age, it is often nonatopic, severe, and unremitting. Unfortunately, geriatric-specific guidelines are not available for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. However, with objective monitoring, avoidance of asthma triggers, appropriate pharmacotherapy, and patient education, the disease can be managed successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  7. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  8. Fetal growth and risk of childhood asthma and allergic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedner, S G; Örtqvist, A K; Almqvist, C

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early genetic and environmental factors have been discussed as potential causes for the high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in the western world, and knowledge on fetal growth and its consequence on future health and disease development is emerging. Objective This review article is an attempt to summarize research on fetal growth and risk of asthma and allergic disease. Current knowledge and novel findings will be reviewed and open research questions identified, to give basic scientists, immunologists and clinicians an overview of an emerging research field. Methods PubMed-search on pre-defined terms and cross-references. Results Several studies have shown a correlation between low birth weight and/or gestational age and asthma and high birth weight and/or gestational age and atopy. The exact mechanism is not yet clear but both environmental and genetic factors seem to contribute to fetal growth. Some of these factors are confounders that can be adjusted for, and twin studies have been very helpful in this context. Suggested mechanisms behind fetal growth are often linked to the feto-maternal circulation, including the development of placenta and umbilical cord. However, the causal link between fetal growth restriction and subsequent asthma and allergic disease remains unexplained. New research regarding the catch-up growth following growth restriction has posited an alternative theory that diseases later on in life result from rapid catch-up growth rather than intrauterine growth restriction per se. Several studies have found a correlation between a rapid weight gain after birth and development of asthma or wheezing in childhood. Conclusion and clinical relevance Asthma and allergic disease are multifactorial. Several mechanisms seem to influence their development. Additional studies are needed before we fully understand the causal links between fetal growth and development of asthma and allergic diseases. PMID:22994341

  9. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  10. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 104 COPD Awareness Month: Connecting with Social Support American Lung Association 105 Ohio Cares about ... 7:59 Asthma - Duration: 3:36. Nucleus Medical Media 658,979 views 3:36 What is asthma. ...

  11. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress How Cliques Make Kids Feel Left Out Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma Print A A A en español ... handy at all times. So if you're traveling by car, keep them where you can get ...

  12. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... CI 1.06-3.47) and obesity (OR 1.81; 1.01-3.27). Conclusion: Asthma remains poorly controlled in a large proportion of asthma patients under specialist care in Cameroon. Educational programs for asthma patients targeting women and based on weight loss for obese patients may help in improving the control of asthma.

  13. Advances in pediatric asthma in 2013: coordinating asthma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J

    2014-03-01

    Last year's "Advances in pediatric asthma: moving toward asthma prevention" concluded that "We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma." This year's summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on prenatal and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children, as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention, as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma, as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations, and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists, and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low risk of adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma in pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications. Our aim was to estimate incidence and describe risk factors for adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with asthma. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Management of Asthma...... during Pregnancy (MAP) program were each matched with three controls (i.e. consecutive women giving birth at our obstetrical service). Asthma severity was classified according to treatment step. Data on obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were obtained from medical records. Logistic regression analysis...... of adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by asthma is low compared to non-asthmatic women. Our observations suggest that enrollment into an asthma management program has a positive impact on overall pregnancy outcome....

  15. The neonatal methylome as a gatekeeper in the trajectory to childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2017-04-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous group of conditions that typically begin in early life and result in recurrent, reversible bronchial obstruction. The role played by epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma is understood only in part. Here we discuss asthma epigenetics within a developmental perspective based on our recent demonstration that the epigenetic trajectory to childhood asthma begins at birth. We next discuss how this trajectory may be affected by prenatal environmental exposures. Finally, we examine in vitro studies that model the impact of asthma-associated exposures on the epigenome. All of these studies specifically surveyed human DNA methylation and involved a genome-wide component. In combination, their results broaden our understanding of asthma pathogenesis and the role the methylome plays in this process.

  16. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Caesarean section is thought to be a risk factor for childhood asthma, but this association may be caused by confounding from, for instance, familial factors. To address this problem, we used twin pairs to assess the risk of childhood asthma after emergency caesarean section. METHODS......) was not. In 11 pairs, both twins developed asthma. In the unadjusted analysis, emergency caesarean section did not affect the risk of asthma (odds ratio = 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.17); p = 0.16). After adjusting for birth weight, gender, umbilical cord pH, Apgar score at 5 min. and neonatal...... respiratory morbidity, the risk of childhood asthma following emergency caesarean section remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Emergency caesarean section was not associated with childhood asthma. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  17. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics....... The advent of new genotyping technologies has made it possible to sequence in great detail the human genome for asthma-associated variants, and accordingly, recent decades have witnessed an explosion in the number of rare and common variants associated with disease risk. This review presents an overview...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  18. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  19. Outdoor air pollution and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian

    2011-06-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, is associated with reversible airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness to triggers; clinical symptoms include wheezing, episodic cough, shortness of breath, and increased mucous production. Ambient or outdoor environmental exposure to ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides has been well documented to exacerbate asthma. Children appear to be most vulnerable to the harmful effects of ambient air pollutants. As their lungs are not completely developed, children may experience greater exposure to environmental pollutants than adults and the higher doses of varied composition may remain in their lungs for a greater duration. Altogether, the negative effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function place children at a greater risk of air pollutant-induced exacerbation of asthma for the duration of their lives. The aim of this review was to assess recently published literature regarding the influence of air pollution on asthma in children. For this work, we reviewed articles found in PubMed using the key words "outdoor air pollution, asthma, and children" which were published between 2006 and 2009. Only those articles that had a full version available in PubMed were analyzed. We reviewed studies published between 2006 and 2009 examining the effect of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children. In total, we evaluated 25 articles; of these, 9 were published in 2006, 3 in 2007, 8 in 2008, and 5 in 2009. Of these 25 studies, 1 was a clinical trial, 6 were cross-sectional, 4 were case-control (2 with a case-crossover design), 12 were cohort prospective, and 2 were cohort retrospective studies with varied follow-up times ranging from 10 days to 7 years. The ages of children also differed, ranging from birth to 18 years of age. All studies reviewed in this work indicate that outdoor air pollution affects the appearance and exacerbation of asthma in children. Although these findings are of great

  20. Filaggrin mutations in the onset of eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and the interaction with cat exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M L A; Kerkhof, M; Jonkman, M F; Koppelman, G H; Brunekreef, B; de Jongste, J C; Wijga, A; McLean, W H I; Postma, D S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. METHODS: FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth

  1. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality. PMID:24581430

  2. The significance of early recurrent wheeze for asthma outcomes in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Vegard; Riiser, Amund; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent early life wheeze is not always asthma, and up to 50% of children are reported to remit. With reports of adult asthma symptom relapse, we assessed the prognosis of recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) through adolescence in the Environment and Childhood Asthma (ECA) prospective birth cohort study. The present study is based on data from investigations at ages 2, 10 and 16 years of 550 young people (52% males) attending at 16 years of age. Based on the presence of rBO from 0-2 years, defined as recurrent (at least two episodes) doctor-diagnosed wheeze, and asthma from 2-10 years and 10-16 years, defined as at least two episodes of doctor-diagnosed asthma, symptoms and medication use, prognosis of rBO was assessed. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) was diagnosed by a metacholine provocation dose ≤ 8 μmol that caused 20% reduction in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s. At 10-16 years, 34% of the 143 rBO children had asthma. All children with rBO had reduced lung function compared with the never asthmatics. Of the rBO children in remission, 48.4% had asthma symptoms, medication use and/or BHR compared with 26.7% with never asthma (p<0.001). Only 34.3% of rBO children were without asthma symptoms, medication use or BHR by 16 years, possibly indicating future asthma risk.

  3. A systematic review of predictive models for asthma development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Schmick, Darell; Johnson, Michael D

    2015-11-28

    Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease affecting 9.6 % of American children. Delay in asthma diagnosis is prevalent, resulting in suboptimal asthma management. To help avoid delay in asthma diagnosis and advance asthma prevention research, researchers have proposed various models to predict asthma development in children. This paper reviews these models. A systematic review was conducted through searching in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, and OpenGrey up to June 3, 2015. The literature on predictive models for asthma development in children was retrieved, with search results limited to human subjects and children (birth to 18 years). Two independent reviewers screened the literature, performed data extraction, and assessed article quality. The literature search returned 13,101 references in total. After manual review, 32 of these references were determined to be relevant and are discussed in the paper. We identify several limitations of existing predictive models for asthma development in children, and provide preliminary thoughts on how to address these limitations. Existing predictive models for asthma development in children have inadequate accuracy. Efforts to improve these models' performance are needed, but are limited by a lack of a gold standard for asthma development in children.

  4. The Role of Sensitization to Allergen in Asthma Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Moustaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The burden of asthma in childhood is considerable worldwide, although some populations are much more affected than others. Many attempts have been made by different investigators to identify the factors that could predict asthma development or persistence in childhood. In this review, the relation between atopic sensitization as an indicator of allergy and asthma in childhood will be discussed. Cross sectional studies, carried out in different countries, failed to show any firm correlation between asthma and atopic sensitization. Birth cohort mainly of infants at high risk for asthma and case–control studies showed that atopic sensitization was a risk factor for current asthma in children older than 6 years. In general, clear relations are observed mostly in affluent Western countries, whereas in less affluent countries, the picture is more heterogeneous. For the prediction of asthma development or persistence in school age children, other prerequisites should also be fulfilled such as family history of asthma and wheezing episodes at preschool age. Despite the conductance of different studies regarding the potential role of allergen avoidance for the primary prevention of childhood asthma, it does not seem that this approach is of benefit for primary prevention purposes. However, the identification of children at risk for asthma is of benefit as these subjects could be provided with the best management practices and with the appropriate secondary prevention measures.

  5. Children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis have a similar risk of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis have been associated with increased prevalence of asthma. To characterize asthma and intermediary asthma endpoints in young children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Thirty-eight 7-year-old children with allergic rhinitis, 67 with nonallergic rhinitis, and 185 without rhinitis from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort were compared for prevalence of asthma, eczema, food sensitization, filaggrin null-mutations, total IgE, blood eosinophil count, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function, and bronchial responsiveness. Children with allergic rhinitis compared with asymptomatic controls had increased prevalence of asthma (21% vs 5%; P = .002), food sensitization (47% vs 13%; P allergic rhinitis (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.3) but did not modify these associations. Children with nonallergic rhinitis also had increased asthma prevalence (20% vs 5%; P = .001) but showed no association with filaggrin null-mutations, eczema, food sensitization, total IgE, blood eosinophil count, FeNO, or bronchial responsiveness. Asthma is similarly associated with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, suggesting a link between upper and lower airways beyond allergy associated inflammation. Only children with allergic rhinitis had increased bronchial responsiveness and elevated FeNO, suggesting different endotypes of asthma symptoms in young children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  7. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  8. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  9. Safety of bronchodilators and corticosteroids for asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Thorbjørn Lomholt; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common medical condition complicating pregnancy with potentially serious effects on pregnancy outcome. The aim of this review is to provide an update on efficacy and safety of asthma medications, primarily bronchodilators and corticosteroids, used during pregnancy with focus on pregna......Asthma is a common medical condition complicating pregnancy with potentially serious effects on pregnancy outcome. The aim of this review is to provide an update on efficacy and safety of asthma medications, primarily bronchodilators and corticosteroids, used during pregnancy with focus...... the safety of add-on long-acting β2-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are generally found to be safe, although further research is needed to investigate both the efficacy and safety of high dose therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. Studies have reported associations between...... the use of systemic corticosteroids and adverse perinatal outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and pre-eclampsia. This must, however, be weighed against the potential serious impact of severe, uncontrolled asthma itself on pregnancy outcome. The main obstacle to a valid interpretation...

  10. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  11. [Association between risk factors during maternal pregnancy and the neonatal period and childhood bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Qin; Fan, Rui; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Tao, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Xin

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the risk factors during maternal pregnancy and the neonatal period with childhood bronchial asthma. A total of 306 children with asthma (asthma group) and 250 healthy children (control group) were enrolled. Their clinical data during the neonatal period and the maternal data during pregnancy were retrospectively studied. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in the rates of maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy, use of antibiotics and probiotics during the neonatal period, preterm birth, cesarean section, low birth weight, and breast feeding (>6 months) between the asthma and control groups (Pantibiotics during pregnancy (OR=3.908, 95%CI: 1.277-11.962), use of antibiotics during neonatal period (OR=24.154, 95%CI: 7.864-74.183), preterm birth (OR=8.535, 95%CI: 2.733-26.652), and cesarean section (OR=4.588, 95%CI: 2.887-7.291) were independent risk factors for childhood asthma. The use of probiotics during the neonatal period (OR=0.014, 95%CI: 0.004-0.046) and breast feeding (>6 months) (OR=0.161, 95%CI: 0.103-0.253) were protective factors for childhood asthma. The early prevention of childhood asthma can be improved by reducing the use of antibiotics during pregnancy, reducing cesarean section, avoiding abuse of antibiotics during the neonatal period, trying breast feeding and taking probiotics in early stage.

  12. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... in whom the tests suggest good asthma control may still have poorly controlled asthma when various objective outcomes are included in the assessment. A main reason for that seems to be that none of the tests accurately detects the child's adaptation in lifestyle. If you do not exercise you have fewer...

  13. Genetics, atopy asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O.C.M. Cookson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex disease which is due to the interaction of an unknown number of genes with strong environmental factors. Segregation analysis suggests the presence of major genes underlying asthma and atopy. Different genetic effects have been recognized which predispose to generalized atopy, or modify the atopic response to particular allergens, or enhance bronchial inflammation, or modify bronchial tone. These known genes or genetic loci do not account for all of the familial clustering of asthma and atopy. Many studies are now under way to identify the remaining genes.

  14. Neonatal size in term children is associated with asthma at age 7, but not with atopic dermatitis or allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelsted, A; Bisgaard, H

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesized that anthropometrics in the newborn is associated with development of asthma later in life. The study included a prospective, longitudinal clinical study of a birth cohort of 411 Danish neonates born at term of mothers with a history of asthma. The primary endpoint was physician-diagnosed asthma at age 7 years. Allergic sensitization and atopic dermatitis (AD) were also investigated. Infant size was measured at the research clinic on four occasions during the first year of life. Risk for asthma, AD, and allergic sensitization at age 6-7 were estimated from logistic regression. Time to first asthma and AD were investigated by Cox regression. Multivariate models were adjusted for gender, gestational age, and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Neonatal weight, length, body mass index and head circumference (z-score) were all significantly associated with asthma at age 7. Adjusted odds ratio for asthma by estimated birth weight z-score: 1.87 [1.23-2.84]; P = 0.004. Adjusted HR for onset of asthma by neonatal weight z-score: 1.46 [1.08-1.96]; P = 0.013. Neonatal size did not associate with AD or allergic sensitization. Increased neonatal size was significantly associated with asthma at age 7 but not AD or allergic sensitization in at-risk children born at term. The findings suggest some common prenatal mechanisms linking body size and asthma. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/discover/action-plans.htm. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014. Mickleborough TD, et al. Exercise-induced asthma: Nutritional management. Current ...

  16. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  17. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  18. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  19. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  20. Vitamin D and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Sheena D; Calvert, H. Hardie; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    .... Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma since vitamin D concentrations decrease with increased time spent indoors, decreased exposure to sunlight, less exercise, obesity, and inadequate calcium intake...

  1. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get all the medicine into your lungs . The best way to learn to use these devices correctly is ... bed. • Take your asthma medicine right after you brush your teeth and keep it with your toothbrush as a ...

  2. Inflammation in Asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf

    Systemic hypersensitivity diseases include, among others, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, otitis, rhinosinusitis ... hypersensitivity.13 As a medical specialty based on immunology, the allergy specialty (in some countries, called .... In certain countries (the United States, for instance), training in allergy encompasses both pediatrics.

  3. Pediatric asthma in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Holger Werner

    2014-07-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence, asthma is a leading cause of emergency department visits and hospital admissions for children. On the basis of research evidence, implementation of asthma guidelines by medical professionals in not optimal. On the basis of research evidence, the Asthma Predictive Index supports a diagnosis of chronic asthma in children younger than 3 years. On the basis of strong research evidence, premedication with a short-acting β2-agonist is the preferred initial therapy for exercise-induced asthma. On the basis of strong research evidence, anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids is an effective treatment for asthma. On the basis of research and consensus, assessment of impairment and risk followed by scheduled assessment for asthma control is recommended. On the basis of research and consensus, the establishment of a close cooperative relationship among medical professionals, patients with asthma, and their families is an important component of asthma management.

  4. Stress and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji Nagata; Masahiro Irie; Norio Mishima

    1999-01-01

    Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma) have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pat...

  5. Update in asthma 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Wendy C

    2009-01-01

    ... between obesity and asthma (8-10). Articles published in 2008 have advanced our understanding of the influence of genetics (11-18), factors in early life (19-21), and the environment (19, 22-24) on the development of asthma or the modification of disease severity. Basic pathobiologic studies in humans (25-35) and mice (36-46) have added to our underst...

  6. Genetics, atopy asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, William O. C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease which is due to the interaction of an unknown number of genes with strong environmental factors. Segregation analysis suggests the presence of major genes underlying asthma and atopy. Different genetic effects have been recognized which predispose to generalized atopy, or modify the atopic response to particular allergens, or enhance bronchial inflammation, or modify bronchial tone. These known genes or genetic loci do not account for all of the familial clustering...

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links ... to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data Most Recent Asthma State or Territory Data Previous Most Recent Asthma Data 2014 National Data Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination among Children with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors ... CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  14. Asthma Control Essential in Pregnancy, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were born to mothers with active asthma during pregnancy. Those born to mothers who had mild controlled asthma were less likely to be diagnosed with asthma at an early age than those whose moms had mild uncontrolled asthma, ...

  15. Asthma with allergic comorbidities in adolescence is associated with bronchial responsiveness and airways inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Vegard; Riiser, Amund; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2014-06-01

    Childhood asthma frequently has allergic comorbidities. However, there is limited knowledge of the longitudinal development of asthma comorbidites and their association to bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation markers. We therefore aimed to assess the association between childhood asthma with allergic comorbidities and BHR and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) and the impact of gender on these associations. Based on data from 550 adolescents in the prospective birth cohort 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study, asthma was defined for the three time periods 0-2, 2-10 and 10-16 years of age, using recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) 0-2 years of age as a proxy for early asthma. Asthma comorbidities included atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR) from 10 to 16 years. At age 16 years BHR, assessed by metacholine bronchial challenge, and airway inflammation, assessed by FE(NO), were compared between the groups of asthma with or without the two comorbidities, to a reference group with no never asthma, and subsequently stratified by gender. Boys with asthma and AR, regardless of AD had significantly more severe BHR and higher FE(NO) than the other asthma phenotypes. Almost half of the children remained in the asthma and AR category from 10 to 16 years, the entire difference being determined by new incident cases from 10 to 16 years. Asthma phenotypes characterized by allergic comorbidities and AR in particular appears closely associated with BHR and FE(NO), especially among boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  17. Asthma is Different in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in asthma incidence, prevalence and severity have been reported worldwide. After puberty, asthma becomes more prevalent and severe in women, and is highest in women with early menarche or with multiple gestations, suggesting a role for sex hormones in asthma genesis. However, the impact of sex hormones on the pathophysiology of asthma is confounded by and difficult to differentiate from age, obesity, atopy, and other gender associated environmental exposures. There are also gender discrepancies in the perception of asthma symptoms. Understanding gender differences in asthma is important to provide effective education and personalized management plans for asthmatics across the lifecourse. PMID:26141573

  18. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  19. The prevalence of allergic diseases in an unselected group of 6-year-old children. The DARC birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Høst, Arne

    2008-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, food hypersensitivity and urticaria and the frequency of sensitization in children with and without clinical allergic disease. In an ongoing prospective non-interventional birth cohort study of 562 unselected ...

  20. Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum IgE at birth in high-risk children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, H.J.; Dompeling, E.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Kuiper, S.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to mite, cat and dog allergens and total serum IgE at birth in newborns at high risk of asthma. In the homes of 221 newborns with at least one first-degree relative with asthma, concentrations (ng/g dust) of allergens of house dust mite (mite),

  1. Physical training for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mônica Corso

    2014-01-01

    People with asthma may show less tolerance to exercise due to worsening asthma symptoms during exercise or other reasons such as deconditioning as a consequence of inactivity. Some may restrict activities as per medical advice or family influence and this might result in reduced physical fitness. Physical training programs aim to improve physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self confidence. Subjectively, many people with asthma report that they are symptomatically better when fit, but results from trials have varied and have been difficult to compare because of different designs and training protocols. Also, as exercise can induce asthma, the safety of exercise programmes needs to be considered. To gain a better understanding of the effect of physical training on the respiratory and general health of people with asthma, from randomised trials. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials up to January 2013. We included randomised trials of people over eight years of age with asthma who were randomised to undertake physical training or not. Physical training had to be undertaken for at least 20 minutes, two times a week, over a minimum period of four weeks. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and undertook risk of bias assessment for the included studies. Twenty-one studies (772 participants) were included in this review with two additional 2012 studies identified as 'awaiting classification'. Physical training was well tolerated with no adverse effects reported. None of the studies mentioned worsening of asthma symptoms following physical training. Physical training showed marked improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness as measured by a statistically and clinically significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (mean difference (MD) 4.92 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.98 to 5.87; P physical training may have positive effects on health-related quality of life, with four of five studies

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health Know How ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health File Formats ...

  3. Environmental pollution and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giampaolo, L; Quecchia, C; Schiavone, C; Cavallucci, E; Renzetti, A; Braga, M; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical evidences and epidemiological studies show that allergic pathologies of the respiratory tract are increasing in the world areas with high pollution impact, demonstrating how many polluting substances favor both allergic sensitization and the bronchial inflammatory changes characteristic of asthma. It has been shown that asthma, as many other diseases, is a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental stimuli that results in clinical expression of various phenotypes of asthma: allergic, intrinsic etc. Many pollutants have such a potential. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can favor allergic sensitization, induce acute asthma attacks and increase bronchial reactivity, acting both on allergen, on bronchial mucosa and on immune cells. In fact, DEP can favor B lymphocytes to shift to a production of IgE and T cells to produce Th2 cytokines. Asthma can be also induced by high exposure to many other substances as NO2 and first of all ozone (O3): strong oxidizing substance that is synthesized, in absence of ventilation, by photochemical reaction due to the combination of ultraviolet sun radiation on exhaust gases as NO2 and hydrocarbons. Ozone is abundant in cities with minimal concentration in the morning gradually increasing during the day until maximal levels in the afternoon and then decreasing during the night. Epidemiological studies show that the number of access to hospital for acute asthma and even the use of bronchodilator by asthmatics increase during the high level periods when Ozone constitute almost 90 percent of the total oxidants in the environment. Particulate matter of very small diameter have a crucial role in favoring asthma attacks, and smaller the substance deeper the penetration in the bronchial tree, with an inflammatory reaction in the peripheral bronchial mucosa characterized by increased vessel permeability, mucosal edema, inflammatory mediator production by damaged epithelium and inflammatory cells that determines

  4. Filaggrin gene variants and atopic diseases in early childhood assessed longitudinally from birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian B; Tavendale, Roger; Palmer, Colin N A; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) was one of the discovery cohorts of the association between eczema and variants in the filaggrin coding gene (FLG). Here, we study the FLG-associated risk of asthma symptoms in early life and describe the temporal relationship in the development of the different FLG-associated atopic outcomes: asthma, sensitization and eczema, assessed longitudinally from birth. A high-risk cohort of 411 children was assessed in a prospective clinical study from birth to school-age. Asthma, acute severe asthma exacerbations, sensitization and eczema were diagnosed prospectively by the investigators. FLG variants R501X and Del4 were determined in 382 Caucasians. Filaggrin variants increased risk of developing recurrent wheeze, asthma and asthma exacerbations (hazard ratio 1.82 [1.06-3.12], p = 0.03), which was expressed within the first 1.5 yr of life. Children with filaggrin variants had a marked and persistent increase in acute severe asthma exacerbations from 1 yr of age (incidence ratio 2.40 [1.19-4.81], p = 0.01) and increased risk of asthma by age 5 (odds ratio 2.62 [1.12-6.11], p = 0.03). FLG variants increased the risk of eczema, manifesting fully in the first year of life (point prevalence ratio for age 0-5 was 1.75 [1.29-2.37]; p-value = 0.0003) contrasting the increased risk of specific sensitization by age 4 (odds ratio 3.52 [1.72-7.25], p = 0.0007) but not age 1.5. This study describes a FLG-associated pattern of atopic diseases characterized by the early onset of asthma symptoms and eczema and later development of sensitization. The association of filaggrin variants with asthma suggests skin barrier dysfunction as a novel, and potentially modifiable, mechanism driving early childhood asthma. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Cohort Study of Severe Bronchiolitis during Infancy and Risk of Asthma by Age 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balekian, Diana S; Linnemann, Rachel W; Hasegawa, Kohei; Thadhani, Ravi; Camargo, Carlos A

    Severe bronchiolitis (ie, bronchiolitis requiring hospital admission) is thought to markedly increase asthma risk, with 30%-50% developing asthma by age 5 years. To date, studies of this association are small, and most are from outside the United States. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between severe bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in a US birth cohort. We studied a cohort nested within the Massachusetts General Hospital Obstetric Maternal Study (MOMS), a prospective cohort of pregnant women enrolled during 1998-2006. Children of mothers enrolled in MOMS were included in the analysis if they received care within our health system (n = 3653). Diagnoses and medications were extracted from the children's electronic health records; we also examined pregnancy and perinatal risk factors collected for the underlying pregnancy study. The birth cohort was 52% male, 49% white, and 105 infants (2.9%) had severe bronchiolitis. Overall, 421 children (11.5%) developed asthma by age 5 years. Among the children with severe bronchiolitis, 27.6% developed asthma by age 5 years. In multivariable logistic regression adjusting for 12 risk factors, severe bronchiolitis remained a strong risk factor for developing asthma by age 5 years (odds ratio 2.57; 95% confidence interval 1.61-4.09). In a large Boston birth cohort, the frequency of severe bronchiolitis and childhood asthma was similar to published data. Among children with severe bronchiolitis, the risk of developing asthma was lower than prior studies but still high (27.6%). This difference may be due to different study designs, populations, and outcome definitions studied. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Association Between Community Stressors and Asthma Prevalence of School Children in Winnipeg, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Kozyrskyj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally surmised that community stressors have an incubating effect for a variety of diagnoses on maternal and child health. This is of public health significance, as children of mothers facing long-term distress were found to have a 60% higher risk for asthma diagnosis at age 7 in Manitoba, Canada. Our objective was to determine the association of community stressors with childhood asthma prevalence in Winnipeg, Canada from participants who completed the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE survey administered in 2002–2003 to a birth cohort from 1995. Measures of community socioeconomic makeup and community disorder with rank ordinalized by quintile at the census tract level were obtained from the 1996 Canada Census. Crime data (annual incidence per 10,000 persons by neighbourhood profile for 2001 was provided by the Winnipeg Police Service. Dichotomous caregiver report of child asthma along with other indicators from the geocoded SAGE survey allowed linkage to 23 neighbourhood profiles. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of community stressors on childhood asthma prevalence for birth and non-birth home children (N = 1472 and children resident of birth homes at age 7 or 8 (N = 698. After adjusting for individual risk factors, children resident of birth homes in a high thefts over $5,000 neighbourhood profile were twice as likely (Adjusted OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11–3.81 to have report of asthma compared to children in a lower thefts over $5,000 profile, with community thefts over $5,000 explaining over half of the observed neighbourhood variation in asthma.

  7. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şen, Elif; Oğuzülgen, Kıvılcım; Bavbek, Sevim; Günen, Hakan; Kıyan, Esen; Türktaş, Haluk; Yorgancıoğlu, Arzu; Polatlı, Mehmet; Yıldız, Füsun; Çelik, Gülfem; Demir, Tunçalp; Gemicioğlu, Bilun; Mungan, Dilşad; Saryal, Sevgi; Sayıner, Abdullah; Yıldırım, Nurhayat

    2015-01-01

    .... Among patient with COPD and asthma; there is a group of patients with an overlap between clinical, functional characteristics and airway inflammation patterns, named "Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome" (ACOS...

  9. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  10. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  11. 17q21 gene variation is not associated with asthma in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E.; Strachan, D P; Linneberg, A

    2015-01-01

    function in adulthood. The aim was to examine the association between the 17q21 region and current adult asthma and lung function, and interaction with active smoking. METHODS: We investigated the single nucleotide polymorphism rs7216389 at the 17q21 locus in 3471 adults from the Health2006 cross......-sectional study and in 7008 adults from The British 1958 Birth Cohort and examined the association with current asthma, spirometry measures, and related atopic traits. Analyses were performed for interaction with active smoking. RESULTS: We found no association between rs7216389[T] and asthma when meta...... risk variants, and there was no evidence that smoking modified the association between rs7216389 and asthma. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the 17q21 rs7216389 locus variant does not substantially influence asthma risk in adulthood or susceptibility to detrimental effects of active smoking...

  12. Aspirin-Exacerbated Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Mathew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on aspirin-exacerbated asthma (AEA. The review includes historical perspective of aspirin, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of AEA. The pathogenesis of AEA involves the cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. Aspirin affects both of these pathways by inhibiting the enzyme cycooxygenase-1 (COX-1. Inhibition of COX-1 leads to a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. The decrease in PGE2 results in an increase in cysteinyl leukotrienes by the lipooxygenase pathway involving the enzyme 5-lipooxygenase (5-LO. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4 synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of leukotriene C4, the chief cysteinyl leukotriene responsible for AEA. There have been familial occurences of AEA. An allele of the LTC4 synthase gene in AEA is known as allele C. Allele C has a higher frequency in AEA. Clinical presentation includes a history of asthma after ingestion of aspirin, nasal congestion, watery rhinorrhea and nasal polyposis. Treatment includes leukotriene receptor antagonists, leukotriene inhibitors, aspirin desinsitaztion and surgery. AEA is the most well-defined phenotype of asthma. Although AEA affects adults and children with physician-diagnosed asthma, in some cases there is no history of asthma and AEA often goes unrecognized and underdiagnosed.

  13. Allergens, germs and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    To explore asthma pathogenesis using data from upper and lower airways. English-language papers on human asthma and nasal polyp subjects from 1990 onwards. High-quality studies in established journals. The recognition of its inflammatory nature led to a quantum leap in the understanding and treatment of asthma, with lives saved by inhaled corticosteroids. Further work at genetic, molecular, histological and clinical levels has shown that asthma is polymorphic and rarely involves isolated Th2 bronchial inflammation. Viral infections may act as an initiating event in children and adults, showing synergy with atopy. Chronic staphylococcal colonization of the mucosa may act as a promoter, as in atopic dermatitis. These two observations may be linked, with viruses providing an entry for bacteria into the mucosal epithelium. Most asthma begins in the nose and involves allergy and infection: both viral and bacterial. The combination of atopy and infection suggests new possibilities for therapy. © 2014 The Author. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Asthma and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Medline, government reports and conference proceedings were searched. Case-control, cohort or cross sectional studies were included if they provided relevant and applicable quantitative information on the relation between asthma and caries, had an independent study population and adequate definitions of asthma and caries and appropriate measurement of caries. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Fixed- and random-effects models were used for the analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. Eighteen articles were included; 11 provided information on primary dentition and 15 on permanent dentition. Random-effects models showed a significant association between asthma and caries for both primary and permanent dentition, the odds ratios being 2.73 (95% CI: 1.61, 4.64) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.89), respectively. Evidence from this analysis suggests that asthma doubles the risk of caries in both primary and permanent dentition. Publication bias diagnostics and simulation suggested possible overestimation of the summary odds ratio for permanent dentition but not for primary dentition. Physicians and dentists should recommend preventive measures against caries for people with asthma.

  15. [Epigenetics, environment and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Silva-García, Raúl; Oliva-Rico, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract with a complex genetic background influenced by the exposition to a series of environmental factors. Genetic studies can only elucidate part of the heritability and susceptibility of asthma and even though several diseases have an evident genetic etiology, only a fraction of the genes involved in their pathogenicity have been identified. The epigenetic regulation of the latter is a fact one should bear in mind in order to explain the major triggers of diseases whose understanding is complicated, such as allergies and asthma. External stimulus such as nourishment, stress, physical activity, atmospheric pollution, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking can induce either gene silencing or gene expression. In this regard, epigenetics can explain how these environmental factors influence our genetic inheritance. There is growing evidence that backs-up the fact that DNA methylation, histone post-translational modification and microRNA expression are influenced by the environment. This helps explaining how several of the risk factors mentioned contribute to the development and inheritance of asthma. In this review, different environmental factors and their relation with the main epigenetic regulatory mechanisms will be analyzed, as well as their possible role in the development of asthma.

  16. The pharmacotherapy of the asthma

    OpenAIRE

    BROŽOVÁ, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Asthma bronchiale is a very common chronic disorder of airways with not fully elucidated pathology, which is not fully curable at the moment. It is estimated that 300 millions of persons suffer from asthma. About 8% of adult population and 10% of children are affected in the Czech republic. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of contemporary modern pharmacotherapy of asthma. Firstly, this work describes asthma from pathophysiological and epidemiological point of view, among others: ...

  17. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  18. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients.

  19. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients. PMID:26889016

  20. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Heli V; Vieira, Graciete O; Vieira, Tatiana O; Cruz, Álvaro A; Guimarães, Armênio C; Teles, Carlos; Camargos, Paulo; Cruz, Constança M S

    To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461). The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40), modifier effect p=0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30) and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69) were other identified risk factors for asthma. Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli V. Brandão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72 h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461. The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40, modifier effect p = 0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30 and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69 were other identified risk factors for asthma. Conclusion: Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma.

  2. Predicting the long-term prognosis of children with symptoms suggestive of asthma at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; A Schipper, C Maarten; Hoekstra, Maarten; Postma, Dirkje S; Koppelman, Gerard H; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A; de Jongste, Johan C

    2009-11-01

    Clinicians have difficulty in diagnosing asthma in preschool children with suggestive symptoms. We sought to develop a clinical asthma prediction score for preschool children who have asthma-like symptoms for the first time. The Prevalence and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort followed 3,963 children for 8 years. Between 0 and 4 years of age, 2,171 (55%) children reported "wheezing," "coughing at night without a cold," or both. In these children possible predictor variables for asthma were assessed at the age respiratory symptoms were first reported. Asthma was defined as wheezing, inhaled steroid prescription, or a doctor's diagnosis of asthma at both age 7 and 8 years of age. Eleven percent of children with symptoms at 0 to 4 years of age had asthma at 7 to 8 years of age. Eight clinical parameters independently predicted asthma at 7 to 8 years of age: male sex, postterm delivery, parental education and inhaled medication, wheezing frequency, wheeze/dyspnea apart from colds, respiratory infections, and eczema. In 72% of the cases, the model accurately discriminated between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. A clinical risk score was developed (range, 0-55 points). Symptomatic children with a score of less than 10 points had a 3% risk, whereas children with a score of 30 points or greater had a 42% risk of asthma. A risk score based on 8 readily available clinical parameters at the time preschool children first reported asthma-like symptoms predicted the risk of asthma at 7 to 8 years of age.

  3. Automated chart review utilizing natural language processing algorithm for asthma predictive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsheen; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wi, Chung-Il; Ryu, Euijung; Park, Miguel A; Bachman, Kay; Kita, Hirohito; Croghan, Ivana; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Voge, Gretchen A; Liu, Hongfang; Juhn, Young J

    2018-02-13

    Thus far, no algorithms have been developed to automatically extract patients who meet Asthma Predictive Index (API) criteria from the Electronic health records (EHR) yet. Our objective is to develop and validate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to identify patients that meet API criteria. This is a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study in Olmsted County, MN. Asthma status ascertained by manual chart review based on API criteria served as gold standard. NLP-API was developed on a training cohort (n = 87) and validated on a test cohort (n = 427). Criterion validity was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the NLP algorithm against manual chart review for asthma status. Construct validity was determined by associations of asthma status defined by NLP-API with known risk factors for asthma. Among the eligible 427 subjects of the test cohort, 48% were males and 74% were White. Median age was 5.3 years (interquartile range 3.6-6.8). 35 (8%) had a history of asthma by NLP-API vs. 36 (8%) by abstractor with 31 by both approaches. NLP-API predicted asthma status with sensitivity 86%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 98%. Asthma status by both NLP and manual chart review were significantly associated with the known asthma risk factors, such as history of allergic rhinitis, eczema, family history of asthma, and maternal history of smoking during pregnancy (p value NLP-API and abstractor, and the effect sizes were similar between the reviews with 4.4 vs 4.2 respectively. NLP-API was able to ascertain asthma status in children mining from EHR and has a potential to enhance asthma care and research through population management and large-scale studies when identifying children who meet API criteria.

  4. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause an intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, while the number of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.7 per 100,000 patients in 2009. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a healthy life without any symptoms. A partnership between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with agents and elimination of causes and risk factors are fundamental to asthma treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate mild to intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, varying from low to high doses. Long-acting β2 agonists (LABA, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and theophylline sustained-release preparation are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-IgE antibody therapy is a new choice for the most severe and persistent asthma. Inhaled β2 agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, etc., are used as needed against acute exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, aspirin induced asthma, pregnancy, and cough variant asthma are also important factors that need to be considered.

  5. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  6. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  7. The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans

    2004-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships among genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors in the development of atopic diseases in high-risk children with the aim of developing evidence-based prevention strategies. METHODS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood is a single......-center, birth cohort study of children of asthmatic mothers. Objective assessments begin at birth, with scheduled visits every 6 months and when acute symptoms manifest. Clinical outcomes comprise preasthma, asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergy, lung function, and bronchial responsiveness....... Exposure assessments comprise respiratory, intestinal, and skin microbiology; the child's diet; indoor and outdoor air quality; allergens; and indicators of lifestyle. Genetic characteristics of probands and parents are evaluated. Quality assurance follows Good Clinical Practice guidelines. RESULTS: Four...

  8. Early life rhinovirus wheezing, allergic sensitization, and asthma risk at adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Frederick J; Jackson, Daniel J; Evans, Michael D; Gangnon, Ronald E; Tisler, Christopher J; Pappas, Tressa E; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2017-02-01

    Early life rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses and aeroallergen sensitization increase the risk of asthma at school age. Whether these remain risk factors for the persistence of asthma out to adolescence is not established. We sought to define the relationships among specific viral illnesses and the type and timing of aeroallergen sensitization with the persistence of asthma into adolescence. A total of 217 children were followed prospectively from birth to age 13 years. The etiology and timing of viral wheezing illnesses during the first 3 years of life were assessed along with patterns of allergen sensitization. The associations between viral wheezing illnesses, presence and pattern of aeroallergen sensitization, and asthma diagnosis at age 13 years were evaluated. When adjusted for all viral etiologies, wheezing with RV (odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.1), but not respiratory syncytial virus (odds ratio = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.3), was associated with asthma at age 13 years. Age of aeroallergen sensitization also influenced asthma risk; 65% of children sensitized by age 1 year had asthma at age 13 years, compared with 40% of children not sensitized at age 1 year but sensitized by age 5 years, and 17% of children not sensitized at age 5 years. Early life aeroallergen sensitization and RV wheezing had additive effects on asthma risk at adolescence. In a high-risk birth cohort, the persistence of asthma at age 13 years was most strongly associated with outpatient wheezing illnesses with RV and aeroallergen sensitization in early life. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Birth Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human ... Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs ...

  10. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  11. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  12. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  13. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 579 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  14. Flavonoids and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Takahashi, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past two decades. Although the precise reasons that have caused this increase remain unknown, dietary change is thought to be one of the environmental factors. Flavonoids, which are polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and beverages, possess antioxidant and anti-allergic traits, as well as immune-modulating activities. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and anti-allergic nutrients that inhibit the release of chemical mediators, synthesis of Th2 type cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and CD40 ligand expression by high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-expressing cells, such as mast cells and basophils. They also inhibit IL-4-induced signal transduction and affect the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into effector T-cells through their inhibitory effect on the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Various studies of flavonoids in asthmatic animal models have demonstrated their beneficial effects. The results of several epidemiological studies suggest that an increase in flavonoid intake is beneficial for asthma. Moreover, clinical trials of flavonoids have shown their ameliorative effects on symptoms related to asthma. However, these human studies are currently limited; further validation is required to clarify whether an appropriate intake of flavonoids may constitute dietary treatment and for part of a preventive strategy for asthma. PMID:23752494

  15. Maternal antibiotic use and risk of asthma in offspring--Authors' reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    We thank Martin J Blaser and Maria Bello for their interest in our study.1 Our original discovery of an association between use of antibiotics in pregnancy and an offspring's risk of asthma was replicated in the COPSAC2000 birth cohort and another Danish birth cohort, as well as in national...... registries.2,3 We interpreted this association between use of antibiotics in pregnancy and the child's risk of asthma as one that was mediated through changes in the microbiome. In our study we aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating the temporal associations between maternal antibiotics and childhood...

  16. Obesity and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Baruwa; Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The prevalence of asthma is around 300 million and is expected to increase another 100 million by 2025. Obesity, on the other hand, also affects a large number of individuals. Overweight in adults is defined when body mass index (BMI) is between 25 to 30 kg/m 2 and obesity when the BMI >30 kg/m 2 . It has been a matter of interest for researchers to find a relation between these two conditions. This knowledge will provide a ...

  17. Management of infantile asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, G W

    1977-09-01

    Infantile asthama is an important pediatric problem and may cause substantial morbidity and mortality in this age group. The pathophysiology of allergic asthma involves a type I hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by reaginic antibodies of the IgE class. Various factors predisposing to infantile asthma have been suggested but not confirmed. The differential diagnosis of infantile wheezing is of particular importance in this very young age group. An appreciation of the natural history and clinical characteristics of the disease, and of the important causative factors (foods, environmental inhalants, and respiratory infections), will aid the physician in the management of this problem.

  18. Relvar Ellipta for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Relvar Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler that contains a corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate) and a long-acting beta2 agonist (vilanterol trifenatate). It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In a previous article we considered its use in the management of COPD.1 Here we review the evidence for Relvar Ellipta in the treatment of patients with asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The Severity-Dependent Relationship of Infant Bronchiolitis on the Risk and Morbidity of Early Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kecia N.; Wu, Pingsheng; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Griffin, Marie R.; Dupont, William D.; Mitchel, Edward F.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis have a high rate of early childhood asthma. It is not known whether bronchiolitis severity correlates with the risk of early childhood asthma or with asthma-specific morbidity. Objectives To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between severity of infant bronchiolitis and both the odds of developing early childhood asthma and asthma-specific morbidity. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective birth cohort study of term, healthy infants born 1995-2000 and enrolled in a statewide Medicaid program. We defined bronchiolitis severity by categorizing infants into mutually exclusive groups based on most advanced level of healthcare for bronchiolitis. Healthcare visits, asthma-specific medications, and demographics were identified entirely from Medicaid and linked vital records files. Asthma was ascertained between 4-5.5 years, and one-year asthma morbidity (hospitalization, emergency department visit, or oral corticosteroid course) was determined between 4.5-5.5 years, among children with prevalent asthma. Results Among 90,341 children, 18% had an infant bronchiolitis visit, and these infants contributed to 31% of early childhood asthma diagnoses. Relative to children with no infant bronchiolitis visit, the adjusted odds ratios for asthma were 1.86 [95% confidence intervals 1.74-1.99], 2.41 (2.21-2.62) and 2.82 (2.61-3.03) in the Outpatient, Emergency Department, and Hospitalization groups respectively. Children hospitalized with bronchiolitis during infancy had increased early childhood asthma morbidity compared with children with no bronchiolitis visit. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the dose-response relationship between severity of infant bronchiolitis and the increased odds of both developing early childhood asthma and experiencing asthma-specific morbidity. PMID:19361850

  20. Asthma and child behavioral skills: does family socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Work-related asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grain dust, welding fumes and wood dust. (Table III).1 Exposure to animal epithelia, hairs and secretions is commonly reported among laboratory animal workers and agricultural workers. Latex allergy-related asthma appears to be less common due to the introduction of latex-free gloves in most health care settings.

  2. Treating childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    played by additional factors, such as patient adherence and administration of medication technique. It is always necessary to treat the child as an individual, but some measures apply in all cases. It is important to allay anxiety about the diagnosis. This is best done by carefully explaining the nature and causes of asthma, ...

  3. Asthma Home Environment Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    This checklist guides home care visitors in identifying environmental asthma triggers most commonly found in homes. It includes sections on the building, home interior and room interior and provides low-cost action steps for remediation. EPA 402-F-03-030.

  4. School and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or dad to speak to the teacher, school nurse, or principal. Most teachers are glad to help. After all, if you can't breathe, you can't learn! What About Sports? You might think that because you have asthma ...

  5. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to non-Hispanic whites. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are at increased risk for acute lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis. Children living below or near the poverty level are more likely to have high levels ...

  6. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  7. Vascular remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eugene Haydn; Soltani, Amir; Reid, David William; Ward, Chris

    2008-02-01

    We review the recent literature, focusing on 2006 and 2007, to produce an update on the patho-biology of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor in the asthmatic airway. In terms of conceptual development in asthma research, airway inflammation and remodelling have been regarded as separate processes or perhaps as sequential, with early inflammation leading later to remodelling. Recent insights identify a central role for vascular endothelial growth factor in stimulating both inflammation and vascular remodelling coincidentally, with the full panoply of vascular endothelial growth factor mediated events being complex and wide. Both nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction may be important downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Virus-mediated exacerbations are a prime manifestation of the oscillating trajectory of clinical asthma. The early stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production is probably a central aetiological mechanism, with secondary inflammation and angiogenesis. The time scale of the latter, especially, fits with the time scale of clinico-physiological changes after exacerbation. These vascular endothelial growth factor induced changes are potentially modifiable with therapy. Insights into the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in asthma pathogenesis now lead to potential new therapeutic possibilities and elucidate why recent advances in asthma therapeutics have been so successful.

  8. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  9. Allergy, asthma and the environment; Allergie, Asthma und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Gfesser, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-10-11

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Asthma and other allergic diseases have increased in prevalence during the last decades in many industrialized countries. Among other hypotheses, the possible role of environmental pollutants has received much public and scientific attention. Some pollutants may modulate the different phases of allergic reactions. Inflammation is a critical feature in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore, beside allergen avoidance, anti-inflammatory treatment is the first line therapy of asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid mediators which appear to play a major role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Based on current data, it appears that leukotrience receptor antagonists have bronchodilative and anti-inflammatory effects and may therefore enrich the pharmacotherapeutic spectrum within the therapeutic concept of patient management in asthma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Asthma bronchiale ist eine entzuendliche Erkrankung der Atemwege. Epidemiologische Studien konnten eine deutliche Zunahme der Erkrankung in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten aufzeigen. In der Entstehung von Allergien und Asthma bronchiale spielen Umwelteinfluesse eine grosse Rolle. Luftschadstoffe scheinen mit verschiedenen Allergie-Parametern bei der Sensibilisierung, Symptombildung und Chronifizierung zu interferieren. Da beim Asthma bronchiale neben der Bronchokonstriktion die Entzuendung der Bronchialschleimhaut eine besondere Rolle spielt, wird heute neben Allergenkarenz und prophylaktischen Massnahmen eine fruehzeitige antientzuendliche Asthmatherapie angestrebt. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene gehoeren zu den wirksamsten Entzuendungsmediatoren beim Asthma bronchiale. Leukotrien-Rezeptorantagonisten scheinen sowohl bronchodilatatorische als auch antientzuendliche Wirkungen zu haben und koennten so innerhalb eines Gesamtkonzeptes von antiallergischer und antiasthmatischer Therapie das pharmakotherapeutische Spektrum bereichern. (orig.)

  10. Accuracy of spirometry for detection of asthma: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Andréa Cristina; Paulino, Ana Carolina Botto; Pereira, Luciano Penha; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with airway hyperresponsiveness. Spirometry is the most commonly used test among asthmatic patients. Another functional test used for diagnosing asthma is the bronchial challenge test. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of spirometry for detecting asthma in the general population. Cross-sectional study with data analysis to evaluate the accuracy of spirometry through calculating sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and through the kappa agreement test. Subjects who constituted a birth cohort were enrolled at the age of 23 to 25 years. Spirometric abnormality was defined as reduced forced expiratory volume in one second, i.e. lower than 80% of the predicted value. Measurement of bronchial responsiveness was performed by means of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine. The gold-standard diagnosis of asthma was defined as the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in association with respiratory symptoms. Asthma was detected in 200 subjects (10.4%) out of the sample of 1922 individuals. Spirometric abnormality was detected in 208 subjects (10.9%) of the sample. The specificity of spirometric abnormality for detecting asthma was 90%, sensitivity was 23%, positive predictive value was 22%, and negative predictive value was 91%. The kappa test revealed weak agreement of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07-0.19) between spirometry and the diagnosis of asthma. Spirometry, as a single test, has limitations for detecting asthma in the general population.

  11. Food diversity in infancy and the risk of childhood asthma and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Kaila, Minna; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ahonen, Suvi; Pekkanen, Juha; Simell, Olli; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Hyöty, Heikki; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the bacterial diversity of the intestinal flora and the diversity of various environmental factors during infancy have been linked to the development of allergies in childhood. Food is an important environmental exposure, but the role of food diversity in the development of asthma and allergies in childhood is poorly defined. We studied the associations between food diversity during the first year of life and the development of asthma and allergies by age 5 years. In a Finnish birth cohort we analyzed data on 3142 consecutively born children. We studied food diversity at 3, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. Asthma, wheeze, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis were measured by using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire at age 5 years. By 3 and 4 months of age, food diversity was not associated with any of the allergic end points. By 6 months of age, less food diversity was associated with increased risk of allergic rhinitis but not with the other end points. By 12 months of age, less food diversity was associated with increased risk of any asthma, atopic asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinitis. Less food diversity during the first year of life might increase the risk of asthma and allergies in childhood. The mechanisms for this association are unclear, but increased dietary antigen exposure might contribute to this link. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The association of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental comorbidities in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Korgaonkar, Purva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental indicators in low-income families. Parents/guardians of approximately 400 children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from a charity hospital serving low income neighborhoods in the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers of children were interviewed in their local language by a trained nurse. Eight self-reported comorbidities were grouped into two constructs based on factor analysis and conveniently labeled as mental health (anxiety, attention and behavioral problems) and developmental problems (learning, developmental delay, hearing impairment, sleep and speech problems). Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of older siblings, number of people in the household, child birth weight, presence of mold, and family history of asthma or hay fever. Children with asthma had 18 times greater odds of mental health problems (adjusted OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 9.2, 35.1) as compared to children without asthma. The odds of developmental problems were more than 14 times greater for children with asthma (adjusted OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 7.8, 26.1) as compared to children without asthma. This study found mental and developmental adverse consequences of childhood asthma in low-income families. Identifying and treating asthma at an early age could reduce the burden of comorbidities in this population.

  13. Physical training for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin V. Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with asthma may show less tolerance to exercise due to worsening asthma symptoms during exercise or other reasons such as deconditioning as a consequence of inactivity. Some may restrict activities as per medical advice or family influence and this might result in reduced physical fitness. Physical training programs aim to improve physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self confidence. Subjectively, many people with asthma report that they are symptomatically better when fit, but results from trials have varied and have been difficult to compare because of different designs and training protocols. Also, as exercise can induce asthma, the safety of exercise programmes needs to be considered.OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of the effect of physical training on the respiratory and general health of people with asthma, from randomised trials.METHODS:Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials up to January 2013. Selection criteria: We included randomised trials of people over eight years of age with asthma who were randomised to undertake physical training or not. Physical training had to be undertaken for at least 20 minutes, two times a week, over a minimum period of four weeks. Data collection and analysis:Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and undertook risk of bias assessment for the included studies.MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-one studies (772 participants were included in this review with two additional 2012 studies identified as 'awaiting classification'. Physical training was well tolerated with no adverse effects reported. None of the studies mentioned worsening of asthma symptoms following physical training. Physical training showed marked improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness as measured by a statistically and clinically significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (mean difference (MD 4.92 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI 3

  14. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... into the true prevalence of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents, and optimal treatment....

  15. Asthma outcomes: Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J.; Wenzel, Sally; Brown, Robert; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fahy, John V.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Hunt, John F.; Kita, Hirohito; Liu, Andrew H.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Measurement of biomarkers has been incorporated within clinical research studies of asthma to characterize the population and associate the disease with environmental and therapeutic effects. Objective National Institutes of Health institutes and federal agencies convened an expert group to propose which biomarkers should be assessed as standardized asthma outcomes in future clinical research studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature to identify studies that developed and/or tested asthma biomarkers. We identified biomarkers relevant to the underlying disease process progression and response to treatment. We classified the biomarkers as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an National Institutes of Health–organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Ten measures were identified; only 1, multiallergen screening to define atopy, is recommended as a core asthma outcome. Complete blood counts to measure total eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), sputum eosinophils, urinary leukotrienes, and total and allergen-specific IgE are recommended as supplemental measures. Measurement of sputum polymorphonuclear leukocytes and other analytes, cortisol measures, airway imaging, breath markers, and system-wide studies (eg, genomics, proteomics) are considered as emerging outcome measures. Conclusion The working group participants propose the use of multiallergen screening in all asthma clinical trials to characterize study populations with respect to atopic status. Blood, sputum, and urine specimens should be stored in biobanks, and standard procedures should be developed to harmonize sample collection for clinical trial biorepositories. PMID:22386512

  16. Mast cell-nerve interactions in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, Hanneke Paulina Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the airways. Roughly, asthma can be subdivided into atopic asthma involving elevated levels of serum IgE and a less familiar form, non-atopic asthma. Non-atopic asthma is an increasing problem in the developed world. The mechanisms

  17. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, John M

    2016-03-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  19. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home

  20. Relationship between birth weight or fetal growth rate and postnatal allergy: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Amy L; McMillan, Mark; Marshall, Helen S; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the relationship between size at birth or fetal growth and postnatal allergy. Specifically, this review aims to assess evidence regarding relationships between absolute birth weight at term, birth weight corrected for gestational age, expressed as relative to population or customized growth data, or fetal growth measures and physician-diagnosed or parent- and self-reported postnatal clinical allergic disease (eczema/atopic dermatitis, hay fever/rhinitis, allergic asthma or anaphylaxis).The specific review question is: what is the association between the absolute birth weight at full-term or birth weight relative to population or customized data and corrected for gestational age or direct measures of fetal growth, and physician-diagnosed or parent- and self-reported clinical allergic disease (eczema/atopic dermatitis, hay fever/rhinitis, allergic asthma or anaphylaxis)?

  1. Mechanisms of obesity in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Finn; Hancox, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity and asthma are chronic conditions affecting millions of people worldwide. The two conditions also appear to be linked with an increased risk of asthma in people who are obese. The purpose of this review is to describe mechanism(s) that may explain the association between asthma and obesity. Current evidence suggests that the association between asthma and obesity is linked by two major phenotypes and three important pathways of obesity-related asthma: one phenotype with primary (often atopic) asthma that is aggravated by obesity and a second phenotype with late-onset nonatopic asthma, which predominantly affects women and primarily seems to be associated with neutrophilic inflammation. Proposed pathways include the mechanical effects of obesity (fewer deep inspirations leading to increased airway hyperresponsiveness), an inflammatory pathway driven by obesity-related cytokines (adipokines), and finally environment and lifestyle changes that have led to an increasing prevalence of obesity over the past 50 years (including exposures in utero, physical activity, and diet) may also result in asthma in predisposed individuals. How these environmental changes influence the occurrence and expression of asthma may depend on the age of exposure and on interactions with genetic susceptibilities. Future research should be directed to shed light on the associations between obesity and asthma phenotypes, modern lifestyles and environmental exposures and genetic susceptibilities. http://links.lww.com/COAI/A6.

  2. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  3. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  4. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... and design of housing. Indoor environment factors that trigger the disease must be controlled as well as possible. The results of this project will be a significant contribution to the potential recommendations regarding the effect of ventilation on indoor air quality and asthma control of HDM allergic...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring...

  5. Yoga for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Yao Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting about 300 million people worldwide. As a holistic therapy, yoga has the potential to relieve both the physical and psychological suffering of people with asthma, and its popularity has expanded globally. A number of clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate the effects of yoga practice, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga in people with asthma. METHODS: Search methods: We systematically searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO, and handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched PEDro. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP search portal. We searched all databases from their inception to 22 July 2015, and used no restriction on language of publication. We checked the reference lists of eligible studies and relevant review articles for additional studies. We attempted to contact investigators of eligible studies and experts in the field to learn of other published and unpublished studies. Selection criteria: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared yoga with usual care (or no intervention or sham intervention in people with asthma and reported at least one of the following outcomes: quality of life, asthma symptom score, asthma control, lung function measures, asthma medication usage, and adverse events. Data collection and analysis: We extracted bibliographic information, characteristics of participants, characteristics of interventions and controls, characteristics of methodology, and results for the outcomes of our interest from eligible studies. For continuous outcomes, we used mean difference (MD with 95% confidence interval (CI to denote the treatment effects, if the

  6. Season of birth and risk of atopic disease among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2007-01-01

    . RESULTS: The overall risk of atopy, as judged by skin test reactivity and serum total IgE, was the same regardless of SOB. On the contrary, asthma was more common in subjects born in the autumn compared with subjects born during the remaining part of the year (12.4% vs. 5.6%), OR = 2.40, 95% CI (1...... not significantly related to SOB. CONCLUSIONS: Atopy itself is independent of season of birth, whereas asthma is more prevalent among subjects born during the autumn. Regarding asthma, these results suggest that the first months of life enclose a period of particular vulnerability towards environmental risk factors......BACKGROUND: Season of birth (SOB) has been regarded as a risk factor for atopy. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between season of birth (SOB) and later development of atopic disease in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1,007 randomly selected subjects, 7 to 17...

  7. Influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospitalisation for asthma in children: evidence from the Oxford record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotton Clare J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much interest in the possibility that perinatal factors may influence the risk of disease in later life. We investigated the influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for asthma in children. Methods Analysis of data from the Oxford record linkage study (ORLS to generate a retrospective cohort of 248 612 records of births between 1970 and 1989, with follow-up to records of subsequent hospital admission for 4 017 children with asthma up to 1999. Results Univariate analysis showed significant associations between an increased risk of admission for asthma and later years of birth (reflecting the increase in asthma in the 1970s and 1980s, low social class, asthma in the mother, unmarried mothers, maternal smoking in pregnancy, subsequent births compared with first-born, male sex, low birth weight, short gestational age, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery and not being breastfed. Multivariate analysis, identifying each risk factor that had a significant effect independently of other risk factors, confirmed associations with maternal asthma (odds ratio (OR 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.7-3.6, male sex (versus female, 1.8, 1.7-2.0, low birth weight (1000-2999 g versus 3000-3999 g, 1.2, 1.1-1.3, maternal smoking (1.1, 1.0-1.3 and delivery by caesarean section (1.2; 1.0-1.3. In those first admitted with asthma under two years old, there were associations with having siblings (e.g. second child compared with first-born, OR 1.3, 1.0-1.7 and short gestational age (24-37 weeks versus 38-41 weeks, 1.6, 1.2-2.2. Multivariate analysis confined to those admitted with asthma aged six years or more, showed associations with maternal asthma (OR 3.8, 3.1-4.7, age of mother (under 25 versus 25-34 at birth, OR 1.16, 1.03-1.31; over 35 versus 25-34, OR 1.4, 1.1-1.7; high social class was protective (1 and 2, compared with 3, 0.72; 0.63-0.82. Hospital admission for asthma in people aged over six was more

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  9. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For ... Affect My Child's Asthma? Print A A A Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

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    Full Text Available ... In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent ... Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination ...

  11. Treating Asthma in Children under 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laughing Gastrointestinal reflux Changes or extremes in weather Asthma emergencies Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening ... Changes in activity levels or sleep patterns Control asthma triggers Depending on the triggers for your child's ...

  12. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe June 2014 Print this issue Managing Asthma Learn To Breathe Easier En español Send us ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Controlling Asthma Get regular checkups for your asthma. Make a ...

  13. Allergies and Asthma: They Often Occur Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A family history of allergies is a major risk factor for allergic asthma. Having hay fever or other allergies yourself also increases your risk of getting asthma. Though allergic asthma is very common, there are other types ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

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    Full Text Available ... among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination among Children with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

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    Full Text Available ... and Publications Related Articles, Publications, and Links Asthma’s Impact on the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles ( ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ...

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    Full Text Available ... Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  17. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Education) How Asthma-Friendly Is Your School? (checklist in English and in Spanish) Is the Asthma ... gov/ asthma/ publications. html U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

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    Full Text Available ... Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma ... de boca) [PDF - 276 KB] Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma ...

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

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    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public ...

  20. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  1. Asthma in Children: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF School and Asthma (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Teaching Your Child about Asthma (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) What's an Asthma Action Plan? (Nemours Foundation) ... Also in Spanish Related Issues Asthma & Physical Activity in the School ( ...

  2. Nasal disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  3. Asthma management: important issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barnes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although most attention has been focused on the drugs used to control asthma, it is increasingly recognised that effective delivery of these drugs to the lungs is just as important. The most effective drugs, beta2-agonists and corticosteroids, are given by inhalation so there has been a search for more efficient inhaler devices that are easier for patients to use. A symposium at the European Respiratory Society Annual Meeting in 2005 discussed some of the important issues in inhaler therapy in adults and children. This article summarises the major points of discussion that arose out of this symposium. New more effective inhaler devices are now becoming available and are likely to have an important impact on asthma management.

  4. Parental allergic disease before and after child birth poses similar risk for childhood allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, E; Standl, M; von Berg, A; Lehmann, I; Hoffmann, B; Bauer, C-P; Koletzko, S; Berdel, D; Heinrich, J

    2015-07-01

    Whether the strength of associations between parental and child allergic diseases differs by whether the first onset of the parental disease is before or after a child's birth has never been examined and is the aim of this study. Yearly childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema diagnoses were longitudinally regressed against the effect of a parental disease (pre- vs post-child birth) of the same type separately for each parent using generalized estimation equations. Both a maternal and paternal history of asthma were associated with childhood asthma prevalence up to 15 years of age. Effect estimates were similar for parental asthma with first onset before and after the birth of the child. The results for allergic rhinitis and eczema were less consistent. Parental allergic diseases with first onsets before and after the birth of a child both pose risks to childhood allergic disease in the offspring, especially for asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. MANIFEST ANXIETY IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedhar, Krishna Prasad

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Using a vernacular adaptation of MAS 50 bronchial asthma patients were compared with 102 normals, 60 hospital general out-patients and 50 neurotics to determine the level of anxiety in asthma. The manifest anxiety scores of the bronchial asthma patients were found to be significantly high showing that their level of anxiety was abnormally higher in comparison with that of the normals and the hospital general out-patients. The bronchial asthmatics and the neurotics did not differ in an...

  6. Aspirin-Exacerbated Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Mathew; Lockey, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on aspirin-exacerbated asthma (AEA). The review includes historical perspective of aspirin, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of AEA. The pathogenesis of AEA involves the cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. Aspirin affects both of these pathways by inhibiting the enzyme cycooxygenase-1 (COX-1). Inhibition of COX-1 leads to a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The decrease in PGE2 results in an increase in cysteinyl leukotrienes by the lipoo...

  7. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  8. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  9. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  10. Early growth characteristics and the risk of reduced lung function and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Dekker, Herman T; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; de Jongste, Johan C

    2016-01-01

    characteristics with childhood asthma. RESULTS: Children born with a younger gestational age had a lower FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, and forced expiratory volume after exhaling 75% of vital capacity (FEF75), whereas those born with a smaller size for gestational age at birth had a lower FEV1...... 24 birth cohorts to examine and meta-analyze the associations of gestational age, size for gestational age, and infant weight gain with childhood lung function and asthma (age range, 3.9-19.1 years). Second, we explored whether these lung function outcomes mediated the associations of early growth......%) to 45% (95% CI, 15% to 81%) of the associations between early growth characteristics and asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Younger gestational age, smaller size for gestational age, and greater infant weight gain were across the full ranges associated with childhood lung function. These associations explain the risk...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Providers CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community Guide—Evidence-based Potentially Effective Interventions ...

  12. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834548; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D.S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  13. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Postma, D. S.; Oldenwening, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal overweight before pregnancy and offspring asthma in an ongoing birth cohort study. Maternal overweight may affect the pulmonary and immunological development of the fetus in utero because of the increased levels of

  14. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  15. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  16. Maternal second-hand smoke exposure in pregnancy is associated with childhood asthma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Elinor; To, Teresa; Moineddin, Rahim; Stieb, David; Dell, Sharon D

    2014-01-01

    Childhood asthma development has been associated with active maternal smoking during pregnancy, but its association with maternal second-hand smoke exposure in pregnancy needs to be evaluated. We investigated longitudinal associations between maternal smoke exposure in pregnancy and childhood asthma development. In a population-based cohort of 5619 seven-year-old Toronto children, parents reported age of physician-diagnosed asthma development, maternal smoking during pregnancy, home second-hand smoke exposure from pregnancy until 7 years, demographics, and family history of atopy. By using Cox proportional and discrete-time hazard survival analyses, we evaluated associations between asthma and maternal smoking or home second-hand smoke exposure in pregnancy. During pregnancy, 5.0% of mothers smoked and 6.2% were nonsmokers and exposed to home second-hand smoke; 15.5% of children developed asthma. Children whose mothers smoked or were exposed to home second-hand smoke during pregnancy were more likely to develop asthma (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.30 [95% CI, 1.06-1.60]). The association persisted for children of nonsmoking mothers with home second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy (adjusted HR 1.34 [95% CI, 1.01-1.76]), children with asthma symptoms in the past year (adjusted HR 1.36 [95% CI, 1.03-1.79]), and after adjusting for home second-hand smoke exposure from birth to age 7 years. Maternal home second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy is associated with incident physician-diagnosed childhood asthma, even if the mother does not smoke actively during pregnancy. Childhood asthma prevention programs should include smoking cessation strategies targeted toward smokers who live in the homes of smoking and nonsmoking pregnant women as well as pregnant women who smoke. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The sex-shift in single disease and multimorbid asthma and rhinitis during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Theresa; Hohmann, C; Standl, M

    2018-01-01

    and after puberty-onset in longitudinal cohort data. METHODS: In six European population-based birth cohort studies we assessed the outcomes current rhinitis, current asthma, current allergic multimorbidity (i.e. concurrent asthma and rhinitis), puberty status, and allergic sensitization by specific serum...... antibodies (immunoglobulin E) against aero-allergens. With generalized estimating equations we analysed the effects of sex, age, puberty (yes/no), and possible confounders on the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis, and allergic multimorbidity in each cohort separately and performed individual participant data......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies suggested that allergy prevalence in childhood is higher in boys compared to girls, but it remains unclear if this inequality changes after puberty. We examined the sex-specific prevalence of asthma and rhinitis as single and as multimorbid diseases before...

  18. Association of prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    PurposeSome studies have suggested that maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with asthma in the offspring, and coffee consumption may modify the toxicity of acetaminophen. We aim to examine whether pregnancy maternal acetaminophen use increases the risk for offspring asthma......, and whether such a potential association could be modified by maternal coffee consumption. MethodsWe included 63 652 live-born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal acetaminophen use and coffee consumption during pregnancy were assessed prospectively via the enrolment questionnaire...... and three computer-assisted telephone interviews. Asthma cases were identified by using the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for asthma according to prenatal acetaminophen and coffee exposure using Cox proportional hazards...

  19. Birth Injury in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... the bones are very fragile. Injuries to the skin and soft tissues The newborn’s skin may have ...

  20. Febrile respiratory illnesses in infancy and atopy are risk factors for persistent asthma and wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusel, M M H; Kebadze, T; Johnston, S L; Holt, P G; Sly, P D

    2012-04-01

    Severe viral respiratory illnesses and atopy are risk factors for childhood wheezing and asthma. The aim of this study was to explore associations between severe respiratory infections and atopy in early childhood with wheeze and asthma persisting into later childhood. 147 children at high atopic risk were followed from birth to age 10 yrs. Data on all respiratory infections occurring in infancy were collected prospectively and viral aetiology ascertained. Atopy was measured by skin prick tests at 6 months, and 2 and 5 yrs. History of wheeze and doctor-diagnosed eczema and asthma was collected regularly until 10 yrs of age. At 10 yrs, 60% of the cohort was atopic, 25.9% had current eczema, 18.4% current asthma and 20.4% persistent wheeze. 35.8% experienced at least one lower respiratory infection (LRI) associated with fever and/or wheeze in first year of life. Children who had wheezy or, in particular, febrile LRI in infancy and were atopic by 2 yrs, were significantly more likely to have persistent wheeze (RR 3.51, 95% CI 1.83-6.70; pasthma (RR 4.92, 95% CI 2.59-9.36; patopy are risk factors for persistent wheeze and asthma. The strongest marker of the asthmatogenic potential of early life infections was concurrent fever. The occurrence of fever during respiratory illnesses is an important marker of risk for wheeze and asthma later in childhood, suggesting it should be measured in prospective studies of asthma aetiology.

  1. Maternal anemia during pregnancy and slightly higher risk of asthma in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Maijakaisa; Pekkanen, Juha; Heinonen, Seppo; Keski-Nisula, Leea

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to determine whether maternal hemoglobin levels or anemia during pregnancy are associated with the development of asthma among offspring. Data were retrieved from the birth register database of Kuopio University Hospital between 1989 and 2007 (n = 38 381). Hemoglobin levels were measured during three trimesters of pregnancy and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. The prevalence of asthma was determined from the register of reimbursement for medication for asthma at the Finnish Social Security Institution. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to evaluate the possible associations between prenatal factors and development of asthma ever. A total of 8198 (21.4%) women had anemia at some stage of pregnancy. Mild maternal anemia during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of asthma among male offspring (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.94) compared with those with normal maternal hemoglobin levels. This finding remained significant also after applying the Bonferroni correction. Male offspring with maternal anemia during the first trimester of pregnancy had significantly more asthma ever than the offspring of women with normal hemoglobin levels during pregnancy. These findings were not strong but suggest possible sex-specific effects of maternal health on prenatal programming and future risk of asthma. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” ...

  3. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please ... infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider if ...

  4. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  5. Psychological stress and hospitalization for childhood asthma-a nationwide cohort study in two Nordic countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Liu

    Full Text Available Exposures to psychological stress in early life may contribute to the development or exacerbation of asthma. We undertook a cohort study based on data from several population-based registers in Denmark and Sweden to examine whether bereavement in childhood led to increased asthma hospitalization.All singleton children born in Denmark during 1977-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 were included in the study (N=5,202,576. The children were followed from birth to the date of first asthma hospitalization, emigration, death, their 18(th birthday, or the end of study (31 December 2007 in Sweden and 31 December 2008 in Denmark, whichever came first. All the children were assigned to the non-bereaved group until they lost a close relative (mother, father or a sibling, from when they were included in the bereaved group. We evaluated the hazard ratio (HR of first hospitalization for asthma in bereaved children using Cox proportional hazards regression models, compared to those who were in the non-bereaved group. We also did a sub-analysis on the association between bereavement and first asthma medication.A total of 147,829 children were hospitalized for asthma. The overall adjusted HR of asthma hospitalization in bereaved children was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04-1.16, compared to non-bereaved children. The risk of asthma hospitalization was increased in those who lost a close relative at age of 14-17 years (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92, but not in younger age groups. The association between bereavement and asthma hospitalization did not change over time since bereavement. In the sub-analysis in singleton live births during 1996-2008 recorded in the DMBR, bereavement was associated with a lower use of asthma medication (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95.Our data suggests that psychological stress following bereavement in late adolescence is associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization or lowers the threshold for asthma hospitalization.

  6. Folic Acid in Pregnancy and Childhood Asthma: A US Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Michelle K; Sharma, Sunita; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Camargo, Carlos A; Weiss, Scott T; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; DeMeo, Dawn L; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal folic acid exposure has been linked to higher risk of childhood asthma in countries that do not fortify the food supply with folic acid. This study seeks to examine this association in the United States, where the food supply is generally fortified with folic acid. Participants were 1279 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, an ongoing prospective birth cohort, with folic acid intake in pregnancy assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed asthma at mid-childhood. In an unadjusted logistic regression model, higher folic acid intake was associated with lower odds of asthma in mid-childhood (odds ratio [OR] 0.48; 95% CI 0.31-0.76). However, in the adjusted analysis this association was attenuated (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.80; 95% CI 0.49-1.33). Our results suggest that in the United States, where there is generalized folic acid fortification of food, maternal folic acid intake during pregnancy is not associated with asthma development in offspring.

  7. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that use hormones, such as the birth control pill or birth control ring , a girl uses the birth control patch based on her monthly menstrual cycle. She puts on the patch on the first day of her menstrual cycle or the first Sunday after her menstrual cycle begins. She will change the ...

  8. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  9. Birth and Emergency Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Overall, 62% had a birth plan, 74% had adequate knowledge of danger signs, while 64% and 37% reported maternal and newborn complications ... Knowledge of danger signs was associated with birth and emergency planning, and birth and emergency planning was associated with .... Materials and Methods. Study site.

  10. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in ...

  11. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  12. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  13. The Future of Asthma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1995-01-01

    identification and possible correction of genetic abnormalities responsible for the tendency to develop asthma and atopy, and prevention or functional and structural airway changes. This last goal will be achieved by improved environmental control, earlier use of more powerful and safe anti-inflammatory agents, as well as an increased involvement on the part of the asthma patient in treatment.

  14. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  15. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Kid Who's Bullied? How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Print A A A en español ¿Cómo funcionan ... control medicines (also called controller or maintenance medicines) work over a long period of time by keeping ...

  16. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A What's in ... Antismoking Message en español Fumar y el asma Smoking is an unhealthy habit for anyone, but it's ...

  17. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  18. Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been recognized that asthma is not a single disease, but comprises several clinical syndromes, which all share respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities, associated with different types of airway inflammation. These syndromes are now known as different asthma

  19. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, L; Skytthe, A

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  20. Asthma in pregnancy: association between the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification and comparisons with spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Georgia Véras; Leite, Débora F B; Rizzo, José A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a possible association between the assessment of clinical asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and to perform comparisons with values of spirometry. Through this cross-sectional study, 103 pregnant women with asthma were assessed in the period from October 2010 to October 2013 in the asthma pregnancy clinic at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Questionnaires concerning the level of asthma control were administered using the Global Initiative for Asthma classification, the Asthma Control Test validated for asthmatic expectant mothers and spirometry; all three methods of assessing asthma control were performed during the same visit between the twenty-first and twenty-seventh weeks of pregnancy. There was a significant association between clinical asthma control assessment using the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification (pTest can be used for asthmatic expectant mothers to assess the clinical control of asthma, especially at the end of the second trimester, which is assumed to be the period of worsening asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. We highlight the importance of the Asthma Control Test as a subjective instrument with easy application, easy interpretation and good reproducibility that does not require spirometry to assess the level of asthma control and can be used in the primary care of asthmatic expectant mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  2. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of variables related to obesity and asthma. Asthma was defined either by the presence of symptoms with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or by a self-report of a physician-made diagnosis. The following variables were separately tested for associations with asthma: socioeconomic characteristics, schooling, physical activity, smoking status, anthropometry and spirometry. Results No association was detected between asthma confirmed by BHR and obesity indicators, odds ratio (OR) = 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.69 - 1.68) for obesity assessed by body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.02 (0.74 - 1.40) for obesity assessed by abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 0.96 (0.69 - 1.33) for abnormal waist circumference. On the contrary, a previous diagnosis of asthma was associated with obesity, OR = 1.48 (1.01 - 2.16) for body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.48 (1.13 - 1.93) for abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 1.32 (1.00 – 1.75) for abnormal waist circumference. Female gender, schooling ≥ 12 years and smoking were associated with BHR-confirmed asthma. Physically inactive subjects were associated with a previous diagnosis of asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the relationship between asthma and obesity in epidemiological studies depends on the definition adopted. Certain components of asthma, for instance, symptoms may be more prone to

  3. Increased risk of allergic rhinitis among children delivered by cesarean section: a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Heli Vieira; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira; de Oliveira Vieira, Tatiana; Camargos, Paulo Augusto; de Souza Teles, Carlos Antonio; Guimarães, Armênio Costa; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio

    2016-04-27

    Few studies have evaluated the association between delivery by cesarean section (CS) and asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinitis and whether this association is different in children with and without a family history of asthma. This study aims to investigate whether children born by CS have a higher chance to develop asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinitis and to evaluate the influence of parental history of asthma on these associations. This is a cross-sectional study of 672 children nested in a birth cohort evaluated at 6-years of age. Asthma and chronic/allergic rhinitis were identified by means of the mother's responses to the ISAAC questionnaire. The association between CS, asthma, chronic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis was evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. The evidence of effect modification of parental history of asthma on the association CS and outcomes was examined by introducing interactions terms in the logistic regression models adjusting for confounders. Asthma was not associated with birth by CS irrespective of parental history of asthma (odds ratio (OR) 1.03; 95 % CI 0.61-1.74). Chronic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis were both significantly associated with birth by CS but only in the subgroup of children with by parental history of asthma (OR 1.56; 95 % CI 1.04-2.34) and (OR 1.60; 95 % CI 1.01-2.55) respectively, after adjustment for confounders. The parental history of asthma was a effect modifier in the association between CS, chronic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis (p for effect modification = 0.10 and 0.02, respectively). CS increases the risk of chronic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis in children at 6 years of age with parental history of asthma. Health professionals must be alerted with regard to the increased risk of allergic rhinitis and made aware this is another reason to avoid unnecessary CS.

  4. [Asthma drugs and doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, F; Rolland, Y; Rivière, D

    1999-11-01

    Some drugs regularly used in the treatment of asthma (beta-agonists and corticosteroids) are registered on the list of drugs forbidden in sport, because they have a doping action. To avoid penalizing asthmatic sportsmen, some beta-agonists (Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Terbutaline) and corticosteroids are allowed only in inhaled form, with written notification from the prescribing physician, a pneumologist or the team doctor. Considering the increase of doping with increasing involvement of physicians, good and up to date notions about the current rules of prescription in asthmatic sportsmen are needed.

  5. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2002-01-01

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. Trials were searched in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, ICL, and MANTIS). In addition, bibliographies from included studies were assessed, and authors of known studies were contacted for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: February 2002. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 393 unique citations, 59 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to five RCTs (290 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. Quality of the remaining three trials was poor. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data have yet to be confirmed. One small trial compared chest

  6. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2005-04-18

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. We searched for trials in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL), and Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy (MANTIS)). In addition, we assessed bibliographies from included studies, and contacted authors of known studies for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: August 2004. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes with observation periods of at least two weeks. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 473 unique citations, 68 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to three RCTs (156 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data

  7. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  8. Global Asthma Network survey suggests more national asthma strategies could reduce burden of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, I; Haahtela, T; Selroos, O; Ellwood, P; Ellwood, E

    Several countries or regions within countries have an effective national asthma strategy resulting in a reduction of the large burden of asthma to individuals and society. There has been no systematic appraisal of the extent of national asthma strategies in the world. The Global Asthma Network (GAN) undertook an email survey of 276 Principal Investigators of GAN centres in 120 countries, in 2013-2014. One of the questions was: "Has a national asthma strategy been developed in your country for the next five years? For children? For adults?". Investigators in 112 (93.3%) countries answered this question. Of these, 26 (23.2%) reported having a national asthma strategy for children and 24 (21.4%) for adults; 22 (19.6%) countries had a strategy for both children and adults; 28 (25%) had a strategy for at least one age group. In countries with a high prevalence of current wheeze, strategies were significantly more common than in low prevalence countries (11/13 (85%) and 7/31 (22.6%) respectively, pasthma strategy was reported. A large reduction in the global burden of asthma could be potentially achieved if more countries had an effective asthma strategy. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  10. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  11. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Healthy Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Asthma Flare-Ups KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Flare-Ups ... español ¿Qué es una crisis asmática? What Are Asthma Flare-Ups? Keeping asthma under control helps kids ...

  12. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This central resource focuses on ... AAAAI is proud to endorse HR 2285, the School-Based Respiratory Health Management Act Read Practice Matters! Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Quality ...

  13. Developing and emerging clinical asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekking, Pieter-Paul W.; Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to subdivide asthma into different phenotypes based on triggers that cause asthma attacks, the course of the disease, or the prognosis. The first phenotypes that were described included allergic asthma, intrinsic or nonallergic asthma, infectious

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma Call-back Survey Technical Information Prevalence Tables BRFSS Prevalence Data NHIS ... Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  17. Eicosanoids in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kong-Sang; Wu, Wei-Fong

    2007-01-01

    Eicosanoids belong to a diverse family of bioactive fatty acids that play important roles in regulating airway inflammation and reactivity. They are the key mediators of the pathobiology of asthma. Among the eicosanoids, lipoxins (LXs) were the first agents to be identified and recognized as potential anti-inflammatory endogenous lipid mediators. Lipoxins are biosynthesized in vivo at inflammation sites. They result mainly from the interaction between 5 and 15-lipoxygenases (LOs), which are distinct from leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs) in structure and function. Leukotrienes are potent proinflammatory mediators and directly and indirectly stimulate fibroblast chemotaxis, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. Prostaglandins have both bronchoconstrictive and bronchoprotective effects and the bronchoconstriction mediated by PGD2 and PGF2alpha is only occurred in asthmatic patients but not in healthy subjects. Lipoxins counter-regulate the proinflammatory actions of LTs and activate resolution of the inflammatory response. At least two classes of receptors, CysLT1 receptors and Asprin-triggered lipoxin A4 (ALX) receptors, can interact with lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and LXA4 analogs to mediate their biologic actions. Allergen challenge initiates airway biosynthesis of LXA4 and increases expression of its receptor. In addition, LXA4 affects the release of interleukin-8 by blood mononuclear cells, and ALX affects calcium influx into epithelial cells. Therefore, the pivotal role of LXs is mediating airway homeostasis, and LXs may be part of a novel, multipronged approach for treating human asthma.

  18. Sex differences in the relationship between asthma and overweight in Dutch children: a survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Willeboordse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for asthma in children. However, in the Netherlands, the obesity prevalence is rising while the asthma prevalence in children is stabilising. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between asthma and Body Mass Index (BMI in children and whether this association is influenced by sex. STUDY DESIGN: Parents of 39,316 children (6-16 years in the south of the Netherlands were invited to complete an online questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, anthropometric variables and several potential confounding factors for asthma and obesity (including sex, birth weight and breastfeeding. Data was analysed by multivariable logistic regression models and an ordinal regression model. RESULTS: The response rate was 24% (n boys= 4,743, n girls= 4,529. The prevalence of asthma, overweight and obesity was 8%, 15% and 2% respectively. Body mass index--standard deviation Score (BMI-SDS was related to current asthma (adjusted OR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.14-1.45, p ≤ 0.001. When stratified for sex, asthma and BMI-SDS were only related in girls (Girls: adjusted OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.13-1.51, p ≤ 0.001. Boys: adjusted OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 0.91-1.14, p=0.72. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between BMI-SDS and asthma is only present in girls, not boys. Future studies into obesity and asthma should correct for sex in their analyses.

  19. Rhinovirus wheezing illness and genetic risk of childhood-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Minal; Bochkov, Yury A; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Stein, Michelle M; Du, Gaixin; Bisgaard, Hans; Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole

    2013-04-11

    Both genetic variation at the 17q21 locus and virus-induced respiratory wheezing illnesses are associated with the development of asthma. Our aim was to determine the effects of these two factors on the risk of asthma in the Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) and the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohorts. We tested genotypes at the 17q21 locus for associations with asthma and with human rhinovirus (HRV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) wheezing illnesses and tested for interactions between 17q21 genotypes and HRV and RSV wheezing illnesses with respect to the risk of asthma. Finally, we examined genotype-specific expression of 17q21 genes in unstimulated and HRV-stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The 17q21 variants were associated with HRV wheezing illnesses in early life, but not with RSV wheezing illnesses. The associations of 17q21 variants with asthma were restricted to children who had had HRV wheezing illnesses, resulting in a significant interaction effect with respect to the risk of asthma. Moreover, the expression levels of ORMDL3 and of GSDMB were significantly increased in HRV-stimulated PBMCs, as compared with unstimulated PBMCs. The expression of these genes was associated with 17q21 variants in both conditions, although the increase with exposure to HRV was not genotype-specific. Variants at the 17q21 locus were associated with asthma in children who had had HRV wheezing illnesses and with expression of two genes at this locus. The expression levels of both genes increased in response to HRV stimulation, although the relative increase was not associated with the 17q21 genotypes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

  20. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower.

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshoo, Vikram; Haydel, Robert; Saturno, Emilio

    2006-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs in about two thirds of children with asthma. It may simply represent a concomitant unrelated finding or it may be responsible for provoking or worsening asthma. GERD could also be a byproduct of asthma itself. In any case, aggressive treatment of GERD seems to improve asthma outcomes. GERD should be suspected in asthma patients who do not have any known risk factors or those who are becoming difficult to treat.

  2. Guidelines for severe uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros Serrano, Carolina; Melero Moreno, Carlos; Almonacid Sánchez, Carlos; Perpiñá Tordera, Miguel; Picado Valles, César; Martínez Moragón, Eva; Pérez de Llano, Luis; Soto Campos, José Gregorio; Urrutia Landa, Isabel; García Hernández, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication, 9 years ago, of the latest SEPAR (Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery) Guidelines on Difficult-to-Control Asthma (DCA), much progress has been made in the understanding of asthmatic disease. These new data need to be reviewed, analyzed and incorporated into the guidelines according to their level of evidence and recommendation. Recently, consensus documents and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) addressing this issue have been published. In these guidelines, specific mention will be made of what the previous DCA guidelines defined as "true difficult-to-control asthma". This is asthma that remains uncontrolled after diagnosis and a systematic evaluation to rule out factors unrelated to the disease itself that lead to poor control ("false difficult-to-control asthma"), and despite an appropriate treatment strategy (Spanish Guidelines for the Management of Asthma [GEMA] steps 5 and 6): severe uncontrolled asthma. In this respect, the guidelines propose a revised definition, an attempt to classify the various manifestations of this type of asthma, a proposal for a stepwise diagnostic procedure, and phenotype-targeted treatment. A specific section has also been included on DCA in childhood, aimed at assisting healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national...... organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise....... Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use...

  4. Next-generation DNA sequencing reveals that low fungal diversity in house dust is associated with childhood asthma development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Mendell, Mark J.; Macher, Janet M.; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina; Harley, Kim; Eskenazi, Brenda; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Dampness and visible mold in homes are associated with asthma development, but causal mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this research was to explore associations among measured dampness, fungal exposure, and childhood asthma development without the bias of culture-based microbial analysis. In the low-income, Latino CHAMACOS birth cohort, house dust was collected at age 12 months, and asthma status was determined at age 7 years. The current analysis included 13 asthma cases and 28 controls. Next-generation DNA sequencing methods quantified fungal taxa and diversity. Lower fungal diversity (number of fungal operational taxonomic units) was significantly associated with increased risk of asthma development: unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–22.1). Control for potential confounders strengthened this relationship. Decreased diversity within the genus Cryptococcus was significantly associated with increased asthma risk (OR 21.0, 95% CI 2.16–204). No fungal taxon (species, genus, class) was significantly positively associated with asthma development, and one was significantly negatively associated. Elevated moisture was associated with increased fungal diversity, and moisture/mold indicators were associated with four fungal taxa. Next-generation DNA sequencing provided comprehensive estimates of fungal identity and diversity, demonstrating significant associations between low fungal diversity and childhood asthma development in this community. PMID:24883433

  5. The frequency and risk factors of allergy and asthma in children with autism--case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Majewska, Renata; Kiełyka, Agnieszka; Augustyniak, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autistic disorders in children depends on many factors, like concomitance of the other diseases, which can escalate the autistic symptoms. One of those groups are allergic diseases, which have one of the highest prevalence rates in children. The aim of this analysis was to determine the frequency of asthma and allergy in children with autism in comparison to controls and the risk factors of allergic diseases and asthma in both groups. Study population included 96 cases diagnosed with childhood or atypical autism and 192 controls matched individually by year of birth, gender and physician's practice. The analysis was performed in each group separately giving possibility to compare the results between study groups. The frequency of asthma and allergic diseases in both groups has not revealed any statistically significant differences. Children with autism have been affected by asthma in 5,2% and by allergy in 25,0%, controls in 4,7% and 21,9% respectively. All cases of asthma was diagnosed in boys, commonly allergy was also more frequent in boys than girls in both studied groups. However those differences was statistically insignificant. The father's allergy and asthma was revealed as a risk factor of allergy in children with autism. In controls additionally allergy or asthma diagnosed in mother or grandparent increased risk of allergy in children. Children with autism were affected by asthma and allergy with similar frequency like children without autistic disorders. Allergy in father was the risk factor of allergic diseases in children with autism.

  6. Acute asthma exacerbations: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. All patient with asthma are at risk of having exacerbations characterized by worsening symptoms, airflow obstruction, and an increased requirement for rescue bronchodilators. Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. The goals of treatment are correction of severe hypoxemia, rapid reversal of airflow obstruction, and reduction of the risk of relapse.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v5i3.932

  7. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact...... of exposures from sulphites preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers at risk....

  8. Biomarkers in Asthma: A Real Hope to Better Manage Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Diagnosis and treatment of asthma are currently based on assessment of patient symptoms and physiologic tests of airway reactivity. The morbidities and costs associated with the over and/or under treatment of this common disease, as well as the growing numbers of biologically-specific targeted strategies for therapy, provide a rationale for development of biomarkers to evaluate the presence and type of inflammation in individuals with asthma in order to optimize treatment plans. Research over the past decade has identified an array of biochemical and cellular biomarkers, which reflect the heterogeneous and multiple mechanistic pathways that may lead to asthma. These mechanistic biomarkers offer hope for optimal design of therapies targeting the specific pathways that lead to inflammation. This article provides an overview of blood, urine and airway biomarkers, summarizes the pathologic pathways that they signify, and begins to describe the utility of biomarkers in the future care of patients with asthma. PMID:22929095

  9. A nested case-control study: personal, social and environmental correlates of vigorous physical activity in adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergren, Thomas; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Fegran, Liv; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits. Children and adolescents with asthma may be limited in their PA, particularly at vigorous intensity due to asthma symptoms or poor psychological adjustment to asthma. We aimed to investigate if self-perceived competence, enjoyment, support from others and social-physical environment were associated with vigorous physical activity (VPA) and secondarily to assess if such associations were modified by asthma and asthma severity. Data from a nested case-control study at 13 years of age within the birth-cohort Environment and Childhood Asthma Study were compiled from 95 participants with and 79 without asthma. The participants completed a questionnaire designed to capture self-perceived competence, enjoyment, support from others and social-physical environment. VPA, defined as ≥ 6 Metabolic Equivalents, was recorded objectively by SenseWear™ Pro2 Armband. Asthma severity was assessed pragmatically by lung function and use of inhaled glucocorticosteroids and β2-agonists and incidence of exacerbations in the last 14 days. Data were analysed using linear regression analysis. No significant differences between adolescents with and without asthma were identified in terms of VPA, competence-enjoyment, support from others and social-physical environment. Peer support (b = 0.29 (0.05-0.52)) and competence-enjoyment (b = 0.23 (0.01-0.44)) were significantly and positively associated with VPA, and teacher support (b = -0.26 (-0.50 to -0.02)) were inversely associated. The model explained 25% of the variance in VPA. Peer support and competence-enjoyment were positively associated with increased VPN in adolescents irrespectively of asthma and asthma severity.

  10. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  11. Psychological aspects in asthma: do psychological factors affect asthma management?

    OpenAIRE

    Baiardini, Ilaria; Sicuro, Francesca; Balbi, Francesco; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS plus long-acting beta2-agonists, permits to control de majority of asthmatics, a significant proportion of patients does not respond to this treatment. This review was aimed to explore the role of psychological factors associated to the unsuccessful fulfilment of optimal levels of asthma control, especially in patients suffering from severe asthma. The results of a Medline search were 5510 articles addressed to different ...

  12. Chromosome 17q21 gene variants are associated with asthma and exacerbations but not atopy in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Stage, Malene; Kim, Cecilia; Tavendale, Roger; Baty, Florent; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Palmer, Colin N A; Hakonarsson, Hakon

    2009-02-01

    An asthma predisposition locus on chromosome 17q12-q21 has recently been replicated in different ethnic groups. To characterize the asthma and atopy phenotypes in early childhood that associate with the 17q12-21 locus. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs7216389, was genotyped in 376 of 411 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohort born to mothers with asthma together with 305 mothers and 224 fathers. Nineteen additional SNPs in the region were genotyped in the children. Investigator-diagnosed clinical endpoints were based on diary cards and clinic visits every 6 months and at acute symptoms from birth. Lung function, bronchial responsiveness, and sensitization were tested longitudinally from early infancy. rs7216389 was significantly associated with the development of wheeze (hazard ratio 1.64 [1.05-2.59], P value = 0.03), asthma (hazard ratio, 1.88 [1.15-3.07], P = 0.01), and acute severe exacerbations (hazard ratio 2.66 [1.58-4.48], P value = 0.0002). The effect on wheeze and asthma was observed for early onset but not late onset of disease. The increased risk of exacerbations persisted from 1 to 6 years of age (incidence ratio 2.48 [1.42-4.32], P value = 0.001), and increased bronchial responsiveness was present in infancy and at 4 years of age, but not at 6 years. In contrast, rs7216389 conferred no risk of eczema, rhinitis, or allergic sensitization. Variation at the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus was associated with approximately twofold increased risk of recurrent wheeze, asthma, asthma exacerbations, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness from early infancy to school age but without conferring risk of eczema, rhinitis, or allergic sensitization. These longitudinal clinical data show this locus to be an important genetic determinant of nonatopic asthma in children.

  13. Mode of delivery and risk of asthma in children 5-14 years old in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Sahebi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been suggested that a cesarean section increases risk of developing asthma due to lack of exposure to maternal microflora during birth. To investigate the association between the mode of delivery and the risk of asthma in children aged 5-14 years in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A case-control study was performed on 233 (case = 81, control = 152 children aged 5-14 years referred to outpatient clinics of Tabriz Children’s Hospital and Sheikhorrais Clinic in 2014. Clinical asthma diagnosis was done according to Global Initiative for Asthma Criteria. A questionnaire was administered to obtain a demographic, environmental, and clinical history. Age-sex frequency matching with cases was carried out during sampling for controlling of possible cofounding effects of age and sex for asthma. Results: Of 233 children, 53.6% of them were male (case group = 54.3% and control group = 53.3%. Over half (54.5%, the participants had been delivered by caesarian section. Cases were not significantly more likely to have been delivered by caesarian section as compared to controls [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34-1.42]. However, more frequent episodes of common cold [b = 0.094; standard error (SE (b = 0.031, P < 0.001], birth order (second born children compared to firstborns (AOR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.18-5.46, high maternal education levels: 12 years (AOR = 3.76; 95% CI = 1.10-12.9, collegiate (AOR = 6.12; 95% CI = 1.43-26.20, and intra-family marriage (AOR = 2.89; 95% CI = 1.21-6.89 were associated with childhood asthma. Conclusion: Delivery mode was not associated with risk of developing childhood asthma in our study. Intra-family marriage increased the odds of childhood asthma. Further study on the relationship between maternal education and the odds of asthma is proposed.

  14. Jonah’s Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ...

  15. Vitamin D over the first decade and susceptibility to childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollams, Elysia M; Teo, Shu Mei; Kusel, Merci; Holt, Barbara J; Holt, Kathryn E; Inouye, Michael; De Klerk, Nicholas H; Zhang, Guicheng; Sly, Peter D; Hart, Prue H; Holt, Patrick G

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has been implicated as a possible risk factor for asthma development, but studies at selected time points measuring 25(OH)D levels during childhood have yielded conflicting findings. Prospective studies tracking 25(OH)D levels during the initiation phase of asthma in early childhood have not been reported. We sought to elucidate relationships between 25(OH)D levels from birth to age 10 years and susceptibility to allergic sensitization, respiratory tract infections, and asthma. Asthma-, allergy-, and respiratory tract infection-associated phenotypes (including pathogen identification) were characterized in a high-risk birth cohort. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were quantified at birth and at clinical follow-ups at the ages of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 years, and relationships with clinical outcomes were examined. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated inverse associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and the risk for concurrent sensitization at age 0.5, 2, and 3 years, and mixed-effects regression demonstrated inverse longitudinal associations of 25(OH)D levels with both sensitization and eczema. Multivariate regression modeling suggested that the number of 25(OH)D-deficient follow-ups was positively associated with risk for asthma/wheeze, eczema, and sensitization at 10 years; adjustment for sensitization (particularly by 2 years) in the asthma/wheeze models reduced 25(OH)D associations with these latter outcomes. 25(OH)D levels were also inversely associated with early nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus species and age of first febrile lower respiratory illness, both of which are known asthma risk factors. 25(OH)D deficiency in early childhood is associated with increased risk for persistent asthma, potentially through modulating susceptibility to early allergic sensitization, upper respiratory tract colonization with bacterial pathogens, or both. These relationships are only evident if 25(OH)D status is

  16. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  17. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson ...

  18. Mediterranean diet and childhood asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calatayud-Sáez, F M; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, B; Gallego Fernández-Pacheco, J G; González-Martín, C; Alguacil Merino, L F

    .... The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of a traditional Mediterranean diet on patients diagnosed with childhood asthma and determine if there is a beneficial effect from this dietary intervention...

  19. Obesity, asthma, and oxidative stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Holguin; Anne Fitzpatrick

    2010-01-01

    .... Contrary to what has previously been thought, the combination of obesity and asthma, both chronic inflammatory diseases, does not necessarily result in a synergistic effect, leading to even greater oxidative stress...

  20. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...

  1. Asthma in Children - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asthma in Children URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asthmainchildren.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of a series of allergic disorders, referred to as the atopic march. Development ...

  3. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers....... Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...

  4. Coexistence of asthma and polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Louise; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Asthma may be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and possibly patients with PCOS have a more severe type of asthma. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to summarize evidence of a coexistense of PCOS and asthma using the available literature. The search was completed...... on 01.01.2016. English language articles were retrieved using the search terms 'Asthma' AND 'PCOS', 'Asthma' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'Asthma' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'asthma' AND 'gynaecology', 'PCOS' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'PCOS' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'PCOS' AND 'allergy'. Five papers...... meeting prespecified search criteria were found of which two were registry studies of relevance. The current literature supports a coexistense of PCOS and asthma and gives us an indication of the causes for the possible link between PCOS and asthma. Further research in the area must be conducted...

  5. Preeclampsia Associates with Asthma, Allergy, and Eczema in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid; Anderson, Ulrik D; Bisgaard, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia reflects an unusual increase in systemic inflammation during pregnancy. We studied associations between preeclampsia and asthma, allergy, and eczema in Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2000 (COPSAC 2000 ) and in national registries. COPSAC 2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma, allergy, and eczema were diagnosed prospectively, and lung function measured at age 1 month and 7 years. Sensitization was evaluated at age 6 months, 18 months, 4 years, and 6 years by skin prick tests and IgE measurements. The register-based cohort included 1.7 million children from Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Children born to mothers with preeclampsia were analyzed regarding risk of asthma, allergy, and eczema. In the COPSAC 2000 cohort, 5.6% (n = 23) were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids at age 7 years (adjusted odds ratio, 4.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.43]; P = 0.0337), increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (adjusted β-coefficient log-μmol, -0.80 [95% CI, -1.55 to -0.06]; P = 0.0348), and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.58-14.78]; P = 0.0057) in the 7-year-old children. Furthermore, the children had an increased risk of sensitization to both aeroallergens and food allergens, and increased amount of total IgE during childhood. In the registry-based cohort, 3.7% (n = 62,728) were born to mothers with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of asthma, eczema, and aeroallergen and food allergy, especially pronounced after a duration of preeclampsia of 14 days or more. Maternal asthma increased the risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a shared prenatal risk factor for asthma, eczema, and allergy in childhood pointing toward in utero immune programming of the child.

  6. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  7. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  8. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome....

  9. Childhood Asthma: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim M. van Aalderen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  10. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  11. Building school health partnerships to improve pediatric asthma care: the School-based Asthma Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Sujani; Antos, Nicholas; Szefler, Stanley J; Lemanske, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Children with asthma require care that is seamlessly coordinated so that asthma symptoms are recognized and managed at home and at school. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent consensus recommendations in school-based asthma care. The School-based Asthma Management Program (SAMPRO) provides a widely endorsed framework to coordinate care with schools and consists of four components: establishing a circle of support around the child with asthma; facilitating bidirectional communication between clinicians and schools; comprehensive asthma education for schools; and assessment and remediation of environmental asthma triggers at school. SAMPRO standardizes recommendations for school-based asthma care coordination and provides a toolkit with websites and resources useful for the care of children with asthma in the school setting. The review will discuss the need for coordinated school asthma partnerships, the inception and development of SAMPRO, and its vision to improve pediatric asthma care coordination within the circle of support, comprising clinicians, school nurses, families, and communities.

  12. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Warning symptoms of asthma attack and asthma self-management: a national asthma control survey from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department. Results: Altogether 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited. 78.1% (3 026/3 875) of the patients reported restriction of exercise and daily activities during asthma exacerbation. 82.5% (3 160/3 829) of the patients had warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common warning symptoms were cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The median time from warning symptoms to asthma attack was 2 h, the mean time was 90 h. Only 4.4% (167/3 829) of the patients had definite confidence to control asthma when symptoms deteriorated. 76.7% (2 937/3 828) of the patients used medications to control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated. Medication choice: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) + formoterol 45.8% (1 776/3 875), short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) 23.9% (927/3 875). Conclusions: Most asthma patients have warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common symptoms are cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The proportion of patients conducting effective asthma self-management remains low.

  14. The relation between paracetamol use and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, S; Potts, J; Gnatiuc, L

    2008-01-01

    with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected from.......002. There was no evidence for heterogeneity across centres. No association was seen between use of other analgesics and asthma.These data add to the increasing and consistent epidemiological evidence implicating frequent paracetamol use in asthma in diverse populations...

  15. Relevance of Allergy in Adult Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sameer K.; Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on asthma have demonstrated multiple phenotypes of asthma, based on the clinical characteristics of the disease. With the current interest in personalized medicine, the question arises whether the presence of allergic sensitization has any relevance for these phenotypes and the management of asthma. This review will examine the current knowledge of asthma phenotypes and the impact of atopy on asthma diagnosis and severity in adults. In addition, this review will address whether therapies targeted at the atopic axis help improve asthma outcomes, including lung function indices and exacerbations. PMID:24643812

  16. The birth satisfaction scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caroline Hollins; Fleming, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a psychometric scale--the birth satisfaction scale (BSS)--for assessing women's birth perceptions. Literature review and transcribed research-based perceived birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction expression statements were converted into a scored questionnaire. Three overarching themes were identified: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, long labour and baby's health). Women construct their birth experience differently. Views are directed by personal beliefs, reactions, emotions and reflections, which alter in relation to mood, humour, disposition, frame of mind and company kept. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals can use BSS to assess women's birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Scores measure their service quality experiences. Scores provide a global measure of care that women perceived they received during labour. Finding out more about what causes birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction helps maternity care professionals improve intra-natal care standards and allocate resources effectively. An attempt has been made to capture birth satisfaction's generalised meaning and incorporate it into an evidence-based measuring tool.

  17. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Birth Control Methods - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Family Tree Clinic Teen Wise Minnesota Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ... Dari) PDF Birth Control Methods - دری (Dari) MP3 Family Tree Clinic Teen Wise Minnesota Farsi (فارسی) Expand Section ...

  18. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  19. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  20. Lifetime-dependent effects of bisphenol A on asthma development in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Petzold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are thought to contribute significantly to the increase of asthma prevalence in the last two decades. Bisphenol A (BPA is a xenoestrogen commonly used in consumer products and the plastic industry. There is evidence and an ongoing discussion that endocrine disruptors like BPA may affect human health and also exert alterations on in the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate age-dependent effects of BPA on the asthma risk using a murine model to explain the controversial results reported till date. METHODS: BALB/c mice were exposed to BPA via the drinking water for different time periods including pregnancy and breastfeeding. To induce an asthma phenotype, mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA, followed by an intrapulmonary allergen challenge. RESULTS: BPA exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding had no significant effect on asthma development in the offspring. In contrast, lifelong exposure from birth until the last antigen challenge clearly increased eosinophilic inflammation in the lung, airway hyperreactivity and antigen-specific serum IgE levels in OVA-sensitized adult mice compared to mice without BPA exposure. Surprisingly, BPA intake during the sensitization period significantly reduced the development of allergic asthma. This effect was reversed in the presence of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the impact of BPA on asthma risk is strongly age-dependent and ranges from asthma-promoting to asthma-reducing effects. This could explain the diversity of results from previous studies regarding the observed health impact of BPA.

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis in high-risk infants and development of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kecia N; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Escobar, Gabriel J; Wu, Pingsheng; Li, Sherian Xu; Walsh, Eileen M; Mitchel, Ed; Sloan, Chantel D; Dupont, William D; Hartert, Tina V

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection is implicated in asthma development. RSV immunoprophylaxis during infancy is efficacious in preventing RSV-related hospitalizations and has been associated with decreased wheezing in the first years of life. We investigated whether greater adherence to immunoprophylaxis in infants at high risk for severe RSV would be associated with decreased childhood asthma. We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation including children born from 1996-2003 who were enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California or Tennessee Medicaid and eligible to receive RSV immunoprophylaxis. Asthma was defined at 4.5 to 6 years of age by using asthma-specific health care visits and medication fills. We classified children into immunoprophylaxis eligibility groups and calculated adherence (percentage receipt of recommended doses). We used a set of statistical strategies (multivariable logistic regression and propensity score [PS]-adjusted and PS-matched analyses) to overcome confounding by medical complexity because infants with higher adherence (≥70%) have higher prevalence of chronic lung disease, lower birth weight, and longer nursery stays. By using multivariable logistic regression and PS-adjusted models in the combined group, higher adherence to RSV immunoprophylaxis was not associated with decreased asthma. However, in PS-matched analysis, treated children with 70% or greater adherence had decreased odds of asthma compared with those with 20% or less adherence (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78). This investigation of RSV immunoprophylaxis in high-risk children primarily found nonsignificant associations on prevention of asthma in specific preterm groups. Our findings highlight the need for larger studies and prospective cohorts and provide estimates of potential preventive effect sizes in high-risk children. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Domestic dog exposure at birth reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, S; Thyssen, J P; Stokholm, J

    2016-01-01

    affected the risk of atopic dermatitis in children during the first 3 years of life. METHODS: Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) are ongoing prospective clinical birth cohort studies. Data from 411 children born to mothers with asthma (COPSAC2000 ) and 700 unselected children...... serum IgE against eight inhalant allergens was sampled after the children's birth and at pregnancy week 24 in the COPSAC2010 cohort. Associations between dog exposure and atopic dermatitis were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard regression models and adjusted for lifestyle confounders. RESULTS.......42). CONCLUSION: Neonatal domestic dog exposure was associated with a strongly reduced risk of atopic dermatitis in two independent birth cohorts and in a dose-dependent manner. While the mechanisms involved are unclear, our findings raise the question of whether in utero exposures may affect the risk of atopic...

  3. Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    White, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available the city wide ISAAC study, exposure to tobacco smoke could be a contributor to the asthma symptom excess in this population. In addition, there has long been a high level of concern among parents about the effect of emissions from the refinery... the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) written and video questionnaires. Information was collected on potential confounders, e.g. parental history of atopic disease, active and passive smoking by the participant, birth order, number...

  4. Environmental issues in managing asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-05-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  5. Future biologic therapies in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, Santiago; Bobolea, Irina; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Barranco, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    Despite the administration of appropriate treatment, a high number of patients with asthma remain uncontrolled. This suggests the need for alternative treatments that are effective, safe and selective for the established asthma phenotypes, especially in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma. The most promising options among the new asthma treatments in development are biological therapies, particularly those monoclonal antibodies directed at selective targets. It should be noted that the different drugs, and especially the new biologics, act on very specific pathogenic pathways. Therefore, determination of the individual profile of predominant pathophysiological alterations of each patient will be increasingly important for prescribing the most appropriate treatment in each case. The treatment of severe allergic asthma with anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) has been shown to be effective in a large number of patients, and new anti-IgE antibodies with improved pharmacodynamic properties are being investigated. Among developing therapies, biologics designed to block certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-5 (mepolizumab) and IL-13 (lebrikizumab), have a greater chance of being used in the clinic. Perhaps blocking more than one cytokine pathway (such as IL-4 and IL-13 with dulipumab) might confer increased efficacy of treatment, along with acceptable safety. Stratification of asthma based on the predominant pathogenic mechanisms of each patient (phenoendotypes) is slowly, but probably irreversibly, emerging as a tailored medical approach to asthma, and is becoming a key factor in the development of drugs for this complex respiratory syndrome. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Asthma exacerbation prediction: recent insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Louise

    2018-04-01

    Asthma attacks are frequent in children with asthma and can lead to significant adverse outcomes including time off school, hospital admission and death. Identifying children at risk of an asthma attack affords the opportunity to prevent attacks and improve outcomes. Clinical features, patient behaviours and characteristics, physiological factors, environmental data and biomarkers are all associated with asthma attacks and can be used in asthma exacerbation prediction models. Recent studies have better characterized children at risk of an attack: history of a severe exacerbation in the previous 12 months, poor adherence and current poor control are important features which should alert healthcare professionals to the need for remedial action. There is increasing interest in the use of biomarkers. A number of novel biomarkers, including patterns of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath, show promise. Biomarkers are likely to be of greatest utility if measured frequently and combined with other measures. To date, most prediction models are based on epidemiological data and population-based risk. The use of digital technology affords the opportunity to collect large amounts of real-time data, including clinical and physiological measurements and combine these with environmental data to develop personal risk scores. These developments need to be matched by changes in clinical guidelines away from a focus on current asthma control and stepwise escalation in drug therapy towards inclusion of personal risk scores and tailored management strategies including nonpharmacological approaches. There have been significant steps towards personalized prediction models of asthma attacks. The utility of such models needs to be tested in the ability not only to predict attacks but also to reduce them.

  7. FADS gene cluster modulates the effect of breastfeeding on asthma. Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standl, M; Sausenthaler, S; Lattka, E; Koletzko, S; Bauer, C-P; Wichmann, H-E; von Berg, A; Berdel, D; Krämer, U; Schaaf, B; Lehmann, I; Herbarth, O; Klopp, N; Koletzko, B; Heinrich, J

    2012-01-01

      The protective effect of breastfeeding (BF) on the development of asthma has been widely recognized, even if not all results have been consistent. Gene variants of the FADS gene cluster have a major impact on fatty acid composition in blood and in breast milk. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster polymorphisms on the association between BF and asthma.   The analysis was based on data (N=2245) from two German prospective birth cohort studies. Information on asthma and BF during the first 6 months was collected using questionnaires completed by the parents. Logistic regression modelling was used to analyse the association between exclusive BF and ever having asthma stratified by genotype.   In the stratified analyses, BF for 3 or 4 months after birth had a protective effect for heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the minor allele (adjusted odds ratio between 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18-0.80) and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.20-0.88). Interaction terms of BF with genotype were significant and ranged from -1.17 (P-value: 0.015) to -1.33 (0.0066). Moreover, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the minor allele who were exclusively breastfed for 5 or 6 months after birth had a reduced risk of asthma [0.32 (0.18-0.57) to 0.47 (0.27-0.81)] in the stratified analyses. For individuals carrying the homozygous major allele, BF showed no significant effect on the development of asthma.   The association between exclusive BF and asthma is modified by the genetic variants of FADS genotypes in children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. The role of trait mindfulness in quality of life and asthma control among adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, L.J.G.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study focused on the role of trait mindfulness in asthma-related quality of life (QoL) and asthma control in adolescent asthma patients. Furthermore, potential underlying mechanisms (general and asthma-specific stress) of this relationship were investigated. Methods: In this

  9. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma…

  10. Accuracy of Birth Certificate Data for Classifying Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-05-01

    Classifying preterm birth as spontaneous or indicated is critical both for clinical care and research, yet the accuracy of classification based on different data sources is unclear. We examined the accuracy of preterm birth classification as spontaneous or indicated based on birth certificate data. This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 birth certificates from preterm births in Missouri. Correct classification of spontaneous or indicated preterm birth subtype was based on multi-provider (RN, MFM Fellow, MFM attending) consensus after full medical record review. A categorisation algorithm based on clinical data available in the birth certificate was designed a priori and classification was performed by a single investigator according to the algorithm. Accuracy of birth certificate classification as spontaneous or indicated was compared to the consensus classification. Errors in misclassification were explored. Classification based on birth certificates was correct for 66% of preterm births. Most errors in classification by birth certificate occurred in classifying a birth as spontaneous when it was in fact indicated. The vast majority of errors occurred when preterm rupture of membranes (≥12 h) was checked on the birth certificate causing classification as spontaneous when there was a maternal or fetal indication for delivery. Birth certificate classification overestimated spontaneous preterm birth and underestimated indicated preterm birth compared to classification performed from medical record review. Revisions to birth certificate clinical data would allow more accurate population level surveillance of preterm birth subtypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. FastStats: Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... and other higher order births: 24 Twin birth rate: 33.5 per 1,000 live births Triplet ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... physicians’ office Health care providers – Other Parents – Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training ...

  13. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S

    2003-01-01

    Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 108...... cases of asthma death in 1-19-year-olds in Denmark, 1973-1994. Copies of death certificates, hospital records, information from general practitioners, and autopsy records were obtained. The information was assessed with particular reference to: features and duration of asthma before death; severity...... of asthma; time and place of death; long-term and ongoing medical treatment; quality of medical care; circumstances of final illness; and medical treatment during the final episode of asthma. Age groups of 1-4 years, 5-14 years, and 15-19 years were analyzed separately and in aggregate. Death occurred...

  14. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults.

  15. National Environmental Leadership Award in Asthma Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Asthma Awards recognizes health plans, healthcare providers and communities in action that demonstrate an environmental component to address asthma triggers, collaborate with others and save healthcare dollars with their programming.

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links ... Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, ...

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physicians’ office Health care providers – Other Parents – Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training ... Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn ...

  18. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know Past Issues / Fall ... on. If you or a relative suffers from asthma, it is important to know that quality care ...

  19. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  1. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  2. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for ... with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Territory Data AsthmaStats Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) among Children Health Care Coverage among ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook ... Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  5. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack ...

  7. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers Adventures of Puff Inner City Asthma YES WE CAN Bibliography Breathing Easier Success Stories State Contacts and Programs Evaluation Evaluation Guide Evaluation Webinars 1. Avoiding Evaluation ...

  9. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities.

  10. Vitamin D and asthma: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfang; Castro, Mario

    2015-08-01

    To review the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and asthma. The rising morbidity and tremendous socioeconomic burden of asthma have prompted efforts to seek modifiable environmental and nutritional factors that contribute to the asthma epidemic. The association between low levels of vitamin D and asthma has been supported by many, but not all observational and epidemiologic studies. Recently, several controlled clinical trials have been undertaken to explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation on asthma control and respiratory tract infections. While some trials support the beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing asthma severity in children, several trials have found no beneficial role in adults. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children and adults worldwide and recent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D in asthma, supplementation with vitamin D cannot be recommended as adjunctive therapy for asthma.

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) among Children Health Care Coverage among ...

  12. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients...

  13. Neurotrophins in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renz Harald

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic bronchial asthma (BA is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, development of airway hyperreactivity and recurrent reversible airway obstruction. T-helper 2 cells and their products have been shown to play an important role in this process. In contrast, the mechanisms by which immune cells interact with the cells residing in lung and airways, such as neurons, epithelial or smooth muscle cells, still remains uncertain. Sensory and motor neurons innervating the lung exhibit a great degree of functional plasticity in BA defined as 'neuronal plasticity'. These neurons control development of airway hyperresponsiveness and acute inflammatory responses, resulting in the concept of 'neurogenic inflammation'. Such quantitative and/or qualitative changes in neuronal functions are mediated to a great extent by a family of cytokines, the neurotrophins, which in turn are produced by activated immune cells, among others in BA. We have therefore developed the concept that neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor link pathogenic events in BA to dysfunctions of the immune and nervous system.

  14. [Laboratory animal; allergy; asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, M; Romano, C; Mutti, A

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) may develop when susceptible persons are exposed to allergens produced by laboratory animals. LAA is associated with exposure to urine, fur, and salivae of rats, guinea pigs, dogs and rabbits. Approximately 30% of persons who are exposed to laboratory animals may develop LAA and some will also develop asthma. LAA is most likely to occur in persons with previously known allergies, especially to domestic pets. The majority of LAA sufferers experience symptoms within six months their first exposure to laboratory animals; almost all develop symptoms within three years. The most common symptoms are watery eyes and an itchy, runny nose, although skin symptoms and lower respiratory tract symptoms may also occur. Feeding and handling laboratory animals or cleaning their cages generates ten times the amount of allergens compared with undisturbed conditions. Prevention of animal allergy depends on control of allergenic material in the work environment and on organizational and individual protection measures. Pre-placement evaluation and periodic medical surveillance of workers are important pieces of the overall occupational health programme. The emphasis of these medical evaluations should be on counselling and early disease detection.

  15. Birth: Icon Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Sargeant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth: Icon Drawings (2011 are a series of pencil and ink drawings that unite the public practice of watching YouTube birth videos with the more personal experience of giving birth oneself. Sargeant aims to expose the physical and emotional experience of birth, paying attention to both her own feelings of emotional detachment during the delivery of her sons, and to the idea of traumatic birth more generally. The artist considers the vulnerability of both mother and child, and through the inclusion of adult hands seeks to represent the carers that aid a birthing mother to be (e.g., the woman’s partner, the midwife, the doula, a family member, or a friend. The depiction of the mother's body for Sargeant refers back to earlier sketches made in the series M(other Icons. Here, the mother is depicted as fragmented, ethereal, and empty. Such emptiness, despite the presence of a child, is also hinted at in Birth: Icon Drawings. The simple and anatomical style of drawing that Sargeant adopts makes reference to historical sketches of the body and, in particular, to those housed by the Wellcome Trust. The decorative and abstract detail surrounding the vagina is intended to contrast with the complexity of a disembodied mother subject, and to attract the eye of the viewer into the sketch.

  16. Safety of bronchodilators and corticosteroids for asthma during pregnancy: what we know and what we need to do better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen TL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thorbjørn Lomholt Gregersen, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, Denmark Abstract: Asthma is a common medical condition complicating pregnancy with potentially serious effects on pregnancy outcome. The aim of this review is to provide an update on efficacy and safety of asthma medications, primarily bronchodilators and corticosteroids, used during pregnancy with focus on pregnancy outcome, and, furthermore, to discuss limitations of available studies and point to possible improvements in future studies. A planned series of systematic searches was conducted using the PubMed database. Use of short-acting β2-agonists has generally been established as safe, and the few studies stating otherwise appear to have, perhaps critical, methodological limitations. The safety of long-acting β2-agonists remains to be further investigated, and the few available studies have methodological limitations and, therefore, provide no definite answers, although a very recent study supports the safety of add-on long-acting β2-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are generally found to be safe, although further research is needed to investigate both the efficacy and safety of high dose therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. Studies have reported associations between the use of systemic corticosteroids and adverse perinatal outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and pre-eclampsia. This must, however, be weighed against the potential serious impact of severe, uncontrolled asthma itself on pregnancy outcome. The main obstacle to a valid interpretation of several of the available studies is the inadequate stratification for asthma severity and control. Overall, asthma in itself and not just poor asthma control poses a greater risk to pregnancy outcomes than asthma medication. Nonetheless, more studies focusing on disentangling the effects of asthma alone and

  17. Early exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma up to 10 years of age: results of the HITEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Christina; Casas, Lidia; Wouters, Inge M; Doekes, Gert; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Gehring, Ulrike; Hyvärinen, Anne; Oldenwening, Marieke; Kerkhof, Marjan; Sunyer, Jordi; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Torrent, Maties; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Inverse associations have been found between exposure to bio-contaminants and asthma and allergies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess whether early exposure to bio-contaminants in dust is associated with asthma and allergy later in childhood among children from (sub)-urban areas. In subsets of three European birth cohorts (PIAMA: n=553; INMA: n=481; and LISAplus: n=395), endotoxin, (1,3,)-β-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were measured in dust from living rooms shortly after birth. Current asthma at 6 years and 10 years of age and ever asthma up to 10 years of age were assessed by parental questionnaires. Specific IgE levels at 8 years (PIAMA) and 10 years (LISAplus) were available. Adjusted, cohort-specific logistic regression analyses were performed. Higher endotoxin concentrations were positively associated with current asthma at 6 years of age in PIAMA (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.58), but were inversely related with ever asthma up to 10 years of age in INMA (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). No associations with asthma were found for LISAplus. No associations were observed with atopic sensitisation in all cohorts. All associations with (1,3)-β-d-glucan and extracellular polysaccharide were statistically nonsignificant. The suggested immunological mechanisms of early exposure to bio-contaminants with regards to asthma and allergy might be different for children growing up in (sub)-urban environments. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  18. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  19. Role of inflammation in nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, T. W.; Wallace, W A; Howie, S. E.; Brown, P. H.; Greening, A P; Church, M. K.; Douglas, N. J.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Nocturnal airway narrowing is a common problem for patients with asthma but the role of inflammation in its pathogenesis is unclear. Overnight changes in airway inflammatory cell populations were studied in patients with nocturnal asthma and in control normal subjects. METHODS--Bronchoscopies were performed at 0400 hours and 1600 hours in eight healthy subjects and in 10 patients with nocturnal asthma (> 15% overnight fall in peak flow plus at least one awakening/week with asthma)...

  20. Obesity and Asthma: Microbiome–Metabolome Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Stephanie A.; Cho, Youngji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but obese subjects with asthma respond poorly to standard asthma drugs. Obesity also alters gut bacterial community structure. Obesity-related changes in gut bacteria contribute to weight gain and other obesity-related conditions, including insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Here, we review the rationale for the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in gut bacteria may also play a role in obesity-related asthma. The metabolomes of the liver, s...

  1. Fast food consumption in pregnancy and subsequent asthma symptoms in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ehrenstein, O S; Aralis, H; Flores, M E S; Ritz, B

    2015-09-01

    Recent cross-sectional studies suggested children's current fast food consumption to be related to frequency of asthma and allergies. Maternal prenatal diet has been suspected to contribute to children's asthma and atopic disease risks. We hypothesized that maternal fast food intake during pregnancy increases offspring's risk for asthmatic symptoms. We conducted a population-based study of 1201 mother/child pairs in Los Angeles, California. Detailed information about prenatal fast food intake and other dietary, lifestyle/environmental factors, and pregnancy was collected shortly after birth; further data were retrieved from birth certificates. Using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood core questions, asthma and rhinitis symptoms were assessed, and doctor's diagnoses were recorded in offspring 3.5 years after birth. Poisson regression with robust error variance using a log link function was used to estimate relative risks (RRs). Models were adjusted using covariates or propensity scores. Maternal prenatal fast food consumption related to increased relative risks of their children for severe, and current asthma symptoms (wheeze last 12 months combined with doctor's diagnosis) in a dose-dependent manner: 'once a month': RR: 0.99 (95% CI: 0.36, 2.75), 'once a week': 1.26 (0.47, 3.34); '3-4 days a week': 2.17 (0.77, 6.12); and 'every day' 4.46 (1.36 14.6) compared to 'never', adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend = 0.0025). There was also suggestion of increased risks for rhinitis symptoms. These findings suggest that in utero exposure to frequent fast food through maternal diet may be a risk factor for asthmatic symptoms in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hormonal contraception increases risk of asthma among obese but decreases it among nonobese subjects: a prospective, population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Matheson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data on asthma suggest a sex difference that varies with age. Hormonal effects have been suggested as a possible explanation for these differences but there is a scarcity of evidence on these relationships. Our objective was to examine the relationship between reproductive factors and asthma risk among females and to examine whether body mass index (BMI modifies this relationship. Female participants in the 2004 fifth decade follow-up postal survey of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study formed the study population. Reproductive history and data on hormonal contraceptive (HC use were collected on 2764 females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between the reproductive factors and current asthma. The mean age of participants was 43 years and the prevalence of middle-aged current asthma was 12.8%. Females with very early menarche (≤10 years had higher odds of middle-aged current asthma (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.14–3.2. Pregnancy history (number of births and age at first pregnancy were not associated with current asthma risk at 44 years. Ever having used HCs, years of use and age started using HCs were not individually associated with current asthma risk. However, body mass index significantly modified the relationship between HC use and asthma. We found increasing years of pill use was associated with a significantly increased risk of current asthma in overweight/obese women but a reduced risk in normal weight women (interaction p=0.015. Hormonal effects from use of HCs and early menarche may contribute to the sex differential in asthma risk. Our findings suggest that in obese women with a history of long-term HC use may be at an increased risk of chronic respiratory disease, and regular monitoring for asthma and asthma symptoms may be recommended.

  3. "Association between Asthma Severity and Obesity in Two Asthma Clinics in Tehran "

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Tavasoli; Hassan Heidarnazhad; Anooshirvan Kazemnejad; Sara Miri

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of both obesity and asthma has increased in recent years. Thus we decided to investigate the relation between obesity and asthma severity. We undertook a cross-sectional study in outpatient asthma clinics of 2 tertiary hospitals in Tehran. Obesity was defined as a body mass index greater than 30. Asthma severity was defined by using the Guide for Asthma Management and Prevention 2004 guidelines, according to patients’ clinical and/or spirometerical parameters. Active cigare...

  4. Risk of asthma exacerbation associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Pei-Chia; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lin,Shun-Ku; Lai, Jung-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients allergic to aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) who develop respiratory reactions such as bronchospasm or asthma exacerbation have aspirin-induced asthma or NSAIDs-exacerbated respiratory disease. However, large-scale studies have not been conducted to investigate the risk of aspirin/NSAIDs exposure in children with asthma. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationship between aspirin/NSAIDs and the risk of asthma exacerbation in children with asthma....

  5. Asthma control questionnaires in the management of asthma in children: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend-van Bergen, S; Vaessen-Verberne, A A; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2015-02-01

    Several self-administered questionnaires have been developed to assess childhood asthma control in a simple and standardized way. This review discusses the most commonly used questionnaires and explores their usefulness in asthma management in children. We conclude that the use of asthma control questionnaires in daily practice and in research contributes to the standardized evaluation of children with asthma and helps to track asthma symptoms, but validation studies in a wider range of settings are needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Childhood wheezing, asthma, allergy, atopy, and lung function: different socioeconomic patterns for different phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galobardes, Bruna; Granell, Raquel; Sterne, Jonathan; Hughes, Rachael; Mejia-Lancheros, Cilia; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John

    2015-11-01

    Identifying preventable exposures that lead to asthma and associated allergies has proved challenging, partly because of the difficulty in differentiating phenotypes that define homogeneous disease groups. Understanding the socioeconomic patterns of disease phenotypes can help distinguish which exposures are preventable. In the present study, we identified disease phenotypes that are susceptible to socioeconomic variation, and we determined which life-course exposures were associated with these inequalities in a contemporary birth cohort. Participants included children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based birth cohort in England, who were born in 1991 and 1992 and attended the clinic at 7-8 years of age (n = 6,378). Disease phenotypes included asthma, atopy, wheezing, altered lung function, and bronchial reactivity phenotypes. Combining atopy with a diagnosis of asthma from a doctor captured the greatest socioeconomic variation, including opposing patterns between phenotype groups: Children with a low socioeconomic position (SEP) had more asthma alone (adjusted multinomial odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 1.87) but less atopy alone (adjusted multinomial odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 0.98) than did children with high SEP. Adjustment for maternal exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke reduced the odds of asthma alone in children with a low SEP. Current inequalities among children who have asthma but not atopy can be prevented by eliminating exposure to tobacco smoke. Other disease phenotypes were not socially patterned or had SEP patterns that were not related to smoke exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  7. Genetics of Asthma Susceptibility and Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Li, Xingnan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    This article summarizes major findings in genome-wide studies of asthma susceptibility and severity. Two large meta-analyses identified four chromosomal regions which were consistently associated with development of asthma. Genes that are associated with asthma subphenotypes such as lung function,

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with ... Effective Interventions Background Methodology Results Community-Based Interventions Adults – Home Adults – Hospital Emergency Departments Adults – Hospital Inpatients ...

  9. New developments in work-related asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, Santiago; Campo, Paloma; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Gómez-Torrijos, Elisa; Martínez-Arcediano, Ana; Mur, Pilar; Delgado, Julio

    2017-03-01

    Work-related asthma includes two subtypes: occupational asthma or asthma caused by specific agents (sensitizers or irritants) in the workplace, and work-exacerbated asthma or pre-existing asthma worsened by workplace exposures. Areas covered: This review provides an update on the definitions and the clinical features of the different work-related asthma subtypes as well as new insights into their etiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of work-related asthma should be made on objective basis using a constellation of clinical, physiologic and allergologic tests. Specific inhalation challenge with the suspected occupational agent(s) remains as the reference standard for diagnosis. A literature search was performed using the following terms: work-related asthma, occupational asthma, work-exacerbated asthma, irritant-induced asthma and etiological agents. Expert commentary: Studies focusing on the biological effects and mechanisms of environmental exposures in the development of sensitizer-induced or irritant-induced asthma in various workplace settings are of greatest interest. An integrative approach that combines clinical parameters with component-resolved diagnosis as well as inflammatory biomarkers appears to be very promising. Occupational allergy provides a good opportunity to understand the complex relationships between exposure to allergens in the workplace, interaction with genes and the co-exposures to other factors in the working environment.

  10. The importance of genetic influences in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, H; Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder in which the mode of inheritance is not known. Many segregation studies suggest that a major gene could be involved in asthma, but until now different genetic models have been obtained, Twin studies, too, have shown evidence for genetic influences in asthma, but

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... boca) [PDF - 276 KB] Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining ... Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  12. School-based asthma disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkelman, David; Schwartz, Abby

    2004-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness and the leading cause of missed school days. School is a potential location for establishing an asthma education program for children and their parents/caregivers designed to improve disease management. To determine whether a comprehensive, school-based asthma management program, in addition to a conventional disease management program, can reduce measures of asthma control, student absenteeism, and caregiver lost workdays. School nurses recruited parents/caregivers of students with asthma from three urban elementary and middle schools. Children were identified as having asthma by a previous diagnosis from their personal physician. Parents were invited to attend educational sessions about the program. Students received peak flow meters and training in their use and had access to an interactive asthma diary to record symptoms, peak flow, and medicine usage. They received monthly asthma education at school and had access to an online asthma education program and additional handouts. Parents received several educational calls regarding asthma and had a 24-hour, 7-days-a-week emergency number to call if problems arose. At 6 months, missed school days and unscheduled doctor visits were reduced by two thirds (n = 41; pschool-based asthma management program can successfully improve asthma control and reduce absenteeism in elementary and middle school students and caregiver lost workdays.

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  14. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma among preparatory school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergies is increasing in both Western and developing countries. Few studies evaluated asthma prevalence in Egypt . Objectives: Determination of the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among preparatory school children in Assiut district, in Upper Egypt. Methods: A cross ...

  15. The dissemination and implementation of national asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma is an important chronic inflammatory disorder with significant morbidity and mortality in South Africa. The development of national asthma guidelines by the South African Thoracic Society and National Asthma Education Programme has been one approach to try and improve the quality of care. The impact of ...

  16. Socioeconomic factors associated with asthma prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies corroborate a 'stress hypothesis' for asthma, whereby greater life stress increases the likelihood of asthma onset and frequent exacerbations. No studies have tested this type of socioeconomic risk model for childhood asthma in southern Africa, however, despite high rates of violence, poverty and psychological ...

  17. Milestones in asthma management | Ekweani | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A review of the literature regarding the history of asthma and the evolution of its management was undertaken with the aid of textbooks, journal publications and the Internet via Google Pubmed. The history of asthma and the evolution of the management of asthma was surveyed with emphasis on major and ...

  18. Adult Asthma Consensus Guidelines Update 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lemière

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sets of Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the past 15 years. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines.

  19. Comparing Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria with the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and Asthma Control Test (ACT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, B.B.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Brackel, H.J.; Landstra, A.M.; Berg, N.J. van den; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Several tools are useful in detecting uncontrolled asthma in children. The aim of this study was to compare Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines with the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) in detecting uncontrolled asthma in children. 145 children with

  20. Asthma education for school staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Kayleigh M; Carr, Robin; Donovan, Tim; Gordon, Morris

    2017-04-12

    Teachers and school staff should be competent in managing asthma in schools. Demonstrated low levels of asthma knowledge mean that staff may not know how best to protect a child with asthma in their care, or may fail to take appropriate action in the event of a serious attack. Education about asthma could help to improve this knowledge and lead to better asthma outcomes for children. To assess the effectiveness and safety of asthma education programmes for school staff, and to identify content and attributes underpinning them. We conducted the most recent searches on 29 November 2016. We included randomised controlled trials comparing an intervention to educate school staff about asthma versus a control group. We included studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only and unpublished data. At least two review authors screened the searches, extracted outcome data and intervention characteristics from included studies and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes for the quantitative synthesis were emergency department (ED) or hospital visits, mortality and asthma control; we graded the main results and presented evidence in a 'Summary of findings' table. We planned a qualitative synthesis of intervention characteristics, but study authors were unable to provide the necessary information.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios, and continuous data as mean differences or standardised mean differences, all with a random-effects model. We assessed clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity when performing meta-analyses, and we narratively described skewed data. Five cluster-RCTs of 111 schools met the review eligibility criteria. Investigators measured outcomes in participating staff and often in children or parents, most often at between 1 and 12 months.All interventions were educational programmes but duration, content and delivery varied; some involved elements of training for pupils or primary care providers. We noted risk of selection

  1. Exploring asthma in the workplace: A triangulation of perspectives from management, employees and people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Denise H; Cheung, Janet M Y; Smith, Lorraine; Saini, Bandana

    2017-08-31

    People with asthma spend a significant amount of time in the workplace but little is known about the current state of disease management in such contexts. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of asthma across different stakeholders in the workplace to help inform potential recommendations for workplace asthma policies. Using purposive and convenience sampling methods, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia with 5 human resource personnel, 10 employees with asthma and 10 employees without asthma. Interviews were guided by a schedule of questions focusing on attitudes and experiences of people with asthma in the workplace, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Analysis of the qualitative dataset revealed three key themes: Beliefs and Attitudes about Asthma, Asthma Solutions in the Workplace and Workplace Obstacles. Findings suggest that employees with asthma experience problems managing their asthma at work and there is a lack of workplace support in relation to asthma emergency management. Key recommendations for workplace asthma policies have been made to provide better support for employees with asthma. However, further investigation into the experience of managing asthma is required in a wider variety of occupations and work experiences to inform the development of a workplace asthma policy.

  2. The role of trait mindfulness in quality of life and asthma control among adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Linda; van de Ven, Monique O; Karremans, Johan C

    2017-08-01

    The current study focused on the role of trait mindfulness in asthma-related quality of life (QoL) and asthma control in adolescent asthma patients. Furthermore, potential underlying mechanisms (general and asthma-specific stress) of this relationship were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, questionnaire data of 94 adolescents with asthma that were prescribed daily asthma medication were included. Two Structural Equation Models (SEMs), a direct model and an indirect model, were tested. We found that trait mindfulness was directly related to asthma-related QoL, but not to asthma control. The relationship between trait mindfulness and asthma-related QoL was explained by asthma-specific, but not by general stress. Furthermore, an indirect relation from mindfulness to asthma control via asthma-specific stress was found. Cross-sectional evidence for a relation between mindfulness and asthma-related QoL is found. These findings may point to the possibility that an intervention aimed at increasing mindfulness could be a promising tool to improve asthma-related QoL in adolescents via a decrease in asthma-specific stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinder, Sacha; Cicutto, Lisa; Abdel-Qadir, Husam M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice. Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire eliciting information regarding asthma control, career choice and awareness of occupational exposure risks. A small majority of the study cohort (56.4%) could identify occupations that cause or exacerbate asthma, and 34.7% indicated that asthma was an important factor in their career plans. Family physicians were most responsible for asthma management (80.2%), but young adults were more likely to discuss asthma and career plans with their parents (43.6%) or friends (29.7%) than with their family physician (13.9%; PFamily physicians most commonly provide asthma care to these young adults. However, few young adults are talking to their family physicians about career choices and asthma. This observation represents an area of asthma care that needs to be explored in young adults with asthma.

  4. Individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with worse asthma morbidity in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Anne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status (SES has been linked to higher morbidity in patients with chronic diseases, but may be particularly relevant to asthma, as asthmatics of lower SES may have higher exposures to indoor (e.g., cockroaches, tobacco smoke and outdoor (e.g., urban pollution allergens, thus increasing risk for exacerbations. Methods This study assessed associations between adult SES (measured according to educational level and asthma morbidity, including asthma control; asthma-related emergency health service use; asthma self-efficacy, and asthma-related quality of life, in a Canadian cohort of 781 adult asthmatics. All patients underwent a sociodemographic and medical history interview and pulmonary function testing on the day of their asthma clinic visit, and completed a battery of questionnaires (Asthma Control Questionnaire, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Asthma Self-Efficacy Scale. General Linear Models assessed associations between SES and each morbidity measure. Results Lower SES was associated with worse asthma control (F = 11.63, p Conclusions Results suggest that lower SES (measured according to education level, is associated with several indices of worse asthma morbidity, particularly worse asthma control, in adult asthmatics independent of disease severity. Results are consistent with previous studies linking lower SES to worse asthma in children, and add asthma to the list of chronic diseases affected by individual-level SES.

  5. [Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odler, Balázs; Müller, Veronika

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive lung diseases represent a major health problem worldwide due to their high prevalence associated with elevated socioeconomic costs. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are chronic obstructive ventilatory disorders with airway inflammation, however they are separate nosological entities based on thedifferent development, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and prognostic features. However, these diseases may coexist and can be defined as the coexistence of increased variability of airflow in a patient with incompletely reversible airway obstruction. This phenotype is called asthma - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. The syndrome is a clinical and scientific challenge as the majority of these patients have been excluded from the clinical and pharmacological trials, thus well-defined clinical characteristics and therapeutic approaches are lacking. The aim of this review is to summarize the currently available literature focusing on pathophysiological and clinical features, and discuss possible therapeutic approaches of patients with asthma - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1304-1313.

  6. Birth control pill overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of an overdose of birth control pills include: Breast tenderness Discolored urine Drowsiness Heavy vaginal bleeding (2 to 7 days after the overdose) Headache Emotional changes Nausea and vomiting Rash

  7. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mother has certain infections (such as toxoplasmosis ) during pregnancy, her baby can have a birth defect. Other conditions that cause defects include rubella and chickenpox (varicella). Fortunately, many people get vaccinated ...

  8. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ... Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg Avenue PO Box 1710 Gold Beach, OR 97444 541-425-5311 Accredited since ...

  9. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Birth control after 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-04

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  11. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  12. Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

  13. [From atopic dermatitis to asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businco, L; Marziali, M; Furcolo, G; Meglio, P

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic skin disorder in infancy and childhood and is the main hallmark of atopic constitution. The disease is multifactorial, and although genetic predisposition is certainly a prerequisite, a number of environmental factors modulate the phenotypic expression of AD. The majority of affected children shows IgE sensitisation towards a large variety of foods and aeroallergens. Since at least 1600, it has been recognized that patients with AD have a high predisposition to develop asthma. Recent epidemiological studies show that AD is commonly seen in individuals from families with a history of asthma. In addition, in population where asthma is uncommon, AD is also uncommon. The sex distribution of AD and asthma is the same, with boys affected significantly more often by these two atopic diseases and in similar proportions. The ETAC project (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) is a large multicenter, multi-national, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial. The main objective of the study is to stop the progression from AD to asthma in young children with AD using early therapeutic intervention with Cetirizine and the second objective is to investigate the main risk factors for the onset of asthma. The results of this study indicate that exposure to potent allergens such as cat or mite significantly increased the risk of sensitisation to these allergens. Prolonged breast feeding was associated with a lowest sensitisation rate to cow milk proteins and to egg. Therefore environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in IgE sensitisation in children with AD.

  14. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p < 0.001 for all). The MiA group showed higher scores for all of the PAQLQ components than did the MoA and SA groups. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower. PMID:26785958

  15. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend

    2014-01-01

    including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage...... tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve...

  16. Early weight gain and the development of asthma and atopy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; de Souza, Fabíola S; Solé, Dirceu; Bacharier, Leonard B

    2014-04-01

    To provide perspective to the most recent evidence regarding the association between early weight gain in infancy and the development of asthma and atopy during childhood, and highlight the potential mechanisms involved. Recently, several birth cohort studies involving more than 25 000 children have found a consistent association between early weight gain in the first 2 years of life and incident asthma during school age. Methodology differs substantially between the studies and complicates the establishment of definite conclusions. Specific mechanisms for this association have been proposed, including impairment in lung development and elevated levels of growth factors and cytokines associated with airway inflammation and remodeling. A limited number of studies indicate that early weight gain in infancy is also associated with recurrent wheezing during preschool age but not with the development of atopy. A consistent association between early weight gain in infancy and incident asthma during school age has been observed in several cohort studies. The identification of this modifiable risk factor for the development of asthma opens the possibility of preventive intervention. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the involved mechanisms and some pending questions, such as the influence of early weight gain in asthma phenotypes and severity.

  17. Risk factors for asthma in young adults: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO

    2006-01-01

    and females = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.80, P = 0.002), and increasing levels of body mass index (BMI; OR per unit = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20, P = 0.009) were significant predictors of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Hay fever, eczema, female sex, exercise and increasing levels of BMI were risk factors for asthma in young......BACKGROUND: The liability to asthma is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for asthma in young adult twin pairs during an 8-year period. METHODS: From the birth cohorts 1953-1982 of the Danish Twin Registry, 6,090 twin pairs.......16, 95% CI: 1.29-7.73, P = 0.007) and exercise (OR for inactivity = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.91, P = 0.023) were significantly associated with asthma, whereas in DZ twins, hay fever (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.44-4.13, P = 0.001), eczema (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.02-3.78, P = 0.040), female sex (OR between males...

  18. Risk factors for asthma in young adults: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Ulrik, C S; Kyvik, K O

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The liability to asthma is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for asthma in young adult twin pairs during an 8-year period. METHODS: From the birth cohorts 1953-1982 of the Danish Twin Registry, 6,090 twin pairs....... Pairs in which only one twin developed asthma -- discordant pairs -- were identified and conditional logistic regression was applied to detect effects of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 126 monozygotic (MZ) and 273 dizygotic (DZ) discordant twin pairs were identified. In MZ twins hay fever (OR = 3...... and females = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.80, P = 0.002), and increasing levels of body mass index (BMI; OR per unit = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20, P = 0.009) were significant predictors of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Hay fever, eczema, female sex, exercise and increasing levels of BMI were risk factors for asthma in young...

  19. Persistence of asthma symptoms during adolescence: role of obesity and age at the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Wright, Anne L; Morgan, Wayne J; Sherrill, Duane L; Holberg, Catharine J; Martinez, Fernando D

    2004-07-01

    Little is known about rates and predictors of remission of childhood asthma after the onset of puberty. We used data collected at ages 6, 8, 11, 13, and 16 years from the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study, a population-based birth cohort. The onset of puberty was defined as the age of appearance of the first pubertal signs as reported by parents. Information on wheezing both before and after onset of puberty (mean +/- SD follow-up from onset of puberty, 4.2 +/- 1 year) was available for 781 children. Of these, 166 had asthma (either frequent wheezing or a physician-confirmed diagnosis plus any wheezing) in at least one survey before puberty. In this group, 58% of the children (97 of 166) reported the presence of wheezing after the onset of puberty (unremitting asthma). In contrast, only 30% (39 of 131) of the children with infrequent wheezing before puberty experienced wheezing episodes after the onset of puberty (unremitting wheezing). In addition to frequent wheezing before puberty, obesity, early onset of puberty, active sinusitis, and skin test sensitization were significant and independent predictors of unremitting asthma after the onset of puberty. Our findings from a population-based longitudinal cohort challenge the commonly held view that asthma usually remits during adolescence.

  20. [Allergens and their relationships to childhood bronchial asthma in the Jiading District of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Sheng, Jun; Gu, Xiu-Ming; Yan, Hua-Jie; Zeng, Chun-Yun; Xu, Hui-Ting; Qian, Dan; Huang, Qiu-Lan; Shao, Jie

    2012-07-01

    To study allergens and their relationship to the occurrence of childhood bronchial asthma in the Jiading District of Shanghai. Three hundred and eighty-two 4 to 12-year-old children with asthma in the remission stage from Nanxiang Hospital in the Jiading District of Shanghai were used as a case group (asthma group), and 402 children from two primary schools and two kindergartens in Jiading were enrolled by cluster sampling and served as control group. Parents of the children completed a questionnaire on living conditions and allergy-related disease history. Skin prick test (SPT) for 18 common allergens was carried out in both groups. In order to examine the effect of environment and living conditions on SPT results, children in the control group were further divided into two sub-groups according to birth place: migrant (219 cases) and resident (183 cases). SPT results revealed that the main allergens identified in the Jiading region were dermatophagoides farinae, house dust mites, shrimps, cockroaches, and dog hair. The SPT positive rate was 67.9% in the asthma group, and this was significantly higher than in the control group (31.8%) (PAllergens in the Jiading region mainly originate from dermatophagoides farinae, household dust mites, shrimps, cockroaches and dog hair. Children with asthma are more susceptible to allergens. Environment and living conditions may be relevant, to a certain extent, to an SPT positive rate.

  1. Breastfeeding and perinatal exposure, and the risk of asthma and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Caroline J; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2016-06-01

    Exposures during the perinatal period, a phase of rapid development, may have a profound and sustained effect on disease risk. In particular, perinatal exposures may influence the development and maturation of the infant immune system and the risk of allergic disease. We aimed to summarize the current literature on perinatal exposures and the risk of asthma and allergic disease Increased risk of offspring wheeze or asthma was found for: maternal obesity and hypertension during pregnancy; febrile illness, gynaecological, and viral respiratory infections in pregnancy; exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates in pregnancy and childhood; exposure to smoking in utero; low birth weight; caesarean section and neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Reduced risk of offspring atopic eczema was found for hookworm infection in pregnancy and reduced risk of offspring wheeze was associated with increased pregnancy dietary intake of vitamin E and zinc. Higher levels of selenium in pregnancy were associated with less risk of asthma in genetically susceptible offspring. Early life pet ownership was associated with a decrease in atopic asthma but an increase in nonatopic asthma risk. A diverse range of exposures were associated with allergic disease risk, highlighting the susceptibility of children during the perinatal period. Clinicians should reinforce public health messages concerning maternal obesity, smoking, and breastfeeding. The infant gut microbiome is emerging as an important hypothesis, which may mediate the relationship between many perinatal exposures and allergic disease.

  2. Pharmacotherapy options to treat asthma during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazy, Jennifer A; Schatz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new onset or pre-existing asthma. This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of asthma medication use during pregnancy. Asthma is one of the most common potentially serious medical problems to complicate pregnancy, and asthma may adversely affect both maternal quality of life and perinatal outcomes. Therefore, optimal management of asthma during pregnancy is important for both mother and baby. This article reviews asthma pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, with an emphasis on gestational safety of commonly used medications. In this review of asthma pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, the most pertinent recent publications are reported. Electronic databases such as PubMed were searched for terms pregnan* or perinat* or obstet* and asthma or wheeze and treatment. Although retrospective data have been reassuring, since pregnant women are generally excluded from clinical trials, there is a lack of adequate safety information for most medications taken during pregnancy. One of the most important needs for the future is the availability of further safety information for asthma medications used during pregnancy that can also account for asthma control.

  3. Is influenza vaccination in asthma helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueving, Herman J; Thomas, Siep; Wouden, Johannes C van der

    2005-02-01

    Influenza infections are frequently involved in asthma exacerbations. During influenza epidemics substantial excess morbidity due to respiratory tract complications is reported in all age categories as well as excess mortality among the elderly. Vaccines are available for protection against influenza. Worldwide, vaccination is advised and considered a quality point for asthma care. However, the protective effect of influenza vaccination in patients with asthma is still disputed. In order to establish the current state of affairs we reviewed the recent literature on the protective effect of influenza vaccination and its usefulness in patients with asthma. Several studies were found addressing influenza and the protective aspects of vaccination. They discussed the incidence, the adverse effects of vaccination, the coverage of influenza vaccination among patients with asthma and the effectiveness of the vaccine. Influenza vaccination can safely be used in patients with asthma. Allegations that vaccination could provoke asthma exacerbations are convincingly invalidated by previous and recent research. Although patients with asthma are one of the major target groups for immunization, vaccine coverage in all age categories remains low. So far, no unequivocal beneficial effect of influenza vaccination in patients with asthma was found in observational and experimental studies in the sense of reduction of asthma exacerbations and other complications. Recent studies confirm these negative findings. More long-term randomized, placebo-controlled studies, focusing on influenza- proven illness in patients with asthma, are needed to address the question of how helpful influenza vaccination is in these patients.

  4. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Novosad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as well as the role of oxidative stress. Both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss therapy have shown promising results with improvements in asthma control and decreased asthma severity. Comorbid conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnea may also have a role in poor asthma control in obese asthmatics. Further research is needed to define the mechanisms behind this phenotype which will guide the development of targeted therapies.

  5. Maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Bell, Erin M; Browne, Marilyn L; Lin, Shao; Lin, Angela E; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2015-11-01

    Asthma affects 4% to 8% of pregnant women and studies suggest maternal asthma, particularly when uncontrolled, may be associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. We examined self-reported asthma medication use and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-center, population-based case-control study of selected major structural defects. We evaluated maternal use of bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories during the periconceptional period (1 month before conception through the first 3 pregnancy months) among 7638 infants with CHDs and 8106 nonmalformed controls with estimated delivery dates from 1997 to 2007. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for 20 types of CHDs. Among asthma medications reported during the periconceptional period among controls, albuterol accounted for 85.1% of all bronchodilator use, and fluticasone, prednisone, and montelukast accounted for 46.1%, 15.6%, and 14.9% of anti-inflammatory use, respectively. Of the women who reported bronchodilators during the periconceptional period, 71.1% reported use throughout pregnancy and only 29.4% reported concurrent use of an anti-inflammatory. We observed one statistically significant association between maternal bronchodilator use only and anomalous pulmonary venous return (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.8) among numerous comparisons. We did not observe statistically significant associations between the reported use of asthma medications during pregnancy and most specific types of CHDs. Despite limitations in our inability to evaluate asthma status and severity, our study suggests that maternal asthma medication use does not substantially, if at all, increase the risk of CHDs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Patterns, predictors and outcomes of asthma control and exacerbations during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E. Grzeskowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There exists a paucity of data for socially disadvantaged populations describing patterns and predictors of asthma control status and exacerbations during pregnancy, and their relationship to adverse perinatal outcomes. Asthmatic women (n=189 were followed prospectively during pregnancy, with visits at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Data on loss of control, recurrent uncontrolled asthma and moderate/severe exacerbations were collected at each visit and their relationship to perinatal outcomes examined following stratification for fetal sex. 50% of asthmatic women experienced a loss of control or moderate/severe exacerbation during pregnancy, with 22% of women experiencing a moderate/severe exacerbation. Factors associated with an increased risk of women experiencing recurrent uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy included smoking (relative risk 2.92, 95% CI 1.53–5.58, inhaled corticosteroid use at the beginning of pregnancy (relative risk 2.40, 95% CI 1.25–4.60 and increasing maternal age (relative risk 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11. No factors were associated with moderate/severe exacerbations. Asthma control rather than exacerbations during pregnancy appeared to be most strongly correlated with perinatal outcomes. Following stratification by fetal sex, the presence of recurrent uncontrolled asthma was associated with an increased risk of being small for gestational age in women pregnant with females (33.3% versus 9.5%; p=0.018. In contrast, there was a nonsignificant increased risk of preterm birth in women with recurrent uncontrolled asthma that were pregnant with males (25.0% versus 11.8%; p=0.201 These results suggest that the key to improving perinatal outcomes lies in improving asthma control as early as possible in pregnancy and monitoring throughout pregnancy, rather than focusing on preventing exacerbations alone.

  7. Mismatch between asthma symptoms and spirometry: implications for managing asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Elizabeth D; Hollenbach, Jessica P; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2014-11-01

    To examine the concordance between spirometry and asthma symptoms in assessing asthma severity and beginning therapy by the general pediatrician. Between 2008 and 2012, spirometry testing was satisfactorily performed in 894 children (ages 5-19 years) whose asthma severity had been determined by their pediatrician using asthma guideline-based clinical criteria. Spirometry-determined asthma severity using national asthma guidelines and clinician-determined asthma severity were compared for concordance using weighted Kappa coefficients. Thirty percent of participants had clinically determined intermittent asthma; 32%, 33%, and 5% had mild, moderate, and severe, persistent asthma, respectively. Increasing disease severity was associated with decreases in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (P spirometry-determined severity. Concordance was 0.16 (95% CI 0.10, 0.23), and when adjusted for bias and prevalence, was 0.20 (95% CI 0.17, 0.23). When accounting for age, sex, exposure to smoke, and insurance type, only spirometry-determined asthma severity was a significant predictor of agreement (P spirometry-determined severity increased. Concordance between spirometry and asthma symptoms in determining asthma severity is low even when guideline-based clinical assessment tools are used. Because appropriate therapy reduces asthma morbidity and is guided by disease severity, results from spirometry testing could better guide pediatricians in determining appropriate therapy for their patients with asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Atopy, but not obesity is associated with asthma severity among children with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kim D; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Balcer-Whaley, Susan; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of asthma in children. Atopic sensitization is a major risk factor for asthma including severe asthma in children. It is unclear if obesity is associated with worse asthma control or severity in children and how its effects compare to atopy. We sought to examine relationships of weight status and atopy to asthma control and severity among a population of predominantly low income, minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma. A cross-sectional analysis of 832 children and adolescents, age range 5-17 years, with persistent asthma was performed. Clinical assessments included asthma questionnaires of symptoms, asthma severity score, health care utilization and medication treatment step, lung function testing, and skin prick testing as well as measures of adiposity. Data were collected between December 2010 and August 2014 from Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD and Children's Hospital of Boston, MA. Obesity was not associated with worse asthma control or severity in this group of predominantly low income, minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma. However, a greater degree of atopy was associated with lower lung function, higher asthma severity score, and higher medication treatment step. Atopy may be a more important risk factor for asthma severity than obesity among low-income minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma living in Northeastern cities in the United States.

  9. Obesity in asthma: approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepan, Shyamala; Garrison, Garth; Dixon, Anne E

    2013-10-01

    There is mounting evidence that obesity is associated with asthma, both of which are seeing a dramatic increase in prevalence. Not only is obesity a risk factor for the development of asthma but it is also associated with poor asthma control. Asthma phenotypes associated with obesity include early-onset allergic asthma and late-onset non-allergic asthma. The pathogenesis of the linkage is complex; obesity causes a variety of mechanical, metabolic, and immunological changes that can affect the airways. The treatment of asthma in obesity can be challenging, as obesity is associated with poor response to standard controller medications. A tailored approach that involves combining pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies including weight loss, dietary interventions, and exercise, along with identification and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, should therefore be considered in this population.

  10. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  11. Maternal body mass index in early pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis and eczema up to 16 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, S; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Lind, T; Almqvist, C; Melén, E; Bergström, A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity has been linked to offspring asthma; however, other allergy-related diseases, as well as the association beyond early school age, are largely unstudied. To examine the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis, eczema and sensitization up to 16 years of age. A total of 3294 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were included in the analyses. Maternal BMI was assessed around week 10 in pregnancy. Information on asthma, rhinitis, eczema, lifestyle factors and environmental exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. Sensitization was defined from IgE levels of inhalant allergens at 4, 8 and 16 years in a subsample of 2850 children. Generalized estimated equation models were used to analyse the associations between maternal BMI and the outcomes at 1-16 years. Maternal BMI was positively associated with overall risk of asthma up to age of 16 years (adj OR per 5 kg/m(2) increase: 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.40 for prevalent asthma) excluding underweight mothers. In contrast, no significant associations were found for rhinitis, eczema or sensitization. The association with asthma was restricted to obese, rather than overweight mothers, but was attenuated when adjusting for overweight in the offspring. A causal inference test at 16 years further indicated that the child's own overweight is a mediator in the suggested association between maternal BMI and offspring asthma at 16 years. Maternal BMI is associated with an increased risk of asthma, but not rhinitis, eczema or sensitization; however, overweight in the offspring seems to have a mediating role. Prevention strategies of maternal pre-pregnancy and childhood obesity might be important to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma. 2014 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robert; Laskowski, Dan; McCarthy, Kevin; Mattox, Emmea; Comhair, Suzy A A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are synthesized at high levels in asthmatic airways. NO can oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb). CO binds to heme to produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). We hypothesized that MetHb and COHb may be increased in asthma. COHb, MetHb, and Hb were measured in venous blood of healthy controls (n = 32) and asthmatics (n = 31). Arterial COHb and oxyhemoglobin were measured by pulse CO-oximeter. Hb, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin were similar among groups, but arterial COHb was higher in asthmatics than controls (p = 0.04). Venous COHb was similar among groups, and thus, arteriovenous COHb (a-v COHb) concentration difference was greater in asthma compared with controls. Venous MetHb was lower in asthma compared to controls (p = 0.01) and correlated to venous NO (p = 0.009). The greater a-v COHb in asthma suggests CO offloading to tissues, but lower than normal MetHb suggests countermeasures to avoid adverse effects of high NO on gas transfer.

  13. Approach to asthma in adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During an acute asthma attack, patients can experience anxiety, severe dyspnoea, tightness of the chest, or a burning ... Nutritional and exercise-related factors. • Obesity. • Vitamin D insufficiency in children ... breathing, recurrent chest tightness, symptoms occurring or worsening at night or with exercise, a viral infection, ...

  14. Carboxyhemoglobin and Methemoglobin in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robert; Laskowski, Dan; McCarthy, Kevin; Mattox, Emmea; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are synthesized at high levels in asthmatic airways. NO can oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb). CO binds to heme to produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). We hypothesized that MetHb and COHb may be increased in asthma. COHb, MetHb, and Hb were measured in venous blood of healthy controls (n=32) and asthmatics (n=31). Arterial COHb and oxyhemoglobin were measured by pulse CO-oximeter. Hb, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin were similar among groups, but arterial COHb was higher in asthmatics than controls (p=0.04). Venous COHb was similar among groups, and thus arteriovenous COHb (a-v COHb) concentration difference was greater in asthma compared with controls. Venous MetHb was lower in asthma compared to controls (p=0.01) and correlated to venous NO (p=0.009). The greater a-v COHb in asthma suggests CO offloading to tissues, but lower than normal MetHb suggests countermeasures to avoid adverse effects of high NO on gas transfer. PMID:25680415

  15. Helicobacter, Hygiene, Atopy, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Nusi, Iswan A; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.

  16. Helicobacter, Hygiene, Atopy, and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Miftahussurur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.

  17. Adult asthma: Diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine O; Fowler, Terri; Smith, Whitney; Sterrett, James

    2017-11-16

    Adult asthma is a prevalent chronic medical condition that is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and cost. Early identification, evidence-based diagnosis, and step-wise management can lead to improvements in patient outcomes, decrease exacerbations, and eliminate respiratory function decline as the patient ages.

  18. Alexander technique for chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jane A; Cates, Christopher J

    2012-09-12

    'The Alexander technique' is a taught form of physical therapy involving a series of movements designed to correct posture and bring the body into natural alignment with the object of helping it to function efficiently, and is reported to aid relaxation. Some practitioners claim benefits for those who desire greater ease and efficiency of breathing, including asthmatics. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of the Alexander technique in people with chronic, stable asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field trials register and the bibliographies of relevant articles. The most recent search was run in June 2012. Randomised controlled trials of Alexander technique (AT) for the improvement of the symptoms of chronic, stable asthma, comparing the treatment with either another intervention or no intervention. No trials were found that met the selection criteria. No meta-analysis could be performed. Robust, well-designed randomised controlled trials are required in order to test claims by practitioners that AT can have a positive effect on the symptoms of chronic asthma and thereby help people with asthma to reduce medication.

  19. [Asthma mortality trends in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Ramírez, M; Segura Méndez, N H; Martínez-Cairo Cueto, S

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate mortality and morbidity from asthma in Mexico by federative entity (state) of residence, age, and sex during the period between 1960 and 1988. Statistics published by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information Science were reviewed, as were vital statistics and information from other sources. Data were selected on mortality, hospital admissions, and outpatient visits, as well as population by federative entity, age, and sex. Mortality and morbidity rates were adjusted for age using the direct method. From 1960 to 1987, mortality decreased for both sexes. The groups with the highest asthma mortality were those under 4 years of age and those over 50. From 1960 to the present, the state with the highest mortality was Tlaxcala. Hospitalizations increased from 10 to 140 per 100,000 population for the country as a whole. When both outpatient visits and hospitalizations were considered, the morbidity rates rose from 180 to 203.4 per 100,000 between 1960 and 1970. In 1970, hospital morbidity was higher among males than females. From 1960 up to the 1990s, the highest rates of hospitalization and outpatient visits were registered among those under 4 and those over 60. The states with the highest asthma hospitalization rates were Morelos, Baja California Sur, Nuevo León, Durango, and Tamaulipas. It is concluded that asthma mortality in Mexico is showing a downward trend, while morbidity is increasing considerably, especially among adolescents.

  20. Occupational asthma caused by palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenen, M.; Rochette, F.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. [K.U. Leuven, Pneumology (Belgium); Rogiers, P. [A.Z. St-Lucas, Brugge (Belgium); Walle, C. Van de [Siemens, Oostkamp (Belgium)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex platinum salts is a well-known cause of occupational asthma. Although there is evidence that platinum refinery workers may also be sensitized to other precious metals, such as palladium or rhodium, no instances of occupational asthma due to an isolated sensitization to palladium have been reported. A case is reported of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a previously healthy worker exposed to the fumes of an electroplating bath containing palladium. There was no exposure to platinum. Sensitization to palladium was documented by skin-prick tests. The skin-prick test was positive with Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, but not with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. Corresponding salts of platinum were all negative. A bronchial provocation test with Pd(NH{sub 34})Cl{sub 2} (0.0001 % for a total of 315 s, followed by 0.001 % for a total of 210 s) led to an early decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (-35%). A similar exposure (0.001 % for a total of 16 min) in an unrelated asthmatic gave no reaction. This case shows that an isolated sensitization to palladium can occur and that respiratory exposure to palladium is a novel cause of metal-induced occupational asthma. (au) 24 refs.